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Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.  


Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E



Recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste in the production of clay bricks.  


This work investigates the recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as a method to provide raw material for clay brick bodies, through replacement of natural clay by up 20 wt.%. Initially, the waste sample was characterized by its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, particle size, morphology and pollution potential. Clay bricks pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their technological properties (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and tensile strength). The sintered microstructure was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste is mainly composed by crystalline silica particles. The test results indicate that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste could be used as a filler in clay bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way. PMID:22387325

Faria, K C P; Gurgel, R F; Holanda, J N F



Sugarcane Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues. Sugarcane\\u000a bagasse is the major by-product of the sugar cane industry. It contains about 50% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose and 25% lignin.\\u000a Due to its abundant availability, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added\\u000a products such as protein enriched animal

Binod Parameswaran


Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

Sales, Almir, E-mail: almir@ufscar.b [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Sofia Araujo, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)



Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement.  


Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement. PMID:20163947

Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araújo



Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600°C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar

Mandu Inyang; Bin Gao; Pratap Pullammanappallil; Wenchuan Ding; Andrew R. Zimmerman



Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on sugarcane bagasse  

SciTech Connect

The growth behavior of Cellulomonas has been examined in fermentation systems using alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse. During the batch operation diauxic growth was found which would not seem to be explained by catabolic repression. The relative variation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fermentation process suggests the initial utilization of easily degradable substrate, i.e., hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose, until their concentration becomes limiting, followed by utilization of the crystalline cellulose. The conversion of substrate was 70% with a yield of 0.355 g of biomass per gram of bagasse feed. (Refs. 13).

Enriquez, A.



Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  


The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D



Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.



An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

Elkoury, J.M.



Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  


Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva E Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro



Lime pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production.  


The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) is evaluated. The effect of lime pretreatment on digestibility was studied through analyses using central composite design (response surface), considering pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of glucose from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/sugar factory (non-screened bagasse) and bagasse in the size range from 0.248 to 1.397 mm (screened bagasse) (12-60 mesh). It was observed that the particle size presented influence in the release of fermentable sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis using low loading of cellulase and beta-glucosidase (3.5 FPU/g dry pretreated biomass and 1.0 IU/g dry pretreated biomass, respectively). PMID:19050835

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline Carvalho



Optimization of the Preparation Conditions for Activated Carbons from Sugarcane Bagasse: An Agricultural Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from sugarcane bagasse, an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with different reagents. Orthogonal experimental design was applied to study the influence of activation temperature, activation time and chemical ratio of reagents to sugarcane bagasse on the chemical activation process of sugarcane bagasse. The optimal activated carbon was obtained using impregnation ratio of 0.39-0.78%

Zelong Xu; Yinian Zhu; Meina Liang; Hua Zhang; Huili Liu



Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.



Search for optimum conditions of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process has been elaborated for one-step low lignin content sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose extraction using alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide. To maximize the hemicellulose yields several extraction conditions were examined applying the 24 factorial design: H2O2 concentration from 2 to 6% (w\\/v), reaction time from 4 to 16h, temperature from 20 to 60°C, and magnesium sulfate absence or presence (0.5%,

M. Brienzo; A. F. Siqueira; A. M. F. Milagres



Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by C?C and C?O?C links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.



Optimization of sugarcane bagasse conversion by hydrothermal treatment for the recovery of xylose  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at the valorization of sugarcane bagasse by extracting xylose which is destined to the production of xylitol after purification and hydrogenation. Our approach consists in applying the principle of biorefinery to sugarcane bagasse because of its hemicellulose composition (particularly rich in xylan: (92%)). Optimizing of the thermal treatment was investigated. A treatment at 170°C for 2h was

Houda Boussarsar; Barbara Rogé; Mohamed Mathlouthi



Comparing biological and thermochemical processing of sugarcane bagasse: An energy balance perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical performance of lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation versus pyrolysis processes for sugarcane bagasse was evaluated, based on currently available technology. Process models were developed for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using three different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, liquid hot water and steam explosion, at various solid concentrations. Two pyrolysis processes, namely fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, were

N. H. Leibbrandt; J. H. Knoetze; J. F. Görgens



Enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentation of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse and rice straw for bioethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline wet oxidation was used as pretreatment method of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice straw (RS) prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At high enzyme loadings, the enzymatic hydrolysis of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse (SBWO) resulted in the highest degree of saccharification compared to wet oxidized rice straw (RSWO). However, at enzyme concentrations below 10 FPU\\/g-cellulose,


Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste sugarcane bagasse in water media.  


Enzymatic hydrolysis of natural cellulose such as sugarcane bagasse is usually carried out in a buffer medium. In this paper, the enzymatic hydrolysis of a waste sugarcane bagasse in water media was carried out.The bagasse was pre-treated with heating explosion and pure (ion exchange), reverse-osmosis and tap water media were used in place of a buffer solution in the hydrolysis process. The yields for reducing sugars and the changes in solution pH and electric conductivity during the hydrolysis under various conditions were studied. The results were also compared with those obtained in buffer solutions. Similar levels of sugar yields were obtained in water and buffer solution media. The pH of the hydrolyzate was in the range of 4.5 - 5.0, which coincided with the optimum pH for the enzyme reaction. It was considered that the enzyme and the substrate formed a transitional complex in the hydrolysis process. The transitional complex provided the buffering capacity pH 5. The results indicate of the hydrolyzate solution at around that industrialization of the enzymatic hydrolysis in a water medium is feasible. PMID:12361374

Zheng, C; Lei, Y; Yu, Q; Lui, X; Huan, K



Influence of processed sugarcane bagasse on the microbial, nutritional, rheological and quality characteristics of biscuits.  


Sugarcane bagasse, a dietary fiber-rich by-product of the sugar industry (70-75%) and having negligible protein and fat content, was treated with acid, alkali and steaming to reduce the microbial load. Steaming was effective in making the bagasse microbiologically safe. The processed bagasse (5-15%) was used in the rheological studies and in the preparation of soft dough biscuits. Glucose (hexose), arabinose and xylose (pentose) were present, whereas rhamnose, mannose and galctose were not traced in all of the bagasse samples. Farinograph characteristics of wheat flour-bagasse blends showed that the mixing profile weakened with addition of bagasse. Processed bagasse also affected the pasting characteristics indicating starch dilution on incorporation of bagasse, as indicated by sensory characteristics. Biscuits prepared from steamed bagasse (10%) along with additives were highly acceptable. Results indicated that high-fiber biscuits can be prepared by replacing wheat flour with steamed bagasse at a 10% level. PMID:21736479

Sangeetha, A V; Mahadevamma, S; Begum, Khyrunnisa; Sudha, M L



Secretome analysis of Ganoderma lucidum cultivated in sugarcane bagasse.  


Harmful environmental issues of fossil-fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable alternative fuels such as biofuel. Agricultural crop residues represent an abundant renewable resource for future biofuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically feasible, and should also be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We used these criteria to evaluate the white rot basidiomycota-derived fungus Ganoderma lucidum that secretes substantial amounts of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes useful for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass that were not described hitherto. The current bottleneck of lignocellulosic biofuel production is the hydrolysis of biomass to sugar. To understand the enzymatic hydrolysis of complex biomasses, we cultured G. lucidum with sugarcane bagasse as substrate and qualitatively analyzed the entire secretome. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and diverse enzymes were found, of which several were novel lignocellulosic biomass hydrolyzing enzymes. We further explored G. lucidum-derived cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degrading enzymes as valuable enzymes for the second generation of biofuel obtained from a lignocellulose substrate such as sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23000217

Manavalan, Tamilvendan; Manavalan, Arulmani; Thangavelu, Kalaichelvan P; Heese, Klaus



Optimization of Chemical Pretreatment and Acid Saccharification for Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse to Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production potential of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse was studied. Chemical pretreatments were carried out\\u000a by shaking bagasse with 1, 2 and 3% H2O2 (pH 10, 11.5 and 13) for 24, 48 and 72 h with subsequent saccharification of pretreated bagasse with H2SO4 (0.8 and 1.0 M) for 50 min for optimization of process. Acid hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var

S. K. Uppal; Ramandeep Kaur; Poonam Sharma


Study of structural modification of sugarcane bagasse employing hydrothermal treatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the cellulosic ethanol is an important alternative way to many liquid biofuels using renewable biomass rich in polysaccharides. To be used as feedstock for ethanol production, the bagasse needs to be pretreated in order to expose its main constitutive. The present work proposes the use of different pretreatment processes to better expose the cellulose for hydrolysis and fermentation. In the present paper the sugarcane bagasse was submitted to a hydrothermal pretreatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). An RF microplasma torch was employed as APPs in Ar and Ar/O2 mixing. The bagasse was treated in discharge and post-discharge regions. The position and time of treatment was varied as well as the gas mixture. The quantity of polysaccharides was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed the release of a fraction of the hemicelluloses in the sugarcane bagasse. Modifications in the surface of the sugarcane fibers were monitored by employing scanning electron microscopy.

Amorim, Jayr; Pimenta, Maria Teresa; Gurgel, Leandro; Squina, Fabio; Souza-Correa, Jorge; Curvelo, Antonio



Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from aqueous solution using sugarcane bagasse as adsorbent.  


In the present work, the adsorption ability of sugarcane bagasse to remove oil by-products from aqueous solution was evaluated. The objective was treating the contaminated wastewater while enriching the bagasse for its later use as fuel in boilers. Adsorption experiments were carried out in an agitated reactor at room temperature to obtain kinetic curves and adsorption isotherms of gasoline and n-heptane on sugarcane bagasse. The results showed the great potential of bagasse as an adsorbent, since it was able to adsorb up to 99% of gasoline and 90% of n-heptane in solutions containing about 5% of these contaminants. In the adsorption kinetics of gasoline, the equilibrium was reached after just 5 min. This result shows that the adsorption is very favorable. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R models did not describe well the adsorption behavior obtained for these systems. PMID:19932555

Brandão, Poliana C; Souza, Túlio C; Ferreira, Cíntia A; Hori, Carla E; Romanielo, Lucienne L



Subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and its enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar production.  


The present work investigated the effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at different CO2 pressure, pretreatment time, and temperature with relative high-solid concentration (15% w/v) to the composition of prehydrolyzate and the enzymatic hydrolysis. The results indicated that the maximum xylose yields in prehydrolyzate liquid were 15.78g (combined 3.16g xylose and 12.62g xylo-oligosaccharides per 100g raw material). Due to the effective removal of hemicellulose, the maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 37.99g per 100g raw material, representing 91.87% of glucose in the sugarcane bagasse. The maximal total sugars yield (combined xylose and glucose both in prehydrolyzate and enzymatic hydrolyzate) were 52.95g based on 100g raw material. These results indicated that subcritical CO2 pretreatment can effectively improve the enzymatic hydrolysis, so it could be successfully applied to sugarcane bagasse. PMID:24128605

Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin



Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by using microwave heating.  


The aim of this study was to research the catalytic effects on the microwave pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and thus to discuss the reaction performance, product distribution, and kinetic analysis. With the addition of metal-oxides served as catalysts, reaction results such as mass reduction ratio and reaction rate increased, even the maximum temperature decreased. Adding either NiO or CaO slightly increased the production of H2, while adding either CuO or MgO slightly decreased it. The addition of either CaO or MgO enhanced the gaseous production, and either NiO or CuO addition enhanced the liquid production. There could be several secondary reactions such as self-gasification and interactions among the gases originally produced during the pyrolysis stage to alter the composition of gaseous product and the final three-phase product distribution. The catalyst addition slightly increased the activation energy but greatly increased the pre-exponential factor. PMID:23948270

Kuan, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Fong; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lo, Shang-Lien



Production of bioethanol and other bio-based materials from sugarcane bagasse: Integration to conventional bioethanol production process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol may be produced using sugarcane bagasse as raw material through the Organosolv process with dilute acid hydrolysis, thus increasing ethanol production with the same cultivated sugarcane area. In this work simulations of bioethanol production from sugarcane juice and bagasse are carried out using software UniSim Design. A typical large scale production plant is considered: 1000m3\\/day of ethanol is produced

Marina O. S. Dias; Adriano V. Ensinas; Silvia A. Nebra; Rubens Maciel Filho; Carlos E. V. Rossell; Maria Regina Wolf Maciel



Sugarcane bagasse mild alkaline/oxidative pretreatment for ethanol production by alkaline recycle process.  


In order to decrease the alkali and water consumptions in the sugarcane bagasse alkaline/oxidative pretreatment for ethanol production, an alkaline recycle process was carried out. Two recycles of NaOH/H2O2 pretreatment did not decrease the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis efficiencies and the consumptions of NaOH and water would be saved by 26% and 40%, respectively. A simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) culture with pretreated bagasse as substrate was developed giving 25 g ethanol l(-1) with a yield of 0.2 g g(-1) bagasse and productivity of 0.52 g l(-1) h(-1). PMID:18327542

Cheng, Ke-Ke; Zhang, Jian-An; Ping, Wen-Xiang; Ge, Jing-Ping; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Ling, Hong-Zhi; Xu, Jing-Ming



The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.  


Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse. PMID:21680181

Griffin, G J



Enhanced Adsorption of Malachite Green by EDTAD-modified Sugarcane Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD) modified sugarcane bagasse (SB) was prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Due to the presence of a large number of carboxyl groups, the adsorption capacity of the EDTAD modified SB (EDTAD-SB) for malachite green (MG) showed a significant increase compared with SB. Increase in ion strength of solution-induced decline of MG sorption. The maximum

Yun Xing; Dehua Deng



Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L-arabinose, D-xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or...


Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatment.  


The cellulose dissolution solvent used in Lyocell process for cellulose fiber preparation, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) monohydrate, was demonstrated to be an effective agent for sugarcane bagasse pretreatment. Bagasse of 20wt% was readily dissolved in NMMO monohydrate at 130 degrees C within 1h. After dissolution, bagasse could be regenerated by rapid precipitation with water as a porous and amorphous mixture of its original components. The regenerated bagasse exhibited a significant enhancement on enzymatic hydrolysis kinetic. Not only the reducing sugars releasing rate but also hydrolysis yield was enhanced at least twofold as compared with that of untreated bagasse. The cellulose fraction of regenerated bagasse was nearly hydrolyzed to glucose after 72h hydrolysis with Cellulase AP3. The recycled NMMO demonstrated the same performance as the fresh one on bagasse pretreatment for hydrolysis enhancement. The regenerated bagasse was directly used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. No negative effect on ethanol fermentation was observed and ethanol yield approximately 0.15 g ethanol/g baggasse was achieved. PMID:18713663

Kuo, Chia-Hung; Lee, Cheng-Kang



Complete Rations for Dairy Cattle. V. Interaction of Sugarcane Bagasse Quantity and Form with Soybean Meal, Urea, and Starea1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse quantities (30 and 40%), form of bagasse pellet (bagasse pelleted right after processing or after ensiling), and soybean meal, urea, and Starea as sources of protein in complete rations were studied in a factorialized, incomplete block design with 36 lactating cows fed different rations in each of three 4-wk periods. Rations had crude protein of 12.1 to 13.9%

H. Roman-Ponce; H. H. Van Horn; S. P. Marshall; C. J. Wilcox; P. F. Randel



Increase in ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse based on combined pretreatments and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.  


Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was performed to investigate the production of ethanol. The sugarcane bagasse was pretreated in a process combining steam explosion and alkaline delignification. The lignin content decreased to 83%. Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolyses was initiated with 8% (w/v) solids loading, and 10 FPU/g cellulose. Then, 1% solids were fed at 12, 24 or 48 h intervals. After 120 h, the hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFPEDA 1238, and a fourfold increase in ethanol production was reached when fed-batch hydrolysis with a 12-h addition period was used for the steam pretreated and delignified bagasse. PMID:23201527

Wanderley, Maria Carolina de Albuquerque; Martín, Carlos; Rocha, George Jackson de Moraes; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro



Flexural properties of sugarcane bagasse pith and rind reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse is divided into two major components. They are pith and rind. Pith is the inner part of sugarcane bagasse while rind is the outer part of it. In this study, the flexural properties of pith reinforced poly (vinyl chloride) composites were compared to that of rind composites with the same matrix in variation of fibre content. The composites were produced by compression moulding method. The fibre contents were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% in weight. Three-point bending tests were carried out to measure the flexural properties of the composites. It has been found that, in general, the addition of fibre improved the flexural modulus of the materials. Meanwhile, the rind composites were of superior flexural properties compared to the pith composites.

Wirawan, R.; Sapuan, S. M.; Robiah, Y.; Khalina, A.



Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol yields of combined surfactant and dilute ammonia treated sugarcane bagasse.  


Tween 80, Tween 20, PEG 4000 or PEG 6000 was used in combination with ammonium hydroxide for the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Pretreatment was carried out by mixing sugarcane bagasse, ammonium hydroxide (28% v/v solution), and water at a ratio of 1:0.5:20, adding 3% (w/w) surfactant based on the weight of dry biomass, and heating the mixture to 160 °C for 1 h. Fibers were hydrolyzed using two concentrations of commercially available enzymes, Spezyme CP and Novozyme 188. The results indicated that PEG 4000 and Tween 80 gave the highest cellulose digestibilities (62%, 66%) and ethanol yields (73%, 69%) as compared to the use of only dilute ammonia (38%, 42%) or water (27%, 26%) as catalysts, respectively. The enhanced digestibilities of non-ionic surfactant–dilute ammonia treated biomass can be attributed to delignification and reduction of cellulose crystallinity as confirmed by FTIR, TGA and XRD analysis. PMID:23376200

Cao, Shuo; Aita, Giovanna M



Atmospheric pressure plasma pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse: the influence of moisture in the ozonation process.  


Sugarcane bagasse samples were pretreated with ozone via atmospheric O2 pressure plasma. A delignification efficiency of approximately 80 % was observed within 6 h of treatment. Some hemicelluloses were removed, and the cellulose was not affected by ozonolysis. The quantity of moisture in the bagasse had a large influence on delignification and saccharification after ozonation pretreatment of the bagasse, where 50 % moisture content was found to be best for delignification (65 % of the cellulose was converted into glucose). Optical absorption spectroscopy was applied to determine ozone concentrations in real time. The ozone consumption as a function of the delignification process revealed two main reaction phases, as the ozone molecules cleave the strong carbon-carbon bonds of aromatic rings more slowly than the weak carbon-carbon bonds of aliphatic chains. PMID:23817790

Souza-Corrêa, J A; Oliveira, C; Wolf, L D; Nascimento, V M; Rocha, G J M; Amorim, J



Panus tigrinus strains used in delignification of sugarcane bagasse prior to kraft pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of the white-rot fungus Panus tigrinus (FTPT-4741, FTPT-4742, and FTPT-4745) were cultivated on sugarcane bagasse prior to kraft pulping. Pulp yields, kappa number,\\u000a and viscosity of all pulps were determined and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from the samples were recorded. The\\u000a growth of P. tigrinus strains in plastic bags increased the manganese peroxide and xylanase activities. Lignin

Adilson R. Gonçalves; Sirlene M. Costa; Elisa Esposito



Detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate improves ethanol production by Candida shehatae NCIM 3501  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with 2.5% (v\\/v) HCl yielded 30.29g\\/L total reducing sugars along with various fermentation inhibitors such as furans, phenolics and acetic acid. The acid hydrolysate when treated with anion exchange resin brought about maximum reduction in furans (63.4%) and total phenolics (75.8%). Treatment of hydrolysate with activated charcoal caused 38.7% and 57.5% reduction in furans and total phenolics,

Anuj Kumar Chandel; Rajeev Kumar Kapoor; Ajay Singh; Ramesh Chander Kuhad



Study of thermal treatment combined with radiation on the decomposition of polysaccharides in sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment is a physical and chemical process that reduces the crystalline structure and disrupts the hydrogen bonding of cellulose to improve the accessibility to hydrolytic depolymerization reactions. The combination of pretreatment technologies intends to decrease the severity of the processes and to avoid excessive sugar degradation and formation of toxic by-products. An effective pretreatment preserves the pentose fractions and limits the formation of degradation products that inhibits the growth of fermentative microorganisms. This study presents the evaluation of the cleavage of polysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse using ionizing radiation combined with thermal and diluted acid treatment to further enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis of cellulose. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were irradiated using a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with different absorbed doses, and then were submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid, m/m) hydrolysis for 10, 20 and 40 min at 180 °C. Taking into account the sugars and by-products liberated in these treatments the conversion rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses were calculated.

Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.



Treatment of Benzene-Contaminated Airstreams in Laboratory-Scale Biofilters Packed with Raw and Sieved Sugarcane Bagasse and with Peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three identical upflow laboratory-scale biofilters, inoculated with thebenzene-degrading strain Pseudomonas sp. NCIMB 9688 but filled up with different packing media (PM), specifically raw sugarcane bagasse, sieved sugarcane bagasse and peat, were employed to eliminate benzene from waste air. Biofilters performances were evaluated by continuous runs in parallel at different influent benzene concentrations, sequentially stepped up through three different superficial gas

Mario Zilli; Daniele Daffonchio; Renzo Di Felice; Marino Giordani; Attilio Converti



Influence of the application of sugarcane bagasse on lindane (gamma-HCH) mobility through soil column: implication for biotreatment.  


In the present study we employed sugarcane bagasse for biotreatment of soil containing 50 mgkg(-1) of lindane. Garden soil were treated with lindane and amended with varying concentrations of sugarcane bagasse (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%; w/w). Data on dissipation and degradation of lindane in soil columns (0-15, 15-30cm) were studied at six consecutive samplings (0, 3, 7, 45 and 60 days). Treatment with 50% sugarcane bagasse resulted in >53% degradation of lindane in upper soil column with minimal leaching to lower soil column (0.002%) while highest leaching of lindane from upper soil column to lower soil column was occurred in garden soil (35.8%). Similarly, a substantial microbial biomass input has detected in amended soil than garden soil. Our results provide evidence that sugarcane bagasse can accelerate lindane degradation by enhanced microbial activity and prevent pesticide mobility through soil column by adsorption. Sugarcane bagasse could be useful as cheaper, easy available alternative for the biotreatment of lindane impacted soil. PMID:18562197

Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita



Understanding mild acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse through particle scale modeling.  


Sugarcane bagasse is an abundant and sustainable resource, generated as a by-product of sugarcane milling. The cellulosic material within bagasse can be broken down into glucose molecules and fermented to produce ethanol, making it a promising feedstock for biofuel production. Mild acid pretreatment hydrolyses the hemicellulosic component of biomass, thus allowing enzymes greater access to the cellulosic substrate during saccharification. A particle-scale mathematical model describing the mild acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse has been developed, using a volume averaged framework. Discrete population-balance equations are used to characterise the polymer degradation kinetics, and diffusive effects account for mass transport within the cell wall of the bagasse. As the fibrous material hydrolyses over time, variations in the porosity of the cell wall and the downstream effects on the reaction kinetics are accounted for using conservation of volume arguments. Non-dimensionalization of the model equations reduces the number of parameters in the system to a set of four dimensionless ratios that compare the timescales of different reaction and diffusion events. Theoretical yield curves are compared to macroscopic experimental observations from the literature and inferences are made as to constraints on these "unknown" parameters. These results enable connections to be made between experimental data and the underlying thermodynamics of acid pretreatment. Consequently, the results suggest that data-fitting techniques used to obtain kinetic parameters should be carefully applied, with prudent consideration given to the chemical and physiological processes being modeled. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;110: 3114-3125. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23801000

Greenwood, Ava A; Farrell, Troy W; O'Hara, Ian M



Utilization of pineapple stem juice to enhance enzyme-hydrolytic efficiency for sugarcane bagasse after an optimized pre-treatment with alkaline peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was investigated by treating a peroxide–alkaline bagasse with a pineapple stem juice, xylanase and cellulase. Pre-treatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 24 factorial designs, with pre-treatment time, temperature, magnesium sulfate and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of

J. R. Monte; M. Brienzo; A. M. F. Milagres



Trace elements in Turkish biomass fuels: Ashes of wheat straw, olive bagasse and hazelnut shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ash contents of wheat straw, olive bagasse and hazelnut shells were 7.9%, 3.9%, 1.2%, respectively, which seemed to be within the average values of ash of biomass. The microstructure of ashes included smooth, polygonal, granular and molten drop structures. A large percentage of particles present in ashes are commonly ?1–20?m in size. SEM\\/EDS analyses performed on the major ash forming

Ceren Bakisgan; Ahu Gümrah Dumanli; Yuda Yürüm



Enzymatic hydrolysis of chemithermomechanically pretreated sugarcane bagasse and samples with reduced initial lignin content.  


Chemithermomechanical (CTM) processing was used to pretreat sugarcane bagasse with the aim of increasing cell wall accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes. Yields of the pretreated samples were in the range of 75-94%. Disk refining and alkaline-CTM and alkaline/sulfite-CTM pretreatments yielded pretreated materials with 21.7, 17.8, and 15.3% of lignin, respectively. Hemicellulose content was also decreased to some extent. Fibers of the pretreated materials presented some external fibrillation, fiber curling, increased swelling, and high water retention capacity. Cellulose conversion of the alkaline-CTM- and alkaline/sulfite-CTM-pretreated samples reached 50 and 85%, respectively, after 96 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Two samples with low initial lignin content were also evaluated after the mildest alkaline-CTM pretreatment. One sample was a partially delignified mill-processed bagasse. The other was a sugarcane hybrid selected in a breeding program. Samples with lower initial lignin content were hydrolyzed considerably faster in the first 24 h of enzymatic digestion. For example, enzymatic hydrolysis of the sample with the lowest initial lignin content (14.2%) reached 64% cellulose conversion after only 24 h of hydrolysis when compared with the 30% observed for the mill-processed bagasse containing an initial lignin content of 24.4%. PMID:21344677

Mendes, Fernanda M; Siqueira, Germano; Carvalho, Walter; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F



Optimizing cellulase usage for improved mixing and rheological properties of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse.  


Consolidation of bioprocessing steps with lignocellulose is limited by hydrolysate toxicity, the fibrous nature of suspensions, and low activity of cellulase enzymes. Combinations of enzyme dose and treatment conditions improved the flow properties and pumping of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse slurries (10% dry weight). Low levels of cellulase enzyme (0.1 and 0.5 FPU/g dry weight acid-pretreated bagasse) were found to reduce viscosities by 77-95% after 6 h, solubilizing 3.5% of the bagasse dry weight. Flow of slurries through small funnels was a useful predictor of success with centrifugal and diaphragm pumps. Equations were derived that describe viscosity and solubilized carbohydrates as a function of time and cellulase dosage. Blending of acid-pretreated bagasse (10% dry weight) with suspensions of acid-pretreated bagasse (10% dry weight) that had been previously digested with cellulase enzymes (low viscosity) did not increase viscosity in a linear fashion. Viscosity of these mixtures remained relatively constant until a threshold level of new fiber was reached, followed by a rapid increase with further additions. Up to 35% fresh acid-pretreated bagasse could be blended with enzyme-digested fiber (5.0 FPU/g dry weight acid-pretreated fiber; 6 h) with only a modest increase in viscosity. The smooth surfaces of enzyme-treated fiber are proposed to hinder the frequency and extent of interactions between fibrils of fresh fiber particles (acid-pretreated) until a threshold concentration is achieved, after which fiber interactions and viscosity increase dramatically. These results were used to model the viscosity in an ideal continuous stirred tank reactor (liquefaction) as a function of residence time and enzyme dosage. PMID:20678927

Geddes, Claudia C; Peterson, James J; Mullinnix, Michael T; Svoronos, Spyros A; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O



Homogeneous isolation of nanocellulose from sugarcane bagasse by high pressure homogenization.  


Nanocellulose from sugarcane bagasse was isolated by high pressure homogenization in a homogeneous media. Pretreatment with an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl)) was initially involved to dissolve the bagasse cellulose. Subsequently, the homogeneous solution was passed through a high pressure homogenizer without any clogging. The nanocellulose was obtained at 80 MPa for 30 cycles with recovery of 90% under the optimum refining condition. Nanocellulose had been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that nanocellulose was 10-20 nm in diameter, and presented lower thermal stability and crystallinity than the original cellulose. The developed nanocellulose would be a very versatile renewable material. PMID:22944423

Li, Jihua; Wei, Xiaoyi; Wang, Qinghuang; Chen, Jiacui; Chang, Gang; Kong, Lingxue; Su, Junbo; Liu, Yuhuan



Reuse of the Xylanase Enzyme in the Biobleaching Process of the Sugarcane Bagasse Acetosolv Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, pretreatment-enzymatic series of the bagasse-sugarcane pulp and alkaline extraction of enzyme treated pulp were\\u000a carried out. In the pretreatment an enzyme dose was utilized and acetosolv pulp suspension of 3% (w\\/v) with different solvents\\u000a (distilled water, 0.05 mol\\/L acetate buffer pH 5.5 and 0.05 mol\\/L phosphate buffer pH 7.25) stirred at 85 rpm for 2 or 4

Luís R. M. Oliveira; Regina Y. Moriya; Adilson R. Gonçalves


Reuse of the xylanase enzyme in the biobleaching process of the sugarcane bagasse acetosolv pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, pretreatment-enzymatic series of the bagasse-sugarcane pulp and alkaline extraction of enzyme treated pulp were\\u000a carried out. In the pretreatment an enzyme dose was utilized and acetosolv pulp suspension of 3% (w\\/v) with different solvents\\u000a (distilled water, 0.05 mol\\/L acetate buffer pH 5.5 and 0.05 mol\\/L phosphate buffer pH 7.25) stirred at 85 rpm for 2 or 4

Luís R. M. Oliveira; Regina Y. Moriya; Adilson R. Gonçalves



Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to evaluate the fermentability of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane\\u000a bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing using Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast. The inoculum was obtained from yeast culture in a medium containing glucose as a carbon source supplemented\\u000a with rice bran extract, CaCl2·2H2O and (NH4)2SO4 in 50 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 20 mL of medium, initial

Vinícius F. N. Silva; Priscila V. Arruda; Maria G. A. Felipe; Adilson R. Gonçalves; George J. M. Rocha



Characteristics and oil sorption effectiveness of kapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks: oil removal suitability matrix.  


The characteristics and water/oil sorption effectiveness ofkapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks have been compared. The three biomass types were subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface tension analyses for liquid-air and oil-water systems were conducted. Both kapok fibre and sugarcane bagasse exhibit excellent oil sorption capabilities for diesel, crude, new engine and used engine oils as their oil sorption capacities all exceed 10 g/g. The synthetic sorbent exhibits oil sorption capacities comparable with sugarcane bagasse, while rice husks exhibit the lowest oil sorption capacities among all the sorbents. Kapok fibre shows overwhelmingly high oil-to-water sorption (O/W) ratios ranging from 19.35 to 201.53 while sugarcane bagasse, rice husks and synthetic sorbent have significantly lower O/W ratios (0.76-2.69). This suggests that kapok fibre is a highly effective oil sorbent even in well-mixed oil-water media. An oil sorbent suitability matrix is proposed to aid stakeholders in evaluating customized oil removal usage of the natural sorbents. PMID:22629620

Ali, Norizan; El-Harbawi, Mohanad; Jabal, Ayman Abo; Yin, Chun-Yang


Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)



Anaerobic mixed-culture fermentation of aqueous ammonia-treated sugarcane bagasse in consolidated bioprocessing.  


The MixAlco process is an example of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) in which anaerobic mixed-culture fermentation biochemically converts any biodegradable feedstock into carboxylate salts. Downstream processing thermochemically transforms the resulting salts into mixed alcohol fuels or gasoline. To enhance digestibility, sugarcane bagasse was treated under mild conditions (55 degrees C, 24 h, and 30% aqueous ammonia solution with a loading of 10 mL/g dry biomass). Using NH(4)HCO(3) buffer, the feedstock (80% ammonia-treated sugarcane bagasse/20% chicken manure) was anaerobically fermented by a mixed culture of marine microorganisms at 55 degrees C. Four-stage countercurrent fermentations were performed at various volatile solids loading rates (VSLRs) and liquid residence times (LRTs). The highest acid productivity (1.14 g/(L day)) occurred at a total acid concentration of 29.8 g/L. The highest conversion (65%) occurred at a total acid concentration of 27.6 g/L. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) predicted the experimental total acid concentrations and conversions within 4.98% and 10.41%, respectively. When using NH(4)HCO(3) buffer, ammonia pretreatment is an attractive option. The CPDM "map" shows that both high volatile solid conversions (78.8%) and high acid concentrations (32.6 g/L) are possible with 300 g/(L liquid) substrate concentration, 30 days LRT, 2 g/(L day) solid loading rate and NH(4)HCO(3) buffer. PMID:20091732

Fu, Zhihong; Holtzapple, Mark T



Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing.  


This work aims to evaluate the fermentability of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing using Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast. The inoculum was obtained from yeast culture in a medium containing glucose as a carbon source supplemented with rice bran extract, CaCl(2)·2H(2)O and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) in 50 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 20 mL of medium, initial 5.5 pH under agitation of an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at 30°C for 24 h. The cellulosic hydrolysates, prior to being used as a fermentation medium, were autoclaved for 15 min at 0.5 atm and supplemented with the same nutrients employed for the inoculum, except the glucose, using the same conditions for the inoculum, but with a period of 48 h. Preliminary results showed the highest consumption of glucose (97%) for all the hydrolysates, at 28 h of fermentation. The highest concentration of ethanol (20.5 g/L) was found in the procedure of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing (195°C/10 min in 20 L reactor) and delignificated with NaOH 1.0% (w/v), 100°C, 1 h in 500 mL stainless steel ampoules immersed in an oil bath. PMID:20740373

Silva, Vinícius F N; Arruda, Priscila V; Felipe, Maria G A; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M



Ultrasonic pretreatment and acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes.  


Immense interest has been devoted to the production of bulk chemicals from lignocellulose biomass. Diluted sulfuric acid treatment is currently one of the main pretreatment methods. However, the low total sugar concentration obtained via such pretreatment limits industrial fermentation systems that use lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate is used as the carbon and nitrogen sources to achieve a green and economical production of succinic acid in this study. Sugarcane bagasse was ultrasonically pretreated for 40 min, with 43.9 g/L total sugar obtained after dilute acid hydrolysis. The total sugar concentration increased by 29.5 %. In a 3-L fermentor, using 30 g/L non-detoxified total sugar as the carbon source, succinic acid production increased to 23.7 g/L with a succinic acid yield of 79.0 % and a productivity of 0.99 g/L/h, and 60 % yeast extract in the medium could be reduced. Compared with the detoxified sugar preparation method, succinic acid production and yield were improved by 20.9 and 20.2 %, respectively. PMID:23649828

Xi, Yong-Lan; Dai, Wen-Yu; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Jiu-Hua; Chen, Ke-Quan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Ping-Kai



Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.  


This work presents the experimental kinetic data and the fractal modeling of sugarcane bagasse steam treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugarcane bagasse (50wt% moisture) was pretreated by autohydrolysis at 210°C for 4min. Acid catalysis involved the use of 9.5mg g(-1) of H2SO4 or H3PO4 in relation to the substrate dry mass at these same pretreatment conditions. Unwashed, water-washed and alkali-washed substrates were hydrolyzed at 2.0wt% using 8 and 15FPUg(-1) (108.22 and 199.54mg/g) total solids of a Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 188 mixture (Novozymes). The fractal kinetic modeling was used to describe the effect of pretreatment and both washing processes on substrate accessibility. Water and/or alkali washing was not strictly necessary to achieve high hydrolysis efficiencies. Also, the fractal model coefficients revealed that H3PO4 was a better pretreatment catalyst under the experimental conditions used in this study, resulting in the most susceptible substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24007721

Aguiar, Rodrigo Souza; Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Ramos, Luiz Pereira



Study of kinetic parameters in a mechanistic model for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse subjected to different pretreatments.  


The goal of this work is to evaluate the influence of different pretreatments in the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and to propose a reliable methodology to easily perform sensitivity analysis and updating kinetic parameters whenever necessary. A kinetic model was modified to represent the experimental data of the batch enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. The simultaneous estimation of kinetic parameters of the mathematical model was performed using the Pikaia genetic algorithm using batch hydrolysis experimental data obtained with different enzymatic loads. Subsequently, Plackett-Burman designs were used to identify the kinetic parameters with the higher influence on the dynamic behavior of the process variables, which were re-estimated to describe experimental data of the hydrolysis of bagasse pretreated with phosphoric acid + sodium hydroxide. The methodology was accurate and straightforward and can be used whenever there are changes in pretreatment conditions and/or fluctuations in biomass composition in different harvests. PMID:23474967

Neto, João Moreira; Dos Reis Garcia, Daniella; Rueda, Sandra Marcela Gómez; da Costa, Aline Carvalho



Effect of lime pre-treatment on the synergistic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by hemicellulases.  


Agricultural crop wastes are typically lignocellulosic in composition and thus partially recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation. The recalcitrant nature of plant biomass and the inability to obtain complete enzymatic hydrolysis has led to the establishment of various pre-treatment strategies. Alkaline pre-treatments increase the accessibility of the exposed surface to enzymatic hydrolysis through the removal of acetyl and uronic acid substituents on hemicelluloses. Unlike the use of steam and acid pre-treatments, alkaline pre-treatments (e.g. lime) solubilise lignin and a small percentage of the hemicelluloses. The most common alkaline pre-treatments that are employed make use of sodium hydroxide and lime. This study compared the synergistic degradation of un-treated and lime pre-treated sugarcane bagasse using cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal hemicellulases as free enzymes. The enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA and 62.5% ManA produced the highest amount of reducing sugar of 91.834 micromol/min for the degradation of un-treated bagasse. This enzyme combination produced a degree of synergy of 1.87. The free enzymes displayed an approximately 6-fold increase in the enzyme activity, i.e. the total amount of reducing sugar released (593.65 micromol/min) with the enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA, 25% ManA and 37.5% XynA for the lime pre-treated substrate and a degree of synergy of 2.14. To conclude, this study indicated that pre-treating the sugarcane bagasse is essential, in order to increase the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis by disruption of the lignin sheath, that the lime pre-treatment did not have any dramatic effect on the synergistic relationship between the free enzymes, and that time may play an important role in the establishment of synergistic relationships between enzymes. PMID:20156678

Beukes, Natasha; Pletschke, Brett I



Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids using a mixed culture of mesophilic microorganisms.  


Using the MixAlco process, biomass can be converted into carboxylic acids, which can be chemically converted into mixed alcohol fuels. This study focused on the use of countercurrent fermentation to anaerobically convert sugarcane bagasse and chicken manure to mixed carboxylic acids using a mixed culture of mesophilic microorganisms from terrestrial and marine sources. Bagasse was pretreated with lime to increase digestibility. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) simulated continuous fermentors based on data collected from batch experiments. This model saves considerable time in determining optimum operating conditions. For an 80% bagasse/20% chicken manure fermentation with terrestrial inoculum at a volatile solids loading rate (VSLR) of 7.36 g/(L of liquid d) and a liquid residence time (LRT) of 8.88 d, total carboxylic acid productivity, total acid selectivity, and yield were 2.49 g/(L of liquid d), 0.581 g of total acid/ g of VS digested, and 0.338 g of total acid/g of VS fed, respectively, at a concentration of 18.7 g of total acid/L. At the same VSLR and LRT, fermentation with marine inoculum gave higher total acid productivity, total acid selectivity, and yield than fermentation with terrestrial inoculum. For an 80% bagasse/20% chicken manure fermentation with marine inoculum at a VSLR of 3.83 g/(L of liquid d) and an LRT of 12.1 d, total carboxylic acid productivity, total acid selectivity, and yield were 1.38 g/(L of liquid d), 0.667 g of total acid/g of VS digested, and 0.359 g of total acid/g of VS fed, respectively, at a concentration of 16.2 g of total acid/L. PMID:12721433

Thanakoses, Piyarat; Mostafa, Nagat Abd Alla; Holtzapple, Mark T



Kinetics of the solid state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by Thermoascus aurantiacus for the production of xylanase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylanase was produced by solid-state fermentation using Thermoascus aurantiacus. Maximum production (500 U g-1 bagasse) was achieved on the sixth day of cultivation on solid sugarcane bagasse medium supplemented with 15% (v\\/w) rice bran extract. The fungal biomass, determined from its glucosamine content, reached 28 mg g-1 on the 8th day of cultivation. The cell yield against O2 (Yx\\/o=0.18gcell\\/gO2) and maintenance coefficient (m0=0.013gO2\\/gcellh)

Elio dos Santos; Thais Piovan; Inês Conceição Roberto; Adriane Maria Ferreira Milagres



Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.  


In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho



Pozzolanic activity and filler effect of sugar cane bagasse ash in Portland cement and lime mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) is generated as a combustion by-product from boilers of sugar and alcohol factories. Composed mainly of silica, this by-product can be used as a mineral admixture in mortar and concrete. Several studies have shown that the use of SCBA as partial Portland cement replacement can improve some properties of cementitious materials. However, it is not

G. C. Cordeiro; R. D. Toledo Filho; L. M. Tavares; E. M. R. Fairbairn



Consolidated bioprocessing of sugarcane bagasse and chicken manure to ammonium carboxylates by a mixed culture of marine microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MixAlco process, an example of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), was utilized for anaerobic fermentation of 80% lime-treated sugarcane bagasse\\/20% chicken manure at 55°C by a mixed culture of marine microorganisms. NH4HCO3 was recommended by this study to replace CaCO3 buffer to neutralize the produced carboxylic acids. The resulting ammonium carboxylates can be converted to gasoline or mixed alcohol fuels by

Zhihong Fu; Mark T. Holtzapple



Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.  


Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation. PMID:21531547

Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Tong, Z; Castro, E; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O



Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics  

PubMed Central

Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs), still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline) cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU) yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse) from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83%) > >[C2mim]Cl(53%)?=?[C4mim]Cl(53%). Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography). Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin remained dissolved in the aqueous IL solution. Of the three IL studied [C2mim]OAc gave the best saccharification yield, material recovery and delignification. The effects of [C2mim]OAc pretreatment resemble those of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of [C2mim]Cl and [C4mim]Cl resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. The use of imidazolium IL solvents with shorter alkyl chains results in accelerated dissolution, pretreatment and degradation.



Evaluation of Panus tigrinus in the delignification of sugarcane bagasse by FTIR-PCA and pulp properties 1 Part of this work was presented at the Third International Nonwood Fibre Pulping and Papermaking Conference in Beijing, China, 1996. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven strains of Panus tigrinus were grown, without any additional carbon source, on sugarcane bagasse for 10 days in a semi-solid state fermentation. The production of MnP, LiP and Lac by fungi were correlated with the efficiency of delignification process in bagasse after organosolv pulping with aqueous acetic acid. Analysis of decayed sugarcane bagasse by FTIR indicated a correlation between

Adilson R Gonçalves; Elisa Esposito; Priscila Benar



Reuse of the xylanase enzyme in the biobleaching process of the sugarcane bagasse acetosolv pulp.  


In this work, pretreatment-enzymatic series of the bagasse-sugarcane pulp and alkaline extraction of enzyme treated pulp were carried out. In the pretreatment an enzyme dose was utilized and acetosolv pulp suspension of 3% (w/v) with different solvents (distilled water, 0.05 mol/L acetate buffer pH 5.5 and 0.05 mol/L phosphate buffer pH 7.25) stirred at 85 rpm for 2 or 4 h. The enzymes used were pulpzyme and cartazyme, both commercial. The accompaniment of the enzymatic activity was carried out through measurement in initial and finish of each enzymatic pretreatment. The xylanase-treated pulps and xylanase-alkaline-extracted pulps were analyzed regarding kappa number and viscosity. Pulpzyme recovery was better in phosphate buffered medium (84, 46, and 23% for first, second, and third enzymatic treatment, respectively) although in aqueous medium reached only 2% for every treatments. However, the improvement of pulp properties was evidenced only in aqueous medium for pulpzyme. Cartazyme recovery was similar for both solvents (water and acetate buffer), reaching values around 19% for first enzymatic treatment and 9% for second one. Nevertheless, the pulp properties increased only in acetate buffered medium. PMID:16915651

Oliveira, Luís R M; Moriya, Regina Y; Gonçalves, Adilson R



Effect of pretreatment on saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by complex and simple enzyme mixtures.  


Saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated at the pilot-scale with different processes (in combination with steam-explosion) was evaluated. Maximum glucan conversion with Celluclast 1.5L (15-25FPU/g glucan) was in the following order: glycerol/HCl>HCl>H2SO4>NaOH, with the glycerol system achieving ?100% conversion. Surprisingly, the NaOH substrate achieved optimum saccharification with only 8FPU/g glucan. Glucan conversions (3.6-6%) obtained with mixtures of endo-1,4-?-glucanase (EG) and ?-glucosidase (?G) for the NaOH substrate were 2-6 times that of acid substrates. However, glucan conversions (15-60%) obtained with mixtures of cellobiohydrolase (CBH I) and ?G on acidified glycerol substrate were 10-30% higher than those obtained for NaOH and acid substrates. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic saccharification was explained by their physical and chemical attributes. Acidified glycerol pretreatment offers the opportunity to simplify the complexity of enzyme mixtures required for saccharification of lignocellulosics. PMID:24045198

Harrison, Mark D; Zhang, Zhanying; Shand, Kylie; O'Hara, Ian M; Doherty, William O S; Dale, James L



Sugarcane bagasse degradation and characterization of three white-rot fungi.  


In order to investigate the details of lignin biodegradation, the characteristics and process of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) degradation by three lignin degrading fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium PC2, Lentinula edode LE16 and Pleurotus ostreatus PO45, were studied. We found that the ligninolytic enzymes polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) were produced first, and that the cellulolytic enzyme CMCase was produced subsequently. These three fungi were more efficient to degrade lignin (85-93%) than hemicelluloses (64-88%) and cellulose (15-67%) in 12weeks, in which P. chrysosporium PC2 was the most efficient strain to degrade all the ingredients. Results of the FTIR and CP/MAS (13)C NMR revealed that the three fungi preferentially degraded syringyl units. The PPO and MnP as the main ligninolytic enzymes, especially the presence of PPO, were new findings in this study, which improved our knowledge of biopretreatment of SCB and evidenced these strains as valuable resource for SCB biotransformation. PMID:23376835

Dong, Xiu Qin; Yang, Jin Shui; Zhu, Ning; Wang, En Tao; Yuan, Hong Li



Succinic acid production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate by Actinobacillus succinogenes.  


Succinic acid, a four-carbon diacid, has been the focus of many research projects aimed at developing more economically viable methods of fermenting sugar-containing natural materials. Succinic acid fermentation processes also consume CO(2), thereby potentially contributing to reductions in CO(2) emissions. Succinic acid could also become a commodity used as an intermediate in the chemical synthesis and manufacture of synthetic resins and biodegradable polymers. Much attention has been given recently to the use of microorganisms to produce succinic acid as an alternative to chemical synthesis. We have attempted to maximize succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using an experimental design methodology for optimizing the concentrations of the medium components. The first experiment consisted of a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design, and the second entailed a Central Composite Rotational Design so as to achieve optimal conditions. The optimal concentrations of nutrients predicted by the model were: NaHCO(3), 10.0 g l(-1); MgSO(4), 3.0 g l(-1); yeast extract, 2.0 g l(-1); KH(2)PO(4). 5.0 g l(-1); these were experimentally validated. Under the best conversion conditions, as determined by statistical analysis, the production of succinic acid was carried out in an instrumented bioreactor using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate, yielding a concentration of 22.5 g l(-1). PMID:20882312

Borges, Elcio Ribeiro; Pereira, Nei



Sugarcane bagasse derivative-based superabsorbent containing phosphate rock with water-fertilizer integration.  


To improve the water-fertilizer utilization ratio and mitigate the environmental contamination, an eco-friendly superabsorbent polymer (SPA), modified sugarcane bagasse/poly (acrylic acid) embedding phosphate rock (MSB/PAA/PHR), was prepared. Ammonia, phosphate rock (PHR) and KOH were admixed in the presence of acrylic acid to provide nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, respectively. Impacts on water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent polymer (SAP) were investigated. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water and 0.9 wt.% (weight percent) NaCl solution reached 414 gg(-1) and 55 gg(-1) (water/prepared SAP), respectively. The available NPK contents of the combination system were 15.13 mgg(-1), 6.93 mgg(-1) and 52.05 mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the release behaviors of NPK in the MSB/PAA/PHR were also studied. The results showed that the MSB/PAA/PHR has outstanding sustained-release plant nutrients property. PMID:22840007

Zhong, Kang; Zheng, Xi-Liang; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Jiang, Gang-Biao



Use of immobilized Candida cells on xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse.  


In this study we used the yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 immobilized by entrapment in Ca-alginate beads (2.5-3 mm diameter) for xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate in a repeated batch system. The fermentation runs were carried out in 125- and 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks placed in an orbital shaker at 30 degrees C and 200 rpm during 72 h, keeping constant the proportion between work volume and flask total volume. According to the results, cell viability was substantially high (98%) in all fermentative cycles. The values of parameters xylitol yield and volumetric productivity increased significantly with the reutilization of the immobilized biocatalysts. The highest values of xylitol final concentration (11.05 g/l), yield factor (0.47 g/g) and volumetric productivity (0.22 g/lh) were obtained in 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 80 ml of medium plus 20 ml of immobilized biocatalysts. The support used in this study (Ca-alginate) presented stability in the experimental conditions used. The results show that the use of immobilized cells is a promising approach for increasing the xylitol production rates. PMID:10817210

de Carvalho, W; da Silva, S S; Vitolo, M; de Mancilha, I M


Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with liquid hot water and aqueous ammonia.  


Low water consumption operation (LWCO) can reduce the usage of water and energy input for the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SB) but causes great negative effects on the saccharification rate of xylose and enzymatic digestibility (ED) of cellulose. Therefore, a combined pretreatment with LHW and aqueous ammonia (LHWAA) was developed. ED of glucan and xylan is enhanced greatly resulted from the removal of hemicellulose and lignin after the LHWAA pretreatment. However, the intriguing results of low lignin removal and ED value were observed at the high reaction temperature of 180°C for the second step pretreatment of AA. It was proposed that lignin or pseudo-lignin droplet redeposited on the surface of residual solids might play a crucial role in determining the ED, so it is indispensable to make the enzyme access to the cellulose by the step of post-treatment with ultrasonic washing or hot washing. Coupled with the process of post-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, a high hemicellulose derived sugars recovery of 75.5% and glucose recovery of 87% was obtained for LHWAA pretreatment. PMID:23871922

Yu, Qiang; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Qi, Wei; Wang, Wen; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong



Simplified process for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli strain MM160.  


Hexose and pentose sugars from phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse were co-fermented to ethanol in a single vessel (SScF), eliminating process steps for solid-liquid separation and sugar cleanup. An initial liquefaction step (L) with cellulase was included to improve mixing and saccharification (L+SScF), analogous to a corn ethanol process. Fermentation was enabled by the development of a hydrolysate-resistant mutant of Escherichia coli LY180, designated MM160. Strain MM160 was more resistant than the parent to inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetate) formed during pretreatment. Bagasse slurries containing 10% and 14% dry weight (fiber plus solubles) were tested using pretreatment temperatures of 160-190°C (1% phosphoric acid, 10 min). Enzymatic saccharification and inhibitor production both increased with pretreatment temperature. The highest titer (30 g/L ethanol) and yield (0.21 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight) were obtained after incubation for 122 h using 14% dry weight slurries of pretreated bagasse (180°C). PMID:21111615

Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Nieves, I U; Peterson, J J; Hoffman, R W; York, S W; Yomano, L P; Miller, E N; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O



Seed train development for the fermentation of bagasse from sweet sorghum and sugarcane using a simplified fermentation process.  


A process was developed for seed culture expansion (3.6 million-fold) using 5% of the hemicellulose hydrolysate from dilute acid pretreatment as the sole organic nutrient and source of sugar. Hydrolysate used for seed growth was neutralized with ammonia and combined with 1.0mM sodium metabisulfite immediately before inoculation. This seed protocol was tested with phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane and sweet sorghum bagasse using a simplified process with co-fermentation of fiber, pentoses, and hexoses in a single vessel (SScF). A 6h liquefaction (L) step improved mixing prior to inoculation. Fermentations (L+SScF process) were completed in 72 h with high yields (>80 gal/US ton). Ethanol titers for this L+SScF process ranged from 24 g/L to 32 g/L, and were limited by the bagasse concentration (10% dry matter). PMID:23375156

Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Nieves, I U; Hoffman, R W; Sagues, W J; York, S W; Shanmugam, K T; Erickson, J E; Vermerris, W E; Ingram, L O



Influence of aeration rate and carrier concentration on xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate in immobilized-cell fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the biotechnological production of xylitol from sugarcane bagasse using Candida guilliermondii cells immobilized on porous glass in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) is presented. The influence of aeration rate (AR) and carrier concentration (Cs) on the production process was evaluated. Seven batch fermentation runs were conducted according to a 22 factorial design. The results obtained showed

Júlio C. Santos; Attilio Converti; Walter de Carvalho; Solange I. Mussatto; Silvio S. da Silva



A lab-scale study of constructed wetlands with sugarcane bagasse and sand media for the treatment of textile wastewater.  


This paper reports the pollutant removal efficiencies of two lab-scale hybrid wetland systems treating a textile wastewater. The two systems had identical configurations, each consisting of a vertical flow (VF) and a horizontal flow (HF) wetland that were filled with organic sugarcane bagasse and sylhet sand as the main media. The systems were operated under high hydraulic loading (HL) (566-5660 mm/d), and inorganic nitrogen (254-508 gN/m(2) d) and organics loadings (9840-19680 g COD/m(2) d and 2154-4307 g BOD(5)/m(2) d). Simultaneous removals of BOD(5) (74-79%) and ammonia (59-66%) were obtained in the first stage VF wetlands, demonstrating the efficiency of the media for oxygen transfer to cope with the high pollutant loads. The organic carbon (C) content of sugarcane bagasse facilitated denitrification in the VF wetlands. Second stage HF wetlands provided efficient color removal under predominantly anaerobic condition. Overall, the wetland systems showed stable removal performances under high, and unsteady, pollutant loadings. PMID:23201526

Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi



Readily-milled fraction of wet sugarcane bagasse as an advanced feedstock for monosaccharide production via the RT-CaCCO process.  


The RT-CaCCO process for enzymatic saccharification was applied to readily-milled fractions of wet sugarcane bagasse. Wet bagasse immediately after juice extraction was crushed with shark-mill blades to prepare two fractions referred to as readily-milled (RF) and hardly-milled fraction (HF). Monosaccharide recoveries from RFs via the RT-CaCCO process were 1.03-1.21 times higher than those from HFs. Moreover, when the wet weight ratio of RF/HF was adjusted to 2/8, the hexose recovery from RF was 90.9%, which was 1.3 times higher than that of the wet bagasse before fractionation. The results show that this process can be used for efficient monosaccharide recovery from RF of wet bagasse. In addition, the process can be adapted to more fibrous HF for multiple uses such as fuel for boilers and fibers for particleboards. PMID:22578412

Shiroma, Riki; Park, Jeung-Yil; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Shoko; Terajima, Yoshifumi; Ike, Masakazu; Tokuyasu, Ken



Production of bioethanol, methane and heat from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of biogas production from the residues of second generation bioethanol production was investigated taking into consideration two types of pretreatment: lime or alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Bagasse was pretreated, enzymatically hydrolyzed and the wastes from pretreatment and hydrolysis were used to produce biogas. Results have shown that if pretreatment is carried out at a bagasse concentration of 4% DM,

S. C. Rabelo; H. Carrere; R. Maciel Filho; A. C. Costa



Unraveling the structure of sugarcane bagasse after soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia (SCAA) and ethanol production by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis  

PubMed Central

Background Fuel ethanol production from sustainable and largely abundant agro-residues such as sugarcane bagasse (SB) provides long term, geopolitical and strategic benefits. Pretreatment of SB is an inevitable process for improved saccharification of cell wall carbohydrates. Recently, ammonium hydroxide-based pretreatment technologies have gained significance as an effective and economical pretreatment strategy. We hypothesized that soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia-mediated thermochemical pretreatment (SCAA) would overcome the native recalcitrance of SB by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded holocellulosic microfibrils. Results In this study, we designed an experiment considering response surface methodology (Taguchi method, L8 orthogonal array) to optimize sugar recovery from ammonia pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SB) by using the method of soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia (SCAA-SB). Three independent variables: ammonia concentration, temperature and time, were selected at two levels with center point. The ammonia pretreated bagasse (SCAA-SB) was enzymatically hydrolysed by commercial enzymes (Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188) using 15 FPU/g dry biomass and 17.5 Units of ?-glucosidase/g dry biomass at 50°C, 150 rpm for 96 h. A maximum of 28.43 g/l reducing sugars corresponding to 0.57 g sugars/g pretreated bagasse was obtained from the SCAA-SB derived using a 20% v/v ammonia solution, at 70°C for 24 h after enzymatic hydrolysis. Among the tested parameters, pretreatment time showed the maximum influence (p value, 0.053282) while ammonia concentration showed the least influence (p value, 0.612552) on sugar recovery. The changes in the ultra-structure and crystallinity of native SCAA-SB and enzymatically hydrolysed SB were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The enzymatic hydrolysates and solid SCAA-SB were subjected to ethanol fermentation under separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 respectively. Higher ethanol production (10.31 g/l and yield, 0.387 g/g) was obtained through SSF than SHF (3.83 g/l and yield, 0.289 g/g). Conclusions SCAA treatment showed marked lignin removal from SB thus improving the accessibility of cellulases towards holocellulose substrate as evidenced by efficient sugar release. The ultrastructure of SB after SCAA and enzymatic hydrolysis of holocellulose provided insights of the degradation process at the molecular level.



Experimental study and neural network modeling of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with H2SO4 and O3 for cellulosic material conversion to sugar.  


In this study, pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis is investigated using two categories of pretreatment methods: dilute acid (DA) pretreatment and combined DA-ozonolysis (DAO) method. Both methods are accomplished at different solid ratios, sulfuric acid concentrations, autoclave residence times, bagasse moisture content, and ozonolysis time. The results show that the DAO pretreatment can significantly increase the production of glucose compared to DA method. Applying k-fold cross validation method, two optimal artificial neural networks (ANNs) are trained for estimations of glucose concentrations for DA and DAO pretreatment methods. Comparing the modeling results with experimental data indicates that the proposed ANNs have good estimation abilities. PMID:24035818

Gitifar, Vahid; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Sarshar, Mohammad



Use of an Automatic Methane Potential Test System for evaluating the biomethane potential of sugarcane bagasse after different treatments.  


A multi-channel analyzer was used to evaluate biogas potential of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The Automatic Methane Potential Test System contained fifteen parallel reactors and the same number of gas flow meters attached to the acquisition system. The set of reactors - gas flow meters gave reproducible results during anaerobic digestion of chemically defined carbon source and the units were used to evaluate the biomethane potential of SCB after different pretreatments, such as treatment with water, acid, acid followed by enzymatic treatment and acid followed by treatment with inactive enzymes. Combined pretreatment with 2% sulphuric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis (3.5% enzymes) resulted in conversion of 79% to monomeric sugars present in SCB. SCB treated with acid followed by enzymatic hydrolysis achieved the methane yield of 200 NL per kg VS(added). Enzymatic saccharification of acid pretreated SCB resulted in increase of methane yield by 16±5% compared to that from acid treated SCB. PMID:22446055

Badshah, Malik; Lam, Duong Minh; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo



Production and application of an enzyme blend from Chrysoporthe cubensis and Penicillium pinophilum with potential for hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.  


Blending of the enzyme extracts produced by different fungi can result in favorable synergetic enhancement of the enzyme blend with regards to the main cellulase activities, as well as the inclusion of accessory enzymes that may not be as abundant in enzyme extracts produced by predominantly cellulase producing fungi. The Chrysoporthe cubensis:Penicillium pinophilum 50:50 (v/v) blend produced herein presented good synergy, especially for FPase and endoglucanase activities which were 76% and 48% greater than theoretical, respectively. This enzyme blend was applied to sugarcane bagasse previously submitted to a simple alkali pretreatment. Glucan hydrolysis efficiency reached an excess of 60% and xylan conversion exceeded 90%. Increasing the hydrolysis temperature from 45 to 50°C also resulted in a 16-20% increase in conversion of both glucan and xylan fractions. The blended enzyme extract obtained therefore showed great potential for application in the lignocellulose hydrolysis process. PMID:23896443

Visser, Evan Michael; Falkoski, Daniel Luciano; de Almeida, Maíra Nicolau; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze



Direct ethanol production from glucose, xylose and sugarcane bagasse by the corn endophytic fungi Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae.  


Production of ethanol with two corn endophytic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae, was studied. The yield of ethanol from glucose, xylose and a mixture of both sugars were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.50g/g ethanol/sugar for F. verticillioides and 0.37, 0.39 and 0.48g/g ethanol/sugar for A. zeae. Both fungi were able to co-ferment glucose and xylose. Ethanol production from 40g/L of pre-treated sugarcane bagasse was 4.6 and 3.9g/L for F. verticillioides and A. zeae, respectively, yielding 0.31g/g of ethanol per consumed sugar. Both fungi studied were capable of co-fermenting glucose and xylose at high yields. Moreover, they were able to produce ethanol directly from lignocellulosic biomass, demonstrating to be suitable microorganisms for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:23942376

de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Visser, Evan M; Siqueira, Germano A; Milagres, Adriane M F; de Rezende, Sebastião T



Purification and biochemical properties of a glucose-stimulated ?-D-glucosidase produced by Humicola grisea var. thermoidea grown on sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of several carbon sources on the production of mycelial-bound ?-glucosidase by Humicola grisea var. thermoidea in submerged fermentation was investigated. Maximum production occurred when cellulose was present in the culture medium,\\u000a but higher specific activities were achieved with cellobiose or sugarcane bagasse. Xylose or glucose (1%) in the reaction\\u000a medium stimulated ?-glucosidase activity by about 2-fold in crude

Cesar Vanderlei Nascimento; Flávio Henrique Moreira Souza; Douglas Chodi Masui; Francisco Assis Leone; Rosane Marina Peralta; João Atílio Jorge; Rosa Prazeres Melo Furriel



Regulation of cellulases and xylanases from a derepressed mutant of Cellulomonas flavigena growing on sugar-cane bagasse in continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the wild type Cellulomonas flavigena was grown on glycerol, xylose or cellobiose, it produced basal levels of carboxy-methyl-cellulase (CMCase), filter-paperase (FPase) and xylanase activities. By comparison, a catabolic derepressed mutant strain of the same organism produced markedly higher levels of these enzymes when grown on the same carbon sources. Sugar-cane bagasse induced both the wild type and the mutant

Teresa Ponce-Noyola; Mayra de la Torre



Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.  


This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M



Enzymic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by autohydrolysis-steam explosion.  


Pretreatment of bagasse by autohydrolysis at 200 degrees C for 4 min and explosive defibration resulted in the solubilization of 90% of the hemicellulose (a heteroxylan) and in the production of a pulp that was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei C-30 and QM 9414, and by a comercial preparation, Meicelase. Saccharification yields of 50% resulted after 24 h at 50 degrees C (pH 5.0) in enzymic digests containing 10% (w/v) bagasse pulps and 20 filter paper cellulase units (FPU). Saccharifications could be increased to more than 80% at 24 h by the addition of exogenous beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. The crystallinity of cellulose in bagasse remained unchanged following autohydrolysis-explosion and did not appear to hinder the rate or extent of hydrolysis of cellulose. Autohydrolysis-exploded pulps extracted with alkali or ethanol to remove lignin resulted in lowere conversions of cellulose (28-36% after 25 h) than unextracted pulps. Alkali extracted pulps arising from autohydrolysis times of more than 10 min at 200 degrees C were less susceptible to enzymic hydrolysis than unextracted pulps and alkali-extracted pulps arising from short autohydrolysis times (e.g., 2 min at 200 degrees C). Autohydrolysis-explosion was as effective a pretreatment method as 0.25M NaOH (70 degrees C/2 h) both yielded pulps that resulted in high cellulose conversions with T. reesei cellulase preparations and Meicelase. Supplementation of T. reesei C-30 cellulose preparations with A. niger beta-glucosidases was effective in promoting the conversion of cellulose into glucose. A ration of FPU to beta-glucosidase of 1:1.25 was the minimum requirement to achieve more than 80% conversion of cellulose into glucose within 24 h. Other factors which influenced the extent of saccharification of autohydrolysis-exploded bagasse pulps were the enzyme-substrate ratio, the substrate concentration, and the saccharification mode. PMID:18548636

Dekker, R F; Wallis, A F



Butyric acid production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.  


A fermentation process using Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) was developed for butyric acid production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate. SCB was first treated with dilute acid and then hydrolyzed with cellulases. The hydrolysate containing glucose and xylose was used as carbon source for the fermentation without detoxification. The bacterium was able to grow at a specific growth rate of ?0.06 h(-1) in media containing 15-20% (w/v) SCB in serum bottles. In batch cultures in the FBB, both glucose and xylose in the SCB hydrolysate were simultaneously converted to butyrate with a high yield (0.45-0.54 g/gsugar) and productivity (0.48-0.60 g/Lh). A final butyrate concentration of 20.9 g/L was obtained in a fed-batch culture, with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/Lh and butyrate yield of 0.48 g/g sugar consumed. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using SCB as a low-cost feedstock to produce butyric acid. PMID:23270719

Wei, Dong; Liu, Xiaoguang; Yang, Shang-Tian



Production of bioethanol from fermented sugars of sugarcane bagasse produced by lignocellulolytic enzymes of Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1.  


Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1 was isolated from the soil sample and characterized for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Production of these enzymes by the strain VSG-1 was carried out using steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and found to secrete cellulase, pectinase, mannanase, xylanase, and tannase. The growth and enzyme production were found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Upon steam explosion of SCB, the cellulose increased by 42 %, whereas hemicelluloses and lignin decreased by 40 and 62 %, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded SCB yielded 640 g/l of total sugars. Fermentation of sugars produced from pretreated SCB was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The alcohol produced was calculated and found to be 62.24 g/l corresponding to 78 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol. Hence, the strain VSG-1 has an industrial importance for the production of fermentable sugars for biofuels. PMID:23832861

Vijayalaxmi, S; Anu Appaiah, K A; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K



Competitive adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ on magnetic modified sugarcane bagasse prepared by two simple steps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic modified sugarcane bagasse with high adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption rate was prepared by two simple steps. Experimental results showed that the adsorption capacities of the magnetic sorbent for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 1.2 and 1.1 mmol g-1, respectively. Pseudo-second-order and pseudo-first-order kinetic model both could predict the adsorption and desorption kinetic process occurred on the modified sorbent. EDX analysis showed that Pb2+ and Cd2+ were adsorbed on the sorbent mainly through ion exchange. Competitive adsorption results showed that the presence of Pb2+ exerted a great inhibitory effect on Cd2+ adsorption, and the inhibitory effect increased with the increase of the initial concentration ratio of Pb2+ and Cd2+ (C0Pb: C0Cd). Pb2+ could be selectively adsorbed by the magnetic sorbent when the values of C0Pb: C0Cd was higher than or equal to 4:1. It was also found that Langmuir competitive model was suitable to predict the sorption isotherm in the binary system. The as prepared magnetic sorbent had a potential in heavy metal wastewater treatment.

Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia



Enzymic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by autohydrolysis-steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of bagasse by autohydrolysis at 200 degrees C for 4 min and explosive defibration resulted in the solubilization of 90% of the hemicellulose (a heteroxylan) and in the production of a pulp that was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei C-30 and QM 9414, and by a commercial preparation, Meicelase. Saccharification yields of 50% resulted after 24 h at 50 degrees C (pH 5.0) in enzymic digests containing 10% (w/v) bagasse pulps and 20 filter paper cellulase units (FPU). Saccharifications could be increased to more than 80% at 24 h by the addition of exogeneous ..beta..-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. The crystallinity of cellulose in bagasse remained unchanged following autohydrolysis-explosion and did not appear to hinder the rate or extent of hydrolysis of cellulose. Autohydrolysis-exploded pulps extracted with alkali or ethanol to remove lignin resulted in lower conversions of cellulose (28-36% after 25 h) than unextracted pulps. Alkali extracted pulps arising from autohydrolysis times of more than 10 min at 200 degrees C were less susceptible to enzymic hydrolysis than unextracted pulps and alkali-extracted pulps arising from short autohydrolysis times (e.g., 2 min at 200 degrees C). Autohydrolysis-explosion was as effective a pretreatment method as 0.25M NaOH (70 degrees C/2 h); both yielded pulps that resulted in high cellulose conversions with T. reesei cellulase preparations and Meicelase. Supplementation of T. reesei C-30 cellulase preparations with A. niger ..beta..-glucosidases was effective in promoting the conversion of cellulose into glucose. A ratio of FPU to ..beta..-glucosidase of 1:1.25 was the minimum requirement to achieve more than 80% conversion of cellulose into glucose within 24 h. Other factors which influenced the extent of saccharification were the enzyme-substrate ratio, the substrate concentration, and the saccharification mode. (Refs. 30).

Dekker, R.F.H.; Wallis, A.F.A.



Mapping the lignin distribution in pretreated sugarcane bagasse by confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Delignification pretreatments of biomass and methods to assess their efficacy are crucial for biomass-to-biofuels research and technology. Here, we applied confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using one- and two-photon excitation to map the lignin distribution within bagasse fibers pretreated with acid and alkali. The evaluated spectra and decay times are correlated with previously calculated lignin fractions. We have also investigated the influence of the pretreatment on the lignin distribution in the cell wall by analyzing the changes in the fluorescence characteristics using two-photon excitation. Eucalyptus fibers were also analyzed for comparison. Results Fluorescence spectra and variations of the decay time correlate well with the delignification yield and the lignin distribution. The decay dependences are considered two-exponential, one with a rapid (?1) and the other with a slow (?2) decay time. The fastest decay is associated to concentrated lignin in the bagasse and has a low sensitivity to the treatment. The fluorescence decay time became longer with the increase of the alkali concentration used in the treatment, which corresponds to lignin emission in a less concentrated environment. In addition, the two-photon fluorescence spectrum is very sensitive to lignin content and accumulation in the cell wall, broadening with the acid pretreatment and narrowing with the alkali one. Heterogeneity of the pretreated cell wall was observed. Conclusions Our results reveal lignin domains with different concentration levels. The acid pretreatment caused a disorder in the arrangement of lignin and its accumulation in the external border of the cell wall. The alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from the middle of the bagasse fibers, but was less effective in its removal from their surfaces. Our results evidenced a strong correlation between the decay times of the lignin fluorescence and its distribution within the cell wall. A new variety of lignin fluorescence states were accessed by two-photon excitation, which allowed an even broader, but complementary, optical characterization of lignocellulosic materials. These results suggest that the lignin arrangement in untreated bagasse fiber is based on a well-organized nanoenvironment that favors a very low level of interaction between the molecules.



Enzymatic degradation of anthracene by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on sugarcane bagasse.  


Bagasse is a by-product of sugar milling and important fuel resource for that industry. It is a fibrous, low density material with a very wide range of particle sizes and high moisture content. The goal of this study is the development of a system based on the use of the ligninolytic enzyme manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), of which anthracene was selected as an example. The white rot fungus P. chrysosporium immobilized on bagasse was grown in both stationary and agitated cultures (rotary shaker, 80rpm) using nitrogen limited growth medium to study the ability of the fungus to degrade anthracene in aqueous media. Production of MnP occurred simultaneously in nitrogen limited culture medium with the added MnSO4 at 40ppm. The MnP activity was at relatively high level (76Ul(-1)) and in this condition, the residual anthracene concentration was 16%. PMID:18482797

Mohammadi, A; Enayatzadeh, M; Nasernejad, B



Purification and biochemical properties of a glucose-stimulated beta-D-glucosidase produced by Humicola grisea var. thermoidea grown on sugarcane bagasse.  


The effect of several carbon sources on the production of mycelial-bound beta-glucosidase by Humicola grisea var. thermoidea in submerged fermentation was investigated. Maximum production occurred when cellulose was present in the culture medium, but higher specific activities were achieved with cellobiose or sugarcane bagasse. Xylose or glucose (1%) in the reaction medium stimulated beta-glucosidase activity by about 2-fold in crude extracts from mycelia grown in sugarcane bagasse. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-cellulose chromatography, showing a single band in PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The beta-glucosidase had a carbohydrate content of 43% and showed apparent molecular masses of 57 and 60 kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature were 6.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. The purified enzyme was thermostable up to 60 min in water at 55 degrees C and showed half-lives of 7 and 14 min when incubated in the absence or presence of 50 mM glucose, respectively, at 60 degrees C. The enzyme hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, lactose, and cellobiose. The best synthetic and natural substrates were p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside and cellobiose, respectively. Purified enzyme activity was stimulated up to 2-fold by glucose or xylose at concentrations from 25 to 200 mM. The addition of purified or crude beta-glucosidase to a reaction medium containing Trichoderma reesei cellulases increased the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by about 50%. These findings suggest that H. grisea var. thermoidea beta-glucosidase has a potential for biotechnological applications in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:20221730

Nascimento, Cesar Vanderlei; Souza, Flávio Henrique Moreira; Masui, Douglas Chodi; Leone, Francisco Assis; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Jorge, João Atílio; Furriel, Rosa Prazeres Melo



Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of malachite green (MG) was studied using three adsorbents namely, bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, and activated carbons commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial MG concentration on the removal of MG. The initial pH

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra



Adsorption studies of methylene blue and gentian violet on sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD) in aqueous solutions: kinetic and equilibrium aspects.  


In this study the adsorption of cationic dyes by modified sugarcane bagasse with EDTA dianhydride (EB) was examined using methylene blue (MB) and gentian violet (GV) as model compounds in aqueous single solutions. The synthesized adsorbent (EB) was characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, and BET. The capacity of EB to adsorb dyes was evaluated at different contact times, pH values, and initial dye concentrations. According to the obtained results, the adsorption processes could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted by the Langmuir model. Maximum adsorption capacities for MB and GV on EB were found to be 202.43 and 327.83 mg/g, respectively. The free energy change during adsorption of MB and GV was found to be -22.50 and -24.21 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that chemisorption is the main mechanism controlling the adsorption process. PMID:23428463

Gusmão, Karla Aparecida Guimarães; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Melo, Tânia Márcia Sacramento; Gil, Laurent Frédéric



Ultrasound-assisted compatible in situ hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in cellulase-aqueous-N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide system for improved saccharification.  


To fully exploit the benefits of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) in lignocelluloses bioconversion, a compatible system was established for efficient in situ saccharification of cellulose in NMMO-aqueous media in which the NMMO is able to activate and solubilize the cellulose, and the cellulases possess high stability and activity. Cellulase retained its original activity after being pre-incubated in 15% and 20% (w/v) NMMO solutions. After optimization of reaction parameters, high saccharification rate (96.5%) was obtained in aqueous-NMMO media by ultrasound assisted treatment of cellulose. The viscosity and FTIR analysis revealed that NMMO-treated cellulose under ultrasonic condition was porous and amorphous, which led to improved saccharification. The addition of trifle lignin in lower concentration improved the saccharification efficiency of sugarcane bagasse, while higher concentration interferes with hydrolysis. In conclusion, these findings provided great implications to develop a continuous process NMMO-cellulases system for transformation of native biomass. PMID:22227142

Li, Qiang; Ji, Geng-Sheng; Tang, Yu-Bin; Gu, Xu-Ding; Fei, Juan-Juan; Jiang, Hui-Qing



Use of cellobiohydrolase-free cellulase blends for the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and sugarcane bagasse pretreated by either ball milling or ionic liquid [Emim][Ac].  


This study investigated the requirement of cellobiohydrolases (CBH) for saccharification of microcrystalline cellulose and sugarcane bagasse pretreated either by ball milling (BM) or by ionic liquid (IL) [Emim][Ac]. Hydrolysis was done using CBH-free blends of Pyrococcus horikoshii endoglucanase (EG) plus Pyrococcus furiosus ?-glucosidase (EGPh/BGPf) or Optimash™ BG while Acremonium Cellulase was used as control. IL-pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed more effectively by CBH-free enzymes than were the BM-pretreated substrates. IL-treatment decreased the crystallinity and increased the specific surface area (SSA), whereas BM-treatment decreased the crystallinity without increasing the SSA. The hydrolysis of IL-treated cellulose by EGPh/BGPf showed a saccharification rate of 3.92g/Lh and a glucose yield of 81% within 9h. These results indicate the efficiency of CBH-free enzymes for the hydrolysis of IL-treated substrates. PMID:24091019

Sposina Sobral Teixeira, Ricardo; Sant'ana da Silva, Ayla; Kim, Han-Woo; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Endo, Takashi; Lee, Seung-Hwan; P S Bon, Elba



Evaluation of bagasse ash as corrosion resisting admixture for carbon steel in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Utilization of industrial and agricultural waste products as cement replacement materials in concrete technology has been an interesting subject of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Portland cement incorporating these cement replacement materials improves corrosion resistance of carbon steel. Sugar cane bagasse is considered as waste in sugar mills and dumped in open space or used as

K. Ganesan; K. Rajagopal; K. Thangavel



A 24.7-kDa copper-containing oxidase, secreted by Thermobifida fusca, significantly increasing the xylanase/cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.  


Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soil bacterium belonging to Actinobacteria. It has been known for its capability to degrade plant cell wall polymers except lignin and pectin. To know whether it can produce enzymes to facilitate lignin degradation, the extracellular proteins bound to sugarcane bagasse were harvested and identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, a putative copper-containing polyphenol oxidase of 241 amino acids, encoded by the locus Tfu_1114, was thought to presumably play a role in lignin degradation. This protein (Tfu1114) was thus expressed in E. coli and characterized. Similarly to common laccases, Tfu1114 is able to catalyze the oxidation reaction of phenolic and nonphenolic lignin related compounds such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and veratryl alcohol. More interestingly, it can significantly enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse by xylanase and cellulase. Tfu1114 is stable against heat, with a half-life of 4.7 h at 90 °C, and organic solvents. It is sensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and reducing agents but resistant to sodium azide, a potent inhibitor of laccases. Atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that the ratio of copper to the protein monomer is 1, instead of 4, a feature of classical laccases. All these data suggest that Tfu1114 is a novel oxidase with laccase-like activity, potentially useful in biotechnology application. PMID:23377789

Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hsieh, Zhi-Shen; Cheepudom, Jatuporn; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Meng, Menghsiao




Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, coal co-processing with sugar cane bagasse oil was studied for the first time. Sugar cane bagasse was chosen due to its great offer, since it is a residue in the process of a large project named PROALCOOL aiming the producing ethanolfrom sugarcane. In addition, the liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse with monoethanolamine was already developed in

Fernando M. Lanças; Rita M. B. Andrade




Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) is a highly productive C\\u000a \\u000a 4\\u000a \\u000a grass used as the main source of sugar and more recently to produce ethanol, a renewable transportation fuel. There is increased\\u000a interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease the dependency on fossil fuels. This chapters discusses tissue\\u000a culture and transgenic approaches aiming at incorporation of herbicide

Fredy Altpeter; Hesham Oraby


7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products...and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products...the Department, their importation into Guam will involve no pest risk, and they...



Bagasse-assisted bioremediation of ammonia from shrimp farm wastewater.  


Development of new economically feasible ecofriendly products from agricultural wastes or byproducts for shrimp farm wastewater treatment is the objective of our continued research. Ammonia is a nitrogenous toxicant, which is commonly found in wastewater from shrimp farms. In the present study, we explored the possibility of the use of simply and inexpensively prepared bagasse products so that this abundant crop byproduct could be used to remove ammonia from shrimp farm wastewater. Bagasse, a natural highly fibrous lignocellulosic byproduct of sugarcane, was converted into five different products. Experimental results have shown that ammonia is efficiently removed from wastewater by four bagasse products with a dose of 1 to 6 g/L within 24 hours. The effect of bagasse products on other water quality parameters and growth kinetics of biofilm bacteria onto bagasse fiber have also been studied. Efficacies of products were compared by using statistical analysis. Products developed from bagasse are useful and economical. PMID:17120454

Krishnani, Kishore K; Parimala, V; Gupta, B P; Azad, I S; Meng, Xiaoguang; Abraham, M



Supercritical steam cycles and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles for sugarcane mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Back in 1970s and 1980s, cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills were primarily designed to consume all bagasse, and produce steam and electricity to the process. The plants used medium pressure steam boilers (21 bar and 300°C) and backpressure steam turbines. Some plants needed also an additional fuel, as the boilers were very inefficient. In those times, sugarcane bagasse did not

Luiz Felipe Pellegrini; Silvio de Oliveira Júnior; Juan Carlos Burbano



Bioaccumulation of the synthetic dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals in single and binary systems by Candida tropicalis grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium: modelling optimal conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) and inhibition kinetics.  


Single and binary effects of dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals, 'namely', Pb(II) and Cd(II), were investigated for their role in dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation by Candida tropicalis that was grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium containing 8 g/L, 16 g/L or 24 g/L of sugar. The optimum pH was found to be 4.0 in the single system and 5.0 in the binary system. A central composite design was successfully used to analyse the experimental results. Four numerical correlations that were fitted to a second order quadratic equation were used to estimate optimum combinations predicted by response surface methodology. In the dye-Pb(II) binary system, C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating 49.5% of the dye and 49.6% of the Pb(II), in comparison to 15.9% of the dye and 55.5% of the Cd(II) in the dye-Cd(II) binary system. In these two systems, the pollutants were dispersed at minimum working concentration levels. Competitive inhibition was observed in both the single and binary systems, which was suggested by an increase in the saturation constant, K(s), and a simultaneous decrease in the specific growth rate that was calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated changes in yeast cell morphology by exposure to these contaminants in the dye-Pb(II) binary system grown in a bioaccumulation medium. PMID:21215516

Das, Devlina; Charumathi, D; Das, Nilanjana



Delignification of Bagasse with Acetic Acid and Ozone. Part 1. Acetic Acid Pulping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-stage delignification of sugarcane bagasse with acetic acid and ozone was investigated. The better pulp was obtained pulping bagasse in aqueous solution of acetic acid (80% volume) at 145°C during 60 min. The liquor\\/bagasse ratio (L\\/B) was 10:1 and the kappa number was 44; it fell to 10 in the ozone stage due to selectivity of acetic acid medium. Pulp

H. Contreras Q; Z. A. Nagieb; R. Sanjuán D




Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme production by Aspergillus niger IZ 9 was evaluated in different carbon sources: glucose; non-treated bagasse; bagasse treated with 4% solution of sodium hydroxide; bagasse treated with 4% solution of sodium hydroxide-phosphoric acid-steam; and filter paper. Maximum production of cellulase was obtained with filter paper, when the average activity was 0.44 UI mL-. With relationship to the work-temperature, maximum

C. L Aguiar



Windrow composting of sugarcane and coffee byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compost produced from lignocellulosic agricultural residues is found to be suitable for maintaining soil properties and health.\\u000a Results of experimental trials of large scale windrow composting of sugarcane press mud, cane bagasse and coffee pulp mixtures\\u000a are presented and discussed. Filter press mud and bagasse mixtures were transformed into composted products in 120 days, of\\u000a which 80 days were of

C. Rolz; R. de León; R. Cifuentes; C. Porres



Efficient conversion of sugarcane stalks into ethanol employing low temperature alkali pretreatment method.  


An alternative route for bio-ethanol production from sugarcane stalks (juice and bagasse) featuring a previously reported low temperature alkali pretreatment method was evaluated. Test-tube scale pretreatment-saccharification experiments were carried out to determine optimal LTA pretreatment conditions for sugarcane bagasse with regard to the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose. Free fermentable sugars and bagasse recovered from 2 kg of sugarcane stalks were jointly converted into ethanol via separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Results showed that 98% of the cellulose present in the optimally pretreated bagasse was hydrolyzed into glucose after 72-h enzymatic saccharification using commercially available cellulase and ?-glucosidase preparations at relatively low enzyme loading. The fermentable sugars in the mixture of the sugar juice and the bagasse hydrolysate were readily converted into 193.5 mL of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae within 12h, achieving 88% of the theoretical yield from the sugars and cellulose. PMID:22000967

Wu, Long; Li, Yuan; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Ike, Masakazu; Wada, Masahisa; Terajima, Yoshifumi; Ishikawa, Shoko; Tokuyasu, Ken



Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. II: cassava bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse. Cassava bagasse, which is a fibrous material, is the by-product of the cassava-processing industry. It contains about 30–50% starch on dry weight basis. Due to its rich organic nature and low ash content, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes

Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol; Luciana P. S Vandenberghe; Radjiskumar Mohan



Effects of Extruded Sugar Bagasse Blend on Yogurt Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extruded blends (EB) of whey protein concentrate 35 (WPC 35)–corn starch–sugarcane bagasse with 0%, 25%, and 50% substituted\\u000a yogurt formulations were evaluated for some functional characteristics. Yogurts substituted with EB showed higher viscosity\\u000a and lower syneresis index than that without EB. During storage for 48 h, the syneresis values of yogurt with and without EB\\u000a decreased. The pH values and color

I. Verdalet-Guzmán; R. Viveros-Contreras; S. L. Amaya-Llano; F. Martínez-Bustos



Variation of bagasse crystallinity and cellulase activity during the fermentation of cellulomonas bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A characteristic behavior of the fermentation process was observed during the growth of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse. At the early stage of the fermentation the crystallinity index of bagasse increased, suggesting that the major metabolized fraction corresponded to the hemicellulose during this stage. Some time later the crystallinity achieved a steady state and then decreased, which indicated that the most complex structure of bagasse was being attacked. The analysis of the cellulolytic activity of extracellular enzyme in the medium showed a sharp increase followed by an abrupt leveling off and decline in activity. These results along with the reduction of crystallinity index and bagasse utilization (70%) justify the assumption that the C1 component was present in the cellulase complex synthesized by the bacteria. (Refs. 12).

Enriquez, A.; Montalvo, R.; Canales, M.



Sugarcane vinasse: Environmental implications of its use.  


The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia



A techno-economic evaluation of the effects of centralized cellulosic ethanol and co-products refinery options with sugarcane mill clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work compares the calculated techno-economic performance for thermochemical and biochemical conversion of sugarcane residues, considering future conversion plants adjacent to sugarcane mills in Brazil. Process models developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory were adapted to reflect the Brazilian feedstock composition and used to estimate the cost and performance of these two conversion technologies. Models assumed that surplus bagasse

Joaquim E. A. Seabra; Ling Tao; Helena L. Chum; Isaias C. Macedo



The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.  


Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

Ribeiro, Daniela A; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M P; Pauletti, Bianca A; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T B; Murakami, Mario T; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J P; Pradella, Jose G C; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Squina, Fabio M



Simulation of integrated first and second generation bioethanol production from sugarcane: comparison between different biomass pretreatment methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse is used as a fuel in conventional bioethanol production, providing heat and power for the plant; therefore,\\u000a the amount of surplus bagasse available for use as raw material for second generation bioethanol production is related to\\u000a the energy consumption of the bioethanol production process. Pentoses and lignin, byproducts of the second generation bioethanol\\u000a production process, may be used

Marina O. S. DiasMarcelo; Marcelo Pereira da Cunha; Rubens Maciel Filho; Antonio Bonomi; Charles D. F. Jesus; Carlos E. V. Rossell


Sugarcane and Ethanol Production and Carbon Dioxide Balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol fuel has been considered lately an efficient option for reducing greenhouse gases emissions. Brazil has now more than\\u000a 30 years of experience with large-scale ethanol production. With sugarcane as feedstock, Brazilian ethanol has some advantages\\u000a in terms of energy and CO2 balances. The use of bagasse for energy generation contributes to lower greenhouse gases emissions. Although, when compared\\u000a with

Marcelo Dias De Oliveira


Proximate and Ultimate Analyses of Bagasse, Sorghum and Millet Straws as Precursors for Active Carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the proximate and ultimate characteristics of bagasse, sorghum and millet straws in relation to their suitability for producing highly porous carbon. The results of ad hoc samples indicated, that particle size has a decisive influence on the proximate characteristics of bagasse, sorghum and millet straws. The effects of particle size on weight loss characteristics; rates of dehydration and de-volatilization of the carbon precursors were used to assess particle sizes that may be appropriate for carbonization. Particle sizes of 425-1180 µm are thus, suggested to be the most desirable, for the production of good quality porous carbon. This range of particles of bagasse, sorghum and millet straws were associated with diminishing ash contents. However, the optimum particle size of the cellulosic materials that is expected to yield highly porous carbon with minimum ash contents is 1180 µm.

Lori, J. A.; Lawal, A. O.; Ekanem, E. J.


Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.



Sugarcane pests and their management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pest management factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pest management ...


Hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by mycelial biomass of Penicillium funiculosum  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose bioconversion has great promise for producing unlimited quantities of fermentable feedstocks and liquid fuels. Extensive studies on the production of extracellular cellulase and on the saccharification of various cellulosic substrates using cellulases have been reported. Use of mycelial biomass having cell bound cellulase for saccharification of cellulose was studied in Aspergillus terreus by Miller and Srinivasan. Extracellular cellulase production by P. funiculosum and its application for cellulose hydrolysis have been reported earlier by the authors. The present communication reports the hydrolysis of lignocellulose using mycelial biomass of P. funiculosum cultivated on cellulose and its reuse potential. 10 references.

Rao, M.; Deshpande, V.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Mishra, C.



Experimental assessment of the accuracy of genomic selection in sugarcane.  


Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids with an aneuploid, highly heterozygous polyploid genome. The complexity of the sugarcane genome is the main obstacle to the use of marker-assisted selection in sugarcane breeding. Given the promising results of recent studies of plant genomic selection, we explored the feasibility of genomic selection in this complex polyploid crop. Genetic values were predicted in two independent panels, each composed of 167 accessions representing sugarcane genetic diversity worldwide. Accessions were genotyped with 1,499 DArT markers. One panel was phenotyped in Reunion Island and the other in Guadeloupe. Ten traits concerning sugar and bagasse contents, digestibility and composition of the bagasse, plant morphology, and disease resistance were used. We used four statistical predictive models: bayesian LASSO, ridge regression, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and partial least square regression. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed through the correlation between observed and predicted genetic values by cross validation within each panel and between the two panels. We observed equivalent accuracy among the four predictive models for a given trait, and marked differences were observed among traits. Depending on the trait concerned, within-panel cross validation yielded median correlations ranging from 0.29 to 0.62 in the Reunion Island panel and from 0.11 to 0.5 in the Guadeloupe panel. Cross validation between panels yielded correlations ranging from 0.13 for smut resistance to 0.55 for brix. This level of correlations is promising for future implementations. Our results provide the first validation of genomic selection in sugarcane. PMID:23907359

Gouy, M; Rousselle, Y; Bastianelli, D; Lecomte, P; Bonnal, L; Roques, D; Efile, J-C; Rocher, S; Daugrois, J; Toubi, L; Nabeneza, S; Hervouet, C; Telismart, H; Denis, M; Thong-Chane, A; Glaszmann, J C; Hoarau, J-Y; Nibouche, S; Costet, L



Electricity generation from eucalyptus and bagasse by sugar mills in Nicaragua: A comparison with fuel oil electricity generation on the basis of costs, macro-economic impacts and environmental emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sugar mills in Nicaragua plan to generate electricity from bagasse during the sugarcane season and eucalyptus during the rest of the year, and to sell it to the national grid. This study compared this concept with the most logical alternative at the moment, which is electricity generated from fuel oil. Costs, macro-economic impacts and environmental emissions are considered. The

Richard van den Broek; Tsjalle van den Burg; Ad van Wijk; Wim Turkenburg



Interior view of north end of the Bagasse Storage Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of north end of the Bagasse Storage Building with traveling crane used to load bagasse to send to boiler, looking from the west - Kekaha Sugar Company, Bagasse Storage Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI


Self-heating and drying in two-dimensional bagasse piles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a two-dimensional model for self-heating and changes in water levels in bagasse piles of constant rectangular or triangular cross section. (Bagasse is the residue, mainly cellulose, that remains after sugar has been extracted from sugar-cane.) After milling, the bagasse has almost 50% water by weight, as hot water is used to remove the last of the sugar. The bagasse can be used as fuel in electrical power stations, but needs to be dried out before use. This paper discusses the way in which the drying out of a pile depends on the ambient conditions, and the shape and size of the pile. Accordingly, the energy equation, and equations for liquid water, water vapour and oxygen are solved numerically using the method of lines. The equations include terms describing heat conduction, diffusion of water vapour and oxygen, condensation and evaporation and an Arrhenius self-heating term. In addition, recent measurements show that there is also self-heating due to the presence of water in the bagasse, with a maximum effect near 60 °C, which is modelled by a modified Arrhenius expression. The local maximum in the heat release curve for the problem leads to approximate steady-state behaviour on short time scales that eventually is lost as the pile dries out. This interesting physical behaviour motivates an approximate analytical model for the rate at which liquid water is reduced in the pile. Analytical and numerical results are presented for a variety of pile configurations and some fairly general conclusions are drawn.

Sexton, M. J.; Macaskill, C.; Gray, B. F.



Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum.

Rahul Kumar; Deepshikha Verma; Bhanu L. Singh; Umesh Kumar; Shweta



Life cycle assessment of Australian sugarcane products with a focus on cane processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This work generates attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) results for products produced from Australian sugarcane—raw\\u000a sugar, molasses, electricity (from bagasse combustion), and ethanol (from molasses). It focuses on cane processing in sugar\\u000a mills and is a companion to the work presented in (Renouf et al. 2010), where the focus is on cane growing. This work also examines the preferred approach

Marguerite Anne Renouf; Robert J. Pagan; Malcolm K. Wegener



Biotechnological Potentials of Cassava Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues such as cassava bagasse are annually renewable sources of energy. Though they are rich in carbohydrate, their\\u000a utilization for any direct application is very less due to the low content of protein and poor digestibility. However, the\\u000a utilization of such agro-industrial residues provides alternative substrate for bioprocesses and will solve the problem of\\u000a environmental pollution to an extent.

Rojan P. John



Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse is the only fuel used in the sugar - alcohol industry in Brazil, the biggest producer of sugar cane in the world. The sugar - alcohol industry produces, by cogeneration, electric energy for its own use and for selling. The improvement of the use of bagasse in the furnaces is an important industrial strategy nowadays. This subject has

Juan H. Sosa-Arnao?; Fabiano Marquezi de Oliveira; Jefferson L. G. Corrêa


Investigation of Biomass Fly Ash in Thailand for Recycle to Glass Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the composition and phase of major biomasses fly ash in Thailand at different sintering temperatures by X-rays fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and X-Rays Diffractometer (XRD). All biomasses were sintered at different temperature (400°C, 600°C, 800°C, and 1,000°C) under same condition. The result found that Rice husk ash, Sugarcane leaves ash, Straw ash and Plam petiole ash at all

Y. Ruangtaweep; J. Kaewkhao; C. Kedkaew; P. Limsuwan



Sugarcane borer in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is one of the most important of the above-ground pests of sugarcane in Florida. This article presents information pertaining to the borer’s biology, damage to cane, scouting, biological control, cultural control and chemical control. ...


Utilization of Bagasse Energy in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse, a biomass fuel, is the waste generated by the sugar-making process from sugar cane. Sugar making is one of the most\\u000a important agricultural-produce processing industries for developing countries in Southeast Asia, Latin America and Africa.\\u000a As sugar producing plants need electric power and process steam, co-generation using bagasse as an alternate fuel for petroleum\\u000a has been in use for

Yasujiro Wakamura



Sugarcane response to bermudagrass interference  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was conducted with the objectives of determining differences in the competitiveness of three phenotypically different sugarcane cultivars, ‘CP 70-321’, ‘HoCP 85-845’, and ‘LCP 85-384’, with bermudagrass, and the effects of bermudagrass interference on sugarcane. Sugarcane was planted at tw...


Background Document: Bagasse Combustion in Sugar Mills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a background document in support of the contents of Section 1.8 of AP-2, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Second Edition. It concerns the major criteria pollutants emitted during the combustion of bagasse (a fiberous waste product in...

R. Baker T. F. Lahre



Thermal Coprocessing of High Density Polyethylene with Coal, Fly Ashes, and Biomass: Characterization of Liquid Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-pyrolysis of high density polyethylene with low cost additives, such as bituminous coal, bagasse fly ash, coal-based thermal power plant fly ash, and deoiled cake of jatropha, has been carried out in a batch reactor in the presence of nitrogen at 450°C under atmospheric pressure. Liquid products obtained by co-pyrolysis were characterized by ASTM D86 and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The

Y. C. Rotliwala; P. A. Parikh




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...


Sugarcane smut and its control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...


Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez



Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of

Worapon Kiatkittipong; Porntip Wongsuchoto; Prasert Pavasant




Microsoft Academic Search

Two schemes for processing mixtures of soil, cement, and sugar cane bagasse have been investigated to determine the best way of processing house construction bricks for rural Africa. In one case, bagasse fibers were treated for removing sugar while untreated bagasse fibers were used in the other one. Processing house construction bricks from soil, cement, and untreated bagasse turned out

R. Medjo Eko; G. L. Riskowski


Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation.



Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options.  


Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative. PMID:19136243

Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert



Agronomic performance and genetic characterization of sugarcane transformed for resistance to sugarcane yellow leaf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV, a Poleovirus of the Luteoviridae family) is already widespread in Florida, and resistance in the Canal Point (CP) sugarcane population is limited. Genetic transformation of sugarcane for disease resistance holds promise but tissue culture and transformation processes produce undesirable agronomic characteristics necessitating thorough field evaluation. A 3-year sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum species) field

R. A. Gilbert; N. C. Glynn; J. C. Comstock; M. J. Davis



Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...


Isolation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate-tolerant yeast mutants by continuous selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemicellulose, one of the major constituents of plant cell-wall materials, comprises up to 40% of agricultural residues and hardwoods. Upon hydrolysis, hemicellulose yields a mixture of carbohydrates of which D-xylose is the major component. Hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates can easily be obtained by use of dilute acids under mild hydrolysis conditions. These sugars as well as cellulose-derived carbohydrates, are potential substrates for

T. A. Lodics; C. S. Gong



Energy from sugarcane bagasse under electricity rationing in Brazil: a computable general equilibrium model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the midst of the institutional reforms of the Brazilian electric sectors initiated in the 1990s, a serious electricity shortage crisis developed in 2001. As an alternative to blackout, the government instituted an emergency plan aimed at reducing electricity consumption. From June 2001 to February 2002, Brazilians were compelled to curtail electricity use by 20%. Since the late 1990s, but

Jose A. Scaramucci; Clovis Perin; Petronio Pulino; Orlando F. J. G. Bordoni; Marcelo P. da Cunha; Luis A. B. Cortez



Succinic acid production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate by Actinobacillus succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinic acid, a four-carbon diacid, has been the focus of many research projects aimed at developing more economically viable\\u000a methods of fermenting sugar-containing natural materials. Succinic acid fermentation processes also consume CO2, thereby potentially contributing to reductions in CO2 emissions. Succinic acid could also become a commodity used as an intermediate in the chemical synthesis and manufacture\\u000a of synthetic resins

Elcio Ribeiro Borges; Nei Pereira


Clean energy from sugarcane waste: feasibility study of an innovative application of bagasse and barbojo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the existing difficulty of finding energy sources and reducing pollution, the use of renewable sources and highly efficient technologies for electrical energy production stands out as one of the promising solutions for the future.This paper shows the results of the combination of these two aspects, namely, a molten carbonate fuel cell system fed with biomass derived syngas.In particular,

Daniela Dellepiane; Barbara Bosio; Elisabetta Arato



Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.  


The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta



Simultaneous production of ?-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and ?-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 °C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was

Vittaya Punsuvon; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Kenji Iiyama


Determination of the permeability parameters of bagasse pulp from two different sugar extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeability, the specific surface area and the swelling factor have been determined for Australian bagasse pulp derived from bagasse from two different sugar extraction processes. The sugar extraction process was not found to affect the permeability of the pulp. The results for bagasse pulp are compared to those of eucalypt pulp, which is widely used in Australia for paper

T. J. Rainey; W. O. S. Doherty; R. J. Brown; N. A. Kelson; D. M. Martinez


Decolorization of molasses' wastewater using activated carbon prepared from cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization of synthetic melanoidin was studied using activated carbon from cane bagasse obtained from Thailand and Brazil. Melanoidin, a nitrogenous brown polymer present in molasses' wastewater, is formed on the interaction between amino acids and carbohydrates. Bagasse, another by-product in the sugar industry, is a cheap material suitable for the preparation of activated carbon.Samples of cane bagasse were carbonized

E. C. Bernardo; R. Egashira; J. Kawasaki




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic transformation of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) holds promise for increasing yields and disease resistance. However, the tissue culture and transformation process may also produce undesirable field characteristics in transgenic sugarcane not readily identifiable in the laboratory. The primary...


Detection of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma infecting sugarcane in India and its phylogenetic relationships to closely related phytoplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several sugarcane-growing areas of India, sugarcane plants showing typical symptoms of sugarcane grassy shoot (SCGS) disease\\u000a as well as non-symptomatic sugarcane plants and sugarcane with non-specific yellowing and stunting symptoms were examined\\u000a for phytoplasmal infections by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, using primers directed to phytoplasma\\u000a ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. From all field-collected, symptomatic sugarcane plants and

G. P. Rao; S. Srivastava; P. S. Gupta; S. R. Sharma; A. Singh; S. Singh; M. Singh; C. Marcone



Effect of biocompost application on sugarcane crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted during spring of 2006–07 at Sugarcane Research Institute, Shahjahanpur using sugarcane variety\\u000a CoS 97264 to work out the effect of biocompost ( prepared from biodegradation from pressmud) application on yield and quality\\u000a of sugarcane crop and status of organic carbon content in the soil before planting and after harvest of the crop. It is clear

Namita Chauhan; M. P. Singh; Aneg Singh; A. K. Singh; S. S. Chauhan; S. B. Singh



The Biotechnology Roadmap for Sugarcane Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the strategic importance of sugarcane to Brazil, FAPESP, the main São Paulo state research funding agency, launched\\u000a in 2008 the FAPESP Bioenergy Research Program (BIOEN, http:\\/\\/ BIOEN aims to generate new knowledge and human resources for the improvement of the sugarcane and ethanol industry. As\\u000a part of the BIOEN program, a Workshop on Sugarcane Improvement was held on

Carlos T. Hotta; Carolina G. Lembke; Douglas S. Domingues; Edgar A. Ochoa; Guilherme M. Q. Cruz; Danila M. Melotto-Passarin; Thiago G. Marconi; Melissa O. Santos; Marcelo Mollinari; Gabriel R. A. Margarido; Augusto César Crivellari; Wanderley D. dos Santos; Amanda P. de Souza; Andrea A. Hoshino; Helaine Carrer; Anete P. Souza; Antônio A. F. Garcia; Marcos S. Buckeridge; Marcelo Menossi; Marie-Anne Van Sluys; Glaucia M. Souza



Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton\\/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and

E. G. Baker; M. D. Brown



Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton\\/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier

E. G. Baker; M. D. Brown; R. J. Robertus



Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically an oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable that the pitting occurred during an idle period (a drought) due to oxygen ingress and failure to maintain a sufficient excess of the

A. M. Heyes



Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars is critical for growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this resear...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars is critical for growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this resear...


Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for

G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Eve...


Silicon nutrition and sugarcane production: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon (Si) is one of the most abundant elements found in the earth's crust, but is mostly inert and only slightly soluble. Agriculture activity tends to remove large quantities of Si from soil. Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other mineral nutrient, accumulating approximately 380 kg ha of Si, in a 12?month?old crop. Sugarcane (plant growth and

Narayan K. Savant; Gaspar H. Korndörfer; Lawrence E. Datnoff; George H. Snyderc




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the primary crop in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida where it is exposed to periodic floods. After sugarcane is planted, it is particularly susceptible to flooding until it sprouts. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on emergence of flood du...



Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Approximately 75% of the total sugarcane area harvested in Brazil is made manually and 25% is mechanized. Precision agriculture is a method of production systems management that considers the spacial variability presence, which promove practical and effective ways of obtaining yield maps to show that variability. The existent maps generation technologies dasent contemplate manually harvested sugarcane yet. By georreferencing




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing water storage in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida would improve conservation of the region's organic soils but reduce yields of the major crop, sugarcane. Growers in Florida normally apply a soil insecticide when planting sugarcane to limit wireworm damage to buds of planted st...


Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND -: Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations

Flávia S Papini-Terzi; Flávia R Rocha; Ricardo ZN Vêncio; Juliana M Felix; Diana S Branco; Alessandro J Waclawovsky; Luiz EV Del Bem; Carolina G Lembke; Maximiller DL Costa; Milton Y Nishiyama; Renato Vicentini; Michel GA Vincentz; Eugênio C Ulian; Marcelo Menossi; Glaucia M Souza



Ash leachate test on Redoubt ash  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Undergraduate student Janelle Dyer (USGS ARRA student appointment) performs an ash leachate test on Redoubt ash in the Alaska Tephra Laboratory and Data Center in Anchorage, Alaska. This test is done to analyze the geochemical reaction between volcanic ash and drinking water sources during eruptions...



Properties of Volcanic Ash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey site lists and discusses the properties of volcanic ash. The site contains many helpful diagrams, and explains topics including the size of ash particles, the dispersal of ash by wind, and the kind of eruption that produces ash.



Magnetism of cigarette ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral composition of cigarette ashes is well studied in the literature, but no reports are available about the magnetic fraction. Our study presents an investigation of the basic magnetic characteristics of ashes from several commercially available cigarette brands and a wood ash. Magnetic susceptibility, which is a concentration-dependent parameter in case of uniform mineralogy, shows that cigarette ashes contain relatively

Neli Jordanova; Diana Jordanova; Bernard Henry; Maxime Le Goff; Dimo Dimov; Tsenka Tsacheva



Effect of Bagasse on the Physico-mechanical Properties of Natural and Styrene-Butadiene Rubbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different concentrations of bagasse waste with particle sizes 300 nm, 125 nm, 75 nm, and <75nm are incorporated in natural and styrene-butadiene rubber formulations. The rheological characteristics and physico-mechanical properties of the compounded rubber are investigated and determined. The effect of bagasse upon ageing characteristics of corresponding vulcanizates is evaluated. The rubber vulcanizates containing the smallest particle size of bagasse

N. A. Abdelwahab; F. M. Helaly; A. S. Badran



Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.



Nanofibers from bagasse and rice straw: process optimization and properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofibers (NF) were isolated from bleached bagasse and rice straw pulps. The pulps were refined using high-shear ultrafine\\u000a grinder and then homogenized using high-pressure homogenizer. The efficiency of the used isolation processes was studied by\\u000a optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and testing the tensile properties\\u000a (wet and dry) of nanopaper sheets made from the

Mohammad L. HassanAji; Aji P. Mathew; Enas A. Hassan; Nahla A. El-Wakil; Kristiina Oksman


Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse for enhanced ruminal digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residues, such as sugar cane bagasse (SCB), have been largely used for cattle feeding However, the close association\\u000a that exists among the three major plant cell-wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, limits the efficiency\\u000a by which ruminants can degrade these materials Previously, we have shown that pretreatment with 3% (w\\/w) phosphoric acid,\\u000a under relatively mild conditions, increased considerably the

Francisco C. Deschamps; Luiz P. Ramos; José D. Fontana



Carbon balance of sugarcane bioenergy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important criterion for bioenergy systems evaluation is their greenhouse gas mitigation potential. Sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to produce grid-bound surplus electricity but also have net CO2 emissions associated with the upstream fossil-fuel consumption for plantation management, transportation and processing of the fibrous biomass. However, when compared to coal-based power generation systems, sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to avoid

Revin Panray Beeharry



Sugarcane genes differentially expressed during water deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genes that are up and down-regulated by water deficit in sugarcane we used the macroarray methodology and the\\u000a expression level of 3 575 independent sugarcane cDNAs was measured by hybridization with RNA extracted from plants submitted\\u000a to mild, moderate and severe water deficit. We identified approximately 1 670 differentially expressed genes from which 62\\u000a % were up-regulated by

F. A. Rodrigues; J. P. Da Graça; M. L. De Laia; A. Nhani-Jr; J. A. Galbiati; M. I. T. Ferro; J. A. Ferro; S. M. Zingaretti



Bioconversion of sugarcane biomass into ethanol: an overview about composition, pretreatment methods, detoxification of hydrolysates, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.  


Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production. PMID:23251086

Canilha, Larissa; Kumar Chandel, Anuj; dos Santos Milessi, Thais Suzane; Fernandes Antunes, Felipe Antônio; da Costa Freitas, Wagner Luiz; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério



Delignification of Bagasse with Acetic Acid and Ozone. II. Ozone Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone gas was applied as second stage in delignification of bagasse pulp obtained with acetic acid. The kappa number was reduced from 44 to 10 with 3% ozone (based on dry pulp). Because bagasse was pulped with an aqueous solution of acetic acid (80% volume), selectivity of the ozone stage was favored and does not necessary acidulate pulp, which had

H. Contreras Q; Z. A. Nagieb; R. SanjuáN D



Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.



Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.



The recovery of by-products and pulping chemicals from industrial soda bagasse spent liquors  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the recovery and use of lignin and hemicellulose and the recycling of chemicals from spent liquors from soda bagasses pulping. The product sales value of a bagasse pulp mill can also be doubled. Profitability can be improved substantially, and a serious environmental problem can also be solved. These discussions are based on laboratory work and on some industrial trials.

Venter, J.S.M.; Vander Klashorst, G.H. (Div. for Processing and Chemical Manufacturing Technology, CSIR, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (ZA))



Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols.

F. Mobarak; Y. Fahmy; W. Schweers



Emerald ash borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The emerald ash borer is an insect that was introduced to the United States on accident. The larvae of this insect feed on essential parts of the ash tree. This non-native species has killed several million trees already.

N/A N/A (USDA;Forest Service)




EPA Science Inventory

The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...


Pheromone-based trapping of West Indian sugarcane weevil in a sugarcane plantation.  


Attraction of Metamasius hemipterus (Oliver) to gallon and bamboo traps baited with insecticide-treated sugarcane, the male-produced pheromone, 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 2-methyl-4-heptanol is more efficient if ethyl acetate is added. The optimal traps are ground-level gallon traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane, pheromone, and ethyl acetate. Capture rates of ground-level gallon traps are doubled by placing an insecticide-laced pad under the trap, but significantly decreased by placing the trap on a stick above ground. The efficiency of ground-level gallon traps is the same as ground level ramp traps. Mass-trapping M. hemipterus in newly planted sugarcane using ground level bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone over six months revealed populations were low for the first two months, became maximum at five months, and declined thereafter. Capture rates of traps bordering newly planted and mature sugarcane were not significantly different from capture rates of traps in the interior of the plots. Capture rates of bamboo traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane and deployed at 30 traps/ha averaged 6 weevils/trap/week compared with 66 weevils/trap/week for traps additionally containing pheromone lures and deployed at 5 traps/ha. Capture rates for bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone and deployed at 10 and 15 traps/ha were 43 and 38 weevils/trap/week, respectively. Total captures were higher in those plots with a higher density of insecticide-laden sugarcane and pheromone baited traps, and the differences were approximately proportional to trap density in the range of 5-15 traps/ha. Capture rates of traps containing insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone were always higher than of traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane, but in the first two months after planting the differences were much greater than in months 3-6 after planting. PMID:12371817

Oehlschlager, Allan C; Gonzalez, Lilliana; Gomez, Manuel; Rodriguez, Carlos; Andrade, Romano



Labour saving and cost reduction machinery for sugarcane cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural operations for sugarcane production are very arduous especially planting, interculture, plant protection and harvesting.\\u000a Modern sugarcane machinery and labour saving devices reduce the cost of sugarcane production, help in completion of operation\\u000a timely reduce human drudgery and enable efficient utilization of resources with better quality work output. It helps in increasing\\u000a overall production and productivity. Sugarcane planting requires about

R. N. S. Yadav; Sandeep Yadav; Raj Kumar Tejra



Magnetism of cigarette ashes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral composition of cigarette ashes is well studied in the literature, but no reports are available about the magnetic fraction. Our study presents an investigation of the basic magnetic characteristics of ashes from several commercially available cigarette brands and a wood ash. Magnetic susceptibility, which is a concentration-dependent parameter in case of uniform mineralogy, shows that cigarette ashes contain relatively high amount of magnetic iron minerals, similar to that in wood ash from our study and other literature data. Magnetization data suggest that cigarette ashes contain some 0.1 wt% or lower quantity of magnetite, depending on the brand. Analyses of magnetic mineralogy imply that the main magnetic minerals in ashes from higher quality cigarette brands are magnetite and iron carbide cementite, while in ashes from lower quality brands without additives magnetic minerals are pure and substituted with foreign ions magnetite. Magnetic grain-size analysis shows that cigarette ashes contain significant amount of very fine, nano-meter sized magnetic particles, as well as coarser (up to several microns), magnetically stable grains. Thus, the magnetic study of cigarette ashes proved that these plant ashes possess non-negligible magnetic properties. The results could serve for better elucidation of mineralogy of cigarette ashes as a whole, as well as for future investigation on the presence of magnetic ultra fine particles in cigarette smoke, which may be inhaled in lungs during smoking.

Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Henry, Bernard; Le Goff, Maxime; Dimov, Dimo; Tsacheva, Tsenka



Production of SCP and cellulase by Aspergillus terreus from bagasse substrate  

SciTech Connect

The fermentation of 1.0% untreated bagasse under optimum cultural and nutritional conditions with Aspergillus terreus GN1 indicated that the maximum rate of protein and cellulase production could be obtained during three days of submerged fermentation. Even though 16.4% protein recovery, 0.55 units CMCase/mL, and 0.027 FPase units/mL were obtained on the seventh day, the rates of increase in protein recovery and cellulase production were slower than those obtained up to three days, which were 14.3% protein recovery, 0.45 units cMCase/mL, and 0.019 units FPase/mL. There was an initial lag in the utilization of cellulose up to two days due to the utilization of the water-soluble carbohydrate present in untreated bagasse. Cellulose utilization and water-soluble carbohydrate content during fermentation were correlated with protein recovery and enzyme production. The protein and cellulase production during three days fermentation with 1.0% untreated and treated bagasse were compared and the protein content of the total biomass was calculated into constituent protein contributed by the fungal mycelium and the undegraded bagasse. The total biomass recovered with untreated and treated bagasse was 1020 and 820 mg/g bagasse substrate, respectively, and contained 14.3 and 20.6% crude protein, respectively. The contribution of fungal biomass and undegraded bagasse was 309 and 711, and 373 and 447 mg/g untreated and treated bagasse substrates, respectively. In an 8-L-flask trial during three days of fermentation, the recovery of SCP and cellulase were 66 g and 32,400 units (Sigma) for treated bagasse and 82 g and 8200 units (Sigma) for untreated bagasse, respectively. (Refs. 18).

Garg, S.K.; Neelakantan, S.



Physiological Responses of Sugarcane to Orange Rust Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is a relatively new disease in the United States that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane cultivars in Florida. The objective of this study was to determine physiological responses of sugarcane to orange rust infection by quantifyi...


Relationships between Burkholderia populations and plant parasitic nematodes in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the bacterium Burkholderia tropica might be used to reduce nematode damage in sugarcane by promoting certain nematode species to create a less pathogenic nematode community. This suggestion arises from an investigation of the plant parasitic nematodes and their relationship with Burkholderia species along a sugarcane row. During the course of this analysis sugarcane root and soil

J. Omarjee; J. Balandreau; V. W. Spaull; P. Cadet



Constitutive expression of viral suppressors of PTGS in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our experience, transgenes are silenced by sugarcane at a high frequency. In many cases the silencing is via posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). To understand more about PTGS in sugarcane we are studying the P0 protein of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) which acts to suppress PTGS. One...


Discrimination of sugarcane varieties using Landsat 7 ETM+ spectral data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the identification of sugarcane varieties using data from an orbital?borne sensor in an attempt to reduce evaluation time and field?checking efforts. It would help institutions that breed sugarcane varieties for royalties charges for the propagation of their genetic material. The approach of this work was to apply a methodology to discriminate sugarcane varieties through Landsat 7 Enhanced

C. Fortes; J. A. M. Demattê



Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

PubMed Central

Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.

Papini-Terzi, Flavia S; Rocha, Flavia R; Vencio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugenio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M



Incinerator ash removal systems  

SciTech Connect

An incinerator is disclosed which includes apparatus for removing ash from an incinerating chamber and which comprises hydraulically operated plows that slide along the floor of the chamber to push the ash towards an ash trough. Ash removal efficiency is improved in accordance with the present invention by the hinged suspension of a brush from the plow face. An auxiliary plow is added to the waste material loading device to clear ash from the highest of several stepped floor levels even in the absence of no new load being entered. The auxiliary plow further includes a clevis assembly which pivots the brush away from the incinerator floor during reverse plow travel.

Sakash, G.; Dada, A. G.; Grier Jr., R. K.; McKeel, D. W.; Stern, H.



Advanced ash management technologies for CFBC ash.  


The combustion of high-sulphur coal demands the reduction of sulphur emissions. The sorbent most often used in sulphur capture technology is calcium-based. Ashes from technologies such as circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC), therefore, contain high calcium levels. The use and disposal of these ashes poses challenges, because of highly exothermic reactions with water, high-pH leachates, and excessive expansion of solidified materials. This paper looks at the potential of two post-combustion ash treatment processes, CERCHAR hydration and AWDS disposal, in solving these challenges. A high-sulphur coal-derived CFBC ash is examined, after CERCHAR hydration treatment, in conjunction with a conventionally hydrated ash, in a range of chemical, geotechnical and utilization scenarios. The ashes are used to make no-cement and roller-compacted concrete as well as Ash Water Dense Suspensions (AWDS). The solidified mortar paste from no-cement concrete is subjected to an extensive geochemical examination to determine how solidification progresses and strength develops, from a chemical point of view. PMID:12909091

Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S



Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and 100% are predicted for some cycles with the addition of optimum heat recovery systems.

Seguro, Jean Vittorio



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2005 Billion Ton Study is in need of updating and a focus change from strategic assessment to a comprehensive resource assessment to address issues raised since the 2005 publication and assist the bioenergy and bioproducts industries as they project biomass supplies into the future. With yield ...


Sugarcane and other crops as fuel feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

The use of sugarcane as a feedstock for fuel alcohol production in Brazil, and in Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Panama stimulated tremendous interest in the potential of agricultural crops for renewable energy sources. The cost of the feedstock is important. Corn, the current major agricultural feedstock in US fuel alcohol production, costs 60 to 80% of the selling price of the alcohol produced from it. Production costs for sugarcane and sugarbeets are higher than for corn. Sugarcane and sugarbeets, yield more fermentable carbohydrates per acre than any other crop. Sugarcane has the distinct advantage of containing a large amount of fiber in the harvested portion. The feedstock cost of sugarcane can be reduced by producing more cane per acre. Sweet sorghum has been discussed as a fuel crop. Cassana, the tapioca source, is thought to be a fuel crop of major potential. Feedstock cost can also be reduced through management decisions that reduce costly practices. Cultivation and fertilizer costs can be reduced. The operating cost of the processing plant is affected by the choice of crops grown for feedstock, both by their cost and by availability. (DP)

Irvine, J.E.



Rearing Procedures for the Sugarcane Aphid with Results from Antibiosis Studies and Initial Transmission Studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, was first reported in Louisiana in 1999 and is now found throughout the Louisiana sugarcane industry. Although at times, the sugarcane aphid can be found in high numbers in Louisiana sugarcane fields, its status as an economic pest of sugarcane remains uncle...


Advanced ash management technologies for CFBC ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of high-sulphur coal demands the reduction of sulphur emissions. The sorbent most often used in sulphur capture technology is calcium-based. Ashes from technologies such as circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC), therefore, contain high calcium levels. The use and disposal of these ashes poses challenges, because of highly exothermic reactions with water, high-pH leachates, and excessive expansion of solidified

E. J. Anthony; E. E. Berry; J. Blondin; E. M. Bulewicz; S. Burwell



Effects of Johnsongrass Density and Pre-Harvest Burning on Sugarcane Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johnsongrass interference with sugarcane results in substantial yield losses. However, light infestations are sometimes overlooked due to the cost and difficulty of controlling rhizomatous johnsongrass in sugarcane. Studies were conducted to examine the effect of johnsongrass density and sugarcane h...


Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil\\u000a and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability\\u000a of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization\\u000a resulted

Lei Liang; Yuan-ping Zhang; Li Zhang; Ming-jun Zhu; Shi-zhong Liang; Yu-nan Huang



The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) project (http:\\/\\/ that corresponded to signal transduction components.

Glaucia Mendes Souza; Ana Carolina Quirino Simoes; Katia Cristina Oliveira; Humberto Miguel Garay; Leonardo Costa Fiorini; Felipe dos Santos Gomes; Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior; Aline Maria da Silva



Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

Azzam, A.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))



Free-flowing guayule resin and bagasse mixtures and their use as fuel or soil amendent  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Free-flowing particulate compositions matter useful as fuel or soil amendments can be made by impregnating solid particles of guayule bagasse with guayule resins. Processes for making these materials as well as for using them are also disclosed.



Chemical and gamma-ray-modified bagasse as substrates for bioproduction of cellulases and protein  

SciTech Connect

Production of enzymes in the cellulolytic complex was determined in culture filtrates of six fungal isolates grown on chemically treated or gamma-irradiated bagasse. The enzymatic activities of the filtrates were determined by measurement of glucose release from cotton, filter paper, carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose, and cellobiose octaacetate. Cultures grown on basetreated and gamma-irradiated plus acid-treated bagasse provided culture filtrates with the highest enzymatic activities whereas alpha-cellulose, untreated, and acid-treated bagasse were the poorest substrates for enzyme production. Filtrates of trichoderma reesei QM 9414 yielded the highest cellulolytic activity in all test media. The largest accumulation of fungal-derived, extracellular protein was observed in media containing gamma-irradiated bagasse as the carbon substrate. (14 Refs.)

Lillehoj, E.B.; Han, Y.W.



Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w\\/w on dry bagasse basis, 160°C and above, 10min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers

C. C. Geddes; J. J. Peterson; C. Roslander; G. Zacchi; M. T. Mullinnix; K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram



Cashew apple bagasse as a source of sugars for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus CE025  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of cashew apple bagasse as a source of sugars for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus CE025 was evaluated in this work. This strain was preliminarily cultivated in a synthetic medium containing glucose and xylose\\u000a and was able to produce ethanol and xylitol at pH 4.5. Next, cashew apple bagasse hydrolysate (CABH) was prepared by a diluted\\u000a sulfuric acid

Maria Valderez Ponte Rocha; Tigressa Helena Soares Rodrigues; Vania M. M. Melo; Luciana R. B. Gonçalves; Gorete Ribeiro de Macedo


Registration of ‘CP 04-1935’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CP 04-1935 is sugarcane variety that was developed by a cooperative research involving the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. It was released to growers in Florida on 20 Sep. 2011. CP 04-1935 was selected from the cross between CP 94-2059 and CP 84-1322 made...


Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.  


Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M



Environmental stimuli promoting sucker initiation in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of suckers, late-formed tillers, in mature sugarcane crops reduces the sugar concentration of harvested material to the detriment of profitability. The amount of suckering varies with cultivar and season. However, the environmental stimuli promoting suckering, i.e. the number of suckers, are not understood. This paper describes the effects on suckering of increasing soil moisture, nitrogen, and the level

G. D. Bonnett; B. Salter; N. Berding; A. P. Hurney



Registration of ‘CP 05-1526’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘CP 05-1526’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and released to growers for organic and sand soils in Florida in October 2012. CP 05-1526 was selected...


Registration of ‘CP 88-1165’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. A cooperative program among the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. located at an ARS facility in Canal Poi...


Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as Câ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production

S. H. Elawad; G. J. Gascho; S. F. Shih




Microsoft Academic Search

There is need in the South African Sugar Industry for a clear understanding ofthe effects ofage and season ofharvest on cane yield and quality. One of the keys to this under­ standing is the knowledge of how sugarcane grown with ad­ equate water and fertilizer accumulates dry matter. Dry matter yields obtained from the literature and by sampling crops grown




Sugarcane for Beef and Pork Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical countries have a great comparative advantage due to th e intensity and regular availability of solar energy which may be exploited through plant photosynthesis. Sugarcane is a C4 plant which has a greater capacity to utilize high light intensities with reduced water requirement and hence produce as much as 3.8 times more biomass per hectare than cereals. Total biomass

Carlos Hernan; Carlos Hernando; Enrique Jose; Juan Pablo



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Louisiana’s sugarcane producers and millers have been under increased economic pressure for the past several years. If the industry is to survive in the long term, then new technologies that maximize productivity and profitability must be identified and adopted. Several tests were initiated in 200...


Registration of ‘CP 03-1912’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘CP 03-1912’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida in April 2011. CP 03-1912 was selected fr...


Identification of gibberellins from sugarcane plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five GAs, GA1, GA3, GA19, GA20, and GA29, were identified in extracts from mature leaf and shoot apical meristem of flowering and non-flowering sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) by combined GC\\/MS. The presence of ABA was also confirmed.

J. A. Kuhnle; P. H. Moore; W. F. Haddon; M. M. Fitch



Kentucky Ash Education Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research explains coal combustion byproducts such as fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and gypsum. The site also outlines how coal is used for electricity. Several animations will help users visualize how coal is processed at an electrical power plant.



Preventing coal ash spills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on 9 March a plan to prevent future large spills of coal ash slurry. The effort is in response to a 22 December 2008 spill of 5.4 million cubic yards of wet coal ash when a dike broke at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant, in Tennessee.

Showstack, Randy



Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes  

PubMed Central

Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus) with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6%) of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome.



Management of an incursion of sugarcane smut in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane smut is caused by the fungus Ustilago scitaminea, which is primarily spread by wind-borne spores and infected sugarcane cuttings. Itwas identified as a high-risk exotic disease\\u000a in a pest risk analysis conducted in 1997, and a contingency plan to deal with incursions was prepared in 1997. Sugarcane\\u000a smut was reported for the first time in Australia in the Ord

B. J. Croft; K. S. Braithwaite



Coal ash monitors  

SciTech Connect

A monitor for determining the ash content of coal in rail cars consisting of a structure including means for irradiating each car as it passes the structure with a known dose of neutrons, means for detecting and measuring the intensities of gamma -rays emitted by ash-forming elements in the coal, and means for providing an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming elements. There also are included interlocks for ensuring that the neutron source is only operated when a loaded car is in the appropriate position.

Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.



Production of d -lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic

Buenaventurada P. Calabia; Yutaka Tokiwa



Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  


Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505

Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka



Ash cloud aviation advisories  

SciTech Connect

During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)



Surface properties of granular activated carbons from agricultural by-products and their effects on raw sugar decolorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbons (GACs) were produced from sugarcane bagasse combined with one of two binders (corn syrup, coal tar) by physical activation and from pecan shells by physical and chemical activation. GACs were evaluated for their physical (hardness, bulk density), chemical (ash, pH), surface (surface area, pore size distribution, surface chemistry), and adsorption properties (molasses color removal, sugar decolorization) and

M Ahmedna; W. E Marshall; R. M Rao




Microsoft Academic Search

Fusilade Super (fluazifop-butyl, 125 g ai Q-I) was compared with the standard sugarcane ripeners Ethrel (ethephon, 480 g ai Q-I) and Polado (glyphosate, 750g ai kg-') under both irrigated and rainfed conditions in three large-scale experiments and eight small-scale experiments. Fusilade Super produced con­ sistent improvements in sucrose percent cane fresh mass and juice purity in ten of the experiments,



Sugarcane molasses fermentation by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different quality types of sugar-cane molasses containing a total sugar content of 48%–50% (w\\/v) and 35%–42% (w\\/v) were investigated for Zymomonas biothanol production. Molasses concentrations of up to 250 g\\/l (1:3 dilution) were successfully fermented within 24 h despite a higher salt concentration in the lower grade molasses. Higher molasses concentrations (300 g\\/l) led to fructose accumulation. The addition

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle



New insect pests of sugarcane in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five new insect pests were observed to infest sugarcane at Kannur in Kerala and at Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, India. The leaf\\u000a minerAphanisticus aeneus Kerremans, was found to feed on all the species ofSaccharum exceptS. sinense. The laminar pubescence and colour did not appear to play any role in antixenosis.Chrysonolomyia sp. was found parasitising its pupae gregariously. Beetles of the

N. Mukunthan; R. Nirmala



Performance evaluation of sugarcane chopper harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India sugarcane chopper harvesters arc being introduced in the state of Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Large - scale testing\\u000a of chopper harvester was done in Baramati (MH) and Erode (TN). The net cane out put of the harvester was 29.35 and 23.9 tones\\/h\\u000a with an operating speed of 4.45 and 4.07 km\\/h. Fuel consumption was observed 26 and 27

R. N. S. Yadav; M. P. Sharma; S. D. Kamthe; A. Tajuddin; Sandeep Yadav; Raj Kumar Tejra



Genes expressed in sugarcane maturing internodal tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore gene expression during sugarcane culm maturation, we performed a partial sequence analysis of random clones from maturing culm total and subtracted cDNA libraries. Database comparisons revealed that of the 337 cDNA sequences analysed, 167 showed sequence homology to gene products in the protein databases, while 111 matched uncharacterised plant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) only. The remaining cDNAs showed

D. L. Carson; F. C. Botha



Selenium in fly ash.  


Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on 10 percent (by weight) fly ash-amended soil absorbed up to 1 ppm of selenium. Fly ashes from 21 states contained total selenium contents ranging from 1.2 to 16.5 ppm. Cabbage grown on soil containing 10 percent (by weight) of these fly ashes absorbed selenium (up to 3.7 ppm) in direct proportion (correlation coefficient r = .89) to the selenium concentration in the respective fly ash. Water, aquatic weeds, algae, dragonfly nymphs, polliwogs, and tissues of bullheads and muskrats from a fly ash-contaminated pond contained concentrations of selenium markedly elevated over those of controls. PMID:1251212

Gutenmann, W H; Bache, C A; Youngs, W D; Lisk, D J



Comparison of Ash from PF and CFB Boilers and Behaviour of Ash in Ash Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 90% of electricity produced in Estonia is made by power plants firing local oil shale and 25% of the boilers are of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) variety. In 2007 approximately 6.5 million tons of ash was acquired as a byproduct of using oil shale for energy production. Approximately 1.5 million tons of that was ash from CFB boilers. Such ash is deposited in ash fields by means ofhydro ash removal.

Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.; Rootamm, R.; Konist, A.


Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.



Microsoft Academic Search

Our experiments synthesized ethanol from bagasse by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), which is a novel technology in biofuel production. In these experiments pre- treatment with various white rot fungi, hydrolysis with combination of enzymes and fermentation by using Saccharomycess cerevisia were carried out. Combination of cellulase and cellubiase increased ethanol production from bagasse by SSF, the highest ethanol concentration

Muhammad Samsuri; Misri Gozan; Heri Hermansyah; Bambang Prasetya


Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...


Economics of Sugarcane Production in Pakistan: A Price Risk Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examined the economics of sugarcane production and its competitiveness in the up-and-coming open trade economy. The study also analyzed the extent of policy bend and agricultural safeguard. The data on cost of production series of sugar cane crop were collected from the Agricultural Prices Commission (APCom). Punjab and Sindh, the two major sugarcane producing provinces were the focus

Mohammad F. Hussain; Sofia Anwar; Zakir Hussain



Microsoft Academic Search

t, Summary An account is given of an outbreak, in Swaziland, of a leaf-sucking insect, Numicia viridis, Muir, on sugarcane of the variety N :Co.31O. A brief descrip­ tion of the insect is followed by a discussion on symp­ toms and effects on the sugarcane plant. Among control measures, burning and harvesting of millable cane and treatment of the remainder





Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high level of post-transcriptional gene silencing in sugarcane [1] is a major barrier to its development as a biofactory crop. More than 400 sugarcane lines, transformed by bombardment with human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) whole plasmid DNA, accumulated the recombinan...


Sugarcane water stress criteria for irrigation and drying off  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Australia about 60% of sugar produced from sugarcane depends to some extent on irrigation. Regional water supplies are often limited and the pressure on irrigators to defend or improve their farming practices can be quite severe. Compared to other crops, little is known about how far water can be stretched in sugarcane without affecting sugar yield. In particular, there

N. G Inman-Bamber



Part II: Dealing with Plant Stress in Louisiana Sugarcane Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane can encounter several grower-induced stresses during the later part of the growing season. The purpose of this article is to transfer research findings in the areas of cultivation, planting practices, and ripener usage in an effort to communicate how Louisiana sugarcane producers can more...


Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...


Registration of 'HoCP 91-552' sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘HoCP 91-552’ sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross ‘LCP 81-10’ x ‘CP 72-356’ made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 91-552 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana A...


Variable Rate Lime Application in Louisiana Sugarcane Production Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision agriculture may offer sugarcane growers a management system that decreases costs and maximizes profits, while minimizing any potential negative environmental impact. The utility of variable-rate (VR) lime application in the initial production year (plant cane) of a 3-yr sugarcane crop cyc...


Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.


Tannase production by solid state fermentation of cashew apple bagasse.  


The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (g(ds)). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/g(ds)) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/g(ds) and enzyme productivity of 128.5x10(-3) U x g(ds)(-1) x h(-1). PMID:18478425

Rodrigues, Tigressa H S; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Gonçalves, Luciana R B



Enhancement of starting up anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrate: fique's bagasse as an example.  


In Colombia there are 20,000 ha of fique fields (Furcraea sp., family Agavaceae), that produce around 93,400 tons of fique's bagasse per year. These residuals are disposed into rivers and soil causing pollution. According to physicochemical characteristics, the lignocellulosic residues from fique crops (fique's bagasse) are appropriate carbon source to biogas production. Anaerobic digestion from fique's Bagasse (FB) requires a specialized microbial consortium capable of degrading its high lignocellulosic concentration. In this study, the capacities of seven microbial consortia for biomethane potential (BMP) from FB were evaluated. Inoculum of ruminal liquid achieved high hydrolytic activity (0.068 g COD/g VSS day), whereas pig waste sludge inoculum showed high methanogenic activity (0.146 g COD/g VSS day). Mixtures of these two inoculums (RL+PWS) showed the best yields for biomethane potential (0.3 m(3) CH4/Kg VS ad). PMID:22264427

Quintero, Mabel; Castro, Liliana; Ortiz, Claudia; Guzmán, Carolina; Escalante, Humberto



Preparation of levoglucosenone through sulfuric acid promoted pyrolysis of bagasse at low temperature.  


Fast pyrolysis of bagasse pretreated by sulfuric acid was conducted in a fixed bed reactor to prepare levoglucosenone (LGO), a very important anhydrosugar for organic synthesis. The liquid yield and LGO yield were studied at temperatures from 240 to 350 °C and sulfuric acid loadings from 0.92 to 7.10 wt.%. An optimal LGO yield of 7.58 wt.% was obtained at 270 °C with a sulfuric acid pretreatment concentration of 0.05 M (corresponding to 4.28 wt.% sulfuric acid loading). For comparison, microcrystalline cellulose pretreated by 0.05 M sulfuric acid solution was pyrolyzed at temperature from 270 °C to 320 °C, and bagasse loaded with 3-5 wt.% phosphoric acid was pyrolyzed at temperature from 270 °C to 350 °C. The highest yield of LGO from bagasse was 30% higher than that from microcrystalline cellulose, and treatment with sulfuric acid allowed a 21% higher yield than treatment with phosphoric acid. PMID:22047659

Sui, Xian-wei; Wang, Zhi; Liao, Bing; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Qing-xiang



Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor  

SciTech Connect

Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste product. The role of the important pyrolysis parameters, peak temperature and heating rate, in defining the ultimate tar yield is investigated, with the value for bagasse being 54.6% at 500 C and 1,000 C/s. The pyrolysis yields, under similar conditions, of another biomass material, silver birch, are also reported and compared to those of bagasse.

Drummond, A.R.F.; Drummond, I.W. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)



Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.  


Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose. PMID:24025853

Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The occurrence of pathological races of sugarcane rust (Puccina melancephala H. Sydow. and P. Sydoe.) in Florida was first reported in 1984. Cultivars that were resistant to the disease in the variety development program displayed susceptibility to the disease once expanded commercially. A study w...


Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The occurrence of pathological races of sugarcane rust (Puccina melancephala H. Sydow. and P. Sydow.) in Florida was first reported in 1984. Cultivars that were resistant to the disease in the variety development program displayed susceptiblity to the disease once expanded commercially. A study wa...


Oil shale CFBC ash cementation properties in ash fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition, physical\\/geotechnical properties and cementation of circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) oil shale ash were studied in a large-scale field experiment. Compared to pulverized fuel (PF) combustion oil shale ashes, the CFBC process ashes have lower cementation properties due to their different phase composition. For hydraulic deposition at low ash-water ratios of approximately 1:20, which have been successfully used

T. Pihu; H. Arro; A. Prikk; R. Rootamm; A. Konist; K. Kirsimäe; M. Liira; R. Mõtlep


Methods for Collecting Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Seeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The threat of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) has necessitated ash seed collection to preserve the ash genetic resource. For ash species found only in natural areas, we have developed seed collection methods that require no special training or cer...

K. S. Knight M. E. Mason R. P. Karrfalt



Feasibility study for bagasse congeneration in Kenya. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Kenya's Ministry of Agriculture. The purpose of the report is to determine the economic, technical, and financial viability of implementing bagasse based cogeneration projects in Kenya. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Terms of Reference, (3) Bagasse Fuel for Generation, (4) The Electrical Power Situation in Kenya, (5) Export Electricity Potential from Nyando Sugar Belt, (6) Export Potential from Proposed New Sugar Factories; (7) Financial, (8) Project Financing, (9) Demonstration Project.

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Forecasting exposure to volcanic ash based on ash dispersion modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique has been developed that uses Puff, a volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) model, to forecast the relative exposure of aircraft and ground facilities to ash from a volcanic eruption. VATD models couple numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with physical descriptions of the initial eruptive plume, atmospheric dispersion, and settling of ash particles. Three distinct examples of variations

Rorik A. Peterson; Ken G. Dean




Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as NaâSOâ. For biomass

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker



A variable region of the Sugarcane Bacilliform Virus (SCBV) genome can be used to generate promoters for transgene expression in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four promoters derived from sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV) were compared and characterised. Three were obtained by PCR amplification of purified virion DNA extracted from three sugarcane cultivars. The fourth promoter was obtained by subcloning from an almost genome-length clone of SCBV. All promoters were able to drive stable expression of ?-glucuronidase in sugarcane. The PCR-derived promoter sequences shared more DNA

K. S. Braithwaite; R. J. Geijskes; G. R. Smith



CFBC ash hydration studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydration studies on CFBC ashes have shown that the acetone technique to prevent hydration in stored samples is relatively effective, only allowing some slight degree of hydration over days in the presence of excess water. In the presence of large excesses of water sufficient to control temperature increases, the degree of bulk mixing has no effect on the degree of

Edward J. Anthony; Lufei Jia; Yinghai Wu



Ash from Popocatepetl Volcano  

NASA Video Gallery

The GOES-13 satellite captured this animation of an ash cloud streaming from Mexico's Popocatepetl Volcano and blowing over the town of Puebla, located to the east. This four second black and white movie was captured over several hours during the morning of April 18, 2012. > Related story > Download video

Robert Garner



Incineration ash conditioning processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Incinerable wastes consist of the following standard composition corresponding to projected wastes from a future mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant with an annual throughput of 1700 kg (i.e. 5.7 m(sup 3)) of ashes produced by the incineration facility: . ...

A. Jouan N. Ouvrier F. Teulon



Adsorption of boron from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from olive bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, activated carbon was prepared from olive bagasse by physical activation. The pore properties including the BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution and average pore diameter were characterized. BET surface area of the activated carbon was determined as 803 mg. In this study, boron removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption was investigated. In the batch mode

T. Ennil Köse; Hakan Demiral; Ne?e Öztürk



A highly active bagasse-derived solid acid catalyst with properties suitable for production of biodiesel.  


A novel bagasse-based solid acid catalyst was successfully prepared through sulfonation of incompletely carbonized bagasse. A range of conditions for producing the catalyst were investigated, and the optimized catalyst, produced under carbonization at 648 K for 0.5 h and sulfonation at 423 K for 15 h, showed excellent catalytic activity and resulted in around 95 % yield of methyl oleate. Its activity was not only substantially greater than that of niobic acid and Amberlyst-15, but also comparable to or superior to that of catalysts made from pure starch or glucose, respectively. Additionally, the bagasse-derived catalyst could be repeatedly employed for at least eight cycles and still retained around 90 % of its original activity, exhibiting excellent operational stability. Furthermore, the catalyst efficiently converted waste cooking oils with 38.6 wt % free fatty acids into biodiesel and afforded a high yield of about 93.8 % within 12 h. These results clearly show that the bagasse-derived catalyst is economic, eco-friendly, and promising for biodiesel production from low-cost feedstocks and may find wide applications. PMID:22693163

Lou, Wen-Yong; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Wen-Jing; Zong, Min-Hua; Wu, Hong; Smith, Thomas J



Internal Treatment of Paper Sheets from Wood and Bagasse Pulps with Polyvinyl Alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical strength and optical properties of paper sheets prepared from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-treated wood and bagasse pulps were investigated. The effects of the percentage of added PVA, the amount and type of polymer precipitant, and the manner of polymer addition (before or after the beating stage) on the properties of prepared sheets were presented. Studies were also carried out to

Nabila A. El-Shinawy; Altaf H. Basta; Samira F. Yacoub; Samar H. Mohamed



Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most

A. M. Azzam



Production of xylanase by Thermoascus aurantiacus from sugar cane bagasse in an aerated growth fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the use of xylanases has been adopted by many processing industries, such as pulp and paper, food and textile factories. This study demonstrates that Thermoascus aurantiacus ATCC 204492 is able to produce a high level of thermostable xylanase when sugar cane bagasse is used as a substrate. Fermentations were performed in a glass-column reactor with forced aeration.

A. M. F Milagres; E Santos; T Piovan; I. C Roberto



Sweet sorghum bagasse: A raw material for the production of chemical paper pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet sorghum bagasse is used to manufacture chemical pulp. The quality of the pulp obtained is excellent for the paper industry. Sweet sorghum can be considered as a major raw material for the paper industry. These pulps can be used in sectors usually restricted to superior chemical pulps such as those obtained from soft wood.

Larbi Belayachi; Michel Delmas



Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste

Ana-Rita F. Drummond; Ian W. Drummond



Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane  

SciTech Connect

The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. (Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI (USA))



Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum  

SciTech Connect

The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.

Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.



Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV)], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

Greenland, David



7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...



7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...



Characterization of the sugarcane streak agent as a distinct geminivirus.  


The relationship between maize streak virus and the geminivirus causing streak in sugarcane was investigated. The DNA of sugarcane streak virus does not cross-hybridize detectably with that of maize streak virus and vice versa. Restriction mapping of native replicative form viral DNA (genome size 2.7 kb) and of cloned viral DNA, combined with limited sequencing and estimated DNA sequence divergence, showed that sugarcane streak virus is as unrelated to maize streak virus and digitaria streak virus as these are different from each other. The virus is only distantly related to wheat dwarf virus and chloris striate mosaic virus. Based on these results, we propose that the agent causing sugarcane streak is a distinct geminivirus. PMID:2016148

Hughes, F L; Rybicki, E P; Kirby, R; von Wechmar, M B



Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility. This investigation was performed using the internal resources of HC&S with research collaboration from the University ...



Plant Pot Production from the Leaves of Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to find the attributes of the Plant pot production from the leaves of sugarcane. The results show that the suitable weight of components to form the rectangular pot, 150mm. height, 100mm. bottom width and 150mm. diameter are about 1.36kg. The samples cannot be dried for 1 day because the cow dung which was mixed with the sugarcane

S. Phokha; K. Duangaupama; K. Ruangsan



Transcriptome Analysis of The Sugarcane Genome For Crop Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is being considered one the most important crops to meet the demand of the world bionergy needs. However the productivity\\u000a in commercial plantations around the world is far way from its potential of about 300 tons\\/ha. Sugarcane breeding did not\\u000a take advantage yet of the best plant breeding technologies, mainly because constrains imposed by the high polyploid nature\\u000a of

Paulo Arruda; Thaís Rezende Silva


Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Transketolase.  


Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants. PMID:24132392

Kalhori, Nahid; Nulit, R; Go, Rusea



Improved Agrobacterium -mediated genetic transformation of GNA transgenic sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six plasmids carrying a snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) and one of three selection markers were successfully transferred into two sugarcane cultivars (FN81–745\\u000a and Badila) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Agrobacterium strains LBA4404, EHA105 and A281 that harboured a super-binary vector were used for sugarcane transformation. The use of\\u000a the hygromycin (Hyg) resistance gene (hpt II), phosphinothrincin (PPT) resistance gene (bar)

Dongting Zhangsun; Sulan Luo; Rukai Chen; Kexuan Tang



Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of sugarcane legumain.  


Plant legumains, also termed vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), are cysteine peptidases that play key roles in plant development, senescence, programmed cell death and defense against pathogens. Despite the increasing number of reports on plant cysteine peptidases, including VPEs, the characterization of sugarcane VPEs and their inhibition by endogenous cystatins have not yet been described. This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of a sugarcane cysteine peptidase. In this work, a recombinant sugarcane legumain was expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. Kinetic studies of the recombinant CaneLEG revealed that this enzyme has the main characteristics of VPEs, such as self-activation and activity under acidic pH. CaneLEG activity was strongly inhibited when incubated with sugarcane cystatin 3 (CaneCPI-3). Quantitative analysis of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 gene expression indicated a tissue-specific expression pattern for both genes throughout sugarcane growth, with the strong accumulation of CaneLEG transcripts throughout the internode development. Furthermore, the CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 genes exhibited up-regulation in plantlets treated with abscisic acid (ABA). These results suggest that CaneCPI-3 may be a potential endogenous inhibitor of CaneLEG and these genes may be involved in plant stress response mediated by ABA. Also, the expression analysis provides clues for the putative involvement of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 in sugarcane development and phytohormone response. PMID:22721948

Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Gerald, Lee T S; Meneghin, Silvana P; Henrique-Silva, Flavio




SciTech Connect

The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker



Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting




Sugarcane residue management and grain legume crop effects on N dynamics, N losses and growth of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions farmers are being encouraged not to burn sugarcane residues. An experiment was set up in\\u000a NE Thailand, where sugarcane residues of the last ratoon crop were either burned, surface mulched or incorporated and subsequently\\u000a the field left fallow or planted to groundnut or soybean. The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the residual

S. Hemwong; B. Toomsan; G. Cadisch; V. Limpinuntana; P. Vityakon; A. Patanothai



Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 2 3 experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H2SO4 or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25–1.50% w\\/w on dry fiber) and process time (60–90min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 23 full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse

Leyanis Mesa; Erenio González; Encarnación Ruiz; Inmaculada Romero; Cristóbal Cara; Fernando Felissia; Eulogio Castro



Ash in the Soil System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect, climate/meteorological conditions after the ash spread/fire and soil background characteristics. In addition, after the fire heating can change soil original properties increasing the complexity of the ash effects on soil properties. After fire, ash is highly dynamic and very easily transported by wind until the first rains. When wetted, ash compacts and binds onto soil surface, and wind has low capacity to transport it. The post-rain ash dynamic is influenced by water erosion (in slope areas), infiltration into soil profile and vegetation recuperation. This means that ash produced in one place will have implications in other areas, including not burned areas (e.g wind transport and water erosion). This is a clear indication that ash effects go much further than the fire affected area. Due the heterogeneity of soil and ash properties and their dynamic across the landscape, the impacts of ash on soil system can be diverse, producing a mosaic of different effects and responses after ash treatment and/ or fire. In this communication it will be presented and discussed the advances and scientific development of ash effects and dynamic in soil system.

Pereira, P.



Discrimination of Sugarcane Varieties with Pigment Profiles and High Resolution, Hyperspectral Leaf Reflectance Data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports our evaluation of leaf reflectance and pigment measurements as a potential tool to aid in the identification and delineation of commercial sugarcane, noble cane and wild canes. Seven varieties of sugarcane were selected from the USDA-ARS-SRRC, Sugarcane Research Unit (SRU) breedi...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has been ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has bee...


Growth and Yield Performances of Two Sugarcane Genotypes on Sand Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 20% of sugarcane in Florida grows on sand soils. Water deficit during the sugarcane formative growth phase may limit growth and yield on the sand soils. Identification of useful physiological and growth traits may help scientists select sugarcane genotypes with stress tolerance and imp...


Sensitivity of random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to detect genetic change in sugarcane during tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using 10-mer oligonucleotide primers efficiently differentiated sugarcane cultivars and proved suitable for detecting gross genetic change such as that which can occur in sugarcane subjected to prolonged tissue culture, for example in protoplast-derived callus. However, RAPD analysis was not sufficiently sensitive to detect smaller genetic changes that occur during sugarcane genetic transformation. The length

P. W. J. Taylor; J. R. Geijskes; H.-L. Ko; T. A. Fraser; R. J. Henry; R. G. Birch



Recurrent selection for sucrose has altered assimilate partitioning between growth and storage in sugarcane internodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose yield in sugarcane is a function of sucrose content of the cane and cane yield. Selection for sucrose content is a high priority in sugarcane breeding programs. Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used a modified recurrent selection program whereby genotypes with high sucrose content ...


Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species) and DNA methylation (24-nt-species), respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.



Health aspects of coal fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Employees of coal-fired power stations and people living nearby as well as those involved in the shipment and processing of coal fly ash can be exposed to coal fly ash (pulverised fuel ash or \\

Ruud Meij


Phosphorus Fertilizing Effects of Biomass Ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The reutilization of biomass ashes in agriculture is important to create nutrient cycles. In field and pot experiments we\\u000a investigated the fertilizing effects of different biomass ashes (rape meal ash, straw ash, and cereal ash) for eight different\\u000a crops on a loamy sand and a sandy loam. Special emphasis was given to phosphorus (P). The ashes showed large differences in

Katja Schiemenz; Jürgen Kern; Hans-Marten Paulsen; Silvia Bachmann; Bettina Eichler-Löbermann


Phylogenetic analysis and metabolic potential of microbial communities in an industrial bagasse collection site.  


Industrial bagasse collection sites at sugar mills are an important resource for biomass-based industries and represent a unique ecological niche in lignocellulose degradation. In this study, microbial community structures at regions with varying microenvironmental conditions contained within a bagasse collection site were explored using tagged 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Overall, remarkable differences in microbial community structures were found in aerobic surface and oxygen-limited interior regions of the pile. A variety of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria represented the majority of bacteria in the aerobic upper-pile regions with the predominance of acetic acid bacteria towards the outer surface. Diverse Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria represented the predominant phyla at the exterior soil-contact pile base with an increasing abundance of anaerobic Spirochaetes with the increasing depth, where it shared similar community structures to that in the open-field soil from decomposed bagasse. Using complementary shotgun pyrosequencing, a variety of genes encoding various glycosyl hydrolases targeting cellulose and hemicellulose degradation were identified in the oxygen-limited interior pile base. Most were relevant to orders Clostridiales, Bacteroidales, Sphingobacteriales, and Cytophagales, suggesting their role in lignocellulose degradation in this region, as evidenced by the decrease in cellulose and respective increase in lignin fractions of the biomass. Partial carbon flux in the anoxic region was metabolized through mixed methanogenesis pathways as suggested by the annotated functional genes in methane synthesis. This study gives insights into native microbial community structures and functions in this unique lignocellulose degrading environment and provides the basis for controlling microbial processes important for utilization of bagasse in bio-industries. PMID:23504022

Kanokratana, Pattanop; Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Pootanakit, Kusol; Champreda, Verawat



Study of the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse using phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, samples of sugar cane bagasse were hydrolysed with phosphoric acid under mild conditions (H3PO4 2–6%, time 0–300min and 122°C) to study the feasibility of using the liquid phase as fermentation media. Solid yield, sugar concentrations and decomposition product concentrations were measured. The composition of hydrolysates, their purity and the ratio sugars\\/inhibitors were analyzed. Kinetic models were

Sara Gámez; Juan Jose González-Cabriales; José Alberto Ramírez; Gil Garrote; Manuel Vázquez



Cellulase production by mixed fungi in solid-substrate fermentation of bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia-treated bagasse with 80%(w\\/w) moisture content was subjected to mixed-culture solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) with Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4 and Aspergillus phoenicis QM 329, in flask or pot fermenters, for cellulase production. Significantly higher activities of all the enzymes of the cellulase complex were achieved in 4 days of mixed-culture SSF than in single-culture (T. reesei) SSF. The highest filter-paper-cellulase and ß-glucosidase

R. Duefias; R. P. Tengerdy; M. Gutierrez-Correa



Preparation of levoglucosenone through sulfuric acid promoted pyrolysis of bagasse at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast pyrolysis of bagasse pretreated by sulfuric acid was conducted in a fixed bed reactor to prepare levoglucosenone (LGO), a very important anhydrosugar for organic synthesis. The liquid yield and LGO yield were studied at temperatures from 240 to 350°C and sulfuric acid loadings from 0.92 to 7.10wt.%. An optimal LGO yield of 7.58wt.% was obtained at 270°C with a

Xian-wei Sui; Zhi Wang; Bing Liao; Ying Zhang; Qing-xiang Guo


Isolation of a high-specific-growth-rate mutant of Cellulomonas flavigena on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

By treatment of a wild-type strain of Cellulomonas flavigena with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine at 150 µg\\/ml, mutants PN-7 and PN-10 were obtained, which produce 1.38 and 1.5 times more carboxymethylcellulase than the wild strain when cultured in a batch system with sugar cane bagasse as the sole carbon source. These mutants also exhibited higher specific growth rates compared to the wild strain.

T. Ponce-Noyola; M. Torre



Adsorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution by sugar beet bagasse?based activated charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium (VI) is known to be potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic in humans. A low?cost industrial solid bioadsorbent, bagasse?based activated charcoal (BAC), has been investigated for removal of chromium from aqueous solution. All the experiments were carried out in batch process with laboratory?prepared samples to study the effects of adsorbent dose, contact time, pH and initial concentration of Cr(VI). The removal

M. T. Samadi; A. R. Rahman; M. Zarrabi; E. Shahabi; F. Sameei



Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.



Coal ash: America's undiscovered resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US has over 800 million tons of coal ash stockpiled and available for aboveground mining. Increased use of coal will add 100 million tons a year. Fly ash, which represents about 75% of the total, is the most versatile in its range of applications. These include the manufacture of cement, brick, roofing felt, mineral-wool insulation, highway subgrading, etc. Bottom



Bottom ash boosts poor soil  

SciTech Connect

This article describes agricultural uses of fluidized bed bottom ash residue from burning limestone and coal in electric power generating plants: as a limestone substitute, to increase calcium levels in both soil and plants, and as a gypsom-containing soil amendment. Apples and tomatoes are the crops used. The industrial perspective and other uses of bottom ash are also briefly described.

Stanley, D.



Biodegradation of heavy crude oil Maya using spent compost and sugar cane bagasse wastes.  


Experiments were carried out to evaluate the use of some agroindustrial wastes as supports in solid state cultures for the biodegradation of crude oil Maya in static column reactors over 15-20 days periods. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes showed superior qualities over peat moss waste as support candidates with the advantage that they contain appreciable densities of autochthonous microorganisms in the order of 10(2) cfu g(-1). Mercuric chloride (2%) was able to completely inhibit growth of these microfloras. Biodegradation was enhanced in the presence of the IMP consortium and highest when microflora from cane bagasse only was the bioaugmentation partner (180.7 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). Combination of these waste materials (3:1 ratio, respectively) was observed to significantly biodegrade the crude oil by approximately 40% in 15 days from an initial concentration of 10,000 mg kg(-1) with a four order of magnitude increase in microbial density during this period. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes are veritable solid support candidates for use in the biodegradation of crude oil polluted systems. PMID:17395244

Trejo-Hernández, M R; Ortiz, A; Okoh, A I; Morales, D; Quintero, R



Coal ash: America's undiscovered resource  

SciTech Connect

The US has over 800 million tons of coal ash stockpiled and available for aboveground mining. Increased use of coal will add 100 million tons a year. Fly ash, which represents about 75% of the total, is the most versatile in its range of applications. These include the manufacture of cement, brick, roofing felt, mineral-wool insulation, highway subgrading, etc. Bottom ash, or boiler slag, is useful for sand blasting, water treatment filtration, road deicing, cold mix asphalt, and structural fill. Demonstrations using ash for these and other uses have been impressive. Using coal ash will not only eliminate stockpiling problems, but will preserve other natural resources and create high-value and high-quality products.

Anthony, T.



Response of eight sugarcane cultivars to glyphosine and glyphosate ripeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted on eight sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hydrid) cultivars during the 1982–83 (plant crop) and 1983–84 (ratoon crop) growing seasons to determine the effects\\u000a of glyphosine (Polaris) (N,N-bis (phosphonomethyl) glycine) and glyphosate (Polado) (sodium-N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on\\u000a stalk sucrose content and yield. Difference due to crops (plant vs. ratoon) for sugarcane quality, kilograms of sugar per\\u000a ton of cane (S\\/T),

J. A. Dusky; M. S. Kang; B. Glaz; J. D. Miller



Sink strength regulates photosynthesis in sugarcane.  


The relationship in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) between photosynthetic source tissue and sink material was examined through manipulation of the sink:source ratio of field-grown Saccharum spp. hybrid cv. N19 (N19). To enhance sink strength, all leaves, except for the third fully expanded leaf, were enclosed in 90% shade cloth for varying periods of time. Variations in sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were measured and the effects of shading on the leaf gas exchange and fluorescence characteristics recorded. Changes in carbon partitioning caused by shading were examined based on the uptake and translocation of fixed 14CO2. Following a decline in sucrose concentrations in young internodal tissue and shaded leaves, significant increases in the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate (Jmax), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and electron transport rate were observed in unshaded leaves after 8 d of shading treatment. It was concluded that up-regulation of source-leaf photosynthetic capacity is correlated with a decrease in assimilate availability to acropetal culm sink tissue. Furthermore, a significant relationship was revealed between source hexose concentration and photosynthetic activity. PMID:16918547

McCormick, A J; Cramer, M D; Watt, D A



Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Using Bagasse-Derived Ethanol as a Gasoline Oxygenate in Mumbai (Bombay)  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse is the fibrous residue generated during sugar production and can be a desirable feedstock for fuel ethanol production. About 15%--25% of the bagasse is left after satisfying the mills' energy requirements, and this excess bagasse can be used in a bioconversion process to make ethanol. It is estimated that a 23 million L/yr ({approximately}6 million gal/yr) ethanol facility is feasible by combining excess bagasse from three larger sugar mills in Maharashtra state. The plant could supply about half of the ethanol demand in Mumbai, assuming that all gasoline is sold as an E10 fuel, a blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume. The life cycle assessment (LCA) performed in this study demonstrated the potentially significant benefits of diverting excess bagasse in Maharashtra to ethanol production, as opposed to disposing it by burning. In particular, lower net values for the ethanol production scenario were observed for the following: fossil energy consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide , hydrocarbons (except methane), SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, and methane. The lower greenhouse potential of the ethanol scenario is also important in the context of Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation because India is a developing country.

Kadam, K.



Cassava bagasse-Kraft paper composites: analysis of influence of impregnation with starch acetate on tensile strength and water absorption properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fibrous residue rich in non-extracted starch (bagasse) obtained from the industrial production of cassava starch was used to obtain a composite that is similar to cardboard, through a technique used in small scale artisan production of recycled paper. A mixture of 90% cassava bagasse and 10% of Kraft paper was used for the production of these composites. Kraft paper

K. N Matsui; F. D. S Larotonda; S. S Paes; D. B Luiz; A. T. N Pires; J. B Laurindo



Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester


49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation...MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from...



49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation...MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from...



49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation...MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from...



49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation...MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from...



Environmental benefits of substituting talc by sugarcane bagasse fibers as reinforcement in polypropylene composites: Ecodesign and LCA as strategy for automotive components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The auto industry is compelled to improve its environmental performance, namely by making use of renewable materials and cleaner manufacturing processes with lower energy intensity, and at the end-of-life of the auto, recyclable products and materials are desirable specifications that need to be considered at an earlier design stage, i.e., promoting the ecodesign. This paper provides an analysis of such

Sandra M. Luz; Armando Caldeira-Pires; Paulo M. C. Ferrão



Production of ethanol from sweet sorghum bagasse pretreated with different chemical and physical processes and saccharified with fiber degrading enzymes.  


The C5 and C6 sugars generated from sweet sorghum bagasse pretreated with five different chemical or physical schemes and then further hydrolyzed with a fibrolytic cocktail were determined. Hydrolysates were fermented with three yeast strains in order to determine which combination generated the highest amount of bioethanol. The bagasse only treated with the enzyme complex generated 50% of the total C5 and C6 sugars available. The pressure-cooked and extruded pretreatments further hydrolyzed with the enzymes generated 17% more sugars compared to the enzyme alone treatment. The enzyme increased the total sugar content in approximately 40% in the three acid pretreated hydrolysates. Among the different pretreatments, only the extrusion process did not generate inhibitors acetic acid, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. At 24 h fermentation, the strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis produced, respectively 183.9 and 209.2 mg ethanol/g dry bagasse previously treated with HCl and enzymes. PMID:23489562

Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O



Emerald ash borer life cycle  

Treesearch Government Made Easy ... Title: Emerald ash borer life cycle ... Morgantown, WV: U.S. Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this ...


Emerald ash borer biological control  


Description: Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive ... in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from China in the early 1990s ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors ...


ASH/FDA Workshop on  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... MA ASH Liaison James N. George, MD University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Oklahoma City, OK FDA Representative ... More results from


Sugarcane Fertilizer Recommendations for the 2008 Crop Year  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Louisiana sugarcane producers continue to face challenges as they attempt to maximize profits and increase production efficiency. This year yet another challenge has been added through the significant increase in the cost of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers. Due to these i...


Freeze concentration of sugarcane juice in a jaggery making process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat pump based Freeze Concentration System (FCS) is proposed to concentrate sugarcane juice from 20 to 40 Brix in a jaggery making process. Further concentration of the juice is carried out in a boiling pan. Inclusion analysis is carried out to estimate sucrose loss in the ice formed in a layer freezing process. A mathematical model is developed taking

Milind V. Rane; Siddharth K. Jabade



Development of orange rust of sugarcane in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange rust of sugarcane was observed for the first time in the Americas in 2007 in Florida. Urediniospores of Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of orange rust, were collected in aerial traps located in Louisiana in 2010; however, the first observation of disease symptoms in the state was not made ...


Evaluation of fungicides for control of orange rust on sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, was initially reported in the Western Hemisphere in 2007, when it was first observed in Florida. Since that time, it has affected several commercially important cultivars, notably CP 80-1743, CP 72-2086, CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, and CP 78-1628. Durin...


A simulation model for capacity planning in sugarcane transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several mill regions within the Australian sugar industry are currently exploring long-term scenarios to reduce costs in the harvesting and rail transport of sugarcane. These efficiencies can be achieved through extending the time window of harvesting, reducing the number of harvesters, and investing in new or upgraded infrastructures. As part of a series of integrated models to conduct the analysis,

Andrew Higgins; Ian Davies



The application of precision agriculture technologies to sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The availability of global positioning systems (GPS) has made it possible to abandon traditional ways of managing sugarcane fields as whole units in favor of approaches that address within-field variability. A series of experiments was initiated to determine if soil electrical conductivity (EC) map...


Use of precision agriculture techniques for sugarcane pathology studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While resistance is the most effective and economical method of controlling diseases in sugarcane, in some situations, varieties must be grown that are susceptible. For example, following the introduction of a new disease, it may take several years before resistant varieties replace susceptible one...


Sugar partitioning between growth and storage in sugarcane internodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) stores large amounts of sugar in internodes of the stalk, while wild species (e.g. S. spontaneum) store more insoluble cell wall material (fiber) and little sugar. The reason for this difference is not clear. To test the hypothesis that the activity of soluble acid...


Acoustic detection of Melolonthine larvae in Australian sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decision support systems have been developed for risk analysis and control of root-feeding white grub pests in Queensland sugarcane, based partly on manual inspection of cane soil samples. Acoustic technology was considered as a potential alternative to this laborious procedure. Field surveys were...



Microsoft Academic Search

In the Burdekin delta good soils, favourable climate and plentiful water combine to produce some of the highest yielding sugarcane in Australia. The freshwater aquifer system, which underlies the delta, is a major contributor to the prosperity of the region and its maintenance has been the responsibility of the Burdekin Water Boards since the mid-1960's. In the face of rising

Philip Charlesworth; Chris Chinn; Keith Bristow; Gary Ham



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some Florida sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) growers apply short-duration (less than 1-d) floods prior to harvest to prevent fires that form sporadically on their organic soils after preharvest burns. Extending these floods in duration may reduce yields but also provide options to manage on-farm floods ...


Dry matter partitioning of sugarcane in Australia and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning of dry matter (DM) in sugarcane is of interest for two fundamental reasons. Firstly, sugar production depends directly on partitioning of crop biomass to the stalk and then to sucrose stored largely in stalk parenchyma. Secondly, various DM components of the stalk and particularly sucrose concentration are used to calculate the value of cane consignments delivered to the mill.

N. G Inman-Bamber; R. C Muchow; M. J Robertson



The fate of nitrogen applied to sugarcane by trickle irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertigation can be a more efficient means of applying crop nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N), so that nutrient application rates can be reduced in fertigated crops. However, there is little information on the extent of the possible reduction in N application rate for fertigated sugarcane, one of the major row crops grown under trickle irrigation, nor the fate of N in

Peter J. Thorburn; Ian K. Dart; Ian M. Biggs; Craig P. Baillie; Mike A. Smith; Brian A. Keating



Improving biomass production and partitioning in sugarcane: theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose yields in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) could be improved by increasing the efficiency of biomass production per unit of intercepted radiation and\\/or by increasing the fraction of total biomass partitioned to stalk sucrose, or both. In theory, this could be achieved by optimally matching the physiology of genotypes to the driving environmental conditions. Quantitative knowledge of the subtle effects of

A. Singels; R. A. Donaldson; M. A. Smit



Hysteretic properties of NADP-malic enzyme from sugarcane leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADP-malic enzyme highly purified from sugarcane leaves exhibited hysteretic properties. This behavior resulted in a lag phase during activity measurement of the enzyme preincubated in the absence of substrates. The lag was inversely proportional to the protein concentration during preincubation, which suggests that changes in the aggregational state of the enzyme are responsible for hysteresis. The pH conditions as well

Alberto A. Iglesias; Carlos S. Andreo



Resistance to yellow sugarcane aphid: Screening kikuyu and other grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kikuyu grass, Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov., is an important pasture species in many subtropical areas. Infestations of yellow sugarcane aphid (YSA), Sipha flava (Forbes) (Homoptera: Aphididae), have reduced kikuyu forage production in Hawaii. A novel method was developed to screen cultivars of kikuyu, and species of other forage and turf grasses for resistance to YSA. Kikuyu germplasm differed significantly

Susan C. Miyasaka; James D. Hansen; Glen K. Fukumoto



Developing a sugarcane molecular identity database for use in breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane geneticists routinely exchange and move a large number of clones by vegetative propagation across locations. They rely on morphological keys developed by the originating location to distinguish these clones. Since environments can influence these traits, genetically distinct clones, in p...


ITER helium ash accumulation  

SciTech Connect

Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)



Non-catalytic liquefaction of coal with bagasse, a biomass waste  

SciTech Connect

Liquefaction of a Chinese bituminous coal with bagasse, a kind of biomass waste, have been carried out in an autoclave of 300 ml capacity at a temperature range of 350--450 C, reaction time 15--45 min and cool hydrogen pressure 300--700 PSIG (2.04 4.76 MPa). Optimization of the co-liquefaction process was done with respect to oil yield by Factorial Experiment Design Method. Oil yield reached 48% at optimum conditions of temperature: 420 C, cool hydrogen pressure: 500 PSIG and reaction time: 40 min. A polynomial mathematical model, a second order response surface model, has been obtained for correlating the oil yield response factor as well as conversion with the major process variables. The equation derived by the authors holds good in determining the effect of process variables on response factors for any regime conditions in the range of the Planned Experimental Design. Experimental data were also correlated by a kinetic model. The model is based on coal and bagasse, undergoing thermal cracking, is first converted parallel to form preasphaltene and asphaltene and low molecular gaseous products; then consecutively oil is formed from preasphaltene and asphaltene. Activation energies for these three reactions are 32.51 KJ/mol, 75.14 KJ/mol and 44.65 KJ/mol, respectively. These values are lower than that of liquefaction of coal alone. It justifies that the addition of bagasse is effective in enhancing the process of co-liquefaction and giving higher yield of oil than for liquefaction of coal alone. Calculated values from this model fairly agree with the experimental data.

Rafiqul, I.; Lugang, B.; Yan, Y.; Li, T.



Production of ethanol from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by Pichia stipitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability ofPichia stipitis to fermentd-xylose andd-glucose in the acid-hydrolyzed hemicellulose component of sugar cane bagasse depends on the alkali used to neutralize the\\u000a hydrolyzate to pH 6.5. With NH4OH and NaOH no fermentation occurred, whereas neutralization with Ca(OH)2 gave the best results (Qpmax=0.25 g\\/L-h; Yp\\/s =0.38 g\\/g sugar). However, the volumetric productivity was still considerably less than observed in

Carina Van Zyl; Bernard A. Prior; James C. Du Preez



Cyclic AMP regulates the biosynthesis of cellobiohydrolase in Cellulomonas flavigena growing in sugar cane bagasse.  


Cellulomonas flavigena produces a battery of cellulase components that act concertedly to degrade cellulose. The addition of cAMP to repressed C. flavigena cultures released catabolic repression, while addition of cAMP to induced C. flavigena cultures led to a cellobiohydrolase hyperproduction. Exogenous cAMP showed positive regulation on cellobiohydrolase production in C. flavigena grown on sugar cane bagasse. A C. flavigena cellobiohydrolase gene was cloned (named celA), which coded for a 71- kDa enzyme. Upstream, a repressor celR1, identified as a 38 kDa protein, was monitored by use of polyclonal antibodies. PMID:19701743

Herrera-Herrera, Jesús Antonio; Pérez-Avalos, Odilia; Salgado, Luis M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa



Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation\\u000a were performed byCandida guilliermondii FTI20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization\\u000a of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g\\/L h) and yield\\u000a (0.67 g\\/g) were attained at 400\\/min and

Silvio S. Silva; JoÃo D. Ribeiro; Maria G. A. Felipe; Michelle Vitolo



Environmental parameters affecting xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The bioconversion of xylose to xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 cultivated in sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate was influenced by cell inoculum level, age of inoculum\\u000a and hydrolyzate concentration. The maximum xylitol productivity (0.75?g?L?1?h?1) occurred in tests carried out with hydrolyzate containing 54.5?g?L?1 of xylose, using 3.0?g?L?1 of a 24-h-old inoculum. Xylitol productivity and cell concentration decreased with hydrolyzate

M G A Felipe; M Vitolo; I M Mancilha; S S Silva



RNAi Mediated Down-Regulation of PDS Gene Expression in Sugarcane ( Saccharum ), a Highly Polyploid Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is a crop with great potential for metabolic engineering, but progress has been limited by highly efficient transgene\\u000a silencing. The potential exists to utilize efficient gene silencing in molecular improvement through down-regulation of sugarcane\\u000a genes. However, sugarcane is highly polyploid and heterozygous, which might complicate efforts to employ transgene-mediated\\u000a silencing of endogenous genes. To explore this issue, we tested

Kenji Osabe; Stephen R. Mudge; Michael W. Graham; Robert G. Birch



Study on agroclimatic condition and productivity pattern of sugarcane in india  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agro-climatic condition and productivity distribution pattern of sugarcane in India was studied to delineate the reasons for\\u000a variation in sugarcane production, yield and distribution of area from place to place and year to year. It was found that\\u000a prominent sugarcane growing soils of the country are recent alluvium, red sandy, medium black, red loamy and deep black soils\\u000a but highest

Rajendra Gupta; Rajesh Kumar; S. K. Tripathi



Sugarcane genetic engineering research in South Africa: From gene discovery to transgene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 15 years, recombinant DNA and in vitro culture technologies have been used in concert at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI) to genetically engineer\\u000a sugarcane. The purpose of such research has been two-fold, viz. to establish proof-of-principle regarding the delivery of novel input and resistance traits to sugarcane and to investigate\\u000a the genetic basis of sucrose

D. A. Watt; D. L. Sweby; B. A. M. Potier; S. J. Snyman



Production of microbial levan from sucrose, sugarcane juice and beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacillus polymyxa (NRRL-18475) produced a levan-type fructan (B, 2?6 fructofuranoside) when grown on sucrose, sugarcane juice, and sugarbeet molasses. The organism converted about 46% of the fructose moiety of sucrose to levan when grown on sucrose medium, however, the yields of levan from sugarcane juice and beet molasses were much less than sucrose solution. Such sugarcane juice and beet

Y. W. Han; M. A. Watson



Trehalose synthase gene transfer mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens enhances resistance to osmotic stress in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trehalose synthase gene (TSase) fromGrifola frondosa was transferred into sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) usingAgrobacterium-mediated method to improve sugarcane drought-tolerance. The results indicated that embryogenic callus of sugarcane was sensitive\\u000a toA. tumefaciens EHA105 strain in the transformation system employed. The high frequency of PPT-resistant plants were obtained from transformated\\u000a with 3 weeks callus after incubation, which reached 4.5% on average. The

Zi-Zhang Wang; Shu-Zhen Zhang; Ben-Peng Yang; Yang-Rui Li



Engineering Advantages, Challenges and Status of Sugarcane and other Sugar-Based Biomass Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a highly productive tropical stem crop that has been cultivated for its high sugar content for hundreds of years.\\u000a In recent times, sugarcane has been the focus of several programs aiming at the production of fuel ethanol. Compared to starch-based\\u000a sources such as corn, production of ethanol from sugarcane has obvious advantages due to the amount

Ricardo A. Dante; Plinio T. Cristofoletti; Isabel R. Gerhardt


Fly ash chemical classification based on lime  

SciTech Connect

Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Fox, J. [BASF Construction Chemicals, LLC (United States)



Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.  


Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde. PMID:16053116

Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit



Improving lipid production from bagasse hydrolysate with Trichosporon fermentans by response surface methodology.  


Oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans was proved to be able to use sulphuric acid-treated sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate as substrate to grow and accumulate lipid. Activated charcoal was shown as effective as the more expensive resin Amberlite XAD-4 for removing the inhibitors from the hydrolysate. To further improve the lipid production, response surface methodology (RSM) was used and a 3-level 4-factor Box-Behnken design was adopted to evaluate the effects of C/N ratio, inoculum concentration, initial pH and fermentation time on the cell growth and lipid accumulation of T. fermentans. Under the optimum conditions (C/N ratio 165, inoculum concentration 11%, initial pH 7.6 and fermentation time 9 days), a lipid concentration of 15.8g/L, which is quite close to the predicted value of 15.6g/L, could be achieved after cultivation of T. fermentans at 25°C on the pretreated bagasse hydrolysate and the corresponding lipid coefficient (lipid yield per mass of sugar, %) was 14.2. These represent a 32.8% improvement in the lipid concentration and a 21.4% increase in the lipid coefficient compared with the original values before optimization (11.9g/L and 11.7). This work further demonstrates that T. fermentans is a promising strain for lipid production and thus biodiesel preparation from abundant and inexpensive lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21458601

Huang, Chao; Wu, Hong; Li, Ri-feng; Zong, Min-hua



Upgrading of sugar cane bagasse by thermal processes. 10: Catalytic liquefaction in aqueous medium  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the results of a study of a process of direct catalytic liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse, in aqueous medium, using different pH values. The experiments were conducted in the absence as well as in the presence of commercial catalysts. In the absence of catalyst, the results showed that the conversion of sugar cane bagasse into liquefied products is not influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. An increase in the temperature augments the yield of liquefied products. The utilization of different commercial catalysts permits an increase in the yields of liquefied products up to 92.4%, obtained with 10% palladium on activated carbon powder as catalyst. The liquefied products were fractionated into eight different chemical classes by preparative liquid chromatography (PLC-8 method). In the absence of catalyst, high conversion yields into light-oils and resins (fractions F1 to F6) was observed only at pH = 9. When the catalysts were used (at pH = 9 and at 370 C), an important increase (from 29 to 78%) of resins (fraction F6) was observed. Under this condition, the proportion of asphaltenes and asphaltols (fractions F7 and F8) decreases from 70 to 20%.

Lancas, F.M.; Ruggiero, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry; Donate, P.M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)



Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.  


A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations. PMID:19880314

Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O



Termite resistance and physical properties of biobased composition boards made from cotton gin byproducts and guayule bagasse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to determine the termite resistance property of experimental composition boards made from cotton gin byproducts (CGB) and guayule bagasse. Vast quantities of CGB, also known as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste, are being produced across the cotton belt of the U...


Effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on the chemical composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of energy cane bagasse.  


Ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for the pretreatment of lignocellulose as they are thermally stable, environmentally friendly, recyclable, and have low volatility. This study evaluated the effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][OAc]) for the pretreatment of energy cane bagasse in terms of biomass composition, structural changes and enzymatic digestibility. Energy cane bagasse was pretreated with [EMIM][OAc] (5% (w/w)) at 120 °C for 30 min followed by hydrolysis with commercially available enzymes, Spezyme CP and Novozyme 188. IL-treated energy cane bagasse resulted in significant lignin removal (32.0%) with slight glucan and xylan losses (8.8% and 14.0%, respectively), and exhibited a much higher enzymatic digestibility (87.0% and 64.3%) than untreated (5.5% and 2.8%) or water-treated (4.0% and 2.1%) energy cane bagasse in terms of both cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities, respectively. The enhanced digestibilities of IL-treated biomass can be attributed to delignification and reduction of cellulose crystallinity as confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. PMID:22617034

Qiu, Zenghui; Aita, Giovanna M; Walker, Michelle S



Termite resistance and mechanical properties of biobased composition boards made from cotton gin byproducts and guayule bagasse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vast quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB), also known as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste, are being produced across the cotton belt of the United States annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production, also known as guayule bagasse (GB), is expected to increase as this in...


Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du



Improved detection of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus using a real-time fluorescent (TaqMan) RT-PCR assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow leaf syndrome (YLS) of sugarcane has been associated with Sugarcaneyellowleafvirus (ScYLV) and has been reported from most sugarcane growing countries around the world. As sugarcane is vegetatively propagated, it is important to use effective and sensitive detection methods to screen new propagating material. Virus detection in symptomatic tissue is currently achieved using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tissue blot

J Korimbocus; D Coates; I Barker; N Boonham



Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction  

SciTech Connect

Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

Naquin, D.



Transcriptomic Signatures of Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Phloem  

PubMed Central

Background Ash (Fraxinus spp.) is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA). The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra), green (F. pennsylvannica) and white (F. americana) are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica) is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3) revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. Conclusions and Significance The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

Mamidala, Praveen; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.; Mittapalli, Omprakash



Wood ash as a liming amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the effectiveness of a wood?derived ash as a lime replacement. Treatments included wood ash, wood ash and lime admixtures, and lime amendments (ash amendment ranged from 0 to 20.17 and lime amendment from 0 to 4.06 g\\/kg soil on a dry weight basis). Treatments were compared for influence on soil pH,

W. M. Clapham; L. M. Zibilske




Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash produced by coal combustion using two types of desulphurization process were studied: a conventional pulverized coal boiler equipped with lime injection (PCL ash), and a circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler with limestone injection (CFBC ash). The ashes were characterized completely: granulometry, morphology, mineralogy, chemical composition and behaviour to water contact. Both PCL ash and CFBC ash present similar

I. Lecuyer; S. Bicocchi; P. Ausset; R. Lefevre



Power is sweet: sugarcane in the global ethanol assemblage.  


New alliances between Brazil and the US for ethanol production, transport, and trade are revitalising and expanding the centuries -old sugarcane plantation system in the Americas. In this paper I adopt the concept of global assemblages, building on the work of Aihwa Ong, Stephen Collier, and Saskia Sassen, to draw the contours of an "ethanol assemblage," which includes states, corporations, growers, technologies, urban consumers, and rural communities and landscapes. Though important to conceptualise agrofuels as a global phenomenon, it is also necessary to recognise the distinct regional patterns that cohere around various aspects of this polymorphous industry. Therefore, I focus on alliances around sugarcane ethanol, paying particular attention to the role of Miami as a global city serving as a gateway to information, investment, and commodities for the public/private and national/transnational entities that are engaged in the hemispheric project of ethanol promotion, production and distribution. PMID:20873028

Hollander, Gail



High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the proposed study is to design, test, and evaluate high-volume fly ash concrete mixtures. Traditional specifications limit the amount of fly ash to 40% or less cement replacement. This program attempts to increase the ash content to 75% ...

J. S. Volz



Randomly Reinforced Fly Ash as Embankment Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash, an environmentally hazardous solid waste is produced mostly from the burning of coal in thermal power plants. Due to continuous and high volume of material it requires, the road construction industry is often looked upon as a potential consumer of fly ash. The strength of fly ash has to be improved before it can be used as embankment

Pradip D. Jadhao; P. B. Nagarnaik



Ceramic processing of incinerator bottom ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The <8 mm fraction of aged incinerator bottom ash from a commercial incinerator (energy from waste) plant has been collected at regular intervals, characterised and processed to form ceramic materials. Ashes were sieved, wet ball milled, dried, compacted and sintered at temperatures between 1080 and 1115 °C. Variations in the chemical composition and mineralogy of the milled ash, and the mineralogy,

C. R Cheeseman; S Monteiro da Rocha; C Sollars; S Bethanis; A. R Boccaccini



Coal ash disposal solid waste impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the recent regulatory atmosphere which is creating the increase in coal consumption, the chemical, physical and other characteristics of ash, the consequences of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) on landfill disposal of ash, and finally presents the possibility of utilization of ash by the industrial and private sector. The book is divided into six chapters

R. A. Tripodi; P. N. Cheremisinoff



Mercury capture on coal combustion fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to test the hypotheses that (1) different carbon types contained in coal combustion fly ash have variable sorption capabilities relative to mercury and (2) the inorganic fraction of coal combustion fly ash may sorb mercury through mechanisms distinct from sorption by carbon in the ash. The purpose of

David J Hassett; Kurt E Eylands



Leaching of Metals from Peat Fly Ashes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the study was to describe the long term impact from fly ash disposed on landfill. The quality of the leachate of three peat fly ashes and, as comparison on coal fly ash, was studied by using batch leaching tests, column leaching tests, and larg...

M. Wahlstroem V. Pohjola



Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil.\\u000a The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm3 engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes\\u000a agricultural and

Aldo Roberto Ometto; Michael Zwicky Hauschild; Woodrow Nelson Lopes Roma



Modelling Sugarcane Growth in Response to Age, Insolation and Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a non-linear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative

Karl Tiap Sen How; K. T. S



Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: present knowledge and future applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Brazil the long-term continuous cultivation of sugarcane with low N fertiliser inputs, without apparent depletion of soil-N reserves, led to the suggestion that N2-fixing bacteria associated with the plants may be the source of agronomically significant N inputs to this crop. From the 1950s to 1970s, considerable numbers of N2-fixing bacteria were found to be associated with the crop,

Robert M. Boddey; Segundo Urquiaga; Bruno J. R. Alves; Veronica Reis



?-Carotene production in sugarcane molasses by a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Several wild strains and mutants of Rhodotorula spp. were screened for growth, carotenoid production and the proportion of -carotene produced in sugarcane molasses. A better\\u000a producer, Rhodotorula glutinis mutant 32, was optimized for carotenoid production with respect to total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration and pH. In shake\\u000a flasks, when molasses was used as the sole nutrient medium with 40 g

P Bhosale; R V Gadre



Bayesian estimation of marker dosage in sugarcane and other autopolyploids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sugarcane or other autopolyploids, after generating the data, the first step in constructing molecular marker maps is to\\u000a determine marker dosage. Improved methods for correctly allocating marker dosage will result in more accurate maps and increased\\u000a efficiency of QTL linkage detection. When employing dominant markers like AFLPs, single-dose markers represent alleles present\\u000a as one copy in one parent and

Peter Baker; Phillip Jackson; Karen Aitken



Relationships of Australian sugarcane yields to various climatic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the sugarcane yield anomalies in northeastern Australia and various atmospheric and oceanic variables is examined with the help of three different climatological data sets, the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), the Southern Hemisphere Analyses data set (SHANAL) and the Tabulated Data Set (TDS). Correlation coefficients of 10 different climatological variables with the yields are presented for lags up to twelve months prior to the harvest. The results suggest that the sugarcane yields show the strongest positive (negative) response to anomalous sea surface temperature (SSTA) and mean sea level pressure (MSLPA) changes occurring in the central and eastern Pacific during the austral spring 7 to 10 months prior to the sugarcane harvest. These correlations are accompanied by an opposite pattern of anomalies located north of Australia. At the same time, anomalies in the strength of the zonal components of the surface winds can be found over the western tropical Pacific (positive correlations) and the eastern Indian Ocean (negative correlations). These patterns are characteristic of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and support the findings of a previous Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)-oriented study. However, the maximum correlations with the SSTA and MSLPA are substantially higher (around |0.8|) than those reached with the SOI (-0.65). Furthermore, it appears that the large-scale circulation indices are better indicators of sugarcane yields than the regional (Cairns) climatological variables. The maximum correlations between the yields and the climatological variables at Cairns are highly significant (values between |0.5| and |0.6|), but the signal is generally confined to the summer months only.

Kuhnel, I.



Carbon metabolism in leaves of micropropagated sugarcane during acclimatization phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the main enzymes related to the sucrose metabolism, photosynthesis, and sucrose concentration were studied\\u000a in sugarcane (Saccharum spp hybrid) plantlets. Acclimatization was developed in two steps. (1) Light intensity of 1,000 ?mol m?2 s?1 and 90% relative humidity during the first 21 d; followed by 2,000 ?mol m?2 s?1 and approximately 80% of relative humidity. All measurements were carried out

Romelio Rodriguez; Carlos E. Aragon; Maritza Escalona; Justo L. Gonzalez-Olmedo; Yves Desjardins



Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane.  


Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54 percent of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes. PMID:17739663

Hopkinson, C S; Day, J W



Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is

Justin G. A. Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Kari B. Green-Church; Jennifer L. Koch; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Haibing Yang



Imaging spectroscopy for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopy can provide real-time high throughput information on growing crops. The spectroscopic data can be obtained from space-borne, air-borne and handheld sensors. Such data have been used for assessing the nutritional status of some field crops (maize, rice, barely, potato etc.). In this study a handheld FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer in the 350 - 2500 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum was evaluated for its use to estimate sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentrations. Sugarcane leaf samples from one variety viz., N19 of two age groups (4-5 and 6-7 months) were subjected to spectral and chemical measurements. Leaf reflectance data were collected under controlled conditions and leaf nitrogen concentration was obtained using an automated combustion technique (Leco TruSpec N). The potential of spectroscopic data for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen status was evaluated using univariate correlation and regression analyses methods with the first-order reflectance across the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm. The variables that presented high correlation with nitrogen concentration were used to develop simple indices combining reflectances of 2-wavelengths. Simple linear regression was then used to select a model that yielded the highest R2. These were the R744 / R2142 index for the 4-5 months old cane crop and the (R2200 - R2025) / (R2200 + R2025) index for the 6-7 months old cane crop, with R2 of 0.74 and 0.87, respectively.

Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Ahmed, Fethi B.; van den Berg, Maurits



A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil.  


In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4-2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20-30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. PMID:17269231

Lin, Deng-Fong; Lin, Kae-Long; Luo, Huan-Lin



A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4 2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20 30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Deng-Fong Lin; Kae-Long Lin; Huan-Lin Luo [I-Shou University (Taiwan). Department of Civil and Ecological Engineering



Sugarcane Nutrient Content, Growth and Yield Responses to a Three-Month Summer Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to soil subsidence, pumping restrictions, or tropical storms. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables and periodic flooding, there is a lack of information on...


Viability of an Enzymatic Mannitol Method to Predict Sugarcane Deterioration at Factories  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...


A rapid biochemical test to assess postharvest deterioration of sugarcane and milled juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...


Mannitol as a Sensitive Indicator of Sugarcane Deterioration and Bacterial Contamination in Fuel Alcohol Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a very sensitive indicator of sugarcane deterioration that can predict processing problems. A rapid (4 to 7 min) enzymatic method has been developed to measure mannitol in juice pressed from consignments of sugarcane delivered to the...


Application of RAD LongRead sequencing for SNP discovery in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane (hybrid Saccharum spp.) genome presents a difficult challenge for SNP discovery and analysis due to its complex polyploid nature. This is compounded further due to the absence of a reference genome sequence. We report the discovery of SNPs in sugarcane through reductive sequencing and ...


Mycolytic effect of extracellular enzymes of antagonistic microbes to Colletotrichum falcatum , red rot pathogen of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of selected bacteria and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere and endosphere regions were tested for the production of chitinolytic enzymes and their involvement in the suppression of Colletotrichum falcatum, red rot pathogen of sugarcane. Among several strains tested for chitinolytic activity, 12 strains showed a clearing zone on chitin-amended agar medium. Among these, bacterial strains AFG2, AFG 4,

R. Viswanathan; A. Ramesh Sundar; S. Merina Premkumari



Postharvest accumulation of resveratrol and piceatannol in sugarcane with enhanced antioxidant activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new plant source, sugarcane, was used to produce the stilbenes piceatannol and resveratrol. Both stilbenes were identified in sugarcane billet stalks (12 mm) after incubation at room temperature for 3 days. Low concentrations of piceatannol (30.6 ug/g) and resveratrol (12.3 ug/g) were detected a...


Sugarcane Genotype Response to Nitrogen on a Sand Soil in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) grows on sand soils in Florida. Nitrogen deficiency may limit sugarcane yields on these sand soils. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N fertilizer rate on growth and physiological characteristics of three ...


Determination of Yield and Soil Variability in Louisiana Sugarcane Using Selected Tools of Precision Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision agriculture is a production strategy that may help sugarcane producers decrease input costs, maximize profits, and minimize any negative environmental impact through better management of soil and crop variability. To determine the extent of variability present in commercial sugarcane fiel...


Quantitative analysis of the effect of selection history on sugar yield adaptation of sugarcane clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objective of the CSR sugarcane breeding programme in Australia was to assess the scope for broadening the genetic base of the commercial sugarcane germ plasm through interspecific hybridization with Saccharum spontaneum clones. The contribution of both selection history and S. spontaneum to sugar yield and its components was investigated in the germ plasm pool assembled. The analysis was conducted

B. L. Srivastava; M. Cooper; R. T. Mullins



Co-ordinated synthesis of gentiobiitol and sorbitol, evidence of sorbitol glycosylation in transgenic sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane (a Saccharum spp. interspecific hybrid) was previously engineered to synthesize sorbitol (designated as sorbitolcane). Motivated by the atypical development of the leaves in some sorbitolcane, the polar metabolite profiles in the leaves of those plants were compared against a group of control sugarcane plants. Eighty-six polar metabolites were detected in leaf extracts by GC–MS. Principal component analysis of the

Barrie Fong Chong; W. P. P. Abeydeera; Donna Glassop; Graham D. Bonnett; Michael G. O’Shea; Stevens M. Brumbley



Identification of parents for breeding sugarcane yellow leaf and ratoon stunt resistant cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infection and ratoon stunt reaction of Stage II CP-clones were evaluated as means to identify parents for the development of resistant cultivars in the Florida sugarcane breeding program. Over two seasons (2002 and 2003), natural SCYLV infection a...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A field experiment was conducted in the spring of 2002 to determine the effectiveness of high molecular weight anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) in stabilizing quarter drains(reducing soil erosion) on fields planted to sugarcane. Quarter drains are small surface ditches perpendicular to sugarcane furrow...


Diversity of cultivated endophytic bacteria from sugarcane: genetic and biochemical characterization of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and from inside the roots and stems of sugarcane plants grown in the field in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria were found in both the roots and the stems of sugarcane plants, with a significantly higher density in the roots. Many of the cultivated endophytic bacteria were shown to produce the plant growth hormone indoleacetic acid,

Rodrigo Mendes; Aline A. Pizzirani-Kleiner; Welington L. Araujo; Jos M. Raaijmakers



Seasonal Fiber Content of Three Sugarcane Cultivars in Three Crop Cycles on Sand and Muck Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate seasonal estimates of fiber are needed to maximize profits whether producing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for sucrose or ethanol. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample date and crop cycle on fiber content of three sugarcane cultivars growing on sand and organic...


Abstract: Seasonal Fiber Responses of Three Sugarcane Cultivars to Soil Type and Crop Cycle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: Fiber content is an important trait of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars. Sufficient fiber is needed to generate electricity for the sugarcane mill and refinery, but excessive fiber reduces sugar recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample coll...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports results from our evaluations of the spatial variability in sugarcane yield and quality in relation to variation in soil chemical properties. Sugarcane cv 'LCP 85-384' was harvested in two un-treated producers' fields for three consecutive years in Schriever and Patoutville, LA. ...


Evaluation of crop and soil spatial variability in Louisiana sugarcane production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports results from our evaluations of the spatial variability of soil chemical properties in selected sugarcane soils of Southern Louisiana. Sugarcane variety LCP 85-384 was grown in two locations, Rebecca plantation in Schriever LA and Gralyn plantation in Patoutville LA. Each field w...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the primary crop on the Histosols of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), where undesirably high water tables are increasing in occurrence and duration. Improved understanding of sugarcane responses to these conditions could help develop cultivars and agronomic stra...


Sugarcane-based ethanol: production possibilities and trade implications for caribbean countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the feasibility of producing and exporting fuel grade ethanol from two Caribbean countries, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Ethanol is produced from sugarcane by replacing current sugar production and exports, or by substituting increased sugarcane production for other domestic crops. Impacts on regional agricultural production, resource use and foreign trade are examined using a regional linear programming





Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving soil organic matter and soil fertility are important factors in the sustainability of sugarcane production on mineral soils. A trial was established in 2004 on a sandy Spodosol in Florida to compare the effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on soil fertility and sugarcane produ...


Identification of nutritional and environmental factors affecting sugarcane production in barbados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane production in Barbados has declined since the 1950s. Plant nutrition and fertilization deficiencies are generally believed to negatively influence yields in Barbados. The objective of this study was to identify nutritional and environmental factors related to sugarcane yields. Leaf analyses, respective crop yields, and other data were collected from the Barbados Sugar Industry Ltd. during the period 1985–1990. The

D. L. Anderson; H. G. de Boer; K. M. Portier




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A search for molecular markers associated with resistance to sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) was initiated using microsatellite primers developed by a project funded by the International Consortium for Sugarcane Biotechnology. The goal was to develop rapid and precise methods to detect SCYLV res...


Microsatellite markers from sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) ESTs cross transferable to erianthus and sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of a sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) EST (expressed sequence tag) library of 8678 sequences revealed approximately 250 microsatellite or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) sequences. A diversity of dinucleotide and trinucleotide SSR repeat motifs were present although most were of the (CGG)n trinucleotide motif. Primer sets were designed for 35 sequences and tested on five sugarcane genotypes. Twenty-one primer pairs produced

Giovanni M Cordeiro; Rosanne E Casu; C Lynne McIntyre; John M Manners; Robert J Henry



Feeding site of the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is a pest of mechanically-harvested sugarcane in Brazil, when trash burning is not performed. To better understand the differences in feeding behavior of adults and nymphs of this pest and the subsequent disorders that arise, stylet penetration through fixation, staining and sectioning was investigated. Nymphs cause a \\

José Francisco Garcia; Eliane Grisoto; Paulo Sérgio Machado Botelho; José Roberto Postali Parra; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória



Characterisation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family in sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) are encoded by a small multigenic family. In order to characterise this gene family in sugarcane, seven DNA fragments displaying a high homology with grass PEPC genes were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning. A phylogenetic study revealed the existence of four main PEPC gene lineages in grasses and particularly in sugarcane. Moreover, this analysis suggests that

G. Besnard; G. Pinçon; A. D'Hont; J.-Y. Hoarau; F. Cadet; B. Offmann



Flood Duration and Time of Flood Onset Effects on Recently Planted Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Periodically flooding sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida improves soil conservation and reduces P discharge to the Everglades, but farmers are concerned that flooding recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane reduces yields. The purpose of this stud...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The allelopathic effect of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) post-harvest residue on oat (Avena nuda), rye (Secale cereale), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and sugarcane was investigated with water soluble extracts of the residue. Oat and rye germination was reduced by 17 and 1...


Modelling water uptake, growth and sucrose accumulation of sugarcane subjected to water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water stress affects the rate of water uptake, biomass accumulation and structural growth of sugarcane differently and, consequently, alters the partitioning of assimilate to sucrose storage. The CANEGRO sugarcane model is unable to accurately simulate the subtle rate changes in the source and sink processes during the progression of water stress during dry spells, with subsequent poor prediction of sucrose

A. Singels; M. van den Berg; M. A. Smit; M. R. Jones; R. van Antwerpen




Microsoft Academic Search

Trichogramma chilonis Ishii against sugarcane stem borer (Chilo infuscatellus Snellen) was evaluated in experimental plots of sugarcane in the field at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Among five treatments of T. chilonis, the treatment having 60,000 parasitized eggs per acre showed significant results causing 83% reduction in infestation of C. infuscatellus as compare to control having 30.67% infestation. Population of C. infuscatellus showed

Muhammad Rafiq Shahid; Anjum Suhail; Muhammad Dildar Gogi; Munir Ahmad Shahzad; Sabir Hussain




Microsoft Academic Search

Orange bagasse comprising pulp tissues, rind, and seeds, constitutes a major industrial food waste arising from processing oranges for juice, and represents a fermentation feedstock for the production of enzymes. Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 grown on essential oils-extracted orange bagasse in submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) with and without added nutrients produced pectinase and laccase. Highest enzyme titres (pectinase, 32

Ellen C. Giese; Robert F. H. Dekker; Aneli M. Barbosaa


Recovery Plan for the Endangered and Threatened Species of Ash Meadows, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This plan covers the following federally listed species in Ash Meadows, Nevada and California: Devils Hole pupfish, Warm Springs pupfish, Ash Meadows Arnargosa pupfish, Ash Meadows speckled dace, Ash Meadows naucorid, Ash Meadows blazing star, Ash Meadows...

D. W. Sada



Gasification of ash-containing solid fuels  

SciTech Connect

Ash-contaminated solid or semi-solid fuel is passed into the bottom zone of a fluidized bed gasifier, preferably containing cao to fix labile sulfur moieties, and gasified at a temperature below the ash-softening point. The resulting char and ash of relatively low size and/or weight pass to a top zone of the bed wherein the char is gasified at a temperature above the ash-softening point whereby a substantial proportion of the ash sticks to and agglomerates with solids in the top zone until the particle size and/or weight of the resulting agglomerates causes them to sink to the bottom of the gasifier from where they can be recovered. The hot gases leaving the top of the gasifying bed have a reduced burden of entrained ash, and may be cooled to prevent any entrained ash adhering to downstream equipment through which the gases pass.

Moss, G.



Utilization of lignite ash in concrete mixture  

SciTech Connect

In this article 11 ashes from various Turkish lignite sources were studied to show the effects upon lignite ash quality for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. The lignite ashes were classified into two general types (Class A and Class B) based on total of silica, alumina, and iron oxide. Total content of the three major oxides must be more than 50% for Class A lignite ash and more than 70% for Class B lignite ash. When 25% of the cement was replaced by LA-1 (Class A) lignite ash, based on 300 kg/m{sup 3} cementitious material, the 28-day compressive strength increased 24.3% compared to the control mix. The optimal lignite ash replacement was 25% at 300 kg/m{sup 3} cementitious material.

Demirbas, A.; Karslioglu, S.; Ayas, A. [Technical Univ. of Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry



Biobutanol from sweet sorghum bagasse hydrolysate by a hybrid pervaporation process.  


In this study, the pervaporation membrane was used not only for the detoxification of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) hydrolysate, but also for butanol separation from its fermentation broth. As a result of detoxification, about 94.5% furfural was reduced by the pervaporation method, and 138.25g/L furfural was obtained in the permeate side. 87.5% phenolic compounds were degradated by further laccase detoxification. As for fermentation part, 12.3±0.1g/L butanol, 6.1±0.05g/L acetone and 2.5±0.07g/L ethanol were obtained. And after 2h of pervaporation separation, 201.9g/L butanol, 76.2g/L acetone and traces of ethanol were obtained in the permeate. The hybrid pervaporation process shows promising for the industrial production of biofuel butanol and biochemical furfural. PMID:23562566

Cai, Di; Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Jia; Chang, Zhen; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Pei-Yong; Tan, Tian-Wei



Application of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in biotreatment of bagasse effluent.  


Biotreatment of bagasse effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium (white rot fungus) is investigated. This study confirmed that lignin is the major pollutant component in this effluent followed by different carbohydrates. The treatment conditions must be very proper, especially in terms of biomass culture to achieve a successful treatment. The best conditions of temperature, biomass concentration, pH and duration for biotreatment of this effluent were 35°C, 552 mg l(-1), 6 and 5 to 9 days, respectively. Under these conditions, a 9 days long treatment reduced by 98.7% the original biochemical oxygen demand (of 2,780 mg l(-1)) and by 98.5% the dissolved chemical oxygen demand (initial 4,200 mg l(-1)). Moreover, fungal treatment reduced total dissolved solids from 3,950 to 575 mg l(-1) and color from 560 mg l(-1) PtCo to 111 mg l(-1) PtCo. PMID:20857176

Sharari, M; Latibari, A Jahan; Guillet, A; Aurousseau, M; Mouhamadou, B; Rafeiee, Gh; Mirshokraei, A; Parsapaghouh, D



Effect of environmental factors on the effectiveness of ammoniated bagasse in wicking oil from contaminated wetlands.  


Ammoniated bagasse is a plant-derived organic sorbent that can be used for capturing oil and for supplying slow-release nutrients to oil-degrading microorganisms. We investigated the oil-wicking behavior of this sorbent under various conditions for its effectiveness in remediating oil-contaminated wetlands. Abiotic microcosms simulating a wetland environment were used to assess the influence of sand particle sizes (20 x 30 and 60 x 80 U.S. mesh), degrees of oil saturation (25% and 75%), water table levels (on top of the clean sand layer, oiled-sand layer, and sorbent layer), and the presence of sorbent. Results indicated that oil wicking favors higher oil contamination, larger sand particle size, and low water coverage. Water coverage was the predominant factor limiting the effectiveness of sorbent. The most plausible explanation for this limitation was that sorbent captured more water than oil at higher water coverage. PMID:23513677

Chung, Seungjoon; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D



Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).  


We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees. PMID:18348816

Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R



Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.



Study on the interface modification of bagasse fibre and the mechanical properties of its composite with PVC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface treatments of bagasse fibre (BF) with benzoic acid as a surface\\/interface modifier and the mechanical properties of BF-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composite were studied. A typical process for the preparation of the composite was as follows: A mixture of PVC, BF, benzoic acid, and other processing additives were dry-blended in a two-roll mill followed by compression molding. The experimental

Yu-Tao Zheng; De-Rong Cao; Dong-Shan Wang; Jiu-Ji Chen



Can vegetative ash be water repellent?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of the literature, ash is referred to as a highly wettable material (e.g. Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Etiegni and Campbell, 1991; Woods and Balfour 2010). However, the contrary was suggested in few articles, albeit with no further quantification (Gabet and Sternberg, 2008; Khanna et al., 1996; Stark, 1977). To clarify this question, water repellency measurements on ash using the Water Drop Penetration Times (WDPT) method were performed on ash from Mediterranean ecosystems and it was found to be water repellent (Bodí et al. 2011). Water repellency on ash from different wildfires ranged from 40 to 10 % occurrence with samples being extreme repellent (lasting more than 3600 s to penetrate). Part of the ash produced in the laboratory was also water repellent. After that, other ash samples had been found water repellent in wildfires in Colorado (unpublished results), Portugal (Gonzalez-Pelayo, 2009), or in prescribed fires in Australia (Bodí et al. 2011b; Petter Nyman, personnal communication). All the samples exhibiting water repellent properties had in common that were combusted at low temperatures, yielding in general ash with dark colour and contents of organic carbon of more than 18 % (Bodí et al. 2011a), although these properties were not exactly proportional to its water repellency occurrence or persistence. In addition, the species studied in Bodí et al. (2011) had been found to produce different levels of WR repellency, being ash from Pinus halepensis more repellent than that from Quercus coccifera and Rosmarins officinalis. Ash from Eucaliptus radiata had been found also very water repellent, as Pinus halepensis (unpublished data). The reasons of the existance of water repellent ash are that the charred residue produced by fire (an also contained in the ash) can contain aromatic compounds that have a lower free energy than water and therefore behave as hydrophobic materials with reduced solubility (Almendros et al., 1992 and Knicker, 2007). Specifically, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy in the WR ash reported in Bodí et al (2011) have been done, resulting that the more persistent water repellency coincided with higher levels of aliphatic, aromatic and carboxylic groups (Pavel Dlapa et al., under revision). The existence of water repellent ash indicate that i) after low severity fires, ash can be responsible in some occasions of the soil water repellency and ii) ash water repellency can be one of the ash properties that controls the variable hydrological response of ash covering the soil. Acknowledgments to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for the HYDFIRE project CGL2010-21670-C02-01.

Bodí, M. B.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Doerr, S. H.



Effect of addition of pond ash and fly ash on properties of ash-clay burnt bricks.  


Two industrial solid waste products generated by Indian coal-fired power plants, namely pond ash and fly ash, were used in combination with local clay to develop building bricks. The clay were mixed with the two different ashes in the range 10 to 90 wt.%, hydraulically pressed and fired at 1000 degrees C. The fired products were characterized for various quality properties required for building bricks. The properties of the optimal compositions were compared with conventional red clay bricks including the developed microstructures and the comparative study generally showed that te ash-clay bricks were of superior quality to the conventional products. PMID:18229751

Sarkar, Ritwik; Singh, Nar; Das, Swapan Kumar



RNAi suppression of lignin biosynthesis in sugarcane reduces recalcitrance for biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass.  


Sugarcane is a prime bioethanol feedstock. Currently, sugarcane ethanol is produced through fermentation of the sucrose, which can easily be extracted from stem internodes. Processes for production of biofuels from the abundant lignocellulosic sugarcane residues will boost the ethanol output from sugarcane per land area. However, unlocking the vast amount of chemical energy stored in plant cell walls remains expensive primarily because of the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass. We report here the successful reduction in lignification in sugarcane by RNA interference, despite the complex and highly polyploid genome of this interspecific hybrid. Down-regulation of the sugarcane caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene by 67% to 97% reduced the lignin content by 3.9% to 13.7%, respectively. The syringyl/guaiacyl ratio in the lignin was reduced from 1.47 in the wild type to values ranging between 1.27 and 0.79. The yields of directly fermentable glucose from lignocellulosic biomass increased up to 29% without pretreatment. After dilute acid pretreatment, the fermentable glucose yield increased up to 34%. These observations demonstrate that a moderate reduction in lignin (3.9% to 8.4%) can reduce the recalcitrance of sugarcane biomass without compromising plant performance under controlled environmental conditions. PMID:22924974

Jung, Je Hyeong; Fouad, Walid M; Vermerris, Wilfred; Gallo, Maria; Altpeter, Fredy



US coal ash: winning the war for acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standards and guidelines governing the properties and use of fly ash and bottom ash in the USA have been established by governmental agencies and the ash industries. A description is given of the major specifications for fossil fuel ash. Major uses of fly ash in the USA include use in concretes, portland cement, brick manufacturing, mineral wool insulators, and as




Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is




Viscosity model uncertainties in an ash stabilization batch mixing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling wood ash from burnt wood (back to the forest grounds) is of great ecological importance. However, the ash cannot be recycled directly after combustion. There are several reasons for this, one being the volatility of wood ashes. Mixing ash\\/dolomite\\/water in order to obtain granular material is one method to stabilize wood ashes. The main problem is predicting the quantity

Thomas Svantesson; Alexander Lauber; Gustaf Olsson



Valuable products from utility fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash is a potentially important engineering raw material that has yet to be extensively utilized. Of the 48 million short tons of fly ash produced in 1993 from burning coal in power stations in the U.S., only 22% was utilized, with the major use occurring in cement and concrete products. Utilization of fly ash represents a potential for utilities to both reduce costs and increase revenues. A major barrier to fly ash use is its variable nature, both chemical and physical, due to differences in source coals, boiler design and stack removal processes. Recovery of useful products from fly ash can improve the economics of fly ash utilization and offset costs associated with disposal.

DeBarr, J.A.; Rapp, D.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others



Fusibility of Ash from Lignite and Its Correlation with Ash Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fusibility of ash from Northern Great Plains lignites was correlated with the oxide constituents in a 10-component analysis. The correlations developed establish methods and guidelines for predicting the fusibility of ash in these coals and adjusting it f...

E. A. Sondreal R. C. Ellman




SciTech Connect

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced ?cars?) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993?1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High-Calcium Coal Combustion By-Products, 5) Development of an Environmentally Appropriate Leaching Procedure for Coal Combustion By-Products, 6) Set Time of Fly Ash Concrete, 7) Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD), 8) Development of a Method for Determination of Radon Hazard in CCBs, 9) Development of Standards and Specifications, 10) Assessment of Fly Ash Variability, and 11) Development of a CCB Utilization Workshop. The primary goal of CARRC is to work with industry to solve CCB-related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economical utilization and disposal of these highly complex materials. CARRC 1993?1998 accomplishments included: C Updating the CAPD to a user-friendly database management system, and distributing it to CARRC members. C ASTM standard preparation for a guide to using CCBs as waste stabilization agents. C Preliminary identification of specific mineral transformations resulting from fly ash hydration. C Limited determination of the effects of fly ash on the set time of concrete. C Statistical evaluation of a select set of fly ashes from several regional coal-fired power plants. C Development and presentation of a workshop on CCB utilization focused on government agency representatives and interested parties with limited CCB utilization experience. C Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.




Extracellular hydrolysis of starch in sugarcane cell suspensions.  


Evidence is presented for the increased excretion of amylolytic enzymes into a sugarcane cell culture medium when starch was substituted for sucrose as an energy source. The excretion was further enhanced by the inclusion of 1 mum gibberellic acid in the nutrient medium. The growth rate of the cells increased after they became adapted to starch relative to cells grown on sucrose, but the rate of amylolytic enzyme excretion remained unaltered. Amylolytic enzymes in the medium included alpha-amylase but the identity of one or more other enzymes related to starch hydrolysis remains in doubt. PMID:16657831

Maretzki, A; Dela Cruz, A; Nickell, L G



Lead immobilization in mechanochemical fly ash recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, we focused on a mechanochemical process for recycling fly ash for use in cement; this process was expected\\u000a to immobilize heavy metals in the fly ash, a desirable outcome in light of the fact that recycled fly ash is commonly used\\u000a in the synthesis of inorganic materials. Here, we investigated the leaching of lead (Pb) from fly

Yugo Nomura; Kazuo Fujiwara; Makoto Takada; Satoshi Nakai; Masaaki Hosomi



Evaluation of the leaching characteristics of wood ash and the influence of ash agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of mineral nutrients and other species from untreated and stabilised wood ash has been investigated. Stabilisation is applied with the aim to modify the solubility of ash components and the ash particle size, i.e. to form dense ash particle agglomerates. This process induces the formation of several secondary minerals. The most important reaction is the transformation of Ca(OH)2

B. M. Steenari; L. G. Karlsson; O. Lindqvist



Mutagenicity of oil-shale ash.  


3 oil-shale ash samples were extracted with solvents and analyzed for mutagenicity with a number of tests systems. In Salmonella typhimurium, the ash extracts were highly mutagenic with the Ames his reversion and the ara-resistant systems. Mutation induction by the ash in Salmonella was independent of metabolic activation and was of the frameshift type. These ash extracts showed a substantial killing effect, but failed to induced ad-3 reversion in Neurospora crassa, gene conversion and mitotic crossing-over in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and TGr mutation in cultured CHO cells. PMID:7035913

Whong, W Z; Sorenson, W G; Elliott, J A; Stewart, J; Simpson, J; Piacitelli, L; McCawley, M; Ong, T



Preservative treatment of ash wood from emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) infested trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portions of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario have been infested by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an exotic pest believed to have been imported from Asia. The pest is reported to have killed 10 million to 15 million ash trees and continues to spread. Most of southern Michigan is under quarantine, and the movement of ash lumber, firewood, logs, and

Pascal Nzokou; Sedric M. Pankras; D. Pascal


Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a recently discovered (July 2002) exotic insect pest, which has caused the death of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in Detroit, MI, USA and has also spread into other areas of Michigan, isolated locations in Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and nearby Windsor, Ont., in Canada. Ash trees occur in many

David W. MacFarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer



Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study,

Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland



Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are diffi­ cult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennisto ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed from a 15 cm wide band around the tree (2003­ 2(05», vertical wounding (same

Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert



Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

SciTech Connect

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)



[Screening of microorganism producing polyunsaturated fatty acids with sugarcane molasses].  


A strain name LB1 producing polyunsaturated fatty acids with sugarcane molasses was screened form soil samples by the methods of Sudan Black B stain and the determination of PUFAs' iodine value. Based on the grass morphological and physiological characteristics and the sequence similarity of ribosomal DNA-ITS, the strain was identified as Mucor recurvus sp.. The results of L64 (4(3)) orthogonal experiments indicated when Mucor recurvus was cultivated at 28 degrees C for 5 days with 160 r/min, the yields of PUFAs with 10(0) BX sugarcane molasses (pH 6.0) were up to 80.49% content of total fatty acids. The total lipids content was 57.08% of fermentation biomass, which were composed of 15.42% Oleic acid, 14.38% Linolenic, 23.55% gamma-Linolenic, 3.06% alpha-Linolenic, 9.87% Arachidonic acid, 8.14% Eicosapentaenoic acid, 6.07% Docosahexaenoic acid, etc. PMID:17037053

Li, Nan; Deng, Zhi-nian; Qin, Yong-ling; Ling, Min; Liang, Zhi-qun



Reuteran and levan as carbohydrate sinks in transgenic sugarcane.  


The present study reports the effect of high molecular weight bacterial fructan (levan) and glucan (reuteran) on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in transgenic sugarcane plants. These biopolymers are products of bacterial glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glucose or fructose residues from sucrose. Constructs, targeted to different subcellular compartments (cell wall and cytosol) and driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S: maize-ubiquitin promoter, were introduced into sugarcane by biolistic transformation. Polysaccharide accumulation severely affected growth of callus suspension cultures. Regeneration of embryonic callus tissue into plants proved problematic for cell wall-targeted lines. When targeted to the cytosol, only plants with relative low levels of biopolymer accumulation survived. In internodal stalk tissue that accumulate reuteran (max 0.03 mg/g FW), sucrose content (ca 60 mg/g FW) was not affected, while starch content (<0.4 mg/g FW) was increased up to four times. Total carbohydrate content was not significantly altered. On the other hand, starch and sucrose levels were significantly reduced in plants accumulating levan (max 0.01 mg/g FW). Heterologous expression resulted in a reduction in total carbohydrate assimilation rather than a simple diversion by competition for substrate. PMID:22903192

Bauer, Rolene; Basson, Carin E; Bekker, Jan; Eduardo, Iban; Rohwer, Johann M; Uys, Lafras; van Wyk, Johannes H; Kossmann, Jens



Candidates for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease.  


The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and "Ca. Sulcia muelleri." Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and "Ca. Sulcia muelleri" colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A; Hanboonsong, Yupa



Development of dredged ash disposal area, Paradise fossil plant  

SciTech Connect

Paradise Steam-Electric Plant coal-fired facility in Muhlenberg County, Kentucky. This project is to construct a dredge pond near the Jacobs Creek ash pond capable of storing fly ash dredged from the ash pond. This will provide approximately 10 years of additional fly ash storage in the fly ash pond. Effluent from the dredge pond will be returned to the Jacobs Creek ash pond for discharge to Jacobs Creek. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available



Saccharification and fermentation of sugar cane bagasse by Klebsiella oxytoca P2 containing chromosomally integrated genes encoding the Zymomonas mobilis ethanol pathway  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse is essential for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process which uses recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2 and Genencor Spezyme CE. Strain P2 has been genetically engineered to express Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding the ethanol pathway and retains the native ability to transport and metabolize cellobiose (minimizing the need for extracellular cellobiase). In SSF studies with this organism, both the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield were limited by saccharification at 10 and 20 filter paper units (FPU) g[sup [minus]1] acid-treated bagasse. Dilute slurries of biomass were converted to ethanol more efficiently (over 72% of theoretical yield) in simple batch fermentations than slurries containing high solids, albeit with the production of lower levels of ethanol. With high solids (i.e., 160 g acid-treated bagasse L[sup [minus]1]), a combination of 20 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse, preincubation under saccharification conditions, and additional grinding (to reduce particle size) were required to produce ca. 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1]. Alternatively, almost 40 g ethanol L[sup [minus]1] was produced with 10 FPU cellulase g[sup [minus]1] bagasse by incorporating a second saccharification step (no further enzyme addition) followed by a second inoculation and short fermentation. In this way, a theoretical ethanol yield of over 70% was achieved with the production of 20 g ethanol 800 FPU[sup [minus]1] of commercial cellulase.

Doran, J.B.; Aldrich, H.C.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science)



Differential Protein Expression in Sugarcane during Sugarcane-Sporisorium scitamineum Interaction Revealed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS  

PubMed Central

To understand the molecular basis of a specific plant-pathogen interaction, it is important to identify plant proteins that respond to the pathogen attack. Two sugarcane varieties, NCo376 and Ya71-374, were used in this study. By applying 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), the protein expression profile of sugarcane after inoculating with Sporisorium scitamineum was analyzed. In total, 23 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the functions of these 20 differential proteins were associated with such functions as photosynthesis, signal transduction, and disease resistance, while the function of the remaining three proteins was not determined. From above, we can assume that the protein regulatory network during the interaction between sugarcane and S. scitamineum is complicated. This represents the first proteomic investigation focused on highlighting the alterations of the protein expression profile in sugarcane exposed to S. scitamineum, and it provides reference information on sugarcane response to S. scitamineum stress at the protein level.

Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping; Lin, Jianwei; Ruan, Miaohong; Zhang, Muqing; Chen, Rukai



Differential Protein Expression in Sugarcane during Sugarcane-Sporisorium scitamineum Interaction Revealed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS.  


To understand the molecular basis of a specific plant-pathogen interaction, it is important to identify plant proteins that respond to the pathogen attack. Two sugarcane varieties, NCo376 and Ya71-374, were used in this study. By applying 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), the protein expression profile of sugarcane after inoculating with Sporisorium scitamineum was analyzed. In total, 23 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the functions of these 20 differential proteins were associated with such functions as photosynthesis, signal transduction, and disease resistance, while the function of the remaining three proteins was not determined. From above, we can assume that the protein regulatory network during the interaction between sugarcane and S. scitamineum is complicated. This represents the first proteomic investigation focused on highlighting the alterations of the protein expression profile in sugarcane exposed to S. scitamineum, and it provides reference information on sugarcane response to S. scitamineum stress at the protein level. PMID:21822403

Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping; Lin, Jianwei; Ruan, Miaohong; Zhang, Muqing; Chen, Rukai




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Louisiana sugarcane producers continue to face increased economic pressure. Growers must find ways to decrease costs and maximize profits, while minimizing potential negative environmental impacts. Precision agriculture, specifically, variable rate lime and fertilizer application, may offer an impor...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High resolution, hyperspectral leaf reflectance and pigment measurements was evaluated as a potential tool to aid in the identification and delineation of commercial sugarcane varieties (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.), noble canes (Saccharum officinarum L.) and wild canes (Saccharum sponta...


Polyphasic characterization of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates obtained from different sugarcane varieties  

PubMed Central

A polyphasic approach was applied to characterize 35 G. diazotrophicus isolates obtained from sugarcane varieties cultivated in Brazil. The isolates were analyzed by phenotypic (use of different carbon sources) and genotypic tests (ARDRA and RISA–RFLP techniques). Variability among the isolates was observed in relation to the carbon source use preference. Glucose and sucrose were used by all isolates in contrast to myo-inositol, galactose and ribose that were not metabolized. The results of the analysis showed the presence of two groups clustered at 68% of similarity. The genetic distance was higher when RISA-RFLP analysis was used. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from isolates showed that all of them belonged to the G. diazotrophicus species. Neither effect of the plant part nor sugarcane variety was observed during the cluster analysis. The observed metabolic and genetic variability will be helpful during the strain selection studies for sugarcane inoculation in association with sugarcane breeding programs.

Guedes, Helma V.; dos Santos, Samuel T.; Perin, Liamara; Teixeira, Katia R. dos S.; Reis, Veronica M.; Baldani, Jose I.



Current knowledge and practices related to seed transmission of sugarcane pathogens and movement of seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane breeding programs benefit from sharing genetic resources. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by exchanging vegetative planting material of clones of interest. Diseases can spread during this process, and quarantines were established to enable continued sharing of germplasm while min...


Evaluation of Crop and Soil Spatial Variability in Louisiana Sugarcane Production Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Louisiana sugarcane producers, like most U.S. agricultural producers, have faced increased economic pressure in recent years. Low sugar prices have decreased profit margins significantly. Growers must find ways to decrease costs and maximize profits. Precision Agriculture, specifically, variable ...


Herbicide Effects on Sugarcane Growth, Pythium Root Rot, and Pythium arrhenomanes.  


ABSTRACT Six herbicides were evaluated for their effects on Pythium root rot and growth of sugarcane in greenhouse experiments and on in vitro mycelial growth rate of Pythium arrhenomanes. Pendimethalin and atrazine were most inhibitory to mycelial growth, but neither reduced root rot severity. Asulam, atrazine, and metribuzin were not phytotoxic to sugarcane and did not affect root rot symptom severity in clay loam or silt loam field soils. Atrazine and metribuzin increased shoot number, and atrazine increased total shoot weight for treated plants in silt loam soil. Glyphosate, pendimethalin, and terbacil were phytotoxic to sugarcane. These herbicides increased root rot severity, but the extent to which growth reductions resulted from increased disease severity or from direct herbicide injury was not clear. Adverse effects on plant growth and root rot severity were greater in clay loam than in silt loam soil. The results suggest that sugarcane injury from some herbicides is compounded by increased severity of root rot. PMID:18944905

Dissanayake, N; Hoy, J W; Griffin, J L



A Comparison of Conventional and Variable Rate Lime Application Methods in South Louisiana Sugarcane Fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Louisiana sugarcane producers continue to face increased economic pressure. Growers must find ways to decrease costs and maximize profits, while minimizing potential negative environmental impacts. Precision agriculture, specifically, variable rate lime and fertilizer application, may offer an imp...



EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of research to develop a technique for predicting: the electrical resistivity of fly ash from as-received, ultimate coal analysis; and the chemical composition of the concomitant coal ash produced by simple laboratory ignition. Important chemical factors ...



Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in greater than 2,500 square miles of southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario; more recent infestations were found in Ohio, Maryland, and Virginia in 2003. Federal and state agencies adopted a strategy of

Houping Liu; Toby R. Petrice; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao




EPA Science Inventory

The ability of various additives to improve the dewaterability of activated sludge was determined and the surface properties of additives characterized in order to arrive at a mechanism for ash conditioning of activated sludge. The primary additives investigated were fly ash and ...


Treatment of wood ash containing soluble chromate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “TA Siedlungsabfall” issued in Germany in May 1993 will entail severe problems concerning the disposal of wood ash. One particular problem is associated with the occurrence of soluble chromium compounds in the leachates of wood ash. During combustion of wood, wood residues or waste wood, Cr-III which is generally found in wood is partly oxidized to Cr-VI. Under the

K. Pohlandt-Schwandt



Wood ash disposal and recycling sourcebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents information on thirteen different methods of using or disposing of wood ash in Section III. Discussion concentrates on agricultural landspreading and landfilling since these two methods account for the disposition of about 95% of the wood ash produced at present in the Northeast. The thirteen disposal options include spreading on agricultural lands, landfilling, a sewage sludge composting





EPA Science Inventory

To determine pulmonary deposition, translocation, and clearance of inhaled fly ash, hamsters received a single 95-min nose-only exposure to neutron-activated fly ash. Over a period of 99 days postexposure, the hamsters were sacrificed in groups of six animals. Lungs, liver, kidne...


Scientists Outline Volcanic Ash Risks to Aviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ash clouds that belched out of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano last spring and dispersed over much of Europe, temporarily paralyzing aviation, were vast smoke signal warnings about the hazard that volcanic ash poses for air traffic around the world. At a 15 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, two experts with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) presented an overview of the damage airplanes can sustain from rock fragment- and mineral fragment-laden ash, an update on efforts to mitigate the hazard of ash, and an outline of further measures that are needed to address the problem. Between 1953 and 2009, there were 129 reported encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds, according to a newly released USGS document cited at the briefing. The report, “Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds: A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009,” by Marianne Guffanti, Thomas Casadevall, and Karin Budding, indicates that 26 encounters involved significant damage to the airplanes; nine of those incidents resulted in engine shutdown during flight. The report, which does not focus on the effects on airplanes of cumulative exposure to dilute ash and does not include data since 2009, indicates that “ash clouds continue to pose substantial risks to safe and efficient air travel globally.”

Showstack, Randy



Modulus for the coal ash. Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This summary outlined the procedure for obtaining a modulus to determine the effects of varying ash content. This modulus was to indicate the relative amounts of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide after addition of alkalais or alkaline-earth constituents found in catalysts. The calculation of the modulus was based upon stoichiometric ratios of these oxides to other major components of ash



Submicron ash formation from coal combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, fine particles have been found to be the cause of various harmful effects on health, and many countries have imposed restrictions on emission of these particles. Fine ash particles are formed during coal combustion in power stations and, if not collected in the air pollution control devices, are emitted into the atmosphere. The fine ash particles can

B. J. P. Buhre; J. T. Hinkley; R. P. Gupta; T. F. Wall; P. F. Nelson



AsH3 ultraviolet photochemistry.  


High-n Rydberg time-of-flight spectroscopy has been used to study the 193.3 nm photolysis of AsH(3). The center-of-mass translational energy distribution for the 1-photon process, AsH(3) + h nu --> AsH(2) + H, P(E(c.m.)), indicates that AsH(2) internal excitation accounts for approximately 64% of the available energy [i.e., h nu - D(0)(H(2)As - H)]. Secondary AsH(2) photodissociation also takes place. Analyses of superimposed structure atop the broad P(E(c.m.)) distribution suggest that AsH(2) is formed with significant a-axis rotation as well as bending excitation. Comparison of the results obtained with AsH(3) versus those of the lighter group-V hydrides (NH(3), PH(3)) lends support to the proposed mechanisms. Of the group-V hydrides, AsH(3) lies intermediate between the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes, requiring high-level electronic structure theory. PMID:19191739

Smith-Freeman, L A; Schroeder, W P; Wittig, C



Application of coal ash to environmental improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in population and economic growth have led to an increase in energy demand. Coal reserves are distributed worldwide, and coal is now known to be the most stable and available energy source. However, utilization of coal as an energy source involves the generation of a great amount of coal ash, and the recycling rate of the ash

Ryunosuke Kikuchi



Slagging behaviour of peat ash  

SciTech Connect

The use of peat for energy production in Finland dates back to early 1970`s. For the present, the peat combustion is responsible for over 5% of the energy production in Finland. Many of the major Finnish power plants still use pulverized fuel, but the utilization of fluidized bed boilers is rapidly increasing. Boilers of this type are best suited for fuel with a low energy value because the increased efficiency is beneficial for the community heat distribution. The Toppila power plant of Oulu Energy Company in the city of Oulu, Finland has two units. The older one, Toppila I, is a 250 MW boiler using pulverized peat as fuel. The new Toppila II boiler is a 310 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The power plant uses 15 000 m{sup 3} of peat per day with full load. The stagging behavior of peat ash varies depending on the bog peat is ogirinating. The plant shutdown because of extensive stagging may cause significant economical losses in the entire chain of energy production. Therefore the stagging behaviour of peat ash needs to be predicted already from peat prior to its combustion.

Heikkinen, R.; Laitinen, R.S.; Patrikainen, T.; Tiainen, T. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)] [and others



Aggregation Pheromones and Host Kairomones of West Indian Sugarcane Weevil, Metamasius hemipterus sericeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS) of volatiles produced by male and female West Indian sugarcane weevils (WISW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Oliv.), revealed eight male specific, EAD-active compounds: 3-pentanol (1), 2-methyl-4-heptanol (2), 2-methyl-4-octanol (3), 4-methyl-5-nonanol (4), and the corresponding ketones. In field experiments in Florida, alcohols 1–4 in combination with sugarcane were most attractive, whereas

A. L. Perez; Y. Campos; C. M. Chinchilla; A. C. Oehlschlager; G. Gries; R. Gries; R. M. Giblin-Davis; G. Castrillo; J. E. Peña; R. E. Duncan; L. M. Gonzalez; R. McDonald; R. Andrade



Regression analysis for the sorption isotherms of basic dyes on sugarcane dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of three basic dyes, named basic violet 10, basic violet 1, and basic green 4, from aqueous solutions onto sugarcane dust was studied. The results revealed the potential of sugarcane dust, a waste material, to be a low-cost sorbent. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the three-parameter Redlich–Peterson isotherms. In order to determine the

Yuh-Shan Ho; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chung-Chi Wang



Contribution of green and farm yard manure in the nitrogen nutrition of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiment were conducted to evaluate the amount of nitrogen contributed by various organic fertilisers to the N-nutrition\\u000a of a growing sugarcane crop, at the sugarcane research farm of National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI) in 1999 and 2000.\\u000a The objective was to provide alternative source of nutrients in response to the scarcity and high cost of inorganic fertiliser\\u000a often experienced by

A. K. Gana; L. D. Busari



Induction of systemic resistance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria against red rot disease in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) belonging to fluorescent pseudomonads group were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere.\\u000a Selected strains were studied for the induced systemic resistance (ISR) againstColletotrichum falcatum Went causing red rot disease in the sugarcane stalks by three different resistance evaluation methods. The talc based formulations\\u000a of the PGPR strains were prepared and applied through different methods and in different

R. Viswanathan; R. Samiyappan



Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.  


Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel production in developing countries such as Brazil. Finally, we support the inclusion of environmental values in the price of biofuels in order to discourage excessive replacement of natural ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, and pasture by bioenergy crops. PMID:18536250

Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange



High fructose formation from sugarcane syrup and molasses using Zymomonas mobilis mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fructose recovery yields were obtained using sugarcane syrup and C-molasses (equal to blackstrap molasses) and a fructokinase negative mutant ofZymomonas mobilis. The fructose recovery was 95.7% with sugarcane syrup and 99.4% with 300 g\\/L C-molasses or mixtures of both. High fructose corn syrup of a 48\\/52 mixture of glucose and fructose gave only a 65–70% fructose recovery due to

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle



Ethanol Production: Energy and Economic Issues Related to U.S. and Brazilian Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a thorough and up-to-date evaluation of all the fossil energy costs of ethanol production from sugarcane in both the U.S.\\u000a and Brazil, every energy input in the biomass production and ultimate conversion process must be included. In this study,\\u000a more than 12 energy inputs in average U.S. and Brazilian sugarcane production are evaluated. Then in the fermentation\\/distillation\\u000a operation, nine

David Pimentel; Tad Patzek



Identification of genes responsive to the application of ethanol on sugarcane leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of gene expression in precise time and space is a desirable attribute of chemically inducible systems. Ethanol\\u000a is a chemical inducer with favourable features, such as being inexpensive and easy to apply. The aim of this study was to\\u000a identify ethanol-responsive genes in sugarcane. The cDNA macroarray technique was adopted to identify transcript changes in\\u000a sugarcane leaves (Saccharum

Sandra R. Camargo; Geraldo M. A. Cançado; Eugênio C. Ulian; Marcelo Menossi



An improved way to determine nitrogen fertiliser requirements of sugarcane crops to meet global environmental challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) fertiliser management is increasingly important in sugarcane production as imperatives to reduce environmental\\u000a impacts of N escalate. In this paper we report testing of a new concept for N management in sugarcane, the N Replacement system.\\u000a This system relies on soil N cycling to ‘buffer’ differences in crop N needs and N fertiliser supply to individual crops,\\u000a and

P. J. Thorburn; J. S. Biggs; A. J. Webster; I. M. Biggs



Assessing the in vitro zinc solubilization potential and improving sugarcane growth by inoculating Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an endophytic diazotroph of sugarcane that has been reported to possess various plant growth-promoting characteristics.\\u000a We have assessed the zinc (Zn) solubilization potential of G. diazotrophicus isolates under in vitro conditions (plate and broth assay) with different Zn compounds (ZnO, ZnCO3, and ZnSO4) and by the improvement of sugarcane growth following inoculation. The soluble Zn present in

S. Esath Natheer; Somasundaram Muthukkaruppan


Using the APSIM model to estimate nitrous oxide emissions from diverse Australian sugarcane production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is an important crop in the tropics and sub-tropics and its production requires very high rates of nitrogen (N) fertiliser. This N use, together with the warm, wet environment in which it grows, produces a high potential for emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils. The few measurements of N2O emitted from sugarcane are higher than

P. J. Thorburn; J. S. Biggs; K. Collins; M. E. Probert



Improving Sugarcane Growth and Nutrient Uptake by Inoculating Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven Gluconacetobacter  diazotrophicus strains from sugarcane roots were screened for their efficiency to promote growth and nutrient uptake in sugarcane at three\\u000a levels of urea N (0, 75, and 150 kg N ha?1). Inoculation by these strains improved germination, tiller number and plant height. N-uptake and apparent N-recovery increased\\u000a due to inoculation and the effect was more at N75 level. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolate

Archna Suman; Asha Gaur; A. K. Shrivastava; R. L. Yadav



SDS and Native page protein profile for identification and characterization of elite sugarcane genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic markers provided by protein and enzyme polymorphism in plant population have been used to assess the degree of\\u000a genetic variability and species relationship. Electrophoretic protein analysis holds potential utility in breeding programmes\\u000a of sugarcane through helping in the unequivocal characterization of varieties used. Nine sugarcane cultivars were characterized\\u000a by analyzing protein polymorphism in leaf tissues through SDS and

Sangeeta Srivastava; Prashant Shekhar Gupta



Screening for and heritability of flood-tolerance in the Florida (CP) sugarcane breeding population  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment screening for flood-tolerance and estimating the heritability of flood-tolerance was conducted on 160 sugarcane clones in the Canal Point, Florida, USA sugarcane breeding population. Clones were grown in two environments, a drained control and a continuous, five-month flood. The test ran for two crop years, plant-cane and first ratoon. A wide range of production was observed, with some

C. W. Deren; G. H. Snyder; J. D. Miller; P. S. Porter



Functional markers for gene mapping and genetic diversity studies in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The database of sugarcane expressed sequence tags (EST) offers a great opportunity for developing molecular markers that are\\u000a directly associated with important agronomic traits. The development of new EST-SSR markers represents an important tool for\\u000a genetic analysis. In sugarcane breeding programs, functional markers can be used to accelerate the process and select important\\u000a agronomic traits, especially in the mapping of

Thiago G Marconi; Estela A Costa; Hercília RCAN Miranda; Melina C Mancini; Cláudio B Cardoso-Silva; Karine M Oliveira; Luciana R Pinto; Marcelo Mollinari; Antônio AF Garcia; Anete P Souza