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1

Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

2011-10-01

2

Processing of Sugarcane Bagasse ash and Reactivity of Ash-blended Cement Mortar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA), a sugar-mill waste, has the potential of a partial cement replacement material if processed and obtained under controlled conditions. This paper discusses the reactivity of SCBA obtained by control burning of sugarcane bagasse procured from Punjab province of India. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to ascertain the amorphousness and morphology of the minerals ash particles. Destructive and non-destructive tests were conducted on SCBA-blended mortar specimens. Ash-blended cement paste specimens were analyzed by XRD, thermal analysis, and SEM methods to evaluate the hydration reaction of SCBA with cement. Results showed that the SCBA processed at 600°C for 5 hours was reactive as ash-blended mortar specimens with up to 15% substitution of cement gave better strength than control specimens.

Ajay, Goyal; Hattori, Kunio; Ogata, Hidehiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

3

Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement.  

PubMed

Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement. PMID:20163947

Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araújo

2010-06-01

4

Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

2013-01-01

5

Seizure modeling of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by chemically modified sugarcane bagasse fly ash: isotherms, kinetics, and column study.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollution is a common environmental problem all over the world. The purpose of the research is to examine the applicability of bagasse fly ash (BFA)-an agricultural waste of sugar industry used for the synthesis of zeolitic material. The zeolitic material are used for the uptake of Pb(II) and Cd(II) heavy metal. Bagasse fly ash is used as a native material for the synthesis of zeolitic materials by conventional hydrothermal treatment without (conventional zeolitic bagasse fly ash (CZBFA)) and with electrolyte (conventional zeolitic bagasse fly ash in electrolyte media (ECZBFA)) media. Heavy metal ions Pb(II) and Cd(II) were successfully seized from aqueous media using these synthesized zeolitic materials. In this study, the zeolitic materials were well characterized by different instrumental methods such as Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, XRF, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic microphotographs. The presence of analcime, phillipsite, and zeolite P in adsorbents confirms successful conversion of native BFA into zeolitic materials. Seizure modeling of Pb(II) and Cd(II) was achieved by batch sorption experiments, isotherms, and kinetic studies. These data were used to compare and evaluate the zeolitic materials as potential sorbents for the uptake of heavy metal ions from an aqueous media. The Langmuir isotherm correlation coefficient parameters best fit the equilibrium data which indicate the physical sorption. Pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion model matches best which indicates that the rate of sorption was controlled by film diffusion. The column studies were performed for the practical function of sorbents, and breakthrough curves were obtained, which revealed higher sorption capacity as compared to batch method. Synthesized zeolitic material (CZBFA and ECZBFA), a low-cost sorbent, was proven as potential sorbent for the uptake of Pb(II) and Cd(II) heavy metal ions. PMID:22739768

Shah, Bhavna; Mistry, Chirag; Shah, Ajay

2013-04-01

6

Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of ?-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

2013-03-01

7

Optimizing hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

8

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

2011-01-01

9

Obtaining polymeric composite membranes from lignocellulosic components of sugarcane bagasse for use in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, several research groups and industries are studying applications for the residues from agrobusiness, other than burning them. Thinking about a better use for the sugarcane bagasse, this study aims to obtain membranes of cellulose acetate composite with oxidized lignin, both isolated from sugarcane bagasse. Thus, we obtain a product with higher commercial value, from a natural fiber, which has

Simone Coelho Nakanishi; Adilson Roberto Gonçalves; George Rocha; Maria de Lourdes Ballinas; Guillermo Gonzalez

2011-01-01

10

Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained with GC-pretreated bagasse is possibly due to the presence of one hydroxyl group in the GC molecular structure, resulting in more significant biomass delignification and defibrillation, though both solvent pretreatments reduced bagasse particles to a similar extent. The maximum glucan digestibility of GC/glycerol systems was less than that of EC/EG systems, which is likely attributed to glycerol being less effective than EG in biomass delignification and defibrillation. Acidified AC/AG solvent systems were more effective for pretreatment of lignin-containing biomass than MCC. PMID:24156757

2013-01-01

11

Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from aqueous solution using sugarcane bagasse as adsorbent.  

PubMed

In the present work, the adsorption ability of sugarcane bagasse to remove oil by-products from aqueous solution was evaluated. The objective was treating the contaminated wastewater while enriching the bagasse for its later use as fuel in boilers. Adsorption experiments were carried out in an agitated reactor at room temperature to obtain kinetic curves and adsorption isotherms of gasoline and n-heptane on sugarcane bagasse. The results showed the great potential of bagasse as an adsorbent, since it was able to adsorb up to 99% of gasoline and 90% of n-heptane in solutions containing about 5% of these contaminants. In the adsorption kinetics of gasoline, the equilibrium was reached after just 5 min. This result shows that the adsorption is very favorable. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R models did not describe well the adsorption behavior obtained for these systems. PMID:19932555

Brandão, Poliana C; Souza, Túlio C; Ferreira, Cíntia A; Hori, Carla E; Romanielo, Lucienne L

2010-03-15

12

Improving the value of sugarcane bagasse wastes via integrated chemical production systems: an environmentally friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylitol production by chemical or enzymatic routes generates massive amounts of hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse as a residue. This biomass is a renewable feedstock for the production of added-value chemicals from its lignocellulosic constituents. In this work, chlorine-free, ?-cellulose pulp and acetic acid were produced from hydrolyzed bagasse. Soda\\/AQ and oxidative processes were developed to remove lignin from the biomass. Lignin-rich

Henrique M. Baudel; Claudio Zaror; César A. M. de Abreu

2005-01-01

13

Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L-arabinose, D-xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or...

14

Hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology improves digestibility and ethanol production by SSF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

15

Isolation of nanocellulose from waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and its characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocellulose obtained by acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) has been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Nanocellulose and cellulose exhibited identical FTIR spectra quite different from SCB. TG analysis

Arup Mandal; Debabrata Chakrabarty

2011-01-01

16

Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties. PMID:24104688

Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

2014-01-01

17

Optimization of amylase production by Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse as solid support material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of amylase by Aspergillus niger strain UO-01 under solid-state fermentation with sugarcane bagasse was optimized by using response surface methodology and\\u000a empirical modelling. The process parameters tested were particle size of sugarcane bagasse, incubation temperature and pH,\\u000a moisture level of solid support material and the concentrations of inoculum, total sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous. The optimum\\u000a conditions for high amylase

Renato Pérez Rosés; Nelson Pérez Guerra

2009-01-01

18

Structural features and antioxidant activity of xylooligosaccharides enzymatically produced from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) were prepared from xylan-rich hemicelluloses isolated by potassium hydroxide from sugarcane bagasse by hydrolysis with crude xylanase secreted by Pichia stipitis. Hydrolysis for 12h produced XOS with a maximum yield of 31.8%, equivalent to 5.29 mg mL(-1) in the hydrolyzate. XOS with degrees of polymerization (DP) from 2 to 4 (xylobiose, xylotriose, and xylotetraose) were the major components in the hydrolysates, whereas the oligosaccharides with higher DP of 5-6 (xylopentaose and xylohexose) showed a constant low level. FT-IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC) demonstrated that XOS contained Araf and 4-O-Me-?-D-GlcpA residues. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that the XOS exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. The results obtained indicate that the XOS produced from sugarcane bagasse can be employed in food-related applications. PMID:23131647

Bian, Jing; Peng, Feng; Peng, Xiao-Peng; Peng, Pai; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2013-01-01

19

Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol yields of combined surfactant and dilute ammonia treated sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Tween 80, Tween 20, PEG 4000 or PEG 6000 was used in combination with ammonium hydroxide for the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Pretreatment was carried out by mixing sugarcane bagasse, ammonium hydroxide (28% v/v solution), and water at a ratio of 1:0.5:20, adding 3% (w/w) surfactant based on the weight of dry biomass, and heating the mixture to 160 °C for 1 h. Fibers were hydrolyzed using two concentrations of commercially available enzymes, Spezyme CP and Novozyme 188. The results indicated that PEG 4000 and Tween 80 gave the highest cellulose digestibilities (62%, 66%) and ethanol yields (73%, 69%) as compared to the use of only dilute ammonia (38%, 42%) or water (27%, 26%) as catalysts, respectively. The enhanced digestibilities of non-ionic surfactant–dilute ammonia treated biomass can be attributed to delignification and reduction of cellulose crystallinity as confirmed by FTIR, TGA and XRD analysis. PMID:23376200

Cao, Shuo; Aita, Giovanna M

2013-03-01

20

Interfacial behavior of composites of recycled poly(ethyelene terephthalate) and sugarcane bagasse fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study of composites of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETr) and sugarcane bagasse fiber with and without compatibilizing agents. The interfacial behavior of these composites was investigated by torque rheometry, tensile tests, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A comparison of the torque values resulting from the use of ethylene\\/n-butyl acrylate\\/glycidyl methacrylate (EBGMA)

Elisângela Corradini; Edson N. Ito; José M. Marconcini; Carlos Triveño Rios; José A. M. Agnelli; Luiz H. C. Mattoso

2009-01-01

21

Preparation of sugarcane bagasse cellulosic phthalate using an ionic liquid as reaction medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical modification of sugarcane bagasse cellulose with phthalic anhydride using 1-butyl-3-methylinidazolium chloride ionic liquid as reaction medium was studied. A series of phthalated cellulosic derivatives were prepared with a degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 0.12 to 2.54. It was found that the DS increased with reaction temperature from 85 to 100°C, molar ratio of phthalic anhydride\\/anhydroglucose units in

C. F. Liu; R. C. Sun; A. P. Zhang; J. L. Ren

2007-01-01

22

Potential of sugarcane bagasse (agro-industrial waste) for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is a renewable resource that can be used to produce biopesticide for the control of mosquito vectors. In the present study, we demonstrated that cane processed bagasse could be used to produce Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (Bti) for control of mosquito vectors viz: Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Biochemical studies indicated that the Bti spore/crystal toxins produced from the test culture medium (Bagasse, BG + Soybean, SB) are higher than that from the conventional medium (Nutrient Yeast Extract Salt Medium, NYSM). The bacteria produced in these media (NYSM, BG, SB, BG+SB) were bioassayed against the mosquito species and the toxic effect was found to be effective. Cost-effective analysis indicates that the use of BG and SB, as bacterial culture medium, is successful and economical, for production of this mosquito pathogenic bacillus. PMID:24189680

Poopathi, S; Mani, C; Rajeswari, G

2013-09-01

23

Enzymatic and fungal treatments on sugarcane bagasse for the production of mechanical pulps.  

PubMed

Crude ligninolytic enzyme extracts from Phanerochaete chrysosporium fungi were applied to sugarcane bagasse, prior to thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical pulping (CTMP), and their properties were compared with the normal TMP and CTMP and also with TMP and CTMP pretreated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and P. chrysosporium fungi. The sugarcane bagasse was impregnated with the crude enzyme extract containing lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and laccase (Lac). The results show that pretreatment with enzyme crude extract is an advantageous way to produce TMP and CTMP from sugarcane bagasse, as compared with only fungal pretreatment. Enzymatic pretreatments need only hours to enhance pulping and paper properties, compared with the weeks necessary for fungal treatments. Higher pulp yields were obtained compared with the fungal pretreatments. Enzymatic pretreatment reduced the energy consumption in a proportion similar to that of C. subvermispora fungal pretreatment and increased the pulp tensile index compared with the normal TMP and CTMP pulps, although the tensile strength was somewhat lower than that for pulps from C. subvermispora fungal pretreatment before CTMP processing. An advantage of enzymatic pretreatment is that brightness is increased compared with normal TMP and CTMP processes, whereas fungal pretreatments reduce the brightness. PMID:15291475

Ramos, Juan; Rojas, Teresa; Navarro, Fernando; Dávalos, Florentina; Sanjuán, Rubén; Rutiaga, José; Young, Raymond A

2004-08-11

24

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

2012-03-01

25

Production of fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse by enzymatic hydrolysis after autohydrolysis and mechanical refining.  

PubMed

The autohydrolysis process has been considered a simple, low-cost and environmental friendly technology for generation of sugars from biomass. In order to improve accessibility of enzymes during enzymatic hydrolysis as well as to allow the recovery of hemicellulose in the filtrate, the sugarcane bagasse was pretreated using autohydrolysis followed by a mechanical refining process. The autohydrolysis was carried out in three different conditions. Autohydrolysis at 190°C for 10min provided the highest overall sugar (19.2/100g raw bagasse) in prehydrolyzate. The enzymatic hydrolysis step was performed for all the post-treated solids with and without refining at enzyme loadings of 5 and 10FPU/g for 96h. A total of 84.4% of sugar can be recovered from sugarcane bagasse at 180°C for 20min with 5 FPU/g enzyme charge. The economic analysis for the proposed method showed that the bioethanol production can have a financial return larger than 12%. PMID:25590426

Batalha, Larisse Aparecida Ribas; Han, Qiang; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Borges Gomes, Fernando José

2015-03-01

26

Thermochemical Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse into Bio-Crude Oils by Fluidized-Bed Pyrolysis Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermochemical conversion of sugarcane bagasse into bio-crude oils by fluidized-bed reactor has been taken into consideration in this study. The bagasse in particle form was pyrolyzed in an externally heated 7cm diameter and 37.5cm high fluidized-bed reactor with nitrogen as a carrier gas. The reactor chamber and gas-preheater were heated by means of a renewable energy biomass source cylindrical heater. At a reactor bed temperature of 450°C for a feed particle size of 420-600µm and at a gas flow rate of 30 l/min, an oil yield of 48wt% of dry feed was obtained. The pyrolysis process temperature was found to have influenced on the product yields. Characterization of the whole pyrolysis liquids obtained at optimum operating conditions has been carried out including physical properties, elemental analyses, GCV, FT-IR, and 1H NMR analysis. The results show that pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse waste is a good option for producing bio-crude oils to be used as alternative to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstocks.

Islam, Mohammad Rofiqul; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Uddin, Md. Shazib

27

Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results. PMID:22122978

2011-01-01

28

Influence of pressure in ethanol/water pulping of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The influence of the pressure in the ethanol/water pulping of sugarcane bagasse was studied using argon pressure varying from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa. The reaction volume and activation volume were studied. For the reaction volume, temperature and time were constant and pressure was varied, and for the activation volume, temperature was constant and pressure and time were varied. The degradation of cellulose was not promoted by the pressure with positive reaction volume (4100 cm(3)/mol). On the other hand, degradation of xylan (polyoses) and lignin was strongly favored by the pressure and reaction volume ranged from -1000 to -3000 cm(3)/mol. PMID:12721485

Gonçalves, Adilson R; Ruzene, Denise S

2003-01-01

29

Selection and Identification of Fungi Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse and their Application for Phenanthrene Removal from Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated the identification and selection of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene (Phe) removal from soil. Fungi were identified by PCR amplification of ITS regions as Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. A primary selection of fungi was accomplished in plate, considering Phe tolerance of every strain in

D. V. CORTÉS-ESPINOSA; F. J. FERNÁNDEZ-PERRINO; A. ARANA-CUENCA; F. ESPARZA-GARCÍA; O. LOERA; R. RODRÍGUEZ-VÁZQUEZ

2006-01-01

30

Evaluation of technological alternatives for process integration of sugarcane bagasse for sustainable biofuels production—Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, there is a tremendous global interest in the biofuels production. However, first generation biofuels have been debated about that energy-crop compete with food crops and thus cause food deficiency and price increases. In this sense, researchers have started looking for potential feedstock for ethanol such as lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., sugarcane bagasse), which does not affect food security. In this

K. Ojeda; O. Ávila; J. Suárez; V. Kafarov

2011-01-01

31

Removal of phenanthrene from soil by co-cultures of bacteria and fungi pregrown on sugarcane bagasse pith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen co-cultures composed of four bacteria and four fungi grown on sugarcane bagasse pith were tested for phenanthrene degradation in soil. The four bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginose, Ralstonia pickettii, Pseudomonas sp. and Pseudomonas cepacea. The four fungi were identified as: Penicillium sp., Trichoderma viride, Alternaria tenuis and Aspergillus terrus that were previously isolated from different hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Fungi

B Chávez-Gómez; R Quintero; F Esparza-Garc??a; A. M Mesta-Howard; F. J Zavala D??az de la Serna; C. H Hernández-Rodr??guez; T Gillén; H. M Poggi-Varaldo; J Barrera-Cortés; R Rodr??guez-Vázquez

2003-01-01

32

Characteristics and oil sorption effectiveness of kapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks: oil removal suitability matrix.  

PubMed

The characteristics and water/oil sorption effectiveness ofkapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks have been compared. The three biomass types were subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface tension analyses for liquid-air and oil-water systems were conducted. Both kapok fibre and sugarcane bagasse exhibit excellent oil sorption capabilities for diesel, crude, new engine and used engine oils as their oil sorption capacities all exceed 10 g/g. The synthetic sorbent exhibits oil sorption capacities comparable with sugarcane bagasse, while rice husks exhibit the lowest oil sorption capacities among all the sorbents. Kapok fibre shows overwhelmingly high oil-to-water sorption (O/W) ratios ranging from 19.35 to 201.53 while sugarcane bagasse, rice husks and synthetic sorbent have significantly lower O/W ratios (0.76-2.69). This suggests that kapok fibre is a highly effective oil sorbent even in well-mixed oil-water media. An oil sorbent suitability matrix is proposed to aid stakeholders in evaluating customized oil removal usage of the natural sorbents. PMID:22629620

Ali, Norizan; El-Harbawi, Mohanad; Jabal, Ayman Abo; Yin, Chun-Yang

2012-01-01

33

Ultrasonic pretreatment and acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes.  

PubMed

Immense interest has been devoted to the production of bulk chemicals from lignocellulose biomass. Diluted sulfuric acid treatment is currently one of the main pretreatment methods. However, the low total sugar concentration obtained via such pretreatment limits industrial fermentation systems that use lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate is used as the carbon and nitrogen sources to achieve a green and economical production of succinic acid in this study. Sugarcane bagasse was ultrasonically pretreated for 40 min, with 43.9 g/L total sugar obtained after dilute acid hydrolysis. The total sugar concentration increased by 29.5 %. In a 3-L fermentor, using 30 g/L non-detoxified total sugar as the carbon source, succinic acid production increased to 23.7 g/L with a succinic acid yield of 79.0 % and a productivity of 0.99 g/L/h, and 60 % yeast extract in the medium could be reduced. Compared with the detoxified sugar preparation method, succinic acid production and yield were improved by 20.9 and 20.2 %, respectively. PMID:23649828

Xi, Yong-lan; Dai, Wen-yu; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Jiu-hua; Chen, Ke-quan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Ping-kai

2013-11-01

34

Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G ethanol and electric energy production, could be an option to absorb fluctuations in relative prices. Simulations of three cases were run using the software EMSO: production of 1G ethanol + electric energy, of 1G + 2G ethanol and a flexible biorefinery. Bagasse for 2G ethanol was pretreated with a weak acid solution, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, while 50% of sugarcane trash (mostly leaves) was used as surplus fuel. Results With maximum diversion of bagasse to 2G ethanol (74% of the total), an increase of 25.8% in ethanol production (reaching 115.2 L/tonne of sugarcane) was achieved. An increase of 21.1% in the current ethanol price would be enough to make all three biorefineries economically viable (11.5% for the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery). For 2012 prices, the flexible biorefinery presented a lower Internal Rate of Return (IRR) than the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery. The impact of electric energy prices (auction and spot market) and of enzyme costs on the IRR was not as significant as it would be expected. Conclusions For current market prices in Brazil, not even production of 1G bioethanol is economically feasible. However, the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery is closer to feasibility than the conventional 1G + electric energy industrial plant. Besides, the IRR of the 1G + 2G biorefinery is more sensitive with respect to the price of ethanol, and an increase of 11.5% in this value would be enough to achieve feasibility. The ability of the flexible biorefinery to take advantage of seasonal fluctuations does not make up for its higher investment cost, in the present scenario. PMID:24088415

2013-01-01

35

Removal of Cr 6+ and Ni 2+ from aqueous solution using bagasse and fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw bagasse and fly ash, the waste generated in sugar mills and boilers respectively have been used as low-cost potential adsorbents. Raw bagasse was pretreated with 0.1N NaOH followed by 0.1N CH3COOH before its application. These low-cost adsorbents were used for the removal of chromium and nickel from an aqueous solution. The kinetics of adsorption and extent of adsorption at

M. Rao; A. V. Parwate; A. G. Bhole

2002-01-01

36

Integrated processes for use of pulps and lignins obtained from sugarcane bagasse and straw: a review of recent efforts in Brazil.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse and straw can be converted into pulps, oils, controlled-release formulations, chelating agents, and composites. This article reviews bagasse and straw conversion efforts in Brazil. Laboratory-scale processes were developed aiming at the integral use of these biomass byprod ucts. Organosolv pulping and oxidation of lignin are the most promising processes for the rational use of sugarcane residues. Fungal pretreatment and spectroscopic characterization are also discussed. PMID:15930561

Gonçalves, Adilson R; Benar, Priscila; Costa, Sirlene M; Ruzene, Denise S; Moriya, Regina Y; Luz, Sandra M; Ferretti, Lais P

2005-01-01

37

Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.  

PubMed

In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C. PMID:23313680

de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

2013-02-01

38

Biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by integrating dark- and photo-fermentation.  

PubMed

Hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by integrating dark-fermentation by Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 2822 and photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01 was investigated. The SCB was hydrolysed by sulphuric acid and the hydrolysate detoxified by passing through adsorbent resin column (Amberlite XAD-4) to remove the inhibitory furfural, and subjected to dark-fermentation. The cellulosic residue from acid hydrolysis was hydrolysed by the new isolate Cellulomonas fimi to release sugars for H2 production by E. aerogenes, through simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF). Cumulative H2 production during dark-fermentation and SSFF was 1000 and 613 ml/L, respectively. The spent media of dark-fermentation and SSFF were utilized for photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01. The cumulative H2 production was 755 ml/L for dark-fermentation and 351 ml/L for SSFF spent medium. PMID:24291314

Rai, Pankaj K; Singh, S P; Asthana, R K; Singh, Shweta

2014-01-01

39

Clean energy from sugarcane waste: feasibility study of an innovative application of bagasse and barbojo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the existing difficulty of finding energy sources and reducing pollution, the use of renewable sources and highly efficient technologies for electrical energy production stands out as one of the promising solutions for the future. This paper shows the results of the combination of these two aspects, namely, a molten carbonate fuel cell system fed with biomass derived syngas. In particular, the biogas comes from bagasse and barbojo, the sugarcane residues. So far in developing countries they have been wasted or partly used with poorly efficient technology. The feasibility of such an application is studied by means of the process simulator Aspen Plus © in which a detailed Fortran model has been integrated for the electrochemical reactor simulation. The results of the predictive model are presented and discussed; in particular, the substantial economic and environmental advantages obtainable by applying the technical solution here proposed to the Peruvian energy scenario, are shown.

Dellepiane, Daniela; Bosio, Barbara; Arato, Elisabetta

40

Panus tigrinus strains used in delignification of sugarcane bagasse prior to kraft pulping.  

PubMed

Three strains of the white-rot fungus Panus tigrinus (FTPT-4741, FTPT-4742, and FTPT-4745) were cultivated on sugarcane bagasse prior to kraft pulping. Pulp yields, kappa number, and viscosity of all pulps were determined and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from the samples were recorded. The growth of P. tigrinus strains in plastic bags increased the manganese peroxide and xylanase activities. Lignin peroxidase was not detected in the three systems (shaken and nonshaken flasks and plastic bags). FTIR spectra were reduced to their principal components, and a clear separation between FTPT-4742 and the control was observed. Strain FTPT-4745 decayed lignin more selectively in the three systems utilized. Yields of kraft pulping were low, ranging from 20 to 45% for the plastic bag samples and from 12 to 38% for the flask samples. Kappa numbers were 1-18 and viscosity ranged from 2.3 to 6.8 cP. PMID:12018265

Gonçalves, Adilson R; Costa, Sirlene M; Esposito, Elisa

2002-01-01

41

A novel kinetic model for polysaccharide dissolution during atmospheric acetic acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Acetic acid (AcH) pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with the catalysis of sulfuric acid (SA) could greatly enhance the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. However, polysaccharide dissolution happened inevitably during the pretreatment. It was found that the simplest model, which assumes that the total polysaccharides were reactive to be dissolved, could not well describe the kinetic behavior of polysaccharide dissolution. A novel pseudo-homogenous kinetic model was thus developed by introducing a parameter termed as "potential dissolution degree" (?(d)) based on the multilayered structure of cell wall. It was found that solid xylan and glucan dissolutions were a first-order reaction with respect to the dissolvable fraction. Due to the delignification action of AcH, polysaccharide dissolutions were enhanced in AcH media compared with those in aqueous system. Acetylizations of cellulose and sugars were also observed, and AcH concentration showed a significant influence on the degree of acetylization. PMID:24215769

Zhao, Xuebing; Morikawa, Yuichi; Qi, Feng; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Dehua

2014-01-01

42

Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol. PMID:20521302

Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

2010-10-15

43

Preparation of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by microwave assisted activation for the remediation of semi-aerobic landfill leachate.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the sugarcane bagasse derived activated carbon (SBAC) prepared by microwave heating for the adsorptive removal of ammonical nitrogen and orthophosphate from the semi-aerobic landfill leachate. The physical and chemical properties of SBAC were examined by pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The effects of adsorbent dosage, contact time and solution pH on the adsorption performance were investigated in a batch mode study at 30°C. Equilibrium data were favorably described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for ammonical nitrogen and orthophosphate of 138.46 and 12.81 mg/g, respectively, while the adsorption kinetic was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results illustrated the potential of sugarcane bagasse derived activated carbon for the adsorptive treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate. PMID:23500574

Foo, K Y; Lee, L K; Hameed, B H

2013-04-01

44

Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics  

PubMed Central

Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs), still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline) cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU) yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse) from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83%) > >[C2mim]Cl(53%)?=?[C4mim]Cl(53%). Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography). Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin remained dissolved in the aqueous IL solution. Of the three IL studied [C2mim]OAc gave the best saccharification yield, material recovery and delignification. The effects of [C2mim]OAc pretreatment resemble those of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of [C2mim]Cl and [C4mim]Cl resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. The use of imidazolium IL solvents with shorter alkyl chains results in accelerated dissolution, pretreatment and degradation. PMID:22920045

2012-01-01

45

Understanding the cellulolytic system of Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and enhancing saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by supplementation with pectinase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase.  

PubMed

Supplementation of cellulase cocktails with accessory enzymes can contribute to a higher hydrolytic capacity in releasing fermentable sugars from plant biomass. This study investigated which enzymes were complementary to the enzyme set of Trichoderma harzianum in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse. Specific activities of T. harzianum extract on different substrates were compared with the extracts of Penicillium echinulatum and Trichoderma reesei, and two commercial cellulase preparations. Complementary analysis of the secretome of T. harzianum was also used to identify which enzymes were produced during growth on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. These analyses enabled the selection of the enzymes pectinase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) to be further investigated as supplements to the T. harzianum extract. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse saccharification was evaluated using response surface methodology. The supplementation of T. harzianum enzymatic extract with pectinase and AF increased the efficiency of hydrolysis by up to 116%. PMID:23391738

Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Cota, Júnio; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Cairo, João Paulo Lourenço Franco; Lima, Deise Juliana; Squina, Fábio Marcio; Ruller, Roberto; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

2013-03-01

46

Sugarcane bagasse derivative-based superabsorbent containing phosphate rock with water-fertilizer integration.  

PubMed

To improve the water-fertilizer utilization ratio and mitigate the environmental contamination, an eco-friendly superabsorbent polymer (SPA), modified sugarcane bagasse/poly (acrylic acid) embedding phosphate rock (MSB/PAA/PHR), was prepared. Ammonia, phosphate rock (PHR) and KOH were admixed in the presence of acrylic acid to provide nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, respectively. Impacts on water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent polymer (SAP) were investigated. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water and 0.9 wt.% (weight percent) NaCl solution reached 414 gg(-1) and 55 gg(-1) (water/prepared SAP), respectively. The available NPK contents of the combination system were 15.13 mgg(-1), 6.93 mgg(-1) and 52.05 mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the release behaviors of NPK in the MSB/PAA/PHR were also studied. The results showed that the MSB/PAA/PHR has outstanding sustained-release plant nutrients property. PMID:22840007

Zhong, Kang; Zheng, Xi-Liang; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Jiang, Gang-Biao

2012-10-01

47

Microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis to produce xylooligosaccharides from sugarcane bagasse hemicelluloses.  

PubMed

Hemicelluloses from sugarcane bagasse were subjected to microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis at mild temperature to produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS). The hydrolysis was performed with dilute H2SO4 at 90°C and the influence of acid concentration (0.1-0.3M) and reaction time (20-40min) on the XOS production was ascertained with response surface methodology based on central composite design. The fitted models of XOS and xylose yields were in good agreement with the experimental results. Compared to hydrolysis time, acid concentration was a more significant coefficient in the production of XOS. A well-defined degree of polymerisation of XOS and the monomer in the hydrolysates were quantified. No sugar-degraded byproduct was detected. The maximum XOS yield of 290.2mgg(-1) was achieved by hydrolysis with 0.24M H2SO4 for 31min. The results indicated that the yields of xylose and the byproducts can be controlled by the acid concentration and reaction time in microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. PMID:24629931

Bian, Jing; Peng, Pai; Peng, Feng; Xiao, Xiao; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2014-08-01

48

Reuse of the xylanase enzyme in the biobleaching process of the sugarcane bagasse acetosolv pulp.  

PubMed

In this work, pretreatment-enzymatic series of the bagasse-sugarcane pulp and alkaline extraction of enzyme treated pulp were carried out. In the pretreatment an enzyme dose was utilized and acetosolv pulp suspension of 3% (w/v) with different solvents (distilled water, 0.05 mol/L acetate buffer pH 5.5 and 0.05 mol/L phosphate buffer pH 7.25) stirred at 85 rpm for 2 or 4 h. The enzymes used were pulpzyme and cartazyme, both commercial. The accompaniment of the enzymatic activity was carried out through measurement in initial and finish of each enzymatic pretreatment. The xylanase-treated pulps and xylanase-alkaline-extracted pulps were analyzed regarding kappa number and viscosity. Pulpzyme recovery was better in phosphate buffered medium (84, 46, and 23% for first, second, and third enzymatic treatment, respectively) although in aqueous medium reached only 2% for every treatments. However, the improvement of pulp properties was evidenced only in aqueous medium for pulpzyme. Cartazyme recovery was similar for both solvents (water and acetate buffer), reaching values around 19% for first enzymatic treatment and 9% for second one. Nevertheless, the pulp properties increased only in acetate buffered medium. PMID:16915651

Oliveira, Luís R M; Moriya, Regina Y; Gonçalves, Adilson R

2006-01-01

49

Effect of pretreatment on saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by complex and simple enzyme mixtures.  

PubMed

Saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated at the pilot-scale with different processes (in combination with steam-explosion) was evaluated. Maximum glucan conversion with Celluclast 1.5L (15-25FPU/g glucan) was in the following order: glycerol/HCl>HCl>H2SO4>NaOH, with the glycerol system achieving ? 100% conversion. Surprisingly, the NaOH substrate achieved optimum saccharification with only 8 FPU/g glucan. Glucan conversions (3.6-6%) obtained with mixtures of endo-1,4-?-glucanase (EG) and ?-glucosidase (?G) for the NaOH substrate were 2-6 times that of acid substrates. However, glucan conversions (15-60%) obtained with mixtures of cellobiohydrolase (CBH I) and ?G on acidified glycerol substrate were 10-30% higher than those obtained for NaOH and acid substrates. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic saccharification was explained by their physical and chemical attributes. Acidified glycerol pretreatment offers the opportunity to simplify the complexity of enzyme mixtures required for saccharification of lignocellulosics. PMID:24045198

Harrison, Mark D; Zhang, Zhanying; Shand, Kylie; O'Hara, Ian M; Doherty, William O S; Dale, James L

2013-11-01

50

Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.  

PubMed

Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (?), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment. PMID:22639365

Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann F

2012-08-01

51

Removal of lead and chromium from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive and effective adsorbent was developed from bagasse fly ash, obtained from a sugar industry, for the dynamic uptake of lead and chromium. Lead and chromium are sorbed by the developed adsorbent up to 96–98%. The removal of these two metal ions up to 95–96% was achieved by column experiments at a flow rate of 0.5 mlmin?1. The adsorption was found

V. K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2004-01-01

52

Isolation and characterization of cellulose obtained from ultrasonic irradiated sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Cell walls of sugarcane bagasse were first delignified with chlorite followed by ultrasonic irradiation and then by two-step sequential extractions at 23 degrees C with 15 and 18% KOH for 2 h, 15 and 18% NaOH for 2 h, 8 and 10% KOH for 12 h, and 8 and 10% NaOH for 12 h and by a single one-stage isolation with 10% KOH for 16 h and with 10% NaOH for 16 h, which released 79.4, 81.8, 83.6, 85.7, 61.5, and 65.6% of the original hemicelluloses, and subsequently yielded 50.7, 49.5, 48.6, 47.8, 57.2, and 55.4% of the cellulose, respectively. The six cellulosic preparations were free of bound lignin and had a purity of 77.1-90.1% with the intrinsic viscosity (eta), viscosity average degree of polymerization, and molecular weight (M(w)) ranging from 534.1 to 631.6 mL g(-1), from 1858.1 to 2238.2 mL g(-1), and from 301000 to 362600 g mol(-1), respectively. The structural features of the isolated six cellulosic samples were comparatively examined by Fourier transform infrared and cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (13)C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, and their thermal stability was investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that all of the cellulosic preparations have the typical cellulose I structure but the crystallinity of the SCB cellulose was lower than that of flax, cotton, and kenaf. PMID:16881672

Liu, Chuan-Fu; Ren, Jun-Li; Xu, Feng; Liu, Jina-Jui; Sun, Jin-Xia; Sun, Run-Cang

2006-08-01

53

Selection and identification of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene removal from soil.  

PubMed

This work investigated the identification and selection of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene (Phe) removal from soil. Fungi were identified by PCR amplification of ITS regions as Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. A primary selection of fungi was accomplished in plate, considering Phe tolerance of every strain in two different media: potato dextrose agar (PDA) and mineral medium (MM). The radial extension rate (r(r)) in PDA exhibited significant differences (p<0.05) at 200 and 400 ppm of Phe. A secondary selection of A. niger, C. cladosporoides, and P. glabrum sp. was achieved based on their tolerance to 200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm of Phe, in solid culture at a sugarcane bagasse/contaminated soil ratio of 95:5, in Toyamas, Czapeck and Wunder media. Under these conditions, a maximum (70%) Phe removal by A. niger was obtained. In addition C. cladosporioides and A. niger were able to remove high (800 ppm) Phe concentrations. PMID:16484077

Cortés-Espinosa, D V; Fernández-Perrino, F J; Arana-Cuenca, A; Esparza-García, F; Loera, O; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

2006-01-01

54

A lab-scale study of constructed wetlands with sugarcane bagasse and sand media for the treatment of textile wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper reports the pollutant removal efficiencies of two lab-scale hybrid wetland systems treating a textile wastewater. The two systems had identical configurations, each consisting of a vertical flow (VF) and a horizontal flow (HF) wetland that were filled with organic sugarcane bagasse and sylhet sand as the main media. The systems were operated under high hydraulic loading (HL) (566-5660 mm/d), and inorganic nitrogen (254-508 gN/m(2) d) and organics loadings (9840-19680 g COD/m(2) d and 2154-4307 g BOD(5)/m(2) d). Simultaneous removals of BOD(5) (74-79%) and ammonia (59-66%) were obtained in the first stage VF wetlands, demonstrating the efficiency of the media for oxygen transfer to cope with the high pollutant loads. The organic carbon (C) content of sugarcane bagasse facilitated denitrification in the VF wetlands. Second stage HF wetlands provided efficient color removal under predominantly anaerobic condition. Overall, the wetland systems showed stable removal performances under high, and unsteady, pollutant loadings. PMID:23201526

Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi

2013-01-01

55

Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation  

PubMed Central

A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

2014-01-01

56

Anaerobic thermophilic fermentation for carboxylic acid production from in-storage air-lime-treated sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Wet storage and in situ lime pretreatment (50 °C, 1-atm air, 56 days, excess lime loading of 0.3 g Ca(OH)(2)/g dry biomass) of sugarcane bagasse (4,000 g dry weight) was performed in a bench-scale pile pretreatment system. Under thermophilic conditions (55 °C, NH(4)HCO(3) buffer, methane inhibitors), air-lime-treated bagasse (80 wt.%) and chicken manure (20 wt.%) were anaerobically co-digested in 1-L rotary fermentors by a mixed culture of marine microorganisms (Galveston, TX). During four-stage countercurrent fermentation, the resulting carboxylic acids consisted of primarily acetate (average 87.7 wt.%) and butyrate (average 9.0 wt.%). The experimental fermentation trains had the highest yield (0.47 g total acids/g volatile solids (VS) fed) and highest selectivity (0.79 g total acids/g VS digested) at a total acid concentration of 28.3 g/L, which is equivalent to an ethanol yield of 105.2 gal/(tonne VS fed). Both high total acid concentrations (>44.7 g/L) and high substrate conversions (>77.5%) are predicted for countercurrent fermentations of bagasse at commercial scale, allowing for an efficient conversion of air-lime-treated biomass to liquid transportation fuels and chemicals via the carboxylate platform. PMID:21365471

Fu, Zhihong; Holtzapple, Mark T

2011-06-01

57

Readily-milled fraction of wet sugarcane bagasse as an advanced feedstock for monosaccharide production via the RT-CaCCO process.  

PubMed

The RT-CaCCO process for enzymatic saccharification was applied to readily-milled fractions of wet sugarcane bagasse. Wet bagasse immediately after juice extraction was crushed with shark-mill blades to prepare two fractions referred to as readily-milled (RF) and hardly-milled fraction (HF). Monosaccharide recoveries from RFs via the RT-CaCCO process were 1.03-1.21 times higher than those from HFs. Moreover, when the wet weight ratio of RF/HF was adjusted to 2/8, the hexose recovery from RF was 90.9%, which was 1.3 times higher than that of the wet bagasse before fractionation. The results show that this process can be used for efficient monosaccharide recovery from RF of wet bagasse. In addition, the process can be adapted to more fibrous HF for multiple uses such as fuel for boilers and fibers for particleboards. PMID:22578412

Shiroma, Riki; Park, Jeung-Yil; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Shoko; Terajima, Yoshifumi; Ike, Masakazu; Tokuyasu, Ken

2012-07-01

58

Synthesis of Silica Aerogel from Bagasse Ash by Ambient Pressure Drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica aerogels having very high surface area and pore volume have been succesfully synthesized from bagasse ash by ambient pressure drying (APD) method. Silica in bagasse ash was extracted by alkali extraction to produce sodium silicate solution. This is done by boiling bagasse ash in 2 N NaOH solution under continuous stirring for 1 h. To avoid the collapse of gel structure during drying at ambient pressure condition, the silica surface was modified with alkyl functional groups by a single step sol-gel process. Silicic acid produced by exchanging Na+ ions in dilute sodium silicate solution with H+ ions from cation resin was added with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and let the reaction of TMCS with water pore proceeds for several minutes to produce hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and HCl. Then, HMDS was added to allow the modification of silica surface in which the silanol groups were exchanged with alkyl groups originating from HMDS. The solution pH was then adjusted to 8-9 by adding NH4OH solution to induce gel formation. The hydrogel was aged at 40 °C for 18 h and at 60 °C for 1 h. Then, it was dried at 80 °C at ambient pressure condition. The silica aerogels obtained have specific surface, as measured by BET method, ranging from 450.2 to 1360.4 m2/g depending on the synthesis condition. The pore volume was ranging from 0.7 to 1.9 cm3/g. It seems that silica aerogels with very high surface area and pore volume can be obtained if the silanols group in the silica surface was exchanged succesfully with alkyl groups from HMDS.

Setyawan, Nazriati Heru; Winardi, Sugeng

2011-12-01

59

Experimental study and neural network modeling of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with H2SO4 and O3 for cellulosic material conversion to sugar.  

PubMed

In this study, pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis is investigated using two categories of pretreatment methods: dilute acid (DA) pretreatment and combined DA-ozonolysis (DAO) method. Both methods are accomplished at different solid ratios, sulfuric acid concentrations, autoclave residence times, bagasse moisture content, and ozonolysis time. The results show that the DAO pretreatment can significantly increase the production of glucose compared to DA method. Applying k-fold cross validation method, two optimal artificial neural networks (ANNs) are trained for estimations of glucose concentrations for DA and DAO pretreatment methods. Comparing the modeling results with experimental data indicates that the proposed ANNs have good estimation abilities. PMID:24035818

Gitifar, Vahid; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Sarshar, Mohammad

2013-11-01

60

Direct Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Sugars and Sugarcane Bagasse by a Recombinant Trichoderma reesei Strain HJ48  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:24995362

Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

2014-01-01

61

Sequential solid-state and submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger on sugarcane bagasse for the production of cellulase.  

PubMed

Sequential solid-state and submerged cultivation with sugarcane bagasse as substrate for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger A12 was assessed by measuring endoglucanase activity. An unconventional pre-culture with an initial fungal growth phase under solid-state cultivation was followed by a transition to submerged fermentation by adding the liquid culture medium to the mycelium grown on solid substrate. For comparison, control experiments were conducted using conventional submerged cultivation. The cultures were carried out in shake flasks and in a 5-L bubble column bioreactor. An endoglucanase productivity of 57 ± 13 IU/L/h was achieved in bubble column cultivations prepared using the new method, representing an approximately 3-fold improvement compared to conventional submerged fermentation. Therefore, the methodology proposed here of a sequential fermentation process offers a promising alternative for cellulase production. PMID:22409979

Cunha, F M; Esperança, M N; Zangirolami, T C; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S

2012-05-01

62

Pyrolysis of Sawdust, Rice Husk and Sugarcane Bagasse: Kinetic Modeling and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters using Different Optimization Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study provides the kinetic model to describe the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice-husk and sugarcane bagasse as biomass. The kinetic scheme used for modelling of primary pyrolysis consisting of the two parallel reactions giving gaseous volatiles and solid char. Estimation of kinetic parameters for pyrolysis process has been carried out for temperature range of 773-1,173 K. As there are serious issues regarding non-convergence of some of the methods or solutions converging to local-optima, the proposed kinetic model is optimized to predict the best values of kinetic parameters for the system using three approaches—Two-dimensional surface fitting non-linear regression technique, MS-Excel Solver Tool and COMSOL software. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. The estimated value of kinetic parameters are compared with earlier researchers and found to be matching well.

Khonde, Ruta Dhanram; Chaurasia, Ashish Subhash

2015-01-01

63

Direct ethanol production from glucose, xylose and sugarcane bagasse by the corn endophytic fungi Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae.  

PubMed

Production of ethanol with two corn endophytic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae, was studied. The yield of ethanol from glucose, xylose and a mixture of both sugars were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.50g/g ethanol/sugar for F. verticillioides and 0.37, 0.39 and 0.48g/g ethanol/sugar for A. zeae. Both fungi were able to co-ferment glucose and xylose. Ethanol production from 40g/L of pre-treated sugarcane bagasse was 4.6 and 3.9g/L for F. verticillioides and A. zeae, respectively, yielding 0.31g/g of ethanol per consumed sugar. Both fungi studied were capable of co-fermenting glucose and xylose at high yields. Moreover, they were able to produce ethanol directly from lignocellulosic biomass, demonstrating to be suitable microorganisms for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:23942376

de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Visser, Evan M; Siqueira, Germano A; Milagres, Adriane M F; de Rezende, Sebastião T

2013-10-10

64

Evaluation of Inoculum of Candida guilliermondii Grown in Presence of Glucose on Xylose Reductase and Xylitol Dehydrogenase Activities and Xylitol Production During Batch Fermentation of Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of glucose on xylose-xylitol metabolism in fermentation medium consisting of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was\\u000a evaluated by employing an inoculum of Candida guilliermondii grown in synthetic media containing, as carbon sources, glucose (30 g\\/L), xylose (30 g\\/L), or a mixture of glucose (2 g\\/L)\\u000a and xylose (30 g\\/L). The inoculum medium containing glucose promoted a 2.5-fold increase in xylose

Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva; Maria das Graças Almeida Felipe; Ismael Maciel Mancilha; Sílvio Silvério Silva

65

Evaluation of inoculum of Candida guilliermondii grown in presence of glucose on xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities and xylitol production during batch fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of glucose on xylose-xylitol metabolism in fermentation medium consisting of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was\\u000a evaluated by employing an inoculum of Candida guilliermondii grown in synthetic media containing, as carbon sources, glucose (30 g\\/L), xylose (30 g\\/L), or a mixture of glucose (2 g\\/L)\\u000a and xylose (30 g\\/L). The inoculum medium containing glucose promoted a 2.5-fold increase in xylose

Débora Danielle Virgínio da Silva; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe; Ismael Maciel de Mancilha; Sílvio Silvério da Silva

2005-01-01

66

SEM study of the morphology of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes produced from recycled agro-industrial residues: sugarcane bagasse and mango seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose, obtained both from sugarcane bagasse and mango seeds, was used for synthesizing cellulose acetate in order to produce\\u000a asymmetric membranes. These were compared to membranes of commercial cellulose acetate (Rhodia). All produced membranes were\\u000a asymmetric, characterized by the presence of a dense skin and a porous support. Differences regarding the morphology of the\\u000a surfaces as well as of the

Moacir Fernandes Ferreira Júnior; Elaine Angélica Ribeiro Mundim; Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Carla da Silva Meireles; Daniel Alves Cerqueira; Rosana Maria Nascimento de Assunção; Marcos Marcolin; Mara Zeni

2011-01-01

67

Batch Removal of Crystal Violet From Aqueous Solution by H2SO4 Modified Sugarcane Bagasse: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch adsorption studies were carried out using H2SO4 modified sugarcane bagasse (HMSB) for removal of hazardous Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. Effects of initial solution pH, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption process were investigated. The Langmuir isotherm model well described the equilibrium dye uptake while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed good agreement with the experimental kinetic

Sagnik Chakraborty; Shamik Chowdhury; Papita Das Saha

2012-01-01

68

Batch Removal of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution by H2SO4 Modified Sugarcane Bagasse: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch adsorption studies were carried out using H2SO4 modified sugarcane bagasse (HMSB) for the removal of hazardous Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. The effects of initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption process were investigated. The Langmuir isotherm model well described the equilibrium dye uptake while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed good agreement with the

Sagnik Chakraborty; Shamik Chowdhury; Papita Das Saha

2012-01-01

69

Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The structure of lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment process of sugarcane bagasse in a pilot scale and the effect of the lignin extracted by ethanol on subsequent cellulose hydrolysis were investigated. The lignin structural changes caused by pretreatment were identified using advanced nondestructive techniques such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC), quantitative (13)C, and 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structural analysis revealed that ethanol extractable lignin preserved basic lignin structure, but had relatively lower amount of ?-O-4 linkages, syringyl/guaiacyl units ratio (S/G), p-coumarate/ferulate ratio, and other ending structures. The results also indicated that approximately 8% of mass weight was extracted by pure ethanol. The bagasse after ethanol extraction had an approximate 22% higher glucose yield after enzyme hydrolysis compared to pretreated bagasse without extraction. PMID:24412855

Zeng, Jijiao; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Letian; Zhu, J Y; Ingram, Lonnie

2014-02-01

70

Sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis: rheological data as criteria for impeller selection.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to select an efficient impeller to be used in a stirred reactor for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse. All experiments utilized 100 g (dry weight)/l of steam-pretreated bagasse, which is utilized in Brazil for cattle feed. The process was studied with respect to the rheological behavior of the biomass hydrolysate and the enzymatic conversion of the bagasse polysaccharides. These parameters were applied to model the power required for an impeller to operate at pilot scale (100 l) using empirical correlations according to Nagata [16]. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using a blend of cellulases, ?-glucosidase, and xylanases produced in our laboratory by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus awamori. Hydrolyses were performed with an enzyme load of 10 FPU/g (dry weight) of bagasse over 36 h with periodic sampling for the measurement of viscosity and the concentration of glucose and reducing sugars. The mixture presented pseudoplastic behavior. This rheological model allowed for a performance comparison to be made between flat-blade disk (Rushton turbine) and pitched-blade (45°) impellers. The simulation showed that the pitched blade consumed tenfold less energy than the flat-blade disk turbine. The resulting sugar syrups contained 22 g/l of glucose, which corresponded to 45% cellulose conversion. PMID:20844924

Pereira, Leonardo Tupi Caldas; Pereira, Lucas Tupi Caldas; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Freitas, Suely Pereira

2011-08-01

71

Streptomyces misionensis PESB-25 Produces a Thermoacidophilic Endoglucanase Using Sugarcane Bagasse and Corn Steep Liquor as the Sole Organic Substrates  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces misionensis strain PESB-25 was screened and selected for its ability to secrete cellulases. Cells were grown in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source, whose concentrations were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A peak of endoglucanase accumulation (1.01?U·mL?1) was observed in a medium with SCB 1.0% (w/v) and CSL 1.2% (w/v) within three days of cultivation. S. misionensis PESB-25 endoglucanase activity was thermoacidophilic with optimum pH and temperature range of 3.0 to 3.6 and 62° to 70°C, respectively. In these conditions, values of 1.54?U?mL?1 of endoglucanase activity were observed. Moreover, Mn2+ was demonstrated to have a hyperactivating effect on the enzyme. In the presence of MnSO4 (8?mM), the enzyme activity increased threefold, up to 4.34?U·mL?1. Mn2+ also improved endoglucanase stability as the catalyst retained almost full activity upon incubation at 50°C for 4 h, while in the absence of Mn2+, enzyme activity decreased by 50% in this same period. Three protein bands with endoglucanase activity and apparent molecular masses of 12, 48.5 and 119.5?kDa were detected by zymogram. PMID:23586048

Rezende, Raquel de Carvalho; Gravina-Oliveira, Mônica Pires; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Macrae, Andrew; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

2013-01-01

72

Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.  

PubMed

Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and cristobalite in bagasse ash is significant as the ash is recycled onto the fields where erosion and/or mechanical disturbance could break down the deposits and re-suspend respirable-sized particulate. Appropriate methods for treatment and disposal of bagasse ash must, therefore, be employed and adequate protection given to workers exposed to these dusts. PMID:20520870

Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

2010-07-01

73

High-value zeolitic material from bagasse fly ash: utilization for dye elimination.  

PubMed

Bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, was used to prepare zeolitic material (ZFA) by means of alkaline hydrothermal treatment. ZFA showed improved morphology as a result of this treatment. The adsorption of the reactive dyes turquoise blue (TB) and brilliant magenta (BM), on both BFA and ZFA, was investigated in a batch contact system. A series of batch experiments revealed that optimal dye removal occurs at a 200 mg/L to 300 mg/L solute concentration, 60 minutes of agitation time, 5 g/L to 10 g/L adsorbent dose, a pH level of 2 to 4, and a temperature of 298 K. ZFA showed enhanced adsorption capacity as compared to BFA. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity was 12.66 mg/g and 45.45 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on BFA; and 21.74 mg/g and 100.00 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on ZFA. Kinetic studies showed that the correlation coefficients best fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, confirming that the adsorption rate was controlled by a hemisorptions process. PMID:23833819

Shah, Bhavna A; Shah, Ajay V; Patel, Harendra D; Mistry, Chirag B

2013-06-01

74

Trichoderma harzianum IOC-4038: A promising strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex with significant ?-glucosidase activity from sugarcane bagasse cellulignin.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is an agroindustrial residue generated in large amounts in Brazil. This biomass can be used for the production of cellulases, aiming at their use in second-generation processes for bioethanol production. Therefore, this work reports the ability of a fungal strain, Trichoderma harzianum IOC-4038, to produce cellulases on a novel material, xylan free and cellulose rich, generated from sugarcane bagasse, named partially delignified cellulignin. The extract produced by T. harzianum under submerged conditions reached 745, 97, and 559 U L(-1) of ?-glucosidase, FPase, and endoglucanase activities, respectively. The partial characterization of this enzyme complex indicated, using a dual analysis, that the optimal pH values for the biocatalysis ranged from 4.9 to 5.2 and optimal temperatures were between 47 and 54 °C, depending on the activity studied. Thermal stability analyses revealed no significant decrease in activity at 37 °C during 23 h of incubation. When compared to model strains, Aspergillus niger ATCC-16404 and Trichoderma reesei RutC30, T. harzianum fermentation was faster and its extract showed a better balanced enzyme complex, with adequate characteristics for its application in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes. PMID:20455032

de Castro, Aline Machado; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

2010-11-01

75

Oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse derived solid acid catalysts for rapid esterification of fatty acids and moisture-assisted transesterification of oils under pseudo-infinite methanol.  

PubMed

The use of pseudo-infinite methanol in increasing the rate of esterification and transesterification reactions was studied using oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived solid acid catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonisation at 400°C for 8h, followed by sulfonation at 150°C for 15h and characterised using TGA/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, EA and titrimetric determinations of acid sites. Under optimal reaction conditions, the process demonstrated rapid esterification of palmitic acid, with FAME yields of 93% and 94% in 45min for OPT and SCB catalysts, respectively. With the process, moisture levels up to 16.7% accelerated the conversion of low FFA oils by sulfonated carbon catalysts, through moisture-induced violent bumping. Moisture assisted transesterification of palm olein containing 1.78% FFA and 8.33% added water gave FAME yield of 90% in 10h, which was two folds over neat oil. PMID:24561631

Ezebor, Francis; Khairuddean, Melati; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Boey, Peng Lim

2014-04-01

76

A 24.7-kDa copper-containing oxidase, secreted by Thermobifida fusca, significantly increasing the xylanase/cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soil bacterium belonging to Actinobacteria. It has been known for its capability to degrade plant cell wall polymers except lignin and pectin. To know whether it can produce enzymes to facilitate lignin degradation, the extracellular proteins bound to sugarcane bagasse were harvested and identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, a putative copper-containing polyphenol oxidase of 241 amino acids, encoded by the locus Tfu_1114, was thought to presumably play a role in lignin degradation. This protein (Tfu1114) was thus expressed in E. coli and characterized. Similarly to common laccases, Tfu1114 is able to catalyze the oxidation reaction of phenolic and nonphenolic lignin related compounds such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and veratryl alcohol. More interestingly, it can significantly enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse by xylanase and cellulase. Tfu1114 is stable against heat, with a half-life of 4.7 h at 90 °C, and organic solvents. It is sensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and reducing agents but resistant to sodium azide, a potent inhibitor of laccases. Atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that the ratio of copper to the protein monomer is 1, instead of 4, a feature of classical laccases. All these data suggest that Tfu1114 is a novel oxidase with laccase-like activity, potentially useful in biotechnology application. PMID:23377789

Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hsieh, Zhi-Shen; Cheepudom, Jatuporn; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Meng, Menghsiao

2013-10-01

77

High yield pulp from bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of bagasse is similar to that of hardwood (Fagus sylvatica), but bagasse contains more pentosans and ash and less lignin. The strength of mechanical pulp from bagasse was lower than that of semimechanical pulp prepared from bagasse in the presence of NaOH and alkaline NaâSOâ. Mechanical and semimechanical pulps responded well to HâOâ bleaching, giving products with

G. V. Luna; C. A. Torres

1982-01-01

78

Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane is one of the most important crops globally, providing most of the world’s sugar and bio-energy (ethanol and electricity). This contribution has been underpinned by the successful introgression of genes from wild germplasm, particularly from Saccharum spontaneum, by breeders in the early 1...

79

Multi-scale structural and chemical analysis of sugarcane bagasse in the process of sequential acid–base pretreatment and ethanol production by Scheffersomyces shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy usage of gasoline, burgeoning fuel prices, and environmental issues have paved the way for the exploration of cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol production technologies are emerging and require continued technological advancements. One of the most challenging issues is the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the desired sugars yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. We hypothesized that consecutive dilute sulfuric acid-dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment would overcome the native recalcitrance of sugarcane bagasse (SB) by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded cellulosic microfibrils. Results SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate after concentration by vacuum evaporation and detoxification showed 30.89 g/l xylose along with other products (0.32 g/l glucose, 2.31 g/l arabinose, and 1.26 g/l acetic acid). The recovered cellulignin was subsequently delignified by sodium hydroxide mediated pretreatment. The acid–base pretreated material released 48.50 g/l total reducing sugars (0.91 g sugars/g cellulose amount in SB) after enzymatic hydrolysis. Ultra-structural mapping of acid–base pretreated and enzyme hydrolyzed SB by microscopic analysis (scanning electron microcopy (SEM), transmitted light microscopy (TLM), and spectroscopic analysis (X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy) elucidated the molecular changes in hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin components of bagasse. The detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate was fermented by Scheffersomyces shehatae (syn. Candida shehatae UFMG HM 52.2) and resulted in 9.11 g/l ethanol production (yield 0.38 g/g) after 48 hours of fermentation. Enzymatic hydrolysate when fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 174 revealed 8.13 g/l ethanol (yield 0.22 g/g) after 72 hours of fermentation. Conclusions Multi-scale structural studies of SB after sequential acid–base pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis showed marked changes in hemicellulose and lignin removal at molecular level. The cellulosic material showed high saccharification efficiency after enzymatic hydrolysis. Hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysates revealed moderate ethanol production by S. shehatae and S. cerevisiae under batch fermentation conditions. PMID:24739736

2014-01-01

80

Efficient Open Fermentative Production of Polymer-Grade L-Lactate from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate by Thermotolerant Bacillus sp. Strain P38  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid is one of the top 30 potential building-block chemicals from biomass, of which the most extensive use is in the polymerization of lactic acid to poly-lactic-acid (PLA). To reduce the cost of PLA, the search for cheap raw materials and low-cost process for lactic acid production is highly desired. In this study, the final titer of produced L-lactic acid reached a concentration of 185 g·L?1 with a volumetric productivity of 1.93 g·L?1·h?1 by using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as the sole carbon source simultaneously with cottonseed meal as cheap nitrogen sources under the open fed-batch fermentation process. Furthermore, a lactic acid yield of 0.99 g per g of total reducing sugars was obtained, which is very close to the theoretical value (1.0 g g?1). No D-isomer of lactic acid was detected in the broth, and thereafter resulted in an optical purity of 100%, which exceeds the requirement of lactate polymerization process. To our knowledge, this is the best performance of fermentation on polymer-grade L-lactic acid production totally using lignocellulosic sources. The high levels of optically pure l-lactic acid produced, combined with the ease of handling and low costs associated with the open fermentation strategy, indicated the thermotolerant Bacillus sp. P38 could be an excellent candidate strain with great industrial potential for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production from various cellulosic biomasses. PMID:25192451

Guo, Ling; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo; Ma, Yanhe

2014-01-01

81

The influence of Aspergillus niger transcription factors AraR and XlnR in the gene expression during growth in D-xylose, L-arabinose and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The interest in the conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels such as bioethanol has led to an increased investigation into the processes regulating biomass saccharification. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism capable of producing a wide variety of plant biomass degrading enzymes. In A. niger the transcriptional activator XlnR and its close homolog, AraR, controls the main (hemi-)cellulolytic system responsible for plant polysaccharide degradation. Sugarcane is used worldwide as a feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the lignocellulosic residual bagasse can be used in different industrial applications, including ethanol production. The use of pentose sugars from hemicelluloses represents an opportunity to further increase production efficiencies. In the present study, we describe a global gene expression analysis of A. niger XlnR- and AraR-deficient mutant strains, grown on a D-xylose/L-arabinose monosaccharide mixture and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse. Different gene sets of CAZy enzymes and sugar transporters were shown to be individually or dually regulated by XlnR and AraR, with XlnR appearing to be the major regulator on complex polysaccharides. Our study contributes to understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms responsible for plant polysaccharide-degrading gene expression, and opens new possibilities for the engineering of fungi able to produce more efficient enzymatic cocktails to be used in biofuel production. PMID:23892063

de Souza, Wagner Rodrigo; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; de Gouvêa, Paula Fagundes; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Battaglia, Evy; Goldman, Maria Helena S; de Vries, Ronald P; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-11-01

82

Design of a bagasse charcoal briquette-making device for use in Haiti  

E-print Network

Charcoal made from bagasse, the fibrous remains of sugarcane production, has the potential to serve as an alternate cooking fuel in Haiti, where the reliance on wood has led to severe deforestation. Current production ...

Vechakul, Jessica

2005-01-01

83

Fast pyrolysis of sweet soghum bagasse in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Samples of Italian sorghum bagasse were dried and ground and then pyrolyzed in the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis bench scale reactor unit. Results were typical of agricultural grasses of this kind, and resembled those obtained from similar tests of sugar cane bagasse. A maximum liquid yield (dry feed basis) of 68% by weight of dry feed was achieved, with a corresponding char yield (ash included) of 16%. The high ash content of the bagasse (9.2%) gave a char with a very high ash content ({approx}50%), with calcium as the most abundant cation. Yields of hydroxyacetaldehyde were comparable to those obtained from softwoods. Deionized bagasse gave significant yields of anhydrosugars on pyrolysis. Sorghum bagasse appears to be a suitable feedstock, either for pyrolysis to yield an alternative fuel oil, or after pretreatment and pyrolysis, to yield a solution of fermentable sugars.

Palm, M. [Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gotheborg (Sweden); Peacocke, C.; Bridgewater, A.V. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Piskorz, J.; Scott, D.S. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

1993-12-31

84

Impact of cultivar selection and process optimization on ethanol yield from different varieties of sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background The development of ‘energycane’ varieties of sugarcane is underway, targeting the use of both sugar juice and bagasse for ethanol production. The current study evaluated a selection of such ‘energycane’ cultivars for the combined ethanol yields from juice and bagasse, by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment optimization of bagasse for sugar yields. Method A central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of dilute acid pretreatment parameters followed by enzymatic hydrolysis on the combined sugar yield of bagasse samples. The pressed slurry generated from optimum pretreatment conditions (maximum combined sugar yield) was used as the substrate during batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes at different solid loadings and enzyme dosages, aiming to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40 g/L. Results Significant variations were observed in sugar yields (xylose, glucose and combined sugar yield) from pretreatment-hydrolysis of bagasse from different cultivars of sugarcane. Up to 33% difference in combined sugar yield between best performing varieties and industrial bagasse was observed at optimal pretreatment-hydrolysis conditions. Significant improvement in overall ethanol yield after SSF of the pretreated bagasse was also observed from the best performing varieties (84.5 to 85.6%) compared to industrial bagasse (74.5%). The ethanol concentration showed inverse correlation with lignin content and the ratio of xylose to arabinose, but it showed positive correlation with glucose yield from pretreatment-hydrolysis. The overall assessment of the cultivars showed greater improvement in the final ethanol concentration (26.9 to 33.9%) and combined ethanol yields per hectare (83 to 94%) for the best performing varieties with respect to industrial sugarcane. Conclusions These results suggest that the selection of sugarcane variety to optimize ethanol production from bagasse can be achieved without adversely affecting juice ethanol and cane yield, thus maintaining first generation ethanol production levels while maximizing second generation ethanol production. PMID:24725458

2014-01-01

85

Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.  

PubMed

The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2013-12-01

86

A techno-economic evaluation of the effects of centralized cellulosic ethanol and co-products refinery options with sugarcane mill clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work compares the calculated techno-economic performance for thermochemical and biochemical conversion of sugarcane residues, considering future conversion plants adjacent to sugarcane mills in Brazil. Process models developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory were adapted to reflect the Brazilian feedstock composition and used to estimate the cost and performance of these two conversion technologies. Models assumed that surplus bagasse

Joaquim E. A. Seabra; Ling Tao; Helena L. Chum; Isaias C. Macedo

2010-01-01

87

Influence of dimethyl formamide pulping of bagasse on pulp properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organosolv pulping of bagasse was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three pulping variables (temperature: 190–210°C, time: 120–180min, organic solvent charge: 40–60% dimethyl formamide). Responses of pulp properties (yield and holocellulose, ?-cellulose, kappa number, ash and ethanol–dichloromethane extractives contents) and the pH of the resulting wastewater to the process variables were analyzed using statistical

P. Rezayati-Charani; J. Mohammadi-Rovshandeh; S. J. Hashemi; S. Kazemi-Najafi

2006-01-01

88

Characterization of the cellulase complex from Cellulomonas grown on bagasse pith  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of physico-chemical parameters on the cellulolytic activity of Cellulomonas sp. IIbc grown on sugarcane bagasse pith was investigated, and the optimum ranges for enzyme activity were established. The cellulases were more stable when incubated at the optimum growth temperature (32°C) than under optimum activity conditions (45°C for ß-glucosidases and 50°C for CMC- and FP-cellulases). The ß-glucosidases were the

H. Rodríguez; O. Volfová; A. Klyosov

1988-01-01

89

The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

2012-01-01

90

Seasonal variations of sugarcane stalk and extraneous matter on pH, color and ash as they affect the production of high quality raw sugars (Part II)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a trend in the U.S. and world-wide to produce very high pol (VHP) and very low color (VLC) raw sugars for new refineries. In Louisiana (LA), a new refinery is requesting VHP/VLC sugar with lower ash concentrations for liquid sugar manufacture and short, medium, and long-term refinery strat...

91

Bagasse-reinforced cement composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is abundantly available in many countries as a by-product from sugar mills and is being mostly used as fuel or disposed of by incineration. An attempt has been made to convert this byproduct into useful eco-friendly cement-bonded composites, which can be used for various internal and external applications in buildings. The investigations include optimization of parameters such as bagasse

L. K. Aggarwal

1995-01-01

92

Lignification in Sugarcane: Biochemical Characterization, Gene Discovery, and Expression Analysis in Two Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content1[W  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is currently one of the most efficient crops in the production of first-generation biofuels. However, the bagasse represents an additional abundant lignocellulosic resource that has the potential to increase the ethanol production per plant. To achieve a more efficient conversion of bagasse into ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Because several studies have shown a negative effect of lignin on saccharification yield, the characterization of lignin biosynthesis, structure, and deposition in sugarcane is an important goal. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of lignin deposition during sugarcane stem development, using histological, biochemical, and transcriptional data derived from two sugarcane genotypes with contrasting lignin contents. Lignin amount and composition were determined in rind (outer) and pith (inner) tissues throughout stem development. In addition, the phenolic metabolome was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of 35 compounds related to the phenylpropanoid pathway and monolignol biosynthesis. Furthermore, the Sugarcane EST Database was extensively surveyed to identify lignin biosynthetic gene homologs, and the expression of all identified genes during stem development was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our data provide, to our knowledge, the first in-depth characterization of lignin biosynthesis in sugarcane and form the baseline for the rational metabolic engineering of sugarcane feedstock for bioenergy purposes. PMID:24144790

Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Brombini dos Santos, Adriana; Vicentini, Renato; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Goeminne, Geert; Moura, Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Nobile, Paula Macedo; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Antonio dos Anjos, Ivan; Creste, Silvana; Boerjan, Wout; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Mazzafera, Paulo

2013-01-01

93

Lignification in sugarcane: biochemical characterization, gene discovery, and expression analysis in two genotypes contrasting for lignin content.  

PubMed

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is currently one of the most efficient crops in the production of first-generation biofuels. However, the bagasse represents an additional abundant lignocellulosic resource that has the potential to increase the ethanol production per plant. To achieve a more efficient conversion of bagasse into ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Because several studies have shown a negative effect of lignin on saccharification yield, the characterization of lignin biosynthesis, structure, and deposition in sugarcane is an important goal. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of lignin deposition during sugarcane stem development, using histological, biochemical, and transcriptional data derived from two sugarcane genotypes with contrasting lignin contents. Lignin amount and composition were determined in rind (outer) and pith (inner) tissues throughout stem development. In addition, the phenolic metabolome was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of 35 compounds related to the phenylpropanoid pathway and monolignol biosynthesis. Furthermore, the Sugarcane EST Database was extensively surveyed to identify lignin biosynthetic gene homologs, and the expression of all identified genes during stem development was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our data provide, to our knowledge, the first in-depth characterization of lignin biosynthesis in sugarcane and form the baseline for the rational metabolic engineering of sugarcane feedstock for bioenergy purposes. PMID:24144790

Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Santos, Adriana Brombini dos; Vicentini, Renato; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Goeminne, Geert; Moura, Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Nobile, Paula Macedo; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Anjos, Ivan Antonio dos; Creste, Silvana; Boerjan, Wout; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Mazzafera, Paulo

2013-12-01

94

All-cellulose nanocomposite film made from bagasse cellulose nanofibers for food packaging application.  

PubMed

All-cellulose nanocomposite (ACNC) film was produced from sugarcane bagasse nanofibers using N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride solvent. The average diameter of bagasse fibers (14 ?m) was downsized to 39 nm after disk grinding process. X-ray diffraction showed that apparent crystallinity and crystallite size decreased relatively to an increased duration of dissolution time. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that thermal stability of the ACNC was slightly less than that of the pure cellulose nanofiber sheet. Tensile strength of the fiber sheet, nanofiber sheet and ACNC prepared with 10 min dissolution time were 8, 101 and 140 MPa, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) of the ACNC film increased relatively to an increased duration of dissolution time. ACNC can be considered as a multi-performance material with potential for application in cellulose-based food packaging owing to its promising properties (tough, bio-based, biodegradable and acceptable levels of WVP). PMID:24607160

Ghaderi, Moein; Mousavi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Hossein; Labbafi, Mohsen

2014-04-15

95

Sugarcane Rusts in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane orange rust symptoms were first observed in Florida in June 2007 on cultivar CP 80-1743. The causal agent, Puccinia kuehnii, was subsequently verified morphologically and molecularly constituting the first confirmed report of sugarcane orange rust in the Western Hemisphere. Orange rust was...

96

Sugarcane and Energycane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Energycane” is a term that is used to describe sugarcane grown solely for the production of renewable energy. A Type I energycane has somewhat lower sugar content (10-14%) and higher fiber content (14-20%) than a commercial sugarcane cultivar bred for sugar production. In contrast, a Type II energy...

97

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

2014-01-01

98

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.  

PubMed

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

2014-01-01

99

Microencapsulation of alginate-immobilized bagasse with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442: Enhancement of survivability and thermotolerance.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to enhance the survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 against heat exposure via a combination of immobilization and microencapsulation processes using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sodium alginate (NaA), respectively. The microcapsules were synthesized using different alginate concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and NaA:SB ratio of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:1.5. This beneficial step of probiotic immobilization before microencapsulation significantly enhanced microencapsulation efficiency and cell survivability after heat exposure of 90°C for 30s. Interestingly, the microcapsule of SB-immobilized probiotic could obtain protection from heat using microencapsulation of NaA concentration as low as 1%. SEM images illustrated the incorporation of immobilized L. rhamnosus within alginate matrices and its changes after heat exposure. FTIR spectra confirmed the change in functional bonding in the presence of sugarcane bagasse, probiotic and alginate. The results demonstrated a great potential in the synthesis of heat resistant microcapsules for probiotic. PMID:25563958

Shaharuddin, Shahrulzaman; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

2015-03-30

100

Sugarcane (saccharum spp. Hybrids).  

PubMed

Genetic transformation of sugarcane has a tremendous potential to complement traditional breeding in crop improvement and will likely transform sugarcane into a bio-factory for value-added products. We describe here Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sugarcane. Embryogenic callus induced from immature leaf whorls was used as target for transformation with the hypervirulent Agrobacterium strain AGL1 carrying a constitutive nptII expression cassette in vector pPZP200. Selection with 30 mg/L geneticin during the callus phase and 30 mg/L paromomycin during regeneration of shoots and roots effectively suppressed the development of non-transgenic plants. This protocol was successful with a commercially important sugarcane cultivar, CP-88-1762, at a transformation efficiency of two independent transgenic plants per g of callus. PMID:25416267

Wu, Hao; Altpeter, Fredy

2015-01-01

101

Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At the start of the sugarcane harvest season in Louisiana, late-September or early-October, sucrose content in sugarcane is relatively low compared to late in the harvest season. In order for early-harvested sugarcane to be profitable, chemicals, primarily herbicides, have been evaluated for their e...

102

Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti  

E-print Network

The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

2005-01-01

103

Utilization of Bagasse Energy in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse, a biomass fuel, is the waste generated by the sugar-making process from sugar cane. Sugar making is one of the most\\u000a important agricultural-produce processing industries for developing countries in Southeast Asia, Latin America and Africa.\\u000a As sugar producing plants need electric power and process steam, co-generation using bagasse as an alternate fuel for petroleum\\u000a has been in use for

Yasujiro Wakamura

2003-01-01

104

Pressure Filtration of Australian Bagasse Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional pressure filtration model that can be used to predict the behaviour of bagasse pulp has been developed and\\u000a verified in this study. The dynamic filtration model uses steady state compressibility parameters determined experimentally\\u000a by uniaxial loading. The compressibility parameters M and N for depithed bagasse pulp were determined to be in the ranges 3000–8000 kPa and 2.5–3.0 units, respectively.

Thomas J. Rainey; William O. S. Doherty; D. Mark Martinez; Richard J. Brown; Neil A. Kelson

2011-01-01

105

Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

106

Registration of ‘Ho 02-113’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ho 02-113’ sugarcane was released by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugarcane League of the U.S.A. This high-fiber sugarcane variety was released for use as a biofuel feedstock to fill the rising i...

107

Sugarcane Diseases: Futuristic Management Strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane pathology and disease control practices are changing due to social, economic and technological events. Sugarcane is becoming more important economically because of the increasing price and demand for sugar and its use for bio-energy. These pressures make the control of diseases more import...

108

Breeding sugarcane for cold climates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit’s variety development program provides the local sugarcane industry with early maturing varieties containing the “Ho” designations that are adapted to the temperate climate of the region. In recent studies, we have used a growth chamber to expose diverse wild va...

109

Sugarcane smut and its control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...

110

Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse. Influence of catalyst type and chemical treatment  

SciTech Connect

Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse under different experimental conditions has been studied. Variables investigated were temperature and type and concentration of catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an isothermal manner. Products of pyrolysis are gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}), liquids (methanol, acetone, furfurylic alcohol, phenol, furfural, naphthalene, and o-cresol), and solids (chars). Temperature is a significant variable, yielding increases of fixed carbon content, gases, and to a lesser extent, ash percentage. Catalyst presence also yields increases of solid phase content, but the amount of liquid components decrease. Among catalysts applied those of Fe and Zn are the most advisable to obtain gases. Chemical treatment of bagasses with sulfuric or phosphoric acid washing leads to lower char yields, although fixed carbon content is higher and ash presence diminishes with respect to catalyst pyrolysis without chemical pretreatment. A pyrolysis kinetic study based on gas generation from thermal decomposition of residues has been carried out. From the model proposed, rate constants for the formation of each gas, reaction order of the catalyst, and activation energies were determined.

Encinar, J.M.; Beltran, F.J.; Ramiro, A.; Gonzalez, J.F. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica] [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica

1997-10-01

111

Thermal Coprocessing of High Density Polyethylene with Coal, Fly Ashes, and Biomass: Characterization of Liquid Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-pyrolysis of high density polyethylene with low cost additives, such as bituminous coal, bagasse fly ash, coal-based thermal power plant fly ash, and deoiled cake of jatropha, has been carried out in a batch reactor in the presence of nitrogen at 450°C under atmospheric pressure. Liquid products obtained by co-pyrolysis were characterized by ASTM D86 and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The

Y. C. Rotliwala; P. A. Parikh

2012-01-01

112

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation. PMID:23895663

2013-01-01

113

Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selec...

114

Registration of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

115

Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

Kiatkittipong, Worapon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongsuchoto, Porntip [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: prasert.p@chula.ac.th

2009-05-15

116

Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options.  

PubMed

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative. PMID:19136243

Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

2009-05-01

117

Transcriptome Profile of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Induced by Sugarcane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Profiling the transcriptome that underlies biomass degradation by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum allows the identification of gene sequences with potential application in enzymatic hydrolysis processing. In the present study, the transcriptome of T. harzianum IOC-3844 was analyzed using RNA-seq technology. The sequencing generated 14.7 Gbp for downstream analyses. De novo assembly resulted in 32,396 contigs, which were submitted for identification and classified according to their identities. This analysis allowed us to define a principal set of T. harzianum genes that are involved in the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose and the accessory genes that are involved in the depolymerization of biomass. An additional analysis of expression levels identified a set of carbohydrate-active enzymes that are upregulated under different conditions. The present study provides valuable information for future studies on biomass degradation and contributes to a better understanding of the role of the genes that are involved in this process. PMID:24558413

Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; Vicentini, Renato; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Laborda, Prianda; Crucello, Aline; Freitas, Sindélia; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; Polikarpov, Igor; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Souza, Anete Pereira

2014-01-01

118

Transcriptome profile of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 induced by sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Profiling the transcriptome that underlies biomass degradation by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum allows the identification of gene sequences with potential application in enzymatic hydrolysis processing. In the present study, the transcriptome of T. harzianum IOC-3844 was analyzed using RNA-seq technology. The sequencing generated 14.7 Gbp for downstream analyses. De novo assembly resulted in 32,396 contigs, which were submitted for identification and classified according to their identities. This analysis allowed us to define a principal set of T. harzianum genes that are involved in the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose and the accessory genes that are involved in the depolymerization of biomass. An additional analysis of expression levels identified a set of carbohydrate-active enzymes that are upregulated under different conditions. The present study provides valuable information for future studies on biomass degradation and contributes to a better understanding of the role of the genes that are involved in this process. PMID:24558413

Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; Vicentini, Renato; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Laborda, Prianda; Crucello, Aline; Freitas, Sindélia; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; Polikarpov, Igor; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Souza, Anete Pereira

2014-01-01

119

Solvent extraction of antioxidants from steam exploded sugarcane bagasse and enzymatic convertibility of the solid fraction.  

PubMed

Solvent extraction of steam exploded lignocellulosic biomass may be a potential way to obtain antioxidative extracts and to enhance the enzymatic convertibility of the solid residue. Boiling solvent extraction (BSE) showed higher solid and phenolic yields than room temperature extraction. Solubilities of phenolics and sugars were higher in anhydrous ethanol (AE) and deionized water (DW) than in ethyl acetate under each individual extraction condition. The antioxidant activities of the AE and DW extract obtained under BSE were better than those of 10mM vitamin C. Conversion of the solid fractions into reducing sugar using Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 188 after AE and DW extraction was 95.13% and 92.97%, respectively, higher than that obtained with SESB (88.95%). PMID:23280180

Li, Jingbo; Lin, Jianghai; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Wang, Mingming; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Zehuan

2013-02-01

120

Ash Tree Identification Key Ash Tree Characteristics  

E-print Network

and furrows form diamond shapes in older bark (green & white ash) opposite arrangements ­ buds, leavesAsh Tree Identification Key Ash Tree Characteristics Bark Branches diamond patterned ­ ridges berries Walnut, Hickory, Mountain-Ash: alternate branching #12;Identifying Emerald Ash Borer what to do

Walter, M.Todd

121

Recycling of ash from mezcal industry: a renewable source of lime.  

PubMed

Agave bagasse is a byproduct generated in the mezcal industry. Normally it is burned to reduce its volume, then a byproduct is generated in the form of residual ash, which can contaminate the water in rivers and lakes near the production places called "mezcaleras". This report details measurements of the Agave Salmiana fiber transformation after the burning process. The wasted ash was heated at 950°C, and then hydrolyzed. The compounds were indentified using the X-ray diffraction. The images obtained by scanning electron microscope showed all the morphological transformations of the lime through the whole process. Thermal, elemental and morphological characterization of the agave bagasse were done. Experiments showed that 16% of ash was produced in the burning process of agave bagasse (450°C), and 66% of the ash remains after heating (950°C) in the form of calcium oxide. The results show an important renewable source of calcium compounds, due to the high production of agave based beverages in México. PMID:20851456

Chávez-Guerrero, L; Flores, J; Kharissov, B I

2010-10-01

122

High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct  

PubMed Central

The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L?1) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant ?-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L?1, resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

2010-01-01

123

High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct.  

PubMed

The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L(-1)) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant ?-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L(-1), resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

2010-01-01

124

Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

Inaç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz

2013-12-01

125

Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material  

SciTech Connect

Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

?naç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

2013-12-16

126

Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

127

Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

128

Transcriptome Analysis and Functional Genomics of Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is a genetically complex polyploid with increasing economic importance as a feedstock for biofuel production. The\\u000a characterization of sugarcane genes and their association with biological traits such as sugar accumulation, biomass yield\\u000a and stress tolerance has so far primarily relied on studies of the sugarcane transcriptome. Associations of gene expression\\u000a with biological traits have been based on alterations in

John M. Manners; Rosanne E. Casu

2011-01-01

129

Development and biotechnological application of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 identified from sugarcane soil metagenome.  

PubMed

Metagenomics has been widely employed for discovery of new enzymes and pathways to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In this context, the present study reports the isolation, recombinant expression, biochemical and structural characterization of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 (SCXyl) identified from sugarcane soil metagenome. The recombinant SCXyl was highly active against xylan from beechwood and showed optimal enzyme activity at pH 6,0 and 45°C. The crystal structure was solved at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing the classical (?/?)8-barrel fold with a conserved active-site pocket and an inherent flexibility of the Trp281-Arg291 loop that can adopt distinct conformational states depending on substrate binding. The capillary electrophoresis analysis of degradation products evidenced that the enzyme displays unusual capacity to degrade small xylooligosaccharides, such as xylotriose, which is consistent to the hydrophobic contacts at the +1 subsite and low-binding energies of subsites that are distant from the site of hydrolysis. The main reaction products from xylan polymers and phosphoric acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PASB) were xylooligosaccharides, but, after a longer incubation time, xylobiose and xylose were also formed. Moreover, the use of SCXyl as pre-treatment step of PASB, prior to the addition of commercial cellulolytic cocktail, significantly enhanced the saccharification process. All these characteristics demonstrate the advantageous application of this enzyme in several biotechnological processes in food and feed industry and also in the enzymatic pretreatment of biomass for feedstock and ethanol production. PMID:23922891

Alvarez, Thabata M; Goldbeck, Rosana; dos Santos, Camila Ramos; Paixão, Douglas A A; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L; Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pereira, Isabela; Jackson, George; Cota, Junio; Büchli, Fernanda; Citadini, Ana Paula; Ruller, Roberto; Polo, Carla Cristina; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Murakami, Mário T; Squina, Fabio M

2013-01-01

130

Anaerobic digestion of stillage to produce bioenergy in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry.  

PubMed

Stillage is the main wastewater from ethanol production, containing a high chemical oxygen demand in addition to acidic and corrosive characteristics. Though stillage may be used as a soil fertilizer, its land application may be considered problematic due its high polluting potential. Anaerobic digestion represents an effective alternative treatment to reduce the pollution load of stillage. In addition, the methane gas produced within the process may be converted to energy, which can be directly applied to the treatment plant. The objective of this paper was to investigate the energetic potential of anaerobic digestion applied to stillage in the sugarcane ethanol industry. An overall analysis of the results indicates energy recovery capacity (ERC) values for methane ranging from 3.5% to 10%, respectively, for sugarcane juice and molasses. The processes employed to obtain the fermentable broth, as well as the distillation step, represent the main limiting factors to the energetic potential feasibility. Considering financial aspects the annual savings could reach up to US$ 30 million due to anaerobic digestion of stillage in relatively large-scale distilleries (365,000 m3 of ethanol per year). The best scenarios were verified for the association between anaerobic digestion of stillage and combustion of bagasse. In this case, the fossil fuels consumption in distilleries could be fully ceased, such the ERC of methane could reach values ranging from 140% to 890%. PMID:24600872

Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

2014-01-01

131

Simultaneous production of ?-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and ?-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 °C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was

Vittaya Punsuvon; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Kenji Iiyama

132

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-print Network

to increase the digestibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. The treatment conditions were: Ca(OH)2 loading = 10 g/100 g dry bagasse, water loading = 8.5 g/g dry bagasse, temperature 100'C, and treatment time = 1 hour. Compared to untreated bagasse...

Lee, Chang-Ming

2012-06-07

133

Determination of the permeability parameters of bagasse pulp from two different sugar extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeability, the specific surface area and the swelling factor have been determined for Australian bagasse pulp derived from bagasse from two different sugar extraction processes. The sugar extraction process was not found to affect the permeability of the pulp. The results for bagasse pulp are compared to those of eucalypt pulp, which is widely used in Australia for paper

T. J. Rainey; W. O. S. Doherty; R. J. Brown; N. A. Kelson; D. M. Martinez

134

INSECT AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

135

Genetic Diversity and Genome Complexity of Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as a C4 plant, is one of the most efficient crops in converting solar energy into chemical energy. Sugarcane cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized the most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to stresses that may exist in t...

136

Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

Cuzens, J.E.

1997-11-19

137

Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of ?-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13U/mL of ?-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse. PMID:25496945

Robl, Diogo; Dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Büchli, Fernanda; da Silva Lima, Deise Juliana; da Silva Delabona, Priscila; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo

2015-02-01

138

Fly ash and fly ash concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash is a residue that results from the combustion of ground or powdered coal. Historically, fly ash has been referred to as a pozzolan and is used to reduce the amount of portland cement in concrete. However, in many Western States fly ashes have cementitious properties as well as pozzolanic properties, and they are capable of producing good strengths

Dunstan; E. R. Jr

1984-01-01

139

Ash leachate test on Redoubt ash  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Undergraduate student Janelle Dyer (USGS ARRA student appointment) performs an ash leachate test on Redoubt ash in the Alaska Tephra Laboratory and Data Center in Anchorage, Alaska. This test is done to analyze the geochemical reaction between volcanic ash and drinking water sources during eruptions...

140

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

2012-04-01

141

Properties of Volcanic Ash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey site lists and discusses the properties of volcanic ash. The site contains many helpful diagrams, and explains topics including the size of ash particles, the dispersal of ash by wind, and the kind of eruption that produces ash.

2010-04-29

142

Carbon balance of sugarcane bioenergy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important criterion for bioenergy systems evaluation is their greenhouse gas mitigation potential. Sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to produce grid-bound surplus electricity but also have net CO2 emissions associated with the upstream fossil-fuel consumption for plantation management, transportation and processing of the fibrous biomass. However, when compared to coal-based power generation systems, sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to avoid

Revin Panray Beeharry

2001-01-01

143

Bagasse-fired steam boiler station for Kenana Sugar in Sudan  

SciTech Connect

The equipment and operation of the bagasse fired steam boiler station of the Kenana Sugar factory in Sudan are described. The station consists of six bagasse-fired, steam boilers with individual capacities of 113 tonnes per hour which provide steam for a 40 MN power station. During the off-season it serves as a regional power station which also operates irrigation facilities to the cane fields. The bagasse handling and feeding system is also described.

Not Available

1981-02-01

144

Bioconversion of sugarcane biomass into ethanol: an overview about composition, pretreatment methods, detoxification of hydrolysates, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production. PMID:23251086

Canilha, Larissa; Kumar Chandel, Anuj; dos Santos Milessi, Thais Suzane; Fernandes Antunes, Felipe Antônio; da Costa Freitas, Wagner Luiz; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

2012-01-01

145

Carbon footprint of sugar produced from sugarcane in eastern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon footprint (CFP) of sugar produced from sugarcane in eastern Thailand was estimated from greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) during the sugarcane cultivation and milling process. The use of fossil fuels, chemical and organic fertilizer and sugarcane biomass data during cultivation were collected from field surveys, questionnaires and interviews. Sugar mill emissions, fossil fuel utilization and greenhouse gas

M. Yuttitham; Shabbir H. Gheewala; A. Chidthaisong

2011-01-01

146

Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Simultaneous Energy Cane and Sugarcane Genetic Improvement -- Results of a Survey of International Sugarcane Breeders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following Brazil's dramatic success in utilizing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for large-scale ethanol production, and with a growing interest in energy crops worldwide, sugarcane breeders have been charged with genetically improving cane as an energy crop. We conducted a survey of sugarcane breeders i...

147

Activation of fly ash  

DOEpatents

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

1986-08-19

148

Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2005 Billion Ton Study is in need of updating and a focus change from strategic assessment to a comprehensive resource assessment to address issues raised since the 2005 publication and assist the bioenergy and bioproducts industries as they project biomass supplies into the future. With yield ...

149

PVA-hydrogel entrapped Candida guilliermondii for xylitol production from sugarcane hemicellulose hydrolysate.  

PubMed

Viable cells of Candida guilliermondii were immobilized by inclusion into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel using the freezing-thawing method. Entrapment experiments were planned according to a 2(3) full factorial design, using the PVA concentration (80, 100, and 120 g L(-1)), the freezing temperature (-10, -15, and -20 degrees C), and the number of freezing-thawing cycles (one, three, and five) as the independent variables, integrated with three additional tests to estimate the errors. The effectiveness of the immobilization procedure was checked in Erlenmeyer flasks as the pellet capability to catalyze the xylose-to-xylitol bioconversion of a medium based on sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. To this purpose, the yield of xylitol on consumed xylose, xylitol volumetric productivity, and cell retention yield were selected as the response variables. Cell pellets were then used to perform the same bioconversion in a stirred tank reactor operated at 400 rpm, 30 degrees C, and 1.04 vvm air flowrate. At the end of fermentation, a maximum xylitol concentration of 28.7 g L(-1), a xylitol yield on consumed xylose of 0.49 g g(-1) and a xylitol volumetric productivity of 0.24 g L(-1) h(-1) were obtained. PMID:18633733

da Cunha, Mário A A; Converti, Attilio; Santos, Júlio C; Ferreira, Sylvia T S; da Silva, Silvio S

2009-06-01

150

Nematode Interactions with Weeds and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus in Louisiana Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Weeds did not appear to serve as reservoirs for phytophagous Louisiana sugarcane nematode populations except for Criconemella spp., Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchorhynchus annulatus, and total phytophagous nematode densities were lower on weed-stressed cane and were accompanied by reduced accumulations of free cysteine, proline, and 13 other free amino acids in sugarcane. A significant weed-virus interaction for sugarcane free cysteine accumulation was detected; T. annulatus populations were highly correlated (r = 0.59, P ? 0.001) with the weed-induced and virus-induced changes in free cysteine. Sugarcane nematodes interacted differently with the weed and virus stresses and changes in host plant stress-related free amino acid concentrations. PMID:19287686

Showler, A. T.; Reagan, T. E.; Shao, K. P.

1990-01-01

151

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOEpatents

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14

152

Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus. PMID:20416060

2010-01-01

153

Assessment of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Biotypes and Bermudagrass Interference with Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids).  

E-print Network

??Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) collected from 17 Louisiana sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) fields and two sites outside sugarcane-growing area was evaluated for genetic diversity,… (more)

Fontenot, Dexter Paul

2014-01-01

154

Registration of ‘CP 05-1526’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘CP 05-1526’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and released to growers for organic and sand soils in Florida in October 2012. CP 05-1526 was selected...

155

Sugarcane internode composition during crop development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The utilization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol or other biofuel requires a better understanding of its composition. Two experiments were designed to better understand how cell wall composition changes over with development over time and with season in s...

156

Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

157

Breeding for sugarcane borer resistance in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growing resistant varieties is a key component of the Integrated Pest Management Program for managing the sugarcane borer in Louisiana; however, the release of resistant varieties to growers is sporadic. The challenge facing the Louisiana industry is how to increase resistance in its varieties witho...

158

Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

2012-06-01

159

EVALUATION OF FAMILY APPRAISAL METHODS IN SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Louisiana, sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) breeders rely upon information obtained from family appraisal trials to make decisions that impact several important aspects of breeding programs. Decisions about parents to retain for future crossing, cross combinations to make, and numbers of cross...

160

Effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping of bagasse.  

PubMed

The effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping was investigated. The properties of black liquor and pulp strength of bagasse were analyzed. The extraction was conducted at 160 degrees C for 30min where 13.2% of the mass was dissolved in the extraction liquor. Untreated bagasse and extracted bagasse were digested by soda and soda-AQ processes at 17% and 15.5% (with 0.1% AQ) alkali charge (NaOH). Cooking temperatures were 160 degrees C and 155 degrees C respectively. The pulp from extracted bagasse had a lower Kappa number and a higher viscosity compared to the pulp from the untreated bagasse. The black liquor from pulping extracted bagasse had a lower solid content, a lower viscosity and a lower silica content, but a higher heating value than that from pulping of untreated bagasse. Hot-water extraction resulted in a significant decrease in bleaching chemical consumption and the formation of chlorinated organics. Pulp strength properties such as the tensile index and the burst index were found to be lower, but the tear index, bulk, opacity and pulp freeness were found to be higher when hot-water extraction was applied. PMID:20493244

Lei, Yichao; Liu, Shijie; Li, Jiang; Sun, Runcang

2010-01-01

161

Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.  

PubMed

In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. PMID:25427464

Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

2013-03-01

162

Increased digestibility of bagasse by pretreatment with alkalis and steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

Alkali treatment and steam explosion of bagasse were investigated in order to develop economical and effective methods of increasing the digestibility of bagasse. The treated bagasse was to be used as a substrate for the production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic acidogenic bacteria. The alkalis examined were NaOH, NH3 (aqueous), NaOH + NH3, Ca(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3, at ambient temperature and in combination with steam explosion at 200 degrees C, 6.9 MPa, and 5 min cooking times. Digestibilities of up to 733 g organic matter (OM)/kg bagasse dry matter (DM) were obtained for bagasse treated with NaOH and Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3; less than 430 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with aqueous NH3; and up to 724 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with Ca(OH)2. This digestibility was only achieved by using high concentrations of Ca(OH)2, i.e., 180-300 g/kg bagasse. Steam explosion increased the digestibility of bagasse up to 740 g OM in the presence of alkali but only to 610 g OM in the absence of alkali. The digestibility of bagasse without pretreatment was 190 g OM/kg bagasse DM. More than one-half the hemicellulose present was solubilized by pretreatment. The composition of the liquid fraction of steam-exploded material was examined and contained mainly xylose monomers and oligomers (112 g/kg original bagasse DM) and acetic acid (33 g/kg original DM). The relative costs of the alkalis used were obtained for the United States, Australia, and Europe. Lime (Ca(OH)2) was the least expensive alkali per unit of additional digestible OM obtained. Ammonia was the most expensive alkali to use, except in the United States where the difference in its cost relative to other alkalis was smaller. However, ammonia provides organic nitrogen for microbial growth, and could be recycled. With acidogenic fermentations, alkali is able to double as a neutralizing agent during fermentation.

Playne, M.J.

1984-01-01

163

Computational systems biology of sucrose accumulation in sugarcane.  

E-print Network

??Thesis (MSc (Biochemistry)) – University of Stellenbosch, 2006. This thesis is about mathematical modelling of sucrose accumulation in the storage perenchyma of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) In… (more)

Uys, Lafras

2006-01-01

164

Kentucky Ash Education Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research explains coal combustion byproducts such as fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and gypsum. The site also outlines how coal is used for electricity. Several animations will help users visualize how coal is processed at an electrical power plant.

2011-03-18

165

Volcanic Ash: Volcanism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is the second in the four-part Volcanic Ash series. It provides information about the geological, and geophysical processes related to volcanic activity and volcanic ash in the atmosphere and on the ground. It discusses four types of volcanic eruptions and describes six major volcanic hazards: Tephra Pyroclastic flow Lahar Lava flow Volcanic gas Tsunami

COMET

2011-04-22

166

Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields.

Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianan; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Zhou, Ming; Gong, Aihua

2014-08-01

167

Improving Sugarcane as a Bioenergy Crop in the U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane is one of the world’s most important crops. Large-scale sugarcane-based ethanol production in Brazil, together with an impressive energy balance reported therein, has helped to generate interest in sugarcane as a bioenergy crop in the U.S. An advantage of sugarcane is the production of f...

168

Analysis on leaf-stripping effect of sugarcane feeding way for centrifugal leaf-stripping machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding way of sugarcane influenced the leaf-striping effect for the centrifugal type leaf -stripping machine. In this paper, two feeding ways, fed from root and top of sugarcane stalk, were analyzed by using the method of theoretical analysis and test. The influence of structure and morphology of sugarcane leaves, the motion state of sugarcane stalks in leaf -stripping process

Mou Xiangwei; Ou Yinggang; Liu Qingting; Zeng Zhiqiang

2011-01-01

169

Modeling within-season sugarcane growth for optimal harvest system selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent switch from wholestalk to combine sugarcane harvesters has raised questions concerning which harvester is more profitable. Combine harvesters recovery more of the sugarcane in the field than wholestalk harvesters, but also have higher trash levels reducing sucrose recovery. The objective of the research presented in this article is to determine the optimal sugarcane harvest system selection for sugarcane

M. E. Salassi; J. B. Breaux; C. J. Naquin

2002-01-01

170

Coal combustion ash haulback  

SciTech Connect

Coal mining disturbs large tracts of land which must be reclaimed. Unfortunately, iron sulfides which are common in most coals and the adjacent strata weather, forming acid mine drainage (AMD) which degrades surface and ground water. Burning of coal produces combustion by products, most of which are placed in ponds or landfills. Suitable disposal areas are difficult to find and permit, especially in urban areas. This has led to ash haulback--where the waste generated during coal burning is hauled back to a mine for disposal. The potential advantages of coal combustion ash haulback are: Disposal occurs in a disturbed area (mine) rather than disturb additional land near the power plant; The same vehicles used to haul coal from the mine can be used to return the ash to the mine; Ash, if alkaline, may provide neutralization of acidic water or mine overburden commonly found at coal mines; and Low permeability ash could reduce ground water flow through the mine backfill, thus reducing leaching of acid forming constituents or metals. Placement of ash in surface mines provides an efficient, cost-effective method of disposal while at the same time contributing to reclamation of the mine. Wise natural resource management suggests a reasonable approach to disposal of coal ash is to return it to its original location--the mine.

Gray, R.E.; Gray, T.A. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

171

Effect of cellulase on the digestibility of sodium hydroxide treated Tequilana agave bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effect of 0, 5 or 10% of cellulase and 4% sodium hydroxide pre-treated tequilana agave bagasse on animal performance, 9 Pelibuey male lambs (20 kg) were used in a 3×3 factorial arrangement. Including agave bagasse in the complete feed increased dry matter, organic matter and gross energy intake and total tract digestibility (P<0.05). However, neither the water

F. J. Paredes-Ibarra; J. R. Orozco-Hernández; H. Verdín-Sánchez; O. D. Montañez-Valdez; E. Alvarado-Loza; V. O. Fuentes Hernández

2011-01-01

172

Chemical and gamma-ray-modified bagasse as substrates for bioproduction of cellulases and protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of enzymes in the cellulolytic complex was determined in culture filtrates of six fungal isolates grown on chemically treated or gamma-irradiated bagasse. The enzymatic activities of the filtrates were determined by measurement of glucose release from cotton, filter paper, carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose, and cellobiose octaacetate. Cultures grown on basetreated and gamma-irradiated plus acid-treated bagasse provided culture filtrates with the highest

E. B. Lillehoj; Y. W. Han

1983-01-01

173

Impact of Heavy Metals on Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops in the tropics and subtropics, where it is mainly used to manufacture crystal\\u000a sugar. It is cultivated between the latitudes of 35°N and 35°S. Theoretically, it has the potential to produce 805 t?ha?1 wet cane or 470 t?ha?1 dry matter. The highest harvestable sugar cane yield achieved so far is close

D. V. Yadav; Radha Jain; R. K. Rai

174

Sugarcane improvement in Guangxi: Progress and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the history of replacements of improved sugarcane varieties and their significant contributions to the\\u000a cane yield and sugar content in the past several decades in Guangxi. Five obvious replacements of the varieties were recorded\\u000a typically from local initial cultivated species(S. Sinense) varieties Bamboo cane and Rose Bamboo cane to POJ2878, F134, Guitang 11 (GT11) and ROC16 which

Yu-mo Tan; Hong He

2004-01-01

175

Leaching characteristics of fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of fly ash as a byproduct of thermic power stations, results in significant environmental problems. The leaching of coal fly ash during disposal is of concern for possible contamination, especially for the aquatic environment when ash is in contact with water. The aim of this study was to investigate the leaching behaviour of fly ashes currently disposed in

Aysenur Ugurlu

2004-01-01

176

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molding Composites Reinforced by Bagasse Fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BMC (Bulk Molding Compound) is composed of UP (Unsaturated Polyester) resin, glass fibers, and bagasse fibers which have been obtained after squeezing sugar cane. Our purpose is to use the bagasse fibers as reinforcement and filler in BMC to fabricate composites by injection molding and injection compression molding. The mechanical properties of injection molding composites were improved after adding the bagasse fibers. Observing the fracture surface of the tensile test specimen through SEM, we could notice the glass fibers were penetrated into the bagasse fibers longitudinally. Along with UP resin solidifying, the glass fibers were firmly fixed in the bagasse fibers and finally united with them. This phenomenon could bring on the same effect as the glass fibers length was prolonged, so that the adhesion interface between fiber and matrix resin became larger, which leads to the increase in the mechanical properties. Otherwise, it was observed that UP resin sufficiently permeated the bagasse fibers and solidified. This also contributes to enhancing the mechanical properties drastically.

Cao, Yong; Fukumoto, Isao

177

Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...

178

Registration of 'HoCP 91-552' sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘HoCP 91-552’ sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross ‘LCP 81-10’ x ‘CP 72-356’ made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 91-552 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana A...

179

Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

180

Identifying a new causal agent of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of economic concern that infects maize, sorghum, and sugarcane worldwide. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and contains a linear, positive sense ssRNA genome 10 kb long. It is transmitted non-persistently via aphids and ...

181

SOME INSECTS AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

182

Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

183

Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.  

PubMed

Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

2012-01-01

184

Persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice.  

PubMed

Fipronil gives effective control of early shoot borer and termites in sugarcane. The persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice were studied following application of fipronil (Regent 0.3 G) at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of sugarcane leaves were collected at various time intervals. Samples of sugarcane juice were collected at harvest. Residues of fipronil and its metabolites were quantified by gas liquid chromatograph. The limit of quantification of fipronil and its metabolites was 0.01 mg kg(-1) for sugarcane leaves and juice. Total residues of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane leaves after 7 days of its application at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1) were 0.26 and 0.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 following fipronil application at either concentration. In sugarcane leaves, fipronil was found to be the main constituent, followed by its metabolites amide, desulfinyl, sulfone and sulfide. Samples of sugarcane juice did not reveal the presence of fipronil or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest. PMID:24343262

Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

2014-02-01

185

RATOON STUNT AND YELLOW LEAF EFFECTS ON SUGARCANE YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Separate trials were established to determine the effects of ratoon stunt, caused by Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) and yellow leaf, caused by Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV), on sugarcane yields in plant and first-ratoon crops. In 1-m long plots, responses of eight cultivars were tested for r...

186

Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

187

Sugarcane yield and morphological responses to long-term flooding.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane in south Florida is often subjected to flooding in the summer months or following hurricanes. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adaptation and yield response to l...

188

California Dust and Ash  

article title:  Airborne Dust and Ash over Southern California     ... left-hand view, which was constructed with near-infrared, green and blue band data from MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. The ...

2014-05-15

189

Ash cloud aviation advisories  

SciTech Connect

During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1992-06-25

190

Comparison of Ash from PF and CFB Boilers and Behaviour of Ash in Ash Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 90% of electricity produced in Estonia is made by power plants firing local oil shale and 25% of the boilers are of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) variety. In 2007 approximately 6.5 million tons of ash was acquired as a byproduct of using oil shale for energy production. Approximately 1.5 million tons of that was ash from CFB boilers. Such ash is deposited in ash fields by means ofhydro ash removal.

Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.; Rootamm, R.; Konist, A.

191

Sugarwin: a sugarcane insect-induced gene with antipathogenic activity.  

PubMed

In sugarcane fields, colonization of the stalk by opportunistic fungi usually occurs after the caterpillar Diatraea saccharalis attacks the sugarcane plant. Plants respond to insect attack by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN), sugarcane wound-inducible proteins SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2, have been identified in sugarcane by an in silico analysis. Antifungal properties have been described for a number of BARWIN homologues. We report that a SUGARWIN::green fluorescent protein fusion protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the extracellular space of sugarcane plants. The induction of sugarwin transcripts occurs in response to mechanical wounding, D. saccharalis damage, and methyl jasmonate treatment. The accumulation of transcripts is late induced and is restricted to the site of the wound. Although the transcripts of sugarwin genes were strongly increased following insect attack, the protein itself did not show any effect on insect development; rather, it altered fungal morphology, leading to the apoptosis of the germlings. These results suggest that, in the course of evolution, sugarwin-encoding genes were recruited by sugarcane due to their antipathogenic activity. We rationalize that sugarcane is able to induce sugarwin gene expression in response to D. saccharalis feeding as a concerted plant response to the anticipated invasion by the fungi that typically penetrate the plant stalk after insect damage. PMID:22250584

Medeiros, Ane H; Franco, Flávia P; Matos, Juliana L; de Castro, Patrícia A; Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Goldman, Gustavo H; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

2012-05-01

192

Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

193

Alkaline pretreatment and the synergic effect of water and tetralin enhances the liquefaction efficiency of bagasse.  

PubMed

Bagasse liquefaction (BL) in water, tetralin, and water/tetralin mixed solvents (WTMS) was investigated, and effects of tetralin content in WTMS, temperature, and alkaline pretreatment of bagasse on liquefaction efficiency were studied. At 300°C, bagasse conversion in WTMS with tetralin content higher than 50wt% was 86-87wt%, whereas bagasse conversion in water or tetralin was 67wt% or 84wt%, respectively. Because the solid conversion from liquefaction in WTMS with tetralin content higher than 50wt% was always higher than that in water or tetralin at temperatures between 250 and 300°C, a synergic effect between water and tetralin is suggested. Alkaline pretreatment of bagasse resulted in significantly higher conversion and heavy oil yield from BL in water or WTMS. The effect of deoxygenation by the present liquefaction method is demonstrated by lower oxygen contents (16.01-19.59wt%) and higher heating values (31.9-34.8MJ/kg) in the produced oils. PMID:25485736

Li, Zhixia; Cao, Jiangfei; Huang, Kai; Hong, Yaming; Li, Cunlong; Zhou, Xinxin; Xie, Ning; Lai, Fang; Shen, Fang; Chen, Congjin

2015-02-01

194

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

195

MSW fly ash stabilized with coal ash for geotechnical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash for the purpose of minimizing the geo-environmental impact caused by toxic heavy metals as well as ensuring engineering safety (strength and soaking durability) are experimentally evaluated. The mixtures of MSW fly ash stabilized with cement and fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash (FCA) were used for unconfined compressive strength

Masashi Kamon; Takeshi Katsumi; Youichi Sano

2000-01-01

196

Ash-based ceramic materials  

SciTech Connect

A ceramic material made from raw coal fly ash or raw municipal solid waste fly ash and sodium tetraborate or a mixture of sodium tetraborate and a calcium containing material that is triple superphosphate, lime, dolomitic lime, or mixtures thereof.

Talmy, I.G.; Haught, D.A.; Martin, C.A.

1994-09-01

197

Fly ash collection  

SciTech Connect

To a coal-fired furnace that uses electrostatic precipitation or a mechanical collector to collect fly ash, a mix of magnesia-alumina or magnesia-talc is added above the fireball (2600*-3300* F.). The additive increases the mean particle size of the fly ash and reduces its surface resistivity, thereby causing improved collection in the electrostatic precipitators or mechanical collector. Fine particulates containing heavy metals tend to be agglomerated; thus the invention permits recovery of substantial amounts of heavy metal contaminants that would otherwise be lost as stack emission.

Bain, D.I.; Carter, D.A.; Dixit, S.N.

1981-03-17

198

Ashing properties of coal blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

Biggs, D. L.

1982-03-01

199

Effects of production and market factors on ethanol profitability for an integrated first and second generation ethanol plant using the whole sugarcane as feedstock  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production, especially if the lignocellulosic fraction can also be treated in second generation (2G) ethanol plants. However, the profitability of 2G ethanol is affected by the processing conditions, operating costs and market prices. This study focuses on the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and maximum profitability of ethanol production in an integrated first and second generation (1G?+?2G) sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The feedstock used was sugarcane juice, bagasse and leaves. The lignocellulosic fraction was hydrolysed with enzymes. Yields were assumed to be 95% of the theoretical for each of the critical steps in the process (steam pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), fermentation, solid/liquid separation, anaerobic digestion) in order to obtain the best conditions possible for ethanol production, to assess the lowest production costs. Techno-economic analysis was performed for various combinations of process options (for example use of pentoses, addition of leaves), EH conditions (water-insoluble solids (WIS) and residence time), operating cost (enzymes) and market factors (wholesale prices of electricity and ethanol, cost of the feedstock). Results The greatest reduction in 2G MESP was achieved when using the pentoses for the production of ethanol rather than biogas. This was followed, in decreasing order, by higher enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (EHE), by increasing the WIS to 30% and by a short residence time (48 hours) in the EH. The addition of leaves was found to have a slightly negative impact on 1G?+?2G MESP, but the effect on 2G MESP was negligible. Sugarcane price significantly affected 1G?+?2G MESP, while the price of leaves had a much lower impact. Net present value (NPV) analysis of the most interesting case showed that integrated 1G?+?2G ethanol production including leaves could be more profitable than 1G ethanol, despite the fact that the MESP was higher than in 1G ethanol production. Conclusions A combined 1G?+?2G ethanol plant could potentially outperform a 1G plant in terms of NPV, depending on market wholesale prices of ethanol and electricity. Therefore, although it is more expensive than 1G ethanol production, 2G ethanol production can make the integrated 1G?+?2G process more profitable. PMID:24559312

2014-01-01

200

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)  

PubMed Central

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

201

Characteristics and Uses for Ash  

E-print Network

Planes and east to the Atlantic Ocean, except the Florida peninsula and southern Canada Green Ash) #12;Physical Properties M.C./Drying 130Sycamore 106Yellow Poplar 69Red Oak 44White Ash Green SapwoodCharacteristics and Uses for Ash Daniel Cassens Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Purdue

202

Marker assisted breeding in sugarcane : a complex polyploid.  

E-print Network

??Thesis (PhD (Genetics))—University of Stellenbosch, 2007. Association analysis was used to improve the efficiency of breeding sugarcane varieties for the negatively correlated traits of resistance… (more)

Butterfield, Michael Keith

2007-01-01

203

Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.  

PubMed

This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

2006-06-01

204

Advanced satellite imagery to classify sugarcane crop characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques that provide a rapid and widespread assessment of crop properties equip industry decision makers with knowledge\\u000a to improve their farming environment, both tactically and strategically. An interdisciplinary approach that links the fields\\u000a of hyperspectral remote sensing, statistical data mining and sugarcane systems was undertaken to establish new relationships\\u000a to determine variety type and crop age of sugarcane plants. In

Y. L. Everingham; K. H. Lowe; D. A. Donald; D. H. Coomans; J. Markley

2007-01-01

205

Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of sugarcane legumain.  

PubMed

Plant legumains, also termed vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), are cysteine peptidases that play key roles in plant development, senescence, programmed cell death and defense against pathogens. Despite the increasing number of reports on plant cysteine peptidases, including VPEs, the characterization of sugarcane VPEs and their inhibition by endogenous cystatins have not yet been described. This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of a sugarcane cysteine peptidase. In this work, a recombinant sugarcane legumain was expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. Kinetic studies of the recombinant CaneLEG revealed that this enzyme has the main characteristics of VPEs, such as self-activation and activity under acidic pH. CaneLEG activity was strongly inhibited when incubated with sugarcane cystatin 3 (CaneCPI-3). Quantitative analysis of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 gene expression indicated a tissue-specific expression pattern for both genes throughout sugarcane growth, with the strong accumulation of CaneLEG transcripts throughout the internode development. Furthermore, the CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 genes exhibited up-regulation in plantlets treated with abscisic acid (ABA). These results suggest that CaneCPI-3 may be a potential endogenous inhibitor of CaneLEG and these genes may be involved in plant stress response mediated by ABA. Also, the expression analysis provides clues for the putative involvement of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 in sugarcane development and phytohormone response. PMID:22721948

Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Gerald, Lee T S; Meneghin, Silvana P; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

2012-08-01

206

Life table studies of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane.  

PubMed

The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Reproductive and life table parameters for E. lignosellus were examined at nine constant temperatures from 13 to 36 °C with sugarcane as the larval food source. The pre- and postoviposition periods decreased with increasing temperatures and reached their minimums at 33 and 36 °C, respectively. The oviposition period was longest at 27 °C. The mean fecundity, stage-specific survival, stage-specific fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were greatest at 30 °C and decreased with increasing or decreasing temperature. The net reproductive rate was greatest at 27 °C. The Logan-6 model best described the relationship between temperature and intrinsic rate of increase. The generation and population doubling times were longest at 13 and shortest at 33 and 30 °C, respectively. The most favorable temperatures for E. lignosellus population growth were between 27 and 33°C. Life table parameters for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane were greater than for the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on an artificial diet at 30 °C. The intrinsic rates of increase for the sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on sugarcane or corn were the same as for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane at 27 °C, but the net reproductive rate was four times higher for the former than the latter borer species. PMID:22182570

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A

2010-12-01

207

Hygroscopic properties of volcanic ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limited observational data exists on the physical interactions between volcanic ash particles and water vapor; yet it is thought that these interactions can strongly impact the microphysical evolution of ash, with implications for its atmospheric lifetime and transport, as well as formation of water and ice clouds. In this study, we investigate for the first time, the hygroscopic properties of ultra-fine volcanic ash (<125 ?m diameter) from the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, El Chichón in 1982, Tungurahua in 2006, Chaitén in 2008, Mt. Redoubt in 2009, and Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. The hygroscopicity of the ash particles is quantified by their ability to uptake water and nucleate into cloud drops under controlled levels of water vapor supersaturation. Evidence presented strongly suggests that ash uptakes water efficiently via adsorption and a simple parameterization of ash hygroscopicity is developed for use in ash plume and atmospheric models.

Lathem, T. L.; Kumar, P.; Nenes, A.; Dufek, J.; Sokolik, I. N.; Trail, M.; Russell, A.

2011-06-01

208

A New stalk rot disease of sugarcane caused by phaeocytostroma sacchari in india  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual stalk rot was noticed in sugarcane varieties at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, and in clones of\\u000a sugarcane germplasm at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre, Kannur, at maturity stage of the crop. Affected cane\\u000a stalks showed straw coloured rind discolouration. Internally, orange-brown rotting was noticed at nodal regions, which extended\\u000a further to internodal region emitting a distinctive

R. Viswanathan; M. N. Premachandran; M. Balamuralikrishnan; R. Jothi

2003-01-01

209

Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the entire set of 221 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers from the International Sugarcane Microsatellite Consortium for their utility on molecular characterization of elite U.S. germplasm. Five elite U.S. sugarcane clones were tested, including two cu...

210

Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate 152 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers originally developed in India for their transferability to germplasm being used by sugarcane breeders in the U.S. The commercial sugarcane cultivar, LCP 85-384, was used for the initial screening of the SSR marker...

211

ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has been ...

212

ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has bee...

213

2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 21 ASHES TO ASHES: LARGE FRAXINUS GERMPLASM  

E-print Network

of the genus, white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and green ash (F. pennsylvanica Marsh.). The white ash whether these were ever out-planted. The green ash collection, organized by Kim Steiner at Penn State-tree family plots. The green ash collections were planted at 12 locations in the northeastern and north

214

ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION  

SciTech Connect

The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

1999-12-01

215

Circle of Ashes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Circle of Ashes

This plot tells astronomers that a pulsar, the remnant of a stellar explosion, is surrounded by a disk of its own ashes. The disk, revealed by the two data points at the far right from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, is the first ever found around a pulsar. Astronomers believe planets might rise up out of these stellar ashes.

The data in this plot, or spectrum, were taken by ground-based telescopes and Spitzer. They show that light from around the pulsar can be divided into two categories: direct light from the pulsar, and light from the dusty disk swirling around the pulsar. This excess light was detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Dust gives off more infrared light than the pulsar because it's cooler.

The pulsar, called 4U 0142+61, was once a massive star, until about 100,000 years ago, when it blew up in a supernova explosion and scattered dusty debris into space. Some of that debris was captured into what astronomers refer to as a 'fallback disk,' now circling the leftover stellar core, or pulsar. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks around young stars, out of which planets are thought to be born.

The data have been corrected to remove the effects of light scattering from dust that lies between Earth and the pulsar.

The ground-based data is from the Keck I telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

2006-01-01

216

Modeling volcanic ash dispersal  

ScienceCinema

Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

None

2011-10-06

217

Bioprocessing of bagasse hydrolysate for ethanol and xylitol production using thermotolerant yeast.  

PubMed

Fermentation of xylose-rich and glucose-rich bagasse hydrolysates, obtained from the two-stage acid hydrolysis was studied using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. The yeast could grow on xylose-rich hydrolysate at 50 °C with the dry cell weight, cell mass yield and maximum specific growth rate of 5.35 g l(-1), 0.58 g g(-1) and 0.13 h(-1), respectively. The yeast was found to be very promising for ethanol as well as xylitol production from the sugars obtained from the lignocellulosic biomass. Batch fermentations of xylose-rich and glucose-rich hydrolysates yielded 0.61 g g(-1) xylitol and 0.43 g g(-1) ethanol in the broth, respectively based on the sugars present in the hydrolysate. Overall ethanol yield of 165 g (210 ml) and 183 g xylitol per kg of bagasse was obtained, when bagasse hydrolysate was used as a substrate. Utilization of both the glucose and xylose sugars makes the process most economical by producing both ethanol and xylitol based on biorefinery concept. On validating the experimental data of ethanol fermentation, the modified Luong kinetic model for product inhibition as well as inhibition due to inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysate, the model was found to be the best fit for ethanol formation from bagasse hydrolysate using Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. PMID:25090978

Kumar, Sachin; Dheeran, Pratibha; Singh, Surendra P; Mishra, Indra M; Adhikari, Dilip K

2015-01-01

218

A highly active bagasse-derived solid acid catalyst with properties suitable for production of biodiesel.  

PubMed

A novel bagasse-based solid acid catalyst was successfully prepared through sulfonation of incompletely carbonized bagasse. A range of conditions for producing the catalyst were investigated, and the optimized catalyst, produced under carbonization at 648 K for 0.5 h and sulfonation at 423 K for 15 h, showed excellent catalytic activity and resulted in around 95 % yield of methyl oleate. Its activity was not only substantially greater than that of niobic acid and Amberlyst-15, but also comparable to or superior to that of catalysts made from pure starch or glucose, respectively. Additionally, the bagasse-derived catalyst could be repeatedly employed for at least eight cycles and still retained around 90 % of its original activity, exhibiting excellent operational stability. Furthermore, the catalyst efficiently converted waste cooking oils with 38.6 wt % free fatty acids into biodiesel and afforded a high yield of about 93.8 % within 12 h. These results clearly show that the bagasse-derived catalyst is economic, eco-friendly, and promising for biodiesel production from low-cost feedstocks and may find wide applications. PMID:22693163

Lou, Wen-Yong; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Wen-Jing; Zong, Min-Hua; Wu, Hong; Smith, Thomas J

2012-08-01

219

Acid-catalyzed liquefaction of bagasse in the presence of polyhydric alcohol.  

PubMed

Bagasse was subjected to a liquefaction process with polyethylene glycol/glycerol using sulfuric acid as catalyst. The effects of various liquefaction conditions, such as reaction time, liquefaction temperature, catalyst content, and liquid ratio (liquefaction solvents/bagasse), on the liquefied residue (LR) content and hydroxyl and acid numbers of liquefied products were investigated. The preferred liquefaction condition of bagasse was determined through orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the catalyst content and reaction time have a greater influence than liquid ratio and liquefaction temperature on the percentage of LR. The hydroxyl and acid numbers of the liquefied products were influenced by many factors, including liquefaction temperature, reaction time, acid content, and liquid ratio. The hydroxyl number of liquefied products decreased as the liquefaction reaction progressed, but the acid number of liquefied products increased. Based on the obtained data, the kinetics for liquefaction was modeled using the first-order reaction rate law and the apparent activation energy for the liquefaction of bagasse was estimated to be 38.30 kJ mol(-1). PMID:23740473

Zhang, Hairong; Luo, Jun; Li, Yingying; Guo, Haijun; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xinde

2013-08-01

220

Bagasse Pretreated with Hot Water 921 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vols. 98100, 2002  

E-print Network

-2289/02/98-100/0921/$13.50 921 *Author to whom all correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed. Cellulase Production from bagasse pretreated with hot water were fed to a batch cellulase production system using the Rut C30 strain of Trichoderma reesei to determine the suitability of these substrates for cellulase

California at Riverside, University of

221

Sugar Cane Bagasse Lignin in Resol-Type Resin: Alternative Application for Ligninphenol-Formaldehyde Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin can be recovered from sugar cane bagasse, which is widely available in Brazil as a residue from sugar mills. Many reports can be found in the literature on the partial replacement of phenol by lignin in phenolic-type resins, but normally only their application as an adhesive is considered. This work is part of a study intended to look for

Rogério S. J. Piccolo; Fernando Santos; Elisabete Frollini

1997-01-01

222

Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to investigate the sintering process of volcanic ash. In order to analyze the mineral transformation and microstructure evolution, the qualitative as well as quantitative crystalline phase analysis of volcanic ash samples directly taken from furnace by per 100 oC in the range of between 100 and 1400 oC as well as evaluation of microstructure of volcanic ash taken from from furnace by per 20 oC in the range of between 1000 and 1300 oC has been made by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, we obtain the viscosity temperature curve for volcanic ash during melting process on the basis of the characteristic temperature obtained by HSM.

Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

2013-12-01

223

Ash in the Soil System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect, climate/meteorological conditions after the ash spread/fire and soil background characteristics. In addition, after the fire heating can change soil original properties increasing the complexity of the ash effects on soil properties. After fire, ash is highly dynamic and very easily transported by wind until the first rains. When wetted, ash compacts and binds onto soil surface, and wind has low capacity to transport it. The post-rain ash dynamic is influenced by water erosion (in slope areas), infiltration into soil profile and vegetation recuperation. This means that ash produced in one place will have implications in other areas, including not burned areas (e.g wind transport and water erosion). This is a clear indication that ash effects go much further than the fire affected area. Due the heterogeneity of soil and ash properties and their dynamic across the landscape, the impacts of ash on soil system can be diverse, producing a mosaic of different effects and responses after ash treatment and/ or fire. In this communication it will be presented and discussed the advances and scientific development of ash effects and dynamic in soil system.

Pereira, P.

2012-04-01

224

An atlas of volcanic ash  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions were studied, using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy to characterize each ash type and to relate ash morphology to magma composition and eruption type. The ashes are best placed into two broad genetic categories: magnetic and hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic). Ashes from magmatic eruptions are formed when expanding gases in the magma form a froth that loses its coherence as it approaches the ground surface. During hydrovolcanic eruptions, the magma is chilled on contact with ground or surface waters, resulting in violent steam eruptions. Within these two genetic categories, ashes from different magma types can be characterized. The pigeon hole classification used here is for convenience; there are eruptions which are driven by both phreatic and magmatic gases.

Heiken, G.

1974-01-01

225

Characterisation of Turkish fly ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogical, morphological, physical and chemical properties of seven different fly ashes from eastern, central and western lignite and bituminous coal fields in Turkey are compared in this study. The mineral matter in the fly ashes, determined by means of X-ray diffraction, is dominated mainly by anhydrite, lime, quartz and hematite + ferrite spinel. The three low-calcium ashes—Soma, Seyitomer and

Oktay Bayat

1998-01-01

226

Porous materials from fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Large quantity of fly ash is generated every year from the electric power plants. Due to the shortage of disposal sites and tighter regulations, new viable ways of utilizing fly ash are needed. The formation of a porous material comprising fly ash was investigated. It was found that a porous material can be made by mixing fly ash with phosphoric acid, followed by heat treatment. The porous material is light-weight (bulk density {approximately} 1 g/cm{sup 3}), machinable, and with reasonable strength. Due to the high percentage of close porosity, the porous material has a great potential for thermal insulation applications.

Moeller, J.G.; Shih, W.H. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Engineering

1996-12-31

227

Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

2008-01-01

228

Sugarcane functional genomics: gene discovery for agronomic trait development.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

Menossi, M; Silva-Filho, M C; Vincentz, M; Van-Sluys, M-A; Souza, G M

2008-01-01

229

Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

230

Identification and validation of sugarcane streak mosaic virus-encoded microRNAs and their targets in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Plants have developed several defense mechanisms to cope with various pathogens (bacteria, fungi, virus, and phytoplasma). Among these, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated defense against viral infection was found to be a major innate immune response. As a counter attack strategy against the host defense, viruses produce suppressors of host RNAi pathway. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of short (~18-22 nucleotide) non-coding single-stranded RNAs involved in RNAi pathway leading to post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) is a distinct strain of Potyviridae family which has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome causing mosaic disease in sugarcane. In this study, we computationally predicted and experimentally validated the miRNA encoded by the SCSMV genome with detection efficiency of 99.9 % in stem-loop RT-qPCR and predicted their potential gene targets in sugarcane. These sugarcane target genes considerably broaden future investigation of the SCSMV-encoded miRNA function during viral pathogenesis and might be applied as a new strategy for controlling mosaic disease in sugarcane. PMID:24145912

Viswanathan, Chandran; Anburaj, Jeyaraj; Prabu, Gajjeraman

2014-02-01

231

Tracking an Ash Cloud  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the aviation hazard associated with volcanic eruptions as they take the role of an air traffic controller and calculate the amount of time it will take for an ash plume to travel to the control tower. A map of the continental U.S. is included. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

2012-08-03

232

Sampling for the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on sugarcane in Louisiana.  

PubMed

A 3-yr study was conducted in 0.6- to 2.0-ha sugarcane fields throughout south Louisiana under varying sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), density levels to determine the spatial dispersion of infestations and to develop a sequential sampling plan. Infestations of D. saccharalis were randomly dispersed. Infestation levels (percentage of stalks infested) ranged from 0.6 to 33.3%. Frequency distributions of the number of infested stalks indicated that the Poisson distribution best fit the data Tests of other distributions (negative binomial [aggregated], binomial [uniform], geometric, and hypergeometric) resulted in poorer fits. The sequential sampling plan devised, with lower and upper D. saccharalis infestation limits of 2 and 5% and 5 and 10%, required maximum average sample numbers of 7.1 and 5.5 (20-stalk samples), respectively, to make terminating management decisions. It is our assessment that implementation of these plans would decrease sampling effort by 50-60% when compared with sampling programs currently in use for D. saccharalis management decisions in Louisiana. PMID:11425035

Schexnayder, H P; Reagan, T E; Ring, D R

2001-06-01

233

Nitrate Paradigm Does Not Hold Up for Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil. PMID:21552564

Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

2011-01-01

234

Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

Okeefe, J. A.

1976-01-01

235

Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

236

Environmental assessment of ash disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion processes for power generation or waste volume reduction result in the generation of mostly inorganic ash residues. Recycling or reuse of these materials is sometimes possible; however, presently, the major portion must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way. In this review, the physical and chemical properties of these ashes are presented, and their suitability for various purposes

Thomas L. Theis; Kevin H. Gardner

1990-01-01

237

Icelandic volcanic ash in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrete layer of Holocene volcanic ash, or tephra, has been discovered in Caithness, Scotland. Major and minor element analysis of individual glass shards indicates that the ash is of Icelandic origin, and that it was probably produced by the ‘Hekla 4’ eruption of ca. 4000 b.p. This discovery identifies a valuable isochrone, and introduces to the British mainland the

Andrew Dugmore

1989-01-01

238

Bottom ash boosts poor soil  

SciTech Connect

This article describes agricultural uses of fluidized bed bottom ash residue from burning limestone and coal in electric power generating plants: as a limestone substitute, to increase calcium levels in both soil and plants, and as a gypsom-containing soil amendment. Apples and tomatoes are the crops used. The industrial perspective and other uses of bottom ash are also briefly described.

Stanley, D.

1993-04-01

239

Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired less than two or three months after the cut. The radar signal decreases about 5dB for images acquired some days after the cut and 3 dB for data acquired two month after the cut (VV-37°). The difference in radar signal becomes negligible (<1 dB) between harvested fields and mature canes for sugarcane harvested since three months or more. PMID:22163387

Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

2010-01-01

240

Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired less than two or three months after the cut. The radar signal decreases about 5dB for images acquired some days after the cut and 3 dB for data acquired two month after the cut (VV-37°). The difference in radar signal becomes negligible (<1 dB) between harvested fields and mature canes for sugarcane harvested since three months or more. PMID:22163387

Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

2010-01-01

241

Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although successfully introduced and established in sugarcane fields around the world, attempts to establish Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Bracondiae) in the temperate sugarcane fields of Louisiana as a parasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) ...

242

Biodelignification of lemon grass and citronella bagasse by white-rot fungi.  

PubMed

Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20 degrees C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berkeleyi; it increased the in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility to 22 and 24% for lemon grass and citronella, respectively. The increases were correlated with weight loss and lignin loss. All fungi decreased lignin contents: 36% of the original value for lemon grass and 28% for citronella. Practically all fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose over cellulose. PMID:16347155

Rolz, C; de Leon, R; de Arriola, M C; de Cabrera, S

1986-10-01

243

Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi  

PubMed Central

Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berkeleyi; it increased the in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility to 22 and 24% for lemon grass and citronella, respectively. The increases were correlated with weight loss and lignin loss. All fungi decreased lignin contents: 36% of the original value for lemon grass and 28% for citronella. Practically all fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose over cellulose. PMID:16347155

Rolz, C.; de Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; de Cabrera, S.

1986-01-01

244

Comparative mapping in the Poaceae family reveals translocations in the complex polyploid genome of sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of sugarcane genetics has lagged behind that of other members of the Poaceae family such as wheat, rice, barley and sorghum mainly due to the complexity, size and polyploidization of the genome. We have used the genetic map of a sugarcane cultivar to generate a consensus genetic map to increase genome coverage for comparison to the sorghum genome. We have utilized the recently developed sugarcane DArT array to increase the marker density within the genetic map. The sequence of these DArT markers plus SNP and EST-SSR markers was then used to form a bridge to the sorghum genomic sequence by BLAST alignment to start to unravel the complex genomic architecture of sugarcane. Results Comparative mapping revealed that certain sugarcane chromosomes show greater levels of synteny to sorghum than others. On a macrosyntenic level a good collinearity was observed between sugarcane and sorghum for 4 of the 8 homology groups (HGs). These 4 HGs were syntenic to four sorghum chromosomes with from 98% to 100% of these chromosomes covered by these linked markers. Four major chromosome rearrangements were identified between the other four sugarcane HGs and sorghum, two of which were condensations of chromosomes reducing the basic chromosome number of sugarcane from x?=?10 to x?=?8. This macro level of synteny was transferred to other members within the Poaceae family such as maize to uncover the important evolutionary relationships that exist between sugarcane and these species. Conclusions Comparative mapping of sugarcane to the sorghum genome has revealed new information on the genome structure of sugarcane which will help guide identification of important genes for use in sugarcane breeding. Furthermore of the four major chromosome rearrangements identified in this study, three were common to maize providing some evidence that chromosome reduction from a common paleo-ancestor of both maize and sugarcane was driven by the same translocation events seen in both species. PMID:25059596

2014-01-01

245

Volcanic Ash: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research will help students learn more about volcanic ash. The module begins with information on Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, which erupted in 2010 and disrupted air travel in Europe; users may then learn about other similar historic volcanic events. A course description, objectives, and bibliography are also included. This interactive online learning module would be a great addition to earth science or geology coursework; instructors may choose to assign completion of the online module to students independent of classwork, as the module is very easy to follow and provides a great deal of in-depth information on the topic. A print-friendly version, media gallery and technical notes are also available on the website. Users must create a free log-in in order to view or utilize the site.

2011-07-14

246

Mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei with Aspergillus niger on sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma reesei LM-UC4, the parent strain, and its hypercellulolytic mutant LM-UC4E1 were co-cultured with Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 in solid substrate fermentation on alkali-treated sugar cane for cellulolytic enzyme production. Bagasse was supplemented with either soymeal or with ammonium sulfate and urea, and fermented at 80% moisture content and 30°C. Mixed culturing produced better results with the inorganic supplement. The

Marcel Gutierrez-Correa; Leticia Portal; Patricia Moreno; Robert P. Tengerdy

1999-01-01

247

Sweet Sorghum as Feedstock for Ethanol Production: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Steam-Pretreated Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet sorghum is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production. The juice extracted from the fresh stem is composed of sucrose,\\u000a glucose, and fructose and can therefore be readily fermented to alcohol. The solid fraction left behind, the so-called bagasse,\\u000a is a lignocellulosic residue which can also be processed to ethanol. The objective of our work was to test sweet sorghum,

Bálint Sipos; Jutka Réczey; Zsolt Somorai; Zsófia Kádár; Dóra Dienes; Kati Réczey

2009-01-01

248

HEALTHY CROP AND HEALTHY GROUNDWATER - SUGARCANE IN THE BURDEKIN DELTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Burdekin delta good soils, favourable climate and plentiful water combine to produce some of the highest yielding sugarcane in Australia. The freshwater aquifer system, which underlies the delta, is a major contributor to the prosperity of the region and its maintenance has been the responsibility of the Burdekin Water Boards since the mid-1960's. In the face of rising

Philip Charlesworth; Chris Chinn; Keith Bristow; Gary Ham

249

Identification of sources of resistance to sugarcane red rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, adversely affects sugarcane stand establishment in Louisiana by rotting planted stalks. Since cultivar resistance is the most effective control method, a study was conducted to identify sources of resistance to red rot and evaluate variability within Sacc...

250

50 years of sugarcane germplasm enhancement - roadblocks, hurdles, and success  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1959, a sugarcane germplasm enhancement program was initiated in Houma Louisiana, USA. This program was intended to develop parental material with an expanded genetic base for the commercial breeding program. What has come to be known as the “basic breeding program” is a long-term undertaking ...

251

EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZA ON THE NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SUGARCANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi commonly infect plant roots, forming beneficial symbiotic relationships. The primary benefits of VAM plants are the enhanced acquisition and recycling of nutrients, particularly P, as well as soil moisture. This study compared the relationship between soil and leaf chemical elements of sugarcane variety N12 with low and high % mycorrhization (%myc). Seventy-one soil and leaf

S F JAMAL; P CADET; R S RUTHERFORD; C J STRAKER

252

The application of precision agriculture technologies to sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The availability of global positioning systems (GPS) has made it possible to abandon traditional ways of managing sugarcane fields as whole units in favor of approaches that address within-field variability. A series of experiments was initiated to determine if soil electrical conductivity (EC) map...

253

Sugarcane Stemborers and their parasites in southern Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 40,000 stemborer larvae, pupae, and parasite cocoons were collected during 1982-1995 from commercial sugarcane fields and allowed to complete development under laboratory conditions. Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F) comprised 92.4% (36,897/39,945) and 5.2% (2,057/...

254

Screening for Brown Rust Resistance in Sugarcane by Whorl Inoculation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is an agronomically important disease of sugarcane in Florida. Cultivar resistance is the best means of managing the disease. Unfortunately, natural infection is not always efficient in determining resistant cultivars and a more reliable screening method...

255

Impact of sugarcane diseases on yield and control practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane diseases reduce yields and cause the withdrawal of cultivars from production. Three diseases, ratoon stunt, yellow leaf and smut are discussed to demonstrate methods of spread and control practices required. Ratoon stunt, caused by the bacterial pathogen, Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli, is im...

256

Acoustic detection of Melolonthine larvae in Australian sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decision support systems have been developed for risk analysis and control of root-feeding white grub pests in Queensland sugarcane, based partly on manual inspection of cane soil samples. Acoustic technology was considered as a potential alternative to this laborious procedure. Field surveys were...

257

Sugarcane Response to High Water Tables and Intermittent Flooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) production has engendered environmental concerns of nutrient transfer to neighboring ecosystems and subsidence of organic soils on which the crop is often grown. These environmental issues might be ameliorated if water was retained on the fields to minimize nutrient trans...

258

Cover crop options and pros and cons in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivation of sugarcane in Louisiana usually involves planting seed and waiting 18 months before the harvest of the plant-cane crop. Additional stubble crops are harvested each year between Oct. and Jan. until the stubble is broken out to make the way for a new seed crop the following year. Typical...

259

Fly ash structural fill handbook. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States utilities produced approximately 70 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag in 1977. Although these materials have been demonstrated to be economic substitutes for conventional construction materials in a number of applications, only about 21 percent of the total ash production was used. Fly ash, which is the least used, has been demonstrated to be

A. M. Jr. DiGioia; R. J. McLaren; L. R. Taylor

1979-01-01

260

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

261

49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation...MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported...

2010-10-01

262

Volcanic Ash: Observation Tools and Dispersion Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is the fourth and final entry in the Volcanic Ash series. It covers the tools and techniques used for identifying and forecasting the transport of volcanic ash. Satellite and radar imagery are combined with observations and numerical model output to first identify the presence of volcanic ash and then to help forecast the transport of ash at various levels of the atmosphere.

2014-09-14

263

Effect of chitosan and cationic starch on the surface chemistry properties of bagasse paper.  

PubMed

The use of non-wood fibers in the paper industry has been an economical and environmental necessity. The application of dry-strength agents has been a successful method to enhance the strength properties of paper. The experimental results evidencing the potential of chitosan and cationic starch utilization in bagasse paper subjected to hot water pre-extraction has been presented in this paper. The research analyzes the surface properties alterations due to these dry-strength agents. Inverse gas chromatography was used to evaluate the properties of surface chemistry of the papers namely the surface energy, active sites, surface area as well as the acidic/basic character. The results of the study revealed that the handsheets process causes surface arrangement and orientation of chemical groups, which induce a more hydrophobic and basic surface. The acid-base surface characteristics after the addition of dry-strength agents were the same as the bagasse handsheets with and without hot water pre-extraction. The results showed that the dry-strength agent acts as a protecting film or glaze on the surfaces of bagasse paper handsheets. PMID:23624167

Ashori, Alireza; Cordeiro, Nereida; Faria, Marisa; Hamzeh, Yahya

2013-07-01

264

Modifiers of the ash properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to perform an experimental verification of the impact of added substances to limit or prevent sintering of solid fuel ash, which is formed during the thermochemical conversion of fuels. As a modifiers of ash sintering and melting temperature were used halloysite (aluminosilicate) and limestone, which has similar mechanism of action. Both of them act on the principle of a strong chemical adsorption of potassium ions, which largely cause a reduction of ash fusibility. Influence of the modifiers was observed after tests provided at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. Modifiers were dosed in amounts of 2, 5 and 10 wt.%.

Peer, Vaclav; Najser, Jan; Pilat, Peter

2014-08-01

265

Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

E-print Network

stressed and healthy trees Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Ash is widespread #12;2 Where is EAB From1 Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Wednesday, April 20, 2001 12:20 PM 160 Plant Biotech Building Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis

Gray, Matthew

266

46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225...Certain Materials § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This...does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or...

2013-10-01

267

46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225...Certain Materials § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This...does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or...

2012-10-01

268

46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225...Certain Materials § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This...does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or...

2014-10-01

269

46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225...Certain Materials § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This...does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or...

2011-10-01

270

Improving forecasts of volcanic ash concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ash can severely damage airplanes, and eruptions such as the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption may result in major disruption to air travel. Improved forecasting of ash cloud locations and concentrations could benefit the aviation industry and reduce delays, but forecasting is challenging because eruptions and atmospheric transport of volcanic ash are complex processes. The UK Met Office had improved its modeling procedures prior to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, enabling peak ash concentrations to be estimated during that event. Webster et al. describe the Met Office's method of ash concentration forecasting and how it has evolved from simply predicting regions of ash to also estimating peak ash concentrations.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

271

Augmentation and Aldicarb Treatment of Nematodes in Selected Sugarcane Weed Habitats  

PubMed Central

In a single experiment, field-grown Louisiana sugarcane was augmented with phytoparasitic nematodes, treated with aldicarb, or left untreated in both weedy and weed-free habitats to study interactions among nematodes, weeds, sugarcane, and sugarcane free amino acid titers. Aldicarb reduced three of the six phytoparasitic nematode genera at various times during the two growing seasons and was associated with 17% more free proline in the sugarcane. Nematode augmentation resulted in higher field populations of Meloidogyne spp. Free cysteine, histidine, proline, and serine concentrations in sugarcane were lower where nematodes were added. Densities of Tylenchorhynchus annulatus and total phytoparasitic nematodes were lower in weedy habitats compared to weed-free conditions. Sixteen of the 17 sugarcane free amino acids were significantly lower in weed-free areas. It is suggested that further research be conducted on the relationship of plant stresses to free amino acid levels to better understand plant-mediated interactions among crop pests. PMID:19283191

Showler, A. T.; Reagan, T. E.; Flynn, J. L.

1991-01-01

272

Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg/week for 2.5months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-? and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. PMID:25579963

Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Shehata, Iman H; Abd Elhalem, Sahar S

2015-03-01

273

Wastewater remediation using coal ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale domestic septic tanks discharge excess nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen, as well as pathogens, which\\u000a can degrade local water supplies. Unfortunately, traditional chemical and physical treatments are not practicable for single-home\\u000a dwellings. This work reports on a potentially attractive solution to protect local water supplies by using a low-cost industrial\\u000a waste, coal ash, for contaminant removal. Coal ash

D. W. Kirk; C. Q. Jia; J. Yan; A. L. Torrenueva

2003-01-01

274

Engineering Advantages, Challenges and Status of Sugarcane and other Sugar-Based Biomass Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a highly productive tropical stem crop that has been cultivated for its high sugar content for hundreds of years.\\u000a In recent times, sugarcane has been the focus of several programs aiming at the production of fuel ethanol. Compared to starch-based\\u000a sources such as corn, production of ethanol from sugarcane has obvious advantages due to the amount

Ricardo A. Dante; Plinio T. Cristofoletti; Isabel R. Gerhardt

275

Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture  

PubMed Central

The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147?U·mL?1) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher ?-glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups. PMID:24967394

Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J. P.

2014-01-01

276

Rapid preparation of biosorbents with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals.  

PubMed

This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (?3.62?meq/g) and shorter reaction time (1.5-5.0?min) than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb²?, Cd²?, and Cr³? ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40?ppm, adsorbent 2.0?g/L). The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax). As a result of Pb²? sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W) removed Pb²? much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20?min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin) took 90?min for the same removal efficiency. PMID:24578651

Rungrodnimitchai, Supitcha

2014-01-01

277

Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals  

PubMed Central

This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (?3.62?meq/g) and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0?min) than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40?ppm, adsorbent 2.0?g/L). The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax). As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W) removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20?min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin) took 90?min for the same removal efficiency. PMID:24578651

2014-01-01

278

Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. PMID:25477936

de Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

2014-01-01

279

Long duration ash probe  

DOEpatents

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

1994-01-01

280

Fly ash chemical classification based on lime  

SciTech Connect

Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Fox, J. [BASF Construction Chemicals, LLC (United States)

2007-07-01

281

Surface Water Quality as Affected by Sugarcane Residue Management Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the impacts of three sugarcane residue management techniques, namely postharvest burning of residue (BR),\\u000a shredding of residue (SR), and full postharvest retention of residue (RR), on the water quality of surface runoff from February\\u000a 2006 to September 2007 in Iberia, LA. Total runoff volumes recorded were 58,418, 57,923, and 46,578 L for the BR, SR, and\\u000a RR treatments,

Theophilus K. Udeigwe; Jim J. Wang; Howard P. Viator; Lewis Gaston

2010-01-01

282

?-Carotene production in sugarcane molasses by a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Several wild strains and mutants of Rhodotorula spp. were screened for growth, carotenoid production and the proportion of -carotene produced in sugarcane molasses. A better\\u000a producer, Rhodotorula glutinis mutant 32, was optimized for carotenoid production with respect to total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration and pH. In shake\\u000a flasks, when molasses was used as the sole nutrient medium with 40 g

P Bhosale; R V Gadre

2001-01-01

283

Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil.\\u000a The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm3 engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes\\u000a agricultural and

Aldo Roberto Ometto; Michael Zwicky Hauschild; Woodrow Nelson Lopes Roma

2009-01-01

284

Experimental analysis to utilize the solid wastes in brick production.  

PubMed

Utilization of industrial, municipal, agricultural and other waste products in the industry has been the focus of research for economical, environmental, and technical reasons. Two solid wastes, i.e. Sugar-cane bagasse--is a fibrous waste-product of the sugar refining industry and granite processing industry generates a large amount of wastes mainly in the form of powder during sawing and polishing processes, which pollute and damage the environment, have been taken to experimental study. The objective of this study is to utilize the bagasse ash and granite waste for the manufacturing of bricks. Mixtures were prepared with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wastes of total weight of clay. The produced bricks are tested for mechanical properties, such as water absorption and compressive strength, according to Indian Standard Code. The result showed that 20% of bagasse ash and granite waste is optimum percentage to be used in the manufacturing of conventional bricks. PMID:25509952

Varadarajan, Rajagopalan; Govindan, Venkatesan

2013-07-01

285

Expression Analysis of Sugarcane Aquaporin Genes under Water Deficit  

PubMed Central

The present work is a pioneer study specifically addressing the aquaporin transcripts in sugarcane transcriptomes. Representatives of the four aquaporin subfamilies (PIP, TIP, SIP, and NIP), already described for higher plants, were identified. Forty-two distinct aquaporin isoforms were expressed in four HT-SuperSAGE libraries from sugarcane roots of drought-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, respectively. At least 10 different potential aquaporin isoform targets and their respective unitags were considered to be promising for future studies and especially for the development of molecular markers for plant breeding. From those 10 isoforms, four (SoPIP2-4, SoPIP2-6, OsPIP2-4, and SsPIP1-1) showed distinct responses towards drought, with divergent expressions between the bulks from tolerant and sensitive genotypes, when they were compared under normal and stress conditions. Two targets (SsPIP1-1 and SoPIP1-3/PIP1-4) were selected for validation via RT-qPCR and their expression patterns as detected by HT-SuperSAGE were confirmed. The employed validation strategy revealed that different genotypes share the same tolerant or sensitive phenotype, respectively, but may use different routes for stress acclimation, indicating the aquaporin transcription in sugarcane to be potentially genotype-specific. PMID:24490055

da Silva, Manassés Daniel; Silva, Roberta Lane de Oliveira; Costa Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar; Guimarães, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Veiga, Daniela Truffi; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Burnquist, William Lee; Kahl, Günter; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

2013-01-01

286

Imaging spectroscopy for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopy can provide real-time high throughput information on growing crops. The spectroscopic data can be obtained from space-borne, air-borne and handheld sensors. Such data have been used for assessing the nutritional status of some field crops (maize, rice, barely, potato etc.). In this study a handheld FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer in the 350 - 2500 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum was evaluated for its use to estimate sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentrations. Sugarcane leaf samples from one variety viz., N19 of two age groups (4-5 and 6-7 months) were subjected to spectral and chemical measurements. Leaf reflectance data were collected under controlled conditions and leaf nitrogen concentration was obtained using an automated combustion technique (Leco TruSpec N). The potential of spectroscopic data for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen status was evaluated using univariate correlation and regression analyses methods with the first-order reflectance across the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm. The variables that presented high correlation with nitrogen concentration were used to develop simple indices combining reflectances of 2-wavelengths. Simple linear regression was then used to select a model that yielded the highest R2. These were the R744 / R2142 index for the 4-5 months old cane crop and the (R2200 - R2025) / (R2200 + R2025) index for the 6-7 months old cane crop, with R2 of 0.74 and 0.87, respectively.

Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Ahmed, Fethi B.; van den Berg, Maurits

2008-10-01

287

Mutagenicity of the ash of rice straws by Ames' test.  

PubMed

Mutagenicity of fly ashes and bottom ashes of rice straw and rice husk was assayed by Ames' test. With respect to rice-straw ash, the extract from the fly ash was found to be more mutagenic than that from the bottom ash. In the case of rice husk, the mutagenicity of extract from the bottom ash was stronger than that from the fly ash. The extract from rice-husk bottom ash showed the strongest mutagenic activity among the four. PMID:3046058

Shibuya, N; Ohta, T; Sakai, H; Endoh, K; Yamamoto, M

1988-05-01

288

Mineral resource of the month: soda ash  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soda ash, also known as sodium carbonate, is an alkali chemical that can be refined from the mineral trona and from sodium carbonate-bearing brines. Several chemical processes exist for manufacturing synthetic soda ash.

Kostic, Dennis S.

2006-01-01

289

Impact of pathogen genetics on breeding for resistance to sugarcane diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases are limiting factors of sugarcane production and breeding for resistance to diseases is a major goal in sugarcane variety improvement. Diseases result from complex interactions between plants, pathogens and environment, including humans and insect vectors of pathogens. History has shown tha...

290

Genetic variability among the brown rust resistant and susceptible genotypes of sugarcane by RAPD technique  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brown leaf rust in sugarcane is caused by Puccinia melanocephala (Syd. & P. Syd.), which is major cause of cultivar withdrawal. We attempted to analyze the RAPD diversity of two discrete phenotypic classes i.e. rust resistant (R) and rust susceptible (S) of six commercially available sugarcane elite...

291

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spiritsB  

E-print Network

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar. Keywords: Coffee; Sugar-cane spirit; Chemometrics; Pattern recognition 1. Introduction Globalization has

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

292

Postharvest accumulation of resveratrol and piceatannol in sugarcane with enhanced antioxidant activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new plant source, sugarcane, was used to produce the stilbenes piceatannol and resveratrol. Both stilbenes were identified in sugarcane billet stalks (12 mm) after incubation at room temperature for 3 days. Low concentrations of piceatannol (30.6 ug/g) and resveratrol (12.3 ug/g) were detected a...

293

Sugarcane Response to Nitrogen Fertilization on a Histosol with shallow Water Table and Periodic Flooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables on Histosols in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida. Through microbial oxidation, these soils provide excess N for sugarcane, but it is not known if supplemental N would improve yields when micr...

294

MOLECULAR ASSESSMENT OF THE FIDELITY OF SUGARCANE CROSSES WITH HIGH-THROUGHPUT MICROSATELLITE GENOTYPING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the recent advent of high-throughput microsatellite genotyping in sugarcane, breeders now have an effective means to assess the fidelity of sugarcane crosses. Cross fidelity was defined as the proportion of progeny within each cross that inherited microsatellite DNA fingerprints from both pare...

295

Silicon Fertilizer Effects on Electrolyte Leakage from Sugarcane Leaf Cells after Exposure to Freezing Temperatures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in subtropical regions often sustains damage from freezing temperatures. Some sugarcane growers have reported that commercial fields fertilized with silicon had less freeze damage than non-silicon fertilized fields. The purpose of this study was to determine if fertilizer silicon red...

296

Sugarcane response to mill mud, fertilizer, and soybean nutrient sources on a sandy soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving soil organic matter and soil fertility are important factors in the sustainability of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) production. A 3-year field trial was established in 2004 on a sandy soil in Florida to compare the effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on sugarcane production. Th...

297

Mycolytic effect of extracellular enzymes of antagonistic microbes to Colletotrichum falcatum , red rot pathogen of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of selected bacteria and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere and endosphere regions were tested for the production of chitinolytic enzymes and their involvement in the suppression of Colletotrichum falcatum, red rot pathogen of sugarcane. Among several strains tested for chitinolytic activity, 12 strains showed a clearing zone on chitin-amended agar medium. Among these, bacterial strains AFG2, AFG 4,

R. Viswanathan; A. Ramesh Sundar; S. Merina Premkumari

2003-01-01

298

A structured approach to target starch solubilization and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial a-amylases have been used for many years ...

299

Control of rhizome johnsongrass (sorghum halepense) in sugarcane with trifloxysulfuron and asulam  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johnsongrass, in its perennial form, is a difficult weed problem for sugarcane growers in Louisiana. Studies were conducted to determine the benefit, if any, of the addition of trifloxysulfuron to postemergence (POST) applications of asulam for the selective control of johnsongrass in sugarcane. A...

300

The Role of Sugarcane Breeding and Selection in the Development of Bioenergy Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for renewable transportation fuel as well as food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is geared to developing high biomass (sugar and ce...

301

Abstract: Seasonal Fiber Responses of Three Sugarcane Cultivars to Soil Type and Crop Cycle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: Fiber content is an important trait of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars. Sufficient fiber is needed to generate electricity for the sugarcane mill and refinery, but excessive fiber reduces sugar recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample coll...

302

Seasonal Fiber Content of Three Sugarcane Cultivars in Three Crop Cycles on Sand and Muck Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate seasonal estimates of fiber are needed to maximize profits whether producing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for sucrose or ethanol. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample date and crop cycle on fiber content of three sugarcane cultivars growing on sand and organic...

303

COMPARISON OF NUTRIENT SOURCES OF MINERAL SOIL NUTRITION IN FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving soil organic matter and soil fertility are important factors in the sustainability of sugarcane production on mineral soils. A trial was established in 2004 on a sandy Spodosol in Florida to compare the effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on soil fertility and sugarcane produ...

304

Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

305

The presence and implication of soluble, swollen, and insoluble starch at the sugarcane factory and refinery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch impurity concentrations in sugarcane are country dependent and in recent years there has been a general world-wide increase. This has occurred mostly because of one or a combination of the following: (i) increased mechanical processing of unburnt (green) sugarcane; (ii) varying environmental...

306

Sugarcane Nutrient Content, Growth and Yield Responses to a Three-Month Summer Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to soil subsidence, pumping restrictions, or tropical storms. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables and periodic flooding, there is a lack of information on...

307

Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du

2008-01-01

308

COMPARISON OF LEACHABLE TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS IN COAL GASIFIER ASH WITH LEVELS IN POWER PLANT ASH  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparison of the levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal. The 1-year study was conducted at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia, comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-f...

309

Task 37 - Ash Deposition Course  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this Energy & Environmental Research Center project are to develop a short course for transferring technical information from the research community to the industrial community, to seek out the research needs of industry, and to continually upgrade course materials. The Coal Ash Behavior and Deposition short course developed in the project provides an overview of recent research that is increasing the understanding of mineral behavior in coal utilization. This research leads to the advancement of methods to predict ash behavior, which can economically resolve fouling problems for the utility industry.

David W. Brekke

1998-12-31

310

Transcriptomic Signatures of Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Phloem  

PubMed Central

Background Ash (Fraxinus spp.) is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA). The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra), green (F. pennsylvannica) and white (F. americana) are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica) is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3) revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. Conclusions and Significance The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development. PMID:21283712

Mamidala, Praveen; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2011-01-01

311

Coal Fly-Ash Utilisation in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant economic and environmental problems coming from the disposal of coal ash have led to the implementation of various alternative uses, in which combustion residues are considered as value-added products. In Greece, a large quantity of fly-ash is the inevitable by-product of Greek brown coal burning, due to its high ash content. In this paper, the main characteristics of fly-ash

G. Skodras; M. Anagnostakis; E. Hinis; E. Kakaras

312

Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction  

SciTech Connect

Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

Naquin, D.

1998-02-01

313

[Cloning and sequencing of ACC oxidase gene from sugarcane].  

PubMed

The plant hormone ethylene is not only responsible for the initiation of fruit ripening, senescence and dormancy but also for regulating many other plant developmental processes, such as seed germination, root initiation, growth, floral differentiation, sex differentiation and responding to environment stresses. One of the rate-limiting steps for ethylene biosynthesizing in plant is catalyzed by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase. Understanding of ethylene expressive pattern in plant is an entrance to understand the roles of ethylene on plant. In this paper, two degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed, coding for two conservative amino acid regions in ACC oxidase protein family, the sequences of the two primers were TAGAGCTCGATGC[TA]TG [CT]GA[GA]AA[AC]TGGGG and CGTCTAGAGCTTC[GA]AATCTTGGCTCCTT respectively. A PCR amplification was performed on sugarcane (Saccharum L. Hybrid cv. ROC16) DNA template, and produced a fragment of 940 bp. By using the program of BLAST on NCBI GenBank database, the sequence presented a very high match with the ACC oxidase genes from other plants, 63 searched out sequences were all ACC oxidase genes. After alignment on PCgene program, the identities of the cloned fragment with ACC oxidase genes from rice and bamboo were both reaching about 88%. So we can concluded that the cloned sequence was a member of ACC oxidase genes fragment from sugarcane. The sequence has been submitted to the GenBank database, the accession number is AF442821. According to the ACC oxidase protein family, a 'intron' of 103 bp was excluded and the sequence coded 279 amino acids, which spanned 88% of the putative whole sequence in length. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from this fragment and the ACC oxidase sequences of other plants retrieved from GenBank were carried out by using PCgene program. The putative amino acid sequence shared a homology of 86% with the ACC oxidases of bamboo and rice, 74.6% with banana, 70% with tomato and potato and 68% with melon and carnation, which showed that the homology of sugarcane ACC oxidase with monocot was higher than with dicot. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that ACC oxidase from sugarcane and ACC oxidases from rice clustered together firstly, and then came those from banana, ACC oxidases of dicot from potato, tomato, petunia, melon, Arabidopsis thaliana and carnation came subsequently. It indicated that sugarcane ACC oxidase had a closer phylogenetic affinities to the monocot ACC oxidase sequences than to the dicot ACC oxidases sequences. The clustering results of ACC oxidase molecules accorded with morphological classification system. PMID:12812078

Wang, Zi-Zhang; Li, Yang-Rui; Zhang, Shu-Zhen; Lin, Jun-Fang; Guo, Li-Qiong

2003-01-01

314

A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.  

PubMed

In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial ?-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with ?-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial ?-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of ?-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail. PMID:25053042

Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

2015-01-01

315

Dynamic properties of ash-flow tuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ash-flow tuff (ignimbrite) is a general term indicating consolidated deposits of volcanic ash flow; a flow of a mixture of gas and pyroclastic materials as products of explosive volcano eruptions (Smith, 1960). Two different ash-flow tuffs are studied in this research: (1) Topopah Spring Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and (2) the Bandelier Tuff at Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. Various

Won Kyoung Choi

2007-01-01

316

Can America's ash trees be saved?  

E-print Network

On the Cover: The larvae of this pretty green beetle have destroyed millions of ash trees in the MidwestBeating the Beetle Can America's ash trees be saved? ResearchMICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY community of researchers. Their expertise ranges from invasive exotic species, such as the emerald ash borer

317

A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4 2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20 30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Deng-Fong Lin; Kae-Long Lin; Huan-Lin Luo [I-Shou University (Taiwan). Department of Civil and Ecological Engineering

2007-01-15

318

A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil.  

PubMed

In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4-2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20-30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. PMID:17269231

Lin, Deng-Fong; Lin, Kae-Long; Luo, Huan-Lin

2007-01-01

319

Hydrogen production via supercritical water gasification of bagasse using Ni-Cu/?-Al2O3 nano-catalysts.  

PubMed

Biomass gasification in supercritical water media is a promising method for the production of hydrogen. In this research, Cu-promoted Ni/?-Al2O3 nano-catalysts were prepared with 2.5- 30?wt% Ni and 0.6- 7.5?wt% Cu loadings via the microemulsion method. Nano-catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) technique, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), H2 chemisorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) technique, as well as Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen-Sulfur (CHNS) analysis was carried out for elemental analysis of bagasse. Nano-catalysts were assessed in a batch micro-reactor under 400°C and 240?bar. The microemulsion method decreased the catalyst average particle size and increased the percentage dispersion and reduction of the catalysts. The total gas yield increased with an increase in Ni and Cu loadings up to 20?wt% Ni and 5?wt% Cu and then started to decrease. Using the microemulsion technique for the preparation of Ni-Cu/?-Al2O3 nano-catalyst, increased the hydrogen yield to 11.76 (mmol of H2/g of bagasse), CO yield to 2.67 (mmol of CO/g of bagasse) and light gaseous hydrocarbons to 0.6 (mmol of light gaseous hydrocarbons/g of bagasse). Promotion of Ni/?-Al2O3 with copper increased the mole fraction of hydrogen in the final gasification products to 58.1?mol%. PMID:25387488

Mehrani, Reza; Barati, Mohammad; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Karimi, Ali

2014-12-01

320

Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

321

Effects of extractives on some properties of bagasse/high density polypropylene composite.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of two variable parameters, namely the extractives and filler loading level, on the physical properties of composites were examined. Composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE), bagasse flour (BF) as filler were made by injection molding. In order to increase the interphase adhesion, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) was added as a coupling agent to all the composites studied. Three different solvents, ethanol-benzene, 1% NaOH and hot-water, were used to remove extractives. Physical properties, namely, water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) were investigated for a long period. At same filler loading, composites made with extracted bagasse had higher WA and TS values. In addition, the TS of samples showed a similar pattern to the water uptake data. The difference in WA between extracted and unextracted composites is due to blocking of -OH groups by extractives. The results also showed that as the BF content was increased, significant increase in WA and TS occurred. Statistical analysis confirmed that the effects of both variables and their interactions on the WA and TS properties were significant at 1% confidence level. PMID:23544557

Sheshmani, Shabnam

2013-04-15

322

Grape bagasse as an alternative natural adsorbent of cadmium and lead for effluent treatment.  

PubMed

This work investigated the utilization of grape bagasse as an alternative natural adsorbent to remove Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from laboratory effluent. X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analyses, surface analysis, porosity and porous size were used for characterization of the material. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the material. Parameters such as adsorption pH and contact time were optimized for the maximum accumulation onto the solid surface. The pH values found were 7 and 3 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, and contact time was 5 min for both metals. Adsorption capacity for metals were calculated from adsorption isotherms by applying the Langmüir model and found to be 0.774 and 0.428 mmol g(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The competition between metals for the same adsorption sites on grape bagasse was also evaluated, showing an increasing affinity for Pb(II) over Cd(II) when only these metals are present. The potential of this material was demonstrated by efficient metal removal from laboratory effluent using a glass column. The results indicate that the referred material could be employed as adsorbent for effluent treatment, especially due to its easy acquisition and low cost as well as the fast adsorption involved. PMID:18079055

Farinella, N V; Matos, G D; Lehmann, E L; Arruda, M A Z

2008-06-15

323

Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A. [University of Porto, Oporto (Portugal). Center of Geology

2009-11-15

324

ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

NONE

2006-07-01

325

Evaluation of lectin-expressing transgenic sugarcane against stalkborers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effects on life history parameters.  

PubMed

The impact of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) expressed in transgenic sugarcane on life history parameters of Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar)] and sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.)] (both Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was evaluated. In the laboratory, lyophilized sugarcane leaf sheath tissue was incorporated in a meridic diet resulting in a GNA concentration of 0.47% of total protein, and used for insect bioassays over two successive generations. Deleterious effects of GNA were not observed on survival, weight, and developmental periods of larvae and pupae, nor on adult fecundity and egg viability of D. saccharalis. Moreover, in the first generation, addition of transgenic sugarcane tissue to the diet enhanced larval growth in D. saccharalis resulting in higher larval and pupal weight compared with diet with nontransgenic sugarcane, but this effect was not observed in the second generation. In contrast, larval survival, percent adult emergence, and female fecundity of E. loftini were significantly reduced when fed transgenic sugarcane diet compared with nontransgenic sugarcane diet. In addition, a substantial reduction of female pupal weight of E. loftini was observed in the second generation. For both species, the only consistent effect of GNA in both generations was a reduction in adult female longevity. Life table parameters showed that GNA at the level found in the transgenic diet negatively affected development and reproduction of E. loftini, whereas it had a nil to positive effect on development and reproduction of D. saccharalis. PMID:12020029

Sétamou, M; Bernal, J S; Legaspi, J C; Mirkov, T E; Legaspi, B C

2002-04-01

326

Abiotic Limits for Germination of Sugarcane Seed in Relation to Environmental Spread.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is a vegetatively propagated crop and hence the production of seed and its fate in the environment has not been studied. The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires a research effort to understand sugarcane reproductive biology. This study contributes to this understanding by defining the abiotic limits for sugarcane seed germination. Using seed from multiple genetic crosses, germination was measured under different light regimes (light and dark), temperatures (from 18 °C to 42 °C) and water potentials (from 0 MPa to -1 MPa); cardinal temperatures and base water potential of germination were estimated based on the rates of germination. We found that sugarcane seed could germinate over a broad range of temperatures (from 11 °C to 42 °C) with optima ranging from 27 °C to 36 °C depending on source of seed. Water potentials below -0.5 MPa halved the proportion of seed that germinated. By comparing these limits to the environmental conditions in areas where sugarcane grows and has the potential to produce seed, water, but not temperature, will be the main limiting factor for germination. This new information can be taken into account when evaluating any risk of weediness during the assessment of GM sugarcane. PMID:25485029

Pierre, J S; Rae, A L; Bonnett, G D

2014-01-01

327

Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.  

PubMed

Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3?years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217?mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns. PMID:21895946

Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2012-02-01

328

A Global View of Transcriptome Dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum Challenge in Sugarcane by RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and “ROC”22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In total, transcriptome sequencing of eight samples revealed gene annotations of 65,852 unigenes. Correlation analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after S. scitamineum infection, most differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways in both sugarcane genotypes were common, covering most biological activities. However, expression of resistance-associated genes in Yacheng05-179 (24–48 h) occurred earlier than those in “ROC”22 (48–120 h), and more transcript expressions were observed in the former, suggesting resistance specificity and early timing of these genes in non-affinity sugarcane and S. scitamineum interactions. Obtained unigenes were related to cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. From these data, functional annotations associated with resistance were obtained, including signal transduction mechanisms, energy production and conversion, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and defense mechanisms. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes are involved in plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, cell wall fortification pathway and other resistance-associated metabolic pathways. Disease inoculation experiments and the validation of in vitro antibacterial activity of the chitinase gene ScChi show that this sugarcane chitinase gene identified through RNA-Seq analysis is relevant to plant-pathogen interactions. In conclusion, expression data here represent the most comprehensive dataset available for sugarcane smut induced by S. scitamineum and will serve as a resource for finally unraveling the molecular mechanisms of sugarcane responses to S. scitamineum. PMID:25171065

Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

329

14 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 SILVICS AND SILVICULTURE OF ASH IN MIXED HARDWOOD  

E-print Network

@fs.fed.us. This presentation describes the silvics of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), pumpkin ash (F. profunda), Carolina ash (F. caroliniana), and white ash (F. americana). Green ash is the primary ash species in southern are discussed as well. Silvicultural guidelines are presented for green ash and white ash in natural, mixed

330

Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

1990-06-01

331

Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium

Prinya Chindaprasirt; Ubolluk Rattanasak

2010-01-01

332

Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

2015-01-01

333

Heavy metals leaching in Indian fly ash.  

PubMed

Fly ash is an industrial waste generated from thermal power plants. Fly ash constitutes 80-85% of the total ash produced. A small part of fly ash is utilised in some sectors such as construction materials, building engineering, road, back fill, agriculture, selective engineering and processing useful materials. A large part of fly ash produced is disposed of with very high environmental risk. In the present paper, laboratory leaching test has been used to determine the potential mobility of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Ni in fly ash samples, collected from Chandrapura Thermal Power Plant, Jharkhand and Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Plant, Andhra Pradesh, in order to assess their leachability when these wastes are disposed of. A cascade-leaching test was used at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) ranging between 20 and 100. Both fly ash samples exhibited neutral reactions, as indicated by pH values <11.75 and >7.0 at L/S=10 and contact time of 10 minutes. The percentage of leached amounts found to follow the trend Zn>Fe>Mn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd for fly ash from Chandrapura and Fe>Zn>Cu>Mn>Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd for fly ash from Ramagundam. Effect of pH on metals released from ash surface in aqueous solution followed a predictable pattern of decreasing release with increasing pH. PMID:19295096

Prasad, Bably; Mondal, Kajal Kumar

2008-04-01

334

Volcanic Ash on Slopes of Karymsky  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A volcanic eruption can produce gases, lava, bombs of rock, volcanic ash, or any combination of these elements. Of the volcanic products that linger on the land, most of us think of hardened lava flows, but volcanic ash can also persist on the landscape. One example of that persistence appeared on Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula in spring 2007. On March 25, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around the Karymsky Volcano. In this image, volcanic ash from earlier eruptions has settled onto the snowy landscape, leaving dark gray swaths. The ash stains are confined to the south of the volcano's summit, one large stain fanning out toward the southwest, and another toward the east. At first glance, the ash stain toward the east appears to form a semicircle north of the volcano and sweep back east. Only part of this dark shape, however, is actually volcanic ash. Near the coast, the darker color may result from thicker vegetation. Similar darker coloring appears to the south. Volcanic ash is not really ash at all, but tiny, jagged bits of rock and glass. These jagged particles pose serious health risks to humans and animals who might inhale them. Likewise, the ash poses hazards to animals eating plants that have been coated with ash. Because wind can carry volcanic ash thousands of kilometers, it poses a more far-reaching hazard than other volcanic ejecta. Substantial amounts of ash can even affect climate by blocking sunlight. Karymsky is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. It is one of many active volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, which is part of the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Rim. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

2007-01-01

335

Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.  

PubMed

Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and ?uid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650?kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700?kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant. PMID:25220259

Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

2015-03-01

336

Can vegetative ash be water repellent?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of the literature, ash is referred to as a highly wettable material (e.g. Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Etiegni and Campbell, 1991; Woods and Balfour 2010). However, the contrary was suggested in few articles, albeit with no further quantification (Gabet and Sternberg, 2008; Khanna et al., 1996; Stark, 1977). To clarify this question, water repellency measurements on ash using the Water Drop Penetration Times (WDPT) method were performed on ash from Mediterranean ecosystems and it was found to be water repellent (Bodí et al. 2011). Water repellency on ash from different wildfires ranged from 40 to 10 % occurrence with samples being extreme repellent (lasting more than 3600 s to penetrate). Part of the ash produced in the laboratory was also water repellent. After that, other ash samples had been found water repellent in wildfires in Colorado (unpublished results), Portugal (Gonzalez-Pelayo, 2009), or in prescribed fires in Australia (Bodí et al. 2011b; Petter Nyman, personnal communication). All the samples exhibiting water repellent properties had in common that were combusted at low temperatures, yielding in general ash with dark colour and contents of organic carbon of more than 18 % (Bodí et al. 2011a), although these properties were not exactly proportional to its water repellency occurrence or persistence. In addition, the species studied in Bodí et al. (2011) had been found to produce different levels of WR repellency, being ash from Pinus halepensis more repellent than that from Quercus coccifera and Rosmarins officinalis. Ash from Eucaliptus radiata had been found also very water repellent, as Pinus halepensis (unpublished data). The reasons of the existance of water repellent ash are that the charred residue produced by fire (an also contained in the ash) can contain aromatic compounds that have a lower free energy than water and therefore behave as hydrophobic materials with reduced solubility (Almendros et al., 1992 and Knicker, 2007). Specifically, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy in the WR ash reported in Bodí et al (2011) have been done, resulting that the more persistent water repellency coincided with higher levels of aliphatic, aromatic and carboxylic groups (Pavel Dlapa et al., under revision). The existence of water repellent ash indicate that i) after low severity fires, ash can be responsible in some occasions of the soil water repellency and ii) ash water repellency can be one of the ash properties that controls the variable hydrological response of ash covering the soil. Acknowledgments to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for the HYDFIRE project CGL2010-21670-C02-01.

Bodí, M. B.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Doerr, S. H.

2012-04-01

337

Market opportunities for fly ash fillers in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct Acid Leaching (DAL) processed fly ash is derived from treating raw and beneficiated coal fly ash with hydrochloric acid. The DAL process allows for the production of fly ash with greater chemical purity and consistency than raw fly ash alone. In addition, DAL fly ash is similar to various minerals used in a wide range of applications that require

C. Eckert; T. Harris; J. Gledhill

1990-01-01

338

Biobutanol from sweet sorghum bagasse hydrolysate by a hybrid pervaporation process.  

PubMed

In this study, the pervaporation membrane was used not only for the detoxification of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) hydrolysate, but also for butanol separation from its fermentation broth. As a result of detoxification, about 94.5% furfural was reduced by the pervaporation method, and 138.25 g/L furfural was obtained in the permeate side. 87.5% phenolic compounds were degradated by further laccase detoxification. As for fermentation part, 12.3±0.1 g/L butanol, 6.1±0.05 g/L acetone and 2.5±0.07 g/L ethanol were obtained. And after 2h of pervaporation separation, 201.9 g/L butanol, 76.2g/L acetone and traces of ethanol were obtained in the permeate. The hybrid pervaporation process shows promising for the industrial production of biofuel butanol and biochemical furfural. PMID:23562566

Cai, Di; Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Jia; Chang, Zhen; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Pei-yong; Tan, Tian-wei

2013-10-01

339

Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water supply managers include: monitoring turbidity levels in raw water intakes, and if necessary increasing chlorination to compensate for higher turbidity; managing water demand; and communicating monitoring results with the public to allay fears of contamination. Ash can cause major damage to wastewater disposal systems. Ash deposited onto impervious surfaces such as roads and car parks is very easily washed into storm drains, where it can form intractable masses and lead to long-term flooding problems. It can also enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), both through sewer lines and by direct fallout. Damage to modern WWTPs can run into millions of dollars. Ash falls reduce visibility creating hazards for ground transportation. Dry ash is also readily remobilised by vehicle traffic and wind, and dry and wet ash deposits will reduce traction on paved surfaces, including airport runways. Ash cleanup from road and airports is commonly necessary, but the large volumes make it logistically challenging. Vehicles are vulnerable to ash; it will clog filters and brake systems and abrade moving parts within engines. Lastly, modern telecommunications networks appear to be relatively resilient to volcanic ash fall. Signal attenuation and interference during ash falls has not been reported in eruptions over the past 20 years, with the exception of interference from ash plume-generated lightning. However, some telecommunications equipment is vulnerable to airborne ash, in particular heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which may become blocked from ash ingestion leading to overheating. This summary of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure provides insight into the relative vulnerability of infrastructure under a range of different ashfall scenarios. Identifying and quantifying these impacts is an essential step in building resilience within these critical systems. We have attempted to consider interdependencies between sectors in a holistic way using systems thinking. As modern society becomes increasingly complex and interdependent this approach

Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

2012-01-01

340

Effects of fly ash particle size on strength of Portland cement fly ash mortars  

SciTech Connect

Fly ashes do not have the same properties for different size fractions. It can be accepted that the effect of a fly ash on mortar strength is a combined effect of its size fractions. Therefore, it was concluded that by separating the size fractions and replacing cement with them, the combined bulk effect of a fly ash on strength can be better analyzed. In this study, different size fractions of fly ash were used to replace cement partially in standard compressive strength mortars. The authors attempted to interpret the strength of Portland cement-fly ash mortars in terms of the chemical, mineralogical, morphological, and physical properties of different fly ash size fractions used. Strengths of the mortars were compared at 2, 7, 28, and 90 days. Also strength of mortars with all-in ash (original ash containing all the fractions) were estimated by using strength of mortars with size fractions and the suitability of this estimation was discussed.

Erdogdu, K.; Tuerker, P. [Turkish Cement Manufacturers` Association, Ankara (Turkey). Research and Development Inst.] [Turkish Cement Manufacturers` Association, Ankara (Turkey). Research and Development Inst.

1998-09-01

341

Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease  

PubMed Central

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

342

Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

2014-07-01

343

COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM  

SciTech Connect

The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced ?cars?) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993?1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High-Calcium Coal Combustion By-Products, 5) Development of an Environmentally Appropriate Leaching Procedure for Coal Combustion By-Products, 6) Set Time of Fly Ash Concrete, 7) Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD), 8) Development of a Method for Determination of Radon Hazard in CCBs, 9) Development of Standards and Specifications, 10) Assessment of Fly Ash Variability, and 11) Development of a CCB Utilization Workshop. The primary goal of CARRC is to work with industry to solve CCB-related problems and promote the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economical utilization and disposal of these highly complex materials. CARRC 1993?1998 accomplishments included: C Updating the CAPD to a user-friendly database management system, and distributing it to CARRC members. C ASTM standard preparation for a guide to using CCBs as waste stabilization agents. C Preliminary identification of specific mineral transformations resulting from fly ash hydration. C Limited determination of the effects of fly ash on the set time of concrete. C Statistical evaluation of a select set of fly ashes from several regional coal-fired power plants. C Development and presentation of a workshop on CCB utilization focused on government agency representatives and interested parties with limited CCB utilization experience. C Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

NONE

1998-12-01

344

Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.  

PubMed

In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management. PMID:25625035

Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

2015-01-01

345

Isotopic paleoclimate from hydrated volcanic ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deuterium composition (deltaD) of secondary water in glass shards of volcanic ash can be used to calculate the deltaD--and hence the climatic association--of water that was in contact with the ash during the first 10,000 years after eruption of the ash; this being the approximate (+\\/-5000 years) time necessary for water to diffuse completely through the thin walls of

I. Friedman; G. A. Izett; J. D. Gleason

1985-01-01

346

Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.  

PubMed

Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable. PMID:22285871

Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

2012-06-01

347

SEVERITY AND CAUSES OF ASH DIEBACK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ash dieback is a disease that causes progressive death of branches and tree mortality in white ash and to a lesser extent in green ash (Fraxinus americana L, F. penn- sylvanica March.). It affects all-aged trees in woodland, hedgerow, streetside, and home sites. Above-average tree mortality occurred in several northeastern states in the late 1950's and early 1960's. Recent surveys

Craig R. Hibben; Savel B. Silverborg

348

Differential Response in Foliar Chemistry of Three Ash Species to Emerald Ash Borer Adult Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses\\u000a of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to

Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

2011-01-01

349

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses using newly isolated yeast from toddy sap.  

PubMed

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

Kishore Babu, Neerupudi; Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-03-01

350

Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap  

PubMed Central

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-01-01

351

An innovative vibration fluidized bed ash cooler  

SciTech Connect

With the ever-increasing versatility, scaling up and commercialization of coal-fired fluidized bed boiler technologies, it has become more and more important to improve the technique of draining bed ash from bubbling or circulating fluidized bed boilers. Choosing an ash cooler is a good way but highly stable and reliable system is hard to find for a massive ash flow rate having a broad particle size distributions. An innovative technique known as Vibration Fluidized Bed Ash Cooler (VFBAC) is proposed in this paper. It can drain bottom ash at a high temperature from FB or CFB boilers continuously and controllably. In this device, air used for cooling can be used as combustion-aided air or coal spreading air. The hot ash is cooled by the air to a temperature which it can be transported easily and safely by conventional technology. Meanwhile, an industrial apparatus utilizing the new technology was manufactured and used in a 35 t/h bubbling FB boiler. For the purpose of detecting residence time distribution of wide-sieved bed materials in this ash cooler systematically, advantage was taken of a new approach for physical quality discrimination. Investigations into the hydrodynamic characteristics of the gas-solid two-phase flows and theoretical analyses on hot operational performance were carried out. The results show that heat recovery efficiency of the ash cooler reaches 85% greater when operating at a ratio of air to ash of 1.5{approximately}2.5 Nm{sup 3}/kg.

Duan, Y.; Zhang, M.; Liu, A.; Yao, Z.; Tang, H.; Liu, Q.

1999-07-01

352

Hazards Associated With Recent Popocatepetl Ash Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Popocatepetl has been producing ash from small eruptions since 1994. Until 2012 about 650 small ash emissions have been recorded at the monitoring system of Popocatépetl Volcano. Ash consists mainly of glassy lithic clasts from the recent crater domes, plagioclase and pyroxene crystals, and in major eruptions, olivine and/or hornblende. Dome forming eruptions produced a fine white ash which covers the coarser ash. This fine ash consists of plagioclase, glass and cristobalite particles mostly under15 microns. During the recent crisis at Popocatépetl, April and May2012 ash fell on villages to the east and west of the volcano, reaching Mexico City (more than 20 million people) and Puebla (2 million people). In 14 cases the plumes had heights over 2 km, the largest on May 2 and 11 (3 and 4 km in height, respectively). Heavier ash fall occurred on April 13, 14, 20, and 23 and May 2, 3, 5, 11, 14, 23, 24 and 25. A database for ash fall was constructed from April 13 with field observations, reports emitted by the Centro Nacional de Comunicaciones (CENACOM), ash fall advisories received at CENAPRED and alerts from the Servicios a la Navegación en el Espacio Aéreo Mexicano (SENEAM). This aim of this database is to calculate areas affected by the ash and estimate the ash fall volume emitted by Popocatépetl in each of these events. Heavy ash fall from the May 8 to May 11 combined with reduced visibility due to fog forced to closure of the Puebla airport during various periods of time, for up to 13 hours. Domestic and international flights were cancelled. Ash eruptions have caused respiratory conditions in the state of Puebla, to the east of the volcano, since 1994 (Rojas et al, 2001), but because of the changing wind conditions in the summer mainly, some of these ash plumes go westward to towns in the State of Mexico and even Mexico City. Preliminary analyses of these eruptions indicate that some ash emissions produced increased respiratory noninfectious problems reported in local clinics, mainly in the state of Mexico.

Nieto, A.; Martin, A.; Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Ferres, D.

2013-05-01

353

Spectrographic analysis of coal and coal ash  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal can be analyzed on the spectrograph for per cent ash and composition of ash in a matter of a few minutes, using the total energy method. The composition of the ash so determined can be used to calculate ash softening temperatures. This analysis can be made in sufficiently short a time to control tipple and washing operations for preparation of coal to meet specifications. This spectrographic method can be readily adapted to the analysis of rocks, minerals, and inorganic chemicals of all kinds.

Hunter, R.G.; Headlee, A.J.W.

1950-01-01

354

ASH YELLOWS OCCURRENCE AND ASSOCIATION WITH SLOW GROWTH OF GREEN ASH IN IOWA AND WISCONSIN CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash in nine cities in Iowa and Wisconsin were surveyed in August and September 1994 for occurrence and impact of ash yellows (AshY) phytoplasma infection. In each city, the survey included 12 arbitrarily selected trees in each of three crown condition categories: less than 10% crown dieback, 11 to 30% crown dieback, and more than 30% crown dieback. Up

Mark L. Gleason; Sharon K. Parker; Tiffany E. Engle; Paula H. Flynn; Helen M. Griffiths; Mark A. Vitosh

1997-01-01

355

Genetic Transformation and Regeneration of Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

E-print Network

Genetic Transformation and Regeneration of Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for Resistance Lafayette, IN 47907 Abstract Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) is one of the most widely planted trees, but this is a very long process. So, the development of transgenic green ash exhibiting resistance to attack

356

Differential effects of weathered coal fly ash and fly ash leachate on the maize genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land application of coal fly ash is currently under consideration as a means of reducing the amount of industrial waste that must be landfilled. It has previously been reported that alterations occur in the maize genome when plants are grown in soil mixed with fly ash. This study was conducted to determine whether weathering coal fly ash by leaching it

L. M. McMurphy; D. P. Biradar; C. Taets; A. L. Rayburn

1996-01-01

357

Sugarcane Genetic Controls Involved in the Association with Beneficial Endophytic Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is an economically important culture in Brazil, being the world most important source of sugar and ethanol production.\\u000a Brazilian sugarcane culture is able to obtain large and significant contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated Biological\\u000a Nitrogen Fixation (BNF), reducing the use of nitrogen fertilizers and leading to an increase in energy balance of the culture.\\u000a Different populations of endophytic N2-fixing

Thais Louise Gurjão de Carvalho; Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes Ferreira; Adriana S. Hemerly

2011-01-01

358

An improved way to determine nitrogen fertiliser requirements of sugarcane crops to meet global environmental challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) fertiliser management is increasingly important in sugarcane production as imperatives to reduce environmental\\u000a impacts of N escalate. In this paper we report testing of a new concept for N management in sugarcane, the N Replacement system.\\u000a This system relies on soil N cycling to ‘buffer’ differences in crop N needs and N fertiliser supply to individual crops,\\u000a and

P. J. Thorburn; J. S. Biggs; A. J. Webster; I. M. Biggs

2011-01-01

359

Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G?+?C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred by existing and newly isolated promoters in sugarcane tissues. The strategies used to design the synthetic luciferase transgenes could be applied to other transgenes that are aggressively silenced in sugarcane. PMID:24708613

2014-01-01

360

Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.  

PubMed

Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel production in developing countries such as Brazil. Finally, we support the inclusion of environmental values in the price of biofuels in order to discourage excessive replacement of natural ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, and pasture by bioenergy crops. PMID:18536250

Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

2008-06-01

361

High fructose formation from sugarcane syrup and molasses using Zymomonas mobilis mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fructose recovery yields were obtained using sugarcane syrup and C-molasses (equal to blackstrap molasses) and a fructokinase negative mutant ofZymomonas mobilis. The fructose recovery was 95.7% with sugarcane syrup and 99.4% with 300 g\\/L C-molasses or mixtures of both. High fructose corn syrup of a 48\\/52 mixture of glucose and fructose gave only a 65–70% fructose recovery due to

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle

1991-01-01

362

A life table of Mogannia iwasakii (Homoptera: Cicadiidae) in sugarcane field of Okinawa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A preliminary life table of the sugarcane cicada,Mogannia iwasakii, which became a pest of sugarcane in Okinawa recently, was presented based on the results of field survey. Mortality rates\\u000a during egg and later nymphal stages were low but a remarkable reduction of the number of individuals in a cohort took place\\u000a at the 1st nymphal instar, mainly due to predation

Masaaki Nagamine; Rinko Teruya; Yosiaki Itô

1975-01-01

363

Combined application of NPK on yield quality of sugarcane applied through SSDI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of combined application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium\\u000a (K) on growth, yield quality and nutrient balance of sugarcane with subsurface drip irrigation by using the sugarcane variety\\u000a ROC89\\/1626 and adopting “3414” project design. It was observed that the appropriate rate of N, P2O5 and K2O increased the plant height, cane

Lin Xu; Hai-Rong Huang; Li-Tao Yang; Yang-Rui Li

2010-01-01

364

Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations  

SciTech Connect

Ash cenospheres in fly ashes from five Australian power stations have been characterized. The experimental data show that ash cenosphere yield varies across the power stations. Ash partitioning occurred in the process of ash cenosphere formation during combustion. Contradictory to conclusions from the literature, iron does not seem to be essential to ash cenosphere formation in the cases examined in the present work. Further investigation was also undertaken on a series of size-fractioned ash cenosphere samples from Tarong power station. It is found that about 70 wt% of ash cenospheres in the bulk sample have sizes between 45 and 150 {mu}m. There are two different ash cenosphere structures, that is, single-ring structure and network structure. The percentage of ash cenospheres of a network structure increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. Small ash cenospheres (in the size fractions {lt}150 {mu}m) have a high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and the majority of the ash cenospheres are spherical and of a single-ring structure. Large ash cenosphere particles (in the size fractions of 150-250 {mu}m and {gt}250 {mu}m) have a low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and a high proportion of the ash cenospheres are nonspherical and of a network structure. A novel quantitative technique has been developed to measure the diameter and wall thickness of ash cenospheres on a particle-to-particle basis. A monolayer of size-fractioned ash cenospheres was dispersed on a pellet, which was then polished carefully before being examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analysis. The ash cenosphere wall thickness broadly increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. The ratios between wall thickness and diameter of ash cenospheres are limited between an upper bound of about 10.5% and a lower bound of about 2.5%, irrespective of the ash cenosphere size. 52 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Ling-ngee Ngu; Hongwei Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Centre for Fuels and Energy and Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15

365

A near infrared spectroscopic assay for stalk soluble sugars, bagasse enzymatic saccharification and wall polymers in sweet sorghum.  

PubMed

In this study, 123 sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) accessions and 50 mutants were examined with diverse stalk soluble sugars, bagasse enzymatic saccharification and wall polymers, indicating the potential near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assay for those three important parameters. Using the calibration and validation sets and modified squares method, nine calibration optimal equations were generated with high determination coefficient on the calibration (R(2)) (0.81-0.99), cross-validation (R(2)cv) (0.77-0.98), and the ratio performance deviation (RPD) (2.07-7.45), which were at first time applied by single spectra for simultaneous assay of stalk soluble sugars, bagasse hydrolyzed sugars, and three major wall polymers in bioenergy sweet sorghum. PMID:25484122

Wu, Leiming; Li, Meng; Huang, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Hui; Zou, Weihua; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Haichun; Peng, Liangcai; Feng, Shengqiu

2015-02-01

366

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOEpatents

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

2012-05-15

367

77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ), Cincinnati,...

2012-09-11

368

Co-firing of sugar cane bagasse with rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results on co-firing of 'as-received' sugar cane bagasse and rice husk in a conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using silica sand as the bed material. Axial temperature, O2 ,C O 2, CO and NO concentration profiles in the conical FBC operated at 82.5-82.8 kg\\/h fuel feed rate and various values of excess air (of about 40, 60,

V. I. Kuprianova; W. Permchartb K. Janvijitsakula

369

Efficient chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the lignocellulosic residue from Agave tequilana bagasse to produce ethanol by Pichia caribbica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse of Agave tequilana (BAT) is the residual lignocellulosic waste that remains from tequila production. In this study we characterized the chemical\\u000a composition of BAT, which was further saccharified and fermented to produce ethanol. BAT was constituted by cellulose (42%),\\u000a hemicellulose (20%), lignin (15%), and other (23%). Saccharification of BAT was carried out at 147°C with 2% sulfuric acid\\u000a for

Jaime Saucedo-Luna; Agustin Jaime Castro-Montoya; Mauro Manuel Martinez-Pacheco; Carlos Ruben Sosa-Aguirre; Jesus Campos-Garcia

2011-01-01

370

Seasonal Variation of the Canopy Structure Parameters and Its Correlation with Yield-Related Traits in Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Population structure determines sugarcane yield, of which canopy structure is a key component. To fully understand the relations between sugarcane yield and parameters of the canopy structure, 17 sugarcane varieties were investigated at five growth stages. The results indicated that there were significant differences between characterized parameters among sugarcane populations at different growth stages. During sugarcane growth after planting, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf distribution (LD) increased, while transmission coefficient for diffuse radiation (TD), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), and extinction coefficient (K) decreased. Significant negative correlations were found between sugarcane yield and MFIA, TD, TR, and K at the early elongation stage, while a significant positive correlation between sugarcane yield and LD was found at the same stage. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 10%, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = 2380.12 + 46.25 × LD ? 491.82 × LAI + 1.36 × MFIA + 614.91 × TD ? 1908.05 × TR ? 182.53 ×??K + 1281.75 × LD ? 1.35 × MFIA + 831.2 × TR ? 407.8 ×??K + 8.21 × MFIA ? 834.50 × TD ? 1695.49 ×??K??(R2 = 0.94**). PMID:24453909

Luo, Jun; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Liping

2013-01-01

371

Plant Growth-Promoting Nitrogen-Fixing Enterobacteria Are in Association with Sugarcane Plants Growing in Guangxi, China  

PubMed Central

The current nitrogen fertilization for sugarcane production in Guangxi, the major sugarcane-producing area in China, is very high. We aim to reduce nitrogen fertilization and improve sugarcane production in Guangxi with the help of indigenous sugarcane-associated nitrogen-fixing bacteria. We initially obtained 196 fast-growing bacterial isolates associated with the main sugarcane cultivar ROC22 plants in fields using a nitrogen-deficient minimal medium and screened out 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that 42 of the 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates were affiliated with the genera Enterobacter and Klebsiella. Most of the nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria possessed two other plant growth-promoting activities of IAA production, siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Two Enterobacter spp. strains of NN145S and NN143E isolated from rhizosphere soil and surface-sterilized roots, respectively, of the same ROC22 plant were used to inoculate micropropagated sugarcane plantlets. Both strains increased the biomass and nitrogen content of the sugarcane seedlings grown with nitrogen fertilization equivalent to 180 kg urea ha?1, the recommended nitrogen fertilization for ROC22 cane crops at the seedling stage. 15N isotope dilution assays demonstrated that biological nitrogen fixation contributed to plant growth promotion. These results suggested that indigenous nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria have the potential to fix N2 associated with sugarcane plants grown in fields in Guangxi and to improve sugarcane production. PMID:22510648

Lin, Li; Li, Zhengyi; Hu, Chunjin; Zhang, Xincheng; Chang, Siping; Yang, Litao; Li, Yangrui; An, Qianli

2012-01-01

372

A fixed-bed column for phosphate removal from aqueous solutions using an andosol-bagasse mixture.  

PubMed

It is difficult to eliminate phosphate from large volumes of water in batch mode using an adsorbent such as andosol. In a fixed-bed column, andosol has a very low permeability. In this study, andosol was mixed with bagasse to increase permeability. The mixture was then applied for the adsorption of phosphate in a fixed-bed column. Optimum and stable permeability was obtained with a 50/50 mixture of andosol and bagasse. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 4.18 mg/g for a column with a bed depth of 1.8 cm and a flow rate of 4 mL/min. The experimental data fit best to Thomas and Adam-Bohart models. These experimental results were applied in the treatment of natural phosphate-containing water from Yaoundé Municipal Lake in Cameroon. Column performance increased by 60% due to the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the natural water. These cations form complexes with phosphate at the andosol surface. The standard enthalpy 15.964 kj/mol indicated that phosphate adsorption on andosol-bagasse mixture was an endothermic process. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that phosphate adsorption fitted better with a pseudo-second-order model. PMID:25617785

Woumfo, Emmanuel Djoufac; Siéwé, Jean Mermoz; Njopwouo, Daniel

2015-03-15

373

Process optimization to convert forage and sweet sorghum bagasse to ethanol based on ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment.  

PubMed

With growing demand for bio-based fuels and chemicals, there has been much attention given to the performance of different feedstocks. We have optimized the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment and fermentation process to convert forage and sweet sorghum bagasse to ethanol. AFEX pretreatment was optimized for forage sorghum and sweet sorghum bagasse. Supplementing xylanase with cellulase during enzymatic hydrolysis increased both glucan and xylan conversion to 90% at 1% glucan loading. High solid loading hydrolyzates from the optimized AFEX conditions were fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) without any external nutrient supplementation or detoxification. The strain was better able to utilize xylose at pH 6.0 than at pH 4.8, but glycerol production was higher for the former pH than the latter. The maximum final ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was 30.9 g/L (forage sorghum) and 42.3 g/L (sweet sorghum bagasse). A complete mass balance for the process is given. PMID:19811909

Li, Bing-Zhi; Balan, Venkatesh; Yuan, Ying-Jin; Dale, Bruce E

2010-02-01

374

Durability of biomass fly ash concrete: Freezing and thawing and rapid chloride permeability tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strict interpretation of ASTM C 618 excludes non-coal fly ashes, such as biomass fly ashes from addition in concrete. Biomass fly ash in this investigation includes (1) cofired fly ash from burning biomass with coal; (2) wood fly ash and (3) blended fly ash (wood fly ash mixing with coal fly ash). A set of experiments conducted on concrete from

Shuangzhen Wang; Emilio Llamazos; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca

2008-01-01

375

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

376

Cement equivalence factors for fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation has been carried out into the cement equivalence factors for fly ash in concrete. The work was part of a prenormative research aimed at taking the contribution of fly ash to strength development and the other properties of concrete into account on the minimum cement content and maximum water-cement ratio required to achieve these properties as by the

J. Bijen; R. van Selst

1993-01-01

377

Energy efficient continuous flow ash lockhopper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to an energy efficient continuous flow ash lockhopper, or other lockhopper for reactor product or byproduct. The invention includes an ash hopper at the outlet of a high temperature, high pressure reactor vessel containing heated high pressure gas, a fluidics control chamber having an input port connected to the ash hopper's output port and an output port connected to the input port of a pressure letdown means, and a control fluid supply for regulating the pressure in the control chamber to be equal to or greater than the internal gas pressure of the reactor vessel, whereby the reactor gas is contained while ash is permitted to continuously flow from the ash hopper's output port, impelled by gravity. The main novelty resides in the use of a control chamber to so control pressure under the lockhopper that gases will not exit from the reactor vessel, and to also regulate the ash flow rate. There is also novelty in the design of the ash lockhopper shown in two figures. The novelty there is the use of annular passages of progressively greater diameter, and rotating the center parts on a shaft, with the center part of each slightly offset from adjacent ones to better assure ash flow through the opening.

Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (inventor); Dubis, David (inventor)

1989-01-01

378

Scientists Outline Volcanic Ash Risks to Aviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ash clouds that belched out of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano last spring and dispersed over much of Europe, temporarily paralyzing aviation, were vast smoke signal warnings about the hazard that volcanic ash poses for air traffic around the world. At a 15 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, two experts with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) presented an overview of the damage airplanes can sustain from rock fragment- and mineral fragment-laden ash, an update on efforts to mitigate the hazard of ash, and an outline of further measures that are needed to address the problem. Between 1953 and 2009, there were 129 reported encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds, according to a newly released USGS document cited at the briefing. The report, “Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds: A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009,” by Marianne Guffanti, Thomas Casadevall, and Karin Budding, indicates that 26 encounters involved significant damage to the airplanes; nine of those incidents resulted in engine shutdown during flight. The report, which does not focus on the effects on airplanes of cumulative exposure to dilute ash and does not include data since 2009, indicates that “ash clouds continue to pose substantial risks to safe and efficient air travel globally.”

Showstack, Randy

2011-01-01

379

A MECHANISM FOR ASH ASSISTED SLUDGE DEWATERING  

EPA Science Inventory

The ability of various additives to improve the dewaterability of activated sludge was determined and the surface properties of additives characterized in order to arrive at a mechanism for ash conditioning of activated sludge. The primary additives investigated were fly ash and ...

380

Extruded cellular fly ash construction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Class C and Class F fly ashes were evaluated as candidates for the major component of low cost, low density, high strength ceramics suitable for construction use. The main objectives of this research were to: establish that strength reduction is linear with extruded cellular void fraction, develop low temperature processing of fly ash, and develop processing of thin-walled cellular bodies

Harvey Dale Deford

1998-01-01

381

FATE OF INHALED FLY ASH IN HAMSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine pulmonary deposition, translocation, and clearance of inhaled fly ash, hamsters received a single 95-min nose-only exposure to neutron-activated fly ash. Over a period of 99 days postexposure, the hamsters were sacrificed in groups of six animals. Lungs, liver, kidne...

382

Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in

C. Ferreira; A. Ribeiro; L. Ottosen

2003-01-01

383

Economic metal recovery from fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most coal combustion ash produced in the United States is discarded as a waste (>52 million metric tons per year), results are presented to show that fly ash can be an economical source of AlâOâ, FeâOâ, and possibly several other metals, many of which are presently being imported. Although several metal recovery processes were studied, only the two of

T. M. Gilliam; R. M. Canon; B. Z. Egan; A. D. Kelmers; F. G. Seeley; J. S. Watson

1981-01-01

384

A TECHNIQUE FOR PREDICTING FLY ASH RESISTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of research to develop a technique for predicting: the electrical resistivity of fly ash from as-received, ultimate coal analysis; and the chemical composition of the concomitant coal ash produced by simple laboratory ignition. Important chemical factors ...

385

Quantitative shape measurements of distal volcanic ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale volcanic eruptions produce fine ash (<200 ?m) which has a long atmospheric residence time (1 hour or more) and can be transported great distances from the volcanic source, thus, becoming a hazard to aircraft and public health. Ash particles have irregular shapes, so data on particle shape, size, and terminal velocities are needed to understand how the irregular-shaped particles

Colleen M. Riley; William I. Rose; Gregg J. S. Bluth

2003-01-01

386

75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp., including green ash, white ash, black ash, and several...

2010-05-25

387

76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive woodboring insect that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp., including green ash, white ash, black ash, and several...

2011-01-10

388

76 FR 5679 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp., including green ash, white ash, black ash, and several...

2011-02-02

389

Worldwide high-volume coal ash utilization  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of coal ash in concrete is the most extensive and widespread throughout the world, as compared to other uses of ash. However, in addition to the use in 1992 of over 39 million tons of coal ash in concrete, there were over 40 billion tons used in structural, land, or embankment fill; almost 7 million tons for pavement base course or subgrade; over 40 million tons for filler for mines, quarries or pits; almost 3 million tons for soil amendment; over 1.8 million tons for lightweight aggregate; and over 7 million tons for aerated blocks. In 1992, China had the largest production of coal ash as well as the largest utilization. Russian and the US had the second and third largest production. Russia, Germany, US, and Poland were next to China in utilization. This paper summarizes recent coal ash production and utilization in the world and presents a country-by-country survey of the high-volume users.

Manz, O.E. [Manz Associates, Alvarado, MN (United States)

1996-10-01

390

Settlement of footing on compacted ash bed  

SciTech Connect

Compacted coal ash fills exhibit capillary stress due to contact moisture and preconsolidation stress due to the compaction process. As such, the conventional methods of estimating settlement of footing on cohesionless soils based on penetration tests become inapplicable in the case of footings on coal ash fills, although coal ash is also a cohesionless material. Therefore, a method of estimating load-settlement behavior of footings resting on coal ash fills accounting for the effect of capillary and preconsolidation stresses is presented here. The proposed method has been validated by conducting plate load tests on laboratory prepared compacted ash beds and comparing the observed and predicted load-settlement behavior. Overestimation of settlement greater than 100% occurs when capillary and preconsolidation stresses are not accounted for, as is the case in conventional methods.

Ramasamy, G.; Pusadkar, S.S. [IIT Roorkee, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-11-15

391

Limited Genetic Diversity in the Endophytic Sugarcane Bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus  

PubMed Central

Acetobacter diazotrophicus isolates that originated from different sugarcane cultivars growing in diverse geographic regions of Mexico and Brazil were shown to have limited genetic diversity. Measurements of polymorphism in the electrophoretic mobilities of metabolic enzymes revealed that the mean genetic diversity per enzyme locus (among the four electrophoretic types distinguished) was 0.064. The results of the genetic analysis indicate that the genetic structure of A. diazotrophicus is clonal, with one largely predominant clone. Plasmids were present in 20 of 24 isolates, and the molecular sizes of the plasmids ranged from 2.0 to 170 kb. Two plasmids (a 20- to 24-kb plasmid detected in all 20 plasmid-containing isolates and a 170-kb plasmid observed in 14 isolates) were highly conserved among the isolates examined. Regardless of the presence of plasmids, all of the isolates shared a common pattern of nif structural gene organization on the chromosome. Images PMID:16349254

Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

1994-01-01

392

Dissolved Organic Carbon in Groundwater Overlain by Irrigated Sugarcane.  

PubMed

Elevated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been detected in groundwater beneath irrigated sugarcane on the Burdekin coastal plain of tropical northeast Australia. The maximum value of 82?mg/L is to our knowledge the highest DOC reported for groundwater beneath irrigated cropping systems. More than half of the groundwater sampled in January 2004 (n?=?46) exhibited DOC concentrations greater than 30?mg/L. DOC was progressively lower in October 2004 and January 2005, with a total decrease greater than 90% indicating varying load(s) to the aquifer. It was hypothesized that the elevated DOC found in this groundwater system is sourced at or near the soil surface and supplied to the aquifer via vertical recharge following above average rainfall. Possible sources of DOC include organic-rich sugar mill by-products applied as fertilizer and/or sugarcane sap released during harvest. CFC-12 vertical flow rates supported the hypothesis that elevated DOC (>40?mg/L) in the groundwater results from recharge events in which annual precipitation exceeds 1500?mm/year (average?=?960?mm/year). Occurrence of elevated DOC concentrations, absence of electron acceptors (O2 and NO3 (-) ) and both Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) greater than 1?mg/L in shallow groundwater suggest that the DOC compounds are chemically labile. The consequence of high concentrations of labile DOC may be positive (e.g., denitrification) or negative (e.g., enhanced metal mobility and biofouling), and highlights the need to account for a wider range of water quality parameters when considering the impacts of land use on the ecology of receiving waters and/or suitability of groundwater for irrigated agriculture. PMID:25213667

Thayalakumaran, Thabo; Lenahan, Matthew J; Bristow, Keith L

2014-09-11

393

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOEpatents

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

2013-01-08

394

Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete  

DOEpatents

A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

2012-05-08

395

An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of

M. A. Renouf; M. K. Wegener; L. K. Nielsen

2008-01-01

396

Worldwide high-volume coal ash utilization  

SciTech Connect

Coal ash refers to fly ash as well as bottom ash and boiler slag. High-volume uses include those fly ash products that are either large in quantity or use huge percentages (over 50%) of fly ash. High-volume uses are typified by fills, embankments, backfills, highway base course, and soil stabilization and amendment. In 1992, 367 million tonnes of fly ash were produced, as well as 91.8 million tonnes of bottom ash and boiler slag; 152.8 million tonnes (33.3%) were used. The main uses of coal ash have been in cement and concrete manufacture, in road construction and as filler on construction sites, in cellular concrete, and in lightweight aggregate and brick. Worldwide in 1992, 40.2 million tonnes were used in cement and concrete manufacture; 47.5 million tonnes in road construction and as filler on construction sites, in cellular concrete, and in lightweight aggregate and brick. Worldwide in 1992, 40.2 million tonnes were used in cement and concrete manufacture; 47.5 million tonnes in road construction and as filler on construction sites; 7.2 million tonnes in cellular concrete; 3.1 million tonnes in lightweight aggregate and bricks; over 40 million tonnes for filler for mines, quarries, or pits; and almost 3 million tonnes for soil amendment. EPRI (the collaborative R and D organization with membership of over 700 electric utilities) initiated an ash utilization research and development program in 1979 aimed at supporting the increased use of fly ash in the United States. This paper includes a worldwide survey of the production and utilization of coal ash from 1964 to 1995. The data were collected from various working papers of the UN Group of Experts on the Utilization of Ash and from three papers by the author on the worldwide production and utilization of coal ash. For 1995, information was obtained through a questionnaire sent to selected individuals. The last available data for eastern Europe and the United Kingdom are for 1989.

Manz, O.E. [Manz Associates, Alvarado, MN (United States)

1999-11-01

397

Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane. PMID:24857916

Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

398

Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.  

PubMed

A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. PMID:23706374

Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

2013-09-01

399

Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

2012-10-30

400

Ash iron mobilization in volcanic eruption plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that volcanic ash fertilizes the Fe-limited areas of the surface ocean through releasing soluble iron. As ash iron is mostly insoluble upon the eruption, it is hypothesized that heterogeneous in-plume and in-cloud processing of the ash promote the iron solubilization. Direct evidences concerning such processes are, however, lacking. In this study, a 1-D numerical model is developed to simulate the physicochemical interactions of gas-ash-aerosol in volcanic eruption plumes focusing on the iron mobilization processes at temperatures between 600 and 0 °C. Results show that sulfuric acid and water vapor condense at ~150 and ~50 °C on the ash surface, respectively. This liquid phase then efficiently scavenges the surrounding gases (>95% of HCl, 3-20% of SO2 and 12-62% of HF) forming an extremely acidic coating at the ash surface. The low pH conditions of the aqueous film promote acid-mediated dissolution of the Fe-bearing phases present in the ash material. We estimate that 0.1 to 33% of the total iron available at the ash surface is dissolved in the aqueous phase before the freezing point is reached. The efficiency of dissolution is controlled by the halogen content of the erupted gas as well as the mineralogy of the iron at ash surface: elevated halogen concentrations and presence of Fe2+-carrying phases lead to the highest dissolution efficiency. Findings of this study are in agreement with the data obtained through leaching experiments.

Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M.; Langmann, B.

2014-12-01

401

Screening for Resistance to Brown Rust of Sugarcane: Use of Bru1 resistance gene prospects and challenges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brown rust of sugarcane caused by, Puccinia melanocephala, is a serious problem in the US sugarcane industry. A major resistance gene, Bru1 was identified and methodology for detecting it was developed by French scientists at CIRAD. The majority of the research resulting in the discovery of Bru1 res...

402

Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

403

Using microsatellite DNA markers to determine the genetic identity of parental clones used in the Louisiana sugarcane breeding program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane propagates asexually through vegetative cuttings. To validate the genetic identity of sugarcane clones during shipping and handling, we produced molecular fingerprints based on 21 microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers for 116 Louisiana parental clones that were included in the crossing program...

404

Mature-stem expression of a silencing-resistant sucrose isomerase gene drives isomaltulose accumulation to high levels in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Isomaltulose (IM) is a natural isomer of sucrose. It is widely approved as a food with properties including slower digestion, lower glycaemic index and low cariogenicity, which can benefit consumers. Availability is currently limited by the cost of fermentative conversion from sucrose. Transgenic sugarcane plants with developmentally-controlled expression of a silencing-resistant gene encoding a vacuole-targeted IM synthase were tested under field conditions typical of commercial sugarcane cultivation. High yields of IM were obtained, up to 483 mm or 81% of total sugars in whole-cane juice from plants aged 13 months. Using promoters from sugarcane to drive expression preferentially in the sugarcane stem, IM levels were consistent between stalks and stools within a transgenic line and across consecutive vegetative field generations of tested high-isomer lines. Germination and early growth of plants from setts were unaffected by IM accumulation, up to the tested level around 500 mm in flanking stem internodes. These are the highest yields ever achieved of value-added materials through plant metabolic engineering. The sugarcane stem promoters are promising for strategies to achieve even higher IM levels and for other applications in sugarcane molecular improvement. Silencing-resistant transgenes are critical to deliver the potential of these promoters in practical sugarcane improvement. At the IM levels now achieved in field-grown sugarcane, direct production of IM in plants is feasible at a cost approaching that of sucrose, which should make the benefits of IM affordable on a much wider scale. PMID:23297683

Mudge, Stephen R; Basnayake, Shiromi W V; Moyle, Richard L; Osabe, Kenji; Graham, Michael W; Morgan, Terence E; Birch, Robert G

2013-05-01

405

The application of remote sensing techniques to sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) production: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing techniques provide timely, up?to?date and relatively accurate information for the management of sugarcane crop. This article reviews the literature on the application of remote sensing to sugarcane agriculture and highlights the challenges and opportunities pertinent to the success of this application. The aim of the review was to provide accurate and fundamental information relating the spectral properties of

F. B. Ahmed

2008-01-01

406

Distribution, Morphological Characterization and Pathogenicity of Fusarium sacchari Associated with Pokkah Boeng Disease of Sugarcane in Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane has been recorded in almost all countries where sugarcane is grown commercially. The objectives of this study were to survey the distribution of Fusarium sacchari associated with pokkah boeng disease throughout Peninsular Malaysia, to isolate and identify the causal organisms by using morphological characteristics, and to ascertain the pathogenicity of F. sacchari based on Koch's

Siti Nordahliawate; Nur Ain Izzati

407

Carbon balance of sugarcane agriculture on histosols of the everglades agricultural area: review, analysis, and global energy perspectives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofuels production from crop products and cellulosic by-products, including sugarcane, has received much attention. In Florida, most sugarcane is produced on drained Histosols (organic soils) of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Subsidence has occurred via microbial oxidation since drainage i...

408

A new look at starch in the sugarcane factory and refinery: The presence of soluble and insoluble starch  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch impurity concentrations in sugarcane are country dependent and, in recent years there has been a general world-wide increase. This has occurred mostly because of one or a combination of the following: (i) increased mechanical processing of unburnt (green) sugarcane; (ii) varying environmenta...

409

Isolation and characterization of fly ash from rat lung tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhaled fly ash may be leached by lung fluids, making potentially toxic trace elements in the fly ash bioavailable. We studied the composition and morphology of fly ash particles recovered from lungs of rats exposed to fly ash from a power plant burning pulverized eastern coal. Animals were sacrificed 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo after the commencement of the

S. J. Rothenberg; F. A. Seiler; C. H. Hobbs; G. S. Casuccio; C. E. Spangler

1989-01-01

410

Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD\\/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such

Arun V. Someshwar

1996-01-01

411

Puff - A Volcanic Ash Tracking Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, provided by the University of Alaska and Geophysical Institute, explains the Puff-A Volcanic Ash Tracking Model project, which uses representative ash particles from volcanoes to study the advection and diffusion of ash within the atmosphere. After learning about the history of the project, visitors can find animations and images of the model's predictions for various volcanoes as well as the technical documentation. The website offers downloads of the latest version of the model, information on Puff's sensitivity, and satellite imagery of past volcanic eruptions.

412

Call for tighter coal ash disposal standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 200 million tons of coal ash and scrubber sludge were deposited from coal plants into ponds or landfills between 2009 and 2011, according to a 21 December report by the Environmental Integrity Project (EIP), a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D. C. EIP issued the report to mark the fourth anniversary of the dike rupture at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant, which spilled an estimated 1.1 billion gallons of coal fly ash slurry into the Tennessee River system on 22 December 2008. EIP called for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue ash disposal standards.

Showstack, Randy

2013-01-01

413

Identification and expression analysis of microRNAs and targets in the biofuel crop sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs, some of which are conserved in diverse plant genomes. Therefore, computational identification and further experimental validation of miRNAs from non-model organisms is both feasible and instrumental for addressing miRNA-based gene regulation and evolution. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important biofuel crop with publicly available expressed sequence tag and genomic survey sequence databases, but little is known about miRNAs and their targets in this highly polyploid species. Results In this study, we have computationally identified 19 distinct sugarcane miRNA precursors, of which several are highly similar with their sorghum homologs at both nucleotide and secondary structure levels. The accumulation pattern of mature miRNAs varies in organs/tissues from the commercial sugarcane hybrid as well as in its corresponding founder species S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Using sugarcane MIR827 as a query, we found a novel MIR827 precursor in the sorghum genome. Based on our computational tool, a total of 46 potential targets were identified for the 19 sugarcane miRNAs. Several targets for highly conserved miRNAs are transcription factors that play important roles in plant development. Conversely, target genes of lineage-specific miRNAs seem to play roles in diverse physiological processes, such as SsCBP1. SsCBP1 was experimentally confirmed to be a target for the monocot-specific miR528. Our findings support the notion that the regulation of SsCBP1 by miR528 is shared at least within graminaceous monocots, and this miRNA-based post-transcriptional regulation evolved exclusively within the monocots lineage after the divergence from eudicots. Conclusions Using publicly available nucleotide databases, 19 sugarcane miRNA precursors and one new sorghum miRNA precursor were identified and classified into 14 families. Comparative analyses between sugarcane and sorghum suggest that these two species retain homologous miRNAs and targets in their genomes. Such conservation may help to clarify specific aspects of miRNA regulation and evolution in the polyploid sugarcane. Finally, our dataset provides a framework for future studies on sugarcane RNAi-dependent regulatory mechanisms. PMID:21092324

2010-01-01

414

Comparison of the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on recalcitrance of agave bagasse and switchgrass.  

PubMed

Lignocellulose represents a sustainable source of carbon for transformation into biofuels. Effective biomass to sugar conversion strategies are needed to lower processing cost without degradation of polysaccharides. Since ionic liquids (ILs) are excellent solvents for pretreatment/dissolution of biomass, IL pretreatment was carried out on agave bagasse (AGB-byproduct of tequila industry) and digestibility and sugar yield was compared with that obtained with switchgrass (SWG). The IL pretreatment was conducted using ([C2mim][OAc]) at 120 and 160 °C for 3h and 15% biomass loading. While pretreatment using [C2mim][OAc] was very effective in improving the digestibility of both feedstocks, IL pretreatment at 160 °C resulted in higher delignification for AGB (45.5%) than for SWG (38.4%) when compared to 120 °C (AGB-16.6%, SWG-8.2%), formation of a highly amorphous cellulose structure and a significant enhancement of enzyme kinetics. These results highlight the potential of AGB as a biofuel feedstock that can produce high sugar yields with IL pretreatment. PMID:23131619

Perez-Pimienta, Jose A; Lopez-Ortega, Monica G; Varanasi, Patanjali; Stavila, Vitalie; Cheng, Gang; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A

2013-01-01

415

Preparation and characterization of bagasse/HDPE composites using multi-walled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

This article presents the preparation and characterization of bagasse/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), as reinforcing agent, on the mechanical and physical properties were also investigated. In order to increase the interphase adhesion, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) was added as a coupling agent to all the composites studied. In the sample preparation, MWCNTs and MAPE contents were used as variable factors. The morphology of the specimens was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results of strength measurement indicated that when 1.5 wt% MWCNTs were added, tensile and flexural properties reached their maximum values. At high level of MWCNTs loading (3 or 4 wt%), increased population of MWCNTs lead to agglomeration and stress transfer gets blocked. The addition of MWCNTs filler slightly decreased the impact strength of composites. Both mechanical and physical properties were improved when 4 wt% MAPE was applied. SEM micrographs also showed that the surface roughness improved with increasing MAPE loading from 0 to 4 wt%. The improvement of physicomechanical properties of composites confirmed that MWCNTs have good reinforcement and the optimum synergistic effect of MWCNTs and MAPE was achieved at the combination of 1.5 and 4 wt%, respectively. PMID:23218377

Ashori, Alireza; Sheshmani, Shabnam; Farhani, Foad

2013-01-30

416

Methylene blue biosorption by pericarp of corn, alfalfa, and agave bagasse wastes.  

PubMed

The presence of dyes in effluent is a matter of concern due to their toxicologic and aesthetical effects. In this research, locally available agro-industrial wastes (Zea mays pericarp, ZMP; Agave tequilana bagasse, ATB; and Medicago sativa waste, MSW) were used as alternative low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterized physically and chemically by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, potentiometric titrations, and N2 physisorption. MB adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems and experimental data were used to calculate the adsorption isotherm model parameters (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin) and the adsorption kinetic model parameters (pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models). MB-loaded biosorbents were desorbed with deionized water, ethanol (10% and 50% v/v), hydrochloric acid (0.01 and 0.05 N), and sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) at room temperature, and the best eluent was used in various adsorption-desorption cycles. The selected agricultural wastes can be considered as promising adsorbents for dye uptake from water since they exhibit considerable MB adsorption capacity (MSW 202.6 mg g(-1), ATB 156.2mg g(-1), and ZMP 110.9mg g(-1)), but it is lower than that reported for activated carbon; however, the biosorbents show higher adsorption rate than powdered activated carbon. Furthermore, the adsorbents can be economically regenerated with HCl solutions and reused for seven adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24701903

Rosas-Castor, José M; Garza-González, María T; García-Reyes, Refugio B; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; García-González, Alcione; Loredo-Medrano, José A

2014-01-01

417

Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

The effect of combinations and ratios between different enzymes has been investigated in order to assess the optimal conditions for hydrolysis of cashew apple bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (the solids named CAB-AHP). The separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes were evaluated in the ethanol production. The enzymatic hydrolysis conducted with cellulase complex and ?-glucosidase in a ratio of 0.61:0.39, enzyme loading of 30FPU/gCAB-AHP and 66CBU/gCAB-AHP, respectively, using 4% cellulose from CAB-AHP, turned out to be the most effective conditions, with glucose and xylose yields of 511.68mg/gCAB-AHP and 237.8mg/gCAB-AHP, respectively. Fermentation of the pure hydrolysate by Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907 led to an ethanol yield of 61.8kg/tonCAB, corresponding to 15g/L ethanol and productivity of 3.75g/(Lh). The ethanol production obtained for SSF process using K. marxianus ATCC 36907 was 18g/L corresponding to 80% yield and 74.2kg/tonCAB. PMID:25545094

da Costa, Jessyca Aline; Marques, José Edvan; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte

2015-03-01

418

Diversity of Cultivated Endophytic Bacteria from Sugarcane: Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and from inside the roots and stems of sugarcane plants grown in the field in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria were found in both the roots and the stems of sugarcane plants, with a significantly higher density in the roots. Many of the cultivated endophytic bacteria were shown to produce the plant growth hormone indoleacetic acid, and this trait was more frequently found among bacteria from the stem. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the selected isolates of the endophytic bacterial community of sugarcane belong to the genera of Burkholderia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Microbacterium. Bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Burkholderia were the most predominant among the endophytic bacteria. Many of the Burkholderia isolates produced the antifungal metabolite pyrrolnitrin, and all were able to grow at 37°C. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and recA gene sequences indicated that the endophytic Burkholderia isolates from sugarcane are closely related to clinical isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex and clustered with B. cenocepacia (gv. III) isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. These results suggest that isolates of the B. cepacia complex are an integral part of the endophytic bacterial community of sugarcane in Brazil and reinforce the hypothesis that plant-associated environments may act as a niche for putative opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria. PMID:17905875

Mendes, Rodrigo; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A.; Araujo, Welington L.; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

2007-01-01

419

GISH characterization of Erianthus arundinaceus chromosomes in three generations of sugarcane intergeneric hybrids.  

PubMed

Within Erianthus, a genus close to Saccharum, the species E. arundinaceus has the potential to contribute valuable traits to sugarcane, including adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses and ratooning ability. Sugarcane breeders have tried for a long time to use Erianthus species in their breeding programs but until recently were constrained by a lack of fertile Saccharum x Erianthus hybrids. We report here for the first time the chromosome composition of fertile Saccharum officinarum x E. arundinaceus F1, BC1 (F1 x sugarcane cultivar), and BC2 (BC1 x sugarcane cultivar) hybrids. The F1 and BC2 resulted from n + n chromosome transmission, while the BC1 resulted from 2n + n transmission. In the BC1 clones, the number of E. arundinaceus chromosomes ranged from 21 to 30, and in the BC2 clones, the number ranged from 14 to 15, revealing cases of chromosome loss. No recombination events between Saccharum and Erianthus chromosomes were observed in either the BC1 or BC2 clones. The implications of these results for introgression of genes from E. arundinaceus in sugarcane breeding programs are discussed. We propose a strategy to identify the agronomic value of chromosomes from E. arundinaceus and to conduct targeted breeding based on this information. PMID:20616864

Piperidis, Nathalie; Chen, Jian-wen; Deng, Hai-hua; Wang, Li-Ping; Jackson, Phillip; Piperidis, George

2010-05-01

420

Estimating Sugarcane Yield Potential Using an In-Season Determination of Normalized Difference Vegetative Index  

PubMed Central

Estimating crop yield using remote sensing techniques has proven to be successful. However, sugarcane possesses unique characteristics; such as, a multi-year cropping cycle and plant height-limiting for midseason fertilizer application timing. Our study objective was to determine if sugarcane yield potential could be estimated using an in-season estimation of normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI). Sensor readings were taken using the GreenSeeker® handheld sensor from 2008 to 2011 in St. Gabriel and Jeanerette, LA, USA. In-season estimates of yield (INSEY) values were calculated by dividing NDVI by thermal variables. Optimum timing for estimating sugarcane yield was between 601–750 GDD. In-season estimated yield values improved the yield potential (YP) model compared to using NDVI. Generally, INSEY value showed a positive exponential relationship with yield (r2 values 0.48 and 0.42 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively). When models were separated based on canopy structure there was an increase the strength of the relationship for the erectophile varieties (r2 0.53 and 0.47 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively); however, the model for planophile varieties weakened slightly. Results of this study indicate using an INSEY value for predicting sugarcane yield shows potential of being a valuable management tool for sugarcane producers in Louisiana. PMID:22969359

Lofton, Josh; Tubana, Brenda S.; Kanke, Yumiko; Teboh, Jasper; Viator, Howard; Dalen, Marilyn

2012-01-01

421

Induced over-expression of AtDREB2A CA improves drought tolerance in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable sugarcane production and, in some cases, yield losses caused by drought are nearly 50%. DREB proteins play vital regulatory roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. The transcription factor DREB2A interacts with a cis-acting DRE sequence to activate the expression of downstream genes that are involved in drought-, salt- and heat-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of stress-inducible over-expression of AtDREB2A CA on gene expression, leaf water potential (?L), relative water content (RWC), sucrose content and gas exchanges of sugarcane plants submitted to a four-days water deficit treatment in a rhizotron-grown root system. The plants were also phenotyped by scanning the roots and measuring morphological parameters of the shoot. The stress-inducible expression of AtDREB2A CA in transgenic sugarcane led to the up-regulation of genes involved in plant response to drought stress. The transgenic plants maintained higher RWC and ?L over 4 days after withholding water and had higher photosynthetic rates until the 3rd day of water-deficit. Induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane increased sucrose levels and improved bud sprouting of the transgenic plants. Our results indicate that induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane enhanced its drought tolerance without biomass penalty. PMID:24656336

Reis, Rafaela Ribeiro; da Cunha, Bárbara Andrade Dias Brito; Martins, Polyana Kelly; Martins, Maria Thereza Bazzo; Alekcevetch, Jean Carlos; Chalfun, Antônio; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Qin, Feng; Mizoi, Junya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Carvalho, Josirley de Fátima Corrêa; de Sousa, Carlos Antônio Ferreira; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Kobayashi, Adilson Kenji; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa

2014-05-01

422

Impact of Hurricane Rita storm surge on sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management in Louisiana.  

PubMed

Twelve thousand to 16,000 ha of Louisiana sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fields were flooded by saltwater from the Hurricane Rita storm surge in September 2005. A four treatment, 12-replication study comparing storm surge flooded and nonflooded plant and ratoon sugarcane fields was conducted during summer 2006 to assess sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), pest severity, pest control actions, and soil-associated arthropod abundance and diversity. Even with a significant 2.4-fold increase in the average number of insecticide applications used for D. saccharalis management in flooded fields, growers still incurred higher injury. A significant 2.8-fold reduction in the predaceous red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, was associated with the storm surge, whereas no reduction in abundance of other soil-associated arthropods was recorded. Arthropod diversity measured by the Shannon diversity index significantly increased by a factor of 1.3 in sugarcane fields flooded by the storm surge. Increase in D. saccharalis pest severity associated with the storm surge caused an estimated loss in revenue between $1.9 and $2.6 million to the Louisiana sugarcane industry for the 2006 production season. PMID:19610419

Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Akbar, W; Cormier, H J; Flanagan, J W; Blouin, D C

2009-06-01

423

Erianthus arundinaceus HSP70 (EaHSP70) overexpression increases drought and salinity tolerance in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid).  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have a major role in stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Our studies have shown that the expression of HSP70 is enhanced under water stress in Erianthus arundinaceus. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of overexpression of EaHSP70 driven by Port Ubi 2.3 promoter in sugarcane. The transgenic events exhibit significantly higher gene expression, cell membrane thermostability, relative water content, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency. The overexpression of EaHSP70 transgenic sugarcane led to the upregulation of stress-related genes. The transformed sugarcane plants had better chlorophyll retention and higher germination ability than control plants under salinity stress. Our results suggest that EaHSP70 plays an important role in sugarcane acclimation to drought and salinity stresses and its potential for genetic engineering of sugarcane for drought and salt tolerance. PMID:25617320

Augustine, Sruthy Maria; Narayan, J Ashwin; Syamaladevi, Divya P; Appunu, C; Chakravarthi, M; Ravichandran, V; Subramonian, N

2015-03-01

424

Ectomycorrhizal colonisation of roots and ash granules in a spruce forest treated with granulated wood ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulated wood ash has been proposed as a slow release fertiliser suitable for forest soils. In this study ectomycorrhizal colonisation of roots and ash granules was studied in a 40-year-old spruce forest treated with 0, 3 or 6tha?1 granulated wood ash. We used PCR-RFLP methods for ITS-typing and identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi. In total 20 different ITS-types were recognised on

Shahid Mahmood; Roger D Finlay; Håkan Wallander; Susanne Erland

2002-01-01

425

64 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 RESPONSE OF YOUNG ASH TREES TO  

E-print Network

of planted green ash (F. pennsylvanica) were investigated at age 3. Mean survival of trees with shelters significantly higher and potassium was significantly lower in green ash leaves from trees with shelters than in green ash leaves without shelters. Annual height measurements taken for green ash in another planting

426

Species-Specific Detection and Identification of Fusarium Species Complex, the Causal Agent of Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng in China  

PubMed Central

Background Pokkah boeng disease caused by the Fusarium species complex results in significant yield losses in sugarcane. Thus, the rapid and accurate detection and identification of the pathogen is urgently required to manage and prevent the spreading of sugarcane pokkah boeng. Methods A total of 101 isolates were recovered from the pokkah boeng samples collected from five major sugarcane production areas in China throughout 2012 and 2013. The causal pathogen was identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis based on the fungus-conserved rDNA-ITS. Species-specific TaqMan real-time PCR and conventional PCR methods were developed for rapid and accurate detection of the causal agent of sugarcane pokkah boeng. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR assay were also evaluated on a total of 84 isolates of Fusarium from China and several isolates from other fungal pathogens of Sporisorium scitamineum and Phoma sp. and sugarcane endophyte of Acremonium sp. Result Two Fusarium species (F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum) that caused sugarcane pokahh boeng were identified by morphological observation, pathogenicity test, and phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific TaqMan PCR and conventional PCR were designed and optimized to target their rDNA-ITS regions. The sensitivity of the TaqMan PCR was approximately 10 pg of fungal DNA input, which was 1,000-fold over conventional PCR, and successfully detected pokkah boeng in the field-grown sugarcane. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to identify two species, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, that were causal pathogens of sugarcane pokkah boeng in China. It also described the development of a species-specific PCR assay to detect and confirm these pathogens in sugarcane plants from mainland China. This method will be very useful for a broad range of research endeavors as well as the regulatory response and management of sugarcane pokkah boeng. PMID:25141192

Que, Youxiong; Wang, Jihua; Comstock, Jack C.; Wei, Jinjin; McCord, Per H.; Chen, Baoshan; Chen, Rukai; Zhang, Muqing

2014-01-01

427

Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-12-01

428

Biomass ashes and their phosphorus fertilizing effect on different crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reutilization of biomass ashes in agriculture is an important issue to create nutrient cycles and to save fertilizer.\\u000a To analyse the P fertilization effect of crop biomass ashes (rape meal ash (RMA), straw ash (SA), and cereal ash (CA)) in\\u000a interaction with different crops, two pot experiments with a poor loamy sand deficient in P were carried out. Besides

Katja Schiemenz; Bettina Eichler-Löbermann

2010-01-01

429

Potential products from North Dakota lignite fly ash. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Four major areas where fly ash can be used are explored. Concrete building blocks with fly ash replacing 50% of the portland cement have proven to be successful using current ASTM standards. Results in the ceramics area show that a ceramic-like product using fly ash and crushed glass with a small amount of clay as a green binder. Some preliminary results using sulfur ash in building materials are reported and with results of making wallboard from ash. (MHR)

Anderson, G R

1980-06-01

430

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system  

DOEpatents

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-02-28

431

Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process  

DOEpatents

In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

1984-12-04

432

Wildland fire ash: future research directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdà, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent

Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2014-05-01

433

Clay improvement with burned olive waste ash.  

PubMed

Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

Mutman, Utkan

2013-01-01

434

Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash  

PubMed Central

Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

Mutman, Utkan

2013-01-01

435

Fly ash system technology improves opacity  

SciTech Connect

Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

NONE

2007-06-15

436

NICKEL SPECIATION OF RESIDUAL OIL ASH  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA GRANT NUMBER: R827649C002 Title: Nickel Speciation Of Residual Oil Ash Investigators: Kevin C. Galbreath, John Won, Frank E. Huggins, Gerald P. Huffman, Christopher J. Zygarlicke, Donald L. Toman Institution: University of North Dakota...

437

Characterization of Olive Waste Ashes as Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wet and dry olive cakes are the most important wastes generated when olive oil is produced. In recent years, both olive wastes\\u000a have been incinerated to produce electricity, and thereby large amounts of fly and bottom ash are generated. In this study,\\u000a physical, physicochemical, and chemical characteristics of olive waste ashes produced in Andalusian biomass power plants were\\u000a analyzed to

Rogelio Nogales; Gabriel Delgado; Mar Quirantes; Manuel Romero; Esperanza Romero; Eduarda Molina-Alcaide

438

American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) was established in 1903 for the promotion of the science of horticulture. With 5000 members from all 50 states and more than 100 countries, ASHS serves as the world's largest and most-respected professional society for individuals who practice horticultural science. The gopher server holds information about the membership in the society and the educational opportunity they provide, as well as their publications.

1998-01-01

439

Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.  

PubMed

Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h. PMID:23644066

Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

2013-07-01

440

Evaluating on Agricultural Practices for Effective Sediment Yield Reduction on Sugarcane Fields, Okinawa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion and runoff have led to agricultural and environmental problems throughout the world. Especially in tropical or subtropical region, the corals have been damaged due to oversupply of sediment and nutrients from the river basin including agricultural zones. Therefore effective treatments which can reduce sediment yield in the farmland are necessary. The authors have carried out field plot tests in sugarcane fields to compare the amounts of sediment yield depending on the difference of agricultural practices. From the observations, no-tillage, intercropping, and grass strip reduced sediment yield by 89%, 45%, and 17%, respectively. Moreover, the managements of perennial sugarcane farming and combination of strip tillage planting and intercropping were found to reduce sediment yield by 85% and 69%, respectively. Therefore a sugarcane farming cycle combining these two managements is supposed to be the best-case scenario to reduce sediment yield.

Noda, Keigo; Osawa, Kazutoshi; Ikeda, Syunsuke; Ozawa, Kiyoshi

441

Mineral composition of the sugarcane juice and its influence on the ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

In the present work, we evaluated the mineral composition of three sugarcane varieties from different areas in northeast Brazil and their influence on the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mineral composition was homogeneous in the different areas investigated. However, large variation coefficients were observed for concentrations of copper, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus. Regarding the fermentation performances, the sugarcane juices with the highest magnesium concentration showed the highest ethanol yield. Synthetic media supplemented with magnesium also showed the highest yield (0.45 g g(-1)) while the excess of copper led to the lowest yield (0.35 g g(-1)). According to our results, the magnesium is the principal responsible for the increase on the ethanol yield, and it also seems to be able to disguise the inhibitory effects of the toxic minerals present in the sugarcane juice. PMID:25248994

de Souza, Rafael Barros; de Menezes, João Assis S; de Souza, Raquel de Fátima Rodrigues; Dutra, Emmanuel D; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

2015-01-01

442

Rice tillering and yield as affected by artificial and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) culm injury.  

PubMed

A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate the tillering and yield response of rice, Oryza sativa L., whose culms were injured artificially or by larval sugarcane borers, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Artificially injured plants produced approximately 0.49 more tillers than uninjured plants, similar to what has previously been reported for larval injured plants. In contrast, artificial injury did not affect yield per tiller, whereas larval injury did. The proximity of larval injury to the panicle had a negative impact on tiller yield, whereas artificial injury did not. Artificial injury apparently resulted in less injury to vascular tissue than did sugarcane borer larval injury. Until an artificial method of injury is developed that mimics the effects of larval feeding, further injury studies will continue to require sugarcane borer larvae. PMID:20388284

Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E

2010-04-01

443

A novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment of sugarcane tops for improved enzymatic release of sugars.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment of sugarcane tops as well as to optimize the effect of various operational parameters on pretreatment and hydrolysis. A novel surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreatment was developed which could effectively remove hemicelluloses and lignin and improve the reducing sugar yield from sugarcane tops. Operational parameters for pretreatment and hydrolysis were studied and optimized. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, 0.661 g of reducing sugar was produced per gram of pretreated biomass. The structural changes of native and pretreated biomass were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR). The results indicate that surfactant-assisted ultrasound pretreated sugarcane tops can be used as a potential feed stock for bioethanol production. PMID:23069605

Sindhu, Raveendran; Kuttiraja, Mathiyazhakan; Preeti, Varghese Elizabeth; Vani, Sankar; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Binod, Parameswaran

2013-05-01

444

Utilization of pulverized fuel ash in Malta  

SciTech Connect

In Malta all of the waste produced is mixed and deposited at various sites around the island. None of these sites were purpose built, and all of the waste is above groundwater level. The landfills are not engineered and do not contain any measures to collect leachate and gases emanating from the disposal sites. Another waste, which is disposed of in landfills, is pulverized fuel ash (PFA), which is a by-product of coal combustion by the power station. This has been disposed of in landfill, because its use has been precluded due to the radioactivity of the ashes. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the pulverized fuel ash and to attempt to utilize it as a cement replacement in normal concrete mixes in the construction industry. The levels of radiation emitted from the ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The results of this study revealed that although at early ages cement replacement by PFA resulted in a reduction in compressive strength (P = 0), when compared to the reference concrete at later ages the strengths measured on concrete cores were comparable to the reference concrete (P > 0.05). The utilization of PFA up to 20% cement replacement in concrete did not raise the radioactivity of the concrete. In conclusion, utilization of PFA in the construction industry would be a better way of disposing of the ashes rather than controlling the leachate and any radioactivity emitted by the landfilled ashes.

Camilleri, Josette [Department of Building and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Sammut, Michael [Department of Pathology, St. Luke's Hospital, G'Mangia (Malta); Montesin, Franco E. [Department of Building and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Malta, Msida (Malta)]. E-mail: franco.montesin@um.edu.mt

2006-07-01

445

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash  

SciTech Connect

The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

Not Available

1992-05-01

446

A frictional law for volcanic ash gouge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic provinces are structurally active regions - undergoing continual deformation along faults. Within such fault structures, volcanic ash gouge, containing both crystalline and glassy material, may act as a potential fault plane lubricant. Here, we investigate the frictional properties of volcanic ash gouges with varying glass fractions using a rotary shear apparatus at a range of slip rates (1.3-1300 mm/s) and axial stresses (0.5-2.5 MPa). We show that the frictional behaviour of volcanic ash is in agreement with Byerlee's friction law at low slip velocities, irrespective of glass content. The results reveal a common non-linear reduction of the friction coefficient with slip velocity and yield a frictional law for fault zones containing volcanic ash gouge. Textural analysis reveals that strain localisation and the development of shear bands are more prominent at higher slip velocities (>10 mm/s). The textures observed here are similar to those recorded in ash gouge at the surface of extrusive spines at Mount St. Helens (USA). We use the rate-weakening component of the frictional law to estimate shear-stress-resistance reductions associated with episodic seismogenic slip events that accompany magma ascent pulses. We conclude that the internal structure of volcanic ash gouge may act as a kinematic marker of exogenic dome growth.

Lavallée, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kendrick, J. E.; De Angelis, S.; Petrakova, L.; Hornby, A. J.; Dingwell, D. B.

2014-08-01

447

Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2g/kg for zinc, 2,4g/kg for lead, 1,7g/kg for iron, and 7,9g/kg for magnesium. Copper, manganese, chromium and cadmium are also present with 546, 338, 104 and 91mg/kg of fly ash, respectively. These results are extremely important in subsequent studies on the treatment of fly ash.

Ferreira, C.; Ribeiro, A.; Ottosen, L.

2003-05-01

448

Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized

1980-01-01

449

16 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 THE DISTRIBUTION OF ASH IN NORTH AMERICA  

E-print Network

species, white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and green ash (F. pennsylvanica Marsh.) are the most widely16 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 THE DISTRIBUTION OF ASH IN NORTH@fs.fed.us. Ash trees have been important to the people of North America for thousands of years. Of the nine ash

450

Signal transduction-related responses to phytohormones and environmental challenges in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane is an increasingly economically and environmentally important C4 grass, used for the production of sugar and bioethanol, a low-carbon emission fuel. Sugarcane originated from crosses of Saccharum species and is noted for its unique capacity to accumulate high amounts of sucrose in its stems. Environmental stresses limit enormously sugarcane productivity worldwide. To investigate transcriptome changes in response to environmental inputs that alter yield we used cDNA microarrays to profile expression of 1,545 genes in plants submitted to drought, phosphate starvation, herbivory and N2-fixing endophytic bacteria. We also investigated the response to phytohormones (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate). The arrayed elements correspond mostly to genes involved in signal transduction, hormone biosynthesis, transcription factors, novel genes and genes corresponding to unknown proteins. Results Adopting an outliers searching method 179 genes with strikingly different expression levels were identified as differentially expressed in at least one of the treatments analysed. Self Organizing Maps were used to cluster the expression profiles of 695 genes that showed a highly correlated expression pattern among replicates. The expression data for 22 genes was evaluated for 36 experimental data points by quantitative RT-PCR indicating a validation rate of 80.5% using three biological experimental replicates. The SUCAST Database was created that provides public access to the data described in this work, linked to tissue expression profiling and the SUCAST gene category and sequence analysis. The SUCAST database also includes a categorization of the sugarcane kinome based on a phylogenetic grouping that included 182 undefined kinases. Conclusion An extensive study on the sugarcane transcriptome was performed. Sugarcane genes responsive to phytohormones and to challenges sugarcane commonly deals with in the field were identified. Additionally, the protein kinases were annotated based on a phylogenetic approach. The experimental design and statistical analysis applied proved robust to unravel genes associated with a diverse array of conditions attributing novel functions to previously unknown or undefined genes. The data consolidated in the SUCAST database resource can guide further studies and be useful for the development of improved sugarcane varieties. PMID:17355627

Rocha, Flávia R; Papini-Terzi, Flávia S; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Vicentini, Renato; Duarte, Rodrigo DC; de Rosa, Vicente E; Vinagre, Fabiano; Barsalobres, Carla; Medeiros, Ane H; Rodrigues, Fabiana A; Ulian, Eugênio C; Zingaretti, Sônia M; Galbiatti, João A; Almeida, Raul S; Figueira, Antonio VO; Hemerly, Adriana S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Gláucia M

2007-01-01

451

Low-Energy Electron Scattering by Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of second generation (SG) bioethanol instead of fossil fuels could be a good strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the efficient production of SG bioethanol has being a challenge to researchers around the world. The main barrier one must overcome is the pretreatment, a very important step in SG bioethanol aimed at breaking down the biomass and facilitates the extraction of sugars from the biomass. Plasma-based treatment, which can generate reactive species, could be an interesting possibility since involves low-cost atmospheric-pressure plasma. In order to offer theoretical support to this technique, the interaction of low-energy electrons from the plasma with biomass is investigated. This study was motived by several works developed by Sanche et al., in which they understood that DNA damage arises from dissociative electron attachment, a mechanism in which electrons are resonantly trapped by DNA subunits. We will present elastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by sugarcane biomass molecules, obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. Our calculations indicate the formation of ?* shape resonances in the lignin subunits, while a series of broad and overlapping ?* resonances are found in cellulose and hemicellulose subunits. The presence of ?* and ?* resonances could give rise to direct and indirect dissociation pathways in biomass. Then, theoretical resonance energies can be useful to guide the plasma-based pretreatment to break down specific linkages of interest in biomass.

Oliveira, Eliane; Sanchez, Sergio; Bettega, Marcio; Lima, Marco; Varella, Marcio

2012-06-01

452

Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize, Zea mays L., expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb toxin has been planted to extensive areas across the United States and several other countries, but no resistance has been documented in field populations oflepidopteran target pests. This article describes the first report of resistance alleles to commercially available Cry1Ab Bt maize in a Louisiana population of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Two hundred thirteen two-parent isolines of D. saccharalis were screened for Cry1Ab resistance on Bt maize leaf tissue using an F2 screening technique. Larvae representing three isolines survived >15 d on Bt tissue in the F2 generation. The second generation backcross progeny (B1F2) derived from isoline 52 completed larval development on Bt maize in the greenhouse. Segregation and resistance frequency analysis associated with isoline 52 suggested that Bt resistance is probably determined by a nearly completely recessive allele at a single locus. With this assumption, the estimated resistance allele frequency in this population is 0.0023, within a 95% confidence interval of 0.0003-0.0064. PMID:17370824

Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Andow, David A

2007-02-01

453

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01

454

Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers.  

PubMed

This research was conducted to compare geopolymers made from fly ash and ground bottom ash. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) solutions were used as activators. A mass ratio of 1.5 Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH and three concentrations of NaOH (5, 10, and 15M) were used; the geopolymers were cured at 65 degrees C for 48 h. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used on the geopolymer pastes. Geopolymer mortars were also prepared in order to investigate compressive strength. The results show that both fly ash and bottom ash can be utilized as source materials for the production of geopolymers. The properties of the geopolymers are dependent on source materials and the NaOH concentration. Fly ash is more reactive and produces a higher degree of geopolymerization in comparison with bottom ash. The moderate NaOH concentration of 10 M is found to be suitable and gives fly ash and bottom ash geopolymer mortars with compressive strengths of 35 and 18 MPa. PMID:18715775

Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chalee, Wichian; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

2009-02-01

455

Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers  

SciTech Connect

This research was conducted to compare geopolymers made from fly ash and ground bottom ash. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) solutions were used as activators. A mass ratio of 1.5 Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH and three concentrations of NaOH (5, 10, and 15 M) were used; the geopolymers were cured at 65 deg. C for 48 h. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used on the geopolymer pastes. Geopolymer mortars were also prepared in order to investigate compressive strength. The results show that both fly ash and bottom ash can be utilized as source materials for the production of geopolymers. The properties of the geopolymers are dependent on source materials and the NaOH concentration. Fly ash is more reactive and produces a higher degree of geopolymerization in comparison with bottom ash. The moderate NaOH concentration of 10 M is found to be suitable and gives fly ash and bottom ash geopolymer mortars with compressive strengths of 35 and 18 MPa.

Chindaprasirt, Prinya [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Jaturapitakkul, Chai [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Chalee, Wichian [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131 (Thailand); Rattanasak, Ubolluk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Chonburi 20131 (Thailand)], E-mail: ubolluk@buu.ac.th

2009-02-15

456

Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan, U.S. and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Little information about A. planipennis is available from its native range and it was not known whether this invasive pest would exhibit a preference for a

Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; David L. Cappaert

2007-01-01

457

The ash-1, ash-2 and trithorax Genes of Drosophila melanogaster Are Functionally Related  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the ash-1 and ash-2 genes of Drosophila melanogaster cause a wide variety of homeotic transformations that are similar to the transformations caused by mutations in the trithorax gene. Based on this similar variety of transformations, it was hypothesized that these genes are members of a functionally related set. Three genetic tests were employed here to evaluate that hypothesis.

Allen Shearn

1989-01-01

458

Ash mists and brown snow: Remobilization of volcanic ash from recent Icelandic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

eruptions in Iceland and Chile have demonstrated that volcanic ash problems persist long after an eruption. For this reason, ash dispersion models are being extended to include ash remobilization. Critical to these models is knowledge of the ash source and the particle sizes that can be mobilized under different wind and moisture conditions. Here we characterize the physical and chemical characteristics of ash deposited on new snow in Reykjavík, Iceland, following a blizzard on 6 March 2013. Morphological, textural, and compositional analyses indicate resuspension from multiple eruptive deposits, including both Grímsvötn (2011) and Eyjafjallajökull (2010) eruptions. Grain size measurements show a mode of 32-63 µm, with particles as large as 177 µm; there is little mass in the very fine fraction, ?10 µm (PM10). We compare our observations to predictions using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, NAME (UK Met Office). The model output is consistent with observations in that it forecasts resuspension from both Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn source regions, and shows ash