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1

Vacuum pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide background data on sugarcane bagasse vacuum pyrolysis. Product yields and properties were investigated. Vacuum pyrolysis tests were performed at bench and pilot plant scales. The bagasse finest particles with a diameter smaller than 450 ?m were removed in order to overcome difficulties caused by their low density and high ash content. In

Abdelkader Chaala; Christian Roy

2002-01-01

2

Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.  

PubMed

Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

2010-05-01

3

Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

2011-10-01

4

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

SciTech Connect

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

1981-08-01

5

Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

2010-11-01

6

Xylitol recovery from fermented sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, obtained by acid hydrolysis, was fermented by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 to produce xylitol. Assays were made in order to determine the best conditions to clarify the fermented broth using activated carbon. The clarified medium was treated with ion-exchange resins after which xylitol crystallization was attempted. The best clarifying treatment was found by adding 25 g

P. V. Gurgel; I. M. Mancilha; R. P. Peçanha; J. F. M. Siqueira

1995-01-01

7

Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

8

Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on sugarcane bagasse  

SciTech Connect

The growth behavior of Cellulomonas has been examined in fermentation systems using alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse. During the batch operation diauxic growth was found which would not seem to be explained by catabolic repression. The relative variation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fermentation process suggests the initial utilization of easily degradable substrate, i.e., hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose, until their concentration becomes limiting, followed by utilization of the crystalline cellulose. The conversion of substrate was 70% with a yield of 0.355 g of biomass per gram of bagasse feed. (Refs. 13).

Enriquez, A.

1981-07-01

9

Biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus citrinopileatus.  

PubMed

The chemically as well as hot water treated agrowaste sugarcane bagasse was subjected to degradation by Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The fungus degraded lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and carbon content of both chemically as well as hot water treated waste and produced in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body. Biodegradation of the waste in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During mycelial growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the sugarcane bagasse decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated substrate supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrates. Degradation of the hot water treated sugarcane bagasse was better and faster than chemically treated substrates. PMID:23273185

Pandey, V K; Singh, M P; Srivastava, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Takshak, S

2012-01-01

10

Citric acid production by solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid state fermentation (SSF) method was used to produce citric acid by Aspergillus niger DS 1 using sugarcane bagasse as a carrier and sucrose or molasses based medium as a moistening agent. Initially bagasse and wheat bran were compared as carrier. Bagasse was the most suitable carrier, as it did not show agglomeration after moistening with medium, resulting in

D. Kumar; V. K. Jain; G. Shanker; A. Srivastava

2003-01-01

11

Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

2013-01-01

12

Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

1985-02-01

13

Xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was used for batch xylitol production in stirred tank reactor with Candida guilliermondii cells entrapped in Ca-alginate beads. Experiments were carried out using five-fold concentrated hydrolysate, agitation speed of 300rpm, air flowrate of 1.3lmin?1, initial cell concentration of 1.4gDMl?1, and starting pH 6.0. Xylitol production reached 47.5gl?1 within 120h of fermentation, resulting in a bioconversion yield of

W. Carvalho; J. C. Santos; L. Canilha; S. S. Silva; P. Perego; A. Converti

2005-01-01

14

An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

Elkoury, J.M.

1980-12-01

15

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

2013-10-28

16

PRELIMINARY LCA OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents the findings of a preliminary life-cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generated from the combustion of sugarcane bagasse in Queensland sugar mills. The aim of the study was to determine if bagasse-derived electricity provides any environmental benefits over the existing dominant source of electricity in Queensland (electricity derived from black coal), and to provide recommendations for an

Marguerite Renouf

17

Lime Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse for Bioethanol Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) is evaluated. The effect of lime pretreatment on digestibility\\u000a was studied through analyses using central composite design (response surface), considering pretreatment time, temperature,\\u000a and lime loading as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of glucose from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis.\\u000a Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes

Sarita C. Rabelo; Rubens Maciel Filho; Aline Carvalho Costa

2009-01-01

18

Lime pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) is evaluated. The effect of lime pretreatment on digestibility was studied through analyses using central composite design (response surface), considering pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of glucose from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/sugar factory (non-screened bagasse) and bagasse in the size range from 0.248 to 1.397 mm (screened bagasse) (12-60 mesh). It was observed that the particle size presented influence in the release of fermentable sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis using low loading of cellulase and beta-glucosidase (3.5 FPU/g dry pretreated biomass and 1.0 IU/g dry pretreated biomass, respectively). PMID:19050835

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline Carvalho

2009-05-01

19

Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of ?-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

2013-03-01

20

Sugarcane leaf-bagasse gasifiers for industrial heating applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the commercial-scale (1080 MJ h?1) development of a gasification system using low-density biomass, for thermal applications. The gasifier can handle fuels such as sugarcane leaves and bagasse, bajra stalks, sweet sorghum stalks and bagasse etc. The system was tested for > 700 h under laboratory conditions at 288–1080 MJ h?1 output levels. The HHV of the gas

Rajeev Jorapur; Anil K. Rajvanshi

1997-01-01

21

Generation of Energy from Sugarcane Bagasse by Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide harvest of sugarcane for sucrose production represents a major agricultural industry, with approximately Mt\\u000a 1500 produced annually. The cane yields about 13.5% of its weight as sugar, together with an equal amount (dry weight) of\\u000a fibrous bagasse as waste. The bagasse, which is predominantly cellulose, is burned at the mills to generate steam for sugar\\u000a processing. The global

B. R. Stanmore

2010-01-01

22

Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

2013-07-01

23

Co-pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse with petroleum residue. Part I: thermogravimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition under nitrogen of sugarcane bagasse, petroleum residue and their blends was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at different heating rates (10, 20, 40 and 60°C\\/min). Thermal decomposition kinetic parameters were determined. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis was described as the sum of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin individual contributions. First order equations were used to determine the bagasse component thermal decomposition kinetics.

A Chaala; J Yang; C Roy

2001-01-01

24

AZO DYE REMOVAL BY ADSORPTION USING WASTE BIOMASS: SUGARCANE BAGASSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are usually present in trace quantities in the treated effluents of many industries. The effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewaters has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. This study investigates the potential use of sugarcane bagasse, pretreated with formaldehyde and sulphuric acid, for the removal of methyl red, an azo dye from simulated

A. G. Liew Abdullah; Mohd Salleh; Siti Mazlina; M. J. Megat; Mohd Noor; M. R. Osman

25

Production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: Status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass is considered as the future feedstock for ethanol production because of its low cost and its huge availability. One of the major lignocellulosic materials found in great quantities to be considered, especially in tropical countries, is sugarcane bagasse (SCB). This work deals with its current and potential transformation to sugars and ethanol, considering pretreatment technologies, detoxification methods and

C. A. Cardona; J. A. Quintero; I. C. Paz

2010-01-01

26

Optimization of the Preparation Conditions for Activated Carbons from Sugarcane Bagasse: An Agricultural Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from sugarcane bagasse, an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with different reagents. Orthogonal experimental design was applied to study the influence of activation temperature, activation time and chemical ratio of reagents to sugarcane bagasse on the chemical activation process of sugarcane bagasse. The optimal activated carbon was obtained using impregnation ratio of 0.39-0.78%

Zelong Xu; Yinian Zhu; Meina Liang; Hua Zhang; Huili Liu

2011-01-01

27

Using high pressure processing (HPP) to pretreat sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

High pressure processing (HPP) technology was used to modify the structural composition of sugarcane bagasse. The effect of pressure (0, 150 and 250 MPa), time (5 and 10 min) and temperature (25 and 50 °C) as well as the addition of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and NaOH during the HPP treatment were assessed in terms of compositional analysis of the lignocellulosic fraction, structural changes and crystallinity of the bagasse. The effect of HPP pretreatment on the bagasse structure was also evaluated on the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse. Results showed that 68.62 and 45.84% of the hemicellulose fraction was degraded by pretreating at 250 MPa with sulfuric and phosphoric acids, respectively. The removal of lignin (54.10%) was higher with the HPP-NaOH treatment. The compacted lignocellulosic structure of the raw bagasse was modified by the HPP treatments and showed few cracks, tiny holes and some fragments flaked off from the surface. Structural changes were higher at 250 MPa and 50 °C. The X ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the raw bagasse showed a major diffraction peak of the cellulose crystallographic 2? planes ranging between 22 and 23°. The distribution of the crystalline structure of cellulose was affected by increasing the pressure level. The HPP treatment combined with NaOH 2% led to the higher glucose yield (25 g/L) compared to the combination of HPP with water and acids (>5 g/L). Results from this work suggest that HPP technology may be used to pretreat sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23987442

Castañón-Rodríguez, J F; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Montero-Lagunes, M; Portilla-Arias, J; Ramírez de León, J A; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

2013-10-15

28

Isolation and characterization of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different procedures for isolation of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) were comparatively studied. Sequential extractions of dewaxed SCB with water with or without ultrasonic irradiation, various concentrations of alkali and alkaline peroxide yielded 44.7 and 45.9% cellulose preparations, which contained 6.0 and 7.2% associated hemicelluloses and 3.4 and 3.9% bound lignin, respectively. Delignification with acidic sodium chlorite followed by

J. X Sun; X. F Sun; H Zhao; R. C Sun

2004-01-01

29

Dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at varying conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct of the cane sugar industry, is an abundant source of hemicellulose that could be hydrolyzed\\u000a to yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol and chemicals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration,\\u000a temperature, time, and dry matter concentration on hemicellulose hydrolysis were studied with a 20-L batch hydrolysis reactor\\u000a using a statistical experimental design.

Markus Neureiter; Herbert Danner; Christiane Thomasser; Bamusi Saidi; Rudolf Braun

2002-01-01

30

Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by C?C and C?O?C links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.

2013-03-01

31

Sugarcane bagasse as alternative packing material for biofiltration of benzene polluted gaseous streams: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of benzene vapor from gaseous streams was studied in two identically sized lab-scale biofiltration columns: one filled with a mixture of raw sugarcane bagasse and glass beads, and the other one packed with a mixture of ground sugarcane bagasse and glass beads, in the same volume ratio, as filter materials. Separate series of continuous tests were performed, in parallel,

L. Sene; A. Converti; M. G. A. Felipe; M. Zilli

2002-01-01

32

Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained with GC-pretreated bagasse is possibly due to the presence of one hydroxyl group in the GC molecular structure, resulting in more significant biomass delignification and defibrillation, though both solvent pretreatments reduced bagasse particles to a similar extent. The maximum glucan digestibility of GC/glycerol systems was less than that of EC/EG systems, which is likely attributed to glycerol being less effective than EG in biomass delignification and defibrillation. Acidified AC/AG solvent systems were more effective for pretreatment of lignin-containing biomass than MCC.

2013-01-01

33

Sugarcane bagasse as raw material and immobilization support for xylitol production.  

PubMed

Xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion was performed utilizing Candida guilliermondii immobilized in sugarcane bagasse and cultured in Erlenmeyer flasks using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as the source of xylose. Fermentations were carried out according to a factorial design, and the independent variables considered were treatment, average diameter, and amount of bagasse used as support for cell immobilization. By increasing the amount of support, the xylitol yield decreased, whereas the biomass yield increased. The diameter of the support did not influence xylitol production, and treatment of the bagasse with hexamethylene diamine prior to fermentation resulted in the highest amount of immobilized cells. PMID:15920271

Santos, Júlio C; Pinto, Icaro R G; Carvalho, Walter; Mancilha, Ismael M; Felipe, Maria G A; Silva, Silvio S

2005-01-01

34

Sonication Boost the Total Reducing Sugar (TRS) Extraction from Sugarcane Bagasse After Dilute Acid Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to explore the non-conventional as well as renewable energy resources to meet the growing energy demand in\\u000a developing countries, like India. Sugarcane is the second largest agricultural product, which can provide the ample source\\u000a of bagasse as a waste-biomass for the extraction of fermentable sugar. Sugarcane bagasse is an abandoned source of total reducing\\u000a sugar (TRS) for

Saurav Bhattacharyya; Siddhartha Datta; Chiranjib Bhattacharjee

35

Xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by Candida tropicalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural isolate, Candida tropicalis was tested for xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates. Fermentation of corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate showed xylose uptake and xylitol production, though these were very low, even after hydrolysate neutralization and treatments with activated charcoal and ion exchange resins. Initial xylitol production was found to be 0.43g\\/g and 0.45g\\/g of

R. Sreenivas Rao; Ch. Pavana Jyothi; R. S. Prakasham; P. N. Sarma; L. Venkateswar Rao

2006-01-01

36

Steam explosion of sugarcane bagasse as a pretreatment for conversion to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Hawaii is interested in converting the large volume of agricultural residues, principally sugarcane bagasse, that is generated in the state into transportation fuels. One of the technologies that is currently being evaluated is steam explosion as a pretreatment for conversion of the bagasse into ethanol. In order to identify the optimum conditions of the steam explosion cycle,

W. E. Kaar; C. V. Gutierrez; C. M. Kinoshita

1998-01-01

37

Wet oxidation as a pretreatment method for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of six different conditions of wet oxidation (WO) pretreatment on fractionation and enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse was investigated. WO resulted in an increase of cellulose content of bagasse as a result of the solubilisation of hemicelluloses and lignin. The highest cellulose content, nearly 70%, was obtained in the pretreatment at 195°C, 15min and alkaline pH. Pretreatments at

Carlos Martín; Helene B. Klinke; Anne Belinda Thomsen

2007-01-01

38

Optimization of steam explosion as a method for increasing susceptibility of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic saccharification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of autohydrolysis steam explosion was examined as a means for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Treatment conditions were optimized so that following enzymatic hydrolysis, pretreated bagasse would give 65.1 g sugars\\/100 g starting bagasse. Released sugars comprised 38.9 g glucose, 0.6 g cellobiose, 22.1 g xylose, and 3.5 g arabinose, and were equivalent to 83% of the anhydroglucan and

P. J. Morjanoff; P. P. Gray

1987-01-01

39

CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBONS PREPARED FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE BY ZnCl2 ACTIVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons were prepared from the agricultural waste of sugarcane bagasse by the chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) at the activation temperature of 500°C with soaking time of 0.5 hour. The influence of activation parameters on the final carbon products was examined by varying the impregnation ratio (i.e., mass ratio of added ZnCl2 to bagasse) and bagasse size. The

W. T. Tsai; C. Y. Chang; M. C. Lin; S. F. Chien; H. F. Sun; M. F. Hsieh

2001-01-01

40

Study of structural modification of sugarcane bagasse employing hydrothermal treatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the cellulosic ethanol is an important alternative way to many liquid biofuels using renewable biomass rich in polysaccharides. To be used as feedstock for ethanol production, the bagasse needs to be pretreated in order to expose its main constitutive. The present work proposes the use of different pretreatment processes to better expose the cellulose for hydrolysis and fermentation. In the present paper the sugarcane bagasse was submitted to a hydrothermal pretreatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). An RF microplasma torch was employed as APPs in Ar and Ar/O2 mixing. The bagasse was treated in discharge and post-discharge regions. The position and time of treatment was varied as well as the gas mixture. The quantity of polysaccharides was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed the release of a fraction of the hemicelluloses in the sugarcane bagasse. Modifications in the surface of the sugarcane fibers were monitored by employing scanning electron microscopy.

Amorim, Jayr; Pimenta, Maria Teresa; Gurgel, Leandro; Squina, Fabio; Souza-Correa, Jorge; Curvelo, Antonio

2009-10-01

41

Hydration of bagasse ash-blended portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydration of bagasse ash (BA)-blended portland cement has been studied by employing a number of experimental techniques. It is found that in presence of BA setting times are increased and free lime is decreased. The compressive strength values increased with hydration time in the presence of BA and the values were found to be higher than that of control. The

N. B Singh; V. D Singh; Sarita Rai

2000-01-01

42

Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods. PMID:22864427

Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

2012-01-01

43

The surface reactivity and implied toxicity of ash produced from sugarcane burning.  

PubMed

Sugarcane combustion generates fine-grained particulate that has the potential to be a respiratory health hazard because of its grain size and composition. In particular, conversion of amorphous silica to crystalline forms during burning may provide a source of toxic particles. In this study, we investigate and evaluate the toxicity of sugarcane ash and bagasse ash formed from commercial sugarcane burning. Experiments to determine the main physicochemical properties of the particles, known to modulate biological responses, were combined with cellular toxicity assays to gain insight into the potential reactions that could occur at the particle-lung interface following inhalation. The specific surface area of the particles ranged from ?16 to 90 m(2) g(-1) . The samples did not generate hydroxyl- or carbon-centered radicals in cell-free tests. However, all samples were able to 'scavenge' an external source of hydroxyl radicals, which may be indicative of defects on the particle surfaces that may interfere with cellular processes. The bioavailable iron on the particle surfaces was low (2-3 ?mol m(-2) ), indicating a low propensity for iron-catalyzed radical generation. The sample surfaces were all hydrophilic and slightly acidic, which may be due to the presence of oxygenated (functional) groups. The ability to cause oxidative stress and membrane rupture in red blood cells (hemolysis) was found to be low, indicating that the samples are not toxic by the mechanisms tested. Cytotoxicity of sugarcane ash was observed, by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release, after incubation of relatively high concentrations of ash with murine alveolar macrophage cells. All samples induced nitrogen oxide release (although only at very high concentrations) and reactive oxygen species generation (although the bagasse samples were less potent than the sugarcane ash). However, the samples induced significantly lower cytotoxic effects and nitrogen oxide generation when compared with the positive control. PMID:22431484

Le Blond, Jennifer S; Tomatis, Maura; Horwell, Claire J; Dunster, Christina; Murphy, Fiona; Corazzari, Ingrid; Grendene, Francesca; Turci, Francesco; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive; Fubini, Bice

2014-05-01

44

Enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis by subcritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Most biomass pretreatment processes for sugar production are run at low-solid concentration (<10wt.%). Subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) could provide a more sustainable pretreatment medium while using relative high-solid contents (15wt.%). The effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to the solid and glucan recoveries at different pretreatment conditions were investigated. Subsequently, enzymatic hydrolysis at different hydrolysis time was applied to obtain maximal glucose yield, which can be used for ethanol fermentation. The maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 38.5g based on 100g raw material after 72h of enzymatic hydrolysis, representing 93.0% glucose in sugarcane bagasse. The enhanced digestibilities of subcritical CO2 pretreated sugarcane bagasse were due to the removal of hemicellulose, which were confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA analyses. PMID:24603488

Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

2014-04-01

45

Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by using microwave heating.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to research the catalytic effects on the microwave pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and thus to discuss the reaction performance, product distribution, and kinetic analysis. With the addition of metal-oxides served as catalysts, reaction results such as mass reduction ratio and reaction rate increased, even the maximum temperature decreased. Adding either NiO or CaO slightly increased the production of H2, while adding either CuO or MgO slightly decreased it. The addition of either CaO or MgO enhanced the gaseous production, and either NiO or CuO addition enhanced the liquid production. There could be several secondary reactions such as self-gasification and interactions among the gases originally produced during the pyrolysis stage to alter the composition of gaseous product and the final three-phase product distribution. The catalyst addition slightly increased the activation energy but greatly increased the pre-exponential factor. PMID:23948270

Kuan, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Fong; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lo, Shang-Lien

2013-10-01

46

Cell immobilization and xylitol production using sugarcane bagasse as raw material.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse pretreated by three different procedures (with 2% [v/v] polyethyleneimine (PEI), with 2% [w/v] NaOH, or with a sequence of NaOH and PEI) was used as cell immobilization carrier for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii yeast. Fermentations using these pretreated carriers were performed in semidefined medium and in a hydrolysate medium produced from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose. Sugarcane bagasse pretreated with NaOH was the best carrier obtained with respect to immobilization efficiency, because it was able to immobilize a major quantity of cells (0.30 g of cells/g of bagasse). Fermentation in semidefined medium using the NaOH-pretreated carrier attained a high efficiency of xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion (96% of the theoretical value). From hydrolysate medium, the bioconversion efficiency was lower (63%), probably owing to the presence of other substances in the medium that caused an inadequate mass transfer to the cells. In this fermentation medium, better results with relation to xylitol production were obtained by using PEI-pretreated carrier (xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion of 81% of the theoretical and volumetric productivity of 0.43 g/[L.h]). The results showed that sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost material with great potential for use as cell immobilization carrier in the fermentative process for xylitol production. PMID:18025553

Silva, Silvio S; Mussatto, Solange I; Santos, Júlio C; Santos, Diego T; Polizel, Juliana

2007-01-01

47

The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse. PMID:21680181

Griffin, G J

2011-09-01

48

Physicochemical Study of Bagasse and Bagasse Ash from the Sugar Industries of NWFP Pakistan and Remediation of Environmental Problems Caused by Refused Bagasse Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bagasse ash from the local sugar mills of NWFP (Pakistan) has been analyzed both physically and chemically. The moisture,\\u000a ash contents, loss on ignition (LOI), volatile matter and calorific value have been determined. The qualitative and quantitative\\u000a analysis was carried out by x-ray flourimeter (XRF) and carbon sulfur detector. The physical parameters were determined by\\u000a thermogravemetric analyzer (TGA) and bomb

Khurshid Ali; Noor-ul-Amin; Tahir Shah

49

Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethanol production from the sugars contained in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the yeast Pichia stipitis DSM 3651. The fermentations were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyers with 100 mL of medium incubated at 200 rpm and 30 degrees C for 120 h. The medium was composed by raw (non-detoxified) hydrolysate or by hydrolysates detoxified by pH alteration followed by active charcoal adsorption or by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, all of them supplemented with yeast extract (3 g/L), malt extract (3 g/L), and peptone (5 g/L). The initial concentration of cells was 3 g/L. According to the results, the detoxification procedures removed inhibitory compounds from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate and, thus, improved the bioconversion of the sugars into ethanol. The fermentation using the non-detoxified hydrolysate led to 4.9 g/L ethanol in 120 h, with a yield of 0.20 g/g and a productivity of 0.04 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by pH alteration and active charcoal adsorption led to 6.1 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.13 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, in turn, provided 7.5 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.16 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:19802721

Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida; Silva, João Batista de Almeida e; Giulietti, Marco

2010-05-01

50

Aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose and production of xylose syrup  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the optimum level of severity, the aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse, an abundant agricultural residue, gave, depending on the degree of comminution, 60% to 89% yield of xylose, most of it in the form of a water soluble xylan. A process for producing xylose-rich syrups was conceived and tested, consisting of aqueous extraction, acid hydrolysis of the concentrated aqueous

M. Saska; E. Ozer

1995-01-01

51

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate.  

PubMed

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. PMID:25059876

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Matsushika, Akinori

2014-01-01

52

Adsorption Performances of Cationic Dyes from Aqueous Solution on Pyromellitic Dianhydride Modified Sugarcane Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was prepared through a simple method to remove two cationic dyes: methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Adsorption performances of MB and MG on the modified sorbent were investigated in details. The adsorption capacities of the modified SCB for MB and MG were 571.4 and

Jun-xia Yu; Ru-an Chi; Zheng-yan He; Ya-feng Qi

2011-01-01

53

Ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysates of sugarcane bagasse using recombinant xylose-utilising Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated by steam explosion at 205 and 215°C and hydrolysed with cellulolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates were subjected to enzymatic detoxification by treatment with the phenoloxidase laccase and to chemical detoxification by overliming. Approximately 80% of the phenolic compounds were specifically removed by the laccase treatment. Overliming partially removed the phenolic compounds, but also other fermentation inhibitors such

Carlos Mart??n; Mats Galbe; C. Fredrik Wahlbom; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Leif J Jönsson

2002-01-01

54

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes.

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu

2014-01-01

55

Metabolic study of the adaptation of the yeast Candida guilliermondii to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Candida guilliermondii was performed by progressively adapting the cells to the medium. Samples were analyzed to monitor sugar and acetic acid consumption, xylitol, arabitol, ethanol, and carbon dioxide production, as well as cell growth. Both xylitol yield and volumetric productivity remarkably increased with the number of adaptations, demonstrating that the more

L. Sene; A. Converti; M. Zilli; M. G. A. Felipe; S. S. Silva

2001-01-01

56

Laboratory and pilot scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by acidified aqueous glycerol solutions.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acidified aqueous glycerol solution was evaluated at both laboratory and pilot scales. Laboratory scale pretreatment (4.00 g dry mass in 40.00 g liquid) with glycerol solutions containing ? 20 wt.% water and 1.2 wt.% HCl at 130°C for 60 min resulted in biomass having glucan digestibilities of ? 88%. Comparable glucan enzymatic digestibility of 90% was achieved with bagasse pretreated at pilot scale (10 kg dry mass in 60 kg liquid) using a glycerol solution containing 0.4 wt.% HCl and 17 wt.% water at 130°C for 15 min. We attribute more efficient pretreatment at pilot scale (despite shorter reaction time and reduced acid content) to improved mixing and heat transfer in a horizontal reactor. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acid-catalysed glycerol solutions likely produces glycerol-glycosides, which together with hydrolysed lignin are potential substrates for the production of biopolymers. PMID:23612157

Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

2013-06-01

57

Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties. PMID:24104688

Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

2014-01-01

58

Mechanical Properties and Morphological Study of Fly-Ash-Bagasse Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the natural fiber epoxy composite has attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material. The natural fiber composites can be very cost effective material. In the present investigation the development of a Fly ash—Bagasse fiber composite material has been discussed. The Bagasse fiber has been used in two different sizes for the developed material. In two developed composites, diameter of Bagasse fiber has been varied between 13-16 ?m and 83-95 ?m in length. Correspondingly in other two developed composites; length of Bagasse fiber has been varied from 1 to 5 mm. It was observed that the density decreases by mixing the fiber was more as compared to the composite having both Bagasse fiber and Fly ash. A Bagasse fiber composite with size in the range of ?m exhibited better tensile strength than the composite having Bagasse fiber size in mm. The compressive strength of the material increases, if Fly ash alone is used for the composite material but, when Bagasse fiber was mixed with the Fly ash, it was found that there has been a decrease in the compressive strength. It was also observed that there has been a decrease in the flexural strength of the material by mixing the Bagasse fiber in the matrix. The microstructure of composite material was investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscope. The images from Scanning Electron Microscope demonstrated that the Fly ash and Bagasse fiber particles are uniformly distributed over the matrix.

Verma, Deepak; Gope, Prakash Chandra; Maheshwari, Mohit Kumar; Sharma, Ravinder Kumar

2012-10-01

59

A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

60

Optimization of steam explosion as a method for increasing susceptibility of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic saccharification  

SciTech Connect

The technique of autohydrolysis steam explosion was examined as a means for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Treatment conditions were optimized so that following enzymatic hydrolysis, pretreated bagasse would give 65.1 g sugars/100 g starting bagasse. Released sugars comprised 38.9 g glucose, 0.6 g cellobiose, 22.1 g xylose, and 3.5 g arabinose, and were equivalent to 83% of the anhydroglucan and 84% of the anhydroxylan content of untreated bagasse. Optimum conditions were treatment for 30 s with saturated steam at 220/sup 0/C with a water-to-solids ratio of 2 and the addition of 1 g H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//100 g dry bagasse. Bagasse treated in this manner was not inhibitory to fermentation by Saccharomyces uvarum except at low inoculum levels when fermentation time was extended by up to 24 h. Pretreated saccharified bagasse was inhibitory to Pachysolen tannophilus and this was attributed to the formation of acetate from the hydrolysis of acetyl groups present in the hemicullulose. The major advantage of the pretreatment is the achievement of high total sugar yield with moderate enzyme requirement and only minor losses due to sugar decomposition.

Morjanoff, P.J.; Gray, P.P.

1987-04-01

61

A comparison between lime and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2(3) factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse, as it comes from an alcohol/sugar factory and bagasse, in the size, range from 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that, when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for non-screened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 degrees C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of non-screened bagasse are not very different. PMID:18404254

Rabelo, Sarita C; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C

2008-01-01

62

A comparison between lime and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 x 2 x 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 degrees C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different. PMID:18767207

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

2008-03-01

63

Increase in ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse based on combined pretreatments and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was performed to investigate the production of ethanol. The sugarcane bagasse was pretreated in a process combining steam explosion and alkaline delignification. The lignin content decreased to 83%. Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolyses was initiated with 8% (w/v) solids loading, and 10 FPU/g cellulose. Then, 1% solids were fed at 12, 24 or 48 h intervals. After 120 h, the hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFPEDA 1238, and a fourfold increase in ethanol production was reached when fed-batch hydrolysis with a 12-h addition period was used for the steam pretreated and delignified bagasse. PMID:23201527

Wanderley, Maria Carolina de Albuquerque; Martín, Carlos; Rocha, George Jackson de Moraes; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

2013-01-01

64

Improvement of hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by soaking in aqueous ammonia and methanolic ammonia.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by soaking it in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and methanolic aqueous ammonia (SMAA) at 70 °C for 12 h. Then the pretreated as well as untreated bagasse was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 °C for 72 h by 15 FPU cellulase and 30 CBU cellobiase per g of substrate. The hydrolysis of SAA-pretreated bagasse with a solid to liquid (S:L) ratio of 1:10 resulted in 95.9% of the maximum theoretical yield. The production yield for SMAA at an S:L ratio of 1:6 with 15% methanol was 88.6%, while it was only 21.3% for the untreated bagasse. Ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was conducted at 37 °C for 72 h. The results revealed that the ethanol production yield was improved from 12.7% for the untreated bagasse to 92.45% and 90.8% for the SAA and the SMAA pretreated bagasse, respectively. The compositional and chemical structural analysis suggested that lignin removal and crystallinity reduction were responsible for the hydrolysis and SSF improvements. PMID:23832329

Hedayatkhah, Abolghasem; Motamedi, Hossein; Najafzadeh Varzi, Hossein; Ghezelbash, Gholamreza; Amopour Bahnamiry, Mostafa; Karimi, Keikhosro

2013-01-01

65

Removal of nitrite from aqueous solution using sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were applied for the removal of nitrite ions from water samples. Batch experiments were conducted to establish optimum pH (5), initial nitrite concentration (5 mg/L), adsorbent dose (3 mg/L) and contact time (90 min). Under the optimized conditions, raw sugarcane bagasse was found to be a more effective (removal efficiency 90 %) adsorbent in removing nitrite ions than wheat straw (removal efficiency 63 %). Adsorption isotherms and kinetic parameters were also studied. The correlation coefficient values for Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were 0.9625 and 0.9590, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption of nitrite fairly fits both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms for both adsorbents. The kinetics of the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetic model. PMID:24845426

Diriba, Dereje; Hussen, Ahmed; Rao, Vegi Maheswara

2014-07-01

66

Structural features and antioxidant activity of xylooligosaccharides enzymatically produced from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) were prepared from xylan-rich hemicelluloses isolated by potassium hydroxide from sugarcane bagasse by hydrolysis with crude xylanase secreted by Pichia stipitis. Hydrolysis for 12h produced XOS with a maximum yield of 31.8%, equivalent to 5.29 mg mL(-1) in the hydrolyzate. XOS with degrees of polymerization (DP) from 2 to 4 (xylobiose, xylotriose, and xylotetraose) were the major components in the hydrolysates, whereas the oligosaccharides with higher DP of 5-6 (xylopentaose and xylohexose) showed a constant low level. FT-IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC) demonstrated that XOS contained Araf and 4-O-Me-?-D-GlcpA residues. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that the XOS exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. The results obtained indicate that the XOS produced from sugarcane bagasse can be employed in food-related applications. PMID:23131647

Bian, Jing; Peng, Feng; Peng, Xiao-Peng; Peng, Pai; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2013-01-01

67

Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by liquid hot water pretreatment.  

PubMed

Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce promising biofuels. In this study, liquid hot water pretreatments were performed to break the intricate structure of sugarcane bagasse, which resists the enzyme accessibility to cellulose. The effects of temperatures and times on the hemicellulose degradation (including the yields of pentoses and hexoses, the proportion of monomers and oligosaccharides, as well as limited inhibitors) and cellulose enzymatic digestibility were evaluated. The results indicated that the maximum xylose yields (combined 3.85 g xylose and 13.21 g xylo-oligosaccharides per 100 g raw material) in prehydrolyzate liquid were obtained at 180 °C and 30 min. Due to the effective removal of hemicellulose, the maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 37.27 g per 100 g raw material, representing 90.13% of glucose in the sugarcane bagasse. The maximal total sugars yield (combined prehydrolyzate and enzymatic hydrolyzate) were 53.65 g based on 100 g raw material. PMID:23819975

Hongdan, Zhang; Shaohua, Xu; Shubin, Wu

2013-09-01

68

Alternative approach for utilization of pentose stream from sugarcane bagasse by an induced flocculent Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

A new approach for the utilization of hemicellulosic hydrolysate from sugarcane bagasse is described. This approach consists of using the hydrolysate to dilute the conventional feedstock (sugarcane juice) to the usual sugar concentration (150 g/L) employed for the industrial production of ethanol. The resulting sugar mixture was used as the substrate to evaluate the performance of a continuous reactor incorporating a cell recycle module, operated at several dilution rates. An induced flocculent pentose-fermenting yeast strain was used for this bioconversion. Under the conditions used, the reactor performance was satisfactory at substrate feed rates of 30 g/(L h) or less, corresponding to an ethanol productivity of about 11.0 g/(L h) and an overall sugar conversion >95%. These results show real advantages over the existing alternatives for a better exploitation of surplus bagasse to increase industrial alcohol production. PMID:12721434

de Castro, Heizir F; Oliveira, Samuel C; Furlan, Sandra A

2003-01-01

69

Adsorption Removal of COD from Wastewater by the Activated Carbons Prepared from Sugarcane Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activated carbons were prepared by soaking sugarcane bagasse in 0.39% AlCl3 solution and followed by carbonization in a charcoal kiln at 400 o C for 2 days and then by activation in a muffle furnace at 900°C for 100 minutes. The adsorption removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from molasses alcohol wastewater by the prepared activated carbons was then

Yan Pan; Yinian Zhu; Zelong Xu; Rongrong Lu; Zonglan Zhang; Meina Liang; Huili Liu

2011-01-01

70

Adsorption of polluting substances on activated carbons prepared from rice husk and sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice husk and sugarcane bagasse were chemically impregnated with ZnCl2 and carbonized at 700°C in a large-scale rotary furnace. The activated carbons (ACs) obtained had BET surface area of 811 and 864m2\\/g, respectively, and were essentially microporous. The adsorption of arsenic, humic acid, phenol and a municipal solid waste landfill leachate was examined. Both ACs showed the best adsorption behaviour

Dimitrios Kalderis; Dimitrios Koutoulakis; Panagiota Paraskeva; Evan Diamadopoulos; Emilia Otal; Joaquín Olivares del Valle; Constantino Fernández-Pereira

2008-01-01

71

Preparation of sugarcane bagasse cellulosic phthalate using an ionic liquid as reaction medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical modification of sugarcane bagasse cellulose with phthalic anhydride using 1-butyl-3-methylinidazolium chloride ionic liquid as reaction medium was studied. A series of phthalated cellulosic derivatives were prepared with a degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 0.12 to 2.54. It was found that the DS increased with reaction temperature from 85 to 100°C, molar ratio of phthalic anhydride\\/anhydroglucose units in

C. F. Liu; R. C. Sun; A. P. Zhang; J. L. Ren

2007-01-01

72

Optimization of inulinase production by solid-state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of enzymes by bioprocesses is a good alternative to add value to agroindustry residues. Sugarcane bagasse is an abundant by-product of sugar industry and was tested as support and carbon source for production of inulinase (2,1-?-d-fructanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571 by solid-state fermentation. Corn steep liquor was used as nitrogen supplement. Factorial design and response

Marcio Mazutti; João Paulo Bender; Helen Treichel; Marco Di Luccio

2006-01-01

73

Detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate improves ethanol production by Candida shehatae NCIM 3501  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with 2.5% (v\\/v) HCl yielded 30.29g\\/L total reducing sugars along with various fermentation inhibitors such as furans, phenolics and acetic acid. The acid hydrolysate when treated with anion exchange resin brought about maximum reduction in furans (63.4%) and total phenolics (75.8%). Treatment of hydrolysate with activated charcoal caused 38.7% and 57.5% reduction in furans and total phenolics,

Anuj Kumar Chandel; Rajeev Kumar Kapoor; Ajay Singh; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2007-01-01

74

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to remove or reduce the concentrations of toxic substances present in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate\\u000a for xyloseto-xylitol bioconversion, the hydrolysate was pretreated by changing the initial pH level through the combination\\u000a of different bases and acids with or without the subsequent addition of activated charcoal. Attention was given to the influence\\u000a of the fermentation time as well.

Lourdes A. Alves; Maria G. A. Felipe; JoÃo B. Almeida E. Silva; Silvio S. Silva; Arnaldo M. R. Prata

1998-01-01

75

Use of immobilized Candida yeast cells for xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida guilliermondii cells were immobilized in Ca-alginate beads and used for xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.\\u000a A full factorial design was employed to determine whether variations in the immobilization conditions would have any effects\\u000a on the beads, chemical stability and on the xylitol production rates. Duplicate fermentation runs were carried out in 125-mL\\u000a Erlenmeyer flasks maintained in a

Walter Carvalho; Silvio S. Silva; Attilio Converti; Michele Vitolo; Maria G. A. Felipe; Ines C. Roberto; Messias B. Silva; Ismael M. Mancilha

2002-01-01

76

Atmospheric pressure plasma pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse: the influence of moisture in the ozonation process.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse samples were pretreated with ozone via atmospheric O2 pressure plasma. A delignification efficiency of approximately 80 % was observed within 6 h of treatment. Some hemicelluloses were removed, and the cellulose was not affected by ozonolysis. The quantity of moisture in the bagasse had a large influence on delignification and saccharification after ozonation pretreatment of the bagasse, where 50 % moisture content was found to be best for delignification (65 % of the cellulose was converted into glucose). Optical absorption spectroscopy was applied to determine ozone concentrations in real time. The ozone consumption as a function of the delignification process revealed two main reaction phases, as the ozone molecules cleave the strong carbon-carbon bonds of aromatic rings more slowly than the weak carbon-carbon bonds of aliphatic chains. PMID:23817790

Souza-Corrêa, J A; Oliveira, C; Wolf, L D; Nascimento, V M; Rocha, G J M; Amorim, J

2013-09-01

77

Adsorptive removal of phenol by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study deals with the adsorption of phenol on carbon rich bagasse fly ash (BFA) and activated carbon-commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL). BFA is a solid waste obtained from the particulate collection equipment attached to the flue gas line of the bagasse-fired boilers of cane sugar mills. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influences of various experimental

Vimal C. Srivastava; Mahadeva M. Swamy; Indra D. Mall; Basheswar Prasad; Indra M. Mishra

2006-01-01

78

Construction of individual, fused, and co-expressed proteins of endoglucanase and ?-glucosidase for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

At least a combination of endoglucanase (EglII) and ?-glucosidase (BglZ) is required for hydrolyzing crystalline cellulose. To understand the catalytic efficiency of combination enzymes for converting biomass to sugars, EglII and BglZ were constructed in the form of individual, fused as well as co-expression proteins, and their activities for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse were evaluated. The genes, eglII isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PSM3.1 earlier and bglZ from B. amyloliquefaciens ABBD, were expressed extracellularly in Bacillus megaterium MS941. EglII exhibited both exoglucanase and endoglucanase activities, and BglZ belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 1 family (GH 1) showed ?-glucosidase activity. A combination of EglII and BglZ showed activity on substrates Avicel, CMC and sugarcane bagasse. Specifically for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse, fused protein (fus-EglII+BglZ), co-expression protein (coex-BglZ+EglII), and mixed-individual protein (mix-EglII+BglZ) produced cellobiose as the main product, along with a small amount of glucose. The amount of reducing sugars released from the hydrolyzing bleached sugarcane bagasse (BSB) using fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ was 2.7- and 4.2-fold higher, respectively, than steamed sugarcane bagasse (SSB), indicating the synergetic enzymes worked better on treated sugarcane bagasse. Compared with fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ, coex-BglZ+EglII released more mol reducing sugars from SSB, indicating the enzymes were potential for biomass conversion. Additionally, coex-BglZ+EglII acted on BSB 2.5-fold faster than fus-EglII+BglZ. Thus, coex-bglZ+eglII expression system was the best choice to produce enzymes for hydrolyzing sugarcane baggase. PMID:24598011

Kurniasih, Sari Dewi; Alfi, Almasul; Natalia, Dessy; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; Nurachman, Zeily

2014-01-01

79

Removal of reactive dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbons prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse pith, which is the main waste from sugarcane industry in Egypt, has been used as a raw material for the preparation of different activated carbons. Activated carbons were prepared from bagasse pith by chemical activation with 28% H3PO4 (AC1), 50% ZnCl2 (AC2) followed by pyrolysis at 600°C and by physical activation at 600°C in absence of air (AC3). Different

Nevine Kamal Amin

2008-01-01

80

The Chemistry of Acid Catalyzed Delignification of Sugarcane Bagasse in the Ionic Liquid Trihexyl Tetradecyl Phosphonium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the cleavage of lignin ?-aryl ether bonds in sugarcane bagasse by the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl tetradecyl phosphonium chloride [P66614] Cl, in the presence of catalytic amounts of mineral acid (ca. 0.4%). The delignification process of bagasse was studied over a range of temperatures (120°C to 150°C) by monitoring the production of ?-ketones (indicative of cleavage

Sai S. Keskar; Lesie A. Edye; William O. S. Doherty; John P. Bartley

2012-01-01

81

Fractional extraction and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse hemicelluloses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 90% of the original hemicelluloses in the cell walls of bagasse were sequentially extracted with distilled water, 0.5 M NaOH, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0% H2O2 at pH 11.5, and 2.0 M NaOH at 55 °C for 2 h. Meanwhile, the successive treatments also released 89.0% of the original lignin. Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties, and structures of the

J. X Sun; X. F Sun; R. C Sun; Y. Q Su

2004-01-01

82

Major improvement in the rate and yield of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse via pretreatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim] [Ac])  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by six ionic liquids (ILs) using a bagasse\\/IL ratio of 1:20 (wt%). The solubilization of bagasse in the ILs was followed by water precipitation. On using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim] [Ac] at 120°C for 120min, 20.7% of the bagasse components remained dissolved and enzymatic saccharification experiments resulted on 80% glucose yield within 6h, which

Ayla Sant’Ana da Silva; Seung-Hwan Lee; Takashi Endo; Elba P. S. Bon

2011-01-01

83

Homogeneous isolation of nanocellulose from sugarcane bagasse by high pressure homogenization.  

PubMed

Nanocellulose from sugarcane bagasse was isolated by high pressure homogenization in a homogeneous media. Pretreatment with an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl)) was initially involved to dissolve the bagasse cellulose. Subsequently, the homogeneous solution was passed through a high pressure homogenizer without any clogging. The nanocellulose was obtained at 80 MPa for 30 cycles with recovery of 90% under the optimum refining condition. Nanocellulose had been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that nanocellulose was 10-20 nm in diameter, and presented lower thermal stability and crystallinity than the original cellulose. The developed nanocellulose would be a very versatile renewable material. PMID:22944423

Li, Jihua; Wei, Xiaoyi; Wang, Qinghuang; Chen, Jiacui; Chang, Gang; Kong, Lingxue; Su, Junbo; Liu, Yuhuan

2012-11-01

84

Fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and chicken manure to calcium carboxylates under thermophilic conditions.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse and chicken manure were anaerobically fermented to carboxylic acids using a mixed culture of marine microorganisms at 55 degrees C. Using the MixAlco process--an example of consolidated bioprocessing--the resulting carboxylate salts can be converted to mixed alcohol fuels or gasoline. To enhance digestibility, sugarcane bagasse was lime pretreated with 0.1 g Ca(OH)(2)/g dry biomass at 100 degrees C for 2 h. Four-stage countercurrent fermentation of 80% sugarcane bagasse/20% chicken manure was performed at various volatile solids (VS) loading rates and liquid residence times. Calcium carbonate was used as a buffer during fermentation. The highest acid productivity of 0.79 g/(L day) occurred at a total acid concentration of 21.5 g/L. The highest conversion (0.59 g VS digested/g VS fed) and yield (0.18 g total acids/g VS fed) occurred at a total acid concentration of 15.5 g/L. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) predicted the experimental total acid concentrations and conversions at an average error of 10.14% and 12.68%, respectively. CPDM optimizations show that high conversion (>80%) and total acid concentration of 21.3 g/L are possible with 300 g substrate/(L liquid), 30 days liquid residence time, and 3 g/(L day) solid loading rate. Thermophilic fermentation has a higher acetate content (approximately 63 wt%) than mesophilic fermentation (approximately 39 wt%). PMID:19711199

Fu, Zhihong; Holtzapple, Mark T

2010-09-01

85

Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results.

2011-01-01

86

Aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose and production of xylose syrup  

SciTech Connect

At the optimum level of severity, the aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse, an abundant agricultural residue, gave, depending on the degree of comminution, 60% to 89% yield of xylose, most of it in the form of a water soluble xylan. A process for producing xylose-rich syrups was conceived and tested, consisting of aqueous extraction, acid hydrolysis of the concentrated aqueous extract, centrifugal clarification of the hydrolysate, and recovery of the acid by continuous ion exclusion. The cost estimate indicates operating costs on the order of $0.12 to $0.15/kg xylose, in the form of xylose-rich molasses.

Saska, M.; Ozer, E. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1995-03-20

87

Response surface methodology for xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate using controlled vacuum evaporation process variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective bioconversion of xylose into xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 requires sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate with a high level of xylose and a low concentrations of toxic compounds. The composition of the hydrolyzate depends on the vacuum evaporation process variables (pH, temperature, xylose concentration degree and treatment with activated charcoal before or after the process). The influence of these

Rita C. L. B. Rodrigues; Maria das Graças A. Felipe; João B. Almeida e Silva; Michele Vitolo

2003-01-01

88

Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (?G) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s?1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S < 10.0 g L?1 and QAIR > 27.0 L min?1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi. PMID:24078146

Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

2014-05-01

89

Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

This work presents the experimental kinetic data and the fractal modeling of sugarcane bagasse steam treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugarcane bagasse (50 wt% moisture) was pretreated by autohydrolysis at 210 °C for 4 min. Acid catalysis involved the use of 9.5mg g(-1) of H2SO4 or H3PO4 in relation to the substrate dry mass at these same pretreatment conditions. Unwashed, water-washed and alkali-washed substrates were hydrolyzed at 2.0 wt% using 8 and 15 FPU g(-1) (108.22 and 199.54 mg/g) total solids of a Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188 mixture (Novozymes). The fractal kinetic modeling was used to describe the effect of pretreatment and both washing processes on substrate accessibility. Water and/or alkali washing was not strictly necessary to achieve high hydrolysis efficiencies. Also, the fractal model coefficients revealed that H3PO4 was a better pretreatment catalyst under the experimental conditions used in this study, resulting in the most susceptible substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24007721

Aguiar, Rodrigo Souza; Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

2013-11-01

90

Enhanced xylitol production by precultivation of Candida guilliermondii cells in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The present work evaluated the key enzymes involved in xylitol production (xylose reductase [XR] and xylitol dehydrogenase [XDH]) and their correlation with xylose, arabinose, and acetic acid assimilation during cultivation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 cells in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. For this purpose, inocula previously grown either in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH) or in semidefined medium (xylose as a substrate) were used. The highest xylose/acetic acid consumption ratio (1.78) and the lowest arabinose consumption (13%) were attained in the fermentation using inoculum previously grown in semidefined medium (without acetic acid and arabinose). In this case, the highest values of XR (1.37 U mg prot(-1)) and XDH (0.91 U mg prot(-1)) activities were observed. The highest xylitol yield (approximately 0.55 g g(-1)) and byproducts (ethanol and glycerol) formation were not influenced by inoculum procedure. However, the cell previously grown in the hydrolysate was effective in enhancing xylitol production by keeping the XR enzyme activity at high levels (around 0.99 U.mg(prot) (-1)), reducing the XDH activity (34.0%) and increasing xylitol volumetric productivity (26.5%) with respect to the inoculum cultivated in semidefined medium. Therefore, inoculum adaptation to SBHH was shown to be an important strategy to improve xylitol productivity. PMID:16775788

Rodrigues, Rita C L B; Sene, Luciane; Matos, Gilvane S; Roberto, Inês C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Felipe, Maria G A

2006-07-01

91

Xylooligosaccharides production from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse using xylanases from Thermoascus aurantiacus.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose was isolated in a one-step chemical extraction using hydrogen peroxide in alkaline media. The polysaccharide containing 80.9% xylose and small amounts of L-arabinose, 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid and glucose, was hydrolyzed by crude enzymatic extracts from Thermoascus aurantiacus at 50 degrees C. Conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis leading to the best yields of xylose and xylooligosaccharides (DP 2-5) were investigated using substrate concentration in the range 0.5-3.5% (w/v), enzyme load 40-80 U/g of the substrate, and reaction time from 3 to 96 h, applying a 2(2) factorial design. The maximum conversion to xylooligosaccharides (37.1%) was obtained with 2.6% of substrate and xylanase load of 60 U/g. The predicted maximum yield of xylobiose by a polynomial model was 41.6%. Crude enzymatic extract of T. aurantiacus generate from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose 39% of xylose, 59% of xylobiose, and 2% of other xylooligosaccharides. PMID:20066571

Brienzo, Michel; Carvalho, Walter; Milagres, Adriane M F

2010-10-01

92

Ultrasonic pretreatment and acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes.  

PubMed

Immense interest has been devoted to the production of bulk chemicals from lignocellulose biomass. Diluted sulfuric acid treatment is currently one of the main pretreatment methods. However, the low total sugar concentration obtained via such pretreatment limits industrial fermentation systems that use lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate is used as the carbon and nitrogen sources to achieve a green and economical production of succinic acid in this study. Sugarcane bagasse was ultrasonically pretreated for 40 min, with 43.9 g/L total sugar obtained after dilute acid hydrolysis. The total sugar concentration increased by 29.5 %. In a 3-L fermentor, using 30 g/L non-detoxified total sugar as the carbon source, succinic acid production increased to 23.7 g/L with a succinic acid yield of 79.0 % and a productivity of 0.99 g/L/h, and 60 % yeast extract in the medium could be reduced. Compared with the detoxified sugar preparation method, succinic acid production and yield were improved by 20.9 and 20.2 %, respectively. PMID:23649828

Xi, Yong-lan; Dai, Wen-yu; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Jiu-hua; Chen, Ke-quan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Ping-kai

2013-11-01

93

Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-07-01

94

Study of kinetic parameters in a mechanistic model for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse subjected to different pretreatments.  

PubMed

The goal of this work is to evaluate the influence of different pretreatments in the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and to propose a reliable methodology to easily perform sensitivity analysis and updating kinetic parameters whenever necessary. A kinetic model was modified to represent the experimental data of the batch enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. The simultaneous estimation of kinetic parameters of the mathematical model was performed using the Pikaia genetic algorithm using batch hydrolysis experimental data obtained with different enzymatic loads. Subsequently, Plackett-Burman designs were used to identify the kinetic parameters with the higher influence on the dynamic behavior of the process variables, which were re-estimated to describe experimental data of the hydrolysis of bagasse pretreated with phosphoric acid + sodium hydroxide. The methodology was accurate and straightforward and can be used whenever there are changes in pretreatment conditions and/or fluctuations in biomass composition in different harvests. PMID:23474967

Neto, João Moreira; Dos Reis Garcia, Daniella; Rueda, Sandra Marcela Gómez; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

2013-11-01

95

A study on the pretreatment of a sugarcane bagasse sample with dilute sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

Experiments based on a 2(3) central composite full factorial design were carried out in 200-ml stainless-steel containers to study the pretreatment, with dilute sulfuric acid, of a sugarcane bagasse sample obtained from a local sugar-alcohol mill. The independent variables selected for study were temperature, varied from 112.5°C to 157.5°C, residence time, varied from 5.0 to 35.0 min, and sulfuric acid concentration, varied from 0.0% to 3.0% (w/v). Bagasse loading of 15% (w/w) was used in all experiments. Statistical analysis of the experimental results showed that all three independent variables significantly influenced the response variables, namely the bagasse solubilization, efficiency of xylose recovery in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate, efficiency of cellulose enzymatic saccharification, and percentages of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the pretreated solids. Temperature was the factor that influenced the response variables the most, followed by acid concentration and residence time, in that order. Although harsher pretreatment conditions promoted almost complete removal of the hemicellulosic fraction, the amount of xylose recovered in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate did not exceed 61.8% of the maximum theoretical value. Cellulose enzymatic saccharification was favored by more efficient removal of hemicellulose during the pretreatment. However, detoxification of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate was necessary for better bioconversion of the sugars to ethanol. PMID:21210180

Canilha, Larissa; Santos, Victor T O; Rocha, George J M; Almeida e Silva, João B; Giulietti, Marco; Silva, Silvio S; Felipe, Maria G A; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F; Carvalho, Walter

2011-09-01

96

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using supercritical carbon dioxide combined with ultrasound to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

This work evaluates the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse combining supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and ultrasound to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse. In a first step the influence of process variables on the SC-CO2 pretreatment to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated by mean of a Plackett-Burmann design. Then, the sequential treatment combining ultrasound+SC-CO2 was evaluated. Results show that treatment using SC-CO2 increased the amount of fermentable sugar obtained of about 280% compared with the non-treated bagasse, leading to a hydrolysis efficiency (based on the amount of cellulose) as high as 74.2%. Combining ultrasound+SC-CO2 treatment increased about 16% the amount of fermentable sugar obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis in comparison with the treatment using only ultrasound. From the results presented in this work it can be concluded that the combined ultrasound+SC-CO2 treatment is an efficient and promising alternative to carry out the pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstock at relatively low temperatures without the use of hazardous solvents. PMID:23540926

Benazzi, Tássio; Calgaroto, Selma; Astolfi, Viviane; Dalla Rosa, Clarissa; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Mazutti, Marcio A

2013-04-10

97

Kinetics of lime pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to determine the optimum conditions of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with lime to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide component and to study the delignification kinetics. The first stage was an evaluation of the influence of temperature, reaction time, and lime concentration in the pretreatment performance measured as glucose release after hydrolysis using a 2(3) central composite design and response surface methodology. The maximum glucose yield was 228.45 mg/g raw biomass, corresponding to 409.9 mg/g raw biomass of total reducing sugars, with the pretreatment performed at 90°C, for 90 h, and with a lime loading of 0.4 g/g dry biomass. The enzymes loading was 5.0 FPU/dry pretreated biomass of cellulase and 1.0 CBU/dry pretreated biomass of ?-glucosidase. Kinetic data of the pretreatment were evaluated at different temperatures (60°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C), and a kinetic model for bagasse delignification with lime as a function of temperature was determined. Bagasse composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) was measured, and the study has shown that 50% of the original material was solubilized, lignin and hemicellulose were selectively removed, but cellulose was not affected by lime pretreatment in mild temperatures (60-90°C). The delignification was highly dependent on temperature and duration of pretreatment. PMID:20803263

Fuentes, Laura L G; Rabelo, Sarita C; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C

2011-03-01

98

Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G ethanol and electric energy production, could be an option to absorb fluctuations in relative prices. Simulations of three cases were run using the software EMSO: production of 1G ethanol + electric energy, of 1G + 2G ethanol and a flexible biorefinery. Bagasse for 2G ethanol was pretreated with a weak acid solution, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, while 50% of sugarcane trash (mostly leaves) was used as surplus fuel. Results With maximum diversion of bagasse to 2G ethanol (74% of the total), an increase of 25.8% in ethanol production (reaching 115.2 L/tonne of sugarcane) was achieved. An increase of 21.1% in the current ethanol price would be enough to make all three biorefineries economically viable (11.5% for the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery). For 2012 prices, the flexible biorefinery presented a lower Internal Rate of Return (IRR) than the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery. The impact of electric energy prices (auction and spot market) and of enzyme costs on the IRR was not as significant as it would be expected. Conclusions For current market prices in Brazil, not even production of 1G bioethanol is economically feasible. However, the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery is closer to feasibility than the conventional 1G + electric energy industrial plant. Besides, the IRR of the 1G + 2G biorefinery is more sensitive with respect to the price of ethanol, and an increase of 11.5% in this value would be enough to achieve feasibility. The ability of the flexible biorefinery to take advantage of seasonal fluctuations does not make up for its higher investment cost, in the present scenario.

2013-01-01

99

Equilibrium modelling of single and binary adsorption of cadmium and nickel onto bagasse fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the competitive adsorption of cadmium (Cd(II)) and nickel (Ni(II)) ions onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) from single component and binary systems. BFA is a waste material obtained from the flue gas of the bagasse-fired boilers of sugar mills. Equilibrium adsorption is affected by the initial pH (pH0) of the solution. The pH0?6.0 is found to

Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Indra Deo Mall; Indra Mani Mishra

2006-01-01

100

Removal of Cr 6+ and Ni 2+ from aqueous solution using bagasse and fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw bagasse and fly ash, the waste generated in sugar mills and boilers respectively have been used as low-cost potential adsorbents. Raw bagasse was pretreated with 0.1N NaOH followed by 0.1N CH3COOH before its application. These low-cost adsorbents were used for the removal of chromium and nickel from an aqueous solution. The kinetics of adsorption and extent of adsorption at

M. Rao; A. V. Parwate; A. G. Bhole

2002-01-01

101

Adsorption of 2-picoline onto bagasse fly ash from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of 2-picoline from aqueous solutions onto bagasse fly ash (BFA), a solid waste collected from the particulate collection equipment attached to the stacks of bagasse fired boilers, is presented in this paper. The influence of various parameters like initial pH (pH0), adsorbent dose (m), contact time (t), initial concentration (C0) and temperature (T) on the adsorption of 2-picoline

Dilip Hiradram Lataye; Indra Mani Mishra; Indra Deo Mall

2008-01-01

102

Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids using a mixed culture of mesophilic microorganisms.  

PubMed

Using the MixAlco process, biomass can be converted into carboxylic acids, which can be chemically converted into mixed alcohol fuels. This study focused on the use of countercurrent fermentation to anaerobically convert sugarcane bagasse and chicken manure to mixed carboxylic acids using a mixed culture of mesophilic microorganisms from terrestrial and marine sources. Bagasse was pretreated with lime to increase digestibility. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) simulated continuous fermentors based on data collected from batch experiments. This model saves considerable time in determining optimum operating conditions. For an 80% bagasse/20% chicken manure fermentation with terrestrial inoculum at a volatile solids loading rate (VSLR) of 7.36 g/(L of liquid d) and a liquid residence time (LRT) of 8.88 d, total carboxylic acid productivity, total acid selectivity, and yield were 2.49 g/(L of liquid d), 0.581 g of total acid/ g of VS digested, and 0.338 g of total acid/g of VS fed, respectively, at a concentration of 18.7 g of total acid/L. At the same VSLR and LRT, fermentation with marine inoculum gave higher total acid productivity, total acid selectivity, and yield than fermentation with terrestrial inoculum. For an 80% bagasse/20% chicken manure fermentation with marine inoculum at a VSLR of 3.83 g/(L of liquid d) and an LRT of 12.1 d, total carboxylic acid productivity, total acid selectivity, and yield were 1.38 g/(L of liquid d), 0.667 g of total acid/g of VS digested, and 0.359 g of total acid/g of VS fed, respectively, at a concentration of 16.2 g of total acid/L. PMID:12721433

Thanakoses, Piyarat; Mostafa, Nagat Abd Alla; Holtzapple, Mark T

2003-01-01

103

Color removal from water-based ink wastewater by bagasse fly ash, sawdust fly ash and activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash (BGFA), sawdust fly ash (SDFA) and activated carbon (AC) were investigated for color removal from wastewater from the printing ink industry after coagulation of water-based ink wastewater. Synthetic water-based ink was used to study the adsorption isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity of BGFA increased with temperatures, having values of 7.30, 12.67, 21.60 and 29.07mgg?1 at 30, 40,

Sirikan Noonpui; Paitip Thiravetyan; Woranan Nakbanpote; Suchapa Netpradit

2010-01-01

104

Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol. PMID:20521302

Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

2010-10-15

105

Biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by integrating dark- and photo-fermentation.  

PubMed

Hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by integrating dark-fermentation by Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 2822 and photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01 was investigated. The SCB was hydrolysed by sulphuric acid and the hydrolysate detoxified by passing through adsorbent resin column (Amberlite XAD-4) to remove the inhibitory furfural, and subjected to dark-fermentation. The cellulosic residue from acid hydrolysis was hydrolysed by the new isolate Cellulomonas fimi to release sugars for H2 production by E. aerogenes, through simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF). Cumulative H2 production during dark-fermentation and SSFF was 1000 and 613 ml/L, respectively. The spent media of dark-fermentation and SSFF were utilized for photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01. The cumulative H2 production was 755 ml/L for dark-fermentation and 351 ml/L for SSFF spent medium. PMID:24291314

Rai, Pankaj K; Singh, S P; Asthana, R K; Singh, Shweta

2014-01-01

106

Water barrier properties of starch films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals obtained from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Water transport in edible films based on hydrophilic materials such as starch, is a complex phenomenon due to the strong interaction of sorbed water molecules with the polymeric structure. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. Starch and starch/CNC films were formulated and their water barrier properties were studied. The measured film solubility, contact angle, and water sorption isotherm indicated that reinforced starch/CNC films have a lower affinity to water molecules than starch films. The effects that the driving force and the water activity (aw) values at each side of the film have on permeability were analyzed. Permeability, diffusivity, and solubility coefficients indicated that the permeation process depends mostly on the tortuous pathway formed by the incorporation of CNC and therefore were mainly controlled by water diffusion. The interaction between CNC and starch chain is favoured by the chemical similarities of both molecules. PMID:24906728

Slavutsky, Aníbal M; Bertuzzi, María A

2014-09-22

107

Clean energy from sugarcane waste: feasibility study of an innovative application of bagasse and barbojo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the existing difficulty of finding energy sources and reducing pollution, the use of renewable sources and highly efficient technologies for electrical energy production stands out as one of the promising solutions for the future. This paper shows the results of the combination of these two aspects, namely, a molten carbonate fuel cell system fed with biomass derived syngas. In particular, the biogas comes from bagasse and barbojo, the sugarcane residues. So far in developing countries they have been wasted or partly used with poorly efficient technology. The feasibility of such an application is studied by means of the process simulator Aspen Plus © in which a detailed Fortran model has been integrated for the electrochemical reactor simulation. The results of the predictive model are presented and discussed; in particular, the substantial economic and environmental advantages obtainable by applying the technical solution here proposed to the Peruvian energy scenario, are shown.

Dellepiane, Daniela; Bosio, Barbara; Arato, Elisabetta

108

Ethanol production from xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse using low loading of commercial cellulase.  

PubMed

Xylan was always extracted as the feedstock for xylooligosaccharides production. The xylan-removed residue may contain high content of cellulose and thus had a possibility to be converted into ethanol. After soaked in 12% of NaOH at room temperature overnight, solubilization of cellulose, xylan, and lignin was 4.64%, 72.06%, and 81.87% respectively. The xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse (XRSB) was enzymatically hydrolyzed by using decreased cellulase loadings. The results showed that 7.5 FPU/g cellulose could obtain a cellulose conversion yield of 82%. Increasing the cellulase loading did not result in higher yield. Based on this, bioethanol production was performed using 7.5 FPU/g cellulose by employing fed-batch fermentation mode. The final ethanol concentration reached 40.59 g/L corresponding to 74.2% of the theoretical maximum. The high titer ethanol and low cellulase loading may reduce the overall cost. PMID:24841492

Li, Jingbo; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Hongmei; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

2014-07-01

109

Metabolic study of the adaptation of the yeast Candida guilliermondii to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Batch xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Candida guilliermondii was performed by progressively adapting the cells to the medium. Samples were analyzed to monitor sugar and acetic acid consumption, xylitol, arabitol, ethanol, and carbon dioxide production, as well as cell growth. Both xylitol yield and volumetric productivity remarkably increased with the number of adaptations, demonstrating that the more adapted the cells, the better the capacity of the yeast to reduce xylose to xylitol in hemicellulose hydrolysates. Substrate and product concentrations were used in carbon material balances to study in which way the different carbon sources were utilized by this yeast under microaerobic conditions, as well as to shed light on the effect of the progressive adaptation to the medium on its fermentative activity. Such a theoretical means allowed estimation for the first time of the relative contribution of each medium component to the formation of the main products of this fermentation system. PMID:11778887

Sene, L; Converti, A; Zilli, M; Felipe, M G; Silva, S S

2001-12-01

110

Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.  

PubMed

In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

2013-02-01

111

Metabolic behavior of immobilized Candida guilliermondii cells during batch xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse acid hydrolyzate.  

PubMed

Candida guilliermondii cells, immobilized in Ca-alginate beads, were used for batch xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate. Maximum xylitol concentration (20.6 g/L), volumetric productivity (0.43 g/L. h), and yield (0.47 g/g) obtained after 48 h of fermentation were higher than similar immobilized-cell systems but lower than free-cell cultivation systems. Substrates, products, and biomass concentrations were used in material balances to study the ways in which the different carbon sources were utilized by the yeast cells under microaerobic conditions. The fraction of xylose consumed to produce xylitol reached a maximum value (0.70) after glucose and oxygen depletion while alternative metabolic routes were favored by sub-optimal conditions. PMID:12115432

Carvalho, Walter; Silva, Silvio S; Converti, Attilio; Vitolo, Michele

2002-07-20

112

Enhanced saccharification of sugarcane bagasse using soluble cellulase supplemented with immobilized ?-glucosidase.  

PubMed

The ?-glucosidase (BG) enzyme plays a vital role in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Supplementation of the hydrolysis reaction medium with BG can reduce inhibitory effects, leading to greater conversion. In addition, the inclusion of immobilized BG can be a useful way of increasing enzyme stability and recyclability. BG was adsorbed on polyacrylic resin activated by carboxyl groups (BG-PC) and covalently attached to glyoxyl-agarose (BG-GA). BG-PC exhibited similar behavior to soluble BG in the hydrolysis of cellobiose, while BG-GA hydrolyzed the same substrate at a lower rate. However, the thermal stability of BG-GA was higher than that of free BG. Hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse catalyzed by soluble cellulase supplemented with immobilized BG improved the conversion by up to 40% after 96h of reaction. Both derivatives remained stable up to the third cycle and losses of activity were less than 50% after five cycles. PMID:24983691

Borges, Diogo Gontijo; Baraldo Junior, Anderson; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; de Lima Camargo Giordano, Raquel; Tardioli, Paulo Waldir

2014-09-01

113

A novel kinetic model for polysaccharide dissolution during atmospheric acetic acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Acetic acid (AcH) pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with the catalysis of sulfuric acid (SA) could greatly enhance the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. However, polysaccharide dissolution happened inevitably during the pretreatment. It was found that the simplest model, which assumes that the total polysaccharides were reactive to be dissolved, could not well describe the kinetic behavior of polysaccharide dissolution. A novel pseudo-homogenous kinetic model was thus developed by introducing a parameter termed as "potential dissolution degree" (?(d)) based on the multilayered structure of cell wall. It was found that solid xylan and glucan dissolutions were a first-order reaction with respect to the dissolvable fraction. Due to the delignification action of AcH, polysaccharide dissolutions were enhanced in AcH media compared with those in aqueous system. Acetylizations of cellulose and sugars were also observed, and AcH concentration showed a significant influence on the degree of acetylization. PMID:24215769

Zhao, Xuebing; Morikawa, Yuichi; Qi, Feng; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Dehua

2014-01-01

114

Scale-up of diluted sulfuric acid hydrolysis for producing sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH).  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with diluted sulfuric acid to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH). Experiments were conducted in laboratory and semi-pilot reactors to optimize the xylose recovery and to reduce the generation of sugar degradation products, as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The hydrolysis scale-up procedure was based on the H-Factor, that combines temperature and residence time and employs the Arrhenius equation to model the sulfuric acid concentration (100 mg(acid)/g(dm)) and activation energy (109 kJ/mol). This procedure allowed the mathematical estimation of the results through simulation of the conditions prevailing in the reactors with different designs. The SBHH obtained from different reactors but under the same H-Factor of 5.45+/-0.15 reached similar xylose yield (approximately 74%) and low concentration of sugar degradation products, as furfural (0.082 g/L) and HMF (0.0071 g/L). Also, the highest lignin degradation products (phenolic compounds) were rho-coumarilic acid (0.15 g/L) followed by ferulic acid (0.12 g/L) and gallic acid (0.035 g/L). The highest concentration of ions referred to S (3433.6 mg/L), Fe (554.4 mg/L), K (103.9 mg/L). The H-Factor could be used without dramatically altering the xylose and HMF/furfural levels. Therefore, we could assume that H-Factor was directly useful in the scale-up of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate production. PMID:19846294

Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia L B; Rocha, George J M; Rodrigues, Durval; Filho, Hélcio J I; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Pessoa, Adalberto

2010-02-01

115

Surface Modified Bagasse Fly Ash Zeolites for Removal of Reactive Black5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zeolites were synthesized form Bagasse fly ash using the mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride by conventional as well as microwave heating, for the effective removal of reactive black-5 from aqueous solution. The virgin and synthesized sorbents were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM and FTIR. The influence of operating variables such as pH, contact time, sorbent dose, initial dye

Bhavna A. Shah; Ajay V. Shah; Chirag B. Mistry; Ritesh V. Tailor; Harendra D. Patel

2011-01-01

116

Removal of phenols from water environment by activated carbon, bagasse ash and wood charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption process is gaining interest as one of the effective processes of advanced wastewater treatment for treatment of industrial effluent containing toxic materials. The present work involves an investigation of the use of three carbonaceous materials, activated carbon (AC), bagasse ash (BA) and wood charcoal (WC), as adsorbents for removal of phenol from water. Batch experiments were carried out to

Somnath Mukherjee; Sunil Kumar; Amal K. Misra; Maohong Fan

2007-01-01

117

Removal of Basic Dyes (Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) from Aqueous Solutions Using Bagasse Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into an inexpensive adsorbent material and utilized for the removal of two basic dyes, rhodamine B and methylene blue. Results include the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and presence of surfactant on the removal of rhodamine B and methylene blue. The adsorption data have

VINOD K. GUPTA; DINESH MOHAN; SAURABH SHARMA; MONICA SHARMA

2000-01-01

118

Removal of cadmium and nickel from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse fly ash, an industrial solid waste of sugar industry, was used for the removal of cadmium and nickel from wastewater. As much as 90% removal of cadmium and nickel is possible in about 60 and 80min, respectively, under the batch test conditions. Effect of various operating variables, viz., solution pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature, particle size, etc.,

Vinod K. Gupta; C. K. Jain; Imran Ali; M. Sharma; V. K. Saini

2003-01-01

119

Preparation of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by microwave assisted activation for the remediation of semi-aerobic landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the sugarcane bagasse derived activated carbon (SBAC) prepared by microwave heating for the adsorptive removal of ammonical nitrogen and orthophosphate from the semi-aerobic landfill leachate. The physical and chemical properties of SBAC were examined by pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The effects of adsorbent dosage, contact time and solution pH on the adsorption performance were investigated in a batch mode study at 30°C. Equilibrium data were favorably described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for ammonical nitrogen and orthophosphate of 138.46 and 12.81 mg/g, respectively, while the adsorption kinetic was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results illustrated the potential of sugarcane bagasse derived activated carbon for the adsorptive treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate. PMID:23500574

Foo, K Y; Lee, L K; Hameed, B H

2013-04-01

120

Adsorption studies of aqueous Pb(II) onto a sugarcane bagasse/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solution onto a sugarcane bagasse/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite was investigated by using a series of batch adsorption experiments and compared with the metal uptake ability of sugarcane bagasse. The efficiency of the adsorption processes was studied experimentally at various pH values, contact times, adsorbent masses, temperatures and initial Pb2+ concentrations. A pH of 4.5 was found to be the optimum pH to obtain a maximum adsorption percentage in 120 min of equilibration time. The composite showed a much enhanced adsorption capacity for Pb2+ of 56.6 mg g-1 compared with 23.8 mg g-1 for bagasse at 28 °C. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm provided the best fit to the equilibrium adsorption data. The pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Elovich kinetics models were used to analyse the rate of lead adsorption and the results show that the Elovich model is more suitable. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption, namely ?G°, ?H° and ?S°, were determined over the temperature range of 20-45 °C. The adsorption of Pb2+ onto both bagasse and the sugarcane bagasse/MWCNT composite was found to be spontaneous but for the former adsorbent it was enthalpy-driven whereas for the latter it was entropy-driven. Desorption of the lead-loaded adsorbents was fairly efficient with 0.1 mol dm-3 HCl. Overall this composite has the potential to be a good adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ from wastewaters.

Hamza, Izzeldin A. A.; Martincigh, Bice S.; Ngila, J. Catherine; Nyamori, Vincent O.

121

Optimization of Acid Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse and Investigations on its Fermentability for the Production of Xylitol by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was optimized using a statistical experimental design resulting in hydrolysates\\u000a containing 57.25 g\\/L of xylose, which were fermented with a high inoculum concentration (10 g\\/L of the yeast Candida guilliermondii IM\\/UFRJ 50088). The addition of urea reduced the time of conversion (tC) to 75 h (without nitrogen source addition t\\u000a C > 127 h),

RAFAEL FOGELp; Rafaela Rodrigues Garcia; Denise Neves Menchero Palacio; Luciana da Silva Madeira; Eni Pereira

122

Optimization of acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and investigations on its fermentability for the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was optimized using a statistical experimental design resulting in hydrolysates\\u000a containing 57.25 g\\/L of xylose, which were fermented with a high inoculum concentration (10 g\\/L of the yeast Candida guilliermondii IM\\/UFRJ 50088). The addition of urea reduced the time of conversion (t\\u000a C) to 75 h (without nitrogen source addition t\\u000a C>127 h), and,

Rafael Fogel; Rafaela Rodrigues Garcia; Rebeca da Silva Oliveira; Denise Neves Menchero Palacio; Luciana da Silva Madeira; Nei Pereira

2005-01-01

123

Association of wet disk milling and ozonolysis as pretreatment for enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse and straw.  

PubMed

Ozonolysis was studied separately and in combination with wet disk milling (WDM) for the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and straw, with the aim of improving their enzymatic saccharification. The glucose yields for ozonolysis followed by WDM were 89.7% for bagasse and 63.1% for straw, whereas the use of WDM followed by ozonolysis resulted in glucose yields of 81.1% for bagasse and 92.4% for straw, with shorter WDM time. This last procedure allowed a substantial decrease in energy consumption in comparison to the use of WDM alone or of ozonolysis followed by WDM. Higher overall saccharification yields with shorter milling times were observed when ozonolysis was carried out before WDM. This effect might be related to the higher specific surface area. Additionally, a finer morphology was observed by the association of the two treatments in comparison to the sole use of ozonolysis or WDM. PMID:23567693

de Barros, Rodrigo da Rocha Olivieri; Paredes, Raquel de Sousa; Endo, Takashi; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Lee, Seung-Hwan

2013-05-01

124

Combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and synthetic dyes on the growth and bioaccumulation properties of Pichia fermentans MTCC 189.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of synthetic dyes viz. Acid Blue 93, Direct Red 28 and Basic Violet 3 by growing cells of yeast, Pichia fermentans MTCC 189 was investigated in growth media prepared from sugarcane bagasse extract. The maximum dye bioaccumulation was determined at pH 5.0 for all the dyes tested. Two kinetic models viz. Noncompetitive and Uncompetitive models were tested in order to determine the toxic effects of dyes on the specific growth rate of P. fermentans MTCC 189. Basic Violet 3 was found to be more toxic than the other two dyes. The combined effects of sugarcane bagasse extract and initial Basic Violet 3 dye concentrations on the specific growth rate and dye bioaccumulation efficiency of P. fermentans MTCC 189 was investigated and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A 2(2) full factorial central composite design was successfully used for analysis of results. The optimum combination predicted via RSM confirmed that P. fermentans MTCC 189 was capable of bioaccumulating Basic Violet 3 dye upto 69.8% in the medium containing 10 mg/L of dye and 24 g/L sugar extracted from sugarcane bagasse. PMID:20692093

Das, Devlina; Charumathi, D; Das, Nilanjana

2010-11-15

125

Removal of congo red from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: Kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present investigation deals with the utilisation of bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as a waste material from bagasse fired boilers) and the use of activated carbons—commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL), as adsorbents for the removal of congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. Batch studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of BFA, ACC and ACL and the

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

126

Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.  

PubMed

Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation. PMID:21531547

Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Tong, Z; Castro, E; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

2011-07-01

127

Identification and characterisation of xylanolytic yeasts isolated from decaying wood and sugarcane bagasse in Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, yeasts associated with lignocellulosic materials in Brazil, including decaying wood and sugarcane bagasse, were isolated, and their ability to produce xylanolytic enzymes was investigated. A total of 358 yeast isolates were obtained, with 198 strains isolated from decaying wood and 160 strains isolated from decaying sugarcane bagasse samples. Seventy-five isolates possessed xylanase activity in solid medium and were identified as belonging to nine species: Candida intermedia, C. tropicalis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Scheffersomyces shehatae, Sugiyamaella smithiae, Cryptococcus diffluens, Cr. heveanensis, Cr. laurentii and Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans. Twenty-one isolates were further screened for total xylanase activity in liquid medium with xylan, and five xylanolytic yeasts were selected for further characterization, which included quantitative analysis of growth in xylan and xylose and xylanase and ?-D-xylosidase activities. The yeasts showing the highest growth rate and cell density in xylan, Cr. laurentii UFMG-HB-48, Su. smithiae UFMG-HM-80.1 and Sc. shehatae UFMG-HM-9.1a, were, simultaneously, those exhibiting higher xylanase activity. Xylan induced the highest level of (extracellular) xylanase activity in Cr. laurentii UFMG-HB-48 and the highest level of (intracellular, extracellular and membrane-associated) ?-D-xylosidase activity in Su. smithiae UFMG-HM-80.1. Also, significant ?-D-xylosidase levels were detected in xylan-induced cultures of Cr. laurentii UFMG-HB-48 and Sc. shehatae UFMG-HM-9.1a, mainly in extracellular and intracellular spaces, respectively. Under xylose induction, Cr. laurentii UFMG-HB-48 showed the highest intracellular ?-D-xylosidase activity among all the yeast tested. C. tropicalis UFMG-HB 93a showed its higher (intracellular) ?-D-xylosidase activity under xylose induction and higher at 30 °C than at 50 °C. This study revealed different xylanolytic abilities and strategies in yeasts to metabolise xylan and/or its hydrolysis products (xylo-oligosaccharides and xylose). Xylanolytic yeasts are able to secrete xylanolytic enzymes mainly when induced by xylan and present different strategies (intra- and/or extracellular hydrolysis) for the metabolism of xylo-oligosaccharides. Some of the unique xylanolytic traits identified here should be further explored for their applicability in specific biotechnological processes. PMID:24748334

Lara, Carla A; Santos, Renata O; Cadete, Raquel M; Ferreira, Carla; Marques, Susana; Gírio, Francisco; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Rosa, Carlos A; Fonseca, César

2014-06-01

128

Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics  

PubMed Central

Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs), still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline) cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU) yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse) from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83%) > >[C2mim]Cl(53%)?=?[C4mim]Cl(53%). Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography). Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin remained dissolved in the aqueous IL solution. Of the three IL studied [C2mim]OAc gave the best saccharification yield, material recovery and delignification. The effects of [C2mim]OAc pretreatment resemble those of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of [C2mim]Cl and [C4mim]Cl resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. The use of imidazolium IL solvents with shorter alkyl chains results in accelerated dissolution, pretreatment and degradation.

2012-01-01

129

Coupled production of single cell oil as biodiesel feedstock, xylitol and xylanase from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept using fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands.  

PubMed

This work evaluates sugarcane bagasse (SCB) conversion, in a biorefinery approach, to coproduce biodiesel and high value products using two novel mangrove fungi. On acid pre-treatment, sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH) resulted in a xylitol yield of 0.51 g/g xylose consumed in 72 h by Williopsis saturnus. After SCB pretreatment, sugarcane bagasse residue (SCBR) was utilized using Aspergillus terreus for production of xylanase (12.74 U/ml) and cell biomass (9.8 g/L) which was extracted for single cell oil (SCO; 0.19 g/g) and transesterified to biodiesel. The FAME profile exhibited long chain SFAs and PUFAs with predicted biodiesel properties lying within the range specified by international standards. This biorefining approach of SCB utilization for co-production of xylitol, xylanase and SCO gains importance in terms of sustainability and eco-friendliness. PMID:23260270

Kamat, Srijay; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Gade, Wasudeo Namdeo

2013-05-01

130

Isolation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate-tolerant yeast mutants by continuous selection  

SciTech Connect

Hemicellulose, one of the major constituents of plant cell-wall materials, comprises up to 40% of agricultural residues and hardwoods. Upon hydrolysis, hemicellulose yields a mixture of carbohydrates of which D-xylose is the major component. Hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates can easily be obtained by use of dilute acids under mild hydrolysis conditions. These sugars as well as cellulose-derived carbohydrates, are potential substrates for ethanol production. Often during acid hydrolysis many potentially toxic chemicals are formed which have been found to inhibit yeast growth and ethanol production. It is, therefore, necessary to overcome the inhibitory effect before a fermentation can be implemented. In addition to these fermentation inhibitors, salts formed as a result of neutralization of acid hydrolyzate can also affect the yeasts, thereby decreasing the fermentation rate. Previously, we have shown that ethanol can be produced from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by a xylose-fermentating yeast, Candida species XF217, after the hydrolyzate had been treated with ion-exchange resins. This communication describes the isolation of hydrolyzate-tolerant yeast strains by a continuous adaptation and selection technique and also the growth and fermentative abilities of the strain, P11-20 in neutralized hydrolyzate.

Lodics, T.A.; Gong, C.S.

1984-01-01

131

Effect of [Emim]Ac pretreatment on the structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulose.  

PubMed

Effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in terms of the changes in the chemical and physical structure of the preparation. In this case, original cellulose isolated from sugarcane bagasse was subjected to ionic liquid ([Emim]Ac) dissolution at a mild temperature (90 °C) followed by regeneration in water and subsequently hydrolyzed by commercial cellulases. The original and regenerated cellulose were thoroughly characterized by XRD, FT-IR, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, and SEM. It was found that the original cellulose experienced an increase in glucose content from 80.0-83.3% to 91.6-92.8%, a decrease in the degree of polymerization from 974-1039 to 511-521, a crystal transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II, as well as an increase of surface area during the pretreatment. The results suggested that pretreatment led to effective disruption of cellulose for subsequent enzyme hydrolysis as evidenced by a high glucose conversion yield of 95.2%. PMID:24188856

Bian, Jing; Peng, Feng; Peng, Xiao-Peng; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Pai; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2014-01-16

132

Optimization of Verticillium lecanii spore production in solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Verticillium lecanii is an entomopathogen with high potential in biological control of pests. We developed a solid-state fermentation with sugarcane bagasse as carrier absorbing liquid medium to propagate V. lecanii spores. Using statistical experimental design, we optimized the medium composition for spore production. We first used one-factor-at-a-time design to identify corn flour and yeast extract as the best carbon and nitrogen sources for the spore production of V. lecanii. Then, we used two-level fractional factorial design to confirm corn flour, yeast extract, and KH(2)PO(4) as important factors significantly affecting V. lecanii spore production. Finally, we optimized these selected variables using a central composite design and response surface method. The optimal medium composition was (grams per liter): corn flour 35.79, yeast 8.69, KH(2)PO(4) 1.63, K(2)HPO(4) 0.325, and MgSO(4) 0.325. Under optimal conditions, spore production reached 1.1 x 10(10) spores/g dried carrier, much higher than that on wheat bran (1.7 x 10(9) spores/g initial dry matter). PMID:19221736

Shi, Yujie; Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Yang

2009-04-01

133

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with liquid hot water and aqueous ammonia.  

PubMed

Low water consumption operation (LWCO) can reduce the usage of water and energy input for the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SB) but causes great negative effects on the saccharification rate of xylose and enzymatic digestibility (ED) of cellulose. Therefore, a combined pretreatment with LHW and aqueous ammonia (LHWAA) was developed. ED of glucan and xylan is enhanced greatly resulted from the removal of hemicellulose and lignin after the LHWAA pretreatment. However, the intriguing results of low lignin removal and ED value were observed at the high reaction temperature of 180°C for the second step pretreatment of AA. It was proposed that lignin or pseudo-lignin droplet redeposited on the surface of residual solids might play a crucial role in determining the ED, so it is indispensable to make the enzyme access to the cellulose by the step of post-treatment with ultrasonic washing or hot washing. Coupled with the process of post-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, a high hemicellulose derived sugars recovery of 75.5% and glucose recovery of 87% was obtained for LHWAA pretreatment. PMID:23871922

Yu, Qiang; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Qi, Wei; Wang, Wen; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong

2013-09-01

134

Sugarcane bagasse derivative-based superabsorbent containing phosphate rock with water-fertilizer integration.  

PubMed

To improve the water-fertilizer utilization ratio and mitigate the environmental contamination, an eco-friendly superabsorbent polymer (SPA), modified sugarcane bagasse/poly (acrylic acid) embedding phosphate rock (MSB/PAA/PHR), was prepared. Ammonia, phosphate rock (PHR) and KOH were admixed in the presence of acrylic acid to provide nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, respectively. Impacts on water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent polymer (SAP) were investigated. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water and 0.9 wt.% (weight percent) NaCl solution reached 414 gg(-1) and 55 gg(-1) (water/prepared SAP), respectively. The available NPK contents of the combination system were 15.13 mgg(-1), 6.93 mgg(-1) and 52.05 mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the release behaviors of NPK in the MSB/PAA/PHR were also studied. The results showed that the MSB/PAA/PHR has outstanding sustained-release plant nutrients property. PMID:22840007

Zhong, Kang; Zheng, Xi-Liang; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Jiang, Gang-Biao

2012-10-01

135

Effect of pretreatment on saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by complex and simple enzyme mixtures.  

PubMed

Saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated at the pilot-scale with different processes (in combination with steam-explosion) was evaluated. Maximum glucan conversion with Celluclast 1.5L (15-25FPU/g glucan) was in the following order: glycerol/HCl>HCl>H2SO4>NaOH, with the glycerol system achieving ? 100% conversion. Surprisingly, the NaOH substrate achieved optimum saccharification with only 8 FPU/g glucan. Glucan conversions (3.6-6%) obtained with mixtures of endo-1,4-?-glucanase (EG) and ?-glucosidase (?G) for the NaOH substrate were 2-6 times that of acid substrates. However, glucan conversions (15-60%) obtained with mixtures of cellobiohydrolase (CBH I) and ?G on acidified glycerol substrate were 10-30% higher than those obtained for NaOH and acid substrates. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic saccharification was explained by their physical and chemical attributes. Acidified glycerol pretreatment offers the opportunity to simplify the complexity of enzyme mixtures required for saccharification of lignocellulosics. PMID:24045198

Harrison, Mark D; Zhang, Zhanying; Shand, Kylie; O'Hara, Ian M; Doherty, William O S; Dale, James L

2013-11-01

136

Adsorption studies of etherdiamine onto modified sugarcane bagasses in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this study sugarcane bagasse was modified with succinic anhydride and EDTA dianhydride to obtain SCB 2 and EB adsorbents, respectively. These adsorbents were used to remove etherdiamine, which is used for iron ore flotation from single aqueous solutions. The removal and recovery of etherdiamine is important for environmental and economic reasons due to its toxicity and high cost. The results demonstrated that adsorption of etherdiamine by SCB 2 and EB was better fitted by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model than pseudo-first-order and Elovich models. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted by the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich, Sips, and Temkin models. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) of SCB 2 and EB for etherdiamine adsorption were found to be 869.6 and 1203.5 mg/g, respectively. The calculated ?G° values for adsorption of etherdiamine on SCB 2 (-22.70 kJ/mol) and EB (-19.10 kJ/mol) suggested that chemisorption is the main mechanism by which etherdiamine is removed from the aqueous solution for both adsorbents. The high Qmax values showed that SCB 2 and EB are potential adsorbents for recovering the etherdiamine and treating effluents produced from iron ore flotation. PMID:24412982

Gusmão, Karla Aparecida Guimarães; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Melo, Tânia Márcia Sacramento; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

2014-01-15

137

Use of immobilized Candida cells on xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

In this study we used the yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 immobilized by entrapment in Ca-alginate beads (2.5-3 mm diameter) for xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate in a repeated batch system. The fermentation runs were carried out in 125- and 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks placed in an orbital shaker at 30 degrees C and 200 rpm during 72 h, keeping constant the proportion between work volume and flask total volume. According to the results, cell viability was substantially high (98%) in all fermentative cycles. The values of parameters xylitol yield and volumetric productivity increased significantly with the reutilization of the immobilized biocatalysts. The highest values of xylitol final concentration (11.05 g/l), yield factor (0.47 g/g) and volumetric productivity (0.22 g/lh) were obtained in 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 80 ml of medium plus 20 ml of immobilized biocatalysts. The support used in this study (Ca-alginate) presented stability in the experimental conditions used. The results show that the use of immobilized cells is a promising approach for increasing the xylitol production rates. PMID:10817210

de Carvalho, W; da Silva, S S; Vitolo, M; de Mancilha, I M

2000-01-01

138

Variables that affect xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate in a zeolite fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

The operational conditions for xylitol production by fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate in a fluidized bed reactor with cells immobilized on zeolite were evaluated. Fermentations were carried out under different conditions of air flowrate (0.0125-0.0375 vvm), zeolite mass (100-200 g), initial pH (4-6), and xylose concentration (40-60 g/L), according to a 2(4) full factorial design. The air flowrate increase resulted in a metabolic deviation from product to biomass formation. On the other hand, the pH increase favored both the xylitol yield (Y(P/S)) and volumetric productivity (Q(P)), and the xylose concentration increase positively influenced the xylitol concentration. The best operational conditions evaluated were based on the use of an air flowrate of 0.0125 vvm, 100 g of zeolite, pH 6, and xylose concentration of 60 g/L. Under these conditions, 38.5 g/L of xylitol were obtained, with a Y(P/S) of 0.72 g/g, Q(P) of 0.32 g/L.h, and cell retention of 25.9%. PMID:16321046

Santos, Júlio C; Mussatto, Solange I; Cunha, Mário A A; Silva, Silvio S

2005-01-01

139

Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.  

PubMed

Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (?), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment. PMID:22639365

Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann F

2012-08-01

140

Studies on the effect of particle size on solid-state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse into animal feed using white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse, a complex substrate, when differentiated into four fractions of particle sizes (<1 mm, 1–3 mm, 3–5 mm, 5–10 mm) with a view to enhancing its nutritive value as animal feed rather than production of fungal protein for human consumption, showed a varying pattern of degradation by white-rot fungi and varying in vitro rumen digestions. The fractions of bagasse

Frantisek Zadrazil; Anil Kumar Puniya

1995-01-01

141

Xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities of Candida guilliermondii as a function of different treatments of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate employing experimental design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, which is rich in xylose, can be used as culture medium for Candida guilliermondii in xylitol production. However, the hydrolysate obtained from bagasse by acid hydrolysis at 120?C for 20 min has by-products\\u000a (acetic acid and furfural, among others), which are toxic to the yeast over certain concentrations. So, the hydrolysate must\\u000a be pretreated before using

Lourdes A. Alves; Michele Vitolo; Maria das Graças A. Felipe; João Batista de Almeida e Silva

2002-01-01

142

>Removal of Lead from Wastewater Using Bagasse Fly Ash—A Sugar Industry Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent and has been used for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions in the 4.80 Ã 10 to 4.83 Ã 10 M concentration range. Maximum removal takes place at pH 3.0 using lOg of the adsorbent of particle size 150–200 mesh.

Vinod K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan; Saurabh Sharma

1998-01-01

143

Ethanol production by continuous fermentation of D-(+)-cellobiose, D-(+)-xylose and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using the thermoanaerobe Caloramator boliviensis.  

PubMed

The recently isolated anaerobic bacterium Caloramator boliviensis with an optimum growth temperature of 60 °C can efficiently convert hexoses and pentoses into ethanol. When fermentations of pure sugars and a pentose-rich sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate were carried out in a packed bed reactor with immobilized cells of C. boliviensis, more than 98% of substrates were converted. Ethanol yields of 0.40-0.46 g/g of sugar were obtained when sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was fermented. These features reveal interesting properties of C. boliviensis in producing ethanol from a renewable feedstock. PMID:22055102

Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Alvarez, Maria T; Mattiasson, Bo

2012-01-01

144

Atmospheric pressure plasma pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse: the influence of biomass particle size in the ozonation process.  

PubMed

Atmospheric pressure O? plasma was used to produce ozone in order to treat sugarcane bagasse as a function of particle sizes. The fixed bagasse moisture content was 50%. The delignification efficiency had small improvement due to ozonation process as a function of particle size, varying from 75 up to 80%. Few amounts of hemicellulose were removed, but the ozonation has not been affected significantly with particle size variance as well (from 30 up to 35%). The cellulose presented some losses below 1.0 mm size (8-15%) which was an unexpected result. The conversion of cellulose content into free sugar has shown a significant increase as the particle size has diminished as well. The best condition of the bagasse particle size was for 0.08 mm. For this case, a great quantity of cellulose (78.8%) was converted into glucose. Optical absorption spectroscopy was applied to determine ozone concentrations in real time where the samples with typical bagasse particle sizes equal or below to 0.5 mm had shown a better absorption of ozone in comparison with greater particle size samples. PMID:24242163

Souza-Corrêa, J A; Oliveira, C; Nascimento, V M; Wolf, L D; Gómez, E O; Rocha, G J M; Amorim, J

2014-02-01

145

Kinetics of the solid state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by Thermoascus aurantiacus for the production of xylanase.  

PubMed

Xylanase was produced by solid-state fermentation using Thermoascus aurantiacus. Maximum production (500 U g(-1) bagasse) was achieved on the sixth day of cultivation on solid sugarcane bagasse medium supplemented with 15% (v/w) rice bran extract. The fungal biomass, determined from its glucosamine content, reached 28 mg g(-1) on the 8th day of cultivation. The cell yield against O2 (Y(x/o) = 0.18 g(cell)/g(O2)) and maintenance coefficient (m0 = 0.013 g(O2)/g(cell)h) were determined with the low Y(x/o) value for T. aurantiacus agreeing with the calculated value. PMID:12882299

dos Santos, Elio; Piovan, Thais; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Milagres, Adriane Maria Ferreira

2003-01-01

146

Trichoderma harzianum IOC4038: A Promising Strain for the Production of a Cellulolytic Complex with Significant ?-Glucosidase Activity from Sugarcane Bagasse Cellulignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse is an agroindustrial residue generated in large amounts in Brazil. This biomass can be used for the production\\u000a of cellulases, aiming at their use in second-generation processes for bioethanol production. Therefore, this work reports\\u000a the ability of a fungal strain, Trichoderma harzianum IOC-4038, to produce cellulases on a novel material, xylan free and cellulose rich, generated from sugarcane

Aline Machado de Castro; Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues Pedro; Juliana Cunha da Cruz; Marcela Costa Ferreira; Selma Gomes Ferreira Leite; Nei Pereira

2010-01-01

147

Improvement in xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate achieved by the use of a repeated-batch immobilized cell system.  

PubMed

Candida guilliermondii cells were immobilized in Ca-alginate beads and used for xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate during five successive fermentation batches, each lasting 48 hours. The bioconversion efficiency of 53.2%, the productivity of 0.50 g/l x h and the final xylitol concentration of 23.8 g/l obtained in the first batch increased to 61.5%, 0.59 g/l x h and 28.4 g/l, respectively, in the other four batches (mean values), with variation coefficients of up to 2.3%. PMID:11930897

Carvalho, Walter; Silva, Silvio S; Vitolo, Michele; Felipe, Maria G A; Mancilha, Ismael M

2002-01-01

148

Xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate in fluidized bed reactor. Effect of air flowrate.  

PubMed

Cells of Candida guilliermondii immobilized onto porous glass spheres were cultured batchwise in a fluidized bed bioreactor for xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate. An aeration rate of only 25 mL/min ensured minimum yields of xylose consumption (0.60) and biomass production (0.14 g(DM)/g(Xyl)), as well as maximum xylitol yield (0.54 g(Xyt)/g(Xyl)) and ratio of immobilized to total cells (0.83). These results suggest that cell metabolism, although slow because of oxygen limitation, was mainly addressed to xylitol production. A progressive increase in the aeration rate up to 140 mL/min accelerated both xylose consumption (from 0.36 to 0.78 g(Xyl)/L.h) and xylitol formation (from 0.19 to 0.28 g(Xyt)/L.h) but caused the fraction of immobilized to total cells and the xylitol yield to decrease up to 0.22 and 0.36 g(Xyt)/g(Xyl), respectively. The highest xylitol concentration (17.0 g(Xyt)/L) was obtained at 70 mL/min, but the specific xylitol productivity and the xylitol yield were 43% and 22% lower than the corresponding values obtained at the lowest air flowrate, respectively. The concentrations of consumed substrates and formed products were used in material balances to evaluate the xylose fractions consumed by C. guilliermondii for xylitol production, complete oxidation through the hexose monophosphate shunt, and cell growth. The experimental data collected at variable oxygen level allowed estimating a P/O ratio of 1.35 mol(ATP)/mol(O) and overall ATP requirements for biomass growth and maintenance of 3.4 mol(ATP)/C-mol(DM). PMID:12892483

Santos, J C; Carvalho, W; Silva, S S; Converti, A

2003-01-01

149

Hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology improves digestibility and ethanol production by SSF.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for the production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160 and 200°C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohydrates and furan aldehydes. The solid fraction was analyzed for structural carbohydrates and Klason lignin. Pretreatment conditions were evaluated based on enzymatic extraction of glucose and xylose and conversion to ethanol using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation scheme. SSF experiments were conducted with the washed pretreated biomass. The severity of the pretreatment should be sufficient to drive enzymatic digestion and ethanol yields, however, sugars losses and especially sugar conversion into furans needs to be minimized. As expected, furfural production increased with pretreatment severity and specifically xylose release. However, provided that the severity was kept below a general severity factor of 4.0, production of furfural was below an inhibitory concentration and carbohydrate contents were preserved in the pretreated whole hydrolysate. There were significant interactions between time and temperature for all the responses except cellulose digestion. The models were highly predictive for cellulose digestibility (R (2) = 0.8861) and for ethanol production (R (2) = 0.9581), but less so for xylose extraction. Both cellulose digestion and ethanol production increased with severity, however, high levels of furfural generated under more severe pretreatment conditions favor lower severity pretreatments. The optimal pretreatment condition that gave the highest conversion yield of ethanol, while minimizing furfural production, was judged to be 190°C and 17.2 min. The whole hydrolysate was also converted to ethanol using SSF. To reduce the concentration of inhibitors, the liquid fraction was conditioned prior to fermentation by removing inhibitory chemicals using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria. PMID:22080307

da Cruz, Sandra Helena; Dien, Bruce S; Nichols, Nancy N; Saha, Badal C; Cotta, Michael A

2012-03-01

150

Use of bagasse fly ash as an adsorbent for the removal of brilliant green dye from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the adsorption of brilliant green (BG) on carbon rich bagasse fly ash (BFA). BFA is a solid waste obtained from the particulate collection equipment attached to the flue gas line of the bagasse-fired boilers of cane sugar mills. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like initial pH (pH0), contact

Venkat S. Mane; Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava

2007-01-01

151

Utilization of Agricultural Residues of Pineapple Peels and Sugarcane Bagasse as Cost-Saving Raw Materials in Scenedesmus acutus for Lipid Accumulation and Biodiesel Production.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to optimize the lipid accumulation in microalgae by using two agricultural residues of pineapple peels and sugarcane bagasse as low-cost organic carbon sources. Green microalgae Scenedesmus acutus was isolated and selected for cultivation. Effects of three initial sugar concentrations and the stage for adding sugar during cultivation on biomass and lipid production were investigated. The results clearly showed that two-stage cultivation is more suitable than one-stage. The maximum biomass concentration and productivity were obtained at 3.85 g/L and 160.42 mg/L/day when sugarcane bagasse was used. The highest lipid content and lipid yield was reached at 28.05 % and 0.93 g/L when pineapple peels were used, while in the case of sugarcane bagasse, 40.89 % and 1.24 g/L lipid content and yield were obtained. Lipid content was found in normal condition (autotrophic) at 17.71 % which was approximately 2.13-fold lower than when sugarcane bagasse was used (40.89 %). Biodiesel production via in situ transesterification was also investigated; the main fatty acids of palmitic acid and oleic acid were found. This work indicates that using agricultural residues as organic carbon sources could be able to increase lipid content and reduce the cost of biofuel production. PMID:24817554

Rattanapoltee, Panida; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee

2014-07-01

152

7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions...entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and related...

2010-01-01

153

7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions...entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and related...

2009-01-01

154

Selection and identification of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene removal from soil.  

PubMed

This work investigated the identification and selection of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene (Phe) removal from soil. Fungi were identified by PCR amplification of ITS regions as Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. A primary selection of fungi was accomplished in plate, considering Phe tolerance of every strain in two different media: potato dextrose agar (PDA) and mineral medium (MM). The radial extension rate (r(r)) in PDA exhibited significant differences (p<0.05) at 200 and 400 ppm of Phe. A secondary selection of A. niger, C. cladosporoides, and P. glabrum sp. was achieved based on their tolerance to 200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm of Phe, in solid culture at a sugarcane bagasse/contaminated soil ratio of 95:5, in Toyamas, Czapeck and Wunder media. Under these conditions, a maximum (70%) Phe removal by A. niger was obtained. In addition C. cladosporioides and A. niger were able to remove high (800 ppm) Phe concentrations. PMID:16484077

Cortés-Espinosa, D V; Fernández-Perrino, F J; Arana-Cuenca, A; Esparza-García, F; Loera, O; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

2006-01-01

155

A lab-scale study of constructed wetlands with sugarcane bagasse and sand media for the treatment of textile wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper reports the pollutant removal efficiencies of two lab-scale hybrid wetland systems treating a textile wastewater. The two systems had identical configurations, each consisting of a vertical flow (VF) and a horizontal flow (HF) wetland that were filled with organic sugarcane bagasse and sylhet sand as the main media. The systems were operated under high hydraulic loading (HL) (566-5660 mm/d), and inorganic nitrogen (254-508 gN/m(2) d) and organics loadings (9840-19680 g COD/m(2) d and 2154-4307 g BOD(5)/m(2) d). Simultaneous removals of BOD(5) (74-79%) and ammonia (59-66%) were obtained in the first stage VF wetlands, demonstrating the efficiency of the media for oxygen transfer to cope with the high pollutant loads. The organic carbon (C) content of sugarcane bagasse facilitated denitrification in the VF wetlands. Second stage HF wetlands provided efficient color removal under predominantly anaerobic condition. Overall, the wetland systems showed stable removal performances under high, and unsteady, pollutant loadings. PMID:23201526

Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi

2013-01-01

156

The acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose to produce xylose, arabinose, glucose and other products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental trials of the dilute acid hydrolysis of bagasse hemicellulose to produce xylose, arabinose, glucose, acid-soluble lignin (ASL) and furfural were conducted using a temperature-controlled digester. The reaction conditions varied were; temperature (80–200°C), mass ratio of solid to liquid (1:5–1:20), type of bagasse material (i.e. bagasse or bagacillo), concentration of acid (0.25–8wt% of liquid), type of acid (hydrochloric or sulphuric)

B. P. Lavarack; G. J. Griffin; D. Rodman

2002-01-01

157

Characterization of commercial cellulases and their use in the saccharification of a sugarcane bagasse sample pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

This study aimed to correlate the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose contained in a sugarcane bagasse sample pretreated with dilute H(2)SO(4) with the levels of independent variables such as initial content of solids and loadings of enzymes and surfactant (Tween 20), for two cellulolytic commercial preparations. The preparations, designated cellulase I and cellulase II, were characterized regarding the activities of total cellulases, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, cellobiase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase, and phenoloxidases (laccase, manganese and lignin peroxidases), as well as protein contents. Both extracts showed complete cellulolytic complexes and considerable activities of xylanases, without activities of phenoloxidases. For the enzymatic hydrolyses, two 2(3) central composite full factorial designs were employed to evaluate the effects caused by the initial content of solids (1.19-4.81%, w/w) and loadings of enzymes (1.9-38.1 FPU/g bagasse) and Tween 20 (0.0-0.1 g/g bagasse) on the cellulose digestibility. Within 24 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, all three independent variables influenced the conversion of cellulose by cellulase I. Using cellulase II, only enzyme and surfactant loadings showed significant effects on cellulose conversion. An additional experiment demonstrated the possibility of increasing the initial content of solids to values much higher than 4.81% (w/w) without compromising the efficiency of cellulose conversion, consequently improving the glucose concentration in the hydrolysate. PMID:20953894

Santos, Victor T O; Esteves, Paula J; Milagres, Adriane M F; Carvalho, Walter

2011-08-01

158

Synthesis of Silica Aerogel from Bagasse Ash by Ambient Pressure Drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica aerogels having very high surface area and pore volume have been succesfully synthesized from bagasse ash by ambient pressure drying (APD) method. Silica in bagasse ash was extracted by alkali extraction to produce sodium silicate solution. This is done by boiling bagasse ash in 2 N NaOH solution under continuous stirring for 1 h. To avoid the collapse of gel structure during drying at ambient pressure condition, the silica surface was modified with alkyl functional groups by a single step sol-gel process. Silicic acid produced by exchanging Na+ ions in dilute sodium silicate solution with H+ ions from cation resin was added with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and let the reaction of TMCS with water pore proceeds for several minutes to produce hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and HCl. Then, HMDS was added to allow the modification of silica surface in which the silanol groups were exchanged with alkyl groups originating from HMDS. The solution pH was then adjusted to 8-9 by adding NH4OH solution to induce gel formation. The hydrogel was aged at 40 °C for 18 h and at 60 °C for 1 h. Then, it was dried at 80 °C at ambient pressure condition. The silica aerogels obtained have specific surface, as measured by BET method, ranging from 450.2 to 1360.4 m2/g depending on the synthesis condition. The pore volume was ranging from 0.7 to 1.9 cm3/g. It seems that silica aerogels with very high surface area and pore volume can be obtained if the silanols group in the silica surface was exchanged succesfully with alkyl groups from HMDS.

Setyawan, Nazriati Heru; Winardi, Sugeng

2011-12-01

159

Removal of DDD and DDE from wastewater using bagasse fly ash, a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste from the sugar industry, was converted into an effective adsorbent and was used for the removal of DDD [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] and DDE [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] pesticides from wastewater. The DDD and DDE are removed by the developed adsorbent up to 93% at pH 7.0, with the adsorbent dose of 5 g\\/l of particle size 200–250 ?m at 30°C. The removal of

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2001-01-01

160

Effect of chemical factors on integrated fungal fermentation of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production by a white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production through integrated fungal fermentation (IFF), involving a unified process for biological delignification with consolidated biological processing by the white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60, was applied to sugarcane bagasse. Initial moisture content of the bagasse was found to affect biological delignification by MG-60, and 75% moisture content was suitable for selective lignin degradation and subsequent ethanol production. Additives, such as basal media, organic compounds, or minerals, also affected biological delignification of bagasse by MG-60. Basal medium addition improved both delignification and ethanol production. Some inorganic chemical factors, such as Fe(2+), Mn(2+), or Cu(2+), reduced bagasse carbohydrate degradation by MG-60 during delignifying incubations and resulted in increased ethanol production. The present results indicated that suitable culture conditions could significantly improve IFF efficiency. PMID:24968109

Khuong, Le Duy; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Leon, Rizalinda De; Anh, To Kim; Meguro, Sadatoshi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kamei, Ichiro

2014-09-01

161

Production of bioethanol, methane and heat from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of biogas production from the residues of second generation bioethanol production was investigated taking into consideration two types of pretreatment: lime or alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Bagasse was pretreated, enzymatically hydrolyzed and the wastes from pretreatment and hydrolysis were used to produce biogas. Results have shown that if pretreatment is carried out at a bagasse concentration of 4% DM,

S. C. Rabelo; H. Carrere; R. Maciel Filho; A. C. Costa

2011-01-01

162

Major improvement in the rate and yield of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse via pretreatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim] [Ac]).  

PubMed

In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by six ionic liquids (ILs) using a bagasse/IL ratio of 1:20 (wt%). The solubilization of bagasse in the ILs was followed by water precipitation. On using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim] [Ac] at 120 °C for 120 min, 20.7% of the bagasse components remained dissolved and enzymatic saccharification experiments resulted on 80% glucose yield within 6h, which evolved to over 90% within 24 h. Moreover, FE-SEM analysis of the precipitated material indicated a drastic lignin extraction and the exposure of nanoscopic cellulose microfibrils with widths of less than 100 nm. The specific surface area (SSA) of the pretreated bagasse (131.84 m2/g) was found to be 100 times that of untreated bagasse. The ability of [Emim] [Ac] to simultaneously increase the SSA and to decrease the biomass crystallinity is responsible for the improved bagasse enzymatic saccharification rates and yields obtained in this work. PMID:21925878

Sant'Ana da Silva, Ayla; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi; Bon, Elba P S

2011-11-01

163

Unraveling the structure of sugarcane bagasse after soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia (SCAA) and ethanol production by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis  

PubMed Central

Background Fuel ethanol production from sustainable and largely abundant agro-residues such as sugarcane bagasse (SB) provides long term, geopolitical and strategic benefits. Pretreatment of SB is an inevitable process for improved saccharification of cell wall carbohydrates. Recently, ammonium hydroxide-based pretreatment technologies have gained significance as an effective and economical pretreatment strategy. We hypothesized that soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia-mediated thermochemical pretreatment (SCAA) would overcome the native recalcitrance of SB by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded holocellulosic microfibrils. Results In this study, we designed an experiment considering response surface methodology (Taguchi method, L8 orthogonal array) to optimize sugar recovery from ammonia pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SB) by using the method of soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia (SCAA-SB). Three independent variables: ammonia concentration, temperature and time, were selected at two levels with center point. The ammonia pretreated bagasse (SCAA-SB) was enzymatically hydrolysed by commercial enzymes (Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188) using 15 FPU/g dry biomass and 17.5 Units of ?-glucosidase/g dry biomass at 50°C, 150 rpm for 96 h. A maximum of 28.43 g/l reducing sugars corresponding to 0.57 g sugars/g pretreated bagasse was obtained from the SCAA-SB derived using a 20% v/v ammonia solution, at 70°C for 24 h after enzymatic hydrolysis. Among the tested parameters, pretreatment time showed the maximum influence (p value, 0.053282) while ammonia concentration showed the least influence (p value, 0.612552) on sugar recovery. The changes in the ultra-structure and crystallinity of native SCAA-SB and enzymatically hydrolysed SB were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The enzymatic hydrolysates and solid SCAA-SB were subjected to ethanol fermentation under separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 respectively. Higher ethanol production (10.31 g/l and yield, 0.387 g/g) was obtained through SSF than SHF (3.83 g/l and yield, 0.289 g/g). Conclusions SCAA treatment showed marked lignin removal from SB thus improving the accessibility of cellulases towards holocellulose substrate as evidenced by efficient sugar release. The ultrastructure of SB after SCAA and enzymatic hydrolysis of holocellulose provided insights of the degradation process at the molecular level.

2013-01-01

164

Experimental study and neural network modeling of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with H2SO4 and O3 for cellulosic material conversion to sugar.  

PubMed

In this study, pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis is investigated using two categories of pretreatment methods: dilute acid (DA) pretreatment and combined DA-ozonolysis (DAO) method. Both methods are accomplished at different solid ratios, sulfuric acid concentrations, autoclave residence times, bagasse moisture content, and ozonolysis time. The results show that the DAO pretreatment can significantly increase the production of glucose compared to DA method. Applying k-fold cross validation method, two optimal artificial neural networks (ANNs) are trained for estimations of glucose concentrations for DA and DAO pretreatment methods. Comparing the modeling results with experimental data indicates that the proposed ANNs have good estimation abilities. PMID:24035818

Gitifar, Vahid; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Sarshar, Mohammad

2013-11-01

165

Production of bioethanol, methane and heat from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept.  

PubMed

The potential of biogas production from the residues of second generation bioethanol production was investigated taking into consideration two types of pretreatment: lime or alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Bagasse was pretreated, enzymatically hydrolyzed and the wastes from pretreatment and hydrolysis were used to produce biogas. Results have shown that if pretreatment is carried out at a bagasse concentration of 4% DM, the highest global methane production is obtained with the peroxide pretreatment: 72.1 Lmethane/kgbagasse. The recovery of lignin from the peroxide pretreatment liquor was also the highest, 112.7 ± 0.01 g/kg of bagasse. Evaluation of four different biofuel production scenarios has shown that 63-65% of the energy that would be produced by bagasse incineration can be recovered by combining ethanol production with the combustion of lignin and hydrolysis residues, along with the anaerobic digestion of pretreatment liquors, while only 32-33% of the energy is recovered by bioethanol production alone. PMID:21689929

Rabelo, S C; Carrere, H; Maciel Filho, R; Costa, A C

2011-09-01

166

Utilisation of bagasse fly ash (a sugar industry waste) for the removal of copper and zinc from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste produced in sugar industries, has been converted into an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. The product was characterised by different chemical and physical methods and has been used for the removal of copper and zinc from wastewater. Various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal ions concentrations, temperature, particle size, etc. were optimised. Copper and

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2000-01-01

167

Removal of chromium(VI) from electroplating industry wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste product generated in the sugar industry in India has been converted into a cheap potential adsorbent. This has been characterised and utilized for the removal of chromium (VI) from synthetic and actual wastewater. The sorption efficiency decreases with increase in pH. Adsorption of Cr (VI) on bagasse fly ash follows the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and these have

Vinod K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan; Saurabh Sharma; Kuk T. Park

1998-01-01

168

Direct Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Sugars and Sugarcane Bagasse by a Recombinant Trichoderma reesei Strain HJ48  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing.

Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

2014-01-01

169

Production and application of an enzyme blend from Chrysoporthe cubensis and Penicillium pinophilum with potential for hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Blending of the enzyme extracts produced by different fungi can result in favorable synergetic enhancement of the enzyme blend with regards to the main cellulase activities, as well as the inclusion of accessory enzymes that may not be as abundant in enzyme extracts produced by predominantly cellulase producing fungi. The Chrysoporthe cubensis:Penicillium pinophilum 50:50 (v/v) blend produced herein presented good synergy, especially for FPase and endoglucanase activities which were 76% and 48% greater than theoretical, respectively. This enzyme blend was applied to sugarcane bagasse previously submitted to a simple alkali pretreatment. Glucan hydrolysis efficiency reached an excess of 60% and xylan conversion exceeded 90%. Increasing the hydrolysis temperature from 45 to 50°C also resulted in a 16-20% increase in conversion of both glucan and xylan fractions. The blended enzyme extract obtained therefore showed great potential for application in the lignocellulose hydrolysis process. PMID:23896443

Visser, Evan Michael; Falkoski, Daniel Luciano; de Almeida, Maíra Nicolau; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze

2013-09-01

170

Optimization of endoglucanase and xylanase activities from Fusarium verticillioides for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Enzymatic hydrolysis is an important but expensive step in the production of ethanol from biomass. Thus, the production of efficient enzymatic cocktails is of great interest for this biotechnological application. The production of endoglucanase and xylanase activites from F. verticillioides were optimized in a factorial design (2(5)) followed by a CCDR design. Endoglucanase and xylanase activities increased from 2.8 to 8.0 U/mL and from 13.4 to 114 U/mL, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature were determined for endoglucanase (5.6, 80 °C), cellobiase (5.6, 60 °C), FPase (6.0, 55 °C) and xylanase (7.0, 50 °C). The optimized crude extract was applied in saccharification and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse from which 9.7 g/L of ethanol was produced at an ethanol/biomass yield of 0.19. PMID:24170331

de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Paes, Guilherme B T; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Visser, Evan M; Alfenas, Rafael F; Pereira, Olinto L; de Rezende, Sebastião T

2014-02-01

171

Direct ethanol production from glucose, xylose and sugarcane bagasse by the corn endophytic fungi Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae.  

PubMed

Production of ethanol with two corn endophytic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae, was studied. The yield of ethanol from glucose, xylose and a mixture of both sugars were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.50g/g ethanol/sugar for F. verticillioides and 0.37, 0.39 and 0.48g/g ethanol/sugar for A. zeae. Both fungi were able to co-ferment glucose and xylose. Ethanol production from 40g/L of pre-treated sugarcane bagasse was 4.6 and 3.9g/L for F. verticillioides and A. zeae, respectively, yielding 0.31g/g of ethanol per consumed sugar. Both fungi studied were capable of co-fermenting glucose and xylose at high yields. Moreover, they were able to produce ethanol directly from lignocellulosic biomass, demonstrating to be suitable microorganisms for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:23942376

de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Visser, Evan M; Siqueira, Germano A; Milagres, Adriane M F; de Rezende, Sebastião T

2013-10-10

172

Sequential solid-state and submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger on sugarcane bagasse for the production of cellulase.  

PubMed

Sequential solid-state and submerged cultivation with sugarcane bagasse as substrate for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger A12 was assessed by measuring endoglucanase activity. An unconventional pre-culture with an initial fungal growth phase under solid-state cultivation was followed by a transition to submerged fermentation by adding the liquid culture medium to the mycelium grown on solid substrate. For comparison, control experiments were conducted using conventional submerged cultivation. The cultures were carried out in shake flasks and in a 5-L bubble column bioreactor. An endoglucanase productivity of 57 ± 13 IU/L/h was achieved in bubble column cultivations prepared using the new method, representing an approximately 3-fold improvement compared to conventional submerged fermentation. Therefore, the methodology proposed here of a sequential fermentation process offers a promising alternative for cellulase production. PMID:22409979

Cunha, F M; Esperança, M N; Zangirolami, T C; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S

2012-05-01

173

Effect of the oxygen transfer coefficient on xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by continuous stirred-tank reactor fermentation.  

PubMed

The effect of the oxygen transfer coefficient on the production of xylitol by bioconversion of xylose present in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate using the yeast Candida guilliermondii was investigated. Continuous cultivation was carried out in a 1.25-L fermentor at 30 degrees C, pH 5.5, 300 rpm, and a dilution rate of 0.03/h, using oxygen transfer coefficients of 10, 20, and 30/h. The results showed that the microbial xylitol production (11 g/L) increased by 108% with the decrease in the oxygen volumetric transfer coefficient from 30 to 20/h. The maximum values of xylitol productivity (0.7 g/[L.h]) and yield (0.58 g/g) were obtained akLa 20/h. PMID:10849823

Martínez, E A; Silva, S S; Felipe, M G

2000-01-01

174

Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production.  

PubMed

Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis process from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated to increase solids loading, produce high-concentration fermentable sugar and finally to reduce the cost of the production process. The optimal initial solids loading, feeding time and quantities were examined. The hydrolysis system was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading in flasks, where 7% fresh solids were fed consecutively at 6h, 12h, 24h to get a final solids loading of 33%. All the requested cellulase loading (10 FPU/g substrate) was added completely at the beginning of hydrolysis reaction. After 120h of hydrolysis, the maximal concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose obtained were 9.376g/L, 129.50g/L, 56.03g/L, respectively. The final total glucan conversion rate attained to 60% from this fed-batch process. PMID:24968110

Gao, Yueshu; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yunyun; Liang, Cuiyi

2014-09-01

175

Optimization of acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and investigations on its fermentability for the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii.  

PubMed

The dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was optimized using a statistical experimental design resulting in hydrolysates containing 57.25 g/L of xylose, which were fermented with a high inoculum concentration (10 g/L of the yeast Candida guilliermondii IM/UFRJ 50088). The addition of urea reduced the time of conversion (tC) to 75 h (without nitrogen source addition tC > 127 h), and, consequently, improving the rates of xylitol bioproduction. Fermentator experiments, using the optimized conditions, resulted in enhanced conversion rates, reducing tC to 30 h. The stability of the yeast in the hydrolysate was also verified in a 480-h cultivation. PMID:15920277

Fogel, Rafael; Garcia, Rafaela Rodrigues; da Silva Oliveira, Rebeca; Palacio, Denise Neves Menchero; da Silva Madeira, Luciana; Pereira, Nei

2005-01-01

176

Adsorption thermodynamics and isosteric heat of adsorption of toxic metal ions onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) and rice husk ash (RHA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium sorption characteristics of cadmium (Cd(II)), nickel (Ni(II)) and zinc (Zn(II)) metal ions from aqueous solutions having respective metal ion concentrations in the range of 50–500mmol\\/dm3 for two low-cost adsorbents, viz. bagasse fly ash (BFA) and rice husk ash (RHA), were studied at different temperatures in the range of 293–323K. An increase in temperature is found to induce a

Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Indra Deo Mall; Indra Mani Mishra

2007-01-01

177

Strategies for pH control in a biofilter packed with sugarcane bagasse for hydrogen sulfide removal.  

PubMed

The biological removal of hydrogen sulfide at low concentration (<120 ppmv) was studied in a laboratory-scale biofilter packed with sugarcane bagasse and inoculated with a sulfur-oxidizing bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Inlet loads from 1.31 to 20.2 g Sm(-3) h(-1) were supplied to the biofilter, and empty bed residence times (EBRTs) of 30, 20 and 10 s were tested. In all cases, the removal efficiency was greater than 99%. Two methods for the pH control were tested: increasing the phosphate buffer capacity of the mineral medium (method I), and a new method, which involves the addition of solid CaCO(3) to the bagasse at the upper inlet of the biofilter (method II). For method I, pH increased gradually along the bed (from the bottom to the top), from a constant value of 3.0 to 7.0. For method II, pH was constant (2.4 ± 0.8) along the bed, and then a steep increase of pH was observed at the top to 7.1. We suggest the use of CaCO(3) instead of phosphate buffer because the former is less expensive, it is a simple method and the results obtained with the two methods are similar. PMID:22486668

Jover, Josefina; Ramírez, Martín; Rodríguez, Iván; Gómez, José M; Cantero, Domingo

2012-01-01

178

Production of rhamnolipids in solid-state cultivation using a mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corn bran supplemented with glycerol and soybean oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhamnolipid biosurfactants are attracting attention due to their low toxicity, high biodegradability, and good ecological\\u000a acceptability. However, production in submerged culture is made difficult by severe foaming problems. Solid-state cultivation\\u000a (SSC) is a promising alternative production method. In the current work, we report the optimization of rhamnolipid production\\u000a by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UFPEDA 614 on a solid substrate containing sugarcane bagasse

Doumit Camilios-Neto; Cryshelen Bugay; Arquimedes Paixão de Santana-Filho; Talita Joslin; Lauro Mera de Souza; Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki; David Alexander Mitchell; Nadia Krieger

2011-01-01

179

Carbon source and pH-dependent transcriptional regulation of cellulase genes of Humicola grisea var. thermoidea grown on sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-course expression profiles of one xylanase and eight cellulase encoding genes, as well as of two transcription factor encoding genes of Humicola grisea var. thermoidea were established in different culture media pHs and carbon sources (glucose and sugarcane bagasse). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed a remarkable and parallel increase in mRNA accumulation for cbh1.1, cbh1.2, egl1, egl2, egl3, bgl4 and

Thiago Machado Mello-de-Sousa; Ildinete Silva-Pereira; Marcio José Poças-Fonseca

2011-01-01

180

Liquid hot water pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and its comparison with chemical pretreatment methods for the sugar recovery and structural changes.  

PubMed

Liquid hot water (LHW), dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) and dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were applied to sugarcane bagasse (SB). Application of the same analytical methods and material balance approaches facilitated meaningful comparisons of glucose and xylose yields from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. All pretreatments enhanced sugar recovery from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis substantially compared to untreated sugarcane bagasse. Adding Tween80 in the enzymatic hydrolysis process increased the conversion level of glucan/xylan by 0.3-fold, especially for the low pH pretreatment where more lignin was left in the solids. The total sugar recovery from sugarcane bagasse with the coupled operations of pretreatment and 72 h enzymatic digestion reached 71.6% for LHW process, 76.6% for HCl pretreatment and 77.3% for NaOH pretreatment. Different structural changes at the plant tissue, cellular, and cell wall levels might be responsible for the different enzymatic digestibility. Furthermore, a combined LHW and aqueous ammonia pretreatment was proposed to reduce energy input and enhance the sugar recovery. PMID:23306094

Yu, Qiang; Zhuang, Xinshu; Lv, Shuangliang; He, Minchao; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wen; Tan, Xuesong

2013-02-01

181

Removal of Zn2+ from aqueous single metal solutions and electroplating wastewater with wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD).  

PubMed

This work describes the preparation of a new chelating material derived from wood sawdust, Manilkara sp., and not only the use of a new support, but also a chemically modified sugarcane bagasse synthesized in our previous work to remove Zn(2+) from aqueous solutions and electroplating wastewater. The first part describes the chemical modification of wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse using ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD) as modifying agent in order to introduce carboxylic acid and amine functional groups into these materials. The obtained materials such as the modified sugarcane bagasse, EB, and modified wood sawdust, ES were then characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and CHN. The second part evaluates the adsorption capacity of Zn(2+) by EB and ES from aqueous single metal solutions and real electroplating wastewater, which concentration was determined through direct titration with EDTA and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Adsorption isotherms were developed using Langmuir model. Zn(2+) adsorption capacities were found to be 80 mg/g for ES and 105 mg/g for EB whereas for the industrial wastewater these values were found to be 47 mg/g for ES and 45 mg/g for EB. Zn(2+) adsorption in the wastewater was found to be lower than in Zn(2+) spiked solution due to the competition between other cations and/or interference of other ions, mainly Ca(2+) and Cl(-) that were present in the wastewater. PMID:20047793

Pereira, Flaviane Vilela; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

2010-04-15

182

Removal of lead from wastewater using bagasse fly ash -- a sugar industry waste material  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent and has been used for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions in the 4.80 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 4.83 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M concentration range. Maximum removal takes place at pH 3.0 using 10 g/L of the adsorbent of particle size 150--200 mesh. The effect of the presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time has also been studied. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The adsorbent has been satisfactorily used for the removal of Pb{sup 2+} from the effluent of a metal-finishing plant.

Gupta, V.K.; Mohan, D.; Sharma, S. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-06-01

183

Enzymic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by autohydrolysis-steam explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of bagasse by autohydrolysis at 200 degrees C for 4 min and explosive defibration resulted in the solubilization of 90% of the hemicellulose (a heteroxylan) and in the production of a pulp that was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei C-30 and QM 9414, and by a commercial preparation, Meicelase. Saccharification yields of 50% resulted after

R. F. H. Dekker; A. F. A. Wallis

1983-01-01

184

Sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis: rheological data as criteria for impeller selection.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to select an efficient impeller to be used in a stirred reactor for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse. All experiments utilized 100 g (dry weight)/l of steam-pretreated bagasse, which is utilized in Brazil for cattle feed. The process was studied with respect to the rheological behavior of the biomass hydrolysate and the enzymatic conversion of the bagasse polysaccharides. These parameters were applied to model the power required for an impeller to operate at pilot scale (100 l) using empirical correlations according to Nagata [16]. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using a blend of cellulases, ?-glucosidase, and xylanases produced in our laboratory by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus awamori. Hydrolyses were performed with an enzyme load of 10 FPU/g (dry weight) of bagasse over 36 h with periodic sampling for the measurement of viscosity and the concentration of glucose and reducing sugars. The mixture presented pseudoplastic behavior. This rheological model allowed for a performance comparison to be made between flat-blade disk (Rushton turbine) and pitched-blade (45°) impellers. The simulation showed that the pitched blade consumed tenfold less energy than the flat-blade disk turbine. The resulting sugar syrups contained 22 g/l of glucose, which corresponded to 45% cellulose conversion. PMID:20844924

Pereira, Leonardo Tupi Caldas; Pereira, Lucas Tupi Caldas; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Freitas, Suely Pereira

2011-08-01

185

Glassification of Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Using Fly Ash or Bagasse Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts contain significant quantities of iron and zinc found almost entirely as iron oxide, zinc oxide and zinc ferrite. The dust has been classified as a hazardous waste due to the relative high lead, cadmium and hexavalent chromium contents. An option for treating EAF dust with an economic and uncomplicated process is by using ashes. Silica

Sureerat POLSILAPA; Panyawat WANGYAO

186

Studies of the Brazilian sugarcane bagasse carbonisation process and products properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale experiments in an enlarged scale thermoreactor have demonstrated that the pyrolysis of the bagasse bulk in a mechanically loosened layer yields 23–28% charcoal measured on an oven dry basis. The charcoal is appropriate for the production of fuel briquettes and granules for household and industry uses. To implement an energy self-sufficient production process, yields of condensable matter and gas

J. Zandersons; J. Gravitis; A. Kokorevics; A. Zhurinsh; O. Bikovens; A. Tardenaka; B. Spince

1999-01-01

187

Competitive adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ on magnetic modified sugarcane bagasse prepared by two simple steps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic modified sugarcane bagasse with high adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption rate was prepared by two simple steps. Experimental results showed that the adsorption capacities of the magnetic sorbent for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 1.2 and 1.1 mmol g-1, respectively. Pseudo-second-order and pseudo-first-order kinetic model both could predict the adsorption and desorption kinetic process occurred on the modified sorbent. EDX analysis showed that Pb2+ and Cd2+ were adsorbed on the sorbent mainly through ion exchange. Competitive adsorption results showed that the presence of Pb2+ exerted a great inhibitory effect on Cd2+ adsorption, and the inhibitory effect increased with the increase of the initial concentration ratio of Pb2+ and Cd2+ (C0Pb: C0Cd). Pb2+ could be selectively adsorbed by the magnetic sorbent when the values of C0Pb: C0Cd was higher than or equal to 4:1. It was also found that Langmuir competitive model was suitable to predict the sorption isotherm in the binary system. The as prepared magnetic sorbent had a potential in heavy metal wastewater treatment.

Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

2013-03-01

188

Batch xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate at controlled pH values.  

PubMed

Batch fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate by the yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was performed using controlled pH values (3.5, 5.5, 7.5). The maximum values of xylitol volumetric productivity ( Q(p)=0.76 g/l h) and xylose volumetric consumption ( Q(s)=1.19 g/l h) were attained at pH 5.5. At pH 3.5 and 7.5 the Q(p) value decreased by 66 and 72%, respectively. Independently of the pH value, Y(x/s) decreased with the increase in Y(p/s) suggesting that the xylitol bioconversion improves when the cellular growth is limited. At the highest pH value (7.5), the maximum specific xylitol production value was the lowest ( q(pmax)=0.085 g/l h.), indicating that the xylose metabolism of the yeast was diverted from xylitol formation to cell growth. PMID:14624353

Rodrigues, R C L B; Felipe, M G A; Roberto, I C; Vitolo, M

2003-12-01

189

Mapping the lignin distribution in pretreated sugarcane bagasse by confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Delignification pretreatments of biomass and methods to assess their efficacy are crucial for biomass-to-biofuels research and technology. Here, we applied confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using one- and two-photon excitation to map the lignin distribution within bagasse fibers pretreated with acid and alkali. The evaluated spectra and decay times are correlated with previously calculated lignin fractions. We have also investigated the influence of the pretreatment on the lignin distribution in the cell wall by analyzing the changes in the fluorescence characteristics using two-photon excitation. Eucalyptus fibers were also analyzed for comparison. Results Fluorescence spectra and variations of the decay time correlate well with the delignification yield and the lignin distribution. The decay dependences are considered two-exponential, one with a rapid (?1) and the other with a slow (?2) decay time. The fastest decay is associated to concentrated lignin in the bagasse and has a low sensitivity to the treatment. The fluorescence decay time became longer with the increase of the alkali concentration used in the treatment, which corresponds to lignin emission in a less concentrated environment. In addition, the two-photon fluorescence spectrum is very sensitive to lignin content and accumulation in the cell wall, broadening with the acid pretreatment and narrowing with the alkali one. Heterogeneity of the pretreated cell wall was observed. Conclusions Our results reveal lignin domains with different concentration levels. The acid pretreatment caused a disorder in the arrangement of lignin and its accumulation in the external border of the cell wall. The alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from the middle of the bagasse fibers, but was less effective in its removal from their surfaces. Our results evidenced a strong correlation between the decay times of the lignin fluorescence and its distribution within the cell wall. A new variety of lignin fluorescence states were accessed by two-photon excitation, which allowed an even broader, but complementary, optical characterization of lignocellulosic materials. These results suggest that the lignin arrangement in untreated bagasse fiber is based on a well-organized nanoenvironment that favors a very low level of interaction between the molecules.

2013-01-01

190

Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) production by bacteria from xylose, glucose and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Fifty-five bacterial strains isolated from soil were screened for efficient poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) biosynthesis from xylose. Three strains were also evaluated for the utilization of bagasse hydrolysate after different detoxification steps. The results showed that activated charcoal treatment is pivotal to the production of a hydrolysate easy to assimilate. Burkholderia cepacia IPT 048 and B. sacchari IPT 101 were selected for bioreactor studies, in which higher polymer contents and yields from the carbon source were observed with bagasse hydrolysate, compared with the use of analytical grade carbon sources. Polymer contents and yields, respectively, reached 62% and 0.39 g g(-1) with strain IPT 101 and 53% and 0.29 g g(-1) with strain IPT 048. A higher polymer content and yield from the carbon source was observed under P limitation, compared with N limitation, for strain IPT 101. IPT 048 showed similar performances in the presence of either growth-limiting nutrient. In high-cell-density cultures using xylose plus glucose under P limitation, both strains reached about 60 g l(-1) dry biomass, containing 60% P3HB. Polymer productivity and yield from this carbon source reached 0.47 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.22 g g(-1), respectively. PMID:15221664

Silva, L F; Taciro, M K; Michelin Ramos, M E; Carter, J M; Pradella, J G C; Gomez, J G C

2004-07-01

191

High-value zeolitic material from bagasse fly ash: utilization for dye elimination.  

PubMed

Bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, was used to prepare zeolitic material (ZFA) by means of alkaline hydrothermal treatment. ZFA showed improved morphology as a result of this treatment. The adsorption of the reactive dyes turquoise blue (TB) and brilliant magenta (BM), on both BFA and ZFA, was investigated in a batch contact system. A series of batch experiments revealed that optimal dye removal occurs at a 200 mg/L to 300 mg/L solute concentration, 60 minutes of agitation time, 5 g/L to 10 g/L adsorbent dose, a pH level of 2 to 4, and a temperature of 298 K. ZFA showed enhanced adsorption capacity as compared to BFA. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity was 12.66 mg/g and 45.45 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on BFA; and 21.74 mg/g and 100.00 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on ZFA. Kinetic studies showed that the correlation coefficients best fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, confirming that the adsorption rate was controlled by a hemisorptions process. PMID:23833819

Shah, Bhavna A; Shah, Ajay V; Patel, Harendra D; Mistry, Chirag B

2013-06-01

192

Preliminary kinetic characterization of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase extracted from Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 cultivated in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 was cultured in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate supplemented with 2.0 g\\/L of (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 g\\/L of CaCl2·2H2O, and 20.0 g\\/L of rice bran at 35°C; pH 4.0; agitation of 300 rpm; and aeration of 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 vvm. The high xylitol\\u000a production (20.0 g\\/L) and xylose reductase (XR) activity (658.8 U\\/mg of protein) occurred at an

Luciane Sene; Maria G. A. Felipe; Silvio S. Silva; Michele Vitolo

2001-01-01

193

The influence of presaccharification, fermentation temperature and yeast strain on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Ethanol can be produced from cellulosic biomass in a process known as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The presence of yeast together with the cellulolytic enzyme complex reduces the accumulation of sugars within the reactor, increasing the ethanol yield and saccharification rate. This paper reports the isolation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae LBM-1, a strain capable of growth at 42 °C. In addition, S. cerevisiae LBM-1 and Kluyveromyces marxianus UFV-3 were able to ferment sugar cane bagasse in SSF processes at 37 and 42 °C. Higher ethanol yields were observed when fermentation was initiated after presaccharification at 50°C than at 37 or 42° C. Furthermore, the volumetric productivity of fermentation increased with presaccharification time, from 0.43 g/L/h at 0 h to 1.79 g/L/h after 72 h of presaccharification. The results suggest that the use of thermotolerant yeasts and a presaccharification stage are key to increasing yields in this process. PMID:22285296

de Souza, Carlos J A; Costa, Daniela A; Rodrigues, Marina Q R B; dos Santos, Ancély F; Lopes, Mariana R; Abrantes, Aline B P; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flávia M L; Fietto, Luciano G

2012-04-01

194

Delignification of sugarcane bagasse using glycerol-water mixtures to produce pulps for saccharification.  

PubMed

This paper describes the organosolv delignification of depithed bagasse using glycerol-water mixtures without a catalyst. The experiments were performed using two separate experimental designs. In the first experiment, two temperatures (150 and 190°C), two time periods (60 and 240 min) and two glycerol contents (20% and 80%, v/v) were used. In the second experiment, which was a central composite design, the glycerol content was maintained at 80%, and a range of temperatures (141.7-198.3°C) and time (23-277 min) was used. The best result, obtained with a glycerol content of 80%, a reaction time of 150 min and a temperature of 198.3°C, produced pulps with 54.4% pulp yield, 7.75% residual lignin, 81.4% delignification and 13.7% polyose content. The results showed that high contents of glycerol tend to produce pulps with higher delignification and higher polyoses content in relation to the pulps obtained from low glycerol content reactions. In addition, the proposed method shows potential as a pretreatment for cellulose saccharification. PMID:21906937

Novo, Lísias Pereira; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio Aprigio da Silva

2011-11-01

195

Trichoderma harzianum IOC-4038: A promising strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex with significant ?-glucosidase activity from sugarcane bagasse cellulignin.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is an agroindustrial residue generated in large amounts in Brazil. This biomass can be used for the production of cellulases, aiming at their use in second-generation processes for bioethanol production. Therefore, this work reports the ability of a fungal strain, Trichoderma harzianum IOC-4038, to produce cellulases on a novel material, xylan free and cellulose rich, generated from sugarcane bagasse, named partially delignified cellulignin. The extract produced by T. harzianum under submerged conditions reached 745, 97, and 559 U L(-1) of ?-glucosidase, FPase, and endoglucanase activities, respectively. The partial characterization of this enzyme complex indicated, using a dual analysis, that the optimal pH values for the biocatalysis ranged from 4.9 to 5.2 and optimal temperatures were between 47 and 54 °C, depending on the activity studied. Thermal stability analyses revealed no significant decrease in activity at 37 °C during 23 h of incubation. When compared to model strains, Aspergillus niger ATCC-16404 and Trichoderma reesei RutC30, T. harzianum fermentation was faster and its extract showed a better balanced enzyme complex, with adequate characteristics for its application in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes. PMID:20455032

de Castro, Aline Machado; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

2010-11-01

196

Effects of sulfuric acid loading and residence time on the composition of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate and its use as a source of xylose for xylitol bioproduction.  

PubMed

A 2(2) full factorial design was employed to evaluate the effects of sulfuric acid loading and residence time on the composition of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate obtained in a 250-L reactor. The acid loading and the residence time were varied from 70 to 130 mg acid per gram of dry bagasse and from 10 to 30 min, respectively, while the temperature (121 degrees C) and the bagasse loading (10%) were kept constant. Both the sulfuric acid loading and the residence time influenced the concentrations of xylose and inhibitors in the hydrolysate. The highest xylose concentration (22.71 g/L) was achieved when using an acid loading of 130 mg/g and a residence time of 30 min. These conditions also led to increased concentrations of inhibiting byproducts in the hydrolysate. All of the hydrolysates were vacuum-concentrated to increase the xylose concentration, detoxified by pH alteration and adsorption into activated charcoal, and used for xylitol bioproduction in a stirred tank reactor. Neither the least (70 mg/g, 10 min) nor the most severe (130 mg/g, 30 min) hydrolysis conditions led to the best xylitol production (37.5 g/L), productivity (0.85 g/L h), and yield (0.78 g/g). PMID:16209549

Silva, Silvio S; Matos, Zuzel R; Carvalho, Walter

2005-01-01

197

Adaptation of a recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to a sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate with high content of fermentation inhibitors.  

PubMed

Adaptation of a xylose-utilizing genetically engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by cultivation during 353h using medium with increasing concentrations of inhibitors, including phenolic compounds, furaldehydes and aliphatic acids, led to improved performance with respect to ethanol production. The remaining xylose concentration in the medium at the end of the cultivation was 5.2g l(-1), while it was 11gl(-1) in the feed, indicating that approximately half of the xylose was consumed. The performance of the adapted strain was compared with the parental strain with respect to its ability to ferment three bagasse hydrolysates with different inhibitor concentration. The ethanol yield after 24h of fermentation of the bagasse hydrolysate with lowest inhibitor concentration increased from 0.18gg(-1) of total sugar with the non-adapted strain to 0.38gg(-1) with the adapted strain. The specific ethanol productivity increased from 1.15g ethanol per g initial biomass per h with the non-adapted strain to 2.55gg(-1) h(-1) with the adapted strain. The adapted strain performed better than the non-adapted also in the two bagasse hydrolysates containing higher concentrations of inhibitors. The adapted strain converted the inhibitory furaldehydes 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) at a faster rate than the non-adapted strain. The xylose-utilizing ability of the yeast strain did not seem to be affected by the adaptation and the results suggest that ethanol rather than xylitol was formed from the consumed xylose. PMID:16934451

Martín, Carlos; Marcet, Marcelo; Almazán, Oscar; Jönsson, Leif J

2007-07-01

198

Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of malachite green (MG) was studied using three adsorbents namely, bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, and activated carbons commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial MG concentration on the removal of MG. The initial pH

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

199

The use of seaweed and sugarcane bagasse for the biological treatment of metal-contaminated waters under sulfate-reducing conditions.  

PubMed

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests. PMID:18401756

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Oliveira Mello, Luiz Antonio; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

2008-03-01

200

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests.

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Mello, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

201

Evaluation of inoculum of Candida guilliermondii grown in presence of glucose on xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities and xylitol production during batch fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The effect of glucose on xylose-xylitol metabolism in fermentation medium consisting of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was evaluated by employing an inoculum of Candida guilliermondii grown in synthetic media containing, as carbon sources, glucose (30 g/L), xylose (30 g/L), or a mixture of glucose (2 g/L) and xylose (30 g/L). The inoculum medium containing glucose promoted a 2.5-fold increase in xylose reductase activity (0.582 IU/mgprot) and a 2-fold increase in xylitol dehydrogenase activity (0.203 IU/mgprot) when compared with an inoculum-grown medium containing only xylose. The improvement in enzyme activities resulted in higher values of xylitol yield (0.56 g/g) and productivity (0.46 g/[L.h]) after 48 h of fermentation. PMID:15917619

da Silva, Débora Danielle Virgínio; das Graças de Almeida Felipe, Maria; de Mancilha, Ismael Maciel; da Silva, Sílvio Silvério

2005-01-01

202

Oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse derived solid acid catalysts for rapid esterification of fatty acids and moisture-assisted transesterification of oils under pseudo-infinite methanol.  

PubMed

The use of pseudo-infinite methanol in increasing the rate of esterification and transesterification reactions was studied using oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived solid acid catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonisation at 400°C for 8h, followed by sulfonation at 150°C for 15h and characterised using TGA/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, EA and titrimetric determinations of acid sites. Under optimal reaction conditions, the process demonstrated rapid esterification of palmitic acid, with FAME yields of 93% and 94% in 45min for OPT and SCB catalysts, respectively. With the process, moisture levels up to 16.7% accelerated the conversion of low FFA oils by sulfonated carbon catalysts, through moisture-induced violent bumping. Moisture assisted transesterification of palm olein containing 1.78% FFA and 8.33% added water gave FAME yield of 90% in 10h, which was two folds over neat oil. PMID:24561631

Ezebor, Francis; Khairuddean, Melati; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Boey, Peng Lim

2014-04-01

203

A 24.7-kDa copper-containing oxidase, secreted by Thermobifida fusca, significantly increasing the xylanase/cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soil bacterium belonging to Actinobacteria. It has been known for its capability to degrade plant cell wall polymers except lignin and pectin. To know whether it can produce enzymes to facilitate lignin degradation, the extracellular proteins bound to sugarcane bagasse were harvested and identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, a putative copper-containing polyphenol oxidase of 241 amino acids, encoded by the locus Tfu_1114, was thought to presumably play a role in lignin degradation. This protein (Tfu1114) was thus expressed in E. coli and characterized. Similarly to common laccases, Tfu1114 is able to catalyze the oxidation reaction of phenolic and nonphenolic lignin related compounds such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and veratryl alcohol. More interestingly, it can significantly enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse by xylanase and cellulase. Tfu1114 is stable against heat, with a half-life of 4.7 h at 90 °C, and organic solvents. It is sensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and reducing agents but resistant to sodium azide, a potent inhibitor of laccases. Atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that the ratio of copper to the protein monomer is 1, instead of 4, a feature of classical laccases. All these data suggest that Tfu1114 is a novel oxidase with laccase-like activity, potentially useful in biotechnology application. PMID:23377789

Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hsieh, Zhi-Shen; Cheepudom, Jatuporn; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Meng, Menghsiao

2013-10-01

204

High yield pulp from bagasse  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of bagasse is similar to that of hardwood (Fagus sylvatica), but bagasse contains more pentosans and ash and less lignin. The strength of mechanical pulp from bagasse was lower than that of semimechanical pulp prepared from bagasse in the presence of NaOH and alkaline Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/. Mechanical and semimechanical pulps responded well to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ bleaching, giving products with 57-58% brightness.

Luna, G.V.; Torres, C.A.

1982-01-01

205

Removal of Orange-G and Methyl Violet dyes by adsorption onto bagasse fly ash—kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as waste material from sugar mill), was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange-G (OG), and Methyl Violet (MV), from aqueous solution. Batch studies were performed to address various experimental parameters like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial concentration for the removal of these dyes. Effective pH for OG

Indra D. Mall; Vimal C. Srivastava; Nitin K. Agarwal

2006-01-01

206

Treatment of dairy wastewater by commercial activated carbon and bagasse fly ash: Parametric, kinetic and equilibrium modelling, disposal studies.  

PubMed

Present study reports treatment of synthetic dairy wastewater (SDW) in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal by means of adsorption onto activated carbon-commercial grade (ACC) and bagasse fly ash (BFA). Optimum conditions for SDW treatment were found to be: initial pH approximately 4.8, adsorbent dose of 20g/l for ACC and 10g/l for BFA and contact time approximately 8h. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to fit the kinetic data and Redlich-Peterson isotherm model was generally found to best represent the equilibrium data for SDW treatment by ACC and BFA. The change in entropy and enthalpy for SDW adsorption onto ACC and BFA were estimated as 125.85kJ/molK and 91.53kJ/mol; and 25.71kJ/molK and 17.26kJ/mol, respectively. The negative values of change in Gibbs free energy indicate the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the adsorptive treatment. PMID:20097555

Kushwaha, Jai Prakash; Srivastava, Vimal Chandra; Mall, Indra Deo

2010-05-01

207

Sugarcane bagasse treated with hydrous ferric oxide as a potential adsorbent for the removal of As(V) from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The mechanism of As(V) removal from aqueous solutions by means of hydrated ferric oxide (HFO)-treated sugarcane bagasse (SCB-HFO) (Saccharum officinarum L.) was investigated. Effects of different parameters, such as pH value, initial arsenic concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and ionic strength, on the As(V) adsorption were studied. The adsorption capacity of SCB-HFO for As(V) was found to be 22.1 mg/g under optimum conditions of pH 4, contact time 3h and temperature 22 °C. Initial As(V) concentration influenced the removal efficiency of SCB-HFO. The desorption of As(V) from the adsorbent was 17% when using 30% HCl and 85% with 1M NaOH solution. FTIR analyses evidenced two potential binding sites associated with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups which are responsible for As(V) removal. Adsorption, surface precipitation, ion exchange and complexation can be suggested as mechanisms for the As(V) removal from the solution phase onto the surface of SCB-HFO. PMID:23265467

Pehlivan, E; Tran, H T; Ouédraogo, W K I; Schmidt, C; Zachmann, D; Bahadir, M

2013-05-01

208

Multi-scale structural and chemical analysis of sugarcane bagasse in the process of sequential acid-base pretreatment and ethanol production by Scheffersomyces shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy usage of gasoline, burgeoning fuel prices, and environmental issues have paved the way for the exploration of cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol production technologies are emerging and require continued technological advancements. One of the most challenging issues is the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the desired sugars yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. We hypothesized that consecutive dilute sulfuric acid-dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment would overcome the native recalcitrance of sugarcane bagasse (SB) by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded cellulosic microfibrils. Results SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate after concentration by vacuum evaporation and detoxification showed 30.89 g/l xylose along with other products (0.32 g/l glucose, 2.31 g/l arabinose, and 1.26 g/l acetic acid). The recovered cellulignin was subsequently delignified by sodium hydroxide mediated pretreatment. The acid–base pretreated material released 48.50 g/l total reducing sugars (0.91 g sugars/g cellulose amount in SB) after enzymatic hydrolysis. Ultra-structural mapping of acid–base pretreated and enzyme hydrolyzed SB by microscopic analysis (scanning electron microcopy (SEM), transmitted light microscopy (TLM), and spectroscopic analysis (X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy) elucidated the molecular changes in hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin components of bagasse. The detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate was fermented by Scheffersomyces shehatae (syn. Candida shehatae UFMG HM 52.2) and resulted in 9.11 g/l ethanol production (yield 0.38 g/g) after 48 hours of fermentation. Enzymatic hydrolysate when fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 174 revealed 8.13 g/l ethanol (yield 0.22 g/g) after 72 hours of fermentation. Conclusions Multi-scale structural studies of SB after sequential acid–base pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis showed marked changes in hemicellulose and lignin removal at molecular level. The cellulosic material showed high saccharification efficiency after enzymatic hydrolysis. Hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysates revealed moderate ethanol production by S. shehatae and S. cerevisiae under batch fermentation conditions.

2014-01-01

209

Extraction of inulinase obtained by solid state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571.  

PubMed

Production of inulinase by solid state fermentation always involves an extraction step, which dictates enzyme recovery yield and is related to cultivation conditions and control of process parameters. This work is focused on the study of extraction conditions aiming to maximize yield of an inulinase obtained by solid state fermentation of sugar cane bagasse and Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. Kinetics of extraction was followed varying the kind of solvent used. After determining the best solvent, an experimental design was carried out to study the effect of the solid/liquid ratio (1:10-1:20), extraction temperature (20-53 degrees C), and stirring rate (50-177 rpm). Results showed that maximum yield was obtained when sodium acetate buffer 0.1 M pH 4.8 was used, using a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, at 53 degrees C and 150 rpm for 40 min. PMID:18500581

Bender, João Paulo; Mazutti, Marcio Antônio; Di Luccio, Marco; Treichel, Helen

2008-06-01

210

Ultra-structural mapping of sugarcane bagasse after oxalic acid fiber expansion (OAFEX) and ethanol production by Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Diminishing supplies of fossil fuels and oil spills are rousing to explore the alternative sources of energy that can be produced from non-food/feed-based substrates. Due to its abundance, sugarcane bagasse (SB) could be a model substrate for the second-generation biofuel cellulosic ethanol. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB remains a challenge for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol. We hypothesized that oxalic-acid-mediated thermochemical pretreatment (OAFEX) would overcome the native recalcitrance of SB by enhancing the cellulase amenability toward the embedded cellulosic microfibrils. Results OAFEX treatment revealed the solubilization of hemicellulose releasing sugars (12.56 g/l xylose and 1.85 g/l glucose), leaving cellulignin in an accessible form for enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest hydrolytic efficiency (66.51%) of cellulignin was achieved by enzymatic hydrolysis (Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188). The ultrastructure characterization of SB using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform–near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed structural differences before and after OAFEX treatment with enzymatic hydrolysis. Furthermore, fermentation mediated by C. shehatae UFMG HM52.2 and S. cerevisiae 174 showed fuel ethanol production from detoxified acid (3.2 g/l, yield 0.353 g/g; 0.52 g/l, yield, 0.246 g/g) and enzymatic hydrolysates (4.83 g/l, yield, 0.28 g/g; 6.6 g/l, yield 0.46 g/g). Conclusions OAFEX treatment revealed marked hemicellulose degradation, improving the cellulases’ ability to access the cellulignin and release fermentable sugars from the pretreated substrate. The ultrastructure of SB after OAFEX and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulignin established thorough insights at the molecular level.

2013-01-01

211

Properties and operating experience with bagasse as a boiler fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained in investigations of the properties of bagasse as a boiler fuel are reviewed and analyzed. The heating value of dry, ash-free bagasse from a broad geographical region within Louisiana is about 8300 Btu\\/lb. Ash content ranges from 4 to 18 percent, with an intrinsic ash content (ash associated with the cane) between 1 and 2 percent. The sulfated

T. N. Adams; G. D. Whitehouse; D. Maples

1978-01-01

212

Preparation of activated carbon using low temperature carbonisation and physical activation of high ash raw bagasse for acid dye adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons were prepared from bagasse through a low temperature (160 °C) chemical carbonisation treatment and gasification with carbon dioxide at 900 °C. The merit of low temperature chemical carbonisation in preparing chars for activation was assessed by comparing the physical and chemical properties of activated carbons developed by this technique to conventional methods involving the use of thermal and

M. Valix; W. H. Cheung; G. McKay

2004-01-01

213

Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy  

SciTech Connect

Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

1982-12-01

214

Windrow composting of sugarcane and coffee byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compost produced from lignocellulosic agricultural residues is found to be suitable for maintaining soil properties and health.\\u000a Results of experimental trials of large scale windrow composting of sugarcane press mud, cane bagasse and coffee pulp mixtures\\u000a are presented and discussed. Filter press mud and bagasse mixtures were transformed into composted products in 120 days, of\\u000a which 80 days were of

C. Rolz; R. de León; R. Cifuentes; C. Porres

2010-01-01

215

Thermal analysis and devolatilization kinetics of cotton stalk, sugar cane bagasse and shea meal under nitrogen and air atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal degradation, reactivity and kinetics for biomass materials cotton stalk (CS), sugarcane bagasse 1 (SB1), sugarcane bagasse 2 (SB2) and shea meal (SM) have been evaluated under pyrolysis (N2) and oxidising (dry air) conditions, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). In the cases of CS and SB1 the peak temperatures were 51°C higher for pyrolysis compared with oxidative degradation, whereas

S. Munir; S. S. Daood; W. Nimmo; A. M. Cunliffe; B. M. Gibbs

2009-01-01

216

White-rot fungal growth on sugarcane lignocellulosic residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid state culture on sugarcane chips previously fermented by yeast employing the EX-FERM process. The lignocellulosic sugarcane residue had 12.5% permanganate lignin and 81.3% holocellulose. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20° C, all fungi produced a solid residue which had a lower in vitro dry matter enzymatic digestibility than the original bagasse, with

C. Rolz; R. de Leon; M. C. de Arriola; S. de Cabrera

1987-01-01

217

Bagasse power in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

One-fifth of the electricity generated on Hawaii's largest island comes from burning bagasse in boilers. With Hawaii running out of space for landfills and committed to developing alternative energy sources for 90 percent of its electricity by 2005, there are proposals to burn refuse along with bagasse to generate power. However, these are meeting some objections on environmental grounds.

Not Available

1981-09-01

218

Pelletizing bagasse for fuel  

SciTech Connect

Prior to 1979, the Davies Hawakua Sugar Co. of Hawaii, burned its bagasse in bulk in large furnaces. Because of storage difficulties, however, the company decided to erect a bagasse - pelletizing plant adjacent to its Hawaii sugar factory. The plant, based on the Woodex process, has been very successful and the net energy gain has been calculated in the order of 41%.

Bouvet, P.E.; Suzor, N.L.C.

1980-08-01

219

Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the possibility of applying a steam explosion pretreatment process to sugarcane bagasse was investigated, and the effectiveness of the pretreatment in terms of hemicellulose solubilization and enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was determined. The steam requirement for the pretreatment was also investigated at the pilot-plant scale, and these results are presented.

Kling, S.H.; Neto, C.C.; Ferrara, M.A.; Torres, J.C.R.; Magalhaes, D.B.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

1987-01-01

220

Physicochemical characterisation of Indian biomass ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

India stands fourth in biomass utilisation for various purposes like domestic, commercial and industrial applications. While extensive studies have been made for coal ash characterisation and utilisation, studies on characterisation of biomass ash and its utilisation has not been addressed. In this paper, biomass ash from five sources i.e. rice husk, bagasse, groundnut shell, cashewnut shell, and arecanut shell have

K. Umamaheswaran; Vidya S. Batra

2008-01-01

221

Impact of cultivar selection and process optimization on ethanol yield from different varieties of sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background The development of ‘energycane’ varieties of sugarcane is underway, targeting the use of both sugar juice and bagasse for ethanol production. The current study evaluated a selection of such ‘energycane’ cultivars for the combined ethanol yields from juice and bagasse, by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment optimization of bagasse for sugar yields. Method A central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of dilute acid pretreatment parameters followed by enzymatic hydrolysis on the combined sugar yield of bagasse samples. The pressed slurry generated from optimum pretreatment conditions (maximum combined sugar yield) was used as the substrate during batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes at different solid loadings and enzyme dosages, aiming to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40 g/L. Results Significant variations were observed in sugar yields (xylose, glucose and combined sugar yield) from pretreatment-hydrolysis of bagasse from different cultivars of sugarcane. Up to 33% difference in combined sugar yield between best performing varieties and industrial bagasse was observed at optimal pretreatment-hydrolysis conditions. Significant improvement in overall ethanol yield after SSF of the pretreated bagasse was also observed from the best performing varieties (84.5 to 85.6%) compared to industrial bagasse (74.5%). The ethanol concentration showed inverse correlation with lignin content and the ratio of xylose to arabinose, but it showed positive correlation with glucose yield from pretreatment-hydrolysis. The overall assessment of the cultivars showed greater improvement in the final ethanol concentration (26.9 to 33.9%) and combined ethanol yields per hectare (83 to 94%) for the best performing varieties with respect to industrial sugarcane. Conclusions These results suggest that the selection of sugarcane variety to optimize ethanol production from bagasse can be achieved without adversely affecting juice ethanol and cane yield, thus maintaining first generation ethanol production levels while maximizing second generation ethanol production.

2014-01-01

222

Variation of bagasse crystallinity and cellulase activity during the fermentation of cellulomonas bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A characteristic behavior of the fermentation process was observed during the growth of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse. At the early stage of the fermentation the crystallinity index of bagasse increased, suggesting that the major metabolized fraction corresponded to the hemicellulose during this stage. Some time later the crystallinity achieved a steady state and then decreased, which indicated that the most complex structure of bagasse was being attacked. The analysis of the cellulolytic activity of extracellular enzyme in the medium showed a sharp increase followed by an abrupt leveling off and decline in activity. These results along with the reduction of crystallinity index and bagasse utilization (70%) justify the assumption that the C1 component was present in the cellulase complex synthesized by the bacteria. (Refs. 12).

Enriquez, A.; Montalvo, R.; Canales, M.

1981-07-01

223

Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.  

PubMed

The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2013-12-01

224

Bagasse utilization in Cuba  

SciTech Connect

Fluctuations in world sugar prices retard economic development in sugar-producing countries like Cuba, and so there is a pressing need to find alternative uses for sugar cane through the industrialization of its by-products, such as bagasse. In 1971 the United Nations Development Program began a cooperative venture with the Cuban Research Institute for Sugar Cane Derivatives to develop methods of making newsprint from bagasse. An experimental plant - Cuba 9, located 35 kilometers south of Havana, was inaugurated in May 1981. It is semi-commercial in character and has a daily capacity of 34 tonnes of newsprint and five tonnes of dissolving pulp. Pilot plants for the production of furfural and for the production of reconstituted panelboard are in operation.

Not Available

1981-11-01

225

Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200°C for 5 minutes and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of

V. P. Puri; G. R. Pearce

1986-01-01

226

The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated.

Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Junio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Bruchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

2012-01-01

227

Diluted phosphoric acid pretreatment for production of fermentable sugars in a sugarcane-based biorefinery.  

PubMed

The influence of time (8-24 min), temperature (144-186 °C) and phosphoric acid concentration (0.05-0.20%, w/v) on the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse in a 20 L batch rotary reactor was investigated. The efficiency of the pretreatment was verified by chemical characterization of the solid fraction of the pretreated bagasse and the conversion of cellulose to glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis. Models representing the percentage of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, solubilized hemicellulose and the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose were predictive and significant. Phosphoric acid concentration of 0.20% at temperature of 186 °C, during 8 and 24 min, was shown to be very effective in solubilizing hemicellulose from sugarcane bagasse, reaching solubilization of 96% and 98%, respectively. Relatively low amounts of inhibitors were produced, and the phosphoric acid remaining in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate is at adequate levels for supplying phosphorous requirement during subsequent fermentation. PMID:23186685

de Vasconcelos, Solange Maria; Santos, Andrelina Maria Pinheiro; Rocha, George Jackson Moraes; Souto-Maior, Ana Maria

2013-05-01

228

Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720/sup 0/C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.; Schweers, W.

1982-01-01

229

Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.

1982-01-01

230

Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).  

PubMed

The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (?g) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ? underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2014-01-01

231

Bagasse-reinforced cement composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is abundantly available in many countries as a by-product from sugar mills and is being mostly used as fuel or disposed of by incineration. An attempt has been made to convert this byproduct into useful eco-friendly cement-bonded composites, which can be used for various internal and external applications in buildings. The investigations include optimization of parameters such as bagasse

L. K. Aggarwal

1995-01-01

232

Bio-oil production by flash pyrolysis of sugarcane residues and post treatments of the aqueous phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of three sugarcane residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) has been carried out in a pilot bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer operating under a range of temperature from 300°C to 600°C and two vapor residence time (2 and 5s), with the aim of determining their pyrolysis behavior including products yields and heat balance. The composition of the product

R. Xu; L. Ferrante; C. Briens; F. Berruti

2011-01-01

233

Semichemical Pulping of Bagasse (Preliminary Study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of preliminary laboratory experiments on the semichemical pulping of bagasse as a source of newsprint furnish are given in this report, and the details of digestion and refining of bagasse for high yield pulp are described. The strength properties...

T. C. Mantri Y. K. Sharma V. Raghumath

1979-01-01

234

Hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by mycelial biomass of Penicillium funiculosum  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose bioconversion has great promise for producing unlimited quantities of fermentable feedstocks and liquid fuels. Extensive studies on the production of extracellular cellulase and on the saccharification of various cellulosic substrates using cellulases have been reported. Use of mycelial biomass having cell bound cellulase for saccharification of cellulose was studied in Aspergillus terreus by Miller and Srinivasan. Extracellular cellulase production by P. funiculosum and its application for cellulose hydrolysis have been reported earlier by the authors. The present communication reports the hydrolysis of lignocellulose using mycelial biomass of P. funiculosum cultivated on cellulose and its reuse potential. 10 references.

Rao, M.; Deshpande, V.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Mishra, C.

1985-07-01

235

High production of cellulose degrading endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase using bagasse as a substrate from Bacillus subtilis KIBGE HAS.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is a cheap carbon source for endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production as it is easily available as by-product from sugar industries. Fermentation conditions for endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production by Bacillus subtilis KIBGE HAS were optimized by using un-treated sugarcane bagasse for induction of endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase and it was found that 2.0 g% bagasse in fermentation medium induced maximum endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production. It was also found that when sugarcane bagasse was supplemented with different carbon sources, the results showed that lactose, xylose, maltose and sucrose favored endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production, whereas cellobiose and fructose inhibit enzyme production. Maximum endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production was obtained at 40 °C keeping the initial pH of the medium at 7.0 before sterilization. Maximum endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production was obtained after 48 h incubation. Among different nitrogen sources, ammonium nitrate enhanced endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production. The optimal temperature and pH for enzyme activity were 60 °C and 7.0, respectively. PMID:23044136

Bano, Saeeda; Qader, Shah Ali Ul; Aman, Afsheen; Syed, Mohammad Noman; Durrani, Kamran

2013-01-01

236

Research in bagasse pulp bleaching  

SciTech Connect

Bleaching of soda and sulfate bagasse pulps by CED, CEH, CEHD, and O/alkali CED sequences gave products with Elrepho brightness 85-90, Post color no. 1.3-2.5, viscosity 20-28 cP, tear factor 60-78, and breaking length 3710-4590 m. Bleaching bagasse pulp with Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/-NaClO increased its brightness increasing temperature, pH, and NaOCl consumption. Brightening of mechanical bagasse pulp with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaClO reduced the consumption of peroxide, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaOCl by 0.5-0.8, 0.5-1.5, and 10-12%, respectively.

Fernandez, N.; Naranjo, M.E.; Alvarez, J.; Sardinas, O.; Serrantes, M.

1982-01-01

237

Interior view of north end of the Bagasse Storage Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of north end of the Bagasse Storage Building with traveling crane used to load bagasse to send to boiler, looking from the west - Kekaha Sugar Company, Bagasse Storage Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

238

The development of multi-objective optimization model for excess bagasse utilization: A case study for Thailand  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model is proposed as a tool to assist in deciding for the proper utilization scheme of excess bagasse produced in sugarcane industry. Two major scenarios for excess bagasse utilization are considered in the optimization. The first scenario is the typical situation when excess bagasse is used for the onsite electricity production. In case of the second scenario, excess bagasse is processed for the offsite ethanol production. Then the ethanol is blended with an octane rating of 91 gasoline by a portion of 10% and 90% by volume respectively and the mixture is used as alternative fuel for gasoline vehicles in Thailand. The model proposed in this paper called 'Environmental System Optimization' comprises the life cycle impact assessment of global warming potential (GWP) and the associated cost followed by the multi-objective optimization which facilitates in finding out the optimal proportion of the excess bagasse processed in each scenario. Basic mathematical expressions for indicating the GWP and cost of the entire process of excess bagasse utilization are taken into account in the model formulation and optimization. The outcome of this study is the methodology developed for decision-making concerning the excess bagasse utilization available in Thailand in view of the GWP and economic effects. A demonstration example is presented to illustrate the advantage of the methodology which may be used by the policy maker. The methodology developed is successfully performed to satisfy both environmental and economic objectives over the whole life cycle of the system. It is shown in the demonstration example that the first scenario results in positive GWP while the second scenario results in negative GWP. The combination of these two scenario results in positive or negative GWP depending on the preference of the weighting given to each objective. The results on economics of all scenarios show the satisfied outcomes.

Buddadee, Bancha [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: bancha_eng@yahoo.com; Wirojanagud, Wanpen [Research Center of Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: wanpen@kku.ac.th; Watts, Daniel J. [Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)], E-mail: daniel.watts@njit.edu; Pitakaso, Rapeepan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ubonratchathani University, Ubonratchathani 34190 (Thailand)], E-mail: enrapepi@ubu.ac.th

2008-08-15

239

Characterization of sugarcane and coconut fibers by thermal analysis and FTIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and coconut fiber was studied by thermal analysis in order to characterize their thermal behavior\\u000a and to identify their constituents by the aid of their thermogravimetric curves and to determine their heat capacity by means\\u000a of DSC. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) was used to determine the main constituents present in both residues.\\u000a The thermal

Cheila G. Mothé; Iara C. de Miranda

2009-01-01

240

Self-heating and drying in two-dimensional bagasse piles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a two-dimensional model for self-heating and changes in water levels in bagasse piles of constant rectangular or triangular cross section. (Bagasse is the residue, mainly cellulose, that remains after sugar has been extracted from sugar-cane.) After milling, the bagasse has almost 50% water by weight, as hot water is used to remove the last of the sugar. The bagasse can be used as fuel in electrical power stations, but needs to be dried out before use. This paper discusses the way in which the drying out of a pile depends on the ambient conditions, and the shape and size of the pile. Accordingly, the energy equation, and equations for liquid water, water vapour and oxygen are solved numerically using the method of lines. The equations include terms describing heat conduction, diffusion of water vapour and oxygen, condensation and evaporation and an Arrhenius self-heating term. In addition, recent measurements show that there is also self-heating due to the presence of water in the bagasse, with a maximum effect near 60 °C, which is modelled by a modified Arrhenius expression. The local maximum in the heat release curve for the problem leads to approximate steady-state behaviour on short time scales that eventually is lost as the pile dries out. This interesting physical behaviour motivates an approximate analytical model for the rate at which liquid water is reduced in the pile. Analytical and numerical results are presented for a variety of pile configurations and some fairly general conclusions are drawn.

Sexton, M. J.; Macaskill, C.; Gray, B. F.

2001-12-01

241

Storage and conservation of bagasse  

SciTech Connect

Storage of bagasse produced at harvest time becomes necessary when it is used for operations that are carried out continuously throughout the year, such as pulp and paper production. The sugar cane tissues suffer severe mechanical treatment in the sugar mills crushers, are further damaged in depithers and in many cases degraded while in storage. The processes of degradation are examined and handling and storage procedures are discussed which will minimize the quality and material losses.

Cusi, D.S.

1980-08-01

242

Design and optimization of ethanol production from bagasse pith hydrolysate by a thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse pith hydrolysate by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was analyzed using response surface methodology. Variables such as Substrate Concentration, pH, fermentation time and Na2HPO4 concentration were found to influence ethanol production significantly. In a batch fermentation, optimization of key process variables resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 17.44 g/L which was 88% of the theoretical with specific productivity of 0.36 g/L/h. PMID:23710425

Dasgupta, Diptarka; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Pandey, Diwakar; Ghosh, Debashish; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Vadde, Vasanta Thakur; Adhikari, Dilip K

2013-12-01

243

Synthesis of ZSM-type Zeolites from Biowaste Gasification Ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Taiwan, over 800 thousand tons per year (TPY) of biowastes such as sugar cane bagasse, sugar cane leaf, rice straw, and corn leaf are produced. These biomasses are the major wastes of farms and are abundantly available. However, these biowastes cause disposal and landfill problems. The main component of these biowaste ashes is SiO2. High crystallinity (99%) zeolites ZSM-5

KUEN-SONG LIN; H. PAUL WANG; NI-BIN CHANG; C. J. G. JOU; M. C. HSIAO

2003-01-01

244

Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.  

PubMed

Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2013-05-01

245

Ash Utilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Production and utilization of ash in the United States; The inhibitory effect of fly ash with respect to the corrosion of steel in concretes; Fly ash concrete in buildings in Chicago; A review of ash specifications; Prediction of fly ash perform...

J. D. Spencer J. H. Faber N. H. Coates

1970-01-01

246

Cell wall proteomics of sugarcane cell suspension cultures.  

PubMed

The use of cell walls to produce cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse is a new challenge. A better knowledge of proteins involved in cell wall remodelling is essential to improve the saccharification processes. Cell suspension cultures were used for this first cell wall proteomics study of sugarcane. Proteins extracted from cell walls were identified using an adapted protocol. They were extracted using 0.2 M CaCl2 and 2 M LiCl after purification of cell walls. The proteins were then identified by the innovative nanoACQUITY UPLC MS/MS technology and bioinformatics using the translated SUCEST EST cluster database of sugarcane. The experiments were reproduced three times. Since Sorghum bicolor is the closest plant with a fully sequenced genome, homologous proteins were searched for to complete the annotation of proteins, that is, prediction of subcellular localization and functional domains. Altogether, 69 different proteins predicted to be secreted were identified among 377 proteins. The reproducibility of the experiments is discussed. These proteins were distributed into eight functional classes. Oxidoreductases such as peroxidases were well represented, whereas glycoside hydrolases were scarce. This work provides information about the proteins that could be manipulated through genetic transformation, to increase second-generation ethanol production. PMID:24436144

Calderan-Rodrigues, Maria Juliana; Jamet, Elisabeth; Bonassi, Maria Beatriz Calderan Rodrigues; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Begossi, Amanda Carmanhanis; Setem, Laís Vaz; Franceschini, Livia Maria; Fonseca, Juliana Guimarães; Labate, Carlos Alberto

2014-03-01

247

Intercropping study in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted to evaluate the performance of some horticultural crops and their effect on sugarcane under intercropping\\u000a system at the upland sugarcane experimental field of the National Cereals Research Institute farm, Badeggi (9° 45’ N, 06°\\u000a 07’ E ) in the Southern Guina Savanna of Nigeria in 1997 and 1998 dry seasons. The seven treatments tested consisted of

A. K. Gana; L. D. Busari

2003-01-01

248

Microbial utilization and biopolyester synthesis of bagasse hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Cellulosic biomass is a potentially inexpensive renewable feedstock for the biorefineries of fuels, chemicals and materials. Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated in dilute acid solution under moderately severe conditions, releasing sugars and other hydrolysates including volatile organic acids, furfurals and acid soluble lignin. Utilization of the hydrolysates by an aerobic bacterium, Ralstonia eutropha, was investigated to determine if the organic inhibitors can be removed for potential recycling and reuse of the process water. Simultaneous biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) for the production of value-added bioplastics was also investigated. An inhibitory effect of hydrolysates on microbial activity was observed, but it could be effectively relieved by using (a) a large inoculum, (b) a diluted hydrolysate solution, and (c) a tolerant strain, or a combination of the three. The major organic inhibitors including formic acid, acetic acid, furfural and acid soluble lignin were effectively utilized and removed to low concentration levels (less than 100ppm) while at the same time, PHA biopolyesters were synthesized and accumulated to 57wt% of cell mass under appropriate C/N ratios. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) was the predominant biopolyester formed on the hydrolysates, but the cells could also synthesize co-polyesters that exhibit high ductility. PMID:18474421

Yu, Jian; Stahl, Heiko

2008-11-01

249

Utilization of Bagasse Energy in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse, a biomass fuel, is the waste generated by the sugar-making process from sugar cane. Sugar making is one of the most\\u000a important agricultural-produce processing industries for developing countries in Southeast Asia, Latin America and Africa.\\u000a As sugar producing plants need electric power and process steam, co-generation using bagasse as an alternate fuel for petroleum\\u000a has been in use for

Yasujiro Wakamura

2003-01-01

250

Sugarcane Culture and Syrup Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication gives the basic information needed by growers of syrup sugarcane. It includes descriptions of the sugarcane plant characteristics needed in syrup varieties, the best varieties, cultural requirements and practices, and the diseases and inse...

D. M. Broadhead N. Zummo

1988-01-01

251

Ash Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ash refers to the inorganic residue remaining after either ignition or complete oxidation of organic matter in a foodstuff. A basic knowledge of the characteristics of various ashing procedures and types of equipment is essential to ensure reliable results. Two major types of ashing are used: dry ashing, primarily for proximate composition and for some types of specific mineral analyses;

Maurice R. Marshall

2010-01-01

252

Optimization of hot-compressed water pretreatment of bagasse and characterization of extracted hemicelluloses.  

PubMed

Developing optimum treatment and separation procedures for hemicellulose components of lignocellulosic biomass could be useful in ethanol fermentation processes and obtaining pure hemicelluloses as biopolymers. Sugarcane bagasse analyses indicate that xylose is the major hemicellulose component constituting 17.7% of dry bagasse weight. In this study the effects of treatment conditions such as time, temperature and pressure on the yields of extracted hemicelluloses were studied. The optimum conditions were achieved at 180 °C for 30 min and 1 MPa pressure, with the yield of xylose reaching to 85% and the concentrations of sugar degradation products such as HMF and furfural remaining minimal at 0.95 and 0.07 g/L, respectively. Further, isolation of hemicelluloses from extracted hemicelluloses solutions was performed using Alfa Laval M20 membrane filtration system in two steps: (1) concentration of high molar mass hemicelluloses by ultrafiltration; and (2) separation of low molar mass hemicelluloses and oligomeric sugars by nanofiltration. The isolated hemicelluloses with the optimum pretreatment conditions were characterized by FT-IR and (13)C NMR techniques, resulting in agreement with typical spectra of xylan-type hemicelluloses. PMID:24299765

Sukhbaatar, Badamkhand; Hassan, El Barbary; Kim, Moon; Steele, Philip; Ingram, Leonard

2014-01-30

253

Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200/sup 0/C for 5 minutes and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of a pulp that gave saccharification yields of 80 and 65% in 8 h for bagasse and wheat straw, respectively. By comparison, alkali steaming at 200/sup 0/C (1.72 MPa) for 5 minutes gave saccharification yields of only 58 and 52% in 48 h. The increase in temperature from 140 to 200/sup 0/resulted in a gradual increase in in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD0) for both the substrates. Also, the extent of alkalinity during pretreatment appears to effect the reactivity of the final product towards enzymes. Pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 60 caused a progressive decline in the IVOMD of bagasse and wheat straw by the alkali explosion method and this was accompanied by a progressive decrease in pH values after explosion. In the alkali-steaming method, pretreatment time had no apparent effect with either substrate. An analysis of the alkali-exploded products showed that substantial amounts of hemicellulose and a small proportion of the lignin were solubilized. The percentage crystallinity of the cellulose did not alter in either substrate but there was a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization. The superiority of the alkali-explosion pretreatment is attributed to the efficacy of fiber separation and disintegration; this increases the surface area and reduces the degree of polymerization. 33 references.

Puri, V.P.; Pearce, G.R.

1986-04-01

254

Microprocessor controls for bagasse fired furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of automatic controls for bagasse fired furnaces in Louisiana have shown the feasibility of automatic forced draft control systems. The paper presents the results of a study carried out during the 1984 Louisiana sugar crop to further develop the principles of automatic control of bagasse furnaces using a microprocessor-based programmable logic controller. The data obtained validate the concepts of draft control and show how fuel control can be accomplished, thus providing overall boiler control. A brief outline of the further development of the system is also given.

Keenliside, W.; Mc Grew, K.

1987-02-01

255

Ash Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Ash refers to the inorganic residue remaining after either ignition or complete oxidation of organic matter in a foodstuff. A\\u000a basic knowledge of the characteristics of various ashing procedures and types of equipment is essential to ensure reliable\\u000a results. Two major types of ashing are used: dry ashing, primarily for proximate composition and for some types of specific\\u000a mineral analyses;

Maurice R. Marshall

256

Background Document: Bagasse Combustion in Sugar Mills.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a background document in support of the contents of Section 1.8 of AP-2, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Second Edition. It concerns the major criteria pollutants emitted during the combustion of bagasse (a fiberous waste product in...

R. Baker T. F. Lahre

1977-01-01

257

Thermal Coprocessing of High Density Polyethylene with Coal, Fly Ashes, and Biomass: Characterization of Liquid Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-pyrolysis of high density polyethylene with low cost additives, such as bituminous coal, bagasse fly ash, coal-based thermal power plant fly ash, and deoiled cake of jatropha, has been carried out in a batch reactor in the presence of nitrogen at 450°C under atmospheric pressure. Liquid products obtained by co-pyrolysis were characterized by ASTM D86 and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The

Y. C. Rotliwala; P. A. Parikh

2012-01-01

258

Explosion pulping of bagasse and wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse and wheat straw were soda-pulped in a digester at 200 degrees under N pressure of up to 13.8 MPa, followed by explosive discharge through nozzles to give pulp having lower yield and higher initial freeness than batch soda pulp. Explosion pulping required less NaOH than conventional batch soda pulping, and the properties of explosion pulp obtained were similar to those of batch soda pulp at a given freeness.

Mamers, H.; Yuritta, J.P.; Menz, D.J.

1981-01-01

259

Cassava bagasse cellulose nanofibrils reinforced thermoplastic cassava starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose cassava bagasse nanofibrils (CBN) were directly extracted from a by-product of the cassava starch (CS) industry, viz. the cassava bagasse (CB). The morphological structure of the ensuing nanoparticles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), presence of other components such as sugars by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),

Eliangela de M. Teixeira; Daniel Pasquini; Antônio A. S. Curvelo; Elisângela Corradini; Mohamed N. Belgacem; Alain Dufresne

2009-01-01

260

Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of

Worapon Kiatkittipong; Porntip Wongsuchoto; Prasert Pavasant

2009-01-01

261

Composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with other wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the composting of sweet sorghum bagasse — the residue obtained after sugar juice extraction of sweet sorghum stalk — in mixtures of wastes was studied. Bagasse with pig slurry and sewage sludge were used as raw materials for composting. The process was carried out in turned piles and the main process parameters were monitored over a year.

M. J. Negro; M. L. Solano; P. Ciria; J. Carrasco

1999-01-01

262

Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

263

Production of activated carbon from olive bagasse by physical activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons were produced from olive bagasse and their characteristics were investigated. Olive bagasse was first carbonized at 500°C in N2 atmosphere. Then, the obtained chars were activated with steam. The effects of activation temperature and duration were examined. The resultant activated carbons were characterized by measuring their porosities and pore size distributions. The activated carbons produced had the BET

Hakan Demiral; ?lknur Demiral; Belgin Karabacako?lu; Fatma Tümsek

2011-01-01

264

Utilization of sorghum bagasse hydrolysates for producing microbial lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

â–º Lime assisted pretreatment is effective in disrupting structure of sorghum bagasse. â–º Cryptococcus curvatus grows well on hydrolysate derived after pretreatment and hydrolysis. â–º Nile red can quantify neutral lipid content in yeast cells and hydrolysate. â–º Sorghum bagasse can serve as an excellent feedstock for producing microbial lipids.

Yanna Liang; Tianyu Tang; Arosha Loku Umagiliyage; Thara Siddaramu; Matt McCarroll; Ruplal Choudhary

2012-01-01

265

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation.

2013-01-01

266

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation. PMID:23895663

Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte K

2013-01-01

267

Effect of pulping variables with dimethyl formamide on the characteristics of bagasse-fiber.  

PubMed

Organosolv pulping of bagasse was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three pulping variables (temperature: 190-210 degrees C, time: 120-180 min, organic solvent ratio: 40-60% dimethyl formamide). Responses of pulp and handsheets properties to the process variables were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB 14). Using values of the independent variables the variation ranges considered provided the following optimum values of the dependent variables: 82.7% (yield), 92.9 (kappa number), 1.403% (ash), 370 ml (freeness), 6290 m (breaking length), 9.4 (folding endurance), 5.955 mN m2 g(-1) (Tear index) and 2.811 kN g(-1) (Burst index) for pulps and handsheets. Results showed that acceptable physical and mechanical properties of pulps and papers similar the pulp used for bleaching could be achieved at 210 degrees C for 150 min and 50% DMF. These are the most suitable conditions for obtaining paper sheets with a high breaking length, tear and burst indices. Also bagasse could be pulped with ease to about 55.72% yield with kappa number approximately 35. The cooking temperature was a significant factor while the DMF ratio and cooking time were not as important in term of the properties of the resultant pulps and papers. PMID:16023568

Rezayati-Charani, P; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J

2005-10-01

268

Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a  The fly ash, also known as pulverised fuel ash, is produced from burning pulverized coal in electric power generating plants. During\\u000a combustion, mineral impurities in the coal (clay, feldspar, quartz, and shale) fuse in suspension and float out of the combustion\\u000a chamber along with exhaust gases. As the fused material rises, it cools and solidifies into spherical glassy particles called

Rafat Siddique; Mohammad Iqbal Khan

269

Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

Kiatkittipong, Worapon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongsuchoto, Porntip [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: prasert.p@chula.ac.th

2009-05-15

270

Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options.  

PubMed

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative. PMID:19136243

Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

2009-05-01

271

Succinic acid production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate by Actinobacillus succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinic acid, a four-carbon diacid, has been the focus of many research projects aimed at developing more economically viable\\u000a methods of fermenting sugar-containing natural materials. Succinic acid fermentation processes also consume CO2, thereby potentially contributing to reductions in CO2 emissions. Succinic acid could also become a commodity used as an intermediate in the chemical synthesis and manufacture\\u000a of synthetic resins

Elcio Ribeiro Borges; Nei Pereira

272

Structural and thermal characterization of sugarcane bagasse cellulose succinates prepared in ionic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical modification of SCB cellulose with succinic anhydride using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid\\/DMSO system as reaction medium was studied. The parameters including the molar ratio of succinic anhydride\\/anhydroglucose units in cellulose from 1:1 to 12:1, reaction time 5–120min, and reaction temperature 85–105°C were investigated. The results showed that the degree substitution of succinylated cellulosic preparations ranged from 0.037 to

C. F. Liu; R. C. Sun; A. P. Zhang; J. L. Ren; Z. C. Geng

2006-01-01

273

Sugarcane bagasse pulps: biobleaching with commercial cartazyme HS and with Bacillus pumilus xylanase.  

PubMed

Organosolv (ethanol/water and acetosolv) pulps were treated with Bacillus pumilus xylanase for 4, 8, and 12 h and compared with commercial Cartazyme HS xylanase-treated pulps. Treatment of ethanol/water pulps with B. pumilus xylanase increased viscosity by 40% in 8 h of treatment compared with pulps treated without enzyme. However, acetosolv pulps treated with B. pumilus xylanase lost viscosity. Ethanol/water pulps treated with Cartazyme had a viscosity of 18.5 cP in 4 h of treatment. In the acetosolv pulps treated with commercial enzyme, the loss of viscosity was 20% compared with pulps treated without enzyme. Ethanol/water pulps treated with B. pumilus and Cartazyme had similar effects: a 44% reduction in kappa number for pulps treated with enzyme followed by alkaline extraction compared with pulps treated with alkaline extraction. In acetosolv pulps treated with B. pumilus, the kappa number was from 12 to 18, compared with pulps treated without enzyme, which had a 40% reduction in 4 and 12 h and a 60% reduction in 8 h. Cartazyme-treated acetosolv pulps had a kappa number of 14 in 4 and 8 h of treatment. For 12 h of treatment, the kappa number was 8. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the pulps showed that enzyme-treated pulps had changes in the 1000 cm-1 absorption owing to a C-O bond present in esters. Using principal component analysis, it is possible to differentiate the unbleached pulps and enzyme-treated pulps. PMID:15917597

Moriya, Regina Y; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Duarte, Marta C T

2005-01-01

274

Clean energy from sugarcane waste: feasibility study of an innovative application of bagasse and barbojo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the existing difficulty of finding energy sources and reducing pollution, the use of renewable sources and highly efficient technologies for electrical energy production stands out as one of the promising solutions for the future.This paper shows the results of the combination of these two aspects, namely, a molten carbonate fuel cell system fed with biomass derived syngas.In particular,

Daniela Dellepiane; Barbara Bosio; Elisabetta Arato

2003-01-01

275

Solvent extraction of antioxidants from steam exploded sugarcane bagasse and enzymatic convertibility of the solid fraction.  

PubMed

Solvent extraction of steam exploded lignocellulosic biomass may be a potential way to obtain antioxidative extracts and to enhance the enzymatic convertibility of the solid residue. Boiling solvent extraction (BSE) showed higher solid and phenolic yields than room temperature extraction. Solubilities of phenolics and sugars were higher in anhydrous ethanol (AE) and deionized water (DW) than in ethyl acetate under each individual extraction condition. The antioxidant activities of the AE and DW extract obtained under BSE were better than those of 10mM vitamin C. Conversion of the solid fractions into reducing sugar using Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 188 after AE and DW extraction was 95.13% and 92.97%, respectively, higher than that obtained with SESB (88.95%). PMID:23280180

Li, Jingbo; Lin, Jianghai; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Wang, Mingming; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Zehuan

2013-02-01

276

Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse by Zymomonas mobilis using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process.  

PubMed

Considerable efforts have been made to utilize agricultural and forest residues as biomass feedstock for the production of second-generation bioethanol as an alternative fuel. Fermentation utilizing strains of Zymomonas mobilis and the use of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process has been proposed. Statistical experimental design was used to optimize the conditions of SSF, evaluating solid content, enzymatic load, and cell concentration. The optimum conditions were found to be solid content (30%), enzymatic load (25 filter paper units/g), and cell concentration (4 g/L), resulting in a maximum ethanol concentration of 60 g/L and a volumetric productivity of 1.5 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:19876607

dos Santos, Danielle da Silveira; Camelo, Anna Carolina; Rodrigues, Kelly Cristina Pedro; Carlos, Luís Cláudio; Pereira, Nei

2010-05-01

277

Catalytic Gasification of Bagasse for the Production of Methanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis ...

E. G. Baker M. D. Brown R. J. Robertus

1985-01-01

278

Cuban mill set to produce quality bagasse newsprint  

SciTech Connect

It is reported that a pilot plant has been constructed at Quivican, Cuba which is capable of producing up to 35 tons of mechanical pulp and approximately 35 tons of newsprint daily from bagasse. In addition to the experimental bagasse newspaper plant, the Cuban government is constructing a large bleached bagasse pulp and paper mill for production of 250 tons of bleached bagasse pulp and paper daily. The installation is scheduled to go into operation in early 1982. The United Nations Development Programme hopes that newsprint and other products which can be produced from the sugar cane stalk will lessen third world nations dependecy on an uncertain world sugar market and help stabilize their economy.

Matics, D.

1981-10-01

279

Merits of excess bagasse as fuel for generating electricity. [Florida  

SciTech Connect

The rising cost of fuel oil improves the economics for sugar factories of using excess bagasse to produce more electricity than they require for sale to the public utility companies. Recently, the United States Sugar Corporation, in Florida, initiated the operation of a 20 MW plant fueled with excess bagasse only, and the electricity it generates is sold to a local utility. This constitutes a saving of 10 million liters of oil per year. The operating cycle is described of a system of high-pressure boilers and automatically controlled turbogenerator for the production of energy from bagasse. This system is a pre-engineered design which is very simple to install and operate and can be fitted in with the electric-generating installations which are normally found in practically any sugar factory without making significant modifications to the factory. An economic analysis is presented of power generation using excess bagasse for a 3MW unit and a 4MW unit.

Perea, P.

1981-05-01

280

Dry ash handling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a dry ash handling system for a combustor, comprising: an ash hopper accepting ash from the combustor and providing a fixed ash height sufficient to allow substantially complete combustion of partially burned objects. The ash hopper includes mixing means for mixing the ash and preventing air channels, and the mixing means comprising an inner wall of the

C. L. Liszewski; D. McKeand

1988-01-01

281

Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

Inaç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz

2013-12-01

282

High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct  

PubMed Central

The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L?1) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant ?-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L?1, resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials.

de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

2010-01-01

283

Prediction of the degradability of sugarcane cellulosic residues by indirect methods  

SciTech Connect

The effect of mild NaOH treatments on sugarcane cellulosic wastes (bagasse, pith, and straw) to increase their biological degradability has been studied. At a level of 8% NaOH (on a dry matter basis) 60% digestibility measured by the in vitro technique was achieved for all materials tested. Indirect methods to predict the digestibility of treated materials such as the bacterial degradability, enzymatic degradability, hot-water solubility, and chemical oxygen demand were tried as alternative methods to the rumen fluid technique. High correlation coefficients for all materials were obtained with all alternative techniques. The minimal r value was 0.96 while the highest was 0.99. An important reduction of time and reagents is achieved by the utilization of the solubility and chemical oxygen demand tests. (Refs. 8).

Cabello, A.; Conde, J.; Otero, M.A.

1981-12-01

284

High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct.  

PubMed

The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L(-1)) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant ?-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L(-1), resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

2010-01-01

285

Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.  

PubMed

The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

2010-09-01

286

Evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii on the key enzymes for xylitol production in sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast on xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) enzymes activities was performed during fermentation\\u000a in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The xylitol production was evaluated by using cells previously growth in\\u000a 30.0 gl?1 xylose, 30.0 gl?1 glucose and in both sugars mixture (30.0 gl?1 xylose and 2.0 gl?1 glucose). The vacuum

Priscila Vaz de Arruda; Rita de Cássia Lacerda Brambilla Rodrigues; Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe

2011-01-01

287

7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004...

2009-01-01

288

7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004...

2010-01-01

289

7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435.311 Section 1435...1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a) Proportionate shares...through 1435.316 apply only to Louisiana sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will...

2009-01-01

290

7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435.311 Section 1435...1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a) Proportionate shares...through 1435.316 apply only to Louisiana sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will...

2010-01-01

291

Paper pulp from sugar mill bagasse  

SciTech Connect

This is a continuation-in-part of US Serial No. 884,513, abandoned. Neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) cooking of depithed bagasse gave pulp with improved physicomechanical properties for use in the production of newsprint paper. Thus, the NSSC cooking at 170-175/sup 0/ gave pulp in 70-75% yield. The NSSC pulp as above was bleached with alkali H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ at 50-70/sup 0/ to give a product with breaking load 8.7 kg, tensile 3.9%, breaking length 7.13 km, absolute tearing strength 135 cmg/cm, absolute bursting strength 3.8 kg/sq. cm and Elrepho brightness 61.

Krueger, H.; Berndt, W.; Schwartzkopff, U.; Reitter, F.J.; Hoepner, T.; Muehlig, H.J.

1981-04-07

292

Production of potentially hazardous respirable silica airborne particulate from the burning of sugarcane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some areas of the world where agricultural burning is practised, the airborne particles produced have been linked to respiratory disease in humans. Here, we investigate the abundance and form of silica (SiO 2) minerals found within ash and aerosol produced by the experimental burning of sugarcane. Samples of sugarcane leaf were incinerated over a range of temperatures, time scales and airflow conditions, the latter to investigate the effects of wind and updrafts during natural fires. The silica content of the residual ash (from still air simulations) was measured using an improved wet chemical methodology, described here. This indicated that the release of silica from the plant material into the atmosphere increases with increasing temperature of combustion. Airborne particulate, sampled using air-pump-filter apparatus, was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with automated image and elemental analysis. For airborne particulate formed at 1100 °C (with airflow), 17% of the particles are in the respirable size fraction (<4 ?m in diameter) and contain silica. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, a component of this silica is present as the potentially toxic polymorph cristobalite. For the residual ash, samples produced with no additional airflow were found to contain cristobalite, however none could be identified in ash formed with an airflow. It is considered likely that this is due to release of cristobalite to the atmosphere (as sampled on filters). This pilot study shows that potentially toxic particles could be released during sugarcane burning and reinforces the need for further study into the emissions and re-suspension of ash from the burning of biomass.

Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Williamson, Ben J.; Horwell, Claire J.; Monro, Alex K.; Kirk, Caroline A.; Oppenheimer, Clive

293

Sugarcane Pests and Their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 100 species of insects, besides non-insect pests like mites, nematodes, jackals, rats, squirrels, and birds have been identified as damaging the sugarcane crop in India. Of these, about 25 species of insects are considered as major pests. These inclu...

A. N. Kalra

1982-01-01

294

Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation.  

PubMed

Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed over the past 30 years, but attempts to further increase crop yield have been limited due to the complexity of the sugarcane genome. An alternative to boost the crop yield is the introduction of genes encoding desirable traits in the elite sugarcane cultivars. Genetically modified sugarcane with increased yield and pest and disease resistance has already proven its value not only by the increased sugar content but also for the improvement of the crop performance. However, transgene stability is still a challenge since transgene silencing seems to occur in a large proportion of genetically modified sugarcane plants. In addition, regulatory issues associated with the crop propagation model will also be a challenge to the commercial approval of genetically modified sugarcane. PMID:22093808

Arruda, Paulo

2012-06-01

295

Effect of biocompost application on sugarcane crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted during spring of 2006–07 at Sugarcane Research Institute, Shahjahanpur using sugarcane variety\\u000a CoS 97264 to work out the effect of biocompost ( prepared from biodegradation from pressmud) application on yield and quality\\u000a of sugarcane crop and status of organic carbon content in the soil before planting and after harvest of the crop. It is clear

Namita Chauhan; M. P. Singh; Aneg Singh; A. K. Singh; S. S. Chauhan; S. B. Singh

2008-01-01

296

The Biotechnology Roadmap for Sugarcane Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the strategic importance of sugarcane to Brazil, FAPESP, the main São Paulo state research funding agency, launched\\u000a in 2008 the FAPESP Bioenergy Research Program (BIOEN, http:\\/\\/bioenfapesp.org). BIOEN aims to generate new knowledge and human resources for the improvement of the sugarcane and ethanol industry. As\\u000a part of the BIOEN program, a Workshop on Sugarcane Improvement was held on

Carlos T. Hotta; Carolina G. Lembke; Douglas S. Domingues; Edgar A. Ochoa; Guilherme M. Q. Cruz; Danila M. Melotto-Passarin; Thiago G. Marconi; Melissa O. Santos; Marcelo Mollinari; Gabriel R. A. Margarido; Augusto César Crivellari; Wanderley D. dos Santos; Amanda P. de Souza; Andrea A. Hoshino; Helaine Carrer; Anete P. Souza; Antônio A. F. Garcia; Marcos S. Buckeridge; Marcelo Menossi; Marie-Anne Van Sluys; Glaucia M. Souza

2010-01-01

297

Anaerobic digestion of stillage to produce bioenergy in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry.  

PubMed

Stillage is the main wastewater from ethanol production, containing a high chemical oxygen demand in addition to acidic and corrosive characteristics. Though stillage may be used as a soil fertilizer, its land application may be considered problematic due its high polluting potential. Anaerobic digestion represents an effective alternative treatment to reduce the pollution load of stillage. In addition, the methane gas produced within the process may be converted to energy, which can be directly applied to the treatment plant. The objective of this paper was to investigate the energetic potential of anaerobic digestion applied to stillage in the sugarcane ethanol industry. An overall analysis of the results indicates energy recovery capacity (ERC) values for methane ranging from 3.5% to 10%, respectively, for sugarcane juice and molasses. The processes employed to obtain the fermentable broth, as well as the distillation step, represent the main limiting factors to the energetic potential feasibility. Considering financial aspects the annual savings could reach up to US$ 30 million due to anaerobic digestion of stillage in relatively large-scale distilleries (365,000 m3 of ethanol per year). The best scenarios were verified for the association between anaerobic digestion of stillage and combustion of bagasse. In this case, the fossil fuels consumption in distilleries could be fully ceased, such the ERC of methane could reach values ranging from 140% to 890%. PMID:24600872

Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

2014-01-01

298

Development and Biotechnological Application of a Novel Endoxylanase Family GH10 Identified from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome  

PubMed Central

Metagenomics has been widely employed for discovery of new enzymes and pathways to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In this context, the present study reports the isolation, recombinant expression, biochemical and structural characterization of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 (SCXyl) identified from sugarcane soil metagenome. The recombinant SCXyl was highly active against xylan from beechwood and showed optimal enzyme activity at pH 6,0 and 45°C. The crystal structure was solved at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing the classical (?/?)8-barrel fold with a conserved active-site pocket and an inherent flexibility of the Trp281-Arg291 loop that can adopt distinct conformational states depending on substrate binding. The capillary electrophoresis analysis of degradation products evidenced that the enzyme displays unusual capacity to degrade small xylooligosaccharides, such as xylotriose, which is consistent to the hydrophobic contacts at the +1 subsite and low-binding energies of subsites that are distant from the site of hydrolysis. The main reaction products from xylan polymers and phosphoric acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PASB) were xylooligosaccharides, but, after a longer incubation time, xylobiose and xylose were also formed. Moreover, the use of SCXyl as pre-treatment step of PASB, prior to the addition of commercial cellulolytic cocktail, significantly enhanced the saccharification process. All these characteristics demonstrate the advantageous application of this enzyme in several biotechnological processes in food and feed industry and also in the enzymatic pretreatment of biomass for feedstock and ethanol production.

Paixao, Douglas A. A.; Goncalves, Thiago A.; Franco Cairo, Joao Paulo L.; Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pereira, Isabela; Jackson, George; Cota, Junio; Buchli, Fernanda; Citadini, Ana Paula; Ruller, Roberto; Polo, Carla Cristina; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Murakami, Mario T.; Squina, Fabio M.

2013-01-01

299

Detection of sugarcane bacilliform virus in sugarcane germplasm.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV), a badnavirus was found in sugarcane genotypes of Saccharum officinarum L., S. barberi Jesw., S. sinense Roxb., S. robustum Brand and Jesw., and Saccharum hybrids. In most of the suspected genotypes the virus was found associated with clear foliar symptoms. However, certain symptom-free clones carried the virus too. The virus was detected by immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in suspected clones. The virions measured about 108-118 x 20-21 nm in size. The virus was serologically closely related to another badnavirus, banana streak virus (BSV). Virus titer was low in most of the genotypes. However, a close correlation between symptoms expression and virus titer existed in some genotypes. PMID:8886091

Viswanathan, R; Alexander, K C; Garg, I D

1996-02-01

300

Sugar-cane newsprint comes to market  

SciTech Connect

Process Evaluation and Development Corp. (Peadco of Mexico City) are making commercially available a process that will for the first time produce fine-grade newsprint from bagasse with the required tear-strength and opaqueness. Various countries are showing an interest in the process, which produces newsprint 20% more cheaply than wood-pulp newsprint. In addition, sugar producers receive as much as $1.50 per ton more than the fuel-oil value of bagasse.

Not Available

1982-06-09

301

Sugarcane micropropagation and phenolic excretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane shoot formation was followed using a temporary immersion system. Plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, shoot number\\u000a and phenolic excretion to the culture medium were recorded during shoot formation. Shoot number increased for 30 days of culture\\u000a but formation of new shoots was greatly reduced from 31 to 40 days. Phenolic excretion also increased during the first 20\\u000a days

Jose Carlos Lorenzo; Osvaldo Peláez; Alfredo González; Mariela Cid; Alitza Iglesias; Boris González; Maritza Escalona; Patricia Espinosa; Carlos Borroto

2001-01-01

302

Thermal analysis kinetics of bagasse and rice straw  

SciTech Connect

The role of added inorganic salt on the thermal degradation of lignin was studied. The results were compared with the thermal analyses of two types of agricultural residues: rice straw with high silica content and bagasse with low silica. Compared to wood, thermal decomposition of such materials is faster, with a dual mechanism concept similar to wood. In general, the activation energy for rice straw is about 19.3 Kcal/mol while that of bagasse is 33.4 Kcal/mol. This proves that inorganic material either inherited or added changed the thermal activities of the lignocellulosic materials.

Nassar, M.M. [Minia Univ., El-Minia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering] [Minia Univ., El-Minia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

1999-01-01

303

Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

1983-12-01

304

Bagasse filled recycled polyethylene bio-composites: Morphological and mechanical properties study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bagasse filled recycled polyethylene bio-composites were produced by the compounding and compressive molding method. Two sets of composites were produced using uncarbonized (UBp) and carbonized (CBp) bagasse particles by varying the bagasse particles from 10 to 50 wt%. The surface morphology and the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The results showed that the uniform distribution of the bagasse particles in the microstructure of the polymer composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement of the mechanical properties. The bagasse particles added to the RLDPE polymer improved its rigidity and the hardness values of the composites. The tensile and bending strengths of the composite increased with increasing percentage of the bagasse to a maximum of 20 wt%UBp and 30 wt%CBp. The impact energy and fracture toughness decreases with wt% bagasse particles. The developed composites have the best properties in the ranges of 30 wt% bagasse particle additions and for optimum service condition, carbonized bagasse particles addition should not exceed 30 wt%.

Agunsoye, J. O.; Aigbodion, V. S.

305

Fly Ash and Fly Ash Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fly ash is a residue that results from the combustion of ground or powdered coal. Historically, fly ash has been referred to as a pozzolan and is used to reduce the amount of portland cement in concrete. However, in many Western States fly ashes have ceme...

E. R. Dunstan

1984-01-01

306

Properties of Volcanic Ash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey site lists and discusses the properties of volcanic ash. The site contains many helpful diagrams, and explains topics including the size of ash particles, the dispersal of ash by wind, and the kind of eruption that produces ash.

2010-04-29

307

Wet ash remover  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wet ash remover which has a trough arranged underneath the ash funnel of a boiler and is filled with quenching water. A quenching water feed and an overflow are also provided. Ash conveying equipment passes through the wet ash remover. A cooling device with quenching water circulating through it continuously, is located between the overflow and the quenching water

H. Buchmuller; B. Michelbrink

1985-01-01

308

Life cycle assessment of electricity generation from bagasse in Mauritius  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generated from the combustion of sugar cane bagasse in Mauritian sugar mills. The study arose from the identification of the need for to provide data for the development of an LCA profile for the electricity mix in Mauritius. The system is limited geographically to the island of

Toolseeram Ramjeawon

2008-01-01

309

Carbon and nitrogen transformation during composting of sweet sorghum bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of compost, consisting of sweet sorghum bagasse with either sewage sludge or a mixture of pig slurry and poultry manure, were studied in a pilot plant using the Rutgers system. The total degradation of the piles as determined by the weight loss of organic matter during the bio-oxidative and maturation phases accounted for 64% of the organic matter

M. Pilar Bernal; Antonio F. Navarro; Asunción Roig; Juan Cegarra; Diego García

1996-01-01

310

New approach to efficiency calculations for bagasse-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of difficulties encountered in weighing large quantities of the fuel, the determination of the efficiency of bagasse-fired boilers by direct methods has not been attempted. The proposed approach considers: dry gas loss, loss due to moisture in fuel plus due to combustion of hydrogen in fuel, air moisture loss and radiation loss, with a special emphasis on calculating the

Hariharan

1977-01-01

311

Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically an oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable that the pitting occurred during an idle period (a drought) due to oxygen ingress and failure to maintain a sufficient excess of the

A. M. Heyes

2001-01-01

312

Coal ash utilization: fly ash, bottom ash and slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ash is a waste product left after the burning of many combustible substances, and fly ash is the accepted term for the finely divided residue that results from the combustion of ground coal. It is easily disseminated by flue gases, unless checked and collected by suitable devices. Energy and environmental considerations over the coming years point to greater use of

Torrey

1978-01-01

313

Dry ash handling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dry ash handling system for a combustor, comprising: an ash hopper accepting ash from the combustor and providing a fixed ash height sufficient to allow substantially complete combustion of partially burned objects. The ash hopper includes mixing means for mixing the ash and preventing air channels, and the mixing means comprising an inner wall of the hopper under the combustor angled away from the combustor at a first angle and an outer wall of the hopper angled away from the combustor at a second angle less than the first angle; and ash conveying means, coupled to the bottom of the hopper, for conveying ash away from the hopper at a rate which maintains the fixed ash height.

Liszewski, C.L.; McKeand, D.

1988-10-04

314

Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content  

PubMed Central

Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse) in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass) of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages) varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment. Conclusion Some of the experimental sugarcane hybrids did have the combined characteristics of high biomass and high sucrose production with low lignin content. Conversion of glucan to glucose by commercial cellulases was increased in the samples with low lignin content. Chemical delignification further increased the cellulose conversion to values of more than 80%. Thus, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment.

2011-01-01

315

Increased digestibility of bagasse by pretreatment with alkalis and steam explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali treatment and steam explosion of bagasse were investigated in order to develop economical and effective methods of increasing the digestibility of bagasse. The treated bagasse was to be used as a substrate for the production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic acidogenic bacteria. The alkalis examined were NaOH, NHâ (aqueous), NaOH + NHâ, Ca(OH)â, and Ca(OH)â + NaâCOâ, at

M. J. Playne

1984-01-01

316

A specific, robust, and automated method for routine at-line monitoring of the concentration of cellulases in genetically modified sugarcane plants.  

PubMed

Bagasse is one of the waste crop materials highlighted as commercially viable for cellulosic bio-ethanol production via enzymatic conversion to release fermentable sugars. Genetically modified sugarcane expressing cellobiohydrolases (CBH), endoglucanase (EG), and ?-glucosidases (BG) provide a more cost-effective route to cellulose breakdown compared to culturing these enzymes in microbial tanks. Hence, process monitoring of the concentration profile of these key cellulases in incoming batches of sugarcane is required for fiscal measures and bio-ethanol process control. The existing methods due to their non-specificity, requirement of trained analysts, low sample throughput, and low amenability to automation are unsuitable for this purpose. Therefore, this paper explores a membrane-based sample preparation method coupled to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to quantify these enzymes. The maximum enzyme extraction efficiency was obtained by using a polyethersulfone membrane with molecular cut-off of 10 kDa. The use of 15 mM, pH 7.75, phosphate buffer resulted in CZE separation and quantification of CBH, EG, and BG within 10 min. Migration time reproducibility was between 0.56% and 0.7% and hence, suitable for use with automatic peak detection software. Therefore, the developed CZE method is suitable for at-line analysis of BG, CBH, and EG in every batch of harvested sugarcane. PMID:21136205

Gupta, Ruchi; Baldock, Sara J; Fielden, Peter R; Grieve, Bruce D

2011-02-01

317

Sugarcane improvement: how far can we go?  

PubMed

In recent years, efforts to improve sugarcane have focused on the development of biotechnology for this crop. It has become clear that sugarcane lacks tools for the biotechnological route of improvement and that the initial efforts in sequencing ESTs had limited impact for breeding. Until recently, the models used by breeders in statistical genetics approaches have been developed for diploid organisms, which are not ideal for a polyploid genome such as that of sugarcane. Breeding programs are dealing with decreasing yield gains. The contribution of multiple alleles to complex traits such as yield is a basic question underlining the breeding efforts that could only be addressed by the development of specific tools for this grass. However, functional genomics has progressed and gene expression profiling is leading to the definition of gene networks. The sequencing of the sugarcane genome, which is underway, will greatly contribute to numerous aspects of research on grasses. We expect that both the transgenic and the marker-assisted route for sugarcane improvement will contribute to increased sugar, stress tolerance, and higher yield and that the industry for years to come will be able to rely on sugarcane as the most productive energy crop. PMID:21983270

Dal-Bianco, Maximiller; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Chapola, Roberto Giacomini; Hoffmann, Hermann Paulo; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

2012-04-01

318

Synthesis and characterization of methylcellulose from sugar cane bagasse cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, methylcellulose was produced from cellulose extracted of sugar cane bagasse, using dimethyl sulfate in heterogeneous conditions. The infrared spectra of the cellulose and of the methylcellulose present significant differences at the regions from 3600 to 2700cm?1 and from 1500 to 800cm?1. The ratio between the absorption intensities of the OH stretching band (?3400cm?1) and the CH

Rose G. P. Viera; Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Rosana M. N. de Assunção; Carla da S. Meireles; Júlia G. Vieira; Grasielle S. de Oliveira

2007-01-01

319

Lime pretreatment of crop residues bagasse and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lime (calcium hydroxide) was used as a pretreatment agent to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of two common crop residues:\\u000a bagasse and wheat straw. A systematic study of pretreatment conditions suggested that for short pretreatment times (1–3 h),\\u000a high temperatures (85-135°C) were required to achieve high sugar yields, whereas for long pretreatment times (e.g., 24 h),\\u000a low temperatures (50–65°C) were effective.

Vincent S. Chang; Murlidhar Nagwani; Mark T. Holtzapple

1998-01-01

320

Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto bagasse and wood pulps  

SciTech Connect

Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto bagasse and wood pulps has been studied using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The effect of order of reactants addition on grafting was examined: three methods were studied. Addition of the pulp to a mixture of initiator and monomer (method A) resulted in more efficient grafting than the other two methods. The reaction produced more grafting at 50/sup 0/C than at 30/sup 0/C or at 40/sup 0/C. The results showed that the monomer and initiator concentrations are the major factors influencing the grafting rate of acrylonitrile. Increasing the acrylonitrile or initiator concentration was accompanied by a substantial increase in graft yields. Increasing the initiator concentration is more effective on polymerization rate than the increase in monomer concentration. The extent of grafting of this monomer can best be controlled by reaction time. Water swelling of pulps significantly affected the grafting rate of acrylonitrile as well as the ceric consumption during grafting. The reactivity of bagasse pulp towards grafting of acrylonitrile is higher than that of wood pulp due to a more open structure of cellulose in bagasse pulp as well as the presence of some lignin which accelerates grafting. Ceric consumption during grafting depends on the nature of the pulp as well as the monomer and initiator concentrations, time, temperature, and the method of grafting. More Ce(IV) is consumed during grafting than during oxidation of the pulps under identical reaction conditions, due to homopolymer formation which accompanied grafting. The ceric consumption by bagasse during grafting or oxidation is somewhat greater than that consumed by wood pulp under similar reaction conditions.

Heikal, S.O.; El-Kalyoubi, S.F.

1982-08-01

321

Activation of fly ash  

DOEpatents

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

1986-08-19

322

Apparatus for handling ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ash-handling apparatus is described comprising: a container having a substantially planar surface formed therein, the container being filled with liquid for receiving ash when the apparatus is in operative condition; an elongate paddle element for sweeping across the planar surface thereby collecting such ash along the front thereof, the paddle element being pivotally mounted on the planar surface; means

D. W. Pressnall; M. R. Keller; R. E. Schwartz

1989-01-01

323

Activation of fly ash  

DOEpatents

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

1986-01-01

324

Colonization of sugarcane plantlets by mixed inoculations with diazotrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropropagated sugarcane plants have been used in Brazil for almost three decades. Besides the improvement in plant health, micropropagated sugarcane carries no endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria. The Brazilian inoculation technology to reintroduce diazotrophic bacteria in micropropagated sugarcane plantlets revealed a synergistic-like effect in PGP-bacteria mixed inoculations. The infection model of single diazotrophic bacteria species in sugarcane was studied in detail,

A. L. M. Oliveira; M. Stoffels; M. Schmid; V. M. Reis; J. I. Baldani; A. Hartmann

2009-01-01

325

Increased digestibility of bagasse by pretreatment with alkalis and steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

Alkali treatment and steam explosion of bagasse were investigated in order to develop economical and effective methods of increasing the digestibility of bagasse. The treated bagasse was to be used as a substrate for the production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic acidogenic bacteria. The alkalis examined were NaOH, NH/sub 3/ (aqueous), NaOH + NH/sub 3/, Ca(OH)/sub 2/, and Ca(OH)/sub 2/ + Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, at ambient temperature and in combination with steam explosion at 200/sup 0/C, 6.9 MPa, and 5 min cooking times. Digestibilities of up to 733 g organic matter (OM)/kg bagasse dry matter (DM) were obtained for bagasse treated with NaOH and Ca(OH)/sub 2/ + Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/; less than 430 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with aqueous NH/sub 3/; and up to 724 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with Ca(OH)/sub 2/. This digestibility was only achieved by using high concentrations of Ca(OH)/sub 2/, i.e., 180-300 g/kg bagasse. Steam explosion increased the digestibility of bagasse up to 740 g OM in the presence of alkali but only to 610 g OM in the absence of alkali. The digestibility of bagasse without pretreatment was 190 g OM/kg bagasse DM. More than one-half the hemicellulose present was solubilized by pretreatment. The relative costs of the alkalis used were obtained for the United States, Australia, and Europe. Lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) was the least expensive alkali per unit of additional digestible OM obtained. Ammonia was the most expensive alkali to use, except in the United States where the difference in its cost relative to other alkalis was smaller. With acidogenic fermentations, alkali is able to double as a neutralizing agent during fermentation.

Playne, M.J.

1984-01-01

326

Molecular structure, thermal analysis and electrical properties of cyanoethyl and carbamoyl ethyl bagasse raw materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared absorption spectra, thermal analysis as well as dielectric properties of cyano and carbamoyl ethylated bagasse raw materials and their hydrolysis with NaOH were studied. A new band appeared in the infrared spectra at 2252 cm -1, characteristic to cyano group and a new shoulder appeared at 3150 cm -1, characteristic to NH 2 of amide group for cyanoethyl and carbamoyl ethyl raw material, respectively. Also the band intensity at 1636 cm -1 characteristic of the amide group in the carbamoyl ethyl bagasse was found to be higher than that in case of bagasse raw material. A new band was seen at 1736 cm -1, characteristic to C=O of carboxyl group which formed due to hydrolysis of cyano or carbamoyl groups. The crystallinity indices of the produced bagasse derivative were calculated and the increase is attributed to cyano, carbamoyl and hydrolysis process. Incorporation of cyano group into bagasse increases its resistance against thermal degradation. So, loss in weight from TG curves under major decomposition temperature (350 °C) was about 59% for cyanoethyl bagasse raw material while it was about 69% at 350 °C for bagasse raw material and 60% for carbamoyl ethyl bagasse. A kinetic study of the thermal degradation process revealed that, bagasse and its derivatives followed a first order reaction and the degradation of derivatives was more complex. The dielectric constant ( ?') and AC electrical conductivity were studied with frequencies over the range (50-2000 Hz) for cyanoethylated, hydrolyzed cyanoethylated and carbamoyl ethylated bagasse raw material at two fixed temperatures (30 and 100 °C). Generally, the dielectric constant decreased and the conductivity increased with increasing frequencies. The increase in the nitrogen content in bagasse raw material due to cyanoethylation, carbamoyl ethylation and their hydrolysis cyanoethylated resulted in an increase in the dielectric constant.

Nada, A. M. A.; Seoudi, R.

2006-09-01

327

Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Using Bagasse-Derived Ethanol as a Gasoline Oxygenate in Mumbai (Bombay).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bagasse is the fibrous residue generated during sugar production and can be a desirable feedstock for fuel ethanol production. About 15%--25% of the bagasse is left after satisfying the mills energy requirements, and this excess bagasse can be used in a b...

K. Kadam

2000-01-01

328

Environmental benefits on a life cycle basis of using bagasse-derived ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is the fibrous residue generated during sugar production and can be a desirable feedstock for fuel ethanol production. Excess bagasse left after satisfying the mills’ energy requirements can be used in a bioconvesion process to make ethanol. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the environmental benefits of diverting excess bagasse to ethanol production as opposed to

Kiran L. Kadam

2002-01-01

329

EVALUATING LAND SUITABILITY FOR INDUSTRIAL SUGARCANE WITH GIS MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand sugarcane is considered as one of the most important crops. The importance of sugarcane is more than a subsistence crop. Thailand has developed a large and complex industrial system for processing and marketing of crop. To increase the productivity of sugarcane, the cultivation should be based on the suitability of land. The study was then aimed at identifying

330

Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at

Jianping Wang; Bruce Roe; Simone Macmil; Qingyi Yu; Jan E Murray; Haibao Tang; Cuixia Chen; Fares Najar; Graham Wiley; John Bowers; Marie-Anne Van Sluys; Daniel S Rokhsar; Matthew E Hudson; Stephen P Moose; Andrew H Paterson; Ray Ming

2010-01-01

331

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

PubMed Central

Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.

Papini-Terzi, Flavia S; Rocha, Flavia R; Vencio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugenio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M

2009-01-01

332

Advanced ash management technologies for CFBC ash.  

PubMed

The combustion of high-sulphur coal demands the reduction of sulphur emissions. The sorbent most often used in sulphur capture technology is calcium-based. Ashes from technologies such as circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC), therefore, contain high calcium levels. The use and disposal of these ashes poses challenges, because of highly exothermic reactions with water, high-pH leachates, and excessive expansion of solidified materials. This paper looks at the potential of two post-combustion ash treatment processes, CERCHAR hydration and AWDS disposal, in solving these challenges. A high-sulphur coal-derived CFBC ash is examined, after CERCHAR hydration treatment, in conjunction with a conventionally hydrated ash, in a range of chemical, geotechnical and utilization scenarios. The ashes are used to make no-cement and roller-compacted concrete as well as Ash Water Dense Suspensions (AWDS). The solidified mortar paste from no-cement concrete is subjected to an extensive geochemical examination to determine how solidification progresses and strength develops, from a chemical point of view. PMID:12909091

Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

2003-01-01

333

Bagasse from the mezcal industry as an alternative renewable energy produced in arid lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mezcal industry, the xerophyte Agave salmiana is used to produce mezcal, and neither the plant nor its residues have been studied before as an alternative source of fuel. Bagasse and wasted fibers samples from alcoholic beverage production were collected in order to find out their properties as fuel. Another sample consists in pyrolyzed bagasse at 450°C to produce

L. Chávez-Guerrero; M. Hinojosa

2010-01-01

334

Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

1988-05-01

335

The recovery of by-products and pulping chemicals from industrial soda bagasse spent liquors  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the recovery and use of lignin and hemicellulose and the recycling of chemicals from spent liquors from soda bagasses pulping. The product sales value of a bagasse pulp mill can also be doubled. Profitability can be improved substantially, and a serious environmental problem can also be solved. These discussions are based on laboratory work and on some industrial trials.

Venter, J.S.M.; Vander Klashorst, G.H. (Div. for Processing and Chemical Manufacturing Technology, CSIR, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (ZA))

1989-03-01

336

Test results from sugar cane bagasse and high fiber cane co-fired with fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cofiring tests were conducted in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Three tests were conducted; a baseline test firing coal and fuel oil (Test 1) and two cofiring tests utilizing coal, fuel oil, and biomass. In the latter two tests, bagasse (Test 2) and a blend of bagasse and fiber cane (Test 3) were

Scott Q. Turn; Bryan M. Jenkins; Lee A. Jakeway; Linda G. Blevins; Robert B. Williams; Gary Rubenstein; Charles M. Kinoshita

2006-01-01

337

Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

1982-10-01

338

Leaching of Mixtures of Biochar and Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments.2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations.10, 11, 16 Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and reduces available aluminum.3, 17 Combinations of these benefits likely lead to the observed increased yields for crops including corn and sugarcane.17 with biochar addition to soil. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) 8, 17 than do unammended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way.18 Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes.15 Here, we are examining the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluating leaching of organic carbon and metals from the mixtures.

Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL] [ORNL; Porat, Iris [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL] [ORNL; Amonette, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Drake, Meghan M [ORNL] [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL] [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

339

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOEpatents

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14

340

PVA-hydrogel entrapped Candida guilliermondii for xylitol production from sugarcane hemicellulose hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Viable cells of Candida guilliermondii were immobilized by inclusion into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel using the freezing-thawing method. Entrapment experiments were planned according to a 2(3) full factorial design, using the PVA concentration (80, 100, and 120 g L(-1)), the freezing temperature (-10, -15, and -20 degrees C), and the number of freezing-thawing cycles (one, three, and five) as the independent variables, integrated with three additional tests to estimate the errors. The effectiveness of the immobilization procedure was checked in Erlenmeyer flasks as the pellet capability to catalyze the xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion of a medium based on sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. To this purpose, the yield of xylitol on consumed xylose, xylitol volumetric productivity, and cell retention yield were selected as the response variables. Cell pellets were then used to perform the same bioconversion in a stirred tank reactor operated at 400 rpm, 30 degrees C, and 1.04 vvm air flowrate. At the end of fermentation, a maximum xylitol concentration of 28.7 g L(-1), a xylitol yield on consumed xylose of 0.49 g g(-1) and a xylitol volumetric productivity of 0.24 g L(-1) h(-1) were obtained. PMID:18633733

da Cunha, Mário A A; Converti, Attilio; Santos, Júlio C; Ferreira, Sylvia T S; da Silva, Silvio S

2009-06-01

341

Molecular detection and identification of thirteen isolates of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus associated with sugarcane yellow leaf disease in nine sugarcane growing states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty sugarcane leaf samples exhibiting midrib yellowing symptoms from nine sugarcane growing states of India were collected.\\u000a The total RNA was isolated from infected samples and RT-PCR assays were performed using Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) specific primers. The infection of SCYLV was detected in 27 out of 30 samples, which showed the expected size (~610 bp)\\u000a amplicon during RT-PCR. The

Deepti Singh; Govind Pratap Rao; S. K. Snehi; S. K. Raj; R. Karuppaiah; R. Viswanathan

342

Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and 100% are predicted for some cycles with the addition of optimum heat recovery systems.

Seguro, Jean Vittorio

343

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses.  

PubMed

Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported-biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 89.73-77.13 g/l in average value), and ethanol productivities (about 59.53-62.79 g/l d in average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.34-3.60 g/l) with conversions ranging from 97.67-99.80%, showing efficiency (90.11-94.28%) and operational stability of the biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of this study concerning the use of sugarcane as yeast supports could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:18685877

Liang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-ping; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Ming-jun; Liang, Shi-zhong; Huang, Yu-nan

2008-12-01

344

Making the right choices for successful bagasse newsprint production: Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Successful commercial production of bagasse newsprint of a quality which is acceptable to publishers has been a long time coming - 130 years to be exact. The history of bagasse newsprint, upon which so many organizations and individuals have devoted tremendous amounts of time and effort over these many years, has been strewn with failures. However, as a result of the cautious approach pursued by serious and competent investigators over the past several years, it can be safely proclaimed that successful bagasse newsprint production is now a reality.

Atchison, J.E. (Joseph E. Atchison Consultants, Inc., Larchmont, NY (United States))

1993-01-01

345

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without causing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the isolation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using molecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cultivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for analysis. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was partially sequenced and used for molecular identification. Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and the API-20E system were used to characterize the isolates. The strains were divided into five groups, based on the 16S rRNA sequences. Group I comprised 14 representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae; group II was composed of Bacilli; group III contained one representative, Curtobacterium sp; group IV contained representatives of the Pseudomonadaceae family, and group V had one isolate with an uncultured bacterium. Four isolates were able to reduce acetylene to ethylene. Most of the bacteria isolated from the sugarcane stem and leaf tissues belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae, respectively, demonstrating niche specificity. Overall, we found the endophytic bacteria in sugarcane to be more diverse than previously reported. PMID:20198580

Magnani, G S; Didonet, C M; Cruz, L M; Picheth, C F; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

2010-01-01

346

Wet ash removal equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet ash removal equipment in which a trough is filled with quenching water. An immersion member attached to the ash funnel is immersed into the quenching water. A side wall of the trough is sealed by a plate. The plate is supported upon a height-adjustable rod linkage and is guided in its movement on the side of the trough arrangements

H. Buchmuller; B. Michelbrink

1985-01-01

347

Understanding interception losses under sugarcane plantations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being planted around 20 million hectares in over 70 countries. The Brazil is a leader in terms of area harvested and production with 9.5 million hectares and 715 million tons in 2011, respectively. Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop which is planted and after the first harvesting, the re-growth is harvested several times (five to eight times) until replanting is needed mainly due to yield decline. The rainfall interception loss is an important process in the hydrological cycle which has a key role on climate change. Details on sugarcane canopy interception are still not well understood in particular within the tropics. In this study, rainfall interception was measured during the complete ratoon crop cycle of the sixth re-growth, observing their growth stage. Five through (each with an area of 2000 cm2) were installed randomly on the plantation. The gross rainfall for the study period of one year was 1413 mm, while the throughfall was 972 mm (69%). Thus, annual rainfall interception loss was 441 mm (31%). The interception losses started to occur in the third stage of plant development (between 110 and 240 days after the onset of re-growth period). During the formation of the stems, the interception was 25.5%. Furthermore, at stage when the plant reached maturity (240 to 385 days), interception loss was increased to 57.5%. Our results indicate that interception losses are an important component of water use in sugarcane crops and the annual values of interception losses from sugarcane may be similar to some results found in tropical and temperate forests.

Costa Silva, R. W.; Salemi, L.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; de Moraes, J. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

2012-12-01

348

Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields. PMID:25036467

Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianan; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Zhou, Ming; Gong, Aihua

2014-08-01

349

Sugar cane bagasse as a possible source of fermentable carbohydrates. I. Characterization of bagasse with regard to monosaccharide, hemicellulose, and amino acid composition  

SciTech Connect

Hemicellulose fractions of plant materials have recently attracted attention as a possible source of fermentable sugars to be used via fermentation for the production of liquid fuels, mainly ethanol. Individual monosaccharides present in bagasse hemicellulose were determined using HPLC and other chromatographic procedures. The presence of higher oligomers of the monosaccharides could also be determined. The pentosan fraction of bagasse was successfully hydrolyzed and extracted with 5% (m/v) HCl, and the rate of release of individual monosaccharides was determined. Xylose was the main component in the hydrolyzates, while glucose, arabinose, and galactose present in the side chains of the pentosans were initially released at a fast rate. This treatment resulted in obtaining 229 mg/g xylose (85% of theoretical maximum) and 44 mg/g glucose from bagasse. Only arabinose (2.8 mg/g) and galactose (0.75 mg/g) was also present in detectable quantities. A total of 309 mg monosaccharides were obtained from 1 g of bagasse by this treatment. The results indicated that hydrolysis conditions for specific plant materials depend on the composition of the specific material being utilized. A part of the pentosan fraction (77.1%) was hydrolyzed at a high rate, while 22.9% was more stable and hydrolyzed more slowly. Although 39.8% dry bagasse could be obtained in solution by treatment with dilute alkali, only about 72% of the available hemicelluloses could be extracted in this way if the bagasse was not delignified beforehand. Amino acids and peptides or proteins were also extracted to very much the same extent with the alkali.

du Toit, P.J.; Olivier, S.P.; van Biljon, P.L.

1984-01-01

350

Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

None

1980-08-01

351

Impact of Heavy Metals on Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops in the tropics and subtropics, where it is mainly used to manufacture crystal\\u000a sugar. It is cultivated between the latitudes of 35°N and 35°S. Theoretically, it has the potential to produce 805 t?ha?1 wet cane or 470 t?ha?1 dry matter. The highest harvestable sugar cane yield achieved so far is close

D. V. Yadav; Radha Jain; R. K. Rai

352

Comparison of Ash from PF and CFB Boilers and Behaviour of Ash in Ash Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 90% of electricity produced in Estonia is made by power plants firing local oil shale and 25% of the boilers are of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) variety. In 2007 approximately 6.5 million tons of ash was acquired as a byproduct of using oil shale for energy production. Approximately 1.5 million tons of that was ash from CFB boilers. Such ash is deposited in ash fields by means ofhydro ash removal.

Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.; Rootamm, R.; Konist, A.

353

The response of sugarcane canopy development to water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water stress is a common occurrence in dryland crop production, including sugarcane production. A good understanding of how crops respond to water stress is a prerequisite for choosing the best cultivar and management practices to optimally exploit natural resources. One aspect of sugarcane growth and development that has not been investigated thoroughly is how canopy development is affected by water

M. A. Smit; A. Singels

2006-01-01

354

The mechanism of sugar uptake by sugarcane suspension cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane cell suspensions took up sugar from the medium at rates comparable to or greater than sugarcane tissue slices or plants in the field. This system offers an opportunity for the study of kinetic and energetic mechanisms of sugar transport in storage parenchyma-like cells in the absence of heterogeneity introduced by tissues. The following results were obtained: (a) The sugar

E. Komor; M. Thorn; A. Maretzki

1981-01-01

355

Abacá mosaic virus: A distinct strain of Sugarcane mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abacá mosaic virus (AbaMV) is related to members of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. The ?2 kb 3? terminal region of the viral genome was sequenced and, in all areas analysed, found to be most similar to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and distinct from Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sorghum mosaic

C. F. Gambley; J. E. Thomas; L. V. Magnaye; L. Herradura

2004-01-01

356

Biomass production of sugarcane cultivars and early-generation hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane (Saccharum L. spp. hybrids) is a vegetatively-propagated, perennial crop cultivated primarily for sucrose production. The biomass production of interspecific and intergeneric hybrids is assumed to surpass that of cultivars, but there have been few statistical comparisons. The objectives of this study were to determine effects of plant-cane and ratoon crops on biomass yield components for two sugarcane cultivars and

B. L. Legendre; D. M. Burner

1995-01-01

357

Agro-industry sugarcane residues disposal: the trends of their conversion into energy carriers in Cuba.  

PubMed

The goal of the present work was to carry out a review of the disposal practices for the agro-industry's sugarcane residue and the trends of energy use in Cuba. The lack of an alternative energy carrier to electricity with storage capability for use in off-season has to date been an unsolvable question. The improvement of cogeneration capacity via implementation of CEST or BIG/GTCC and the barriers for their implementation, the introduction of a medium size (3 ton/h) fast pyrolysis module (FPM3) as a solution for off-season energy demand in the agro-industry, and an assessment of the energy required to do so, were also analyzed. Bio-oil production from bagasse and sugarcane agriculture residues (SCAR) and their particularities at the sugar mill are treated. The influence of sugar facility production process configuration is analyzed. The fast pyrolysis products and the trends of their end uses in Cuba are presented. The production cost of a ton of Bio-oil for FPM3 conditions was calculated at 155 USD/ton and the payback time as a function of selling price between 160 and 110 USD/ton was estimated to be from 1.5 to 4 years. The economic feasibility of the FPM3 was estimated, comparing the added values for three scenarios: 1st case, currently-used sugar production, 16.5 USD/ton of cane; 2nd case, factoring in the cogeneration improvement, 27 USD/ton of cane; and 3rd case, with cogeneration improvement and Bio-oil production, 40 USD/ton of cane. The energy use of SCAR and the introduction of FPM3 in the sugar mill are promising improvements that could result in a potential surplus of 80 kWh(e)/ton of cane in-season, or 6 x 10(6)ton of Bio-oil (LHV=15 MJ/kg) for use off-season in a milling season of 4 million tons of raw sugar. PMID:16797957

Alonso Pippo, W; Garzone, P; Cornacchia, G

2007-01-01

358

De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species.

Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

2014-01-01

359

Utilization of byproducts from the tequila industry: part 1: agave bagasse as a raw material for animal feeding and fiberboard production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agave bagasse was successfully separated into fractions that were used in sheep feeding trials. Agave bagasse can be substituted for corn stubble in the sheep's diet which resulted in improved weight gain. Agave bagasse was also processed into long and short fiber fractions with a hammermill and fiberboards of medium and high specific gravities being produced. Medium specific gravity agave

G Iñiguez-Covarrubias; Sandra E Lange; Roger M Rowell

2001-01-01

360

Influence of Electron Beam Irradiation and Coupling Agents on the Thermal Stability of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fiber-Thermoplastics Scrape Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of blending of sugar cane bagasse with thermoplastics scrape as well as incorporation of some coupling agents has been conducted using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the effect of electron beam preirradiation of low density polyethylene on the properties of the bagasse-LDPE composite was also studied. Simulation of TGA data reveals that the presence of bagasse fiber accelerates

H. A. Youssef; M. A. M. Ali; M. R. Ismail; A. H. Zahran

2007-01-01

361

Biotechnological production of xylitol: enhancement of monosaccharide production by post-hydrolysis of dilute acid sugarcane hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Dilute-acid hydrolysis pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse resulted in release of 48% (18.4 g/L) of the xylan in the hemicellulose fraction into the hydrolysate as monomeric xylose. In order to enhance the recuperation of this monomer, a post-hydrolysis stage consisted of thermal treatment was carried out. This treatment resulted in an increase in xylose release of 62% (23.5 g/L) of the hemicellulose fraction. Original and post-hydrolysates were concentrated to the same levels of monomeric xylose in the fermentor feed. During the fermentation process, cellular growth was observed to be higher in the post-hydrolysate (3.5 g/L, Y(x/s) = 0.075 g cells/g xylose) than in the original hydrolysate (2.9 g/L, Y(x/s) = 0.068 g cells/g xylose). The post-treated hydrolysate required less concentration of sugars resulting in a lower concentration of fermentation inhibitors, which were formed primarily in the dilute acid hydrolysis step. Post-hydrolysis step led to a high xylose-xylitol conversion efficiency of 76% (0.7 g xylitol/g xylose) and volumetric productivity of 0.68 g xylitol/L h when compared to 71% (0.65 g xylitol/g xylose and productivity of 0.61 g xylitol/L h) for the original hemicellulosic hydrolysate. PMID:19214792

Sarrouh, Boutros Fouad; de Freitas Branco, Ricardo; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

2009-05-01

362

MSW fly ash stabilized with coal ash for geotechnical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash for the purpose of minimizing the geo-environmental impact caused by toxic heavy metals as well as ensuring engineering safety (strength and soaking durability) are experimentally evaluated. The mixtures of MSW fly ash stabilized with cement and fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash (FCA) were used for unconfined compressive strength

Masashi Kamon; Takeshi Katsumi; Youichi Sano

2000-01-01

363

Dry ash handling system for power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most commonly used wet ash handling system in which slurried ash is pumped to ash lagoons is compared with a relatively new dry ash handling system in which moistened fly ash and dewatered bottom ash are continously transported to the disposal area and compacted. The proposed system for a typical 2,000 MW power plant features submerged drag bar conveyors

Rafay

1982-01-01

364

Optical diagnostics of coal ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of coal ash is important from the point of view of (i) improvements in boiler efficiency and (ii) recovery of metals from coal ash. Use of coal from different mines usually results in a significant variation in the performance of the boiler and in the percentage of the constituents of the coal ash. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor

Mahajan

1989-01-01

365

Creep behavior of bagasse fiber reinforced polymer composites.  

PubMed

The creep behavior of bagasse-based composites with virgin and recycled polyvinyl chloride (B/PVC) and high density polyethylene (B/HDPE) as well as a commercial wood and HDPE composite decking material was investigated. The instantaneous deformation and creep rate of all composites at the same loading level increased at higher temperatures. At a constant load level, B/PVC composites had better creep resistance than B/HDPE systems at low temperatures. However, B/PVC composites showed greater temperature-dependence. Several creep models (i.e., Burgers model, Findley's power law model, and a simpler two-parameter power law model) were used to fit the measured creep data. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) was attempted for long-term creep prediction. The four-element Burgers model and the two-parameter power law model fitted creep curves of the composites well. The TTS principle more accurately predicted the creep response of the PVC composites compared to the HDPE composites. PMID:20064712

Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Qinglin; Lei, Yong; Yao, Fei

2010-05-01

366

Bleaching of bagasse pulp with enzyme pre-treatment.  

PubMed

The effluent from pulp bleaching processes containing chlorinated lignin and degraded polyphenolic intermediates remains as a major source of water pollution from the pulp and paper industries. Alternative elemental chlorine free bleaching methods based on the usage of chlorine dioxide, ozone and hydrogen peroxide are potential substitutes. Bio-bleaching methods, which involve pre-treatment of pulp with microbial enzymes such as xylanases, have emerged as viable options. Investigations reported in this paper aim at exploring the suitability of commercial bacterial xylanase enzyme preparations for bio-bleaching of bagasse pulps in conjunction with specific chemical bleach sequences employing hydrogen peroxide (P), alkali extraction (E), ozonation (Z), hypochlorite (H) and chelation (Q) stages. The effluent profiles and pulp qualities obtained for each of the bleach combinations (involving bio-bleaching and chemical bleaching sequences) were monitored. Analysis of the results clearly indicates that the inclusion of enzyme pre-treatment with the TCF (total chlorine free) and ECF (elemental chlorine free) sequences has a significant effect on the effluent (COD, lignin and colour) and pulp quality (kappa number, brightness) parameters. In conclusion, the findings of this investigation indicate the potential promise of enzyme pre-treatment in combination with chemical bleaching to enhance the quality of pulps and combined effluents. PMID:12862231

Sudha, B; Veeramani, H; Sumathi, S

2003-01-01

367

Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose. PMID:24025853

Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

2013-11-01

368

Incineration ash conditioning processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Incinerable wastes consist of the following standard composition corresponding to projected wastes from a future mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant with an annual throughput of 1700 kg (i.e. 5.7 m(sup 3)) of ashes produced by the incineration facility: . ...

A. Jouan N. Ouvrier F. Teulon

1990-01-01

369

Xanthan production by Xanthomonas albilineans infecting sugarcane stalks.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas albilineans is the causal organism of leaf scald, a bacterial vascular disease of sugarcane. Xanthomonas may invade the parenchyma between the bundles and cause reddened pockets of gum, identified as a xanthan-like polysaccharide. Since xanthan contains glucuronic acid, the ability of Xanthomonas to produce an active UDP glucose dehydrogenase is often seen as a virulence factor. X. albilineans axenically cultured did not secrete xanthans to Willbrink liquid media, but the use of inoculated sugarcane tissues for producing and characterizing xanthans has been required. A hypothesis about the role of sugarcane polysaccharides to assure the production of bacterial xanthan is discussed. PMID:17646030

Blanch, María; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

2008-03-13

370

Comparative leaching experiments for trace elements in raw coal, laboratory ash, fly ash and bottom ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of raw coal, fly ash and bottom ash have been collected from a Chinese power plant together with laboratory ash obtained by ashing of the coal under 850°C. Comparative-leaching experiments were carried out on each fraction under various pH conditions. A mathematical model for leaching of trace elements has been developed and leaching intensity (Il) has been calculated for

Yunquan Wang; Deyi Ren; Fenghua Zhao

1999-01-01

371

Effects of production and market factors on ethanol profitability for an integrated first and second generation ethanol plant using the whole sugarcane as feedstock  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production, especially if the lignocellulosic fraction can also be treated in second generation (2G) ethanol plants. However, the profitability of 2G ethanol is affected by the processing conditions, operating costs and market prices. This study focuses on the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and maximum profitability of ethanol production in an integrated first and second generation (1G?+?2G) sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The feedstock used was sugarcane juice, bagasse and leaves. The lignocellulosic fraction was hydrolysed with enzymes. Yields were assumed to be 95% of the theoretical for each of the critical steps in the process (steam pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), fermentation, solid/liquid separation, anaerobic digestion) in order to obtain the best conditions possible for ethanol production, to assess the lowest production costs. Techno-economic analysis was performed for various combinations of process options (for example use of pentoses, addition of leaves), EH conditions (water-insoluble solids (WIS) and residence time), operating cost (enzymes) and market factors (wholesale prices of electricity and ethanol, cost of the feedstock). Results The greatest reduction in 2G MESP was achieved when using the pentoses for the production of ethanol rather than biogas. This was followed, in decreasing order, by higher enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (EHE), by increasing the WIS to 30% and by a short residence time (48 hours) in the EH. The addition of leaves was found to have a slightly negative impact on 1G?+?2G MESP, but the effect on 2G MESP was negligible. Sugarcane price significantly affected 1G?+?2G MESP, while the price of leaves had a much lower impact. Net present value (NPV) analysis of the most interesting case showed that integrated 1G?+?2G ethanol production including leaves could be more profitable than 1G ethanol, despite the fact that the MESP was higher than in 1G ethanol production. Conclusions A combined 1G?+?2G ethanol plant could potentially outperform a 1G plant in terms of NPV, depending on market wholesale prices of ethanol and electricity. Therefore, although it is more expensive than 1G ethanol production, 2G ethanol production can make the integrated 1G?+?2G process more profitable.

2014-01-01

372

Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

1972-01-01

373

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species).  

PubMed

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

374

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)  

PubMed Central

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks.

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

375

Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane  

SciTech Connect

The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. (Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI (USA))

1990-05-01

376

Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV)], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

Greenland, David

2005-11-01

377

DETERMINATION OF DNA CONTENT AND GENOME SIZE IN SUGARCANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate determination of the progeny types in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crosses would facilitate genetic and genomic analyses. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on three sugarcane interspecific F1 families, obtained from S. officinarum cv. Green German x S. spontaneum cv. IND 81-146 (GI), S. spontaneum cv. Pin 84-1 x S. officinarum cv. Muntok Java (PM), and Pin 84-1 x CP

S. J. Edmé; J. C. Comstock; J. D. Miller; P. Y. P. Tai

378

Bacterial soil community in a Brazilian sugarcane field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of bacterial communities in soil gives insight into microbial behavior under prevailing environmental conditions.\\u000a In this context, we assessed the composition of soil bacterial communities in a Brazilian sugarcane experimental field. The\\u000a experimental design encompassed plots containing common sugarcane (variety SP80-1842) and its transgenic form (IMI-1 — imazapyr\\u000a herbicide resistant). Plants were grown in such field plots in

Francisco Dini-Andreote; Fernando Dini Andreote; Rodrigo Costa; Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani; Jan Dirk van Elsas; Welington Luiz Araújo

2010-01-01

379

Relative profitability of intercropping vegetable crops in autumn planted sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted consecutively for three years at P.A.U. Sugarcane Research Station, Jalandhar to study the\\u000a relative performance of different vegetable crops viz. pea, radish, palak and turnip as double row intercroped in the autumn\\u000a planted sugarcane. The results revealed that intercropping of peas did not affect the cane yield over the pure cane. The intercropping\\u000a of radish,

L. K. Saini; Makhan Singh; M. L. Kapur

2003-01-01

380

Release of PCDD/PCDF to air and land during open burning of sugarcane and forest litter over soil fortified with mass labelled PCDD/PCDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of PCDD/PCDF emissions from soil during open burning of biomass was examined. Mass labelled PCDD/PCDF was added to soil containing native PCDD/PCDF and biomass was laid out on this soil and burnt, simulating sugarcane trash and forest fires. Smoke samples were collected using a high volume portable field sampler. After each fire the concentration of all mass labelled PCDD/PCDF congeners in the surface soil decreased, however, the concentration of some native 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners increased, indicating that formation was occurring. Mass labelled PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected in all ash samples, mean 2.8 pg g-1 (range 0.5-8 pg g-1), demonstrating release from the soil. Additionally, mass labelled PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected in all air samples mean 1.2 ?g (t fuel)-1 (range 0.2-2.0 ?g (t fuel)-1), again demonstrating release from the soil. Native 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners detected in the air samples were dominated (in terms of contribution to total congener mass) by Cl8DD (90% for forest litter and 77% for sugarcane). The major contributor to TEQ of emissions from both forest litter and sugarcane was 1, 2, 3, 7, 8-Cl5DD (40-64% and 57-75%, respectively). These results demonstrate that release of PCDD/PCDF from soil to air and land occurs during open burning of biomass when soil temperatures are sufficiently elevated.

Black, Robert R.; (Mick) Meyer, Carl P.; Yates, Alan; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Chittim, Brock G.; Mueller, Jochen F.

2012-11-01

381

ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION  

SciTech Connect

The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

1999-12-01

382

Life table studies of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane.  

PubMed

The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Reproductive and life table parameters for E. lignosellus were examined at nine constant temperatures from 13 to 36 °C with sugarcane as the larval food source. The pre- and postoviposition periods decreased with increasing temperatures and reached their minimums at 33 and 36 °C, respectively. The oviposition period was longest at 27 °C. The mean fecundity, stage-specific survival, stage-specific fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were greatest at 30 °C and decreased with increasing or decreasing temperature. The net reproductive rate was greatest at 27 °C. The Logan-6 model best described the relationship between temperature and intrinsic rate of increase. The generation and population doubling times were longest at 13 and shortest at 33 and 30 °C, respectively. The most favorable temperatures for E. lignosellus population growth were between 27 and 33°C. Life table parameters for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane were greater than for the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on an artificial diet at 30 °C. The intrinsic rates of increase for the sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on sugarcane or corn were the same as for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane at 27 °C, but the net reproductive rate was four times higher for the former than the latter borer species. PMID:22182570

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A

2010-12-01

383

Modeling volcanic ash dispersal  

SciTech Connect

Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

None

2010-10-22

384

Circle of Ashes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Circle of Ashes

This plot tells astronomers that a pulsar, the remnant of a stellar explosion, is surrounded by a disk of its own ashes. The disk, revealed by the two data points at the far right from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, is the first ever found around a pulsar. Astronomers believe planets might rise up out of these stellar ashes.

The data in this plot, or spectrum, were taken by ground-based telescopes and Spitzer. They show that light from around the pulsar can be divided into two categories: direct light from the pulsar, and light from the dusty disk swirling around the pulsar. This excess light was detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Dust gives off more infrared light than the pulsar because it's cooler.

The pulsar, called 4U 0142+61, was once a massive star, until about 100,000 years ago, when it blew up in a supernova explosion and scattered dusty debris into space. Some of that debris was captured into what astronomers refer to as a 'fallback disk,' now circling the leftover stellar core, or pulsar. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks around young stars, out of which planets are thought to be born.

The data have been corrected to remove the effects of light scattering from dust that lies between Earth and the pulsar.

The ground-based data is from the Keck I telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

2006-01-01

385

Modeling volcanic ash dispersal  

ScienceCinema

Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

None

2011-10-06

386

Acid-catalyzed liquefaction of bagasse in the presence of polyhydric alcohol.  

PubMed

Bagasse was subjected to a liquefaction process with polyethylene glycol/glycerol using sulfuric acid as catalyst. The effects of various liquefaction conditions, such as reaction time, liquefaction temperature, catalyst content, and liquid ratio (liquefaction solvents/bagasse), on the liquefied residue (LR) content and hydroxyl and acid numbers of liquefied products were investigated. The preferred liquefaction condition of bagasse was determined through orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the catalyst content and reaction time have a greater influence than liquid ratio and liquefaction temperature on the percentage of LR. The hydroxyl and acid numbers of the liquefied products were influenced by many factors, including liquefaction temperature, reaction time, acid content, and liquid ratio. The hydroxyl number of liquefied products decreased as the liquefaction reaction progressed, but the acid number of liquefied products increased. Based on the obtained data, the kinetics for liquefaction was modeled using the first-order reaction rate law and the apparent activation energy for the liquefaction of bagasse was estimated to be 38.30 kJ mol(-1). PMID:23740473

Zhang, Hairong; Luo, Jun; Li, Yingying; Guo, Haijun; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xinde

2013-08-01

387

A highly active bagasse-derived solid acid catalyst with properties suitable for production of biodiesel.  

PubMed

A novel bagasse-based solid acid catalyst was successfully prepared through sulfonation of incompletely carbonized bagasse. A range of conditions for producing the catalyst were investigated, and the optimized catalyst, produced under carbonization at 648 K for 0.5 h and sulfonation at 423 K for 15 h, showed excellent catalytic activity and resulted in around 95 % yield of methyl oleate. Its activity was not only substantially greater than that of niobic acid and Amberlyst-15, but also comparable to or superior to that of catalysts made from pure starch or glucose, respectively. Additionally, the bagasse-derived catalyst could be repeatedly employed for at least eight cycles and still retained around 90 % of its original activity, exhibiting excellent operational stability. Furthermore, the catalyst efficiently converted waste cooking oils with 38.6 wt % free fatty acids into biodiesel and afforded a high yield of about 93.8 % within 12 h. These results clearly show that the bagasse-derived catalyst is economic, eco-friendly, and promising for biodiesel production from low-cost feedstocks and may find wide applications. PMID:22693163

Lou, Wen-Yong; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Wen-Jing; Zong, Min-Hua; Wu, Hong; Smith, Thomas J

2012-08-01

388

Process to increase the effectiveness of bagasse as a source of energy  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of bagasse as a source of energy is increased by a flexible operation adapted to the power requirements, fuel storage requirements and other variables of a sugar mill operation. Part or all of a primary stream of bagasse from the sugar mill is dried from its initial moisture content, e.g. in the order of 50%, to a lower moisture content, e.g. in the order of 35%, using a portion of the hot flue gases from the boilers which are used to supply power for the sugar mill operation. The resulting drier material is separated to provide an oversize particle stream which may be sent directly to the boiler for burning, to storage in the bagasse house, or to a secondary drying operation, and a secondary stream of fine particle size bagasse components which are most suitable for further process and densification. This secondary stream, with optional addition of oversize particles from the primary drying operation, is then dried in contact with another portion of hot flue gases to a moisture content suitable for densification, about 6-12% where a pellet mill is employed, and is further subjected to particle size selection, if necessary, and then subjected to densification in a pellet mill or other suitable equipment. The densified material is then sent to storage, returned to the boilers for part or all of the fuel requirement or transported to other potential users.

Bouvet, P.E.; Suzor, N.L.

1982-12-14

389

Pyrolysis of two agricultural residues: Olive and grape bagasse. Influence of particle size and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of olive and grape bagasse has been studied with the aim of determining the main characteristics of the charcoals formed and the nature and quantity of gases and liquids produced. Variables investigated were temperature between 300 and 900°C and particle size between 0.4 and 2 mm diameter. Experiments were carried out in an isothermal manner. As a general

J. M. Encinar; F. J. Beltrán; A. Bernalte; A. Ramiro; J. F. González

1996-01-01

390

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse has been studied between 200 and 800 °C under a nitrogen gas flow. Different experimental parameters of the pyrolysis have been investigated, including holding temperature, time duration of pyrolysis, and heating rate. The solid residues obtained were then analyzed by classical elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.The most important structure modifications appeared

Ketty Bilba; Alex Ouensanga

1996-01-01

391

Process for treatment of bagasse for the production of oil binders  

SciTech Connect

A novel oil absorbent comprising substantially sugar-free, hydrophobic, oleophilic bagasse prepared by saturating with water , removing the sugar, and then drying, which will absorb oil in an amount up to about 27 times its weight. The oil saturated absorbent is useful as a fuel.

Fischer, K. O.

1980-12-23

392

Application of Xylanase from Alkaliphilic Thermophilic Bacillus sp. NCIM 59 in biobleaching of bagasse pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of environmental concerns, the use of hemicellulolytic enzymes has recently attracted considerable interest as a substitute for chlorine chemicals in pulp bleaching. The cellulase free xylanase from alkaliphilic thermophilic Bacillus sp. NCIM 59 was evaluated for prebleaching of the bagasse pulp. The UV absorption spectrum of the compounds released by enzyme treatment, and after alkali extraction, showed a characteristic

Neeta Kulkarni; Mala Rao

1996-01-01

393

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most

A. M. Azzam

1989-01-01

394

Pretreatment with ammonia water for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn husk, bagasse, and switchgrass.  

PubMed

Bagasse, corn husk, and switchgrass were pretreated with ammonia water to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The sample (2 g) was mixed with 1-6 mL ammonia water (25-28% ammonia) and autoclaved at 120 degreesC for 20 min. After treatment, the product was vacuum-dried to remove ammonia gas. The dried solid could be used immediately in the enzymatic hydrolysis without washing. The enzymatic hydrolysis was effectively improved with more than 0.5 and 1 mL ammonia water/g for corn husk and bagasse, respectively. In bagasse, glucose, xylose, and xylobiose were the main products. The adsorption of CMCase and xylanase was related to the initial rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. In corn husks, arabinoxylan extracted by pretreatment was substantially unhydrolyzed because of the high ratio of arabinose to xylose (0.6). The carbohydrate yields from cellulose and hemicellulose were 72.9% and 82.4% in bagasse, and 86.2% and 91.9% in corn husk, respectively. The ammonia/water pretreatment also benefited from switchgrass (Miscanthus sinensis and Solidago altissima L.) hydrolysis. PMID:11318037

Kurakake, M; Kisaka, W; Ouchi, K; Komaki, T

2001-03-01

395

Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to investigate the sintering process of volcanic ash. In order to analyze the mineral transformation and microstructure evolution, the qualitative as well as quantitative crystalline phase analysis of volcanic ash samples directly taken from furnace by per 100 oC in the range of between 100 and 1400 oC as well as evaluation of microstructure of volcanic ash taken from from furnace by per 20 oC in the range of between 1000 and 1300 oC has been made by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, we obtain the viscosity temperature curve for volcanic ash during melting process on the basis of the characteristic temperature obtained by HSM.

Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

2013-12-01

396

An atlas of volcanic ash  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions were studied, using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy to characterize each ash type and to relate ash morphology to magma composition and eruption type. The ashes are best placed into two broad genetic categories: magnetic and hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic). Ashes from magmatic eruptions are formed when expanding gases in the magma form a froth that loses its coherence as it approaches the ground surface. During hydrovolcanic eruptions, the magma is chilled on contact with ground or surface waters, resulting in violent steam eruptions. Within these two genetic categories, ashes from different magma types can be characterized. The pigeon hole classification used here is for convenience; there are eruptions which are driven by both phreatic and magmatic gases.

Heiken, G.

1974-01-01

397

Ash in the Soil System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect, climate/meteorological conditions after the ash spread/fire and soil background characteristics. In addition, after the fire heating can change soil original properties increasing the complexity of the ash effects on soil properties. After fire, ash is highly dynamic and very easily transported by wind until the first rains. When wetted, ash compacts and binds onto soil surface, and wind has low capacity to transport it. The post-rain ash dynamic is influenced by water erosion (in slope areas), infiltration into soil profile and vegetation recuperation. This means that ash produced in one place will have implications in other areas, including not burned areas (e.g wind transport and water erosion). This is a clear indication that ash effects go much further than the fire affected area. Due the heterogeneity of soil and ash properties and their dynamic across the landscape, the impacts of ash on soil system can be diverse, producing a mosaic of different effects and responses after ash treatment and/ or fire. In this communication it will be presented and discussed the advances and scientific development of ash effects and dynamic in soil system.

Pereira, P.

2012-04-01

398

Dry ash handling system for an incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an ash handling system, comprising: a sealable vehicle chamber openable at two ends and including a burn-out chamber with an air opening; an ash chute entering the vehicle chamber and having a negative air pressure; and an ash car positionable under the ash chute in the vehicle chamber, receiving ash from the chute and having an air

1988-01-01

399

Performance of dairy goats fed whole sugarcane.  

PubMed

Five lactating goats were used in a 5x5 Latin square experiment to determine the effects of feeding whole sugarcane (WSC) on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were fed diets containing 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 g kg(-1) WSC and 400, 300, 200, 100, and 0 g kg(-1) tifton hay (TH). Intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Total tract nutrient digestibilities were not influenced by WSC inclusion except for the digestibility of NDF which decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Inclusion of WSC linearly (p<0.05) decreased milk yield without affecting milk composition. It was concluded that WSC had a lower feeding values than TH for lactating goats. PMID:18663596

Cabral, A D; Batista, A M V; Mustafa, A; de Carvalho, F F R; Guim, A; Monteiro, P S; Lucena, R B

2009-03-01

400

Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro-regions) from Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009); (ii) One index that indicates the degree of relative occurrence of vulnerable areas in relation to contamination risk of surface and groundwater by effluents from sugarcane agroindustry from a model made by Barbalho e Campos (2010); (iii) two indicators that evaluate the commitment degree of the available water to meet the demand of sugarcane potential expansion distinctly for dryland and irrigation system; (iv) two indicators that evaluate the attendance level of the sugarcane water demand considering the limits of available water from local water resource in terms of maximum area that the culture can expand in a sustainable way For the estimation of water supply was used a spatially distributed model of specific flow (FERRAZ, 2012). The results show that the indicators were able to characterize and distinguish the different territorial units of analysis and the spatial models used satisfactorily met, in terms of level of detail, the purposes explained. The Sudoeste de Goiás and Quirinópolis microregions exhibit higher favorability, from the point of view of water sustainability therefore have areas where culture can be grown in dry system and still rely on higher available water volumes to supply the demand of sugarcane cultivation in the areas of compulsory irrigation.

Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

2012-12-01

401

Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil  

PubMed Central

Background The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis. Results The available stalk number, stalk diameter, single stalk weight and theoretical yield of ratoon cane (RS) were found to be significantly lower than those of plant cane (NS). The activities of several carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus processing enzymes, including invertase, peroxidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase were found to be significantly lower in RS soil than in NS soil. BIOLOG analysis indicated a significant decline in average well-color development (AWCD), Shannon’s diversity and evenness indices in RS soil as compared to NS soil. To profile the rhizospheric metaproteome, 109 soil protein spots with high resolution and repeatability were successfully identified. These proteins were found to be involved in carbohydrate/energy, amino acid, protein, nucleotide, auxin and secondary metabolisms, membrane transport, signal transduction and resistance, etc. Comparative metaproteomics analysis revealed that 38 proteins were differentially expressed in the RS soil as compared to the control soil or NS soil. Among these, most of the plant proteins related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and stress response were up-regulated in RS soil. Furthermore, several microbial proteins related to membrane transport and signal transduction were up-regulated in RS soil. These proteins were speculated to function in root colonization by microbes. Conclusions Our experiments revealed that sugarcane ratooning practice induced significant changes in the soil enzyme activities, the catabolic diversity of microbial community, and the expression level of soil proteins. They influenced the biochemical processes in the rhizosphere ecosystem and mediated the interactions between plants and soil microbes.

2013-01-01

402

Ash-related Problems during Biomass Combustion and Possibilities for a Sustainable Ash Utilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of biomass fuels and especially the contents of ash forming elements influence the choice of an appropriate combustion and process control technology. They affect deposit formation, fly ash emissions and ash handling as well as ash utilisation\\/disposal options. Major ash forming elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Si) are of relevance for the ash melting

Friedrich Biedermann; Ingwald Obernberger; BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME

403

Simulation Analysis and Experimental Study on Rigidity Enhancement of Sugarcane Harvester Cutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rigidity of sugarcane cutter has notable influence on the quality of sugarcane cutting,the most concerned problem of sugarcane harvester developing currently,as it effects its vibration and the vibration in turn brings great damage to the cutting quality on which rare research has been done. This paper took altering a sensitive parameter of the cutter rigidity, the distance between the

Lai Xiao; Li Shangping; Liang Shi; Ma Fanglan; Zheng Guangping; Qin Zhiwen

2010-01-01

404

Effect of Intercropping and Organic Matter on the Subterranean Termites Population in Sugarcane Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intercropping and addition of organic matters on subterranean termites in a field of sugarcane was determined. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), oliseed (Brassica compestris L.) and Methi (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) were intercropped with sugarcane on ridges at the time of setts placement in the furrows. Organic matters (blood, sugarcane trash & fresh cattle dung)

SOHAIL AHMED; RASHAD RASOOL KHAN; GHULAM HUSSAIN; MUHAMMAD ASAM RIAZ; ABID HUSSAIN

405

RADIATION DOSES FOR QUARANTINE SECURITY AGAINST MEXICAN RICE BORER AND SUGARCANE BORER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a stalk-boring insect which occurs in Texas and Mexico. This insect attacks sugarcane sorghum, corn, rice, wheat, oats, and wild grasses. The Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is also a stalk-boring insect of sugarcane, sorghum, corn, rice, and wild grasses occurring in the West Indies, the American tropics,

J. Legaspi; G. J. Hallman

406

Physiological demands and working efficiency of sugarcane cutters in harvesting burnt and unburnt cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting burnt and unburnt sugarcane has various implications for the farmer and the cutters. The primary focus of this study was to investigate in situ the differences in energy expenditure and working efficiency of sugarcane cutters with regard to harvesting burnt and unburnt sugarcane. Heart rate was measured telemetrically by means of a Polar Pacer heart rate monitor. Metabolic measurements

Marié de L. Müller; Marius F. Coetsee

2008-01-01

407

Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species) and DNA methylation (24-nt-species), respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

2012-01-01

408

Tracking an Ash Cloud  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the aviation hazard associated with volcanic eruptions as they take the role of an air traffic controller and calculate the amount of time it will take for an ash plume to travel to the control tower. A map of the continental U.S. is included. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

409

Ash melting behavior under coal gasification conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of this study show that CaCO3 additives are an efficient fluxing element for the control of ash melting, more particularly Al2O3-rich ash melting. The minimum values of the hemispherical temperatures of the ash-additive mixtures were 50–500 K lower than those of parent coal ashes. Empirical equations have been derived to relate ash fusion temperatures to ash composition. X-ray

Y. Ninomiya; A. Sato

1997-01-01

410

Icelandic volcanic ash in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrete layer of Holocene volcanic ash, or tephra, has been discovered in Caithness, Scotland. Major and minor element analysis of individual glass shards indicates that the ash is of Icelandic origin, and that it was probably produced by the ‘Hekla 4’ eruption of ca. 4000 b.p. This discovery identifies a valuable isochrone, and introduces to the British mainland the

Andrew Dugmore

1989-01-01

411

Ash handling, storage, and utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current power plant practices are increasing the amount of ash production. Therefore, utilization and storage of this byproduct become more important. An overview is presented of various techniques for the handling, utilization, and storage of ash generated by large utility coal-fired generating stations in sizes of 600 MW and above.

Loftus

1976-01-01

412

Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

Okeefe, J. A.

1976-01-01

413

Pollen influx and volcanic ash.  

PubMed

Pollen influx can be used to estimate the duration of short-term depositional events. When applied to volcanic ashes, it may also provide information on the season and ecological effects of ashfall. In our initial application of the method to volcanic ashes from Lost Trail Pass, Bitterroot Mountains, Montana, we have illustrated that (i) two falls of Glacier Peak ash, which occurred about 11,250 (14)C years ago, were separated by 10 to 25 years; and (ii) volcanic ash from a major eruption of Mount Mazama (about 6700 (14)C years ago) first fell in the autumn and 4.6 centimeters of ash was deposited before the following spring. We also believe there is a reasonable probability that (i) about 1 centimeter of ash fell during the following year and about 1.7 centimeters fell the year after; (ii) in all, the sporadic primary Mazama ashfall lasted for nearly 3 years; (iii) Mazama ash resulted in low lake productivity, as measured by the occurrence of Botryococcus and Pediastrum; (iv) Mazama ash, perhaps through a mulching effect, may have produced increased vigor and pollen production in some sagebrush steppe genera; and (v) as measured by the records of fossil pollen and acid-resistant algae, effects on the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems were short-lived. With refinement of the methods and broader geographic application, pollen influx studies may prove valuable for separating the regional and chronological details of tephra attributed to Mazama, Glacier Peak, and other Cascade Range volcanoes. PMID:17770486

Mehringer, P J; Blinman, E; Petersen, K L

1977-10-21

414

Laboratory coal ash corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a program to provide complete, reliable corrosion data for selected superheater and reheater tube alloys, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, conducted materials tests in simulated coal-ash environments. Test coupons were made from 11 base alloys, 7 cladding alloys (typically for coextruded tubes), chromizings, plasma spray coatings, and weld metals. The coupons were coated with synthetic ashes mirroring

Wolowodiuk

1989-01-01

415

Contribution of cane bagasse used as a fuel in the sugar industry to changes in outdoor and indoor air quality in middle Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present one-year study is concerned with the degree of relationship between the changes in quantity and quality of outdoor and indoor settled dust in Abu Qurqas town in Middle Egypt and the combustion of cane bagasse in boiler furnaces in a sugar factory located in the same town. It can be suggested that this process is responsible for increasing the rate of outdoor and indoor deposition of combustible matter by 2-8 and 2-7 times, respectively, during the period of December-April. However, it can be suggested also that the same process has a limited role, as it is a source of ash content of both outdoor and indoor settled dust and is ineffective in polluting the two environments with calcium, chloride and sulphate ions and tar fraction. Indoor levels of settled dust and its constituents were found to be lowest during cold months. This causes the indoor levels of combustible matter resulting from the sugar factory to be lower than the outdoor levels by 41-45% during December-March and by 28% during April which is a relatively warm month in Middle Egypt.

Hindy, K. T.

416

Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

2008-01-01

417

Mutator System Derivatives Isolated from Sugarcane Genome Sequence.  

PubMed

Mutator-like transposase is the most represented transposon transcript in the sugarcane transcriptome. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from sequenced transcripts provided evidence that at least four distinct classes exist (I-IV) and that diversification among these classes occurred early in Angiosperms, prior to the divergence of Monocots/Eudicots. The four previously described classes served as probes to select and further sequence six BAC clones from a genomic library of cultivar R570. A total of 579,352 sugarcane base pairs were produced from these "Mutator system" BAC containing regions for further characterization. The analyzed genomic regions confirmed that the predicted structure and organization of the Mutator system in sugarcane is composed of two true transposon lineages, each containing a specific terminal inverted repeat and two transposase lineages considered to be domesticated. Each Mutator transposase class displayed a particular molecular structure supporting lineage specific evolution. MUSTANG, previously described domesticated genes, are located in syntenic regions across Sacharineae and, as expected for a host functional gene, posses the same gene structure as in other Poaceae. Two sequenced BACs correspond to hom(eo)logous locus with specific retrotransposon insertions that discriminate sugarcane haplotypes. The comparative studies presented, add information to the Mutator systems previously identified in the maize and rice genomes by describing lineage specific molecular structure and genomic distribution pattern in the sugarcane genome. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12042-012-9104-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22905278

Manetti, M E; Rossi, M; Cruz, G M Q; Saccaro, N L; Nakabashi, M; Altebarmakian, V; Rodier-Goud, M; Domingues, D; D'Hont, A; Van Sluys, M A

2012-09-01

418

Production of a His-tagged canecystatin in transgenic sugarcane.  

PubMed

Transgenic plants have been widely used as expression systems of recombinant proteins in recent years because it can be an efficient alternative for the large-scale production of proteins. This is an area with great potential but is still not much explored. Indeed, this system can bring a breakthrough in the expression of any protein. The model used here as a protein factory was sugarcane, a crop of great global importance. This chapter describes the system that has been adopted in the routine production of transgenic sugarcane coupled with protein purification protocol. In this chapter, we describe production of transgenic sugarcane expressing a His-tagged cystatin under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. A transformed sugarcane plant presented high levels of protein expression and was selected for the purification of this protein through affinity chromatography in a nickel column. These studies demonstrate that sugarcane can be a viable expression system for recombinant protein production and that the His-tag purification strategy used to isolate the purified protein was effective. PMID:22351027

Henrique-Silva, Flavio; Soares-Costa, Andrea

2012-01-01

419

Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

2013-03-01

420

De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of contrasting sugarcane varieties.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species. PMID:24523899

Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Costa, Estela Araujo; Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

2014-01-01

421

Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

Koga-Vicente, A.

2011-12-01

422

Sugarcane functional genomics: gene discovery for agronomic trait development.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

Menossi, M; Silva-Filho, M C; Vincentz, M; Van-Sluys, M-A; Souza, G M

2008-01-01

423

Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 ?m). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The early pyroclastic phase of the formation of Kima'Kho, a tuya in northern B.C., Canada produced a subaqueous pyroclastic cone which became emergent during the latter stages of formation. Armoured lapilli are pervasive within the emergent upper third of the sequence. No other types of ash aggregates have been observed. Petrographic and textural analysis of the armoured lapilli shows them to comprise a central 2-30 mm-sized, juvenile, vesiculated pyroclast, concentrically coated by mm-scale layers of 10-250 ?m sized ash particles. At Kima'Kho, the armoured lapilli are shown to be a direct indicator of fallout from a sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured lapilli (no accretionary lapilli) at Kima'Kho and diverse ash aggregates but no armoured lapilli at A418. Here we investigate vent-proximal ash aggregation and the specific conditions which lead to the formation of coated ash pellets and armoured lapilli.

Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

2012-12-01

424

Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation.

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

425

Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism.  

PubMed

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

426

A sugarcane cystatin: recombinant expression, purification, and antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Plants possess several defense mechanisms against pathogenic attack. One of these defenses is the use of protease inhibitor proteins, which interfere in the development and growth of pathogens. Sugarcane productivity can be impacted by the plant's susceptibility to fungal diseases that result in production losses. A relevant line of investigation, therefore, is into the plant's natural defense mechanisms for the control of phytopathogens using cystatins-proteins that specifically inhibit cysteine proteases. In this paper, we discuss the expression, in Escherichia coli, of a sugarcane cystatin, its purification, antifungal activity, and circular dichroism to monitor correct folding. These studies revealed a secondary structure similar to that of the oryzacystatin I of rice. Moreover, the purified protein proved capable of inhibiting the growth of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, suggesting that it can also be employed to inhibit the growth of pathogenic sugarcane fungi. PMID:12207900

Soares-Costa, A; Beltramini, L M; Thiemann, O H; Henrique-Silva, F

2002-09-01

427

Evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii on the key enzymes for xylitol production in sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast on xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) enzymes activities was performed during fermentation in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The xylitol production was evaluated by using cells previously growth in 30.0 gl(-1) xylose, 30.0 gl(-1) glucose and in both sugars mixture (30.0 gl(-1) xylose and 2.0 gl(-1) glucose). The vacuum evaporated hydrolysate (80 gl(-1)) was detoxificated by ion exchange resin (A-860S; A500PS and C-150-Purolite®). The total phenolic compounds and acetic acid were 93.0 and 64.9%, respectively, removed by the resin hydrolysate treatment. All experiments were carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks at 200 rpm, 30°C. The maximum XR (0.618 Umg (Prot) (-1)) and XDH (0.783 Umg (Prot) (-1)) enzymes activities was obtained using inoculum previously growth in both sugars mixture. The highest cell concentration (10.6 gl(-1)) was obtained with inoculum pre-cultivated in the glucose. However, the xylitol yield and xylitol volumetric productivity were favored using the xylose as carbon source. In this case, it was observed maximum xylose (81%) and acetic acid (100%) consumption. It is very important to point out that maximum enzymatic activities were obtained when the mixture of sugars was used as carbon source of inoculum, while the highest fermentative parameters were obtained when xylose was used. PMID:20683763

de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia Lacerda Brambilla; da Silva, Débora Danielle Virgínio; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

2011-07-01

428

Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum.  

PubMed

Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as "molecular domestication", by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis. PMID:23055803

Kajihara, Daniela; de Godoy, Fabiana; Hamaji, Thais Alves; Blanco, Silvia Regina; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Rossi, Magdalena

2012-07-01

429

Volcanic Ash: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research will help students learn more about volcanic ash. The module begins with information on Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, which erupted in 2010 and disrupted air travel in Europe; users may then learn about other similar historic volcanic events. A course description, objectives, and bibliography are also included. This interactive online learning module would be a great addition to earth science or geology coursework; instructors may choose to assign completion of the online module to students independent of classwork, as the module is very easy to follow and provides a great deal of in-depth information on the topic. A print-friendly version, media gallery and technical notes are also available on the website. Users must create a free log-in in order to view or utilize the site.

2011-07-14

430

Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate  

SciTech Connect

Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A. [Faculty of Chemical Enginering of Lorena (Brazil); Vitolo, M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1997-12-31

431

Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berkeleyi; it increased the in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility to 22 and 24% for lemon grass and citronella, respectively. The increases were correlated with weight loss and lignin loss. All fungi decreased lignin contents: 36% of the original value for lemon grass and 28% for citronella. Practically all fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose over cellulose.

Rolz, C.; de Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; de Cabrera, S.

1986-01-01

432

Response of eight sugarcane cultivars to glyphosine and glyphosate ripeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted on eight sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hydrid) cultivars during the 1982–83 (plant crop) and 1983–84 (ratoon crop) growing seasons to determine the effects\\u000a of glyphosine (Polaris) (N,N-bis (phosphonomethyl) glycine) and glyphosate (Polado) (sodium-N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on\\u000a stalk sucrose content and yield. Difference due to crops (plant vs. ratoon) for sugarcane quality, kilograms of sugar per\\u000a ton of cane (S\\/T),

J. A. Dusky; M. S. Kang; B. Glaz; J. D. Miller

1985-01-01

433

Volcanic ash in deep marine sediment: A comparison of dispersed ash and adjacent ash layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of dispersed volcanic ash in pelagic marine sediment (as differentiated from ash found in discrete layers) has been known since the 1970's. Most previous studies have assessed the dispersed component through sedimentological and petrographic methods. As part of an effort to quantitatively determine the amount, and chemical composition, of dispersed ash in pelagic sediments, we are undertaking a systematic study of the western Pacific marine sediments. ODP Site 1149 (Leg 185), located immediately east of the Izu-Bonin Arc, consists of aluminosilicate clay and large amounts of volcanic ash (>75 ash layers described in units I and II). In addition to the ash layers, there is abundant dispersed ash (20 - 50% of the bulk). Using a multi-elemental geochemical and statistical approach we can characterize and quantify this dispersed ash component, and thus complement the original ash layer record by a novel dataset. At Site 1149, our previous work based on refractory trace element end members of potential sources (from the literature) indicate that Chinese Loess, Ryukyu Dacite (Japan), and an average of Izu-Bonin Front Arc material yield the best mixing to explain the bulk sedimentary composition (Scudder et al., 2009, EPSL, 284, 639-648). Contribution of a significant distal Ryukyu Arc component to the sediment eastward of Izu-Bonin (i.e., Site 1149) is surprising, yet is required by our chemical results, and is consistent with the previous work of Egeberg et al. (1992). While Scudder et al. (2009) was based on a small number of samples (~15 samples for complete major, trace, and REE analysis) and a modest element menu, we here present the results from an expansive suite of analyses (>80 samples) allowing us to test the effect of sample number on the statistical results and achieve additional quantitative resolution of volcanic and upper crustal sources (e.g., loess). This further improves our statistical ability to resolve temporal changes that may be related to variation in arc volcanism through time. Most importantly, we are able to discern an additional source(s) of material beyond our previous work that was based on more limited data. Furthermore, we compare the composition of the dispersed ash component to that of the discrete ash layers. We analyzed 26 ash layers, sampled from the entire span of Units I and II. We are able to identify at least two broad compositional groupings. The first ash population is similar to upper crustal material such as loess, though several key diagnostic compositions are distinctive. The second ash layer population broadly exhibits lower SiO2 with higher TiO2, MgO, Fe2O3, and Sc. These two ash groups are consistent with the two ashes identified by Scudder et al. (2009) as the sources of the dispersed ash in the bulk sediment, with the first ash layer population representing the Ryukyu Dacite component and the second population being similar to the Izu-Bonin Front Arc. Additional studies of the ash shard chemistry as well as multivariate statistical analyses of the enhanced bulk sedimentary data set will allow further resolution of sources, and the development of a quantitative inventory of the sedimentary sequence being subducted into the Izu-Bonin arc system.

Scudder, R. P.; Murray, R. W.; Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.

2012-12-01

434

Lipase production by solid state fermentation of olive cake and sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil cake (OOC) from Morocco and sugar cane bagasse (SCB) were used for lipase production using thermostable fungal cultures of Rhizomucor pusillus and Rhizopus rhizopodiformis. The maximum production of lipase by Rhizomucor pusillus and Rhizopus rhizopodiformis in solid state fermentation (SSF) using SCB, was 4.99 U\\/g DM equivalent to 1.73 U\\/ml and 2.67 U\\/g DM equivalent to 0.97 U\\/ml,

J Cordova; M Nemmaoui; A Morin; S Roussos; M Raimbault; B Benjilali

1998-01-01

435

Implementation of an UASB anaerobic digester at bagasse-based pulp and paper industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was installed to replace the conventional anaerobic lagoon treating bagasse wash wastewater from agro-based pulp and paper mill, to generate bio-energy and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The plant was designed to treat 12MLd?1 of wastewater having two 5ML capacity reactors, 5.75kgCODm?3d?1 organic loading rate and 20h hydraulic retention time. In the plant 80–85%

S. Chinnaraj; G. Venkoba Rao

2006-01-01

436

Decolourization of Bagasse-based paper mill effluent by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse-based paper mill effluent employed for a decolourization study by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor contained 2840 colour units and was of pH 7·8. Colour reduction was observed in all the media tested. A high degree of decolourization (40%) by the native effluent microflora was noted on the second day in effluent supplemented with ammonium nitrate and glucose but

D. R. Modi; Harish Chandra; S. K. Garg

1998-01-01

437

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

438

Characterization and use of activated carbons prepared from bagasses for liquid-phase adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two commercial dyes and phenol from water on activated carbons was investigated at 30°C. The carbons were prepared from bagasses and were activated by steam with different extents of burn-off by varying the temperature in the range of 750–840°C. Pore structures of the carbons were characterized by the t-plot method based on N2 adsorption isotherms. Three simplified

Ruey-Shin Juang; Feng-Chin Wu; Ru-Ling Tseng

2002-01-01

439

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate for ethanol production by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate was prepared by dilute sulfuric acid (3% w\\/v) hydrolysis with a high-solid, low-liquid\\u000a ratio followed by leaching. The hydrolyzate contains 11% (w\\/v) of fermentable sugars with xylose as the major component, which\\u000a comprises up to 75% of the total reducing sugars. The neutralized hydrolyzate exhibited strong inhibition toward cell growth\\u000a and ethanol production by yeasts.

C. S. Gong; C. S. Chen; L. F. Chen

1993-01-01

440

Three-resistance transport model for dye adsorption onto bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the adsorption of two dyestuffs from aqueous solutions onto bagasse pith studied using an agitated batch adsorber. A three-resistance mass transfer model, based on external mass transport, macropore diffusion, and micropore diffusion, was used to predict concentration versus time decay curves. The predicted curves were correlated with experimental data for up to 24 hours in order to determine the three mass transport parameters.

Al Duri, B.; McKay, G. (Dept. of Chemcial Engineering, Queens Univ. of Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG (GB)); El Geundi, M.S.; Abdul Wahab, M.Z. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of El Minia, El Minia (EG))

1990-05-01