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1

Processing of Sugarcane Bagasse ash and Reactivity of Ash-blended Cement Mortar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA), a sugar-mill waste, has the potential of a partial cement replacement material if processed and obtained under controlled conditions. This paper discusses the reactivity of SCBA obtained by control burning of sugarcane bagasse procured from Punjab province of India. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to ascertain the amorphousness and morphology of the minerals ash particles. Destructive and non-destructive tests were conducted on SCBA-blended mortar specimens. Ash-blended cement paste specimens were analyzed by XRD, thermal analysis, and SEM methods to evaluate the hydration reaction of SCBA with cement. Results showed that the SCBA processed at 600°C for 5 hours was reactive as ash-blended mortar specimens with up to 15% substitution of cement gave better strength than control specimens.

Ajay, Goyal; Hattori, Kunio; Ogata, Hidehiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

2

Recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste in the production of clay bricks.  

PubMed

This work investigates the recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as a method to provide raw material for clay brick bodies, through replacement of natural clay by up 20 wt.%. Initially, the waste sample was characterized by its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, particle size, morphology and pollution potential. Clay bricks pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their technological properties (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and tensile strength). The sintered microstructure was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste is mainly composed by crystalline silica particles. The test results indicate that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste could be used as a filler in clay bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way. PMID:22387325

Faria, K C P; Gurgel, R F; Holanda, J N F

2012-06-30

3

Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

Sales, Almir, E-mail: almir@ufscar.b [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Sofia Araujo, E-mail: sofiaalima@yahoo.com.b [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2010-06-15

4

Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement.  

PubMed

Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement. PMID:20163947

Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araújo

2010-06-01

5

Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.  

PubMed

Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

2010-05-01

6

Vacuum pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide background data on sugarcane bagasse vacuum pyrolysis. Product yields and properties were investigated. Vacuum pyrolysis tests were performed at bench and pilot plant scales. The bagasse finest particles with a diameter smaller than 450 ?m were removed in order to overcome difficulties caused by their low density and high ash content. In

Abdelkader Chaala; Christian Roy

2002-01-01

7

Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

2011-10-01

8

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30

M. J. Giamalva; S. Clarke; K. Bischoff

1981-01-01

9

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

SciTech Connect

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

1981-08-01

10

Xylitol recovery from fermented sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, obtained by acid hydrolysis, was fermented by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 to produce xylitol. Assays were made in order to determine the best conditions to clarify the fermented broth using activated carbon. The clarified medium was treated with ion-exchange resins after which xylitol crystallization was attempted. The best clarifying treatment was found by adding 25 g

P. V. Gurgel; I. M. Mancilha; R. P. Peçanha; J. F. M. Siqueira

1995-01-01

11

Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

12

Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on sugarcane bagasse  

SciTech Connect

The growth behavior of Cellulomonas has been examined in fermentation systems using alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse. During the batch operation diauxic growth was found which would not seem to be explained by catabolic repression. The relative variation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fermentation process suggests the initial utilization of easily degradable substrate, i.e., hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose, until their concentration becomes limiting, followed by utilization of the crystalline cellulose. The conversion of substrate was 70% with a yield of 0.355 g of biomass per gram of bagasse feed. (Refs. 13).

Enriquez, A.

1981-07-01

13

Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. I: sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse, which is a complex material, is the major by-product of the sugar cane industry. It contains about 50% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose and 25% lignin. Due to its abundant availability, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the

Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol

2000-01-01

14

Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

2013-01-01

15

Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

1985-02-01

16

Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and

J. M. Hernández-Salas; M. S. Villa-Ramírez; J. S. Veloz-Rendón; K. N. Rivera-Hernández; R. A. González-César; M. A. Plascencia-Espinosa; S. R. Trejo-Estrada

2009-01-01

17

An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

Elkoury, J.M.

1980-12-01

18

Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of ?-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

2013-03-01

19

Sugarcane leaf-bagasse gasifiers for industrial heating applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the commercial-scale (1080 MJ h?1) development of a gasification system using low-density biomass, for thermal applications. The gasifier can handle fuels such as sugarcane leaves and bagasse, bajra stalks, sweet sorghum stalks and bagasse etc. The system was tested for > 700 h under laboratory conditions at 288–1080 MJ h?1 output levels. The HHV of the gas

Rajeev Jorapur; Anil K. Rajvanshi

1997-01-01

20

Generation of Energy from Sugarcane Bagasse by Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide harvest of sugarcane for sucrose production represents a major agricultural industry, with approximately Mt\\u000a 1500 produced annually. The cane yields about 13.5% of its weight as sugar, together with an equal amount (dry weight) of\\u000a fibrous bagasse as waste. The bagasse, which is predominantly cellulose, is burned at the mills to generate steam for sugar\\u000a processing. The global

B. R. Stanmore

2010-01-01

21

Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

2013-07-01

22

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper prepared by Omar Omari 54434105 Marcus Cheung 82207101 Robert Chen this project to investigate and compare the advantages and disadvantages between sugarcane bagasse paper

23

Co-pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse with petroleum residue. Part I: thermogravimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition under nitrogen of sugarcane bagasse, petroleum residue and their blends was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at different heating rates (10, 20, 40 and 60°C\\/min). Thermal decomposition kinetic parameters were determined. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis was described as the sum of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin individual contributions. First order equations were used to determine the bagasse component thermal decomposition kinetics.

A Chaala; J Yang; C Roy

2001-01-01

24

Adsorption of heavy metal ion from aqueous single metal solution by chemically modified sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the preparation of new chelating materials derived from sugarcane bagasse for adsorption of heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. The first part of this report deals with the chemical modification of sugarcane bagasse with succinic anhydride. The carboxylic acid functions introduced into the material were used to anchor polyamines, which resulted in two yet unpublished modified sugarcane

Osvaldo Karnitz; Leandro Vinicius Alves Gurgel; Júlio César Perin de Melo; Vagner Roberto Botaro; Tânia Márcia Sacramento Melo; Rossimiriam Pereira de Freitas Gil; Laurent Frédéric Gil

2007-01-01

25

Optimization of the Preparation Conditions for Activated Carbons from Sugarcane Bagasse: An Agricultural Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from sugarcane bagasse, an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with different reagents. Orthogonal experimental design was applied to study the influence of activation temperature, activation time and chemical ratio of reagents to sugarcane bagasse on the chemical activation process of sugarcane bagasse. The optimal activated carbon was obtained using impregnation ratio of 0.39-0.78%

Zelong Xu; Yinian Zhu; Meina Liang; Hua Zhang; Huili Liu

2011-01-01

26

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

2011-01-01

27

Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse with white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Four cultures of white rot fungi were screened for their ability to degrade lignin and carbohydrates of sugarcane bagasse and their effect on changes ininvitro digestibility.Polyporushirsutus534 degraded maximum lignin and carbohydrates accompanied with the highest increase in digestibility, but increase in nutrient availability was maximum withPleurotussajorcaju (Z-6) due to lower dry matter loss during the process of fungal treatment.

Neelam Kewalramani; D. N. Kamra; D. Lall; N. N. Pathak

1988-01-01

28

Isolation and characterization of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different procedures for isolation of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) were comparatively studied. Sequential extractions of dewaxed SCB with water with or without ultrasonic irradiation, various concentrations of alkali and alkaline peroxide yielded 44.7 and 45.9% cellulose preparations, which contained 6.0 and 7.2% associated hemicelluloses and 3.4 and 3.9% bound lignin, respectively. Delignification with acidic sodium chlorite followed by

J. X Sun; X. F Sun; H Zhao; R. C Sun

2004-01-01

29

Dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at varying conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct of the cane sugar industry, is an abundant source of hemicellulose that could be hydrolyzed\\u000a to yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol and chemicals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration,\\u000a temperature, time, and dry matter concentration on hemicellulose hydrolysis were studied with a 20-L batch hydrolysis reactor\\u000a using a statistical experimental design.

Markus Neureiter; Herbert Danner; Christiane Thomasser; Bamusi Saidi; Rudolf Braun

2002-01-01

30

Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by C?C and C?O?C links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.

2013-03-01

31

Sugarcane bagasse as alternative packing material for biofiltration of benzene polluted gaseous streams: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of benzene vapor from gaseous streams was studied in two identically sized lab-scale biofiltration columns: one filled with a mixture of raw sugarcane bagasse and glass beads, and the other one packed with a mixture of ground sugarcane bagasse and glass beads, in the same volume ratio, as filter materials. Separate series of continuous tests were performed, in parallel,

L. Sene; A. Converti; M. G. A. Felipe; M. Zilli

2002-01-01

32

Enhanced Lead Sorption by Biochar Derived from Anaerobically Digested Sugarcane Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the ability of two sugarcane bagasse biochars to remove lead from water. The sorption of lead by biochars made from raw (BC) and anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse (DBC) was compared with a commercial activated carbon (AC) using batch sorption experiments. DBC was a more effective sorbent of lead from water than AC, and far more effective than

Mandu Inyang; Bin Gao; Wenchuan Ding; Pratap Pullammanappallil; Andrew R. Zimmerman; Xinde Cao

2011-01-01

33

Sugarcane biomass for biorefineries: comparative composition of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components of bagasse and straw.  

PubMed

Two fractions of sugarcane, namely bagasse and straw (or trash), were characterized in relation to their chemical composition. Bagasse presented values of glucans, hemicelluloses, lignin and ash of 37.74, 27.23, 20.57 and 6.53%, respectively, while straw had 33.77, 27.38, 21.28 and 6.23% of these same components. Ash content was relatively high in both cane biomass fractions. Bagasse showed higher levels of contaminating oxides while straw had a higher content of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides. A comparison between the polysaccharide chemical compositions of these lignocellulosic materials suggests that similar amounts of fermentable sugars are expected to arise from their optimal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Details about the chemical properties of cane biomass holocellulose, hemicelluloses A and B and ?-cellulose are provided, and these may offer a good opportunity for designing more efficient enzyme cocktails for substrate saccharification. PMID:25263869

Szczerbowski, Danielle; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Zandoná Filho, Arion; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

2014-12-19

34

Secretome analysis of Ganoderma lucidum cultivated in sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Harmful environmental issues of fossil-fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable alternative fuels such as biofuel. Agricultural crop residues represent an abundant renewable resource for future biofuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically feasible, and should also be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We used these criteria to evaluate the white rot basidiomycota-derived fungus Ganoderma lucidum that secretes substantial amounts of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes useful for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass that were not described hitherto. The current bottleneck of lignocellulosic biofuel production is the hydrolysis of biomass to sugar. To understand the enzymatic hydrolysis of complex biomasses, we cultured G. lucidum with sugarcane bagasse as substrate and qualitatively analyzed the entire secretome. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and diverse enzymes were found, of which several were novel lignocellulosic biomass hydrolyzing enzymes. We further explored G. lucidum-derived cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degrading enzymes as valuable enzymes for the second generation of biofuel obtained from a lignocellulose substrate such as sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23000217

Manavalan, Tamilvendan; Manavalan, Arulmani; Thangavelu, Kalaichelvan P; Heese, Klaus

2012-12-21

35

Xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by Candida tropicalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural isolate, Candida tropicalis was tested for xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates. Fermentation of corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate showed xylose uptake and xylitol production, though these were very low, even after hydrolysate neutralization and treatments with activated charcoal and ion exchange resins. Initial xylitol production was found to be 0.43g\\/g and 0.45g\\/g of

R. Sreenivas Rao; Ch. Pavana Jyothi; R. S. Prakasham; P. N. Sarma; L. Venkateswar Rao

2006-01-01

36

Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse  

E-print Network

SUGARCANE JUICE EXTRACTION AND PRESERVATION, AND LONG-TERM LIME PRETREATMENT OF BAGASSE A Dissertation by CESAR BENIGNO GRANDA COTLEAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... RESERVED SUGARCANE JUICE EXTRACTION AND PRESERVATION, AND LONG-TERM LIME PRETREATMENT OF BAGASSE A Dissertation by CESAR BENIGNO GRANDA COTLEAR Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

2005-02-17

37

Wet oxidation as a pretreatment method for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of six different conditions of wet oxidation (WO) pretreatment on fractionation and enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse was investigated. WO resulted in an increase of cellulose content of bagasse as a result of the solubilisation of hemicelluloses and lignin. The highest cellulose content, nearly 70%, was obtained in the pretreatment at 195°C, 15min and alkaline pH. Pretreatments at

Carlos Martín; Helene B. Klinke; Anne Belinda Thomsen

2007-01-01

38

Steam explosion of sugarcane bagasse as a pretreatment for conversion to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Hawaii is interested in converting the large volume of agricultural residues, principally sugarcane bagasse, that is generated in the state into transportation fuels. One of the technologies that is currently being evaluated is steam explosion as a pretreatment for conversion of the bagasse into ethanol. In order to identify the optimum conditions of the steam explosion cycle,

W. E. Kaar; C. V. Gutierrez; C. M. Kinoshita

1998-01-01

39

Optimization of steam explosion as a method for increasing susceptibility of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic saccharification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technique of autohydrolysis steam explosion was examined as a means for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Treatment conditions were optimized so that following enzymatic hydrolysis, pretreated bagasse would give 65.1 g sugars\\/100 g starting bagasse. Released sugars comprised 38.9 g glucose, 0.6 g cellobiose, 22.1 g xylose, and 3.5 g arabinose, and were equivalent to 83% of the anhydroglucan and

P. J. Morjanoff; P. P. Gray

1987-01-01

40

CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBONS PREPARED FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE BY ZnCl2 ACTIVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons were prepared from the agricultural waste of sugarcane bagasse by the chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) at the activation temperature of 500°C with soaking time of 0.5 hour. The influence of activation parameters on the final carbon products was examined by varying the impregnation ratio (i.e., mass ratio of added ZnCl2 to bagasse) and bagasse size. The

W. T. Tsai; C. Y. Chang; M. C. Lin; S. F. Chien; H. F. Sun; M. F. Hsieh

2001-01-01

41

The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1–0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41%

G. J. Griffin

2011-01-01

42

Acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production.  

PubMed

In order to use sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for lactic acid production, optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis of the bagasse were investigated. After lignin extraction, the conditions were varied in terms of hydrochloric (HCl) or sulfuric (H(2)SO(4)) concentration (0.5-5%, v/v), reaction time (1-5h) and incubation temperature (90-120 degrees C). The maximum catalytic efficiency (E) was 10.85 under the conditions of 0.5% of HCl at 100 degrees C for 5h, which the main components (in gl(-1)) in the hydrolysate were glucose, 1.50; xylose, 22.59; arabinose, 1.29; acetic acid, 0.15 and furfural, 1.19. To increase yield of lactic acid production from the hydrolysate by Lactococcus lactis IO-1, the hydrolysate was detoxified through amberlite and supplemented with 7 g l(-1) of xylose and 7 g l(-1) of yeast extract. The main products (in gl(-1)) of the fermentation were lactic acid, 10.85; acetic acid, 7.87; formic acid, 6.04 and ethanol, 5.24. PMID:19766480

Laopaiboon, Pattana; Thani, Arthit; Leelavatcharamas, Vichean; Laopaiboon, Lakkana

2010-02-01

43

Study of structural modification of sugarcane bagasse employing hydrothermal treatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the cellulosic ethanol is an important alternative way to many liquid biofuels using renewable biomass rich in polysaccharides. To be used as feedstock for ethanol production, the bagasse needs to be pretreated in order to expose its main constitutive. The present work proposes the use of different pretreatment processes to better expose the cellulose for hydrolysis and fermentation. In the present paper the sugarcane bagasse was submitted to a hydrothermal pretreatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). An RF microplasma torch was employed as APPs in Ar and Ar/O2 mixing. The bagasse was treated in discharge and post-discharge regions. The position and time of treatment was varied as well as the gas mixture. The quantity of polysaccharides was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed the release of a fraction of the hemicelluloses in the sugarcane bagasse. Modifications in the surface of the sugarcane fibers were monitored by employing scanning electron microscopy.

Amorim, Jayr; Pimenta, Maria Teresa; Gurgel, Leandro; Squina, Fabio; Souza-Correa, Jorge; Curvelo, Antonio

2009-10-01

44

Hydration of bagasse ash-blended portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydration of bagasse ash (BA)-blended portland cement has been studied by employing a number of experimental techniques. It is found that in presence of BA setting times are increased and free lime is decreased. The compressive strength values increased with hydration time in the presence of BA and the values were found to be higher than that of control. The

N. B Singh; V. D Singh; Sarita Rai

2000-01-01

45

Improving the value of sugarcane bagasse wastes via integrated chemical production systems: an environmentally friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylitol production by chemical or enzymatic routes generates massive amounts of hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse as a residue. This biomass is a renewable feedstock for the production of added-value chemicals from its lignocellulosic constituents. In this work, chlorine-free, ?-cellulose pulp and acetic acid were produced from hydrolyzed bagasse. Soda\\/AQ and oxidative processes were developed to remove lignin from the biomass. Lignin-rich

Henrique M. Baudel; Claudio Zaror; César A. M. de Abreu

2005-01-01

46

The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse. PMID:21680181

Griffin, G J

2011-09-01

47

Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethanol production from the sugars contained in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the yeast Pichia stipitis DSM 3651. The fermentations were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyers with 100 mL of medium incubated at 200 rpm and 30 degrees C for 120 h. The medium was composed by raw (non-detoxified) hydrolysate or by hydrolysates detoxified by pH alteration followed by active charcoal adsorption or by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, all of them supplemented with yeast extract (3 g/L), malt extract (3 g/L), and peptone (5 g/L). The initial concentration of cells was 3 g/L. According to the results, the detoxification procedures removed inhibitory compounds from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate and, thus, improved the bioconversion of the sugars into ethanol. The fermentation using the non-detoxified hydrolysate led to 4.9 g/L ethanol in 120 h, with a yield of 0.20 g/g and a productivity of 0.04 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by pH alteration and active charcoal adsorption led to 6.1 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.13 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, in turn, provided 7.5 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.16 g L(-1) h(-1). PMID:19802721

Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida; Silva, João Batista de Almeida e; Giulietti, Marco

2010-05-01

48

Enhanced Adsorption of Malachite Green by EDTAD-modified Sugarcane Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD) modified sugarcane bagasse (SB) was prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Due to the presence of a large number of carboxyl groups, the adsorption capacity of the EDTAD modified SB (EDTAD-SB) for malachite green (MG) showed a significant increase compared with SB. Increase in ion strength of solution-induced decline of MG sorption. The maximum

Yun Xing; Dehua Deng

2009-01-01

49

Effect of particle sizes on functional properties of dietary fibre prepared from sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) treatment affected physical and chemical properties of sugarcane bagasse (SB). AHP treatment can improve all its physical properties. The brightness, water-holding capacity (WHC), and oil-binding capacity (OBC) of SB were increased by 34, 96, and 55%, respectively. Lignin was removed from SB by 53%. Colour of Solka Floc® 900, a commercial dietary fibre, was pure white

Arpathsra Sangnark; Athapol Noomhorm

2003-01-01

50

Aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose and production of xylose syrup  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the optimum level of severity, the aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse, an abundant agricultural residue, gave, depending on the degree of comminution, 60% to 89% yield of xylose, most of it in the form of a water soluble xylan. A process for producing xylose-rich syrups was conceived and tested, consisting of aqueous extraction, acid hydrolysis of the concentrated aqueous

M. Saska; E. Ozer

1995-01-01

51

Ethanol production from enzymatic hydrolysates of sugarcane bagasse using recombinant xylose-utilising Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated by steam explosion at 205 and 215°C and hydrolysed with cellulolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates were subjected to enzymatic detoxification by treatment with the phenoloxidase laccase and to chemical detoxification by overliming. Approximately 80% of the phenolic compounds were specifically removed by the laccase treatment. Overliming partially removed the phenolic compounds, but also other fermentation inhibitors such

Carlos Mart??n; Mats Galbe; C. Fredrik Wahlbom; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Leif J Jönsson

2002-01-01

52

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. PMID:25059876

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu

2014-01-01

53

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate.  

PubMed

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. PMID:25059876

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Matsushika, Akinori

2014-01-01

54

Xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by Candida tropicalis.  

PubMed

A natural isolate, Candida tropicalis was tested for xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates. Fermentation of corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate showed xylose uptake and xylitol production, though these were very low, even after hydrolysate neutralization and treatments with activated charcoal and ion exchange resins. Initial xylitol production was found to be 0.43 g/g and 0.45 g/g of xylose utilised with corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate respectively. One of the critical factors for low xylitol production was the presence of inhibitors in these hydrolysates. To simulate influence of hemicellulosic sugar composition on xylitol yield, three different combinations of mixed sugar control experiments, without the presence of any inhibitors, have been performed and the strain produced 0.63 g/g, 0.68 g/g and 0.72 g/g of xylose respectively. To improve yeast growth and xylitol production with these hydrolysates, which contain inhibitors, the cells were adapted by sub culturing in the hydrolysate containing medium for 25 cycles. After adaptation the organism produced more xylitol 0.58 g/g and 0.65 g/g of xylose with corn fiber hydrolysate and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate respectively. PMID:16242318

Rao, R Sreenivas; Jyothi, Ch Pavana; Prakasham, R S; Sarma, P N; Rao, L Venkateswar

2006-10-01

55

Fast pyrolysis of rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an induction-heating reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the application of induction heating, a fast pyrolysis was used for producing valuable products from rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effect of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and holding time on the yields of pyrolysis products and their chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum yield of ca.

W. T. Tsai; M. K. Lee; Y. M. Chang

2006-01-01

56

Laboratory and pilot scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by acidified aqueous glycerol solutions.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acidified aqueous glycerol solution was evaluated at both laboratory and pilot scales. Laboratory scale pretreatment (4.00 g dry mass in 40.00 g liquid) with glycerol solutions containing ? 20 wt.% water and 1.2 wt.% HCl at 130°C for 60 min resulted in biomass having glucan digestibilities of ? 88%. Comparable glucan enzymatic digestibility of 90% was achieved with bagasse pretreated at pilot scale (10 kg dry mass in 60 kg liquid) using a glycerol solution containing 0.4 wt.% HCl and 17 wt.% water at 130°C for 15 min. We attribute more efficient pretreatment at pilot scale (despite shorter reaction time and reduced acid content) to improved mixing and heat transfer in a horizontal reactor. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acid-catalysed glycerol solutions likely produces glycerol-glycosides, which together with hydrolysed lignin are potential substrates for the production of biopolymers. PMID:23612157

Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

2013-06-01

57

Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions  

E-print Network

batch hot-lime-water-treated bagasse/chicken manure fermentations with calcium carbonate???.. 217 8-32 The CPDM ?map? for 80 wt% hot-lime-water-treated bagasse/20 wt% chicken manure countercurrent fermentation with calcium carbonate buffer (124 g VS/L...-lime-water-treated bagasse/chicken manure fermentations with ammonium bicarbonate.... 225 8-39 The CPDM ?map? for 80 wt% hot-lime-water-treated bagasse/20 wt% chicken manure countercurrent fermentation with ammonium bicarbonate buffer (130 g VS/L liquid...

Fu, Zhihong

2009-05-15

58

Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties. PMID:24104688

Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

2014-01-01

59

Mechanical Properties and Morphological Study of Fly-Ash-Bagasse Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the natural fiber epoxy composite has attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material. The natural fiber composites can be very cost effective material. In the present investigation the development of a Fly ash—Bagasse fiber composite material has been discussed. The Bagasse fiber has been used in two different sizes for the developed material. In two developed composites, diameter of Bagasse fiber has been varied between 13-16 ?m and 83-95 ?m in length. Correspondingly in other two developed composites; length of Bagasse fiber has been varied from 1 to 5 mm. It was observed that the density decreases by mixing the fiber was more as compared to the composite having both Bagasse fiber and Fly ash. A Bagasse fiber composite with size in the range of ?m exhibited better tensile strength than the composite having Bagasse fiber size in mm. The compressive strength of the material increases, if Fly ash alone is used for the composite material but, when Bagasse fiber was mixed with the Fly ash, it was found that there has been a decrease in the compressive strength. It was also observed that there has been a decrease in the flexural strength of the material by mixing the Bagasse fiber in the matrix. The microstructure of composite material was investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscope. The images from Scanning Electron Microscope demonstrated that the Fly ash and Bagasse fiber particles are uniformly distributed over the matrix.

Verma, Deepak; Gope, Prakash Chandra; Maheshwari, Mohit Kumar; Sharma, Ravinder Kumar

2012-10-01

60

A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

61

Optimization of steam explosion as a method for increasing susceptibility of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic saccharification  

SciTech Connect

The technique of autohydrolysis steam explosion was examined as a means for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Treatment conditions were optimized so that following enzymatic hydrolysis, pretreated bagasse would give 65.1 g sugars/100 g starting bagasse. Released sugars comprised 38.9 g glucose, 0.6 g cellobiose, 22.1 g xylose, and 3.5 g arabinose, and were equivalent to 83% of the anhydroglucan and 84% of the anhydroxylan content of untreated bagasse. Optimum conditions were treatment for 30 s with saturated steam at 220/sup 0/C with a water-to-solids ratio of 2 and the addition of 1 g H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//100 g dry bagasse. Bagasse treated in this manner was not inhibitory to fermentation by Saccharomyces uvarum except at low inoculum levels when fermentation time was extended by up to 24 h. Pretreated saccharified bagasse was inhibitory to Pachysolen tannophilus and this was attributed to the formation of acetate from the hydrolysis of acetyl groups present in the hemicullulose. The major advantage of the pretreatment is the achievement of high total sugar yield with moderate enzyme requirement and only minor losses due to sugar decomposition.

Morjanoff, P.J.; Gray, P.P.

1987-04-01

62

Increase in ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse based on combined pretreatments and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was performed to investigate the production of ethanol. The sugarcane bagasse was pretreated in a process combining steam explosion and alkaline delignification. The lignin content decreased to 83%. Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolyses was initiated with 8% (w/v) solids loading, and 10 FPU/g cellulose. Then, 1% solids were fed at 12, 24 or 48 h intervals. After 120 h, the hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFPEDA 1238, and a fourfold increase in ethanol production was reached when fed-batch hydrolysis with a 12-h addition period was used for the steam pretreated and delignified bagasse. PMID:23201527

Wanderley, Maria Carolina de Albuquerque; Martín, Carlos; Rocha, George Jackson de Moraes; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

2013-01-01

63

Flexural properties of sugarcane bagasse pith and rind reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse is divided into two major components. They are pith and rind. Pith is the inner part of sugarcane bagasse while rind is the outer part of it. In this study, the flexural properties of pith reinforced poly (vinyl chloride) composites were compared to that of rind composites with the same matrix in variation of fibre content. The composites were produced by compression moulding method. The fibre contents were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% in weight. Three-point bending tests were carried out to measure the flexural properties of the composites. It has been found that, in general, the addition of fibre improved the flexural modulus of the materials. Meanwhile, the rind composites were of superior flexural properties compared to the pith composites.

Wirawan, R.; Sapuan, S. M.; Robiah, Y.; Khalina, A.

2010-05-01

64

Alternative approach for utilization of pentose stream from sugarcane bagasse by an induced flocculent Pichia stipitis.  

PubMed

A new approach for the utilization of hemicellulosic hydrolysate from sugarcane bagasse is described. This approach consists of using the hydrolysate to dilute the conventional feedstock (sugarcane juice) to the usual sugar concentration (150 g/L) employed for the industrial production of ethanol. The resulting sugar mixture was used as the substrate to evaluate the performance of a continuous reactor incorporating a cell recycle module, operated at several dilution rates. An induced flocculent pentose-fermenting yeast strain was used for this bioconversion. Under the conditions used, the reactor performance was satisfactory at substrate feed rates of 30 g/(L h) or less, corresponding to an ethanol productivity of about 11.0 g/(L h) and an overall sugar conversion >95%. These results show real advantages over the existing alternatives for a better exploitation of surplus bagasse to increase industrial alcohol production. PMID:12721434

de Castro, Heizir F; Oliveira, Samuel C; Furlan, Sandra A

2003-01-01

65

Optimization of inulinase production by solid-state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of enzymes by bioprocesses is a good alternative to add value to agroindustry residues. Sugarcane bagasse is an abundant by-product of sugar industry and was tested as support and carbon source for production of inulinase (2,1-?-d-fructanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571 by solid-state fermentation. Corn steep liquor was used as nitrogen supplement. Factorial design and response

Marcio Mazutti; João Paulo Bender; Helen Treichel; Marco Di Luccio

2006-01-01

66

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to remove or reduce the concentrations of toxic substances present in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate\\u000a for xyloseto-xylitol bioconversion, the hydrolysate was pretreated by changing the initial pH level through the combination\\u000a of different bases and acids with or without the subsequent addition of activated charcoal. Attention was given to the influence\\u000a of the fermentation time as well.

Lourdes A. Alves; Maria G. A. Felipe; JoÃo B. Almeida E. Silva; Silvio S. Silva; Arnaldo M. R. Prata

1998-01-01

67

Detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate improves ethanol production by Candida shehatae NCIM 3501  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with 2.5% (v\\/v) HCl yielded 30.29g\\/L total reducing sugars along with various fermentation inhibitors such as furans, phenolics and acetic acid. The acid hydrolysate when treated with anion exchange resin brought about maximum reduction in furans (63.4%) and total phenolics (75.8%). Treatment of hydrolysate with activated charcoal caused 38.7% and 57.5% reduction in furans and total phenolics,

Anuj Kumar Chandel; Rajeev Kumar Kapoor; Ajay Singh; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2007-01-01

68

Study of thermal treatment combined with radiation on the decomposition of polysaccharides in sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment is a physical and chemical process that reduces the crystalline structure and disrupts the hydrogen bonding of cellulose to improve the accessibility to hydrolytic depolymerization reactions. The combination of pretreatment technologies intends to decrease the severity of the processes and to avoid excessive sugar degradation and formation of toxic by-products. An effective pretreatment preserves the pentose fractions and limits the formation of degradation products that inhibits the growth of fermentative microorganisms. This study presents the evaluation of the cleavage of polysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse using ionizing radiation combined with thermal and diluted acid treatment to further enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis of cellulose. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were irradiated using a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with different absorbed doses, and then were submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid, m/m) hydrolysis for 10, 20 and 40 min at 180 °C. Taking into account the sugars and by-products liberated in these treatments the conversion rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses were calculated.

Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.

2013-03-01

69

Adsorptive removal of phenol by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study deals with the adsorption of phenol on carbon rich bagasse fly ash (BFA) and activated carbon-commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL). BFA is a solid waste obtained from the particulate collection equipment attached to the flue gas line of the bagasse-fired boilers of cane sugar mills. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influences of various experimental

Vimal C. Srivastava; Mahadeva M. Swamy; Indra D. Mall; Basheswar Prasad; Indra M. Mishra

2006-01-01

70

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

2012-03-01

71

Construction of individual, fused, and co-expressed proteins of endoglucanase and ?-glucosidase for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

At least a combination of endoglucanase (EglII) and ?-glucosidase (BglZ) is required for hydrolyzing crystalline cellulose. To understand the catalytic efficiency of combination enzymes for converting biomass to sugars, EglII and BglZ were constructed in the form of individual, fused as well as co-expression proteins, and their activities for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse were evaluated. The genes, eglII isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PSM3.1 earlier and bglZ from B. amyloliquefaciens ABBD, were expressed extracellularly in Bacillus megaterium MS941. EglII exhibited both exoglucanase and endoglucanase activities, and BglZ belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 1 family (GH 1) showed ?-glucosidase activity. A combination of EglII and BglZ showed activity on substrates Avicel, CMC and sugarcane bagasse. Specifically for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse, fused protein (fus-EglII+BglZ), co-expression protein (coex-BglZ+EglII), and mixed-individual protein (mix-EglII+BglZ) produced cellobiose as the main product, along with a small amount of glucose. The amount of reducing sugars released from the hydrolyzing bleached sugarcane bagasse (BSB) using fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ was 2.7- and 4.2-fold higher, respectively, than steamed sugarcane bagasse (SSB), indicating the synergetic enzymes worked better on treated sugarcane bagasse. Compared with fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ, coex-BglZ+EglII released more mol reducing sugars from SSB, indicating the enzymes were potential for biomass conversion. Additionally, coex-BglZ+EglII acted on BSB 2.5-fold faster than fus-EglII+BglZ. Thus, coex-bglZ+eglII expression system was the best choice to produce enzymes for hydrolyzing sugarcane baggase. PMID:24598011

Kurniasih, Sari Dewi; Alfi, Almasul; Natalia, Dessy; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; Nurachman, Zeily

2014-01-01

72

Thermochemical Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse into Bio-Crude Oils by Fluidized-Bed Pyrolysis Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochemical conversion of sugarcane bagasse into bio-crude oils by fluidized-bed reactor has been taken into consideration in this study. The bagasse in particle form was pyrolyzed in an externally heated 7cm diameter and 37.5cm high fluidized-bed reactor with nitrogen as a carrier gas. The reactor chamber and gas-preheater were heated by means of a renewable energy biomass source cylindrical heater. At a reactor bed temperature of 450°C for a feed particle size of 420-600µm and at a gas flow rate of 30 l/min, an oil yield of 48wt% of dry feed was obtained. The pyrolysis process temperature was found to have influenced on the product yields. Characterization of the whole pyrolysis liquids obtained at optimum operating conditions has been carried out including physical properties, elemental analyses, GCV, FT-IR, and 1H NMR analysis. The results show that pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse waste is a good option for producing bio-crude oils to be used as alternative to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstocks.

Islam, Mohammad Rofiqul; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Uddin, Md. Shazib

73

Removal of reactive dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbons prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse pith, which is the main waste from sugarcane industry in Egypt, has been used as a raw material for the preparation of different activated carbons. Activated carbons were prepared from bagasse pith by chemical activation with 28% H3PO4 (AC1), 50% ZnCl2 (AC2) followed by pyrolysis at 600°C and by physical activation at 600°C in absence of air (AC3). Different

Nevine Kamal Amin

2008-01-01

74

Comparison of the fermentability of enzymatic hydrolyzates of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by steam explosion using different impregnating agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential lignocellulosic feedstock for ethanol production, since it is cheap, readily available, and\\u000a has a high carbohydrate content. In this work, bagasse was subjected to steam explosion pretreatment with different impregnation\\u000a conditions. Three parallel pretreatments were carried out, one without any impregnation, a second with sulfur dioxide, and\\u000a a third with sulfuric acid as the impregnating

Carlos Martín; Mats Galbe; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant; Leif J. Jönsson

2002-01-01

75

Fractional extraction and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse hemicelluloses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 90% of the original hemicelluloses in the cell walls of bagasse were sequentially extracted with distilled water, 0.5 M NaOH, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0% H2O2 at pH 11.5, and 2.0 M NaOH at 55 °C for 2 h. Meanwhile, the successive treatments also released 89.0% of the original lignin. Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties, and structures of the

J. X Sun; X. F Sun; R. C Sun; Y. Q Su

2004-01-01

76

Optimizing cellulase usage for improved mixing and rheological properties of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Consolidation of bioprocessing steps with lignocellulose is limited by hydrolysate toxicity, the fibrous nature of suspensions, and low activity of cellulase enzymes. Combinations of enzyme dose and treatment conditions improved the flow properties and pumping of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse slurries (10% dry weight). Low levels of cellulase enzyme (0.1 and 0.5 FPU/g dry weight acid-pretreated bagasse) were found to reduce viscosities by 77-95% after 6 h, solubilizing 3.5% of the bagasse dry weight. Flow of slurries through small funnels was a useful predictor of success with centrifugal and diaphragm pumps. Equations were derived that describe viscosity and solubilized carbohydrates as a function of time and cellulase dosage. Blending of acid-pretreated bagasse (10% dry weight) with suspensions of acid-pretreated bagasse (10% dry weight) that had been previously digested with cellulase enzymes (low viscosity) did not increase viscosity in a linear fashion. Viscosity of these mixtures remained relatively constant until a threshold level of new fiber was reached, followed by a rapid increase with further additions. Up to 35% fresh acid-pretreated bagasse could be blended with enzyme-digested fiber (5.0 FPU/g dry weight acid-pretreated fiber; 6 h) with only a modest increase in viscosity. The smooth surfaces of enzyme-treated fiber are proposed to hinder the frequency and extent of interactions between fibrils of fresh fiber particles (acid-pretreated) until a threshold concentration is achieved, after which fiber interactions and viscosity increase dramatically. These results were used to model the viscosity in an ideal continuous stirred tank reactor (liquefaction) as a function of residence time and enzyme dosage. PMID:20678927

Geddes, Claudia C; Peterson, James J; Mullinnix, Michael T; Svoronos, Spyros A; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

2010-12-01

77

Non-cellulosic heteropolysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse - sequential extraction with pressurized hot water and alkaline peroxide at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The xylan-rich hemicellulose components of sugarcane bagasse were sequentially extracted with pressurized hot-water extraction (PHWE) and alkaline peroxide. The hemicelluloses were found to contain mainly arabinoxylans with varying substitutions confirmed by different chemical and spectroscopic methods. The arabinoxylans obtained from PHWE were found to be more branched compared to those obtained after alkaline extraction. Sequential extraction could be useful for the isolation of hemicelluloses with different degree of branching, molar mass, and functional groups from sugarcane bagasse, which can be of high potential use for various industrial applications. PMID:24495799

Banerjee, Protibha Nath; Pranovich, Andrey; Dax, Daniel; Willför, Stefan

2014-03-01

78

Homogeneous isolation of nanocellulose from sugarcane bagasse by high pressure homogenization.  

PubMed

Nanocellulose from sugarcane bagasse was isolated by high pressure homogenization in a homogeneous media. Pretreatment with an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl)) was initially involved to dissolve the bagasse cellulose. Subsequently, the homogeneous solution was passed through a high pressure homogenizer without any clogging. The nanocellulose was obtained at 80 MPa for 30 cycles with recovery of 90% under the optimum refining condition. Nanocellulose had been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that nanocellulose was 10-20 nm in diameter, and presented lower thermal stability and crystallinity than the original cellulose. The developed nanocellulose would be a very versatile renewable material. PMID:22944423

Li, Jihua; Wei, Xiaoyi; Wang, Qinghuang; Chen, Jiacui; Chang, Gang; Kong, Lingxue; Su, Junbo; Liu, Yuhuan

2012-11-01

79

Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results. PMID:22122978

2011-01-01

80

Aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose and production of xylose syrup  

SciTech Connect

At the optimum level of severity, the aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse, an abundant agricultural residue, gave, depending on the degree of comminution, 60% to 89% yield of xylose, most of it in the form of a water soluble xylan. A process for producing xylose-rich syrups was conceived and tested, consisting of aqueous extraction, acid hydrolysis of the concentrated aqueous extract, centrifugal clarification of the hydrolysate, and recovery of the acid by continuous ion exclusion. The cost estimate indicates operating costs on the order of $0.12 to $0.15/kg xylose, in the form of xylose-rich molasses.

Saska, M.; Ozer, E. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1995-03-20

81

Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to evaluate the fermentability of cellulosic hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane\\u000a bagasse pretreated by hydrothermal processing using Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast. The inoculum was obtained from yeast culture in a medium containing glucose as a carbon source supplemented\\u000a with rice bran extract, CaCl2·2H2O and (NH4)2SO4 in 50 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 20 mL of medium, initial

Vinícius F. N. Silva; Priscila V. Arruda; Maria G. A. Felipe; Adilson R. Gonçalves; George J. M. Rocha

2011-01-01

82

Equilibrium modelling of single and binary adsorption of cadmium and nickel onto bagasse fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the competitive adsorption of cadmium (Cd(II)) and nickel (Ni(II)) ions onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) from single component and binary systems. BFA is a waste material obtained from the flue gas of the bagasse-fired boilers of sugar mills. Equilibrium adsorption is affected by the initial pH (pH0) of the solution. The pH0?6.0 is found to

Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Indra Deo Mall; Indra Mani Mishra

2006-01-01

83

Removal of Cr 6+ and Ni 2+ from aqueous solution using bagasse and fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw bagasse and fly ash, the waste generated in sugar mills and boilers respectively have been used as low-cost potential adsorbents. Raw bagasse was pretreated with 0.1N NaOH followed by 0.1N CH3COOH before its application. These low-cost adsorbents were used for the removal of chromium and nickel from an aqueous solution. The kinetics of adsorption and extent of adsorption at

M. Rao; A. V. Parwate; A. G. Bhole

2002-01-01

84

Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (?G) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s?1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S < 10.0 g L?1 and QAIR > 27.0 L min?1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi. PMID:24078146

Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

2014-05-01

85

A novel promising Trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura.  

PubMed

Brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. For this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado. Among 13 isolates, a Trichoderma harzianum strain (L04) was identified as a promising candidate for cellulase production when cultured on in natura sugarcane bagasse. Strain L04 revealed a well-balanced cellulolytic complex, presenting fast kinetic production of endoglucanases, exoglucanases and ?-glucosidases, achieving 4,022, U.L(-1) (72 h), 1,228 U.L(-1) (120 h) and 1,968 U.L(-1) (48 h) as the highest activities, respectively. About 60% glucose yields were obtained from sugarcane bagasse after 18 hours hydrolysis. This new strain represents a potential candidate for on-site enzyme production using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. PMID:24349958

Benoliel, Bruno; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe

2013-01-01

86

CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE DISSOLVING PULP EFFLUENTS OVER RU\\/C CATALYST: AN ECO EFFICIENT ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional processes for production of dissolving pulps from sugarcane bagasse use an acid hydrolysis step to remove hemicelluloses, generating a xylose-rich solution as a liquid effluent. Xylose can be converted to xylitol, a high valued natural sweetener used in the food industry by catalytic hydrogenation. Traditionally, nickel catalysts are employed in the production of xylitol on industrial scale. Nevertheless, these

HM Baudel; C. Z. Zaror; CAM de Abreu

87

Characteristics and oil sorption effectiveness of kapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks: oil removal suitability matrix.  

PubMed

The characteristics and water/oil sorption effectiveness ofkapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks have been compared. The three biomass types were subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface tension analyses for liquid-air and oil-water systems were conducted. Both kapok fibre and sugarcane bagasse exhibit excellent oil sorption capabilities for diesel, crude, new engine and used engine oils as their oil sorption capacities all exceed 10 g/g. The synthetic sorbent exhibits oil sorption capacities comparable with sugarcane bagasse, while rice husks exhibit the lowest oil sorption capacities among all the sorbents. Kapok fibre shows overwhelmingly high oil-to-water sorption (O/W) ratios ranging from 19.35 to 201.53 while sugarcane bagasse, rice husks and synthetic sorbent have significantly lower O/W ratios (0.76-2.69). This suggests that kapok fibre is a highly effective oil sorbent even in well-mixed oil-water media. An oil sorbent suitability matrix is proposed to aid stakeholders in evaluating customized oil removal usage of the natural sorbents. PMID:22629620

Ali, Norizan; El-Harbawi, Mohanad; Jabal, Ayman Abo; Yin, Chun-Yang

2012-01-01

88

Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-07-01

89

Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

This work presents the experimental kinetic data and the fractal modeling of sugarcane bagasse steam treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugarcane bagasse (50 wt% moisture) was pretreated by autohydrolysis at 210 °C for 4 min. Acid catalysis involved the use of 9.5mg g(-1) of H2SO4 or H3PO4 in relation to the substrate dry mass at these same pretreatment conditions. Unwashed, water-washed and alkali-washed substrates were hydrolyzed at 2.0 wt% using 8 and 15 FPU g(-1) (108.22 and 199.54 mg/g) total solids of a Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188 mixture (Novozymes). The fractal kinetic modeling was used to describe the effect of pretreatment and both washing processes on substrate accessibility. Water and/or alkali washing was not strictly necessary to achieve high hydrolysis efficiencies. Also, the fractal model coefficients revealed that H3PO4 was a better pretreatment catalyst under the experimental conditions used in this study, resulting in the most susceptible substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24007721

Aguiar, Rodrigo Souza; Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

2013-11-01

90

Ultrasonic pretreatment and acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes.  

PubMed

Immense interest has been devoted to the production of bulk chemicals from lignocellulose biomass. Diluted sulfuric acid treatment is currently one of the main pretreatment methods. However, the low total sugar concentration obtained via such pretreatment limits industrial fermentation systems that use lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate is used as the carbon and nitrogen sources to achieve a green and economical production of succinic acid in this study. Sugarcane bagasse was ultrasonically pretreated for 40 min, with 43.9 g/L total sugar obtained after dilute acid hydrolysis. The total sugar concentration increased by 29.5 %. In a 3-L fermentor, using 30 g/L non-detoxified total sugar as the carbon source, succinic acid production increased to 23.7 g/L with a succinic acid yield of 79.0 % and a productivity of 0.99 g/L/h, and 60 % yeast extract in the medium could be reduced. Compared with the detoxified sugar preparation method, succinic acid production and yield were improved by 20.9 and 20.2 %, respectively. PMID:23649828

Xi, Yong-lan; Dai, Wen-yu; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Jiu-hua; Chen, Ke-quan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Ping-kai

2013-11-01

91

Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

2014-09-01

92

Enhanced xylitol production by precultivation of Candida guilliermondii cells in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The present work evaluated the key enzymes involved in xylitol production (xylose reductase [XR] and xylitol dehydrogenase [XDH]) and their correlation with xylose, arabinose, and acetic acid assimilation during cultivation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 cells in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. For this purpose, inocula previously grown either in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH) or in semidefined medium (xylose as a substrate) were used. The highest xylose/acetic acid consumption ratio (1.78) and the lowest arabinose consumption (13%) were attained in the fermentation using inoculum previously grown in semidefined medium (without acetic acid and arabinose). In this case, the highest values of XR (1.37 U mg prot(-1)) and XDH (0.91 U mg prot(-1)) activities were observed. The highest xylitol yield (approximately 0.55 g g(-1)) and byproducts (ethanol and glycerol) formation were not influenced by inoculum procedure. However, the cell previously grown in the hydrolysate was effective in enhancing xylitol production by keeping the XR enzyme activity at high levels (around 0.99 U.mg(prot) (-1)), reducing the XDH activity (34.0%) and increasing xylitol volumetric productivity (26.5%) with respect to the inoculum cultivated in semidefined medium. Therefore, inoculum adaptation to SBHH was shown to be an important strategy to improve xylitol productivity. PMID:16775788

Rodrigues, Rita C L B; Sene, Luciane; Matos, Gilvane S; Roberto, Inês C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Felipe, Maria G A

2006-07-01

93

Kinetics of lime pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to determine the optimum conditions of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with lime to increase the enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide component and to study the delignification kinetics. The first stage was an evaluation of the influence of temperature, reaction time, and lime concentration in the pretreatment performance measured as glucose release after hydrolysis using a 2(3) central composite design and response surface methodology. The maximum glucose yield was 228.45 mg/g raw biomass, corresponding to 409.9 mg/g raw biomass of total reducing sugars, with the pretreatment performed at 90°C, for 90 h, and with a lime loading of 0.4 g/g dry biomass. The enzymes loading was 5.0 FPU/dry pretreated biomass of cellulase and 1.0 CBU/dry pretreated biomass of ?-glucosidase. Kinetic data of the pretreatment were evaluated at different temperatures (60°C, 70°C, 80°C, and 90°C), and a kinetic model for bagasse delignification with lime as a function of temperature was determined. Bagasse composition (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) was measured, and the study has shown that 50% of the original material was solubilized, lignin and hemicellulose were selectively removed, but cellulose was not affected by lime pretreatment in mild temperatures (60-90°C). The delignification was highly dependent on temperature and duration of pretreatment. PMID:20803263

Fuentes, Laura L G; Rabelo, Sarita C; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C

2011-03-01

94

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using supercritical carbon dioxide combined with ultrasound to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

This work evaluates the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse combining supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and ultrasound to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse. In a first step the influence of process variables on the SC-CO2 pretreatment to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated by mean of a Plackett-Burmann design. Then, the sequential treatment combining ultrasound+SC-CO2 was evaluated. Results show that treatment using SC-CO2 increased the amount of fermentable sugar obtained of about 280% compared with the non-treated bagasse, leading to a hydrolysis efficiency (based on the amount of cellulose) as high as 74.2%. Combining ultrasound+SC-CO2 treatment increased about 16% the amount of fermentable sugar obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis in comparison with the treatment using only ultrasound. From the results presented in this work it can be concluded that the combined ultrasound+SC-CO2 treatment is an efficient and promising alternative to carry out the pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstock at relatively low temperatures without the use of hazardous solvents. PMID:23540926

Benazzi, Tássio; Calgaroto, Selma; Astolfi, Viviane; Dalla Rosa, Clarissa; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Mazutti, Marcio A

2013-04-10

95

A study on the pretreatment of a sugarcane bagasse sample with dilute sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

Experiments based on a 2(3) central composite full factorial design were carried out in 200-ml stainless-steel containers to study the pretreatment, with dilute sulfuric acid, of a sugarcane bagasse sample obtained from a local sugar-alcohol mill. The independent variables selected for study were temperature, varied from 112.5°C to 157.5°C, residence time, varied from 5.0 to 35.0 min, and sulfuric acid concentration, varied from 0.0% to 3.0% (w/v). Bagasse loading of 15% (w/w) was used in all experiments. Statistical analysis of the experimental results showed that all three independent variables significantly influenced the response variables, namely the bagasse solubilization, efficiency of xylose recovery in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate, efficiency of cellulose enzymatic saccharification, and percentages of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the pretreated solids. Temperature was the factor that influenced the response variables the most, followed by acid concentration and residence time, in that order. Although harsher pretreatment conditions promoted almost complete removal of the hemicellulosic fraction, the amount of xylose recovered in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate did not exceed 61.8% of the maximum theoretical value. Cellulose enzymatic saccharification was favored by more efficient removal of hemicellulose during the pretreatment. However, detoxification of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate was necessary for better bioconversion of the sugars to ethanol. PMID:21210180

Canilha, Larissa; Santos, Victor T O; Rocha, George J M; Almeida e Silva, João B; Giulietti, Marco; Silva, Silvio S; Felipe, Maria G A; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F; Carvalho, Walter

2011-09-01

96

Improvement of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by dilute-alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment and subsequent disk milling.  

PubMed

Dilute-alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment (HT) was conducted to improve the enzymatic degradability of sugarcane bagasse. Wet-disk milling (DM) was also performed after HT. Sodium carbonate with 0-6% concentration on dry weight basis of bagasse was used as the alkali catalyst. A content of more than 4% of the alkali catalyst was necessary for producing a higher amount of glucose than that produced after HT without an alkali catalyst. HT with 6% of the alkali catalyst, which decreased the pH to the neutral region, retained more xylan and less lignin than HT without an alkali. Subsequent DM improved the enzymatic degradability further and increased the specific surface area. For a substrate concentration of 10%, the amounts of glucose and xylose produced were 344 and 188 mg/g-bagasse, respectively. These values corresponded to yields of 77% and 67% on the basis of the glucan and xylan contents in raw bagasse, respectively. PMID:22196074

Miura, Toyokazu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Inoue, Seiichi; Endo, Takashi

2012-02-01

97

Removal of phenols from water environment by activated carbon, bagasse ash and wood charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption process is gaining interest as one of the effective processes of advanced wastewater treatment for treatment of industrial effluent containing toxic materials. The present work involves an investigation of the use of three carbonaceous materials, activated carbon (AC), bagasse ash (BA) and wood charcoal (WC), as adsorbents for removal of phenol from water. Batch experiments were carried out to

Somnath Mukherjee; Sunil Kumar; Amal K. Misra; Maohong Fan

2007-01-01

98

Removal of cadmium and nickel from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse fly ash, an industrial solid waste of sugar industry, was used for the removal of cadmium and nickel from wastewater. As much as 90% removal of cadmium and nickel is possible in about 60 and 80min, respectively, under the batch test conditions. Effect of various operating variables, viz., solution pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature, particle size, etc.,

Vinod K. Gupta; C. K. Jain; Imran Ali; M. Sharma; V. K. Saini

2003-01-01

99

Bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bagasse filled recycled polyethylene bio-composites were produced by the compounding and compressive molding method. Two sets of composites were produced using uncarbonized (UBp) and carbonized (CBp) bagasse particles by varying the bagasse particles from 10 to 50 wt%. The surface morphology and the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The results showed that the uniform distribution of the bagasse particles in the microstructure of the polymer composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement of the mechanical properties. The bagasse particles added to the RLDPE polymer improved its rigidity and the hardness values of the composites. The tensile and bending strengths of the composite increased with increasing percentage of the bagasse to a maximum of 20 wt%UBp and 30 wt%CBp. The impact energy and fracture toughness decreases with wt% bagasse particles. The developed composites have the best properties in the ranges of 30 wt% bagasse particle additions and for optimum service condition, carbonized bagasse particles addition should not exceed 30 wt%.

Agunsoye, J. O.; Aigbodion, V. S.

100

Clean energy from sugarcane waste: feasibility study of an innovative application of bagasse and barbojo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the existing difficulty of finding energy sources and reducing pollution, the use of renewable sources and highly efficient technologies for electrical energy production stands out as one of the promising solutions for the future. This paper shows the results of the combination of these two aspects, namely, a molten carbonate fuel cell system fed with biomass derived syngas. In particular, the biogas comes from bagasse and barbojo, the sugarcane residues. So far in developing countries they have been wasted or partly used with poorly efficient technology. The feasibility of such an application is studied by means of the process simulator Aspen Plus © in which a detailed Fortran model has been integrated for the electrochemical reactor simulation. The results of the predictive model are presented and discussed; in particular, the substantial economic and environmental advantages obtainable by applying the technical solution here proposed to the Peruvian energy scenario, are shown.

Dellepiane, Daniela; Bosio, Barbara; Arato, Elisabetta

101

Ethanol production from xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse using low loading of commercial cellulase.  

PubMed

Xylan was always extracted as the feedstock for xylooligosaccharides production. The xylan-removed residue may contain high content of cellulose and thus had a possibility to be converted into ethanol. After soaked in 12% of NaOH at room temperature overnight, solubilization of cellulose, xylan, and lignin was 4.64%, 72.06%, and 81.87% respectively. The xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse (XRSB) was enzymatically hydrolyzed by using decreased cellulase loadings. The results showed that 7.5 FPU/g cellulose could obtain a cellulose conversion yield of 82%. Increasing the cellulase loading did not result in higher yield. Based on this, bioethanol production was performed using 7.5 FPU/g cellulose by employing fed-batch fermentation mode. The final ethanol concentration reached 40.59 g/L corresponding to 74.2% of the theoretical maximum. The high titer ethanol and low cellulase loading may reduce the overall cost. PMID:24841492

Li, Jingbo; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Hongmei; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

2014-07-01

102

A novel anaerobic co-culture system for bio-hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

A novel co-culture of Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense with pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) under mild alkali conditions for bio-hydrogen production was established, exhibiting a cost-effective and synergetic advantage in bio-hydrogen production over monoculture of C. thermocellum or T. aotearoense with untreated SCB. The optimized pretreatment conditions were established to be 3% NaOH, and a liquid to solid ratio of 25:1 at 80°C for 3h. A final hydrogen production of 50.05±1.51 mmol/L was achieved with 40 g/L pretreated SCB at 55°C. The established co-culture system provides a novel consolidated bio-processing strategy for bioconversion of SCB to bio-hydrogen. PMID:23899575

Cheng, Jingrong; Zhu, Mingjun

2013-09-01

103

Innovative pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using supercritical CO2 followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

An innovative method for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using sequential combination of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at mild conditions is proposed. This method was found to be superior to the individual pretreatment with scCO2, ultrasound, or H2O2 and the sequential combination of scCO2 and ultrasound regarding the yield of cellulose and hemicellulose, almost twice the yield was observed. Pretreatment with scCO2 could obtain higher amount of cellulose and hemicellulose but also acid-insoluble lignin. Pretreatment with ultrasound or H2O2 could partly depolymerize lignin, however, could not separate cellulose from lignin. The analysis of liquid products via enzymatic hydrolysis by HPLC and the characterization of the solid residues by SEM revealed strong synergetic effects in the sequential combination of scCO2 and H2O2. PMID:24983689

Phan, Duy The; Tan, Chung-Sung

2014-09-01

104

Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.  

PubMed

In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

2013-02-01

105

Enhanced saccharification of sugarcane bagasse using soluble cellulase supplemented with immobilized ?-glucosidase.  

PubMed

The ?-glucosidase (BG) enzyme plays a vital role in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Supplementation of the hydrolysis reaction medium with BG can reduce inhibitory effects, leading to greater conversion. In addition, the inclusion of immobilized BG can be a useful way of increasing enzyme stability and recyclability. BG was adsorbed on polyacrylic resin activated by carboxyl groups (BG-PC) and covalently attached to glyoxyl-agarose (BG-GA). BG-PC exhibited similar behavior to soluble BG in the hydrolysis of cellobiose, while BG-GA hydrolyzed the same substrate at a lower rate. However, the thermal stability of BG-GA was higher than that of free BG. Hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse catalyzed by soluble cellulase supplemented with immobilized BG improved the conversion by up to 40% after 96 h of reaction. Both derivatives remained stable up to the third cycle and losses of activity were less than 50% after five cycles. PMID:24983691

Borges, Diogo Gontijo; Baraldo, Anderson; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Giordano, Raquel de Lima Camargo; Tardioli, Paulo Waldir

2014-09-01

106

A novel kinetic model for polysaccharide dissolution during atmospheric acetic acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Acetic acid (AcH) pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with the catalysis of sulfuric acid (SA) could greatly enhance the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. However, polysaccharide dissolution happened inevitably during the pretreatment. It was found that the simplest model, which assumes that the total polysaccharides were reactive to be dissolved, could not well describe the kinetic behavior of polysaccharide dissolution. A novel pseudo-homogenous kinetic model was thus developed by introducing a parameter termed as "potential dissolution degree" (?(d)) based on the multilayered structure of cell wall. It was found that solid xylan and glucan dissolutions were a first-order reaction with respect to the dissolvable fraction. Due to the delignification action of AcH, polysaccharide dissolutions were enhanced in AcH media compared with those in aqueous system. Acetylizations of cellulose and sugars were also observed, and AcH concentration showed a significant influence on the degree of acetylization. PMID:24215769

Zhao, Xuebing; Morikawa, Yuichi; Qi, Feng; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Dehua

2014-01-01

107

Effects of different pretreatment methods on chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse and enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Different pretreatment processes, including liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment, and their combinative pretreatments, were conducted to improve the enzymatic digestibility and sugar recovery from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). LHW pretreatment solubilized over 82% of xylan and 42% of lignin, after which the SCB presented the poorest enzymatic digestibility. NaOH pretreatment could remove 78% of lignin and retain most of glucan. For combinative pretreatments, the sequence of two procedures had a significant effect on the chemical composition, substrate characteristic and the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis process. LHW-NaOH pretreatment could solubilize over 92% of xylan and remove 76% of lignin, and the highest total sugar recovery of 73% was achieved after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis. While NaOH-LHW pretreatment, which could remove nearly 84% of lignin, but only solubilize 71% of xylan, showed the highest enzymatic digestibility. The pretreatment efficiency was: NaOH-LHW>NaOH>LHW-NaOH>LHW. PMID:23891836

Gao, Yueshu; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Qiang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Liu, Yunyun

2013-09-01

108

Scale-up of diluted sulfuric acid hydrolysis for producing sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH).  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with diluted sulfuric acid to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH). Experiments were conducted in laboratory and semi-pilot reactors to optimize the xylose recovery and to reduce the generation of sugar degradation products, as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The hydrolysis scale-up procedure was based on the H-Factor, that combines temperature and residence time and employs the Arrhenius equation to model the sulfuric acid concentration (100 mg(acid)/g(dm)) and activation energy (109 kJ/mol). This procedure allowed the mathematical estimation of the results through simulation of the conditions prevailing in the reactors with different designs. The SBHH obtained from different reactors but under the same H-Factor of 5.45+/-0.15 reached similar xylose yield (approximately 74%) and low concentration of sugar degradation products, as furfural (0.082 g/L) and HMF (0.0071 g/L). Also, the highest lignin degradation products (phenolic compounds) were rho-coumarilic acid (0.15 g/L) followed by ferulic acid (0.12 g/L) and gallic acid (0.035 g/L). The highest concentration of ions referred to S (3433.6 mg/L), Fe (554.4 mg/L), K (103.9 mg/L). The H-Factor could be used without dramatically altering the xylose and HMF/furfural levels. Therefore, we could assume that H-Factor was directly useful in the scale-up of the hemicellulosic hydrolysate production. PMID:19846294

Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia L B; Rocha, George J M; Rodrigues, Durval; Filho, Hélcio J I; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Pessoa, Adalberto

2010-02-01

109

Preparation of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by microwave assisted activation for the remediation of semi-aerobic landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the sugarcane bagasse derived activated carbon (SBAC) prepared by microwave heating for the adsorptive removal of ammonical nitrogen and orthophosphate from the semi-aerobic landfill leachate. The physical and chemical properties of SBAC were examined by pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The effects of adsorbent dosage, contact time and solution pH on the adsorption performance were investigated in a batch mode study at 30°C. Equilibrium data were favorably described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for ammonical nitrogen and orthophosphate of 138.46 and 12.81 mg/g, respectively, while the adsorption kinetic was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results illustrated the potential of sugarcane bagasse derived activated carbon for the adsorptive treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate. PMID:23500574

Foo, K Y; Lee, L K; Hameed, B H

2013-04-01

110

Adsorption studies of aqueous Pb(II) onto a sugarcane bagasse/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solution onto a sugarcane bagasse/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite was investigated by using a series of batch adsorption experiments and compared with the metal uptake ability of sugarcane bagasse. The efficiency of the adsorption processes was studied experimentally at various pH values, contact times, adsorbent masses, temperatures and initial Pb2+ concentrations. A pH of 4.5 was found to be the optimum pH to obtain a maximum adsorption percentage in 120 min of equilibration time. The composite showed a much enhanced adsorption capacity for Pb2+ of 56.6 mg g-1 compared with 23.8 mg g-1 for bagasse at 28 °C. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm provided the best fit to the equilibrium adsorption data. The pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Elovich kinetics models were used to analyse the rate of lead adsorption and the results show that the Elovich model is more suitable. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption, namely ?G°, ?H° and ?S°, were determined over the temperature range of 20-45 °C. The adsorption of Pb2+ onto both bagasse and the sugarcane bagasse/MWCNT composite was found to be spontaneous but for the former adsorbent it was enthalpy-driven whereas for the latter it was entropy-driven. Desorption of the lead-loaded adsorbents was fairly efficient with 0.1 mol dm-3 HCl. Overall this composite has the potential to be a good adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ from wastewaters.

Hamza, Izzeldin A. A.; Martincigh, Bice S.; Ngila, J. Catherine; Nyamori, Vincent O.

111

Removal of congo red from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon: Kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present investigation deals with the utilisation of bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as a waste material from bagasse fired boilers) and the use of activated carbons—commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL), as adsorbents for the removal of congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. Batch studies were conducted to evaluate the adsorption capacity of BFA, ACC and ACL and the

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

112

Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.  

PubMed

Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation. PMID:21531547

Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Tong, Z; Castro, E; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

2011-07-01

113

Identification and characterisation of xylanolytic yeasts isolated from decaying wood and sugarcane bagasse in Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, yeasts associated with lignocellulosic materials in Brazil, including decaying wood and sugarcane bagasse, were isolated, and their ability to produce xylanolytic enzymes was investigated. A total of 358 yeast isolates were obtained, with 198 strains isolated from decaying wood and 160 strains isolated from decaying sugarcane bagasse samples. Seventy-five isolates possessed xylanase activity in solid medium and were identified as belonging to nine species: Candida intermedia, C. tropicalis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Scheffersomyces shehatae, Sugiyamaella smithiae, Cryptococcus diffluens, Cr. heveanensis, Cr. laurentii and Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans. Twenty-one isolates were further screened for total xylanase activity in liquid medium with xylan, and five xylanolytic yeasts were selected for further characterization, which included quantitative analysis of growth in xylan and xylose and xylanase and ?-D-xylosidase activities. The yeasts showing the highest growth rate and cell density in xylan, Cr. laurentii UFMG-HB-48, Su. smithiae UFMG-HM-80.1 and Sc. shehatae UFMG-HM-9.1a, were, simultaneously, those exhibiting higher xylanase activity. Xylan induced the highest level of (extracellular) xylanase activity in Cr. laurentii UFMG-HB-48 and the highest level of (intracellular, extracellular and membrane-associated) ?-D-xylosidase activity in Su. smithiae UFMG-HM-80.1. Also, significant ?-D-xylosidase levels were detected in xylan-induced cultures of Cr. laurentii UFMG-HB-48 and Sc. shehatae UFMG-HM-9.1a, mainly in extracellular and intracellular spaces, respectively. Under xylose induction, Cr. laurentii UFMG-HB-48 showed the highest intracellular ?-D-xylosidase activity among all the yeast tested. C. tropicalis UFMG-HB 93a showed its higher (intracellular) ?-D-xylosidase activity under xylose induction and higher at 30 °C than at 50 °C. This study revealed different xylanolytic abilities and strategies in yeasts to metabolise xylan and/or its hydrolysis products (xylo-oligosaccharides and xylose). Xylanolytic yeasts are able to secrete xylanolytic enzymes mainly when induced by xylan and present different strategies (intra- and/or extracellular hydrolysis) for the metabolism of xylo-oligosaccharides. Some of the unique xylanolytic traits identified here should be further explored for their applicability in specific biotechnological processes. PMID:24748334

Lara, Carla A; Santos, Renata O; Cadete, Raquel M; Ferreira, Carla; Marques, Susana; Gírio, Francisco; Oliveira, Evelyn S; Rosa, Carlos A; Fonseca, César

2014-06-01

114

Fixed-Bed Adsorption Study of Metal Ions on Bagasse Fly Ash (BFA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bagasse fly ash (BFA) has become a prospective low cost adsorbent preference for remediating wastewater containing many types of contaminant from organic compounds to toxic metal ions. The abundant availability and its unique characteristics such as large surface area and mesoporous pore size become the major reasons for utilizing BFA as adsorbents. In this paper, the continuous adsorption of Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Ni(II) into fixed bed column of bagasse fly ash (BFA) at room temperature were conducted. The experimental data are represented by breakthrough curves. Fundamental constants which govern the rate of adsorption, such as effective diffusivity of metal ions, have estimated by fitting the data with a breakthrough curve model. The effective diffusivity can be used to predict breakthrough curves in any other adsorption conditions. Meanwhile, the intensive material characterizations have been conducted before the adsorption experiments which successfully reveal the material uniqueness.

Purnomo, Chandra Wahyu; Prasetya, Agus

2008-05-01

115

Removal of lindane and malathion from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bagasse fly ash, obtained from the local sugar industry, has been used as inexpensive and effective adsorbent for the removal of lindane and malathion from wastewater. The optimum contact needed to reach equilibrium was found to be 60min. Maximum removal takes place at pH 6.0. The removal of the pesticides increases with an increase in adsorbent dose and decreases

Vinod K. Gupta; C. K. Jain; Imran Ali; S. Chandra; S. Agarwal

2002-01-01

116

>Removal of Lead from Wastewater Using Bagasse Fly Ash—A Sugar Industry Waste Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent and has been used for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions in the 4.80 Ã 10 to 4.83 Ã 10 M concentration range. Maximum removal takes place at pH 3.0 using lOg of the adsorbent of particle size 150–200 mesh.

Vinod K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan; Saurabh Sharma

1998-01-01

117

Removal of lead and chromium from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive and effective adsorbent was developed from bagasse fly ash, obtained from a sugar industry, for the dynamic uptake of lead and chromium. Lead and chromium are sorbed by the developed adsorbent up to 96–98%. The removal of these two metal ions up to 95–96% was achieved by column experiments at a flow rate of 0.5 mlmin?1. The adsorption was found

V. K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2004-01-01

118

Understanding the cellulolytic system of Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and enhancing saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by supplementation with pectinase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase.  

PubMed

Supplementation of cellulase cocktails with accessory enzymes can contribute to a higher hydrolytic capacity in releasing fermentable sugars from plant biomass. This study investigated which enzymes were complementary to the enzyme set of Trichoderma harzianum in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse. Specific activities of T. harzianum extract on different substrates were compared with the extracts of Penicillium echinulatum and Trichoderma reesei, and two commercial cellulase preparations. Complementary analysis of the secretome of T. harzianum was also used to identify which enzymes were produced during growth on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. These analyses enabled the selection of the enzymes pectinase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) to be further investigated as supplements to the T. harzianum extract. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse saccharification was evaluated using response surface methodology. The supplementation of T. harzianum enzymatic extract with pectinase and AF increased the efficiency of hydrolysis by up to 116%. PMID:23391738

Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Cota, Júnio; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Cairo, João Paulo Lourenço Franco; Lima, Deise Juliana; Squina, Fábio Marcio; Ruller, Roberto; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

2013-03-01

119

Isolation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate-tolerant yeast mutants by continuous selection  

SciTech Connect

Hemicellulose, one of the major constituents of plant cell-wall materials, comprises up to 40% of agricultural residues and hardwoods. Upon hydrolysis, hemicellulose yields a mixture of carbohydrates of which D-xylose is the major component. Hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates can easily be obtained by use of dilute acids under mild hydrolysis conditions. These sugars as well as cellulose-derived carbohydrates, are potential substrates for ethanol production. Often during acid hydrolysis many potentially toxic chemicals are formed which have been found to inhibit yeast growth and ethanol production. It is, therefore, necessary to overcome the inhibitory effect before a fermentation can be implemented. In addition to these fermentation inhibitors, salts formed as a result of neutralization of acid hydrolyzate can also affect the yeasts, thereby decreasing the fermentation rate. Previously, we have shown that ethanol can be produced from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by a xylose-fermentating yeast, Candida species XF217, after the hydrolyzate had been treated with ion-exchange resins. This communication describes the isolation of hydrolyzate-tolerant yeast strains by a continuous adaptation and selection technique and also the growth and fermentative abilities of the strain, P11-20 in neutralized hydrolyzate.

Lodics, T.A.; Gong, C.S.

1984-01-01

120

Sugarcane bagasse for the removal of erythrosin B and methylene blue from aqueous waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present study explores the potentiality of locally available cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin-rich agricultural by-product sugarcane bagasse (SB) for the removal of erythrosin B (EB) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous waste. The SB has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy analytical techniques. Batch experiments have been carried out to determine the influence of parameters like initial dye concentration, pH of the medium, contact time between the adsorbate and adsorbent, weight of adsorbent and system temperature on the removal of EB and MB. Optimum conditions for adsorption are found to be pH 9, temperature 308 K and an equilibration time of 1 h. Under these conditions equilibrium isotherms have been analysed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. Based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, the predicted maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of SB for EB and MB are found to be 500 mg g-1 (at 328 K) and 1,000 mg g-1 (at 308 K), respectively. The separation factor reveals the favourable nature of the isotherm for the studied dyes—SB system. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorptions of dyes are spontaneous and endothermic process. High temperatures favour EB adsorption whereas optimum temperature for MB adsorption is 318 K.

Sharma, Pankaj; Kaur, Harleen

2011-12-01

121

Effect of [Emim]Ac pretreatment on the structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulose.  

PubMed

Effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in terms of the changes in the chemical and physical structure of the preparation. In this case, original cellulose isolated from sugarcane bagasse was subjected to ionic liquid ([Emim]Ac) dissolution at a mild temperature (90 °C) followed by regeneration in water and subsequently hydrolyzed by commercial cellulases. The original and regenerated cellulose were thoroughly characterized by XRD, FT-IR, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, and SEM. It was found that the original cellulose experienced an increase in glucose content from 80.0-83.3% to 91.6-92.8%, a decrease in the degree of polymerization from 974-1039 to 511-521, a crystal transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II, as well as an increase of surface area during the pretreatment. The results suggested that pretreatment led to effective disruption of cellulose for subsequent enzyme hydrolysis as evidenced by a high glucose conversion yield of 95.2%. PMID:24188856

Bian, Jing; Peng, Feng; Peng, Xiao-Peng; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Pai; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2014-01-16

122

A novel surfactant-assisted ionic liquid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

This study investigated a novel pretreatment method, as an essential step, for production of second generation bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Effect of tween 80 (TW) and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) on SCB pretreatment was assessed using 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) as an ionic liquid (IL). Different concentrations of TW and PEG were used to determine the optimum concentration of surfactant for the highest percentage of cellulose conversion. TW and PEG increased lignin removal by 12.5% over the IL-only pretreated sample. The 3% (w/w) PEG showed a significant increase in enzymatic digestibility with an efficiency of 96.2% after 12h of hydrolysis; this was 23% higher than the efficiency of SCB pretreated with IL. The increase in digestibility of surfactant assisted IL pretreatment method can be attributed to the decrease in cellulose crystallinity, changes in the cellulose lattice, and delignification; which was confirmed by FT-IR, XRD and FE-SEM analysis. PMID:25016464

Nasirpour, N; Mousavi, S M; Shojaosadati, S A

2014-10-01

123

Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis and simultaneous remotion of organic inhibitors from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Burkholderia sp.  

PubMed

Burkholderia sp. F24, originally isolated from soil, was capable of growth on xylose and removed organic inhibitors present in a hemicellulosic hydrolysate and simultaneously produced poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB). Using non-detoxified hydrolysate, Burkholderia sp. F24 reached a cell dry weight (CDW) of 6.8 g L(-1), containing 48 % of P3HB and exhibited a volumetric productivity (PP3HB) of 0.10 g L(-1) h(-1). Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers (P3HB-co-3HV) were produced using xylose and levulinic acid (LA) as carbon sources. In shake flask cultures, the 3HV content in the copolymer increased from 9 to 43 mol% by adding LA from 1.0 to 5.0 g L(-1). In high cell density cultivation using concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysate F24 reached 25.04 g L(-1) of CDW containing 49 % of P3HB and PP3HB of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1). Based on these findings, second-generation ethanol and bioplastics from sugarcane bagasse is proposed. PMID:25059637

Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Mendonça, Thatiane Teixeira; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira

2014-09-01

124

Use of immobilized Candida cells on xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

In this study we used the yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 immobilized by entrapment in Ca-alginate beads (2.5-3 mm diameter) for xylitol production from concentrated sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate in a repeated batch system. The fermentation runs were carried out in 125- and 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks placed in an orbital shaker at 30 degrees C and 200 rpm during 72 h, keeping constant the proportion between work volume and flask total volume. According to the results, cell viability was substantially high (98%) in all fermentative cycles. The values of parameters xylitol yield and volumetric productivity increased significantly with the reutilization of the immobilized biocatalysts. The highest values of xylitol final concentration (11.05 g/l), yield factor (0.47 g/g) and volumetric productivity (0.22 g/lh) were obtained in 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 80 ml of medium plus 20 ml of immobilized biocatalysts. The support used in this study (Ca-alginate) presented stability in the experimental conditions used. The results show that the use of immobilized cells is a promising approach for increasing the xylitol production rates. PMID:10817210

de Carvalho, W; da Silva, S S; Vitolo, M; de Mancilha, I M

2000-01-01

125

Effect of pretreatment on saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by complex and simple enzyme mixtures.  

PubMed

Saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated at the pilot-scale with different processes (in combination with steam-explosion) was evaluated. Maximum glucan conversion with Celluclast 1.5L (15-25FPU/g glucan) was in the following order: glycerol/HCl>HCl>H2SO4>NaOH, with the glycerol system achieving ? 100% conversion. Surprisingly, the NaOH substrate achieved optimum saccharification with only 8 FPU/g glucan. Glucan conversions (3.6-6%) obtained with mixtures of endo-1,4-?-glucanase (EG) and ?-glucosidase (?G) for the NaOH substrate were 2-6 times that of acid substrates. However, glucan conversions (15-60%) obtained with mixtures of cellobiohydrolase (CBH I) and ?G on acidified glycerol substrate were 10-30% higher than those obtained for NaOH and acid substrates. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic saccharification was explained by their physical and chemical attributes. Acidified glycerol pretreatment offers the opportunity to simplify the complexity of enzyme mixtures required for saccharification of lignocellulosics. PMID:24045198

Harrison, Mark D; Zhang, Zhanying; Shand, Kylie; O'Hara, Ian M; Doherty, William O S; Dale, James L

2013-11-01

126

Adsorption studies of etherdiamine onto modified sugarcane bagasses in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

In this study sugarcane bagasse was modified with succinic anhydride and EDTA dianhydride to obtain SCB 2 and EB adsorbents, respectively. These adsorbents were used to remove etherdiamine, which is used for iron ore flotation from single aqueous solutions. The removal and recovery of etherdiamine is important for environmental and economic reasons due to its toxicity and high cost. The results demonstrated that adsorption of etherdiamine by SCB 2 and EB was better fitted by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model than pseudo-first-order and Elovich models. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted by the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich, Sips, and Temkin models. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) of SCB 2 and EB for etherdiamine adsorption were found to be 869.6 and 1203.5 mg/g, respectively. The calculated ?G° values for adsorption of etherdiamine on SCB 2 (-22.70 kJ/mol) and EB (-19.10 kJ/mol) suggested that chemisorption is the main mechanism by which etherdiamine is removed from the aqueous solution for both adsorbents. The high Qmax values showed that SCB 2 and EB are potential adsorbents for recovering the etherdiamine and treating effluents produced from iron ore flotation. PMID:24412982

Gusmão, Karla Aparecida Guimarães; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Melo, Tânia Márcia Sacramento; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

2014-01-15

127

Synergism of cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase on hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse resulting from different pretreatment technologies.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) resulting from different pretreatments was hydrolyzed by enzyme cocktails based on replacement of cellulase (Celluclast 1.5 L:Novozym 188=1FPU:4pNPGU) by xylanase or pectinase at different proportions. Lignin content of NaOH pretreated SCB and hemicellulose content of H2SO4 pretreated SCB were the lowest. NaOH pretreatment showed the best for monosaccharide production among the four pretreatments. Synergism was apparently observed between cellulase and xylanase for monosaccharide production from steam exploded SCB (SESB), NaOH, and H2O2 pretreated SCB. No synergism was observed between cellulase and pectinase for producing glucose. Additionally, no synergism was present when H2SO4 pretreated SCB was used. Replacement of 20% of the cellulase by xylanase enhanced the glucose yield by 6.6%, 8.8%, and 9.5% from SESB, NaOH, and H2O2 pretreated SCB, respectively. Degree of synergism between cellulase and xylanase had positive relationship with xylan content and was affected by hydrolysis time. PMID:24457310

Li, Jingbo; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Hongmei; Xiong, Chunjiang; Lin, Jianghai; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Liu, Zehuan

2014-03-01

128

Studies on the effect of particle size on solid-state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse into animal feed using white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse, a complex substrate, when differentiated into four fractions of particle sizes (<1 mm, 1–3 mm, 3–5 mm, 5–10 mm) with a view to enhancing its nutritive value as animal feed rather than production of fungal protein for human consumption, showed a varying pattern of degradation by white-rot fungi and varying in vitro rumen digestions. The fractions of bagasse

Frantisek Zadrazil; Anil Kumar Puniya

1995-01-01

129

Ethanol production by continuous fermentation of D-(+)-cellobiose, D-(+)-xylose and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using the thermoanaerobe Caloramator boliviensis.  

PubMed

The recently isolated anaerobic bacterium Caloramator boliviensis with an optimum growth temperature of 60 °C can efficiently convert hexoses and pentoses into ethanol. When fermentations of pure sugars and a pentose-rich sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate were carried out in a packed bed reactor with immobilized cells of C. boliviensis, more than 98% of substrates were converted. Ethanol yields of 0.40-0.46 g/g of sugar were obtained when sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was fermented. These features reveal interesting properties of C. boliviensis in producing ethanol from a renewable feedstock. PMID:22055102

Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Alvarez, Maria T; Mattiasson, Bo

2012-01-01

130

Effect of reduced sulfur compounds on the fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The addition of reduced sulfur compounds (thiosulfate, cysteine, sodium hydrosulfite, and sodium metabisulfite) increased growth and fermentation of dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli (strains LY180, EMFR9, and MM160). With sodium metabisulfite (0.5mM), toxicity was sufficiently reduced that slurries of pretreated biomass (10% dry weight including fiber and solubles) could be fermented by E. coli strain MM160 without solid-liquid separation or cleanup of sugars. A 6-h liquefaction step was added to improve mixing. Sodium metabisulfite also caused spectral changes at wavelengths corresponding to furfural and soluble products from lignin. Glucose and cellobiose were rapidly metabolized. Xylose utilization was improved by sodium metabisulfite but remained incomplete after 144 h. The overall ethanol yield for this liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process was 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight, 250 L/tonne (61 gal/US ton). PMID:21353535

Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Miller, E N; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Fu, Z; Tong, Z; Ingram, L O

2011-04-01

131

Seed train development for the fermentation of bagasse from sweet sorghum and sugarcane using a simplified fermentation process.  

PubMed

A process was developed for seed culture expansion (3.6 million-fold) using 5% of the hemicellulose hydrolysate from dilute acid pretreatment as the sole organic nutrient and source of sugar. Hydrolysate used for seed growth was neutralized with ammonia and combined with 1.0mM sodium metabisulfite immediately before inoculation. This seed protocol was tested with phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane and sweet sorghum bagasse using a simplified process with co-fermentation of fiber, pentoses, and hexoses in a single vessel (SScF). A 6h liquefaction (L) step improved mixing prior to inoculation. Fermentations (L+SScF process) were completed in 72 h with high yields (>80 gal/US ton). Ethanol titers for this L+SScF process ranged from 24 g/L to 32 g/L, and were limited by the bagasse concentration (10% dry matter). PMID:23375156

Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Nieves, I U; Hoffman, R W; Sagues, W J; York, S W; Shanmugam, K T; Erickson, J E; Vermerris, W E; Ingram, L O

2013-01-01

132

Use of bagasse fly ash as an adsorbent for the removal of brilliant green dye from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the adsorption of brilliant green (BG) on carbon rich bagasse fly ash (BFA). BFA is a solid waste obtained from the particulate collection equipment attached to the flue gas line of the bagasse-fired boilers of cane sugar mills. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like initial pH (pH0), contact

Venkat S. Mane; Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava

2007-01-01

133

Synthesis of Silica Aerogel from Bagasse Ash by Ambient Pressure Drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica aerogels having very high surface area and pore volume have been succesfully synthesized from bagasse ash by ambient pressure drying (APD) method. Silica in bagasse ash was extracted by alkali extraction to produce sodium silicate solution. This is done by boiling bagasse ash in 2 N NaOH solution under continuous stirring for 1 h. To avoid the collapse of gel structure during drying at ambient pressure condition, the silica surface was modified with alkyl functional groups by a single step sol-gel process. Silicic acid produced by exchanging Na+ ions in dilute sodium silicate solution with H+ ions from cation resin was added with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and let the reaction of TMCS with water pore proceeds for several minutes to produce hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and HCl. Then, HMDS was added to allow the modification of silica surface in which the silanol groups were exchanged with alkyl groups originating from HMDS. The solution pH was then adjusted to 8-9 by adding NH4OH solution to induce gel formation. The hydrogel was aged at 40 °C for 18 h and at 60 °C for 1 h. Then, it was dried at 80 °C at ambient pressure condition. The silica aerogels obtained have specific surface, as measured by BET method, ranging from 450.2 to 1360.4 m2/g depending on the synthesis condition. The pore volume was ranging from 0.7 to 1.9 cm3/g. It seems that silica aerogels with very high surface area and pore volume can be obtained if the silanols group in the silica surface was exchanged succesfully with alkyl groups from HMDS.

Setyawan, Nazriati Heru; Winardi, Sugeng

2011-12-01

134

Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from a moderate halophile strain of Aspergillus caesiellus isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation.  

PubMed

A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Balcázar-López, Edgar; Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

2014-01-01

135

Microbial production of xylitol from D-xylose and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose using newly isolated thermotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii.  

PubMed

A thermotolerant yeast capable of fermenting xylose to xylitol at 40°C was isolated and identified as a strain of Debaryomyces hansenii by ITS sequencing. This paper reports the production of xylitol from D-xylose and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose by free and Ca-alginate immobilized cells of D. hansenii. The efficiency of free and immobilized cells were compared for xylitol production from D-xylose and hemicellulose in batch culture at 40°C. The maximum xylitol produced by free cells was 68.6 g/L from 100 g/L of xylose, with a yield of 0.76 g/g and volumetric productivity 0.44 g/L/h. The yield of xylitol and volumetric productivity were 0.69 g/g and 0.28 g/L/h respectively from hemicellulosic hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse after detoxification with activated charcoal and ion exchange resins. The Ca-alginate immobilized D. hansenii cells produced 73.8 g of xylitol from 100 g/L of xylose with a yield of 0.82 g/g and volumetric productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and were reused for five batches with steady bioconversion rates and yields. PMID:21067918

Prakash, Gyan; Varma, A J; Prabhune, Asmita; Shouche, Yogesh; Rao, Mala

2011-02-01

136

Removal of DDD and DDE from wastewater using bagasse fly ash, a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste from the sugar industry, was converted into an effective adsorbent and was used for the removal of DDD [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] and DDE [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] pesticides from wastewater. The DDD and DDE are removed by the developed adsorbent up to 93% at pH 7.0, with the adsorbent dose of 5 g\\/l of particle size 200–250 ?m at 30°C. The removal of

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2001-01-01

137

The acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose to produce xylose, arabinose, glucose and other products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental trials of the dilute acid hydrolysis of bagasse hemicellulose to produce xylose, arabinose, glucose, acid-soluble lignin (ASL) and furfural were conducted using a temperature-controlled digester. The reaction conditions varied were; temperature (80–200°C), mass ratio of solid to liquid (1:5–1:20), type of bagasse material (i.e. bagasse or bagacillo), concentration of acid (0.25–8wt% of liquid), type of acid (hydrochloric or sulphuric)

B. P. Lavarack; G. J. Griffin; D. Rodman

2002-01-01

138

Characterization of commercial cellulases and their use in the saccharification of a sugarcane bagasse sample pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

This study aimed to correlate the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose contained in a sugarcane bagasse sample pretreated with dilute H(2)SO(4) with the levels of independent variables such as initial content of solids and loadings of enzymes and surfactant (Tween 20), for two cellulolytic commercial preparations. The preparations, designated cellulase I and cellulase II, were characterized regarding the activities of total cellulases, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, cellobiase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase, and phenoloxidases (laccase, manganese and lignin peroxidases), as well as protein contents. Both extracts showed complete cellulolytic complexes and considerable activities of xylanases, without activities of phenoloxidases. For the enzymatic hydrolyses, two 2(3) central composite full factorial designs were employed to evaluate the effects caused by the initial content of solids (1.19-4.81%, w/w) and loadings of enzymes (1.9-38.1 FPU/g bagasse) and Tween 20 (0.0-0.1 g/g bagasse) on the cellulose digestibility. Within 24 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, all three independent variables influenced the conversion of cellulose by cellulase I. Using cellulase II, only enzyme and surfactant loadings showed significant effects on cellulose conversion. An additional experiment demonstrated the possibility of increasing the initial content of solids to values much higher than 4.81% (w/w) without compromising the efficiency of cellulose conversion, consequently improving the glucose concentration in the hydrolysate. PMID:20953894

Santos, Victor T O; Esteves, Paula J; Milagres, Adriane M F; Carvalho, Walter

2011-08-01

139

7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a...interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and related sugarcane products have been...

2013-01-01

140

7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a...interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and related sugarcane products have been...

2011-01-01

141

7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a...interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and related sugarcane products have been...

2012-01-01

142

7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...  

...interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a...interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and related sugarcane products have been...

2014-01-01

143

7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions...entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and related...

2010-01-01

144

Effect of chemical factors on integrated fungal fermentation of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production by a white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production through integrated fungal fermentation (IFF), involving a unified process for biological delignification with consolidated biological processing by the white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60, was applied to sugarcane bagasse. Initial moisture content of the bagasse was found to affect biological delignification by MG-60, and 75% moisture content was suitable for selective lignin degradation and subsequent ethanol production. Additives, such as basal media, organic compounds, or minerals, also affected biological delignification of bagasse by MG-60. Basal medium addition improved both delignification and ethanol production. Some inorganic chemical factors, such as Fe(2+), Mn(2+), or Cu(2+), reduced bagasse carbohydrate degradation by MG-60 during delignifying incubations and resulted in increased ethanol production. The present results indicated that suitable culture conditions could significantly improve IFF efficiency. PMID:24968109

Khuong, Le Duy; Kondo, Ryuichiro; De Leon, Rizalinda; Anh, To Kim; Meguro, Sadatoshi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kamei, Ichiro

2014-09-01

145

Removal of chromium(VI) from electroplating industry wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste product generated in the sugar industry in India has been converted into a cheap potential adsorbent. This has been characterised and utilized for the removal of chromium (VI) from synthetic and actual wastewater. The sorption efficiency decreases with increase in pH. Adsorption of Cr (VI) on bagasse fly ash follows the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and these have

Vinod K. Gupta; Dinesh Mohan; Saurabh Sharma; Kuk T. Park

1998-01-01

146

Utilisation of bagasse fly ash (a sugar industry waste) for the removal of copper and zinc from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste produced in sugar industries, has been converted into an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. The product was characterised by different chemical and physical methods and has been used for the removal of copper and zinc from wastewater. Various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal ions concentrations, temperature, particle size, etc. were optimised. Copper and

Vinod K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2000-01-01

147

Adsorption thermodynamics and isosteric heat of adsorption of toxic metal ions onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) and rice husk ash (RHA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium sorption characteristics of cadmium (Cd(II)), nickel (Ni(II)) and zinc (Zn(II)) metal ions from aqueous solutions having respective metal ion concentrations in the range of 50–500mmol\\/dm3 for two low-cost adsorbents, viz. bagasse fly ash (BFA) and rice husk ash (RHA), were studied at different temperatures in the range of 293–323K. An increase in temperature is found to induce a

Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Indra Deo Mall; Indra Mani Mishra

2007-01-01

148

Unraveling the structure of sugarcane bagasse after soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia (SCAA) and ethanol production by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis  

PubMed Central

Background Fuel ethanol production from sustainable and largely abundant agro-residues such as sugarcane bagasse (SB) provides long term, geopolitical and strategic benefits. Pretreatment of SB is an inevitable process for improved saccharification of cell wall carbohydrates. Recently, ammonium hydroxide-based pretreatment technologies have gained significance as an effective and economical pretreatment strategy. We hypothesized that soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia-mediated thermochemical pretreatment (SCAA) would overcome the native recalcitrance of SB by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded holocellulosic microfibrils. Results In this study, we designed an experiment considering response surface methodology (Taguchi method, L8 orthogonal array) to optimize sugar recovery from ammonia pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SB) by using the method of soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia (SCAA-SB). Three independent variables: ammonia concentration, temperature and time, were selected at two levels with center point. The ammonia pretreated bagasse (SCAA-SB) was enzymatically hydrolysed by commercial enzymes (Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188) using 15 FPU/g dry biomass and 17.5 Units of ?-glucosidase/g dry biomass at 50°C, 150 rpm for 96 h. A maximum of 28.43 g/l reducing sugars corresponding to 0.57 g sugars/g pretreated bagasse was obtained from the SCAA-SB derived using a 20% v/v ammonia solution, at 70°C for 24 h after enzymatic hydrolysis. Among the tested parameters, pretreatment time showed the maximum influence (p value, 0.053282) while ammonia concentration showed the least influence (p value, 0.612552) on sugar recovery. The changes in the ultra-structure and crystallinity of native SCAA-SB and enzymatically hydrolysed SB were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The enzymatic hydrolysates and solid SCAA-SB were subjected to ethanol fermentation under separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 respectively. Higher ethanol production (10.31 g/l and yield, 0.387 g/g) was obtained through SSF than SHF (3.83 g/l and yield, 0.289 g/g). Conclusions SCAA treatment showed marked lignin removal from SB thus improving the accessibility of cellulases towards holocellulose substrate as evidenced by efficient sugar release. The ultrastructure of SB after SCAA and enzymatic hydrolysis of holocellulose provided insights of the degradation process at the molecular level. PMID:23856012

2013-01-01

149

Experimental study and neural network modeling of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with H2SO4 and O3 for cellulosic material conversion to sugar.  

PubMed

In this study, pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis is investigated using two categories of pretreatment methods: dilute acid (DA) pretreatment and combined DA-ozonolysis (DAO) method. Both methods are accomplished at different solid ratios, sulfuric acid concentrations, autoclave residence times, bagasse moisture content, and ozonolysis time. The results show that the DAO pretreatment can significantly increase the production of glucose compared to DA method. Applying k-fold cross validation method, two optimal artificial neural networks (ANNs) are trained for estimations of glucose concentrations for DA and DAO pretreatment methods. Comparing the modeling results with experimental data indicates that the proposed ANNs have good estimation abilities. PMID:24035818

Gitifar, Vahid; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Sarshar, Mohammad

2013-11-01

150

Production of bioethanol, methane and heat from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept.  

PubMed

The potential of biogas production from the residues of second generation bioethanol production was investigated taking into consideration two types of pretreatment: lime or alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Bagasse was pretreated, enzymatically hydrolyzed and the wastes from pretreatment and hydrolysis were used to produce biogas. Results have shown that if pretreatment is carried out at a bagasse concentration of 4% DM, the highest global methane production is obtained with the peroxide pretreatment: 72.1 Lmethane/kgbagasse. The recovery of lignin from the peroxide pretreatment liquor was also the highest, 112.7 ± 0.01 g/kg of bagasse. Evaluation of four different biofuel production scenarios has shown that 63-65% of the energy that would be produced by bagasse incineration can be recovered by combining ethanol production with the combustion of lignin and hydrolysis residues, along with the anaerobic digestion of pretreatment liquors, while only 32-33% of the energy is recovered by bioethanol production alone. PMID:21689929

Rabelo, S C; Carrere, H; Maciel Filho, R; Costa, A C

2011-09-01

151

Direct Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Sugars and Sugarcane Bagasse by a Recombinant Trichoderma reesei Strain HJ48  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:24995362

Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

2014-01-01

152

Optimization of acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and investigations on its fermentability for the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii.  

PubMed

The dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was optimized using a statistical experimental design resulting in hydrolysates containing 57.25 g/L of xylose, which were fermented with a high inoculum concentration (10 g/L of the yeast Candida guilliermondii IM/UFRJ 50088). The addition of urea reduced the time of conversion (tC) to 75 h (without nitrogen source addition tC > 127 h), and, consequently, improving the rates of xylitol bioproduction. Fermentator experiments, using the optimized conditions, resulted in enhanced conversion rates, reducing tC to 30 h. The stability of the yeast in the hydrolysate was also verified in a 480-h cultivation. PMID:15920277

Fogel, Rafael; Garcia, Rafaela Rodrigues; da Silva Oliveira, Rebeca; Palacio, Denise Neves Menchero; da Silva Madeira, Luciana; Pereira, Nei

2005-01-01

153

Effect of the oxygen transfer coefficient on xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by continuous stirred-tank reactor fermentation.  

PubMed

The effect of the oxygen transfer coefficient on the production of xylitol by bioconversion of xylose present in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate using the yeast Candida guilliermondii was investigated. Continuous cultivation was carried out in a 1.25-L fermentor at 30 degrees C, pH 5.5, 300 rpm, and a dilution rate of 0.03/h, using oxygen transfer coefficients of 10, 20, and 30/h. The results showed that the microbial xylitol production (11 g/L) increased by 108% with the decrease in the oxygen volumetric transfer coefficient from 30 to 20/h. The maximum values of xylitol productivity (0.7 g/[L.h]) and yield (0.58 g/g) were obtained akLa 20/h. PMID:10849823

Martínez, E A; Silva, S S; Felipe, M G

2000-01-01

154

Removal of lead from wastewater using bagasse fly ash -- a sugar industry waste material  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into a low cost adsorbent and has been used for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions in the 4.80 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 4.83 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M concentration range. Maximum removal takes place at pH 3.0 using 10 g/L of the adsorbent of particle size 150--200 mesh. The effect of the presence of other metal ions, temperature, and contact time has also been studied. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The adsorbent has been satisfactorily used for the removal of Pb{sup 2+} from the effluent of a metal-finishing plant.

Gupta, V.K.; Mohan, D.; Sharma, S. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-06-01

155

Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The structure of lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment process of sugarcane bagasse in a pilot scale and the effect of the lignin extracted by ethanol on subsequent cellulose hydrolysis were investigated. The lignin structural changes caused by pretreatment were identified using advanced nondestructive techniques such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC), quantitative (13)C, and 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structural analysis revealed that ethanol extractable lignin preserved basic lignin structure, but had relatively lower amount of ?-O-4 linkages, syringyl/guaiacyl units ratio (S/G), p-coumarate/ferulate ratio, and other ending structures. The results also indicated that approximately 8% of mass weight was extracted by pure ethanol. The bagasse after ethanol extraction had an approximate 22% higher glucose yield after enzyme hydrolysis compared to pretreated bagasse without extraction. PMID:24412855

Zeng, Jijiao; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Letian; Zhu, J Y; Ingram, Lonnie

2014-02-01

156

Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

2010-09-01

157

Enzymic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by autohydrolysis-steam explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of bagasse by autohydrolysis at 200 degrees C for 4 min and explosive defibration resulted in the solubilization of 90% of the hemicellulose (a heteroxylan) and in the production of a pulp that was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei C-30 and QM 9414, and by a commercial preparation, Meicelase. Saccharification yields of 50% resulted after

R. F. H. Dekker; A. F. A. Wallis

1983-01-01

158

PURIFICATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE HYDROLYSATES USING ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ION-EXCHANGE RESINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the bagasse hydrolysis was done in a 100 L batch digester constructed of stainless steel, by treatment with sulphuric acid diluted under moderate temperature and pressure so that the hemicellulose present in the material vegetable is solubilized to obtain a hydrolizate rich in xylose and with small quantities of glucose and arabinose. Along with the sugar

Nápoles Solenzal; Ortiz Aroche; Viñals Verde; Manganelly Santana; E. Acosta Martínez

159

Studies of the Brazilian sugarcane bagasse carbonisation process and products properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale experiments in an enlarged scale thermoreactor have demonstrated that the pyrolysis of the bagasse bulk in a mechanically loosened layer yields 23–28% charcoal measured on an oven dry basis. The charcoal is appropriate for the production of fuel briquettes and granules for household and industry uses. To implement an energy self-sufficient production process, yields of condensable matter and gas

J. Zandersons; J. Gravitis; A. Kokorevics; A. Zhurinsh; O. Bikovens; A. Tardenaka; B. Spince

1999-01-01

160

Synergistic effect of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei enzyme sets on the saccharification of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Plant-degrading enzymes can be produced by fungi on abundantly available low-cost plant biomass. However, enzymes sets after growth on complex substrates need to be better understood, especially with emphasis on differences between fungal species and the influence of inhibitory compounds in plant substrates, such as monosaccharides. In this study, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were evaluated for the production of enzyme sets after growth on two "second generation" substrates: wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). A. niger and T. reesei produced different sets of (hemi-)cellulolytic enzymes after growth on WS and SCB. This was reflected in an overall strong synergistic effect in releasing sugars during saccharification using A. niger and T. reesei enzyme sets. T. reesei produced less hydrolytic enzymes after growth on non-washed SCB. The sensitivity to non-washed plant substrates was not reduced by using CreA/Cre1 mutants of T. reesei and A. niger with a defective carbon catabolite repression. The importance of removing monosaccharides for producing enzymes was further underlined by the decrease in hydrolytic activities with increased glucose concentrations in WS media. This study showed the importance of removing monosaccharides from the enzyme production media and combining T. reesei and A. niger enzyme sets to improve plant biomass saccharification. PMID:25116172

van den Brink, Joost; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Zou, Gen; Wang, Chengshu; Zhou, Zhihua; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze; de Vries, Ronald P

2014-10-01

161

Competitive adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ on magnetic modified sugarcane bagasse prepared by two simple steps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic modified sugarcane bagasse with high adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption rate was prepared by two simple steps. Experimental results showed that the adsorption capacities of the magnetic sorbent for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 1.2 and 1.1 mmol g-1, respectively. Pseudo-second-order and pseudo-first-order kinetic model both could predict the adsorption and desorption kinetic process occurred on the modified sorbent. EDX analysis showed that Pb2+ and Cd2+ were adsorbed on the sorbent mainly through ion exchange. Competitive adsorption results showed that the presence of Pb2+ exerted a great inhibitory effect on Cd2+ adsorption, and the inhibitory effect increased with the increase of the initial concentration ratio of Pb2+ and Cd2+ (C0Pb: C0Cd). Pb2+ could be selectively adsorbed by the magnetic sorbent when the values of C0Pb: C0Cd was higher than or equal to 4:1. It was also found that Langmuir competitive model was suitable to predict the sorption isotherm in the binary system. The as prepared magnetic sorbent had a potential in heavy metal wastewater treatment.

Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

2013-03-01

162

Production of bioethanol from fermented sugars of sugarcane bagasse produced by lignocellulolytic enzymes of Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1.  

PubMed

Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1 was isolated from the soil sample and characterized for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Production of these enzymes by the strain VSG-1 was carried out using steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and found to secrete cellulase, pectinase, mannanase, xylanase, and tannase. The growth and enzyme production were found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Upon steam explosion of SCB, the cellulose increased by 42 %, whereas hemicelluloses and lignin decreased by 40 and 62 %, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded SCB yielded 640 g/l of total sugars. Fermentation of sugars produced from pretreated SCB was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The alcohol produced was calculated and found to be 62.24 g/l corresponding to 78 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol. Hence, the strain VSG-1 has an industrial importance for the production of fermentable sugars for biofuels. PMID:23832861

Vijayalaxmi, S; Anu Appaiah, K A; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

2013-09-01

163

Simultaneous production of cellulase and reducing sugar through modification of compositional and structural characteristic of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential of untreated and alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) in cellulase, reducing sugar (RS) and fungal biomass production via solid state fermentation (SSF) using Pycnoporus sanguineus. The impact of the composition, structure and cellulase adsorption ability of SCB on the production of cellulase, RS and fungal biomass was investigated. From the morphological and compositional analyses, untreated SCB has relatively more structural changes with a higher percentage of depolymerisation on the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content compared to alkali-pretreated SCB. Thus, untreated SCB favoured the production of cellulase and fungal biomass whereas alkali-pretreated SCB yielded a higher amount of RS. The composition and morphology of untreated SCB did not encourage RS production and this suggested that RS produced during SSF might be consumed in a faster rate by the more abundantly grown fungus. Besides that, alkali-pretreated SCB with higher cellulase adsorption ability could have adsorbed the cellulase produced and resulted in a lower cellulase titre. In short, the production of specific bioproducts via SSF is dependent on the structure and composition of the substrate applied. PMID:23931690

Yoon, Li Wan; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Chua, Adeline Seak May

2013-09-10

164

Desorption and photodegradation of methylene blue from modified sugarcane bagasse surface by acid TiO2 hydrosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was modified by pyromellitic dianhydride to improve its adsorption capacity for cationic dyes. Results showed that the adsorption capacity of the modified SCB for methylene blue was 564 mg g-1, which was about 12 times than that obtained on the unmodified SCB. Methylene blue loaded modified SCB was regenerated by a self-clean eluent: TiO2 hydrosol with pH ranged from 1 to 4, and HNO3 solution with the same pH range was tested at the same time for comparison. Results showed that desorption kinetics of methylene blue in the hydrosol systems fit two-step kinetic model and controlled mainly by the slow step. As a self-clean eluent, acid hydrosol could firstly desorb and then photodegrade methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. After five desorption-photodegradation cycles, 78.3% of the absorbed dyes could be desorbed by using hydrosol (pH 2) as eluent. The hydrosol could be continuously used in desorption and photodegradation process, which would economize large volume of the eluent and moreover it would not bring secondary pollution.

Yu, Jun-Xia; Chi, Ru-An; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Xiao, Chun-Qiao

2012-02-01

165

High-value zeolitic material from bagasse fly ash: utilization for dye elimination.  

PubMed

Bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, was used to prepare zeolitic material (ZFA) by means of alkaline hydrothermal treatment. ZFA showed improved morphology as a result of this treatment. The adsorption of the reactive dyes turquoise blue (TB) and brilliant magenta (BM), on both BFA and ZFA, was investigated in a batch contact system. A series of batch experiments revealed that optimal dye removal occurs at a 200 mg/L to 300 mg/L solute concentration, 60 minutes of agitation time, 5 g/L to 10 g/L adsorbent dose, a pH level of 2 to 4, and a temperature of 298 K. ZFA showed enhanced adsorption capacity as compared to BFA. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity was 12.66 mg/g and 45.45 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on BFA; and 21.74 mg/g and 100.00 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on ZFA. Kinetic studies showed that the correlation coefficients best fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, confirming that the adsorption rate was controlled by a hemisorptions process. PMID:23833819

Shah, Bhavna A; Shah, Ajay V; Patel, Harendra D; Mistry, Chirag B

2013-06-01

166

Enzymic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by autohydrolysis-steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of bagasse by autohydrolysis at 200 degrees C for 4 min and explosive defibration resulted in the solubilization of 90% of the hemicellulose (a heteroxylan) and in the production of a pulp that was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei C-30 and QM 9414, and by a commercial preparation, Meicelase. Saccharification yields of 50% resulted after 24 h at 50 degrees C (pH 5.0) in enzymic digests containing 10% (w/v) bagasse pulps and 20 filter paper cellulase units (FPU). Saccharifications could be increased to more than 80% at 24 h by the addition of exogeneous ..beta..-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. The crystallinity of cellulose in bagasse remained unchanged following autohydrolysis-explosion and did not appear to hinder the rate or extent of hydrolysis of cellulose. Autohydrolysis-exploded pulps extracted with alkali or ethanol to remove lignin resulted in lower conversions of cellulose (28-36% after 25 h) than unextracted pulps. Alkali extracted pulps arising from autohydrolysis times of more than 10 min at 200 degrees C were less susceptible to enzymic hydrolysis than unextracted pulps and alkali-extracted pulps arising from short autohydrolysis times (e.g., 2 min at 200 degrees C). Autohydrolysis-explosion was as effective a pretreatment method as 0.25M NaOH (70 degrees C/2 h); both yielded pulps that resulted in high cellulose conversions with T. reesei cellulase preparations and Meicelase. Supplementation of T. reesei C-30 cellulase preparations with A. niger ..beta..-glucosidases was effective in promoting the conversion of cellulose into glucose. A ratio of FPU to ..beta..-glucosidase of 1:1.25 was the minimum requirement to achieve more than 80% conversion of cellulose into glucose within 24 h. Other factors which influenced the extent of saccharification were the enzyme-substrate ratio, the substrate concentration, and the saccharification mode. (Refs. 30).

Dekker, R.F.H.; Wallis, A.F.A.

1983-12-01

167

Adsorption of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solution by Bagasse Fly Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the studies on the benzoic acid (BA) onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) was studied in aqueous solution in a batch system. Physico-chemical properties including surface area, surface texture of the GAC before and after BA adsorption onto BFA were analysed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The optimum initial pH for the adsorption of BA was found to be 5.56. The adsorbent dose was 10 g/l for BFA and the equilibrium time 8 h of reaction. Pseudo first and second order models were used to find the adsorption kinetics. It was found that intraparticle diffusion played important role in the adsorption mechanisms of BA and the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second order kinetic model rather than the pseudo first order kinetic model. Isotherm data were generated for BA solution having initial concentrations of BA in the range of 10-200 mg/l for the BFA dosage of 10 g/l at temperatures of 288, 303, and 318 K. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was favorably influenced by an increase in temperature. Equilibrium data were well represented by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model. Values of the change in entropy ( ?S 0), heat of adsorption ( ?H 0) for adsorption of BA on BFA was found to be 120.10 and 19.61 kJ/mol respectively. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was an endothermic reaction. Desorption of BA from BFA was studied by various solvents method. Acetic acid was found to be a better eluant for desorption of BA with a maximum desorption efficiency of 55.2 %. Owing to its heating value, spent BFA can be used as a co-fuel for the production of heat in boiler furnaces.

Suresh, S.

2012-09-01

168

Removal of arsenic species from water by batch and column operations on bagasse fly ash.  

PubMed

Bagasse fly ash (BFA, a sugar industrial waste) was used as low-cost adsorbent for the uptake of arsenate and arsenite species from water. The optimum conditions for the removal of both species of arsenic were as follows: pH 7.0, concentration 50.0 ?g/L, contact time 50.0 min, adsorbent dose 3.0 g/L, and temperature 20.0 °C, with 95.0 and 89.5 % removal of arsenate and arsenite, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms were used to analyze the results. The results of these models indicated single-layer uniform adsorption on heterogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., ?G°, ?H°, and ?S°, were also calculated. At 20.0 to 30.0 °C, the values of ?G° lie in the range of -4,722.75 to -4,878.82 and -4,308.80 to -4,451.73 while the values of ?H° and ?S° were -149.90 and -121.07, and 15.61 and 14.29 for arsenate and arsenite, respectively, indicating that adsorption is spontaneous and exothermic. Pseudo-first-order kinetics was followed. In column experiments, the adsorption decreased as the flow rate increased with the maximum removal of 98.9 and 95.6 % for arsenate and arsenite, respectively. The bed depth service time and Yoon and Nelson models were used to analyze the experimental data. The adsorption capacity (N o) of BFA on column was 3.65 and 2.98 mg/cm(3) for arsenate and arsenite, respectively. The developed system for the removal of arsenate and arsenite species is economic, rapid, and capable of working under natural conditions. It may be used for the removal of arsenic species from any contaminated water resources. PMID:24203255

Ali, Imran; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman; Asim, Mohd; Khan, Tabrez A

2014-03-01

169

Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of malachite green (MG) was studied using three adsorbents namely, bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, and activated carbons commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial MG concentration on the removal of MG. The initial pH

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

170

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests.

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Mello, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

171

The use of seaweed and sugarcane bagasse for the biological treatment of metal-contaminated waters under sulfate-reducing conditions.  

PubMed

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests. PMID:18401756

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Oliveira Mello, Luiz Antonio; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

2008-03-01

172

Use of cellobiohydrolase-free cellulase blends for the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and sugarcane bagasse pretreated by either ball milling or ionic liquid [Emim][Ac].  

PubMed

This study investigated the requirement of cellobiohydrolases (CBH) for saccharification of microcrystalline cellulose and sugarcane bagasse pretreated either by ball milling (BM) or by ionic liquid (IL) [Emim][Ac]. Hydrolysis was done using CBH-free blends of Pyrococcus horikoshii endoglucanase (EG) plus Pyrococcus furiosus ?-glucosidase (EGPh/BGPf) or Optimash™ BG while Acremonium Cellulase was used as control. IL-pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed more effectively by CBH-free enzymes than were the BM-pretreated substrates. IL-treatment decreased the crystallinity and increased the specific surface area (SSA), whereas BM-treatment decreased the crystallinity without increasing the SSA. The hydrolysis of IL-treated cellulose by EGPh/BGPf showed a saccharification rate of 3.92 g/Lh and a glucose yield of 81% within 9h. These results indicate the efficiency of CBH-free enzymes for the hydrolysis of IL-treated substrates. PMID:24091019

Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Kim, Han-Woo; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Endo, Takashi; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Bon, Elba P S

2013-12-01

173

Oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse derived solid acid catalysts for rapid esterification of fatty acids and moisture-assisted transesterification of oils under pseudo-infinite methanol.  

PubMed

The use of pseudo-infinite methanol in increasing the rate of esterification and transesterification reactions was studied using oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived solid acid catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonisation at 400°C for 8h, followed by sulfonation at 150°C for 15h and characterised using TGA/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, EA and titrimetric determinations of acid sites. Under optimal reaction conditions, the process demonstrated rapid esterification of palmitic acid, with FAME yields of 93% and 94% in 45min for OPT and SCB catalysts, respectively. With the process, moisture levels up to 16.7% accelerated the conversion of low FFA oils by sulfonated carbon catalysts, through moisture-induced violent bumping. Moisture assisted transesterification of palm olein containing 1.78% FFA and 8.33% added water gave FAME yield of 90% in 10h, which was two folds over neat oil. PMID:24561631

Ezebor, Francis; Khairuddean, Melati; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Boey, Peng Lim

2014-04-01

174

Xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities of Candida guilliermondii as a function of different treatments of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate employing experimental design.  

PubMed

The sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, which is rich in xylose, can be used as culture medium for Candida guilliermondii in xylitol production. However, the hydrolysate obtained from bagasse by acid hydrolysis at 120 degrees C for 20 min has by-products (acetic acid and furfural, among others), which are toxic to the yeast over certain concentrations. So, the hydrolysate must be pretreated before using in fermentation. The pretreatment variables considered were: adsorption time (15,37.5, and 60 min), type of acid used (H2So4 and H3Po4), hydrolysate concentration (original, twofold, and fourfold concentrated), and active charcoal (0.5, 1.75 and 3.0%). The suitability of the pretreatment was followed by measuring the xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XD) activity of yeast grown in each treated hydrolysate. The response surface methodology (2(4) full factorial design with a centered face) indicated that the hydrolysate might be concentrated fourfold and the pH adjusted to 7.0 with CaO, followed by reduction to 5.5 with H3PO4. After that it was treated with active charcoal (3.0%) by 60 min. This pretreated hydrolysate attained the high XR/XD ratio of 4.5. PMID:12018268

Alves, Lourdes A; Vitolo, Michele; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; de Almeida e Silva, João Batista

2002-01-01

175

High yield pulp from bagasse  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of bagasse is similar to that of hardwood (Fagus sylvatica), but bagasse contains more pentosans and ash and less lignin. The strength of mechanical pulp from bagasse was lower than that of semimechanical pulp prepared from bagasse in the presence of NaOH and alkaline Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/. Mechanical and semimechanical pulps responded well to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ bleaching, giving products with 57-58% brightness.

Luna, G.V.; Torres, C.A.

1982-01-01

176

Removal of Orange-G and Methyl Violet dyes by adsorption onto bagasse fly ash—kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as waste material from sugar mill), was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange-G (OG), and Methyl Violet (MV), from aqueous solution. Batch studies were performed to address various experimental parameters like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial concentration for the removal of these dyes. Effective pH for OG

Indra D. Mall; Vimal C. Srivastava; Nitin K. Agarwal

2006-01-01

177

Use of spectroscopic and imaging techniques to evaluate pretreated sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for cellulase production under solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

The enzymatic cocktail of cellulases is one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels and other chemicals. Here, the influence of liquid hot water, dilute acid, alkali, and combined acid/alkali pretreatments on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) used for cellulase production was investigated by means of spectroscopic and imaging techniques. Chemical composition and structural characteristics, such as crystallinity (determined by X-ray diffraction), functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy), were used to correlate SCB pretreatments with enzymatic biosynthesis by a strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The combined acid/alkali pretreatment resulted in a SCB with higher cellulose content (86.7%). However, the high crystallinity (74%) of the resulting biomass was detrimental to microbial uptake and enzyme production. SCB pretreated with liquid hot water yielded the highest filter paper cellulase (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase activities (0.4, 14.9, and 26.1 U g(-1), respectively). The results showed that a suitable pretreatment for SCB to be used as a substrate for cellulase production should avoid severe conditions in order to preserve amorphous cellulose and to enhance the physical properties that assist microbial access. PMID:24363237

Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Crestana, Silvio; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

2014-03-01

178

Low cost CaCl? pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhancement of textile dyes adsorption and subsequent biodegradation of adsorbed dyes under solid state fermentation.  

PubMed

Pretreatments to sugarcane bagasse (SCB) such as CaCl2, alkali, ammonia, steam and milling showed 91%, 46%, 47%, 42% and 56% adsorption of Solvent Red 5B (SR5B); 92%, 57%, 58%, 56% and 68% adsorption of simulated dyes mixture (SDM), and 86%, 45%, 49%, 44% and 56% adsorption of a real textile effluent (RTE), respectively. However, the untreated SCB showed 32%, 38% and 30% adsorption of SR5B, SDM and RTE, respectively. Adsorption of SR5B on CaCl2 pretreated SCB follows pseudo-second order kinetics. SEM and FTIR analysis reveals the delignification of CaCl2 pretreated SCB. SR5B, SDM and RTE adsorbed on CaCl2, alkali, ammonia, steam and milling pretreated SCB were decolorized under solid state fermentation using isolated Providencia staurti strain EbtSPG. Tray bioreactor study showed 86% American Dye Manufacturers Institute (ADMI) removal of RTE in 72h. Biodegradation of adsorbed SR5B was confirmed using FTIR, HPLC and HPTLC. PMID:23411459

Kadam, Avinash A; Lade, Harshad S; Patil, Swapnil M; Govindwar, Sanjay P

2013-03-01

179

A situ co-precipitation method to prepare magnetic PMDA modified sugarcane bagasse and its application for competitive adsorption of methylene blue and basic magenta.  

PubMed

Magnetic pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was prepared by a situ co-precipitation method. Results showed that the magnetic modified SCB could be recycled easily by an applied magnetic field. Adsorption capacities of the magnetic sorbent for cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta were 315.5 and 304.9mgg(-1), respectively. Competitive adsorption in the binary system showed that concentration percentages (C(P)) and initial concentration (C(0)) both had good linear relationship with adsorption capacities of the magnetic sorbent (q(e)(')) in the investigated range. The linear equations between C(P) and q(e)(') almost did not affect by the variation of total initial concentration of the dyes (C(T)), whereas that between C(0) and q(e)(') changed greatly with it. C(P) was the main factor that impacted q(e)(') in the binary competitive adsorption system. Similar linear equations between C(P) and q(e)(') demonstrated that the magnetic sorbent had similar adsorption affinity toward the two dyes. PMID:22342591

Yu, Jun-Xia; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Xiao, Chun-Qiao; Guo, Jia

2012-04-01

180

Comparative secretome analysis of Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 and Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 during solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background The lignocellulosic enzymes of Trichoderma species have received particular attention with regard to biomass conversion to biofuels, but the production cost of these enzymes remains a significant hurdle for their commercial application. In this study, we quantitatively compared the lignocellulolytic enzyme profile of a newly isolated Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 strain with that of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, cultured on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Results Comparison of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of S4F8 and Rut C30 showed that S4F8 had significantly higher hemicellulase and ?-glucosidase enzyme activities. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the two fungal secretomes enabled the detection of 815 proteins in total, with 418 and 397 proteins being specific for S4F8 and Rut C30, respectively, and 174 proteins being common to both strains. In-depth analysis of the associated biological functions and the representation of glycoside hydrolase family members within the two secretomes indicated that the S4F8 secretome contained a higher diversity of main and side chain hemicellulases and ?-glucosidases, and an increased abundance of some of these proteins compared with the Rut C30 secretome. Conclusions In SCB SSF, T. asperellum S4F8 produced a more complex lignocellulolytic cocktail, with enhanced hemicellulose and cellobiose hydrolysis potential, compared with T. reesei Rut C30. This bodes well for the development of a more cost-effective and efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail from T. asperellum for lignocellulosic feedstock hydrolysis. PMID:24286470

2013-01-01

181

Ultra-structural mapping of sugarcane bagasse after oxalic acid fiber expansion (OAFEX) and ethanol production by Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Diminishing supplies of fossil fuels and oil spills are rousing to explore the alternative sources of energy that can be produced from non-food/feed-based substrates. Due to its abundance, sugarcane bagasse (SB) could be a model substrate for the second-generation biofuel cellulosic ethanol. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB remains a challenge for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol. We hypothesized that oxalic-acid-mediated thermochemical pretreatment (OAFEX) would overcome the native recalcitrance of SB by enhancing the cellulase amenability toward the embedded cellulosic microfibrils. Results OAFEX treatment revealed the solubilization of hemicellulose releasing sugars (12.56 g/l xylose and 1.85 g/l glucose), leaving cellulignin in an accessible form for enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest hydrolytic efficiency (66.51%) of cellulignin was achieved by enzymatic hydrolysis (Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188). The ultrastructure characterization of SB using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform–near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed structural differences before and after OAFEX treatment with enzymatic hydrolysis. Furthermore, fermentation mediated by C. shehatae UFMG HM52.2 and S. cerevisiae 174 showed fuel ethanol production from detoxified acid (3.2 g/l, yield 0.353 g/g; 0.52 g/l, yield, 0.246 g/g) and enzymatic hydrolysates (4.83 g/l, yield, 0.28 g/g; 6.6 g/l, yield 0.46 g/g). Conclusions OAFEX treatment revealed marked hemicellulose degradation, improving the cellulases’ ability to access the cellulignin and release fermentable sugars from the pretreated substrate. The ultrastructure of SB after OAFEX and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulignin established thorough insights at the molecular level. PMID:23324164

2013-01-01

182

The influence of Aspergillus niger transcription factors AraR and XlnR in the gene expression during growth in D-xylose, L-arabinose and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The interest in the conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels such as bioethanol has led to an increased investigation into the processes regulating biomass saccharification. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism capable of producing a wide variety of plant biomass degrading enzymes. In A. niger the transcriptional activator XlnR and its close homolog, AraR, controls the main (hemi-)cellulolytic system responsible for plant polysaccharide degradation. Sugarcane is used worldwide as a feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the lignocellulosic residual bagasse can be used in different industrial applications, including ethanol production. The use of pentose sugars from hemicelluloses represents an opportunity to further increase production efficiencies. In the present study, we describe a global gene expression analysis of A. niger XlnR- and AraR-deficient mutant strains, grown on a D-xylose/L-arabinose monosaccharide mixture and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse. Different gene sets of CAZy enzymes and sugar transporters were shown to be individually or dually regulated by XlnR and AraR, with XlnR appearing to be the major regulator on complex polysaccharides. Our study contributes to understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms responsible for plant polysaccharide-degrading gene expression, and opens new possibilities for the engineering of fungi able to produce more efficient enzymatic cocktails to be used in biofuel production. PMID:23892063

de Souza, Wagner Rodrigo; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; de Gouvêa, Paula Fagundes; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Battaglia, Evy; Goldman, Maria Helena S; de Vries, Ronald P; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-11-01

183

Optimizing the utilization of biomass resources for power generation in Brazilian sugarcane industry through application of co-fired combined cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane trash are residues from sugar and alcohol production, an economic activity that is well established in Brazil. Bagasse is a residue from the industrial process, being widely used in CHP plants to fulfill thermal and power requirements of sugarcane mills. As the market for surplus bagasse is small and unstable, mills usually consume all this biomass

Mônica Souza; Arnaldo Walter

184

The Influences of Fiber Feature and Polymer Melt Index on Mechanical Properties of Sugarcane Fiber/Polymer  

E-print Network

resins with respect to the raw bagasse fiber and alkali-extracted bagasse fiber. On the other hand, the sugar industry generates over 4.5 million tons of dry fibrous materials (i.e., sugar- cane bagasse) per contains relatively low sucrose.2 Sugarcane bagasse (or bagasse) is the fibrous resid- ual material

185

Preparation of activated carbon using low temperature carbonisation and physical activation of high ash raw bagasse for acid dye adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated carbons were prepared from bagasse through a low temperature (160 °C) chemical carbonisation treatment and gasification with carbon dioxide at 900 °C. The merit of low temperature chemical carbonisation in preparing chars for activation was assessed by comparing the physical and chemical properties of activated carbons developed by this technique to conventional methods involving the use of thermal and

M. Valix; W. H. Cheung; G. McKay

2004-01-01

186

Development and characterization of a wood adhesive using bagasse lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is spent fiber left after extraction of sugar. It is mainly used as a fuel to concentrate sugarcane juice. In the present work, the possibility of preparing wood adhesives from bagasse has been explored. The parameters for the preparation of a lignin phenol formaldehyde (LPF) adhesive, (lignin concentration, formaldehyde to phenol molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time and reaction

Mozaffar Alam Khan; Sayed Marghoob Ashraf; Ved Prakash Malhotra

2004-01-01

187

Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy  

SciTech Connect

Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

1982-12-01

188

Sugarcane as a renewable resource  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown, generally as a perennial crop, in tropical and subtropical areas; some 750 million tonnes are produced each year. Food, feed and energy are the major products of the sugarcane plant; sugarcane fiber, bagasse, fuels the cane processing plants and provides electricity to local grids through cogeneration. A range of chemicals and polymers is available from process streams and sugars. Microbial products are discussed in the comparison paper on sugarbeet. Chemical transformations reviewed herein include production of sucrose mono-, di- and poly-esters, polyurethanes, carboxylic acid derivatives, and thermally stable polymers. Processes and product will be reviewed.

Clarke, M.A.; Edye, L.A. [Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-12-01

189

Design of a bagasse charcoal briquette-making device for use in Haiti  

E-print Network

Charcoal made from bagasse, the fibrous remains of sugarcane production, has the potential to serve as an alternate cooking fuel in Haiti, where the reliance on wood has led to severe deforestation. Current production ...

Vechakul, Jessica

2005-01-01

190

Fast pyrolysis of sweet soghum bagasse in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Samples of Italian sorghum bagasse were dried and ground and then pyrolyzed in the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis bench scale reactor unit. Results were typical of agricultural grasses of this kind, and resembled those obtained from similar tests of sugar cane bagasse. A maximum liquid yield (dry feed basis) of 68% by weight of dry feed was achieved, with a corresponding char yield (ash included) of 16%. The high ash content of the bagasse (9.2%) gave a char with a very high ash content ({approx}50%), with calcium as the most abundant cation. Yields of hydroxyacetaldehyde were comparable to those obtained from softwoods. Deionized bagasse gave significant yields of anhydrosugars on pyrolysis. Sorghum bagasse appears to be a suitable feedstock, either for pyrolysis to yield an alternative fuel oil, or after pretreatment and pyrolysis, to yield a solution of fermentable sugars.

Palm, M. [Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gotheborg (Sweden); Peacocke, C.; Bridgewater, A.V. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Piskorz, J.; Scott, D.S. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

1993-12-31

191

Effects of blending, staging and furnace temperature on co-firing of coal and biomass-bagasse.  

E-print Network

??This manuscript reports on emissions generated from laboratory-scale batch combustion of a high-volatile content bituminous coal, sugar-cane bagasse, and blends thereof. The average bulk equivalence… (more)

Arvind, Joshi Kulbhushan

2008-01-01

192

Thermal analysis and devolatilization kinetics of cotton stalk, sugar cane bagasse and shea meal under nitrogen and air atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal degradation, reactivity and kinetics for biomass materials cotton stalk (CS), sugarcane bagasse 1 (SB1), sugarcane bagasse 2 (SB2) and shea meal (SM) have been evaluated under pyrolysis (N2) and oxidising (dry air) conditions, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). In the cases of CS and SB1 the peak temperatures were 51°C higher for pyrolysis compared with oxidative degradation, whereas

S. Munir; S. S. Daood; W. Nimmo; A. M. Cunliffe; B. M. Gibbs

2009-01-01

193

Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. II: cassava bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse. Cassava bagasse, which is a fibrous material, is the by-product of the cassava-processing industry. It contains about 30–50% starch on dry weight basis. Due to its rich organic nature and low ash content, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes

Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol; Luciana P. S Vandenberghe; Radjiskumar Mohan

2000-01-01

194

Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

1985-10-01

195

Bagasse power in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

One-fifth of the electricity generated on Hawaii's largest island comes from burning bagasse in boilers. With Hawaii running out of space for landfills and committed to developing alternative energy sources for 90 percent of its electricity by 2005, there are proposals to burn refuse along with bagasse to generate power. However, these are meeting some objections on environmental grounds.

Not Available

1981-09-01

196

Pelletizing bagasse for fuel  

SciTech Connect

Prior to 1979, the Davies Hawakua Sugar Co. of Hawaii, burned its bagasse in bulk in large furnaces. Because of storage difficulties, however, the company decided to erect a bagasse - pelletizing plant adjacent to its Hawaii sugar factory. The plant, based on the Woodex process, has been very successful and the net energy gain has been calculated in the order of 41%.

Bouvet, P.E.; Suzor, N.L.C.

1980-08-01

197

Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the possibility of applying a steam explosion pretreatment process to sugarcane bagasse was investigated, and the effectiveness of the pretreatment in terms of hemicellulose solubilization and enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was determined. The steam requirement for the pretreatment was also investigated at the pilot-plant scale, and these results are presented.

Kling, S.H.; Neto, C.C.; Ferrara, M.A.; Torres, J.C.R.; Magalhaes, D.B.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

1987-01-01

198

Variation of bagasse crystallinity and cellulase activity during the fermentation of cellulomonas bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A characteristic behavior of the fermentation process was observed during the growth of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse. At the early stage of the fermentation the crystallinity index of bagasse increased, suggesting that the major metabolized fraction corresponded to the hemicellulose during this stage. Some time later the crystallinity achieved a steady state and then decreased, which indicated that the most complex structure of bagasse was being attacked. The analysis of the cellulolytic activity of extracellular enzyme in the medium showed a sharp increase followed by an abrupt leveling off and decline in activity. These results along with the reduction of crystallinity index and bagasse utilization (70%) justify the assumption that the C1 component was present in the cellulase complex synthesized by the bacteria. (Refs. 12).

Enriquez, A.; Montalvo, R.; Canales, M.

1981-07-01

199

Sugarcane and Ethanol Production and Carbon Dioxide Balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol fuel has been considered lately an efficient option for reducing greenhouse gases emissions. Brazil has now more than\\u000a 30 years of experience with large-scale ethanol production. With sugarcane as feedstock, Brazilian ethanol has some advantages\\u000a in terms of energy and CO2 balances. The use of bagasse for energy generation contributes to lower greenhouse gases emissions. Although, when compared\\u000a with

Marcelo Dias De Oliveira

200

Simulation of integrated first and second generation bioethanol production from sugarcane: comparison between different biomass pretreatment methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse is used as a fuel in conventional bioethanol production, providing heat and power for the plant; therefore,\\u000a the amount of surplus bagasse available for use as raw material for second generation bioethanol production is related to\\u000a the energy consumption of the bioethanol production process. Pentoses and lignin, byproducts of the second generation bioethanol\\u000a production process, may be used

Marina O. S. DiasMarcelo; Marcelo Pereira da Cunha; Rubens Maciel Filho; Antonio Bonomi; Charles D. F. Jesus; Carlos E. V. Rossell

201

Diluted phosphoric acid pretreatment for production of fermentable sugars in a sugarcane-based biorefinery.  

PubMed

The influence of time (8-24 min), temperature (144-186 °C) and phosphoric acid concentration (0.05-0.20%, w/v) on the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse in a 20 L batch rotary reactor was investigated. The efficiency of the pretreatment was verified by chemical characterization of the solid fraction of the pretreated bagasse and the conversion of cellulose to glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis. Models representing the percentage of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, solubilized hemicellulose and the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose were predictive and significant. Phosphoric acid concentration of 0.20% at temperature of 186 °C, during 8 and 24 min, was shown to be very effective in solubilizing hemicellulose from sugarcane bagasse, reaching solubilization of 96% and 98%, respectively. Relatively low amounts of inhibitors were produced, and the phosphoric acid remaining in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate is at adequate levels for supplying phosphorous requirement during subsequent fermentation. PMID:23186685

de Vasconcelos, Solange Maria; Santos, Andrelina Maria Pinheiro; Rocha, George Jackson Moraes; Souto-Maior, Ana Maria

2013-05-01

202

Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).  

PubMed

The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (?g) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ? underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2014-01-01

203

Bagasse utilization in Cuba  

SciTech Connect

Fluctuations in world sugar prices retard economic development in sugar-producing countries like Cuba, and so there is a pressing need to find alternative uses for sugar cane through the industrialization of its by-products, such as bagasse. In 1971 the United Nations Development Program began a cooperative venture with the Cuban Research Institute for Sugar Cane Derivatives to develop methods of making newsprint from bagasse. An experimental plant - Cuba 9, located 35 kilometers south of Havana, was inaugurated in May 1981. It is semi-commercial in character and has a daily capacity of 34 tonnes of newsprint and five tonnes of dissolving pulp. Pilot plants for the production of furfural and for the production of reconstituted panelboard are in operation.

Not Available

1981-11-01

204

The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Junio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Bruchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

2012-01-01

205

Proximate and Ultimate Analyses of Bagasse, Sorghum and Millet Straws as Precursors for Active Carbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the proximate and ultimate characteristics of bagasse, sorghum and millet straws in relation to their suitability for producing highly porous carbon. The results of ad hoc samples indicated, that particle size has a decisive influence on the proximate characteristics of bagasse, sorghum and millet straws. The effects of particle size on weight loss characteristics; rates of dehydration and de-volatilization of the carbon precursors were used to assess particle sizes that may be appropriate for carbonization. Particle sizes of 425-1180 µm are thus, suggested to be the most desirable, for the production of good quality porous carbon. This range of particles of bagasse, sorghum and millet straws were associated with diminishing ash contents. However, the optimum particle size of the cellulosic materials that is expected to yield highly porous carbon with minimum ash contents is 1180 µm.

Lori, J. A.; Lawal, A. O.; Ekanem, E. J.

206

Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis process at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720/sup 0/C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.; Schweers, W.

1982-01-01

207

Production of phenols and charcoal from bagasse by a rapid continuous pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Tar and charcoal could be produced in high yields from bagasse by applying a rapid continuous pyrolysis at a relatively low temperature. The ether extractives of the pyrolytic tar and oil amounted to 9.4% based on bagasse. Phenols represented 79% of these extractives. Gas chromatographic separation showed that guaiacol and its derivatives constituted 38% of the identified simple phenols. There were much smaller amounts of syringol and none at high pyrolysis temperatures. Depithing did not reduce the ash content of the charcoal, but it yielded an environmentally clean charcoal containing practically no sulfur or nitrogen. It was necessary to remove the fine particle size fraction of the bagasse after grinding in order to reduce the ash content of the charcoal. The carbon content of the charcoal increased rapidly with increasing temperature, and reached 96% at 720 degrees C. The charcoal had a remarkably high adsorption capacity despite the fact that it had not been subjected to any activation treatment.

Mobarak, F.; Fahmy, Y.

1982-01-01

208

Extrusion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-print Network

milling one day and 18. 5% after six days. Enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase from Trichoderma viride gave 38. 2% saccharification after the one-day milling treatment and 58% after the six-day treatment. Both alkali solubility and susceptibility... into the two roll mill, masticated for one minute intervals, and scraped off between intervals. Treated and untreated samples were hydrolyzed by cellulases of Trlchoderma viride QM 9414 and hydrolysates analyzed for total reducing sugar. Results indicated...

Ocana Camacho, Ronay

2012-06-07

209

Bagasse-reinforced cement composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is abundantly available in many countries as a by-product from sugar mills and is being mostly used as fuel or disposed of by incineration. An attempt has been made to convert this byproduct into useful eco-friendly cement-bonded composites, which can be used for various internal and external applications in buildings. The investigations include optimization of parameters such as bagasse

L. K. Aggarwal

1995-01-01

210

Adsorption of acid dye onto activated carbons prepared from agricultural waste bagasse by ZnCl 2 activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of activated carbons were prepared from agricultural waste sugarcane bagasse by chemical activation with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) as an activating agent at 500°C and 0.5 h soaking time. The Langmuir surface area and total pore volume were used to estimate the average pore diameter of the carbon products. The values of the surface area and pore volume increased

W. T Tsai; C. Y Chang; M. C Lin; S. F Chien; H. F Sun; M. F Hsieh

2001-01-01

211

Effect of acetic acid present in bagasse hydrolysate on the activities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase in Candida guilliermondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first two steps in xylose metabolism are catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase (XR) (EC 1.1.1.21) and NAD(P)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) (EC 1.1.1.9), which lead to xylose?xylitol?xylulose conversion. Xylitol has high commercial value, due to its sweetening and anticariogenic properties, as well as several clinical applications. The acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse allows the separation of a xylose-rich hemicellulosic fraction

Luanne Helena Augusto Lima; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe; Michele Vitolo; Fernando Araripe Gonçalves Torres

2004-01-01

212

High production of cellulose degrading endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase using bagasse as a substrate from Bacillus subtilis KIBGE HAS.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is a cheap carbon source for endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production as it is easily available as by-product from sugar industries. Fermentation conditions for endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production by Bacillus subtilis KIBGE HAS were optimized by using un-treated sugarcane bagasse for induction of endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase and it was found that 2.0 g% bagasse in fermentation medium induced maximum endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production. It was also found that when sugarcane bagasse was supplemented with different carbon sources, the results showed that lactose, xylose, maltose and sucrose favored endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production, whereas cellobiose and fructose inhibit enzyme production. Maximum endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production was obtained at 40 °C keeping the initial pH of the medium at 7.0 before sterilization. Maximum endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production was obtained after 48 h incubation. Among different nitrogen sources, ammonium nitrate enhanced endo-1,4-?-D-glucanase production. The optimal temperature and pH for enzyme activity were 60 °C and 7.0, respectively. PMID:23044136

Bano, Saeeda; Qader, Shah Ali Ul; Aman, Afsheen; Syed, Mohammad Noman; Durrani, Kamran

2013-01-01

213

Research in bagasse pulp bleaching  

SciTech Connect

Bleaching of soda and sulfate bagasse pulps by CED, CEH, CEHD, and O/alkali CED sequences gave products with Elrepho brightness 85-90, Post color no. 1.3-2.5, viscosity 20-28 cP, tear factor 60-78, and breaking length 3710-4590 m. Bleaching bagasse pulp with Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/-NaClO increased its brightness increasing temperature, pH, and NaOCl consumption. Brightening of mechanical bagasse pulp with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaClO reduced the consumption of peroxide, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaOCl by 0.5-0.8, 0.5-1.5, and 10-12%, respectively.

Fernandez, N.; Naranjo, M.E.; Alvarez, J.; Sardinas, O.; Serrantes, M.

1982-01-01

214

All-cellulose nanocomposite film made from bagasse cellulose nanofibers for food packaging application.  

PubMed

All-cellulose nanocomposite (ACNC) film was produced from sugarcane bagasse nanofibers using N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride solvent. The average diameter of bagasse fibers (14 ?m) was downsized to 39 nm after disk grinding process. X-ray diffraction showed that apparent crystallinity and crystallite size decreased relatively to an increased duration of dissolution time. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that thermal stability of the ACNC was slightly less than that of the pure cellulose nanofiber sheet. Tensile strength of the fiber sheet, nanofiber sheet and ACNC prepared with 10 min dissolution time were 8, 101 and 140 MPa, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) of the ACNC film increased relatively to an increased duration of dissolution time. ACNC can be considered as a multi-performance material with potential for application in cellulose-based food packaging owing to its promising properties (tough, bio-based, biodegradable and acceptable levels of WVP). PMID:24607160

Ghaderi, Moein; Mousavi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Hossein; Labbafi, Mohsen

2014-04-15

215

Effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to soil on nitrate leaching in calcaric soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate leaching in soils is often an important aspect in agriculture. Nitrate is leached from the root zone, where plants can utilize them, by surplus rainfall because little nitrate is absorbed by soil colloids. Miyako Island (target area) is located in the subtropical zone and comprised of coral limestone with high permeability. Land surface is covered with calcaric dark red soil that is called “Shimajiri-Maji”. Since the soil has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity, fertilizer-derived nitrogen easily leaches from the root zone during surplus rainfall and the nitrogen utilization efficiency of crops is relatively low. Biochars, charcoal produced from pyrolysis of biomass, are known to adsorb dissolved nitrate. Sugarcane bagasse is the main biomass resource on the island because agriculture is the main industry on the island and sugarcane is cultivated in approximately 70% of the farmland. However, the adsorption characteristics of bagasse-charcoals for nitrate have not yet been clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependency of carbonization temperatures on the nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse-charcoals and the effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to the soil on NO3-N transport in the soil for optimal use of bagasse-charcoal as a soil amendment in Miyako Island. Sugarcane bagasse were air-dried and heated in a batch-type carbonization furnace at five different carbonization temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) with a holding time of 2 h. Nitrate adsorption by soil and bagasse-charcoals at each carbonization temperature was measured by the batch equilibrium technique. NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils (rates of charcoal addition: 0, 5 and 10 wt %) was evaluated in the column experiments. The breakthrough curves of NO3-N concentrations in the effluents from the bottom of the columns were analyzed with a convective-dispersion model. The model described one-dimensional transport of a sorbing solute thorough a homogeneous saturated soil. Linear adsorption equation that considered rates of charcoal addition was used to describe NO3-N adsorption of charcoal-amended soils (S=Kd C R, where C is solution concentration [mg cm-3], S is sorbed concentration [mg -1], Kd is the sorption distribution coefficient [cm-3 kg-1] and R is rates of charcoal addition [wt %]). The experimental and analytical results were as follows: (1) Batch experiments using five different bagasse-charcoals revealed that nitrate was adsorbed at 700°C and 800°C and was scarcely adsorbed at less than 700°C. (2) Column experiments using charcoal-amended soils revealed that NO3-N transport in soils was delayed by adsorption effects of bagasse-charcoal. (3) Analysis with the convective-dispersion model showed that the experimental and simulated results were in good agreement at all charcoal-amended soils. Therefore, the adsorption equation that considers the rates of charcoal addition is effective to describe NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils.

Kameyama, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Shinogi, Y.

2009-12-01

216

The development of multi-objective optimization model for excess bagasse utilization: A case study for Thailand  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model is proposed as a tool to assist in deciding for the proper utilization scheme of excess bagasse produced in sugarcane industry. Two major scenarios for excess bagasse utilization are considered in the optimization. The first scenario is the typical situation when excess bagasse is used for the onsite electricity production. In case of the second scenario, excess bagasse is processed for the offsite ethanol production. Then the ethanol is blended with an octane rating of 91 gasoline by a portion of 10% and 90% by volume respectively and the mixture is used as alternative fuel for gasoline vehicles in Thailand. The model proposed in this paper called 'Environmental System Optimization' comprises the life cycle impact assessment of global warming potential (GWP) and the associated cost followed by the multi-objective optimization which facilitates in finding out the optimal proportion of the excess bagasse processed in each scenario. Basic mathematical expressions for indicating the GWP and cost of the entire process of excess bagasse utilization are taken into account in the model formulation and optimization. The outcome of this study is the methodology developed for decision-making concerning the excess bagasse utilization available in Thailand in view of the GWP and economic effects. A demonstration example is presented to illustrate the advantage of the methodology which may be used by the policy maker. The methodology developed is successfully performed to satisfy both environmental and economic objectives over the whole life cycle of the system. It is shown in the demonstration example that the first scenario results in positive GWP while the second scenario results in negative GWP. The combination of these two scenario results in positive or negative GWP depending on the preference of the weighting given to each objective. The results on economics of all scenarios show the satisfied outcomes.

Buddadee, Bancha [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: bancha_eng@yahoo.com; Wirojanagud, Wanpen [Research Center of Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: wanpen@kku.ac.th; Watts, Daniel J. [Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)], E-mail: daniel.watts@njit.edu; Pitakaso, Rapeepan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ubonratchathani University, Ubonratchathani 34190 (Thailand)], E-mail: enrapepi@ubu.ac.th

2008-08-15

217

Interior view of north end of the Bagasse Storage Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of north end of the Bagasse Storage Building with traveling crane used to load bagasse to send to boiler, looking from the west - Kekaha Sugar Company, Bagasse Storage Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

218

Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti .  

E-print Network

??The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple,… (more)

Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

2005-01-01

219

Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.  

PubMed

Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2013-05-01

220

Storage and conservation of bagasse  

SciTech Connect

Storage of bagasse produced at harvest time becomes necessary when it is used for operations that are carried out continuously throughout the year, such as pulp and paper production. The sugar cane tissues suffer severe mechanical treatment in the sugar mills crushers, are further damaged in depithers and in many cases degraded while in storage. The processes of degradation are examined and handling and storage procedures are discussed which will minimize the quality and material losses.

Cusi, D.S.

1980-08-01

221

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

2014-01-01

222

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F.; Martinez-Hernandez, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodriguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

2014-01-01

223

Selected organic compounds from biomass burning found in the atmospheric particulate matter over sugarcane plantation areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particulate matter, from three sites in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, and smoke samples from the burning of sugarcane leaves and bagasse were analyzed for biomass burning emissions. Samples were acquired using a standard high-volume air sampler; extracts were prepared and fractionated into aromatic and polar compounds. These fractions were subjected to gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Polar and aromatic fractions were identified and quantified. Compounds such as levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan were found in the polar fractions, and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aromatic fractions. Concentrations of levoglucosan ranged from 0.15 to 1.65 ng/m 3, 0.36 to 6.83 ng/m 3 and 0.19 to 28.42 ng/m 3 at the downtown Corpo de Bombeiros, suburban (Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense) and countryside (Lake de Cima, LC) sites; and from 10.55 to 35.06 ng/m 3 and 2.7 ng/m 3 in the smoke samples from the burnt leaves and bagasse, respectively. The LC site is, at face value, a non-polluted countryside area, surrounded by sugarcane plantations. This fact explains why the highest concentrations of levoglucosan were detected there. Sugarcane burning is not the main source of toxic compounds, such as PAH, e.g. benzo( a)pyrene, in the atmospheric particulate matter. No or small concentrations of PAHs were found in the sugarcane leaves/bagasse burning samples. Their presence in the studied sites can be ascribed to vehicular exhaust. Therefore, these are the two major sources of atmospheric pollution in this area.

dos Santos, Celeste Yara Moreira; Azevedo, Débora de Almeida; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

224

Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode.  

PubMed

Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1) was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices. PMID:25201446

Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Guangwei; Cai, Huaqiang; Liu, Hong; Wong, C P; Umar, Ahmad

2014-10-21

225

Cell wall proteomics of sugarcane cell suspension cultures.  

PubMed

The use of cell walls to produce cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse is a new challenge. A better knowledge of proteins involved in cell wall remodelling is essential to improve the saccharification processes. Cell suspension cultures were used for this first cell wall proteomics study of sugarcane. Proteins extracted from cell walls were identified using an adapted protocol. They were extracted using 0.2 M CaCl2 and 2 M LiCl after purification of cell walls. The proteins were then identified by the innovative nanoACQUITY UPLC MS/MS technology and bioinformatics using the translated SUCEST EST cluster database of sugarcane. The experiments were reproduced three times. Since Sorghum bicolor is the closest plant with a fully sequenced genome, homologous proteins were searched for to complete the annotation of proteins, that is, prediction of subcellular localization and functional domains. Altogether, 69 different proteins predicted to be secreted were identified among 377 proteins. The reproducibility of the experiments is discussed. These proteins were distributed into eight functional classes. Oxidoreductases such as peroxidases were well represented, whereas glycoside hydrolases were scarce. This work provides information about the proteins that could be manipulated through genetic transformation, to increase second-generation ethanol production. PMID:24436144

Calderan-Rodrigues, Maria Juliana; Jamet, Elisabeth; Bonassi, Maria Beatriz Calderan Rodrigues; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Begossi, Amanda Carmanhanis; Setem, Laís Vaz; Franceschini, Livia Maria; Fonseca, Juliana Guimarães; Labate, Carlos Alberto

2014-03-01

226

Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse biochars.  

PubMed

The characteristics and mechanisms of Pb sorption by biochars produced from sugarcane bagasse at 250, 400, 500, and 600 °C were examined. The Pb sorption isotherms, kinetics and desorption were investigated. All biochars were effective in Pb sorption and were well described by Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum sorption capacity decreased from 21 to 6.1 mg g(-1) as temperature increased from 250 to 600 °C. The Pb sorption was rapid initially, probably controlled by cation exchange and complexation and then slowed down, which might be due to intraparticle diffusions. FTIR data and kinetic models suggested that oxygen functional groups were probably responsible for the high Pb sorption onto low temperature biochars (250 and 400 °C) whereas intraparticle diffusion was mainly responsible for low Pb sorption onto high temperature biochars (500 and 600 °C). Decreased phosphorus concentration indicated that P-induced Pb precipitation was also responsible for Pb sorption. Pyrolysis temperature significantly affected biochar properties and played an important role in Pb sorption capacity and mechanisms by biochars. PMID:24393563

Ding, Wenchuan; Dong, Xiaoling; Ime, Inyang Mandu; Gao, Bin; Ma, Lena Q

2014-06-01

227

Flue-gas drying of bagasse  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a discussion of technical and operational information on commercial systems which use flue gas to dry bagasse. The methodology involved is explained and the auxiliary equipment required which leads to parasitic energy demand is addressed.

Kinoshita, C. M. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (USA))

1989-01-01

228

Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti  

E-print Network

The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

2005-01-01

229

Ash Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash refers to the inorganic residue remaining after either ignition or complete oxidation of organic matter in a foodstuff. A basic knowledge of the characteristics of various ashing procedures and types of equipment is essential to ensure reliable results. Two major types of ashing are used: dry ashing, primarily for proximate composition and for some types of specific mineral analyses; wet ashing (oxidation), as a preparation for the analysis of certain minerals. Microwave systems now are available for both dry and wet ashing, to speed the processes. Most dry samples (i.e., whole grain, cereals, dried vegetables) need no preparation, while fresh vegetables need to be dried prior to ashing. High-fat products such as meats may need to be dried and fat extracted before ashing. The ash content of foods can be expressed on either a wet weight (as is) or on a dry weight basis. For general and food-specific information on measuring ash content, see references (1-11).

Marshall, Maurice R.

230

Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g-1 at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1 was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices.Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g-1 at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1 was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03574g

Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Guangwei; Cai, Huaqiang; Liu, Hong; Wong, C. P.; Umar, Ahmad

2014-09-01

231

Alkali-explosion pretreatment of straw and bagasse for enzymic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw were subjected to alkali treatment at 200/sup 0/C for 5 minutes and at 3.45 MPa gas pressure (steam and nitrogen), followed by an explosive discharge through a defibrating nozzle, in an attempt to improve the rate and extent of digestibility. The treatment resulted in the solubilization of 40-45% of the components and in the production of a pulp that gave saccharification yields of 80 and 65% in 8 h for bagasse and wheat straw, respectively. By comparison, alkali steaming at 200/sup 0/C (1.72 MPa) for 5 minutes gave saccharification yields of only 58 and 52% in 48 h. The increase in temperature from 140 to 200/sup 0/resulted in a gradual increase in in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD0) for both the substrates. Also, the extent of alkalinity during pretreatment appears to effect the reactivity of the final product towards enzymes. Pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 60 caused a progressive decline in the IVOMD of bagasse and wheat straw by the alkali explosion method and this was accompanied by a progressive decrease in pH values after explosion. In the alkali-steaming method, pretreatment time had no apparent effect with either substrate. An analysis of the alkali-exploded products showed that substantial amounts of hemicellulose and a small proportion of the lignin were solubilized. The percentage crystallinity of the cellulose did not alter in either substrate but there was a substantial reduction in the degree of polymerization. The superiority of the alkali-explosion pretreatment is attributed to the efficacy of fiber separation and disintegration; this increases the surface area and reduces the degree of polymerization. 33 references.

Puri, V.P.; Pearce, G.R.

1986-04-01

232

Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

233

Microprocessor controls for bagasse fired furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of automatic controls for bagasse fired furnaces in Louisiana have shown the feasibility of automatic forced draft control systems. The paper presents the results of a study carried out during the 1984 Louisiana sugar crop to further develop the principles of automatic control of bagasse furnaces using a microprocessor-based programmable logic controller. The data obtained validate the concepts of draft control and show how fuel control can be accomplished, thus providing overall boiler control. A brief outline of the further development of the system is also given.

Keenliside, W.; Mc Grew, K.

1987-02-01

234

Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse. Influence of catalyst type and chemical treatment  

SciTech Connect

Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse under different experimental conditions has been studied. Variables investigated were temperature and type and concentration of catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an isothermal manner. Products of pyrolysis are gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}), liquids (methanol, acetone, furfurylic alcohol, phenol, furfural, naphthalene, and o-cresol), and solids (chars). Temperature is a significant variable, yielding increases of fixed carbon content, gases, and to a lesser extent, ash percentage. Catalyst presence also yields increases of solid phase content, but the amount of liquid components decrease. Among catalysts applied those of Fe and Zn are the most advisable to obtain gases. Chemical treatment of bagasses with sulfuric or phosphoric acid washing leads to lower char yields, although fixed carbon content is higher and ash presence diminishes with respect to catalyst pyrolysis without chemical pretreatment. A pyrolysis kinetic study based on gas generation from thermal decomposition of residues has been carried out. From the model proposed, rate constants for the formation of each gas, reaction order of the catalyst, and activation energies were determined.

Encinar, J.M.; Beltran, F.J.; Ramiro, A.; Gonzalez, J.F. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica] [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica

1997-10-01

235

Explosion pulping of bagasse and wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse and wheat straw were soda-pulped in a digester at 200 degrees under N pressure of up to 13.8 MPa, followed by explosive discharge through nozzles to give pulp having lower yield and higher initial freeness than batch soda pulp. Explosion pulping required less NaOH than conventional batch soda pulping, and the properties of explosion pulp obtained were similar to those of batch soda pulp at a given freeness.

Mamers, H.; Yuritta, J.P.; Menz, D.J.

1981-01-01

236

Development of the Cuban bagasse boiler practice  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how Cuban bagasse boiler practice began simultaneously with the design of the spreader-stoker boilers RETO and the retrofitting of the horse-shoe furnace German boilers into the RETAL ones. Now the main trend is the retrofitting of the boilers RETO for suspension burning using two systems: the vertical swirl or tangenital fired furnace; and the horizontal swirl furnace. In this paper the main technical characteristics and parameters are presented, as well as the results of the tests with different boilers. Data about temperature gas concentration profiles are different furnaces are also included. The conclusion is that the horizontal swirl furnace is actually the most promising technical solution for the suspension burning of a coarse and polidispersed bagasse like the Cuban one. The generalization of the bagasse suspension burning in horizontal swirl furnace boilers by retrofitting of the existing ones is a present task for the Cuban sugar industry, as well as the design of new high steam parameter boilers using this combustion system.

Lora, E.S. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago (Cuba)

1995-11-01

237

Composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with other wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the composting of sweet sorghum bagasse — the residue obtained after sugar juice extraction of sweet sorghum stalk — in mixtures of wastes was studied. Bagasse with pig slurry and sewage sludge were used as raw materials for composting. The process was carried out in turned piles and the main process parameters were monitored over a year.

M. J. Negro; M. L. Solano; P. Ciria; J. Carrasco

1999-01-01

238

Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

239

Effect of acetic acid present in bagasse hydrolysate on the activities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase in Candida guilliermondii.  

PubMed

The first two steps in xylose metabolism are catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase (XR) (EC 1.1.1.21) and NAD(P)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) (EC 1.1.1.9), which lead to xylose-->xylitol-->xylulose conversion. Xylitol has high commercial value, due to its sweetening and anticariogenic properties, as well as several clinical applications. The acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse allows the separation of a xylose-rich hemicellulosic fraction that can be used as a substrate for Candida guilliermondii to produce xylitol. However, the hydrolysate contains acetic acid, an inhibitor of microbial metabolism. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on the activities of XR and XDH and on xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii were studied. For this purpose, fermentations were carried out in bagasse hydrolysate and in synthetic medium. The activities of XR and XDH were higher in the medium containing acetic acid than in control medium. Moreover, none of the fermentative parameters were significantly altered during cell culture. It was concluded that acetic acid does not interfere with xylitol formation since the increase in XR activity is proportional to XDH activity, leading to a greater production of xylitol and its subsequent conversion to xylulose. PMID:15107950

Lima, Luanne Helena Augusto; das Graças de Almeida Felipe, Maria; Vitolo, Michele; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

2004-11-01

240

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation. PMID:23895663

Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte K

2013-01-01

241

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation. PMID:23895663

2013-01-01

242

Succinic acid production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate by Actinobacillus succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinic acid, a four-carbon diacid, has been the focus of many research projects aimed at developing more economically viable\\u000a methods of fermenting sugar-containing natural materials. Succinic acid fermentation processes also consume CO2, thereby potentially contributing to reductions in CO2 emissions. Succinic acid could also become a commodity used as an intermediate in the chemical synthesis and manufacture\\u000a of synthetic resins

Elcio Ribeiro Borges; Nei Pereira

243

Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose at Varying Solids Concentration  

E-print Network

during the reaction hydrolyze hemicellulose to sugars and expose cellulose for enzymatic digestion energy demand by developing countries, and improve air quality, particularly for pure biofuels and fuel cell applications.1-5 Furthermore, biomass provides a unique sustainable feedstock for making liquid

California at Riverside, University of

244

Transcriptome Profile of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Induced by Sugarcane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Profiling the transcriptome that underlies biomass degradation by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum allows the identification of gene sequences with potential application in enzymatic hydrolysis processing. In the present study, the transcriptome of T. harzianum IOC-3844 was analyzed using RNA-seq technology. The sequencing generated 14.7 Gbp for downstream analyses. De novo assembly resulted in 32,396 contigs, which were submitted for identification and classified according to their identities. This analysis allowed us to define a principal set of T. harzianum genes that are involved in the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose and the accessory genes that are involved in the depolymerization of biomass. An additional analysis of expression levels identified a set of carbohydrate-active enzymes that are upregulated under different conditions. The present study provides valuable information for future studies on biomass degradation and contributes to a better understanding of the role of the genes that are involved in this process. PMID:24558413

Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; Vicentini, Renato; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Laborda, Prianda; Crucello, Aline; Freitas, Sindelia; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; Polikarpov, Igor; Pradella, Jose Geraldo da Cruz; Souza, Anete Pereira

2014-01-01

245

Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 °C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH.

Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Galvão, C. A.

2012-08-01

246

Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

Kiatkittipong, Worapon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongsuchoto, Porntip [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: prasert.p@chula.ac.th

2009-05-15

247

High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct  

PubMed Central

The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L?1) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant ?-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L?1, resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

2010-01-01

248

Prediction of the degradability of sugarcane cellulosic residues by indirect methods  

SciTech Connect

The effect of mild NaOH treatments on sugarcane cellulosic wastes (bagasse, pith, and straw) to increase their biological degradability has been studied. At a level of 8% NaOH (on a dry matter basis) 60% digestibility measured by the in vitro technique was achieved for all materials tested. Indirect methods to predict the digestibility of treated materials such as the bacterial degradability, enzymatic degradability, hot-water solubility, and chemical oxygen demand were tried as alternative methods to the rumen fluid technique. High correlation coefficients for all materials were obtained with all alternative techniques. The minimal r value was 0.96 while the highest was 0.99. An important reduction of time and reagents is achieved by the utilization of the solubility and chemical oxygen demand tests. (Refs. 8).

Cabello, A.; Conde, J.; Otero, M.A.

1981-12-01

249

Ash leachate test on Redoubt ash  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Undergraduate student Janelle Dyer (USGS ARRA student appointment) performs an ash leachate test on Redoubt ash in the Alaska Tephra Laboratory and Data Center in Anchorage, Alaska. This test is done to analyze the geochemical reaction between volcanic ash and drinking water sources during eruptions...

2010-05-20

250

Properties of Volcanic Ash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey site lists and discusses the properties of volcanic ash. The site contains many helpful diagrams, and explains topics including the size of ash particles, the dispersal of ash by wind, and the kind of eruption that produces ash.

2010-04-29

251

VIEW OF 1980 POWER PLANT FOUNDATION WITH BAGASSE WAREHOUSE, MACHINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF 1980 POWER PLANT FOUNDATION WITH BAGASSE WAREHOUSE, MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

252

Cuban mill set to produce quality bagasse newsprint  

SciTech Connect

It is reported that a pilot plant has been constructed at Quivican, Cuba which is capable of producing up to 35 tons of mechanical pulp and approximately 35 tons of newsprint daily from bagasse. In addition to the experimental bagasse newspaper plant, the Cuban government is constructing a large bleached bagasse pulp and paper mill for production of 250 tons of bleached bagasse pulp and paper daily. The installation is scheduled to go into operation in early 1982. The United Nations Development Programme hopes that newsprint and other products which can be produced from the sugar cane stalk will lessen third world nations dependecy on an uncertain world sugar market and help stabilize their economy.

Matics, D.

1981-10-01

253

Merits of excess bagasse as fuel for generating electricity. [Florida  

SciTech Connect

The rising cost of fuel oil improves the economics for sugar factories of using excess bagasse to produce more electricity than they require for sale to the public utility companies. Recently, the United States Sugar Corporation, in Florida, initiated the operation of a 20 MW plant fueled with excess bagasse only, and the electricity it generates is sold to a local utility. This constitutes a saving of 10 million liters of oil per year. The operating cycle is described of a system of high-pressure boilers and automatically controlled turbogenerator for the production of energy from bagasse. This system is a pre-engineered design which is very simple to install and operate and can be fitted in with the electric-generating installations which are normally found in practically any sugar factory without making significant modifications to the factory. An economic analysis is presented of power generation using excess bagasse for a 3MW unit and a 4MW unit.

Perea, P.

1981-05-01

254

AFEX treatment of coastal bermudagrass, bagasse, and newspaper  

E-print Network

AFEX TREATMENT OF COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS, BAGASSE, AND NEWSPAPER A Thesis by JAE-HOON JUN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1993 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering AFEX TREATMENT OF COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS, BAGASSE, AND NEWSPAPER A Thesis by JAE-HOON JUN Submitted to Texas A8'tM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Jun, Jae-Hoon

2012-06-07

255

Paper pulp from sugar mill bagasse  

SciTech Connect

This is a continuation-in-part of US Serial No. 884,513, abandoned. Neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) cooking of depithed bagasse gave pulp with improved physicomechanical properties for use in the production of newsprint paper. Thus, the NSSC cooking at 170-175/sup 0/ gave pulp in 70-75% yield. The NSSC pulp as above was bleached with alkali H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ at 50-70/sup 0/ to give a product with breaking load 8.7 kg, tensile 3.9%, breaking length 7.13 km, absolute tearing strength 135 cmg/cm, absolute bursting strength 3.8 kg/sq. cm and Elrepho brightness 61.

Krueger, H.; Berndt, W.; Schwartzkopff, U.; Reitter, F.J.; Hoepner, T.; Muehlig, H.J.

1981-04-07

256

Development and biotechnological application of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 identified from sugarcane soil metagenome.  

PubMed

Metagenomics has been widely employed for discovery of new enzymes and pathways to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In this context, the present study reports the isolation, recombinant expression, biochemical and structural characterization of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 (SCXyl) identified from sugarcane soil metagenome. The recombinant SCXyl was highly active against xylan from beechwood and showed optimal enzyme activity at pH 6,0 and 45°C. The crystal structure was solved at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing the classical (?/?)8-barrel fold with a conserved active-site pocket and an inherent flexibility of the Trp281-Arg291 loop that can adopt distinct conformational states depending on substrate binding. The capillary electrophoresis analysis of degradation products evidenced that the enzyme displays unusual capacity to degrade small xylooligosaccharides, such as xylotriose, which is consistent to the hydrophobic contacts at the +1 subsite and low-binding energies of subsites that are distant from the site of hydrolysis. The main reaction products from xylan polymers and phosphoric acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PASB) were xylooligosaccharides, but, after a longer incubation time, xylobiose and xylose were also formed. Moreover, the use of SCXyl as pre-treatment step of PASB, prior to the addition of commercial cellulolytic cocktail, significantly enhanced the saccharification process. All these characteristics demonstrate the advantageous application of this enzyme in several biotechnological processes in food and feed industry and also in the enzymatic pretreatment of biomass for feedstock and ethanol production. PMID:23922891

Alvarez, Thabata M; Goldbeck, Rosana; dos Santos, Camila Ramos; Paixão, Douglas A A; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L; Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pereira, Isabela; Jackson, George; Cota, Junio; Büchli, Fernanda; Citadini, Ana Paula; Ruller, Roberto; Polo, Carla Cristina; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Murakami, Mário T; Squina, Fabio M

2013-01-01

257

Development and Biotechnological Application of a Novel Endoxylanase Family GH10 Identified from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome  

PubMed Central

Metagenomics has been widely employed for discovery of new enzymes and pathways to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In this context, the present study reports the isolation, recombinant expression, biochemical and structural characterization of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 (SCXyl) identified from sugarcane soil metagenome. The recombinant SCXyl was highly active against xylan from beechwood and showed optimal enzyme activity at pH 6,0 and 45°C. The crystal structure was solved at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing the classical (?/?)8-barrel fold with a conserved active-site pocket and an inherent flexibility of the Trp281-Arg291 loop that can adopt distinct conformational states depending on substrate binding. The capillary electrophoresis analysis of degradation products evidenced that the enzyme displays unusual capacity to degrade small xylooligosaccharides, such as xylotriose, which is consistent to the hydrophobic contacts at the +1 subsite and low-binding energies of subsites that are distant from the site of hydrolysis. The main reaction products from xylan polymers and phosphoric acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PASB) were xylooligosaccharides, but, after a longer incubation time, xylobiose and xylose were also formed. Moreover, the use of SCXyl as pre-treatment step of PASB, prior to the addition of commercial cellulolytic cocktail, significantly enhanced the saccharification process. All these characteristics demonstrate the advantageous application of this enzyme in several biotechnological processes in food and feed industry and also in the enzymatic pretreatment of biomass for feedstock and ethanol production. PMID:23922891

Paixao, Douglas A. A.; Goncalves, Thiago A.; Franco Cairo, Joao Paulo L.; Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pereira, Isabela; Jackson, George; Cota, Junio; Buchli, Fernanda; Citadini, Ana Paula; Ruller, Roberto; Polo, Carla Cristina; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Murakami, Mario T.; Squina, Fabio M.

2013-01-01

258

Anaerobic digestion of stillage to produce bioenergy in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry.  

PubMed

Stillage is the main wastewater from ethanol production, containing a high chemical oxygen demand in addition to acidic and corrosive characteristics. Though stillage may be used as a soil fertilizer, its land application may be considered problematic due its high polluting potential. Anaerobic digestion represents an effective alternative treatment to reduce the pollution load of stillage. In addition, the methane gas produced within the process may be converted to energy, which can be directly applied to the treatment plant. The objective of this paper was to investigate the energetic potential of anaerobic digestion applied to stillage in the sugarcane ethanol industry. An overall analysis of the results indicates energy recovery capacity (ERC) values for methane ranging from 3.5% to 10%, respectively, for sugarcane juice and molasses. The processes employed to obtain the fermentable broth, as well as the distillation step, represent the main limiting factors to the energetic potential feasibility. Considering financial aspects the annual savings could reach up to US$ 30 million due to anaerobic digestion of stillage in relatively large-scale distilleries (365,000 m3 of ethanol per year). The best scenarios were verified for the association between anaerobic digestion of stillage and combustion of bagasse. In this case, the fossil fuels consumption in distilleries could be fully ceased, such the ERC of methane could reach values ranging from 140% to 890%. PMID:24600872

Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

2014-01-01

259

Sugar-cane newsprint comes to market  

SciTech Connect

Process Evaluation and Development Corp. (Peadco of Mexico City) are making commercially available a process that will for the first time produce fine-grade newsprint from bagasse with the required tear-strength and opaqueness. Various countries are showing an interest in the process, which produces newsprint 20% more cheaply than wood-pulp newsprint. In addition, sugar producers receive as much as $1.50 per ton more than the fuel-oil value of bagasse.

Not Available

1982-06-09

260

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for

G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza

2010-01-01

261

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND -: Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations

Flávia S Papini-Terzi; Flávia R Rocha; Ricardo ZN Vêncio; Juliana M Felix; Diana S Branco; Alessandro J Waclawovsky; Luiz EV Del Bem; Carolina G Lembke; Maximiller DL Costa; Milton Y Nishiyama; Renato Vicentini; Michel GA Vincentz; Eugênio C Ulian; Marcelo Menossi; Glaucia M Souza

2009-01-01

262

Bagasse Pretreated with Hot Water 921 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vols. 98100, 2002  

E-print Network

Bagasse Pretreated with Hot Water 921 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vols. 98­100, 2002 on Bagasse Pretreated with Hot Water MARY BIGELOW AND CHARLES E. WYMAN* BC International and Thayer School from bagasse pretreated with hot water were fed to a batch cellulase production system using the Rut C

California at Riverside, University of

263

Decolorization of molasses' wastewater using activated carbon prepared from cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decolorization of synthetic melanoidin was studied using activated carbon from cane bagasse obtained from Thailand and Brazil. Melanoidin, a nitrogenous brown polymer present in molasses' wastewater, is formed on the interaction between amino acids and carbohydrates. Bagasse, another by-product in the sugar industry, is a cheap material suitable for the preparation of activated carbon.Samples of cane bagasse were carbonized

E. C. Bernardo; R. Egashira; J. Kawasaki

1997-01-01

264

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PARTICLEBOARD School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PARTICLEBOARD Qinglin Wu School of Forestry, Wildlife panels (6.35 mm x 1.22 m x 2.44 m in size) were manufactured from hammer milled bagasse. A combination be successfully developed. Keywords: bagasse, laminate floor, particleboard, pMDI, stability, and strength

265

Volcanic Ash Fall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication discusses volcanic ash fall in terms of composition and effects. This report discusses the negative effects of volcanic ash fall on machinery, human health, weather and man-made structures, using the Mount Saint Helens eruption of 1980 as an example. The composition of volcanic ash is discussed, as well as ancient and modern ash falls that have occurred in the United States.

Kenedi, Christopher; Brantley, Steven; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

266

Activation of fly ash  

DOEpatents

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

1986-01-01

267

Advanced ash management technologies for CFBC ash.  

PubMed

The combustion of high-sulphur coal demands the reduction of sulphur emissions. The sorbent most often used in sulphur capture technology is calcium-based. Ashes from technologies such as circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC), therefore, contain high calcium levels. The use and disposal of these ashes poses challenges, because of highly exothermic reactions with water, high-pH leachates, and excessive expansion of solidified materials. This paper looks at the potential of two post-combustion ash treatment processes, CERCHAR hydration and AWDS disposal, in solving these challenges. A high-sulphur coal-derived CFBC ash is examined, after CERCHAR hydration treatment, in conjunction with a conventionally hydrated ash, in a range of chemical, geotechnical and utilization scenarios. The ashes are used to make no-cement and roller-compacted concrete as well as Ash Water Dense Suspensions (AWDS). The solidified mortar paste from no-cement concrete is subjected to an extensive geochemical examination to determine how solidification progresses and strength develops, from a chemical point of view. PMID:12909091

Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

2003-01-01

268

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

2012-04-01

269

Thermal analysis kinetics of bagasse and rice straw  

SciTech Connect

The role of added inorganic salt on the thermal degradation of lignin was studied. The result was compared with the thermal analysis of two types of agricultural residues: rice straw with high silica content and bagasse with low silica. Thermal decomposition of such materials is faster than that of wood with a dual mechanism concept similar to wood. In general, the activation energy for rice straw is low, about 19.3 Kcal/mole, while that of bagasse is 33.4 Kcal/mole. This proves that the inorganic material, either inherited or added, changed the thermal activities of the lignocellulosic materials.

Nassar, M.M. [Minia Univ., El-Minia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

1998-11-01

270

Thermal analysis kinetics of bagasse and rice straw  

SciTech Connect

The role of added inorganic salt on the thermal degradation of lignin was studied. The results were compared with the thermal analyses of two types of agricultural residues: rice straw with high silica content and bagasse with low silica. Compared to wood, thermal decomposition of such materials is faster, with a dual mechanism concept similar to wood. In general, the activation energy for rice straw is about 19.3 Kcal/mol while that of bagasse is 33.4 Kcal/mol. This proves that inorganic material either inherited or added changed the thermal activities of the lignocellulosic materials.

Nassar, M.M. [Minia Univ., El-Minia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering] [Minia Univ., El-Minia (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

1999-01-01

271

Catalytic steam gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) tested the catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol synthesis gas. The process uses steam, indirect heat, and a catalyst to produce synthesis gas in one step in fluidized bed gasifier. Both laboratory and process development scale (nominal 1 ton/day) gasifiers were used to test two different catalyst systems: (1) supported nickel catalysts and (2) alkali carbonates doped on the bagasse. This paper presents the results of laboratory and process development unit gasification tests and includes an economic evaluation of the process. 20 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.

1983-12-01

272

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOEpatents

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14

273

Perspective of the Sugarcane Industry in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugarcane industry in Brazil is experiencing a rapid shift towards creating the grounds for a green and sustainable biorefinary\\u000a industry. After 30 years of ProAlcool, the federal government program that boosted Brazil’s sugarcane industry by creating\\u000a a mandate to blend ethanol with gasoline, flex fuel engines now dominate Brazil’s automobile industry. Currently, bioethanol\\u000a replaces around 30% of the gasoline consumed

Paulo Arruda

2011-01-01

274

Carbon balance of sugarcane bioenergy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important criterion for bioenergy systems evaluation is their greenhouse gas mitigation potential. Sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to produce grid-bound surplus electricity but also have net CO2 emissions associated with the upstream fossil-fuel consumption for plantation management, transportation and processing of the fibrous biomass. However, when compared to coal-based power generation systems, sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to avoid

Revin Panray Beeharry

2001-01-01

275

Leaching of Mixtures of Biochar and Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments.2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations.10, 11, 16 Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and reduces available aluminum.3, 17 Combinations of these benefits likely lead to the observed increased yields for crops including corn and sugarcane.17 with biochar addition to soil. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) 8, 17 than do unammended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way.18 Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes.15 Here, we are examining the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluating leaching of organic carbon and metals from the mixtures.

Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL] [ORNL; Porat, Iris [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL] [ORNL; Amonette, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Drake, Meghan M [ORNL] [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL] [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

276

Carbon and nitrogen transformation during composting of sweet sorghum bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of compost, consisting of sweet sorghum bagasse with either sewage sludge or a mixture of pig slurry and poultry manure, were studied in a pilot plant using the Rutgers system. The total degradation of the piles as determined by the weight loss of organic matter during the bio-oxidative and maturation phases accounted for 64% of the organic matter

M. Pilar Bernal; Antonio F. Navarro; Asunción Roig; Juan Cegarra; Diego García

1996-01-01

277

VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE CONVEYORS TO LEFT WITH BOILER HOUSE WING?S GABLE END IN LEFT BACKGROUND. A CONDENSATE TANK IS TO THE RIGHT, WITH BOILING HOUSE GABLE END IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

278

PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING  

EPA Science Inventory

The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

279

A specific, robust, and automated method for routine at-line monitoring of the concentration of cellulases in genetically modified sugarcane plants.  

PubMed

Bagasse is one of the waste crop materials highlighted as commercially viable for cellulosic bio-ethanol production via enzymatic conversion to release fermentable sugars. Genetically modified sugarcane expressing cellobiohydrolases (CBH), endoglucanase (EG), and ?-glucosidases (BG) provide a more cost-effective route to cellulose breakdown compared to culturing these enzymes in microbial tanks. Hence, process monitoring of the concentration profile of these key cellulases in incoming batches of sugarcane is required for fiscal measures and bio-ethanol process control. The existing methods due to their non-specificity, requirement of trained analysts, low sample throughput, and low amenability to automation are unsuitable for this purpose. Therefore, this paper explores a membrane-based sample preparation method coupled to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to quantify these enzymes. The maximum enzyme extraction efficiency was obtained by using a polyethersulfone membrane with molecular cut-off of 10 kDa. The use of 15 mM, pH 7.75, phosphate buffer resulted in CZE separation and quantification of CBH, EG, and BG within 10 min. Migration time reproducibility was between 0.56% and 0.7% and hence, suitable for use with automatic peak detection software. Therefore, the developed CZE method is suitable for at-line analysis of BG, CBH, and EG in every batch of harvested sugarcane. PMID:21136205

Gupta, Ruchi; Baldock, Sara J; Fielden, Peter R; Grieve, Bruce D

2011-02-01

280

Sugar cane bagasse as a possible source of fermentable carbohydrates. I. Characterization of bagasse with regard to monosaccharide, hemicellulose, and amino acid composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemicellulose fractions of plant materials have recently attracted attention as a possible source of fermentable sugars to be used via fermentation for the production of liquid fuels, mainly ethanol. Individual monosaccharides present in bagasse hemicellulose were determined using HPLC and other chromatographic procedures. The presence of higher oligomers of the monosaccharides could also be determined. The pentosan fraction of bagasse

P. J. du Toit; S. P. Olivier; P. L. van Biljon

1984-01-01

281

Volcanic Ash: Volcanism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is the second in the four-part Volcanic Ash series. It provides information about the geological, and geophysical processes related to volcanic activity and volcanic ash in the atmosphere and on the ground. It discusses four types of volcanic eruptions and describes six major volcanic hazards: Tephra Pyroclastic flow Lahar Lava flow Volcanic gas Tsunami

Comet

2011-04-22

282

Kentucky Ash Education Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research explains coal combustion byproducts such as fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and gypsum. The site also outlines how coal is used for electricity. Several animations will help users visualize how coal is processed at an electrical power plant.

2011-03-18

283

Alumina from fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the exploratory work done so far with the lime-sinter process show that more than 50 percent of the alumina in a typical fly ash can be made soluble by sodium carbonate extraction of the sintered product. Based on work reported for other non-bauxite materials, there is every reason to expect increased yields. Fly ash can become a

Burnet

2008-01-01

284

Increased digestibility of bagasse by pretreatment with alkalis and steam explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali treatment and steam explosion of bagasse were investigated in order to develop economical and effective methods of increasing the digestibility of bagasse. The treated bagasse was to be used as a substrate for the production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic acidogenic bacteria. The alkalis examined were NaOH, NHâ (aqueous), NaOH + NHâ, Ca(OH)â, and Ca(OH)â + NaâCOâ, at

M. J. Playne

1984-01-01

285

Bagasse-fired steam boiler station for Kenana Sugar in Sudan  

SciTech Connect

The equipment and operation of the bagasse fired steam boiler station of the Kenana Sugar factory in Sudan are described. The station consists of six bagasse-fired, steam boilers with individual capacities of 113 tonnes per hour which provide steam for a 40 MN power station. During the off-season it serves as a regional power station which also operates irrigation facilities to the cane fields. The bagasse handling and feeding system is also described.

Not Available

1981-02-01

286

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should\\u000a be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase,\\u000a ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g

Bernard A. Prior; Donal F. Day

287

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should\\u000a be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase,\\u000a ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a

Bernard A. Prior; Donal F. Day

2008-01-01

288

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, beta-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g

Bernard A. Prior; Donal F. Day

2008-01-01

289

Microbes - friends and foes of sugarcane.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is an important cash crop for many countries because it is a major source of several products including sugar and bioethanol. To obtain maximum yields there is a need to apply large quantities of chemical fertilizers.Worldwide yields are also severely affected by more than sixty diseases, mostly caused by fungi but viruses, phytoplasmas, nematodes and other pests can also damage this crop. For most of these diseases, chemical control is not available and breeders are struggling with the development of pest resistant varieties. Many members of the grass family Poaceae establish associations with beneficial microbes which promote their growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. They can be used as means to reduce the need for chemical fertilizer and to minimize the impacts of pathogen invasion. This review highlights the diversity of the microbes associated with sugarcane and the role of beneficial microbes for growth promotion and biocontrol. More extensive use of beneficial microbes will help the sugarcane grower not only to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers but also minimize the disease. In this paper, a brief description of both the non-pathogenic and pathogenic microbes associated with sugarcane is provided. Future prospects for the expanded use of beneficial microbes for sugarcane are also discussed and detailed herein. PMID:23322584

Mehnaz, Samina

2013-12-01

290

Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

Schultz, Colin

2013-04-01

291

Coal combustion ash haulback  

SciTech Connect

Coal mining disturbs large tracts of land which must be reclaimed. Unfortunately, iron sulfides which are common in most coals and the adjacent strata weather, forming acid mine drainage (AMD) which degrades surface and ground water. Burning of coal produces combustion by products, most of which are placed in ponds or landfills. Suitable disposal areas are difficult to find and permit, especially in urban areas. This has led to ash haulback--where the waste generated during coal burning is hauled back to a mine for disposal. The potential advantages of coal combustion ash haulback are: Disposal occurs in a disturbed area (mine) rather than disturb additional land near the power plant; The same vehicles used to haul coal from the mine can be used to return the ash to the mine; Ash, if alkaline, may provide neutralization of acidic water or mine overburden commonly found at coal mines; and Low permeability ash could reduce ground water flow through the mine backfill, thus reducing leaching of acid forming constituents or metals. Placement of ash in surface mines provides an efficient, cost-effective method of disposal while at the same time contributing to reclamation of the mine. Wise natural resource management suggests a reasonable approach to disposal of coal ash is to return it to its original location--the mine.

Gray, R.E.; Gray, T.A. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

292

Molecular detection and identification of thirteen isolates of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus associated with sugarcane yellow leaf disease in nine sugarcane growing states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty sugarcane leaf samples exhibiting midrib yellowing symptoms from nine sugarcane growing states of India were collected.\\u000a The total RNA was isolated from infected samples and RT-PCR assays were performed using Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) specific primers. The infection of SCYLV was detected in 27 out of 30 samples, which showed the expected size (~610 bp)\\u000a amplicon during RT-PCR. The

Deepti Singh; Govind Pratap Rao; S. K. Snehi; S. K. Raj; R. Karuppaiah; R. Viswanathan

293

Synthesis and characterization of methylcellulose from sugar cane bagasse cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, methylcellulose was produced from cellulose extracted of sugar cane bagasse, using dimethyl sulfate in heterogeneous conditions. The infrared spectra of the cellulose and of the methylcellulose present significant differences at the regions from 3600 to 2700cm?1 and from 1500 to 800cm?1. The ratio between the absorption intensities of the OH stretching band (?3400cm?1) and the CH

Rose G. P. Viera; Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Rosana M. N. de Assunção; Carla da S. Meireles; Júlia G. Vieira; Grasielle S. de Oliveira

2007-01-01

294

Lime pretreatment of crop residues bagasse and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lime (calcium hydroxide) was used as a pretreatment agent to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of two common crop residues:\\u000a bagasse and wheat straw. A systematic study of pretreatment conditions suggested that for short pretreatment times (1–3 h),\\u000a high temperatures (85-135°C) were required to achieve high sugar yields, whereas for long pretreatment times (e.g., 24 h),\\u000a low temperatures (50–65°C) were effective.

Vincent S. Chang; Murlidhar Nagwani; Mark T. Holtzapple

1998-01-01

295

Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto bagasse and wood pulps  

SciTech Connect

Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto bagasse and wood pulps has been studied using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The effect of order of reactants addition on grafting was examined: three methods were studied. Addition of the pulp to a mixture of initiator and monomer (method A) resulted in more efficient grafting than the other two methods. The reaction produced more grafting at 50/sup 0/C than at 30/sup 0/C or at 40/sup 0/C. The results showed that the monomer and initiator concentrations are the major factors influencing the grafting rate of acrylonitrile. Increasing the acrylonitrile or initiator concentration was accompanied by a substantial increase in graft yields. Increasing the initiator concentration is more effective on polymerization rate than the increase in monomer concentration. The extent of grafting of this monomer can best be controlled by reaction time. Water swelling of pulps significantly affected the grafting rate of acrylonitrile as well as the ceric consumption during grafting. The reactivity of bagasse pulp towards grafting of acrylonitrile is higher than that of wood pulp due to a more open structure of cellulose in bagasse pulp as well as the presence of some lignin which accelerates grafting. Ceric consumption during grafting depends on the nature of the pulp as well as the monomer and initiator concentrations, time, temperature, and the method of grafting. More Ce(IV) is consumed during grafting than during oxidation of the pulps under identical reaction conditions, due to homopolymer formation which accompanied grafting. The ceric consumption by bagasse during grafting or oxidation is somewhat greater than that consumed by wood pulp under similar reaction conditions.

Heikal, S.O.; El-Kalyoubi, S.F.

1982-08-01

296

Amendments of sugarcane trash induce suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes in a sugarcane soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field experiment at Bundaberg, Queensland, sugarcane trash was incorporated into soil with, or without, additional nitrogen\\u000a supplied as either soybean residue or ammonium nitrate. The carbon inputs from plant material (lOtC\\/ha) were the same in all\\u000a treatments, while both plus-nitrogen treatments received the same amount of nitrogen (210kgN\\/ha). Sugarcane was planted 23\\u000a weeks after amendments were incorporated, and

G. R. Stirling; E. J. Wilson; A. M. Stirling; C. E. Pankhurst; P. W. Moody; M. J. Bell; N. Halpin

2005-01-01

297

Increased digestibility of bagasse by pretreatment with alkalis and steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

Alkali treatment and steam explosion of bagasse were investigated in order to develop economical and effective methods of increasing the digestibility of bagasse. The treated bagasse was to be used as a substrate for the production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic acidogenic bacteria. The alkalis examined were NaOH, NH/sub 3/ (aqueous), NaOH + NH/sub 3/, Ca(OH)/sub 2/, and Ca(OH)/sub 2/ + Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, at ambient temperature and in combination with steam explosion at 200/sup 0/C, 6.9 MPa, and 5 min cooking times. Digestibilities of up to 733 g organic matter (OM)/kg bagasse dry matter (DM) were obtained for bagasse treated with NaOH and Ca(OH)/sub 2/ + Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/; less than 430 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with aqueous NH/sub 3/; and up to 724 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with Ca(OH)/sub 2/. This digestibility was only achieved by using high concentrations of Ca(OH)/sub 2/, i.e., 180-300 g/kg bagasse. Steam explosion increased the digestibility of bagasse up to 740 g OM in the presence of alkali but only to 610 g OM in the absence of alkali. The digestibility of bagasse without pretreatment was 190 g OM/kg bagasse DM. More than one-half the hemicellulose present was solubilized by pretreatment. The relative costs of the alkalis used were obtained for the United States, Australia, and Europe. Lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/) was the least expensive alkali per unit of additional digestible OM obtained. Ammonia was the most expensive alkali to use, except in the United States where the difference in its cost relative to other alkalis was smaller. With acidogenic fermentations, alkali is able to double as a neutralizing agent during fermentation.

Playne, M.J.

1984-01-01

298

Molecular structure, thermal analysis and electrical properties of cyanoethyl and carbamoyl ethyl bagasse raw materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared absorption spectra, thermal analysis as well as dielectric properties of cyano and carbamoyl ethylated bagasse raw materials and their hydrolysis with NaOH were studied. A new band appeared in the infrared spectra at 2252 cm -1, characteristic to cyano group and a new shoulder appeared at 3150 cm -1, characteristic to NH 2 of amide group for cyanoethyl and carbamoyl ethyl raw material, respectively. Also the band intensity at 1636 cm -1 characteristic of the amide group in the carbamoyl ethyl bagasse was found to be higher than that in case of bagasse raw material. A new band was seen at 1736 cm -1, characteristic to C=O of carboxyl group which formed due to hydrolysis of cyano or carbamoyl groups. The crystallinity indices of the produced bagasse derivative were calculated and the increase is attributed to cyano, carbamoyl and hydrolysis process. Incorporation of cyano group into bagasse increases its resistance against thermal degradation. So, loss in weight from TG curves under major decomposition temperature (350 °C) was about 59% for cyanoethyl bagasse raw material while it was about 69% at 350 °C for bagasse raw material and 60% for carbamoyl ethyl bagasse. A kinetic study of the thermal degradation process revealed that, bagasse and its derivatives followed a first order reaction and the degradation of derivatives was more complex. The dielectric constant ( ?') and AC electrical conductivity were studied with frequencies over the range (50-2000 Hz) for cyanoethylated, hydrolyzed cyanoethylated and carbamoyl ethylated bagasse raw material at two fixed temperatures (30 and 100 °C). Generally, the dielectric constant decreased and the conductivity increased with increasing frequencies. The increase in the nitrogen content in bagasse raw material due to cyanoethylation, carbamoyl ethylation and their hydrolysis cyanoethylated resulted in an increase in the dielectric constant.

Nada, A. M. A.; Seoudi, R.

2006-09-01

299

PVA-hydrogel entrapped Candida guilliermondii for xylitol production from sugarcane hemicellulose hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Viable cells of Candida guilliermondii were immobilized by inclusion into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel using the freezing-thawing method. Entrapment experiments were planned according to a 2(3) full factorial design, using the PVA concentration (80, 100, and 120 g L(-1)), the freezing temperature (-10, -15, and -20 degrees C), and the number of freezing-thawing cycles (one, three, and five) as the independent variables, integrated with three additional tests to estimate the errors. The effectiveness of the immobilization procedure was checked in Erlenmeyer flasks as the pellet capability to catalyze the xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion of a medium based on sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. To this purpose, the yield of xylitol on consumed xylose, xylitol volumetric productivity, and cell retention yield were selected as the response variables. Cell pellets were then used to perform the same bioconversion in a stirred tank reactor operated at 400 rpm, 30 degrees C, and 1.04 vvm air flowrate. At the end of fermentation, a maximum xylitol concentration of 28.7 g L(-1), a xylitol yield on consumed xylose of 0.49 g g(-1) and a xylitol volumetric productivity of 0.24 g L(-1) h(-1) were obtained. PMID:18633733

da Cunha, Mário A A; Converti, Attilio; Santos, Júlio C; Ferreira, Sylvia T S; da Silva, Silvio S

2009-06-01

300

California Dust and Ash  

...     View Larger Image The Santa Ana winds that typically blow through Southern California during late ... available at JPL November 27, 2003 - Santa Ana winds blow dust and ash over the Pacific. project:  ...

2014-05-15

301

Environmental benefits on a life cycle basis of using bagasse-derived ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is the fibrous residue generated during sugar production and can be a desirable feedstock for fuel ethanol production. Excess bagasse left after satisfying the mills’ energy requirements can be used in a bioconvesion process to make ethanol. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the environmental benefits of diverting excess bagasse to ethanol production as opposed to

Kiran L. Kadam

2002-01-01

302

Selenium in fly ash.  

PubMed

Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on 10 percent (by weight) fly ash-amended soil absorbed up to 1 ppm of selenium. Fly ashes from 21 states contained total selenium contents ranging from 1.2 to 16.5 ppm. Cabbage grown on soil containing 10 percent (by weight) of these fly ashes absorbed selenium (up to 3.7 ppm) in direct proportion (correlation coefficient r = .89) to the selenium concentration in the respective fly ash. Water, aquatic weeds, algae, dragonfly nymphs, polliwogs, and tissues of bullheads and muskrats from a fly ash-contaminated pond contained concentrations of selenium markedly elevated over those of controls. PMID:1251212

Gutenmann, W H; Bache, C A; Youngs, W D; Lisk, D J

1976-03-01

303

Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

2012-06-01

304

Environmental stimuli promoting sucker initiation in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of suckers, late-formed tillers, in mature sugarcane crops reduces the sugar concentration of harvested material to the detriment of profitability. The amount of suckering varies with cultivar and season. However, the environmental stimuli promoting suckering, i.e. the number of suckers, are not understood. This paper describes the effects on suckering of increasing soil moisture, nitrogen, and the level

G. D. Bonnett; B. Salter; N. Berding; A. P. Hurney

2005-01-01

305

Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

1988-05-01

306

Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

1982-10-01

307

The recovery of by-products and pulping chemicals from industrial soda bagasse spent liquors  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss the recovery and use of lignin and hemicellulose and the recycling of chemicals from spent liquors from soda bagasses pulping. The product sales value of a bagasse pulp mill can also be doubled. Profitability can be improved substantially, and a serious environmental problem can also be solved. These discussions are based on laboratory work and on some industrial trials.

Venter, J.S.M.; Vander Klashorst, G.H. (Div. for Processing and Chemical Manufacturing Technology, CSIR, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (ZA))

1989-03-01

308

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-print Network

-70%; propionate, 21-28%; butyrate, 6.5-7.6%; and other acids were about 1% each. In this thesis, we examined the effect of higher substrate concentration up to 100 g dry bagasse/L. For untreated bagasse, the VFA yields were fairly constant regardless...

Lee, Chang-Ming

2012-06-07

309

Comparison of Ash from PF and CFB Boilers and Behaviour of Ash in Ash Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 90% of electricity produced in Estonia is made by power plants firing local oil shale and 25% of the boilers are of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) variety. In 2007 approximately 6.5 million tons of ash was acquired as a byproduct of using oil shale for energy production. Approximately 1.5 million tons of that was ash from CFB boilers. Such ash is deposited in ash fields by means ofhydro ash removal.

Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.; Rootamm, R.; Konist, A.

310

Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production. PMID:24274475

Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

2014-01-01

311

Understanding interception losses under sugarcane plantations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being planted around 20 million hectares in over 70 countries. The Brazil is a leader in terms of area harvested and production with 9.5 million hectares and 715 million tons in 2011, respectively. Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop which is planted and after the first harvesting, the re-growth is harvested several times (five to eight times) until replanting is needed mainly due to yield decline. The rainfall interception loss is an important process in the hydrological cycle which has a key role on climate change. Details on sugarcane canopy interception are still not well understood in particular within the tropics. In this study, rainfall interception was measured during the complete ratoon crop cycle of the sixth re-growth, observing their growth stage. Five through (each with an area of 2000 cm2) were installed randomly on the plantation. The gross rainfall for the study period of one year was 1413 mm, while the throughfall was 972 mm (69%). Thus, annual rainfall interception loss was 441 mm (31%). The interception losses started to occur in the third stage of plant development (between 110 and 240 days after the onset of re-growth period). During the formation of the stems, the interception was 25.5%. Furthermore, at stage when the plant reached maturity (240 to 385 days), interception loss was increased to 57.5%. Our results indicate that interception losses are an important component of water use in sugarcane crops and the annual values of interception losses from sugarcane may be similar to some results found in tropical and temperate forests.

Costa Silva, R. W.; Salemi, L.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; de Moraes, J. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

2012-12-01

312

Production of SCP and cellulase by Aspergillus terreus from bagasse substrate  

SciTech Connect

The fermentation of 1.0% untreated bagasse under optimum cultural and nutritional conditions with Aspergillus terreus GN1 indicated that the maximum rate of protein and cellulase production could be obtained during three days of submerged fermentation. Even though 16.4% protein recovery, 0.55 units CMCase/mL, and 0.027 FPase units/mL were obtained on the seventh day, the rates of increase in protein recovery and cellulase production were slower than those obtained up to three days, which were 14.3% protein recovery, 0.45 units cMCase/mL, and 0.019 units FPase/mL. There was an initial lag in the utilization of cellulose up to two days due to the utilization of the water-soluble carbohydrate present in untreated bagasse. Cellulose utilization and water-soluble carbohydrate content during fermentation were correlated with protein recovery and enzyme production. The protein and cellulase production during three days fermentation with 1.0% untreated and treated bagasse were compared and the protein content of the total biomass was calculated into constituent protein contributed by the fungal mycelium and the undegraded bagasse. The total biomass recovered with untreated and treated bagasse was 1020 and 820 mg/g bagasse substrate, respectively, and contained 14.3 and 20.6% crude protein, respectively. The contribution of fungal biomass and undegraded bagasse was 309 and 711, and 373 and 447 mg/g untreated and treated bagasse substrates, respectively. In an 8-L-flask trial during three days of fermentation, the recovery of SCP and cellulase were 66 g and 32,400 units (Sigma) for treated bagasse and 82 g and 8200 units (Sigma) for untreated bagasse, respectively. (Refs. 18).

Garg, S.K.; Neelakantan, S.

1982-01-01

313

Habits and control of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.)  

E-print Network

OF TABLES Table Page Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn for control of the sugarcane borer based upon the infestation per 10 stalks. Experiment I. Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn for control of the sugarcane borer based upon... the number of borers per 10 stalks. Experi- ment II. Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn for control of the sugarcane borer based upon the percentage of infested stalks. Experi- ment II. 36 Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn...

Teetes, George Lee

2012-06-07

314

Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and 100% are predicted for some cycles with the addition of optimum heat recovery systems.

Seguro, Jean Vittorio

315

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505

Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka

2007-09-01

316

Production of d -lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic

Buenaventurada P. Calabia; Yutaka Tokiwa

2007-01-01

317

Effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping of bagasse.  

PubMed

The effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping was investigated. The properties of black liquor and pulp strength of bagasse were analyzed. The extraction was conducted at 160 degrees C for 30min where 13.2% of the mass was dissolved in the extraction liquor. Untreated bagasse and extracted bagasse were digested by soda and soda-AQ processes at 17% and 15.5% (with 0.1% AQ) alkali charge (NaOH). Cooking temperatures were 160 degrees C and 155 degrees C respectively. The pulp from extracted bagasse had a lower Kappa number and a higher viscosity compared to the pulp from the untreated bagasse. The black liquor from pulping extracted bagasse had a lower solid content, a lower viscosity and a lower silica content, but a higher heating value than that from pulping of untreated bagasse. Hot-water extraction resulted in a significant decrease in bleaching chemical consumption and the formation of chlorinated organics. Pulp strength properties such as the tensile index and the burst index were found to be lower, but the tear index, bulk, opacity and pulp freeness were found to be higher when hot-water extraction was applied. PMID:20493244

Lei, Yichao; Liu, Shijie; Li, Jiang; Sun, Runcang

2010-01-01

318

Maasvlakte Fly Ash processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995 Vliegasunie put the Maasvlakte Fly Ash Processing Plant in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in operation. With a capacity of 250.000 tonnes per annum, this installation has an important role in maintaining a record of 100% use of Dutch fly ash by continuing to meet the customer's need for fly ash of constant quality and quantity. The main objectives of

Jos B. M. Moret; Jan W. van den Berg

1997-01-01

319

Sorptivity of fly ash concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied

M. K. Gopalan

1996-01-01

320

Utilization FLY ASH INFORMATION FROM  

E-print Network

, 1.7% FBC ash, and 0.8% SDA product. Most of the CCPs produced were used in the building industry, and 3% in other uses. FBC Ashes The amount of FBC ashes produced in Europe was approximately one million

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

321

Selenium in fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppM) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on

W. H. Gutenmann; C. A. Bache; W. D. Youngs; D. J. Lisk

1976-01-01

322

Selenium in Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on

Walter H. Gutenmann; Carl A. Bache; William D. Youngs; Donald J. Lisk

1976-01-01

323

Increased digestibility of bagasse by pretreatment with alkalis and steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

Alkali treatment and steam explosion of bagasse were investigated in order to develop economical and effective methods of increasing the digestibility of bagasse. The treated bagasse was to be used as a substrate for the production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic acidogenic bacteria. The alkalis examined were NaOH, NH3 (aqueous), NaOH + NH3, Ca(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3, at ambient temperature and in combination with steam explosion at 200 degrees C, 6.9 MPa, and 5 min cooking times. Digestibilities of up to 733 g organic matter (OM)/kg bagasse dry matter (DM) were obtained for bagasse treated with NaOH and Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3; less than 430 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with aqueous NH3; and up to 724 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with Ca(OH)2. This digestibility was only achieved by using high concentrations of Ca(OH)2, i.e., 180-300 g/kg bagasse. Steam explosion increased the digestibility of bagasse up to 740 g OM in the presence of alkali but only to 610 g OM in the absence of alkali. The digestibility of bagasse without pretreatment was 190 g OM/kg bagasse DM. More than one-half the hemicellulose present was solubilized by pretreatment. The composition of the liquid fraction of steam-exploded material was examined and contained mainly xylose monomers and oligomers (112 g/kg original bagasse DM) and acetic acid (33 g/kg original DM). The relative costs of the alkalis used were obtained for the United States, Australia, and Europe. Lime (Ca(OH)2) was the least expensive alkali per unit of additional digestible OM obtained. Ammonia was the most expensive alkali to use, except in the United States where the difference in its cost relative to other alkalis was smaller. However, ammonia provides organic nitrogen for microbial growth, and could be recycled. With acidogenic fermentations, alkali is able to double as a neutralizing agent during fermentation.

Playne, M.J.

1984-01-01

324

Making the right choices for successful bagasse newsprint production: Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Successful commercial production of bagasse newsprint of a quality which is acceptable to publishers has been a long time coming - 130 years to be exact. The history of bagasse newsprint, upon which so many organizations and individuals have devoted tremendous amounts of time and effort over these many years, has been strewn with failures. However, as a result of the cautious approach pursued by serious and competent investigators over the past several years, it can be safely proclaimed that successful bagasse newsprint production is now a reality.

Atchison, J.E. (Joseph E. Atchison Consultants, Inc., Larchmont, NY (United States))

1993-01-01

325

Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P. [Federal Univ. of Parana (Brazil); Deschamps, F.C. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

1995-12-31

326

Cellulase production on bagasse pretreated with hot water.  

PubMed

Because pretreatment of biomass with hot water only in differential flow systems offers very digestible cellulose and potentially less inhibition by liquid hydrolysate, solids and liquid hydrolysate from bagasse pretreated with hot water were fed to a batch cellulase production system using the Rut C30 strain of Trichoderma reesei to determine the suitability of these substrates for cellulase production. The organism was found to be sensitive to inhibitors in the liquid hydrolysate but could be adapted to improve its tolerance. In addition, filtering of the material reduced inhibitory effects. The organism was also sensitive to some component in the solids, and they had to be washed heavily to achieve good growth and cellulase production rates. Even then, a lag was found before enzyme production would commence on pretreated solids whereas no such lag was experienced with Solka Floc. However, once enzyme production began, as high and even somewhat greater cellulase productivities were realized with washed pretreated solids. Adding lignin to Solka Floc delayed enzyme production, suggesting that lignin or other materials in the lignin solids could cause the lag observed for pretreated bagasse, but more studies are needed to resolve the actual reason for this delay. PMID:12018314

Bigelow, Mary; Wyman, Charles E

2002-01-01

327

Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

None

1980-08-01

328

Hygroscopic properties of volcanic ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limited observational data exists on the physical interactions between volcanic ash particles and water vapor; yet it is thought that these interactions can strongly impact the microphysical evolution of ash, with implications for its atmospheric lifetime and transport, as well as formation of water and ice clouds. In this study, we investigate for the first time, the hygroscopic properties of ultra-fine volcanic ash (<125 ?m diameter) from the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, El Chichón in 1982, Tungurahua in 2006, Chaitén in 2008, Mt. Redoubt in 2009, and Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. The hygroscopicity of the ash particles is quantified by their ability to uptake water and nucleate into cloud drops under controlled levels of water vapor supersaturation. Evidence presented strongly suggests that ash uptakes water efficiently via adsorption and a simple parameterization of ash hygroscopicity is developed for use in ash plume and atmospheric models.

Lathem, T. L.; Kumar, P.; Nenes, A.; Dufek, J.; Sokolik, I. N.; Trail, M.; Russell, A.

2011-06-01

329

Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

1972-01-01

330

Surface properties of granular activated carbons from agricultural by-products and their effects on raw sugar decolorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular activated carbons (GACs) were produced from sugarcane bagasse combined with one of two binders (corn syrup, coal tar) by physical activation and from pecan shells by physical and chemical activation. GACs were evaluated for their physical (hardness, bulk density), chemical (ash, pH), surface (surface area, pore size distribution, surface chemistry), and adsorption properties (molasses color removal, sugar decolorization) and

M Ahmedna; W. E Marshall; R. M Rao

2000-01-01

331

Topochemistry of environmentally friendly pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to fermentable sugar.  

PubMed

In this work, dilute alkaline and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were conducted in comparison with hydrotropic pretreatment to improve the delignification of bagasse prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The surface chemical composition of bagasse after pretreatments was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The surface distribution of lignin and extractives on the bagasse fiber was significantly changed by dilute alkaline, alkaline peroxide, and hydrotropic pretreatments. Hydrotropic pretreatment typically showed, other than the decrease of surface coverage by lignin and extractives, dramatic removal of xylan, thereby leading to more cellulose exposed on the fiber surface after pretreatment. Fiber morphology after pretreatments was more favorable for enzyme hydrolysis as well. However, the hydrotropic treatment had clear advantages because the enzymatic hydrolysis yields of glucan and xylan of pretreated bagasse were 83.9 and 14.3%, respectively. PMID:24689355

Mou, Hongyan; Heikkilä, Elina; Fardim, Pedro

2014-04-23

332

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

Azzam, A.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

1989-01-01

333

Chemical and gamma-ray-modified bagasse as substrates for bioproduction of cellulases and protein  

SciTech Connect

Production of enzymes in the cellulolytic complex was determined in culture filtrates of six fungal isolates grown on chemically treated or gamma-irradiated bagasse. The enzymatic activities of the filtrates were determined by measurement of glucose release from cotton, filter paper, carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose, and cellobiose octaacetate. Cultures grown on basetreated and gamma-irradiated plus acid-treated bagasse provided culture filtrates with the highest enzymatic activities whereas alpha-cellulose, untreated, and acid-treated bagasse were the poorest substrates for enzyme production. Filtrates of trichoderma reesei QM 9414 yielded the highest cellulolytic activity in all test media. The largest accumulation of fungal-derived, extracellular protein was observed in media containing gamma-irradiated bagasse as the carbon substrate. (14 Refs.)

Lillehoj, E.B.; Han, Y.W.

1983-08-01

334

Smoke and toxic species analyses from combustion of guayule bagasse modified fiberboards  

E-print Network

SMOKE AND TOXIC SPECIES ANALYSES FROM COMBUSTION OF GUAYULE BAGASSE MODIFIED FIBERBOARDS A Thesis by LISA DANIELLE PARIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Safety Engineering SMOKE AND TOXIC SPECIES ANALYSIS FROM COMBUSTION OF GUAYULE BAGASSE MODIFIED FIBERBOARDS A Thesis by LISA DANIELLE PARIS Approved as to style and content by: John P...

Paris, Lisa Danielle

2012-06-07

335

ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION  

SciTech Connect

The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

1999-12-01

336

Modeling volcanic ash dispersal  

ScienceCinema

Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

None

2011-10-06

337

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molding Composites Reinforced by Bagasse Fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BMC (Bulk Molding Compound) is composed of UP (Unsaturated Polyester) resin, glass fibers, and bagasse fibers which have been obtained after squeezing sugar cane. Our purpose is to use the bagasse fibers as reinforcement and filler in BMC to fabricate composites by injection molding and injection compression molding. The mechanical properties of injection molding composites were improved after adding the bagasse fibers. Observing the fracture surface of the tensile test specimen through SEM, we could notice the glass fibers were penetrated into the bagasse fibers longitudinally. Along with UP resin solidifying, the glass fibers were firmly fixed in the bagasse fibers and finally united with them. This phenomenon could bring on the same effect as the glass fibers length was prolonged, so that the adhesion interface between fiber and matrix resin became larger, which leads to the increase in the mechanical properties. Otherwise, it was observed that UP resin sufficiently permeated the bagasse fibers and solidified. This also contributes to enhancing the mechanical properties drastically.

Cao, Yong; Fukumoto, Isao

338

Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to investigate the sintering process of volcanic ash. In order to analyze the mineral transformation and microstructure evolution, the qualitative as well as quantitative crystalline phase analysis of volcanic ash samples directly taken from furnace by per 100 oC in the range of between 100 and 1400 oC as well as evaluation of microstructure of volcanic ash taken from from furnace by per 20 oC in the range of between 1000 and 1300 oC has been made by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, we obtain the viscosity temperature curve for volcanic ash during melting process on the basis of the characteristic temperature obtained by HSM.

Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

2013-12-01

339

Sugar cane bagasse as a possible source of fermentable carbohydrates. I. Characterization of bagasse with regard to monosaccharide, hemicellulose, and amino acid composition  

SciTech Connect

Hemicellulose fractions of plant materials have recently attracted attention as a possible source of fermentable sugars to be used via fermentation for the production of liquid fuels, mainly ethanol. Individual monosaccharides present in bagasse hemicellulose were determined using HPLC and other chromatographic procedures. The presence of higher oligomers of the monosaccharides could also be determined. The pentosan fraction of bagasse was successfully hydrolyzed and extracted with 5% (m/v) HCl, and the rate of release of individual monosaccharides was determined. Xylose was the main component in the hydrolyzates, while glucose, arabinose, and galactose present in the side chains of the pentosans were initially released at a fast rate. This treatment resulted in obtaining 229 mg/g xylose (85% of theoretical maximum) and 44 mg/g glucose from bagasse. Only arabinose (2.8 mg/g) and galactose (0.75 mg/g) was also present in detectable quantities. A total of 309 mg monosaccharides were obtained from 1 g of bagasse by this treatment. The results indicated that hydrolysis conditions for specific plant materials depend on the composition of the specific material being utilized. A part of the pentosan fraction (77.1%) was hydrolyzed at a high rate, while 22.9% was more stable and hydrolyzed more slowly. Although 39.8% dry bagasse could be obtained in solution by treatment with dilute alkali, only about 72% of the available hemicelluloses could be extracted in this way if the bagasse was not delignified beforehand. Amino acids and peptides or proteins were also extracted to very much the same extent with the alkali.

du Toit, P.J.; Olivier, S.P.; van Biljon, P.L.

1984-01-01

340

An atlas of volcanic ash  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions were studied, using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy to characterize each ash type and to relate ash morphology to magma composition and eruption type. The ashes are best placed into two broad genetic categories: magnetic and hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic). Ashes from magmatic eruptions are formed when expanding gases in the magma form a froth that loses its coherence as it approaches the ground surface. During hydrovolcanic eruptions, the magma is chilled on contact with ground or surface waters, resulting in violent steam eruptions. Within these two genetic categories, ashes from different magma types can be characterized. The pigeon hole classification used here is for convenience; there are eruptions which are driven by both phreatic and magmatic gases.

Heiken, G.

1974-01-01

341

Ash in the Soil System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect, climate/meteorological conditions after the ash spread/fire and soil background characteristics. In addition, after the fire heating can change soil original properties increasing the complexity of the ash effects on soil properties. After fire, ash is highly dynamic and very easily transported by wind until the first rains. When wetted, ash compacts and binds onto soil surface, and wind has low capacity to transport it. The post-rain ash dynamic is influenced by water erosion (in slope areas), infiltration into soil profile and vegetation recuperation. This means that ash produced in one place will have implications in other areas, including not burned areas (e.g wind transport and water erosion). This is a clear indication that ash effects go much further than the fire affected area. Due the heterogeneity of soil and ash properties and their dynamic across the landscape, the impacts of ash on soil system can be diverse, producing a mosaic of different effects and responses after ash treatment and/ or fire. In this communication it will be presented and discussed the advances and scientific development of ash effects and dynamic in soil system.

Pereira, P.

2012-04-01

342

Ash Recycling: Just a Dream ? Heiner Zwahr  

E-print Network

, which started operation in 1896, it was stated that "the fly ash" collected in the ash chambers was used methods for analysing the ingredients of fly ash have been improved, we no longer use fly ash from waste incineration in any way expressly recommended in the past. In fact fly ash from waste incinerators today

Columbia University

343

Biotechnological production of xylitol: enhancement of monosaccharide production by post-hydrolysis of dilute acid sugarcane hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Dilute-acid hydrolysis pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse resulted in release of 48% (18.4 g/L) of the xylan in the hemicellulose fraction into the hydrolysate as monomeric xylose. In order to enhance the recuperation of this monomer, a post-hydrolysis stage consisted of thermal treatment was carried out. This treatment resulted in an increase in xylose release of 62% (23.5 g/L) of the hemicellulose fraction. Original and post-hydrolysates were concentrated to the same levels of monomeric xylose in the fermentor feed. During the fermentation process, cellular growth was observed to be higher in the post-hydrolysate (3.5 g/L, Y(x/s) = 0.075 g cells/g xylose) than in the original hydrolysate (2.9 g/L, Y(x/s) = 0.068 g cells/g xylose). The post-treated hydrolysate required less concentration of sugars resulting in a lower concentration of fermentation inhibitors, which were formed primarily in the dilute acid hydrolysis step. Post-hydrolysis step led to a high xylose-xylitol conversion efficiency of 76% (0.7 g xylitol/g xylose) and volumetric productivity of 0.68 g xylitol/L h when compared to 71% (0.65 g xylitol/g xylose and productivity of 0.61 g xylitol/L h) for the original hemicellulosic hydrolysate. PMID:19214792

Sarrouh, Boutros Fouad; de Freitas Branco, Ricardo; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

2009-05-01

344

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)  

PubMed Central

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

345

Utilization of byproducts from the tequila industry: part 1: agave bagasse as a raw material for animal feeding and fiberboard production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agave bagasse was successfully separated into fractions that were used in sheep feeding trials. Agave bagasse can be substituted for corn stubble in the sheep's diet which resulted in improved weight gain. Agave bagasse was also processed into long and short fiber fractions with a hammermill and fiberboards of medium and high specific gravities being produced. Medium specific gravity agave

G Iñiguez-Covarrubias; Sandra E Lange; Roger M Rowell

2001-01-01

346

Influence of Electron Beam Irradiation and Coupling Agents on the Thermal Stability of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fiber-Thermoplastics Scrape Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of blending of sugar cane bagasse with thermoplastics scrape as well as incorporation of some coupling agents has been conducted using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the effect of electron beam preirradiation of low density polyethylene on the properties of the bagasse-LDPE composite was also studied. Simulation of TGA data reveals that the presence of bagasse fiber accelerates

H. A. Youssef; M. A. M. Ali; M. R. Ismail; A. H. Zahran

2007-01-01

347

Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

1989-01-01

348

Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

Okeefe, J. A.

1976-01-01

349

Characteristics and Uses for Ash  

E-print Network

(Fraxinus Pennsylvanica) Premier speciesDeep, moist, fertile upland soils and in the south on loamy ridges. Scattered trees Ohio and upper Mississippi river bottoms Blue Ash (Fraxinus qadrangulata) Enlarged Illinois and southwestern Ohio Pumpkin Ash (Fraxinus profunda) Smaller, poorly formed tree with inferior

350

UPGRADING OF SUGAR CANE BAGASSE BY THERMAL PROCESSES. 3. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM THE CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BAGASSE WITH MONOETHANOLAMINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The products obtained from liquefaction of sugar cane bagasse with monoethanolamine were characterized using a variety of methods: elemental analysis and UV-visible, FTIR, HNMR and CNMR spectrometries. The oils were separated by conventional solubility techniques and were further fractionated into eight fractions (saturated, monoaromatic, diaromatic, triaromatic and poliaromatic hydrocarbons, resins, asphaltenes and pre-asphaltenes). These fractions were characterized by capillary gas

Fernando M. Lanças; Sandra R. Rissato

1995-01-01

351

Coal ash: America's undiscovered resource  

SciTech Connect

The US has over 800 million tons of coal ash stockpiled and available for aboveground mining. Increased use of coal will add 100 million tons a year. Fly ash, which represents about 75% of the total, is the most versatile in its range of applications. These include the manufacture of cement, brick, roofing felt, mineral-wool insulation, highway subgrading, etc. Bottom ash, or boiler slag, is useful for sand blasting, water treatment filtration, road deicing, cold mix asphalt, and structural fill. Demonstrations using ash for these and other uses have been impressive. Using coal ash will not only eliminate stockpiling problems, but will preserve other natural resources and create high-value and high-quality products.

Anthony, T.

1984-11-08

352

Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 ?m). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The early pyroclastic phase of the formation of Kima'Kho, a tuya in northern B.C., Canada produced a subaqueous pyroclastic cone which became emergent during the latter stages of formation. Armoured lapilli are pervasive within the emergent upper third of the sequence. No other types of ash aggregates have been observed. Petrographic and textural analysis of the armoured lapilli shows them to comprise a central 2-30 mm-sized, juvenile, vesiculated pyroclast, concentrically coated by mm-scale layers of 10-250 ?m sized ash particles. At Kima'Kho, the armoured lapilli are shown to be a direct indicator of fallout from a sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured lapilli (no accretionary lapilli) at Kima'Kho and diverse ash aggregates but no armoured lapilli at A418. Here we investigate vent-proximal ash aggregation and the specific conditions which lead to the formation of coated ash pellets and armoured lapilli.

Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

2012-12-01

353

UREA LEVELS AND SUPPLEMENTAL ENERGY SOURCES IN SUGARCANE DIETS I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments, each involving a digestion-N balance trial and a feedlot trial, determined the replacement value of urea-corn meal (UC) for cottonseed meal (CSM) and the value of mo- lasses in sugarcane diets. Steers fed 70% sugarcane-30% concentrate diets with O, 28 or 56% of the dietary N as urea had a slight reduction (P<.28) in dry matter (DM) intake

F. M. Pate; P. M. Fairhurst; J. T. K. Munthali

354

An automatic cutting height control system for a sugarcane harvester  

E-print Network

enough force to raise the crop lifters to its surface, they will enter the soil, possibly introducing trash into the harvested sugarcane. Also, as Figure 4 shows, because the two cylinders which control the height of each crop lifter are plumbed... enough force to raise the crop lifters to its surface, they will enter the soil, possibly introducing trash into the harvested sugarcane. Also, as Figure 4 shows, because the two cylinders which control the height of each crop lifter are plumbed...

Hale, Scott Andrew

2012-06-07

355

Pneumatic cleaning of sugarcane utilizing a high velocity air jet  

E-print Network

and nozzle size had the highest statistical signi- ficant value The interaction between them, defined as the air momentum flux, was determined as the main controlling factor in cleaning the sugarcane. There is a linear correlation between the amount... air jet nozzle assembly 18 5 ~ Two-stage conveyor 20 6, 8 ~ Hydraulic unit used to power the test apparatus Control console for the direction and volume of hydraulic fluid flow . ~ Coordinate axis for simulated sugarcane trajectory 22 22 32...

Fisher, John Ray

2012-06-07

356

Identification and evaluation of an isolate of sugarcane mosaic virus  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF AN ISOLATE OF SUGARCANE MOSAIC VIRUS A Thesis by LAURA MARIA GIORDA DE MESSINA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASt...ER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Plant Pathology IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF AN ISOLATE OF SUGARCANE MOSAIC VIRUS A Thesis by LAURA MARIA GIORDA DE MESSINA Approved as to style and content by: R. W. loler airman of Committee) ~F. ' R...

Giorda de Messina, Laura Maria

2012-06-07

357

Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of sugarcane legumain.  

PubMed

Plant legumains, also termed vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), are cysteine peptidases that play key roles in plant development, senescence, programmed cell death and defense against pathogens. Despite the increasing number of reports on plant cysteine peptidases, including VPEs, the characterization of sugarcane VPEs and their inhibition by endogenous cystatins have not yet been described. This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of a sugarcane cysteine peptidase. In this work, a recombinant sugarcane legumain was expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. Kinetic studies of the recombinant CaneLEG revealed that this enzyme has the main characteristics of VPEs, such as self-activation and activity under acidic pH. CaneLEG activity was strongly inhibited when incubated with sugarcane cystatin 3 (CaneCPI-3). Quantitative analysis of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 gene expression indicated a tissue-specific expression pattern for both genes throughout sugarcane growth, with the strong accumulation of CaneLEG transcripts throughout the internode development. Furthermore, the CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 genes exhibited up-regulation in plantlets treated with abscisic acid (ABA). These results suggest that CaneCPI-3 may be a potential endogenous inhibitor of CaneLEG and these genes may be involved in plant stress response mediated by ABA. Also, the expression analysis provides clues for the putative involvement of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 in sugarcane development and phytohormone response. PMID:22721948

Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Gerald, Lee T S; Meneghin, Silvana P; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

2012-08-01

358

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

359

Quantitative analysis of the effect of selection history on sugar yield adaptation of sugarcane clones.  

PubMed

An objective of the CSR sugarcane breeding programme in Australia was to assess the scope for broadening the genetic base of the commercial sugarcane germ plasm through interspecific hybridization with Saccharum spontaneum clones. The contribution of both selection history and S. spontaneum to sugar yield and its components was investigated in the germ plasm pool assembled. The analysis was conducted on a data-set of 256 clones, consisting of parents and full-sib families generated from 32 biparental crosses, tested in six environments. The minimum number of generations back to S. spontaneum ancestor in the clone's pedigree was used as a germ plasm score. The geographical origin and selection history of each parent and their use in the biparental crosses were used to develop a selection history score for parents and offspring. The variation for seven attributes, cane yield, commercial cane sugar %, sugar yield, stalk number per stool, stalk weight, fibre % and ash % juice was partitioned according to the germ plasm and selection history scores. Significant (P<0.05) clone variation and clone x environment interaction for all attributes was present. The germ plasm scores accounted for a significant (P<0.05) component of the clone variation for all of the attributes except cane yield. There was an increase in sugar yield with an increase in the minimum number of generations back to a S. spontaneum clone. The selection history groups accounted for a high proportion of the variation among parental clones for all of the attributes except cane yield. This suggested that parents were the outcome of strong selection pressure for the commercial cane attributes. However, the selection history groups for the offspring produced by random mating of parents did not account for a high proportion of the variation for the attributes. Using the mixture method of classification we partitioned the 256 clones into five groups for patterns of performance for the seven attributes across the six environments. The five groups emphasized major differences in the patterns of performance for the seven attributes across environments. The distribution of germ plasm and selection history scores in each of the five groups indicated that their patterns of performance were associated with selection history and minimum generations to S. spontaneum. Therefore, both the analysis on selection history and germ plasm scores (extrinsic classification) and the analysis on the mixture method of classification (intrinsic classification) emphasized the influence of selection history on the sugar yield of sugarcane. PMID:24190405

Srivastava, B L; Cooper, M; Mullins, R T

1994-01-01

360

Sugarcane residue management and grain legume crop effects on N dynamics, N losses and growth of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions farmers are being encouraged not to burn sugarcane residues. An experiment was set up in\\u000a NE Thailand, where sugarcane residues of the last ratoon crop were either burned, surface mulched or incorporated and subsequently\\u000a the field left fallow or planted to groundnut or soybean. The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the residual

S. Hemwong; B. Toomsan; G. Cadisch; V. Limpinuntana; P. Vityakon; A. Patanothai

2009-01-01

361

Sorptivity of fly ash concretes  

SciTech Connect

A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied by treating the samples in two curving conditions. A functional relationship of sorptivity against the strength, curing condition and fly ash content has been presented. The results were useful to analyze the factors influencing the durability of cement and fly ash concretes and to explain why some of the previously reported findings were contradictory. Curing conditions have been found to be the most important factor that affected the durability properties of fly ash concrete. When proper curing was provided, a mix with 40% fly ash was found to reduce the sorptivity by 37%. Under inadequate curing the sorptivity was found to increase by 60%. The influence of curing on cement concrete was found to be of much less importance.

Gopalan, M.K. [Univ. of New South Wales, Campbell, Australian Capital Territory (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering] [Univ. of New South Wales, Campbell, Australian Capital Territory (Australia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-08-01

362

Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor  

SciTech Connect

Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste product. The role of the important pyrolysis parameters, peak temperature and heating rate, in defining the ultimate tar yield is investigated, with the value for bagasse being 54.6% at 500 C and 1,000 C/s. The pyrolysis yields, under similar conditions, of another biomass material, silver birch, are also reported and compared to those of bagasse.

Drummond, A.R.F.; Drummond, I.W. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

1996-04-01

363

Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose. PMID:24025853

Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

2013-11-01

364

A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. PMID:23711947

Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

2013-07-01

365

Changes in Fly Ash With Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal beneficiation to remove carbon and ammonia makes coal fly ash marketable as a pozzolan for the concrete industry. The effect of these thermal treatments on the fly ash phase mineralogy (i.e. pozzolanic activity) may vary with ash composition. Fly ash samples with differing CaO contents were subjected to thermal treatment to evaluate changes in phase mineralogy. Samples were heated

John M. Fox

366

Volcanic Ash: Observation Tools and Dispersion Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is the fourth and final entry in the Volcanic Ash series. It covers the tools and techniques used for identifying and forecasting the transport of volcanic ash. Satellite and radar imagery are combined with observations and numerical model output to first identify the presence of volcanic ash and then to help forecast the transport of ash at various levels of the atmosphere.

Comet

2011-09-30

367

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

368

Expression of soybean proteinase inhibitors in transgenic sugarcane plants: effects on natural defense against Diatraea saccharalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction and expression of proteinase inhibitor encoding genes into sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genome is an interesting strategy for conferring partial resistance to the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), the major insect pest of sugarcane in Brazil. To investigate the role of soybean (Glycine max L.) Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) and soybean Bowman–Birk inhibitor (SBBI) in the control

Maria Cristina Falco; Marcio C. Silva-Filho

2003-01-01

369

Effect of Intercropping and Organic Matter on the Subterranean Termites Population in Sugarcane Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intercropping and addition of organic matters on subterranean termites in a field of sugarcane was determined. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), oliseed (Brassica compestris L.) and Methi (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) were intercropped with sugarcane on ridges at the time of setts placement in the furrows. Organic matters (blood, sugarcane trash & fresh cattle dung)

SOHAIL AHMED; RASHAD RASOOL KHAN; GHULAM HUSSAIN; MUHAMMAD ASAM RIAZ; ABID HUSSAIN

370

Cast-Concrete Products Made with FBC Ash and Wet-Collected Coal-Ash  

E-print Network

Cast-Concrete Products Made with FBC Ash and Wet-Collected Coal-Ash Tarun R. Naik, F.ASCE1 of portland cement with fluidized bed combustion FBC coal ash and up to 9% of natural aggregates with wet to 40% of cement with FBC ash were equivalent in strength 89­113% of control to the products without ash

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

371

Alkali ash material: a novel fly ash-based cement.  

PubMed

The United States generates 110 million t of coal ash annually. Approximately 70 million t of this coal ash is fly ash, of which 27% is recycled and the remaining 73% is landfilled. Disposal of such a huge quantity of ash poses a significant environmental problem. A new cementitious material has been developed, called alkali ash material (AAM), which is used to produce concrete for construction. AAM can be used to create a variety of concrete strengths and could revolutionize the concrete product manufacturing industry due to its economic advantage. AAM contains 40-95% Class F fly ash and is used as cement to bind sand, stone, and fibers creating concrete. AAM concrete has been tested for strength, durability, mechanical properties, and, most importantly, economic viability. AAM concrete is economically and technically viable for many construction applications. Some properties include rapid strength gain (90% of ultimate in 1 d), high ultimate strengths (110 MPa or 16,000 psi in 1 d), excellent acid resistance, and freeze-thaw durability. AAM's resistance to chemical attack, such as sulfuric (H2SO4), nitric (HNO3), hydrochloric (HCl), and organic acids, is far better than portland cement concrete. AAM is resistant to freeze-thaw attack based on ASTM C-666 specifications. Potential immediate applications of AAM are blocks, pipe, median barriers, sound barriers, and overlaying materials. Eventual markets are high strength construction products, bridge beams, prestressed members, concrete tanks, highway appurtenances, and other concrete products. PMID:12966995

Rostami, Hossein; Brendley, William

2003-08-01

372

Feasibility study for bagasse congeneration in Kenya. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Kenya's Ministry of Agriculture. The purpose of the report is to determine the economic, technical, and financial viability of implementing bagasse based cogeneration projects in Kenya. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Terms of Reference, (3) Bagasse Fuel for Generation, (4) The Electrical Power Situation in Kenya, (5) Export Electricity Potential from Nyando Sugar Belt, (6) Export Potential from Proposed New Sugar Factories; (7) Financial, (8) Project Financing, (9) Demonstration Project.

Not Available

1993-12-01

373

Long duration ash probe  

DOEpatents

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

1994-01-01

374

Long duration ash probe  

DOEpatents

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

1994-07-26

375

[(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].  

PubMed

In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

2014-10-01

376

Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

2013-03-01

377

Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

Koga-Vicente, A.

2011-12-01

378

Identification of transcripts associated with cell wall metabolism and development in the stem of sugarcane by Affymetrix GeneChip Sugarcane Genome Array expression profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is an important crop in tropical regions of the world, producing a very large biomass and accumulating large amounts\\u000a of sucrose in the stem. In this study, we present the first report of transcript profiling using the GeneChip Sugarcane Genome\\u000a Array. We have identified transcripts that are differentially expressed in the sugarcane stem during development by expression\\u000a profiling using

Rosanne E. Casu; Janine M. Jarmey; Graham D. Bonnett; John M. Manners

2007-01-01

379

[Absenteeism due to occupational diseases among sugarcane workers].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of work-related sick leave in sugarcane workers. A total of 1,230 medical excuses for 400 sugarcane workers were analyzed according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). The following items were analyzed: diagnosis, sex, and length and season of sick leave. In all the seasons, musculoskeletal diseases showed the highest sick leave rate, following by respiratory diseases (p < 0.05). Sick leave due to musculoskeletal diseases was more frequent at the end of the sugarcane harvest than during the intercrop season (p < 0.05). Seventy-five percent of medical excuses were for one day. The longest sick leaves were for diseases of the genitourinary tract (p < 0.001). It is thus essential to have a multidisciplinary health team focused on the development of ergonomic activities, personal protective equipment, and health orientation specifically targeting this group's needs. PMID:25388319

Ceccato, Aline Duarte Ferreira; Carvalho Junior, Luiz Carlos Soares de; Cuissi, Rafaela Campos; Monteschi, Mariane; Oliveira, Nayara Galvão; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Ramos, Dionei

2014-10-01

380

Pyrolysis of two agricultural residues: Olive and grape bagasse. Influence of particle size and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of olive and grape bagasse has been studied with the aim of determining the main characteristics of the charcoals formed and the nature and quantity of gases and liquids produced. Variables investigated were temperature between 300 and 900°C and particle size between 0.4 and 2 mm diameter. Experiments were carried out in an isothermal manner. As a general

J. M. Encinar; F. J. Beltrán; A. Bernalte; A. Ramiro; J. F. González

1996-01-01

381

Process to increase the effectiveness of bagasse as a source of energy  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of bagasse as a source of energy is increased by a flexible operation adapted to the power requirements, fuel storage requirements and other variables of a sugar mill operation. Part or all of a primary stream of bagasse from the sugar mill is dried from its initial moisture content, e.g. in the order of 50%, to a lower moisture content, e.g. in the order of 35%, using a portion of the hot flue gases from the boilers which are used to supply power for the sugar mill operation. The resulting drier material is separated to provide an oversize particle stream which may be sent directly to the boiler for burning, to storage in the bagasse house, or to a secondary drying operation, and a secondary stream of fine particle size bagasse components which are most suitable for further process and densification. This secondary stream, with optional addition of oversize particles from the primary drying operation, is then dried in contact with another portion of hot flue gases to a moisture content suitable for densification, about 6-12% where a pellet mill is employed, and is further subjected to particle size selection, if necessary, and then subjected to densification in a pellet mill or other suitable equipment. The densified material is then sent to storage, returned to the boilers for part or all of the fuel requirement or transported to other potential users.

Bouvet, P.E.; Suzor, N.L.

1982-12-14

382

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal degradation of sugar cane bagasse has been studied between 200 and 800 °C under a nitrogen gas flow. Different experimental parameters of the pyrolysis have been investigated, including holding temperature, time duration of pyrolysis, and heating rate. The solid residues obtained were then analyzed by classical elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.The most important structure modifications appeared

Ketty Bilba; Alex Ouensanga

1996-01-01

383

Application of Xylanase from Alkaliphilic Thermophilic Bacillus sp. NCIM 59 in biobleaching of bagasse pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of environmental concerns, the use of hemicellulolytic enzymes has recently attracted considerable interest as a substitute for chlorine chemicals in pulp bleaching. The cellulase free xylanase from alkaliphilic thermophilic Bacillus sp. NCIM 59 was evaluated for prebleaching of the bagasse pulp. The UV absorption spectrum of the compounds released by enzyme treatment, and after alkali extraction, showed a characteristic

Neeta Kulkarni; Mala Rao

1996-01-01

384

Process for treatment of bagasse for the production of oil binders  

SciTech Connect

A novel oil absorbent comprising substantially sugar-free, hydrophobic, oleophilic bagasse prepared by saturating with water , removing the sugar, and then drying, which will absorb oil in an amount up to about 27 times its weight. The oil saturated absorbent is useful as a fuel.

Fischer, K. O.

1980-12-23

385

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most

A. M. Azzam

1989-01-01

386

Role of Ethoxide Ion in Soda-Ethanol Pulping of Egyptian Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of ethoxide ion in alkaline-ethanol pulping was studied by the application of mild soda pulping conditions to prehydrolysed bagasse and monitoring the changes in pulp properties as a function of the concentration of ethanol. Low concentration levels of ethoxide resulted in the cellulose supramolec- ular structure to become more amorphous and enhanced dissolution of short- chain carbohydrates by increasing

SAMIA A. HELMY; ASMEEN EL-DOSOAKY ABOEL BAKY

1996-01-01

387

Biodegradation of heavy crude oil Maya using spent compost and sugar cane bagasse wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the use of some agroindustrial wastes as supports in solid state cultures for the biodegradation of crude oil Maya in static column reactors over 15–20 days periods. Spent compost and cane bagasse wastes showed superior qualities over peat moss waste as support candidates with the advantage that they contain appreciable densities of autochthonous microorganisms

M. R. Trejo-Hernández; A. Ortiz; A. I. Okoh; D. Morales; R. Quintero

2007-01-01

388

Author's personal copy Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse biochars of Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China b Department of Soil and Water Science mechanisms were invested based on isotherm and kinetic models, sorption and desorption, and FITR spectroscopy

Ma, Lena

389

A highly active bagasse-derived solid acid catalyst with properties suitable for production of biodiesel.  

PubMed

A novel bagasse-based solid acid catalyst was successfully prepared through sulfonation of incompletely carbonized bagasse. A range of conditions for producing the catalyst were investigated, and the optimized catalyst, produced under carbonization at 648 K for 0.5 h and sulfonation at 423 K for 15 h, showed excellent catalytic activity and resulted in around 95 % yield of methyl oleate. Its activity was not only substantially greater than that of niobic acid and Amberlyst-15, but also comparable to or superior to that of catalysts made from pure starch or glucose, respectively. Additionally, the bagasse-derived catalyst could be repeatedly employed for at least eight cycles and still retained around 90 % of its original activity, exhibiting excellent operational stability. Furthermore, the catalyst efficiently converted waste cooking oils with 38.6 wt % free fatty acids into biodiesel and afforded a high yield of about 93.8 % within 12 h. These results clearly show that the bagasse-derived catalyst is economic, eco-friendly, and promising for biodiesel production from low-cost feedstocks and may find wide applications. PMID:22693163

Lou, Wen-Yong; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Wen-Jing; Zong, Min-Hua; Wu, Hong; Smith, Thomas J

2012-08-01

390

Potential for the use of pyrolytic tar from bagasse in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar from pyrolyzed bagasse was characterized according to its main structural features. Its solubility in NaOH solutions results in an alkaline tar solution (ATS) that exhibits surface active properties. The prepared ATS was successfully used as a foam flotation agent in copper mining, as a foaming agent in foam concrete formation, and as a fluidization agent for Portland cement manufacture.

L. E. Brossard Perez; L. A. B. Cortez

1997-01-01

391

Sampling for the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on sugarcane in Louisiana.  

PubMed

A 3-yr study was conducted in 0.6- to 2.0-ha sugarcane fields throughout south Louisiana under varying sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), density levels to determine the spatial dispersion of infestations and to develop a sequential sampling plan. Infestations of D. saccharalis were randomly dispersed. Infestation levels (percentage of stalks infested) ranged from 0.6 to 33.3%. Frequency distributions of the number of infested stalks indicated that the Poisson distribution best fit the data Tests of other distributions (negative binomial [aggregated], binomial [uniform], geometric, and hypergeometric) resulted in poorer fits. The sequential sampling plan devised, with lower and upper D. saccharalis infestation limits of 2 and 5% and 5 and 10%, required maximum average sample numbers of 7.1 and 5.5 (20-stalk samples), respectively, to make terminating management decisions. It is our assessment that implementation of these plans would decrease sampling effort by 50-60% when compared with sampling programs currently in use for D. saccharalis management decisions in Louisiana. PMID:11425035

Schexnayder, H P; Reagan, T E; Ring, D R

2001-06-01

392

Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired less than two or three months after the cut. The radar signal decreases about 5dB for images acquired some days after the cut and 3 dB for data acquired two month after the cut (VV-37°). The difference in radar signal becomes negligible (<1 dB) between harvested fields and mature canes for sugarcane harvested since three months or more. PMID:22163387

Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Remi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

2010-01-01

393

Evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii on the key enzymes for xylitol production in sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The evaluation of hexose and pentose in pre-cultivation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 yeast on xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) enzymes activities was performed during fermentation in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The xylitol production was evaluated by using cells previously growth in 30.0 gl(-1) xylose, 30.0 gl(-1) glucose and in both sugars mixture (30.0 gl(-1) xylose and 2.0 gl(-1) glucose). The vacuum evaporated hydrolysate (80 gl(-1)) was detoxificated by ion exchange resin (A-860S; A500PS and C-150-Purolite®). The total phenolic compounds and acetic acid were 93.0 and 64.9%, respectively, removed by the resin hydrolysate treatment. All experiments were carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks at 200 rpm, 30°C. The maximum XR (0.618 Umg (Prot) (-1)) and XDH (0.783 Umg (Prot) (-1)) enzymes activities was obtained using inoculum previously growth in both sugars mixture. The highest cell concentration (10.6 gl(-1)) was obtained with inoculum pre-cultivated in the glucose. However, the xylitol yield and xylitol volumetric productivity were favored using the xylose as carbon source. In this case, it was observed maximum xylose (81%) and acetic acid (100%) consumption. It is very important to point out that maximum enzymatic activities were obtained when the mixture of sugars was used as carbon source of inoculum, while the highest fermentative parameters were obtained when xylose was used. PMID:20683763

de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; Rodrigues, Rita de Cássia Lacerda Brambilla; da Silva, Débora Danielle Virgínio; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

2011-07-01

394

Contribution of cane bagasse used as a fuel in the sugar industry to changes in outdoor and indoor air quality in middle Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present one-year study is concerned with the degree of relationship between the changes in quantity and quality of outdoor and indoor settled dust in Abu Qurqas town in Middle Egypt and the combustion of cane bagasse in boiler furnaces in a sugar factory located in the same town. It can be suggested that this process is responsible for increasing the rate of outdoor and indoor deposition of combustible matter by 2-8 and 2-7 times, respectively, during the period of December-April. However, it can be suggested also that the same process has a limited role, as it is a source of ash content of both outdoor and indoor settled dust and is ineffective in polluting the two environments with calcium, chloride and sulphate ions and tar fraction. Indoor levels of settled dust and its constituents were found to be lowest during cold months. This causes the indoor levels of combustible matter resulting from the sugar factory to be lower than the outdoor levels by 41-45% during December-March and by 28% during April which is a relatively warm month in Middle Egypt.

Hindy, K. T.

395

Mineral resource of the month: soda ash  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soda ash, also known as sodium carbonate, is an alkali chemical that can be refined from the mineral trona and from sodium carbonate-bearing brines. Several chemical processes exist for manufacturing synthetic soda ash.

Kostic, Dennis S.

2006-01-01

396

Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction  

SciTech Connect

Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

Naquin, D.

1998-02-01

397

Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du

2008-01-01

398

Transcriptomic Signatures of Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Phloem  

PubMed Central

Background Ash (Fraxinus spp.) is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA). The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra), green (F. pennsylvannica) and white (F. americana) are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica) is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3) revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. Conclusions and Significance The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development. PMID:21283712

Mamidala, Praveen; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2011-01-01

399

Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

ASTM C 618 prohibits use of biomass fly ashes in concrete. This document compares the properties of biomass fly ashes from cofired (herbaceous with coal), pure wood combustion and blended (pure wood fly ash blended with coal fly ash) to those of coal fly ash in concrete. The results illustrate that with 25% replacement (wt%) of cement by fly ash,

Shuangzhen Wang; Amber Miller; Emilio Llamazos; Fernando Fonseca; Larry Baxter

2008-01-01

400

Repeatability Between Two Intermediate Sugarcane Genotype Selection Stages in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved yield and disease resistance on sand soils are priorities of the Canal Point (CP) sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding and selection program. Analyses of historical phenotypic data can provide helpful information in guiding selection strategies to meet these priorities. Correlation analysis was used to examine repeatability of phenotypic data used to advance genotypes from an unreplicated single location clonal crop

Neil C. Glynn; Robert A. Gilbert; Barry Glaz; Jack C. Comstock; Manjit S. Kang; Christopher W. Deren; Peter Y. P. Tai; Jimmy D. Miller

2009-01-01

401

Power is sweet: sugarcane in the global ethanol assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

New alliances between Brazil and the US for ethanol production, transport, and trade are revitalising and expanding the centuries-old sugarcane plantation system in the Americas. In this paper I adopt the concept of global assemblages, building on the work of Aihwa Ong, Stephen Collier, and Saskia Sassen, to draw the contours of an ‘ethanol assemblage’, which includes states, corporations, growers,

Gail Hollander

2010-01-01

402

Wildlife in Sugarcane Fields of the Everglades Agricultural Area  

E-print Network

year-round · Low input · Dense vegetation · Associated water features · Associated edge habitat · Limited access Sugarcane Edge Water Road #12;ARM Loxahatchee NWR Interior Water Edge Road · Managed for wildlife · Native plants encouraged · Water management wildlife friendly · Exotic species control

Mazzotti, Frank

403

Analysis of Resource Allocation in Final Stage Sugarcane Clonal Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

in 1990 in Stage I, passed successively through Stages II and III, and were first grown in Stage IV trials in Superior genotypes of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Sac- 1993. The current procedure for Stage IV, initiated in charum spp.) must continue to be developed with current resources as selection criteria evolve and expand. Developing future cultivars 1994, is to

J. Steven Brown; Barry Glaz

2001-01-01

404

Leaching of Metals from Peat Fly Ashes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the study was to describe the long term impact from fly ash disposed on landfill. The quality of the leachate of three peat fly ashes and, as comparison on coal fly ash, was studied by using batch leaching tests, column leaching tests, and larg...

M. Wahlstroem, V. Pohjola

1987-01-01

405

Alkali-activated fly ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkali activation of waste materials (especially those coming from industrial and mining activities) has become an important area of research in many laboratories because it is possible to use these materials to synthesize inexpensive and ecologically sound cementlike construction materials. In the present paper, the mechanism of activation of a fly ash (no other solid material was used) with

A. Palomo; M. W. Grutzeck; M. T. Blanco

1999-01-01

406

Forecasting exposure to volcanic ash based on ash dispersion modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique has been developed that uses Puff, a volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) model, to forecast the relative exposure of aircraft and ground facilities to ash from a volcanic eruption. VATD models couple numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with physical descriptions of the initial eruptive plume, atmospheric dispersion, and settling of ash particles. Three distinct examples of variations on the technique are given using ERA-40 archived reanalysis NWP data. The Feb. 2000 NASA DC-8 event involving an eruption of Hekla volcano, Iceland is first used for analyzing a single flight. Results corroborate previous analyses that conclude the aircraft did encounter a diffuse cloud of volcanic origin, and indicate exposure within a factor of 10 compared to measurements made on the flight. The sensitivity of the technique to dispersion physics is demonstrated. The Feb. 2001 eruption of Mt. Cleveland, Alaska is used as a second example to demonstrate how this technique can be utilized to quickly assess the potential exposure of a multitude of aircraft during and soon after an event. Using flight tracking data from over 40,000 routes over three days, several flights that may have encountered low concentrations of ash were identified, and the exposure calculated. Relative changes in the quantity of exposure when the eruption duration is varied are discussed, and no clear trend is evident as the exposure increased for some flights and decreased for others. A third application of this technique is demonstrated by forecasting the near-surface airborne concentrations of ash that the cities of Yakima Washington, Boise Idaho, and Kelowna British Columbia might have experienced from an eruption of Mt. St. Helens anytime during the year 2000. Results indicate that proximity to the source does not accurately determine the potential hazard. Although an eruption did not occur during this time, the results serve as a demonstration of how existing cities or potential locations of research facilities or military bases can be assessed for susceptibility to hazardous and unhealthy concentrations of ash and other volcanic gases.

Peterson, Rorik A.; Dean, Ken G.

2008-03-01

407

Recombinant cellulase accumulation in the leaves of mature, vegetatively propagated transgenic sugarcane.  

PubMed

The cost of enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars needs to be reduced to make cellulosic ethanol a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel. Sugarcane is a perennial crop and the successful integration of cellulase transgenes into the sugarcane production system requires that transgene expression is stable in the ratoon. Herein, we compared the accumulation of recombinant fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), fungal cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II), and bacterial endoglucanase (EG) in the leaves of mature, initial transgenic sugarcane plants and their mature ratoon. Mature ratoon events containing equivalent or elevated levels of active CBH I, CBH II, and EG in the leaves were identified. Further, we have demonstrated that recombinant fungal CBH I and CBH II can resist proteolysis during sugarcane leaf senescence, while bacterial EG cannot. These results demonstrate the stability of cellulase enzyme transgene expression in transgenic sugarcane and the utility of sugarcane as a biofactory crop for production of cellulases. PMID:24793894

Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, R Jason; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Palupe, Anthony; Sainz, Manuel B; Dale, James L

2014-09-01

408

Utilization of lignite ash in concrete mixture  

SciTech Connect

In this article 11 ashes from various Turkish lignite sources were studied to show the effects upon lignite ash quality for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. The lignite ashes were classified into two general types (Class A and Class B) based on total of silica, alumina, and iron oxide. Total content of the three major oxides must be more than 50% for Class A lignite ash and more than 70% for Class B lignite ash. When 25% of the cement was replaced by LA-1 (Class A) lignite ash, based on 300 kg/m{sup 3} cementitious material, the 28-day compressive strength increased 24.3% compared to the control mix. The optimal lignite ash replacement was 25% at 300 kg/m{sup 3} cementitious material.

Demirbas, A.; Karslioglu, S.; Ayas, A. [Technical Univ. of Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry] [Technical Univ. of Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-12-01

409

Utilization of coal fly ash. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants produce approximately 80 million tons of fly ash each year. Efforts to use fly ash have reached only a twenty to thirty percent reutilization rate. A literature review was performed to provide a consensus of the available information regarding fly ash. Fly ash is highly variable depending on the coal source, plant operations, and several other parameters. The various fly ash characteristics are discussed including classifications, physical characteristics, chemical properties and chemical compositions. Although extensive research has been performed on the use of fly ash, very little of this research has monitored any environmental impacts. The environmental concerns addressed include mobilization of toxic elements, biota impact, microbial impact, handling dangers, and pertinent regulations. Finally, the various disposal and reutilization options for fly ash are examined. A recommendation is provided for further research to cover deficiencies found in the literature.

Openshaw, S.C.

1992-01-01

410

Engineering Advantages, Challenges and Status of Sugarcane and other Sugar-Based Biomass Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a highly productive tropical stem crop that has been cultivated for its high sugar content for hundreds of years.\\u000a In recent times, sugarcane has been the focus of several programs aiming at the production of fuel ethanol. Compared to starch-based\\u000a sources such as corn, production of ethanol from sugarcane has obvious advantages due to the amount

Ricardo A. Dante; Plinio T. Cristofoletti; Isabel R. Gerhardt

411

Production of microbial levan from sucrose, sugarcane juice and beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacillus polymyxa (NRRL-18475) produced a levan-type fructan (B, 2?6 fructofuranoside) when grown on sucrose, sugarcane juice, and sugarbeet molasses. The organism converted about 46% of the fructose moiety of sucrose to levan when grown on sucrose medium, however, the yields of levan from sugarcane juice and beet molasses were much less than sucrose solution. Such sugarcane juice and beet

Y. W. Han; M. A. Watson

1992-01-01

412

Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate  

SciTech Connect

Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A. [Faculty of Chemical Enginering of Lorena (Brazil); Vitolo, M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1997-12-31

413

Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berkeleyi; it increased the in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility to 22 and 24% for lemon grass and citronella, respectively. The increases were correlated with weight loss and lignin loss. All fungi decreased lignin contents: 36% of the original value for lemon grass and 28% for citronella. Practically all fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose over cellulose. PMID:16347155

Rolz, C.; de Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; de Cabrera, S.

1986-01-01

414

Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate.  

PubMed

Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K(L)a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. PMID:18576110

Silva, S S; Ribeiro, J D; Felipe, M G; Vitolo, M

1997-01-01

415

Release of PCDD/PCDF to air and land during open burning of sugarcane and forest litter over soil fortified with mass labelled PCDD/PCDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of PCDD/PCDF emissions from soil during open burning of biomass was examined. Mass labelled PCDD/PCDF was added to soil containing native PCDD/PCDF and biomass was laid out on this soil and burnt, simulating sugarcane trash and forest fires. Smoke samples were collected using a high volume portable field sampler. After each fire the concentration of all mass labelled PCDD/PCDF congeners in the surface soil decreased, however, the concentration of some native 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners increased, indicating that formation was occurring. Mass labelled PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected in all ash samples, mean 2.8 pg g-1 (range 0.5-8 pg g-1), demonstrating release from the soil. Additionally, mass labelled PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected in all air samples mean 1.2 ?g (t fuel)-1 (range 0.2-2.0 ?g (t fuel)-1), again demonstrating release from the soil. Native 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners detected in the air samples were dominated (in terms of contribution to total congener mass) by Cl8DD (90% for forest litter and 77% for sugarcane). The major contributor to TEQ of emissions from both forest litter and sugarcane was 1, 2, 3, 7, 8-Cl5DD (40-64% and 57-75%, respectively). These results demonstrate that release of PCDD/PCDF from soil to air and land occurs during open burning of biomass when soil temperatures are sufficiently elevated.

Black, Robert R.; (Mick) Meyer, Carl P.; Yates, Alan; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Chittim, Brock G.; Mueller, Jochen F.

2012-11-01

416

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

417

Three-resistance transport model for dye adsorption onto bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the adsorption of two dyestuffs from aqueous solutions onto bagasse pith studied using an agitated batch adsorber. A three-resistance mass transfer model, based on external mass transport, macropore diffusion, and micropore diffusion, was used to predict concentration versus time decay curves. The predicted curves were correlated with experimental data for up to 24 hours in order to determine the three mass transport parameters.

Al Duri, B.; McKay, G. (Dept. of Chemcial Engineering, Queens Univ. of Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG (GB)); El Geundi, M.S.; Abdul Wahab, M.Z. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of El Minia, El Minia (EG))

1990-05-01

418

Study of the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse using phosphoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, samples of sugar cane bagasse were hydrolysed with phosphoric acid under mild conditions (H3PO4 2–6%, time 0–300min and 122°C) to study the feasibility of using the liquid phase as fermentation media. Solid yield, sugar concentrations and decomposition product concentrations were measured. The composition of hydrolysates, their purity and the ratio sugars\\/inhibitors were analyzed. Kinetic models were

Sara Gámez; Juan Jose González-Cabriales; José Alberto Ramírez; Gil Garrote; Manuel Vázquez

2006-01-01

419

Characterization and use of activated carbons prepared from bagasses for liquid-phase adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two commercial dyes and phenol from water on activated carbons was investigated at 30°C. The carbons were prepared from bagasses and were activated by steam with different extents of burn-off by varying the temperature in the range of 750–840°C. Pore structures of the carbons were characterized by the t-plot method based on N2 adsorption isotherms. Three simplified

Ruey-Shin Juang; Feng-Chin Wu; Ru-Ling Tseng

2002-01-01

420

Cellulase production by mixed fungi in solid-substrate fermentation of bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia-treated bagasse with 80%(w\\/w) moisture content was subjected to mixed-culture solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) with Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4 and Aspergillus phoenicis QM 329, in flask or pot fermenters, for cellulase production. Significantly higher activities of all the enzymes of the cellulase complex were achieved in 4 days of mixed-culture SSF than in single-culture (T. reesei) SSF. The highest filter-paper-cellulase and ß-glucosidase

R. Duefias; R. P. Tengerdy; M. Gutierrez-Correa

1995-01-01

421

Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate for ethanol production by yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate was prepared by dilute sulfuric acid (3% w\\/v) hydrolysis with a high-solid, low-liquid\\u000a ratio followed by leaching. The hydrolyzate contains 11% (w\\/v) of fermentable sugars with xylose as the major component, which\\u000a comprises up to 75% of the total reducing sugars. The neutralized hydrolyzate exhibited strong inhibition toward cell growth\\u000a and ethanol production by yeasts.

C. S. Gong; C. S. Chen; L. F. Chen

1993-01-01

422

Production of cellulase on sugar cane bagasse by fungal mixed culture solid substrate fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4 and its mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus phoenicis QM329 for cellu-lase production on bagasse by mixed culture solid substrate fermentation. A mutual synergism was observed between the parent Trichoderma strain and the Aspergillus, resulting in enhanced combined biomass production and corresponding increased in cellulase, endoglucanase and b-glucosidase activities. Such synergism was absent with the mutant Trichoderma

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Robert P. Tengerdy

1997-01-01

423

Adaptation and reutilization of Candida guilliermondii cells for xylitol production in bagasse hydrolysate.  

PubMed

The xylitol productivity increased by about 15% with the use of cells of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 previously recycled through four consecutive batch cultures and adapted to the sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. Furthermore, the more concentrated the hydrolysate, the more necessary was the adaptation of the cells, owing to the presence of toxic substances at high concentration which inhibited the xylose-xylitol conversion by the yeast. PMID:9542108

Sene, L; Felipe, M G; Vitolo, M; Silva, S S; Mancilha, I M

1998-01-01

424

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation\\u000a as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a\\u000a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present\\u000a work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown

Márcia Monteiro Machado Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio de Oliveira Mello; Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

2008-01-01

425

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown

Márcia Monteiro Machado Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio Oliveira de Mello; Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

2008-01-01

426

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation\\u000a as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a\\u000a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present\\u000a work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown

Márcia Monteiro Machado Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio de Oliveira Mello; Antonio Carlos Augusto Costa

427

Study of the cellulases produced by three mesophilic actinomycetes grown on bagasse as substrate  

SciTech Connect

The cellulases that strains of Streptomyces albogrisolus, S. nitrosporeus, and Micromonospora melanosporea produce when grown on untreated ballmilled bagasse were investigated. Optimum conditions for extracellular cellulase production and activity were determined to be growth at pH 6.7-7.4 and 25-35 degrees C for 4-5 days and assay at pH 5.0-6.0 and 45-55 degrees C, respectively. The endoglucanases were thermally stable at 50 degrees C, but the Avicelases had a half-life of approximately 24 hours at this temperature. Nearly half of the endoglucanases and almost all of the Avicelases were absorbed on ballmilled bagasse after 15 minutes incubation at 50 degrees C. The ..beta..-glucosidases were found to be mainly intracellular or cell wall bound. These mesophilic actinomycetes concomitantly produced xylanases and ..beta..-xylosidases with cellulases that, apart from cellobiose and glucose, also release xylose from bagasse. This feature may be advantageous in the commercial application of the enzymes of mesophilic actinomycetes for the saccharification of natural cellulosic substrates.

Van Zyl, W.H.

1985-09-01

428

Effect of chitosan and cationic starch on the surface chemistry properties of bagasse paper.  

PubMed

The use of non-wood fibers in the paper industry has been an economical and environmental necessity. The application of dry-strength agents has been a successful method to enhance the strength properties of paper. The experimental results evidencing the potential of chitosan and cationic starch utilization in bagasse paper subjected to hot water pre-extraction has been presented in this paper. The research analyzes the surface properties alterations due to these dry-strength agents. Inverse gas chromatography was used to evaluate the properties of surface chemistry of the papers namely the surface energy, active sites, surface area as well as the acidic/basic character. The results of the study revealed that the handsheets process causes surface arrangement and orientation of chemical groups, which induce a more hydrophobic and basic surface. The acid-base surface characteristics after the addition of dry-strength agents were the same as the bagasse handsheets with and without hot water pre-extraction. The results showed that the dry-strength agent acts as a protecting film or glaze on the surfaces of bagasse paper handsheets. PMID:23624167

Ashori, Alireza; Cordeiro, Nereida; Faria, Marisa; Hamzeh, Yahya

2013-07-01

429

3. Matheron C, Delort AM, Gaudet G Forano E (1996) Can JMicr'obiol 42, 1091-1095  

E-print Network

of sterilization by autoclaving of maize and sugarcane bagasse cell walls on chemical and biological sus, silage stage) and sugarcane bagasse were prepared [2]. They were autoclaved (120°C, 20min and sugarcane bagasse CWR respectively (Table 1). The losses in p-coumaric acid (PCA) and ferulic acid (FA) were

Boyer, Edmond

430

JOURNAL OF WOOD CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY, 19(1&2), 151-1 65 (1 999) PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF THE  

E-print Network

from sugarcane bagasse was studied at 40°C between 0.25 and 8 h by Fourier- transformed infrared, reaction B).384 We studied the hydroxymethylation of sugarcane bagasse (Saccharurn oficcinarurn) lignin conditions for the obtention of sugarcane bagasse lignin were described Hydroxymethylation was performedwith

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

431

Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).  

PubMed

We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees. PMID:18348816

Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

2008-02-01

432

Thermoluminescence dating of volcanic ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2-11 ?m glass component of airfall ash provides a new method for dating tephra deposits when the thermoluminescence (TL) techniques developed for pottery dating are applied. Here I demonstrate that this method of tephrochronometry can be applied to both distal and proximal tephra over the age range ˜ 0.5 ka to > 500 ka. However, there are some major sources of error that have not yet been successfully circumvented, principally anomalous fading in associated feldspar grains. The 100% clear glass Holocene Mazama ash exhibits no anomalous fading, implying that for older tephra, physical separation of glass may permit measurement of accurate TL apparent ages. The observation of a minimum TL apparent age of 670 ka for the Coutlee tephra from southern British Columbia, previously known only to be > 37 ka old, illustrates the reconnaissance value of delayed-glow TL measurements on the bulk 4-11 ?m grains.

Berger, Glenn W.

1985-07-01

433

Volcanic Ash on Slopes of Karymsky  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A volcanic eruption can produce gases, lava, bombs of rock, volcanic ash, or any combination of these elements. Of the volcanic products that linger on the land, most of us think of hardened lava flows, but volcanic ash can also persist on the landscape. One example of that persistence appeared on Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula in spring 2007. On March 25, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around the Karymsky Volcano. In this image, volcanic ash from earlier eruptions has settled onto the snowy landscape, leaving dark gray swaths. The ash stains are confined to the south of the volcano's summit, one large stain fanning out toward the southwest, and another toward the east. At first glance, the ash stain toward the east appears to form a semicircle north of the volcano and sweep back east. Only part of this dark shape, however, is actually volcanic ash. Near the coast, the darker color may result from thicker vegetation. Similar darker coloring appears to the south. Volcanic ash is not really ash at all, but tiny, jagged bits of rock and glass. These jagged particles pose serious health risks to humans and animals who might inhale them. Likewise, the ash poses hazards to animals eating plants that have been coated with ash. Because wind can carry volcanic ash thousands of kilometers, it poses a more far-reaching hazard than other volcanic ejecta. Substantial amounts of ash can even affect climate by blocking sunlight. Karymsky is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. It is one of many active volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, which is part of the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Rim. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2007-01-01

434

A rapid and direct approach to find promoters for high-level gene expression in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)  

E-print Network

-expressed sugarcane genes on the sorghum genetic . . . . , 37 map, and their comparative locations in other grasses . . . . . . 41 Mapping of highly-expressed sugarcane genes on the sugarcane genetic map. The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence... of the . . 42 SPRP1 cDNA. . . 45 10 The 5' end nucleotide sequence of SPRP2 and its deduced amino acid sequence . 49 11 Hydrophobicity plots of sugarcane proline-rich protein (SPRP). . . . . . . . . . . . 50 FIGURE 12 The 5' upstream and partial coding...

Yang, Meizhu

2012-06-07

435

Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium

Prinya Chindaprasirt; Ubolluk Rattanasak

2010-01-01

436

Can vegetative ash be water repellent?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of the literature, ash is referred to as a highly wettable material (e.g. Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Etiegni and Campbell, 1991; Woods and Balfour 2010). However, the contrary was suggested in few articles, albeit with no further quantification (Gabet and Sternberg, 2008; Khanna et al., 1996; Stark, 1977). To clarify this question, water repellency measurements on ash using the Water Drop Penetration Times (WDPT) method were performed on ash from Mediterranean ecosystems and it was found to be water repellent (Bodí et al. 2011). Water repellency on ash from different wildfires ranged from 40 to 10 % occurrence with samples being extreme repellent (lasting more than 3600 s to penetrate). Part of the ash produced in the laboratory was also water repellent. After that, other ash samples had been found water repellent in wildfires in Colorado (unpublished results), Portugal (Gonzalez-Pelayo, 2009), or in prescribed fires in Australia (Bodí et al. 2011b; Petter Nyman, personnal communication). All the samples exhibiting water repellent properties had in common that were combusted at low temperatures, yielding in general ash with dark colour and contents of organic carbon of more than 18 % (Bodí et al. 2011a), although these properties were not exactly proportional to its water repellency occurrence or persistence. In addition, the species studied in Bodí et al. (2011) had been found to produce different levels of WR repellency, being ash from Pinus halepensis more repellent than that from Quercus coccifera and Rosmarins officinalis. Ash from Eucaliptus radiata had been found also very water repellent, as Pinus halepensis (unpublished data). The reasons of the existance of water repellent ash are that the charred residue produced by fire (an also contained in the ash) can contain aromatic compounds that have a lower free energy than water and therefore behave as hydrophobic materials with reduced solubility (Almendros et al., 1992 and Knicker, 2007). Specifically, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy in the WR ash reported in Bodí et al (2011) have been done, resulting that the more persistent water repellency coincided with higher levels of aliphatic, aromatic and carboxylic groups (Pavel Dlapa et al., under revision). The existence of water repellent ash indicate that i) after low severity fires, ash can be responsible in some occasions of the soil water repellency and ii) ash water repellency can be one of the ash properties that controls the variable hydrological response of ash covering the soil. Acknowledgments to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for the HYDFIRE project CGL2010-21670-C02-01.

Bodí, M. B.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Doerr, S. H.

2012-04-01

437

Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Using Bagasse-Derived Ethanol as a Gasoline Oxygenate in Mumbai (Bombay)  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse is the fibrous residue generated during sugar production and can be a desirable feedstock for fuel ethanol production. About 15%--25% of the bagasse is left after satisfying the mills' energy requirements, and this excess bagasse can be used in a bioconversion process to make ethanol. It is estimated that a 23 million L/yr ({approximately}6 million gal/yr) ethanol facility is feasible by combining excess bagasse from three larger sugar mills in Maharashtra state. The plant could supply about half of the ethanol demand in Mumbai, assuming that all gasoline is sold as an E10 fuel, a blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume. The life cycle assessment (LCA) performed in this study demonstrated the potentially significant benefits of diverting excess bagasse in Maharashtra to ethanol production, as opposed to disposing it by burning. In particular, lower net values for the ethanol production scenario were observed for the following: fossil energy consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide , hydrocarbons (except methane), SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, and methane. The lower greenhouse potential of the ethanol scenario is also important in the context of Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation because India is a developing country.

Kadam, K.

2000-12-07

438

Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals  

PubMed Central

This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (?3.62?meq/g) and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0?min) than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40?ppm, adsorbent 2.0?g/L). The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax). As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W) removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20?min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin) took 90?min for the same removal efficiency. PMID:24578651

2014-01-01

439

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Associated with Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sugarcane is an important cash crop for several countries and it is mainly used for sugar and ethanol (as biofuel) production.\\u000a This crop consumes heavy amount of nitrogen fertilizer and get affected by bacterial and fungal diseases for which chemical\\u000a treatments are not recommended. Most of the countries use approximately 200–400 kg N?ha?1 which is costly and hazardous for environment. For fungal

Samina Mehnaz

440

Brewer's yeast and sugarcane yeast as protein sources for dogs.  

PubMed

Brewer's yeast (BY), autolysed sugarcane yeast (ASCY) and integral sugar cane yeast (ISCY) were studied in two experiments as ingredients for dog diets. In the first experiment, 28 dogs were randomly assigned to four diets; one reference diet and three test diets containing 15% of BY, ASCY or ISCY and 85% of the reference diet (as-fed basis). The digestibilities of the yeasts were calculated by the substitution method. In the second experiment, 35 dogs were randomized to five diets with similar chemical composition but different levels of sugarcane yeast inclusion (0%, 7.5% ASCY, 15% ASCY, 7.5% ISCY and 15% ISCY). In both experiments, the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients was determined through total collection of faeces. During experiment, two additional analyses of food palatability, nitrogen balance and urea postprandial responses were performed. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, and the means were compared by orthogonal or polynomial contrasts or Tukey's test (p < 0.05). In experiment 1, CTTAD of protein was lower for both sugarcane yeasts than for BY (p = 0.012), as was metabolizable energy content (p = 0.025). In experiment 2, a linear reduction in energy digestibility with ASCY inclusion (p = 0.05) was verified. Furthermore, faecal score and DM content were reduced with ISCY inclusion (p < 0.003). No effect of yeast inclusion on nitrogen balance or postprandial urea response was found. Also, the inclusion of 7.5% of ASCY or ISCY increased diet palatability (p < 0.01). Yeasts present adequate digestibility by dogs, but its effect on faecal formation needs to be considered. No clear advantage for the use of ASCY over ISCY was found. In conclusion, we find that sugarcane yeast is suitable for inclusion in dog food and can enhance the overall palatability of the diet. PMID:24304448

Martins, M S; Sakomura, N K; Souza, D F; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Vasconcellos, R S; Carciofi, A C

2014-10-01

441

Role of antioxidative enzymes in red rot resistance in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidative enzymes viz. peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities have been investigated in the internodes\\u000a of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) following inoculation with conidia of red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum Went). Two cultivars (cvs) with varying sensitivity to red rot, viz., CoJ 64 (susceptible) and CoS 8436 (resistant) were\\u000a used. The spread of infection i.e. the movement of fungal mycelium

Bavita Asthir; Kanwal Preet; Suresh K. Batta; Bipen Sharma

2009-01-01

442

Value of cane trash in nitrogen nutrition of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of trash containing 0.3 to 0.5% N in the N nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) was investigated in pot- and field experiments using15N-labelled trash. The data obtained from the pot study with 2 silty-clay loams (a Humic Nitosol and a Humic Acrisol) showed\\u000a that surface-applied trash (10 tonnes\\/ha), although ground to pass a 1-mm sieve, contributed less

K. F. NG Kee Kwong; J. Deville; P. C. Cavalot; V. Riviere

1987-01-01

443

[Surveillance experience in the sugarcane sector: challenges in disrupting the perilous "marathon" of the sugarcane plantations].  

PubMed

The sugar-alcohol sector is growing year by year, especially in the state of Sao Paulo where approximately 42.9% of the sugar-ethanol plants are concentrated. The production chain is a subject for concern to public agencies and to civil society by exposing migrant workers to risks arising from the work process. In Sao Paulo, from 2006-2009, Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) set up two initiatives to address problems related to the housing and working conditions of sugarcane workers. The objective of this article presented in the form of an essay is to analyze the experiences in their context. The methodology used combines document analysis with the perception of the authors who participated in the actions. The experience led to improvements in these conditions and fostered public debate on the conditions of such physically demanding work. The interventions resulted in a definition of sanitary norms and initiatives at the legislative and judicial level, but even the most successful measures failed to attain the organizational targets, especially a production remuneration structure that challenges the traditional action of surveillance and the impacts were weakened due to the fragility of worker representation for the sector. PMID:25388174

Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Santos, Simone Alves Dos; Silva, Alessandro José Nunes da; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de

2014-12-01

444

Reactivity based approach for classifying fly ash  

SciTech Connect

A major impediment to increased utilization of coal fly ash in portland cement based concrete is a lack of an adequate ash classification procedure that correlates effectively with material performance. The current procedure for classifying fly ash (ASTM C 618-94a) for use in concrete does not provide an accurate measure of expected performance. A classification procedure, based on measures of fly ash reactivity, would serve as a better predictor of performance in concrete. This paper provides an overview of the existing provisions contained in the classification procedures for a number of cementitious and pozzolanic materials, including portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, and coal fly ash. The rationale for an approach to develop a reactivity based classification for fly ash is also presented.

Dewey, G.R.; Sutter, L.L.; Sandell, J.F. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

1996-11-01

445

Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron

Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca

2008-01-01

446

Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash  

E-print Network

Injection Last ESP/Baghouse Row Fly Ash Flue GasFlue Gas Electrostatic Precipitator of ESP/Baghouse Injection Strategies to Protect Ash Quality: ­ Typically 4 ­ 8% of overall fly ash Injected after ESP Fly Ash Only C + Hg BaghouseBaghouse #12;12 Post Fly Ash Collection Injection Strategies