These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

2011-10-01

2

Recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste in the production of clay bricks.  

PubMed

This work investigates the recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as a method to provide raw material for clay brick bodies, through replacement of natural clay by up 20 wt.%. Initially, the waste sample was characterized by its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, particle size, morphology and pollution potential. Clay bricks pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their technological properties (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and tensile strength). The sintered microstructure was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste is mainly composed by crystalline silica particles. The test results indicate that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste could be used as a filler in clay bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way. PMID:22387325

Faria, K C P; Gurgel, R F; Holanda, J N F

2012-06-30

3

Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

Sales, Almir, E-mail: almir@ufscar.b [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Sofia Araujo, E-mail: sofiaalima@yahoo.com.b [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2010-06-15

4

Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement.  

PubMed

Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement. PMID:20163947

Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araújo

2010-06-01

5

Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.  

PubMed

Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

2010-05-01

6

Char from sugarcane bagasse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unused sugarcane bagasse represents an underutilized resource in sugarcane growing regions of the world. This is a renewable resource that can be used in a thermochemical process to create chars, which could be incorporated back into agricultural activities. The practice is likely to improve soil ...

7

Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

2011-10-01

8

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

SciTech Connect

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

1981-08-01

9

Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

10

Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. I: sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse, which is a complex material, is the major by-product of the sugar cane industry. It contains about 50% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose and 25% lignin. Due to its abundant availability, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the

Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol

2000-01-01

11

Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

2013-01-01

12

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

2013-10-28

13

Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions  

E-print Network

CONVERSION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE TO CARBOXYLIC ACIDS UNDER THERMOPHILIC CONDITIONS A Dissertation by ZHIHONG FU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2007 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CONVERSION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE TO CARBOXYLIC ACIDS UNDER THERMOPHILIC CONDITIONS A Dissertation by ZHIHONG FU Submitted to the Office...

Fu, Zhihong

2009-05-15

14

Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose at Varying Solids Concentration  

E-print Network

Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose of varying sugarcane bagasse concentrations on xylose monomer and oligomer yields was experimentally measured improvements to make the technology competitive for biologically manu- facturing ethanol6 and commodity

California at Riverside, University of

15

Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of ?-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

2013-03-01

16

Generation of Energy from Sugarcane Bagasse by Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide harvest of sugarcane for sucrose production represents a major agricultural industry, with approximately Mt\\u000a 1500 produced annually. The cane yields about 13.5% of its weight as sugar, together with an equal amount (dry weight) of\\u000a fibrous bagasse as waste. The bagasse, which is predominantly cellulose, is burned at the mills to generate steam for sugar\\u000a processing. The global

B. R. Stanmore

2010-01-01

17

SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE PYROLYSIS OIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates the methodology for sugarcane bagasse oil (SBO) extraction by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) route using carbon dioxide as a supercritical fluid. This experimental work was conducted to identify the best process conditions to maximize the yield of extracts and its contents of phenols and substituted phenols. The experiments were repeated for the SBO obtained through pyrolysis route

Rajesh N Patel; Santanu Bandyopadhyay; Anuradda Ganesh

18

Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by C?C and C?O?C links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.

2013-03-01

19

Sugarcane biomass for biorefineries: comparative composition of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components of bagasse and straw.  

PubMed

Two fractions of sugarcane, namely bagasse and straw (or trash), were characterized in relation to their chemical composition. Bagasse presented values of glucans, hemicelluloses, lignin and ash of 37.74, 27.23, 20.57 and 6.53%, respectively, while straw had 33.77, 27.38, 21.28 and 6.23% of these same components. Ash content was relatively high in both cane biomass fractions. Bagasse showed higher levels of contaminating oxides while straw had a higher content of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides. A comparison between the polysaccharide chemical compositions of these lignocellulosic materials suggests that similar amounts of fermentable sugars are expected to arise from their optimal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Details about the chemical properties of cane biomass holocellulose, hemicelluloses A and B and ?-cellulose are provided, and these may offer a good opportunity for designing more efficient enzyme cocktails for substrate saccharification. PMID:25263869

Szczerbowski, Danielle; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Zandoná Filho, Arion; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

2014-12-19

20

Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained with GC-pretreated bagasse is possibly due to the presence of one hydroxyl group in the GC molecular structure, resulting in more significant biomass delignification and defibrillation, though both solvent pretreatments reduced bagasse particles to a similar extent. The maximum glucan digestibility of GC/glycerol systems was less than that of EC/EG systems, which is likely attributed to glycerol being less effective than EG in biomass delignification and defibrillation. Acidified AC/AG solvent systems were more effective for pretreatment of lignin-containing biomass than MCC. PMID:24156757

2013-01-01

21

Dilute-acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse with fungal treatment and fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recovering fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment followed by enzymatic saccharification. During pretreatment inhibitory compounds are often formed that impede fermenting microorganisms. Biological detoxification has been identified as a potential method to prepare biomass...

22

Optimization of Chemical Pretreatment and Acid Saccharification for Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse to Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production potential of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse was studied. Chemical pretreatments were carried out\\u000a by shaking bagasse with 1, 2 and 3% H2O2 (pH 10, 11.5 and 13) for 24, 48 and 72 h with subsequent saccharification of pretreated bagasse with H2SO4 (0.8 and 1.0 M) for 50 min for optimization of process. Acid hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var

S. K. Uppal; Ramandeep Kaur; Poonam Sharma

23

A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic

Sarita C. Rabelo; Rubens Maciel Filho; Aline C. Costa

2008-01-01

24

Dilute mixed-acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral utilisation of bagasse is a high priority for the diversification of the sugarcane industry. The application of a biorefinery philosophy to bagasse utilisation requires its fractionation into its main components: cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. The first stage in that process is the pretreatment, in which a considerable part of hemicelluloses is solubilised, and cellulose is activated towards enzymatic hydrolysis.

George Jackson de Moraes Rocha; Carlos Martin; Isaias Barbosa Soares; Ana Maria Souto Maior; Henrique Macedo Baudel; Cesar Augusto Moraes de Abreu

2011-01-01

25

Study of structural modification of sugarcane bagasse employing hydrothermal treatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the cellulosic ethanol is an important alternative way to many liquid biofuels using renewable biomass rich in polysaccharides. To be used as feedstock for ethanol production, the bagasse needs to be pretreated in order to expose its main constitutive. The present work proposes the use of different pretreatment processes to better expose the cellulose for hydrolysis and fermentation. In the present paper the sugarcane bagasse was submitted to a hydrothermal pretreatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). An RF microplasma torch was employed as APPs in Ar and Ar/O2 mixing. The bagasse was treated in discharge and post-discharge regions. The position and time of treatment was varied as well as the gas mixture. The quantity of polysaccharides was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed the release of a fraction of the hemicelluloses in the sugarcane bagasse. Modifications in the surface of the sugarcane fibers were monitored by employing scanning electron microscopy.

Amorim, Jayr; Pimenta, Maria Teresa; Gurgel, Leandro; Squina, Fabio; Souza-Correa, Jorge; Curvelo, Antonio

2009-10-01

26

Enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis by subcritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Most biomass pretreatment processes for sugar production are run at low-solid concentration (<10 wt.%). Subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) could provide a more sustainable pretreatment medium while using relative high-solid contents (15 wt.%). The effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to the solid and glucan recoveries at different pretreatment conditions were investigated. Subsequently, enzymatic hydrolysis at different hydrolysis time was applied to obtain maximal glucose yield, which can be used for ethanol fermentation. The maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 38.5 g based on 100g raw material after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, representing 93.0% glucose in sugarcane bagasse. The enhanced digestibilities of subcritical CO2 pretreated sugarcane bagasse were due to the removal of hemicellulose, which were confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA analyses. PMID:24603488

Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

2014-04-01

27

Addition of feruloyl esterase and xylanase produced on-site improves sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Accessory enzymes that assist biomass degradation could be used to improve the recovery of fermentable sugar for use in biorefineries. In this study, different fungal strains isolated from the Amazon rainforest were evaluated in terms of their ability to produce feruloyl esterase (FAE) and xylanase enzymes, and an assessment was made of the contributions of the enzymes in the hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. In the selection step, screening using plate assays was followed by shake flask submerged cultivations. After carbon source selection and cultivation in a stirred-tank bioreactor, Aspergillusoryzae P21C3 proved to be a promising strain for production of the enzymes. Supplementation of a commercial enzyme preparation with 30% (v/v) crude enzymatic complex from A. oryzae P21C3 increased the conversion of cellulose derived from pretreated sugarcane bagasse by 36%. Supplementation with FAE and xylanase enzymes produced on-site can therefore be used to improve the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. PMID:25151076

Braga, Cleiton Márcio Pinto; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Paixão, Douglas Antônio Alvaredo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

2014-10-01

28

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate for ethanol production by acid recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase the reducing sugar concentration in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and recover the acid, the acid hydrolysis was carried out in an acid recycle process and detoxification of hydrolysate was performed by electrodialysis. Two cycles of acidic treatments increased the reducing sugar concentration from 28 to 63.5gl?1 and sulphuric acid consumption decreased to 0.056gg?1 bagasse.

Ke-Ke Cheng; Bai-Yan Cai; Jian-An Zhang; Hong-Zhi Ling; Yu-Jie Zhou; Jing-Ping Ge; Jing-Ming Xu

2008-01-01

29

A Comparison Between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and\\u000a compared. Analyses were performed using 23 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors.\\u000a The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic\\u000a hydrolysis. Experiments were performed

Sarita C. Rabelo; Rubens Maciel Filho; Aline C. Costa

2008-01-01

30

A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and\\u000a compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading\\u000a and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and\\u000a glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic

Sarita C. Rabelo; Rubens Maciel Filho; Aline C. Costa

2008-01-01

31

A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and\\u000a compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading\\u000a and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and\\u000a glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic

Sarita C. Rabelo; Rubens Maciel Filho; Aline C. Costa

32

The surface reactivity and implied toxicity of ash produced from sugarcane burning.  

PubMed

Sugarcane combustion generates fine-grained particulate that has the potential to be a respiratory health hazard because of its grain size and composition. In particular, conversion of amorphous silica to crystalline forms during burning may provide a source of toxic particles. In this study, we investigate and evaluate the toxicity of sugarcane ash and bagasse ash formed from commercial sugarcane burning. Experiments to determine the main physicochemical properties of the particles, known to modulate biological responses, were combined with cellular toxicity assays to gain insight into the potential reactions that could occur at the particle-lung interface following inhalation. The specific surface area of the particles ranged from ?16 to 90 m(2) g(-1) . The samples did not generate hydroxyl- or carbon-centered radicals in cell-free tests. However, all samples were able to 'scavenge' an external source of hydroxyl radicals, which may be indicative of defects on the particle surfaces that may interfere with cellular processes. The bioavailable iron on the particle surfaces was low (2-3 ?mol m(-2) ), indicating a low propensity for iron-catalyzed radical generation. The sample surfaces were all hydrophilic and slightly acidic, which may be due to the presence of oxygenated (functional) groups. The ability to cause oxidative stress and membrane rupture in red blood cells (hemolysis) was found to be low, indicating that the samples are not toxic by the mechanisms tested. Cytotoxicity of sugarcane ash was observed, by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release, after incubation of relatively high concentrations of ash with murine alveolar macrophage cells. All samples induced nitrogen oxide release (although only at very high concentrations) and reactive oxygen species generation (although the bagasse samples were less potent than the sugarcane ash). However, the samples induced significantly lower cytotoxic effects and nitrogen oxide generation when compared with the positive control. PMID:22431484

Le Blond, Jennifer S; Tomatis, Maura; Horwell, Claire J; Dunster, Christina; Murphy, Fiona; Corazzari, Ingrid; Grendene, Francesca; Turci, Francesco; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive; Fubini, Bice

2014-05-01

33

Influence of sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar application on nitrate leaching in calcaric dark red soil.  

PubMed

Application of biochar has been suggested to improve water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity of agricultural soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of bagasse charcoal (sugarcane [ L.] bagasse-derived biochar) on nitrate (NO) leaching from Shimajiri Maji soil, which has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity. The nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse charcoal formed at five pyrolysis temperatures (400-800° C) were investigated to select the most suitable bagasse charcoal for NO adsorption. Nitrate was able to adsorb onto the bagasse charcoal formed at pyrolysis temperatures of 700 to 800° C. Nitrate adsorption by bagasse charcoal (formed at 800° C) that passed through a 2-mm sieve was in a state of nonequilibrium even at 20 h after the addition of 20 mg N L KNO solution. Measurements suggested that the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of bagasse charcoal (800° C)-amended soils are affected by changes in soil tortuosity and porosity and the presence of meso- and micropores in the bagasse charcoal, which did not contribute to soil water transfer. In NO leaching studies using bagasse charcoal (800° C)-amended soils with different charcoal contents (0-10% [w/w]), the maximum concentration of NO in effluents from bagasse charcoal-amended soil columns was approximately 5% less than that from a nonamended soil column because of NO adsorption by bagasse charcoal (800° C). We conclude that application of bagasse charcoal (800°C) to the soil will increase the residence time of NO in the root zone of crops and provide greater opportunity for crops to absorb NO. PMID:22751055

Kameyama, K; Miyamoto, T; Shiono, T; Shinogi, Y

2012-01-01

34

Mechanical Properties and Morphological Study of Fly-Ash-Bagasse Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the natural fiber epoxy composite has attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material. The natural fiber composites can be very cost effective material. In the present investigation the development of a Fly ash—Bagasse fiber composite material has been discussed. The Bagasse fiber has been used in two different sizes for the developed material. In two developed composites, diameter of Bagasse fiber has been varied between 13-16 ?m and 83-95 ?m in length. Correspondingly in other two developed composites; length of Bagasse fiber has been varied from 1 to 5 mm. It was observed that the density decreases by mixing the fiber was more as compared to the composite having both Bagasse fiber and Fly ash. A Bagasse fiber composite with size in the range of ?m exhibited better tensile strength than the composite having Bagasse fiber size in mm. The compressive strength of the material increases, if Fly ash alone is used for the composite material but, when Bagasse fiber was mixed with the Fly ash, it was found that there has been a decrease in the compressive strength. It was also observed that there has been a decrease in the flexural strength of the material by mixing the Bagasse fiber in the matrix. The microstructure of composite material was investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscope. The images from Scanning Electron Microscope demonstrated that the Fly ash and Bagasse fiber particles are uniformly distributed over the matrix.

Verma, Deepak; Gope, Prakash Chandra; Maheshwari, Mohit Kumar; Sharma, Ravinder Kumar

2012-10-01

35

Fast pyrolysis of rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an induction-heating reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the application of induction heating, a fast pyrolysis was used for producing valuable products from rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effect of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and holding time on the yields of pyrolysis products and their chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum yield of ca.

W. T. Tsai; M. K. Lee; Y. M. Chang

2006-01-01

36

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate.  

PubMed

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. PMID:25059876

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Matsushika, Akinori

2014-01-01

37

Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L-arabinose, D-xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or...

38

Comparison of process configurations for ethanol production from two-step pretreated sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pretreated sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production was investigated by comparing three process configurations, separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and presacchararification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF). Design of experiments was applied to the different configurations. Glucose concentration and glucose yield were selected as response parameters for the saccharification step, while ethanol

L. Mesa; E. González; I. Romero; E. Ruiz; C. Cara; E. Castro

2011-01-01

39

Isolation of nanocellulose from waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and its characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocellulose obtained by acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) has been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Nanocellulose and cellulose exhibited identical FTIR spectra quite different from SCB. TG analysis

Arup Mandal; Debabrata Chakrabarty

2011-01-01

40

Hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology improves digestibility and ethanol production by SSF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

41

Draft Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus Strain DMB1, Isolated from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate  

PubMed Central

We determined the genome sequence of a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus strain DMB1, isolated from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the sequence provides further insights into the genomic differences between this strain and other reported K. marxianus strains. The genome described here is composed of 11,165,408 bases and has 4,943 protein-coding genes. PMID:25059876

Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hoshino, Tamotsu

2014-01-01

42

PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND PRODUCT COST TO MANUFACTURE SUGARCANE BAGASSE-BASED GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Process flow diagrams and manufacturing costs were developed to convert sugarcane bagasse to granular activated carbon. Unit operations in the conversion process consisted of milling, pelletization, pyrolysis/activation, washing with acid and water, and drying/screening/collecting of the final prod...

43

Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties. PMID:24104688

Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

2014-01-01

44

A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

45

Understanding mild acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse through particle scale modeling.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse is an abundant and sustainable resource, generated as a by-product of sugarcane milling. The cellulosic material within bagasse can be broken down into glucose molecules and fermented to produce ethanol, making it a promising feedstock for biofuel production. Mild acid pretreatment hydrolyses the hemicellulosic component of biomass, thus allowing enzymes greater access to the cellulosic substrate during saccharification. A particle-scale mathematical model describing the mild acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse has been developed, using a volume averaged framework. Discrete population-balance equations are used to characterise the polymer degradation kinetics, and diffusive effects account for mass transport within the cell wall of the bagasse. As the fibrous material hydrolyses over time, variations in the porosity of the cell wall and the downstream effects on the reaction kinetics are accounted for using conservation of volume arguments. Non-dimensionalization of the model equations reduces the number of parameters in the system to a set of four dimensionless ratios that compare the timescales of different reaction and diffusion events. Theoretical yield curves are compared to macroscopic experimental observations from the literature and inferences are made as to constraints on these "unknown" parameters. These results enable connections to be made between experimental data and the underlying thermodynamics of acid pretreatment. Consequently, the results suggest that data-fitting techniques used to obtain kinetic parameters should be carefully applied, with prudent consideration given to the chemical and physiological processes being modeled. PMID:23801000

Greenwood, Ava A; Farrell, Troy W; O'Hara, Ian M

2013-12-01

46

Increase in ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse based on combined pretreatments and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was performed to investigate the production of ethanol. The sugarcane bagasse was pretreated in a process combining steam explosion and alkaline delignification. The lignin content decreased to 83%. Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolyses was initiated with 8% (w/v) solids loading, and 10 FPU/g cellulose. Then, 1% solids were fed at 12, 24 or 48 h intervals. After 120 h, the hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFPEDA 1238, and a fourfold increase in ethanol production was reached when fed-batch hydrolysis with a 12-h addition period was used for the steam pretreated and delignified bagasse. PMID:23201527

Wanderley, Maria Carolina de Albuquerque; Martín, Carlos; Rocha, George Jackson de Moraes; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

2013-01-01

47

Improvement of hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by soaking in aqueous ammonia and methanolic ammonia.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by soaking it in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and methanolic aqueous ammonia (SMAA) at 70 °C for 12 h. Then the pretreated as well as untreated bagasse was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 °C for 72 h by 15 FPU cellulase and 30 CBU cellobiase per g of substrate. The hydrolysis of SAA-pretreated bagasse with a solid to liquid (S:L) ratio of 1:10 resulted in 95.9% of the maximum theoretical yield. The production yield for SMAA at an S:L ratio of 1:6 with 15% methanol was 88.6%, while it was only 21.3% for the untreated bagasse. Ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was conducted at 37 °C for 72 h. The results revealed that the ethanol production yield was improved from 12.7% for the untreated bagasse to 92.45% and 90.8% for the SAA and the SMAA pretreated bagasse, respectively. The compositional and chemical structural analysis suggested that lignin removal and crystallinity reduction were responsible for the hydrolysis and SSF improvements. PMID:23832329

Hedayatkhah, Abolghasem; Motamedi, Hossein; Najafzadeh Varzi, Hossein; Ghezelbash, Gholamreza; Amopour Bahnamiry, Mostafa; Karimi, Keikhosro

2013-01-01

48

Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol yields of combined surfactant and dilute ammonia treated sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Tween 80, Tween 20, PEG 4000 or PEG 6000 was used in combination with ammonium hydroxide for the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Pretreatment was carried out by mixing sugarcane bagasse, ammonium hydroxide (28% v/v solution), and water at a ratio of 1:0.5:20, adding 3% (w/w) surfactant based on the weight of dry biomass, and heating the mixture to 160 °C for 1 h. Fibers were hydrolyzed using two concentrations of commercially available enzymes, Spezyme CP and Novozyme 188. The results indicated that PEG 4000 and Tween 80 gave the highest cellulose digestibilities (62%, 66%) and ethanol yields (73%, 69%) as compared to the use of only dilute ammonia (38%, 42%) or water (27%, 26%) as catalysts, respectively. The enhanced digestibilities of non-ionic surfactant–dilute ammonia treated biomass can be attributed to delignification and reduction of cellulose crystallinity as confirmed by FTIR, TGA and XRD analysis. PMID:23376200

Cao, Shuo; Aita, Giovanna M

2013-03-01

49

Structural features and antioxidant activity of xylooligosaccharides enzymatically produced from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) were prepared from xylan-rich hemicelluloses isolated by potassium hydroxide from sugarcane bagasse by hydrolysis with crude xylanase secreted by Pichia stipitis. Hydrolysis for 12h produced XOS with a maximum yield of 31.8%, equivalent to 5.29 mg mL(-1) in the hydrolyzate. XOS with degrees of polymerization (DP) from 2 to 4 (xylobiose, xylotriose, and xylotetraose) were the major components in the hydrolysates, whereas the oligosaccharides with higher DP of 5-6 (xylopentaose and xylohexose) showed a constant low level. FT-IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, HSQC) demonstrated that XOS contained Araf and 4-O-Me-?-D-GlcpA residues. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that the XOS exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. The results obtained indicate that the XOS produced from sugarcane bagasse can be employed in food-related applications. PMID:23131647

Bian, Jing; Peng, Feng; Peng, Xiao-Peng; Peng, Pai; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

2013-01-01

50

Succinate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as the carbon source.  

PubMed

Efficient biosynthesis of succinate from a renewable biomass resource by engineered Escherichia coli is reported in this paper. Fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by engineered E. coli BA204, a pflB, ldhA, and ppc deletion strain overexpressing the ATP-forming phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase from Bacillus subtilis 168, produced a final succinate concentration of 15.85 g L(-1) with a high yield of 0.89 g L(-1) total sugar under anaerobic conditions. During dual-phase fermentations, initial aerobic growth facilitated subsequent anaerobic succinate production, with a final succinate concentration of 18.88 g L(-1) and a yield of 0.96 g g(-1) total sugar after 24 h of anaerobic fermentation. The high succinate yield from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate demonstrated a great potential application of renewable biomass as a feedstock for the economical production of succinate using metabolically engineered E. coli. PMID:23010211

Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Cao, Weijia; Wu, Mingke; Chen, Kequan; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Pingkai

2013-05-01

51

Fermentation of pretreated sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate to ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysates, pretreated by either over-liming or electrodialysis and, supplemented with nutrient\\u000a materials, were fermented to ethanol using Pachysolen tannophilus DW06. Compared with detoxification by over-liming, detoxification by electrodialysis decreased the loss of sugar and increased\\u000a the acetic acid removal, leading to better fermentability. A batch culture with electrodialytically pretreated hydrolysate\\u000a as substrate was developed giving 21 g ethanol l?1

Ke-Ke Cheng; Jing-Ping Ge; Jian-An Zhang; Hong-Zhi Ling; Yu-Jie Zhou; Ming-De Yang; Jing-Ming Xu

2007-01-01

52

Effect of dose of xylanase on bleachability of sugarcane bagasse ethanol\\/water pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulps obtained from the ethanol\\/water cooking of sugarcane bagasse were bleached with the xylanase enzyme obtained from the\\u000a fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus IOC-4145 and with the commercial enzyme Cartazyme HS from Sandoz. By changing the enzyme dose from 4.3 to 36 IU\\/g of pulp,\\u000a kappa number and viscosity were maintained when the xylanase from T. lanuginosus was used. On the other

Denise S. Ruzene; Adilson R. Gonçalves

2003-01-01

53

Detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate improves ethanol production by Candida shehatae NCIM 3501  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with 2.5% (v\\/v) HCl yielded 30.29g\\/L total reducing sugars along with various fermentation inhibitors such as furans, phenolics and acetic acid. The acid hydrolysate when treated with anion exchange resin brought about maximum reduction in furans (63.4%) and total phenolics (75.8%). Treatment of hydrolysate with activated charcoal caused 38.7% and 57.5% reduction in furans and total phenolics,

Anuj Kumar Chandel; Rajeev Kumar Kapoor; Ajay Singh; Ramesh Chander Kuhad

2007-01-01

54

Optimization of pretreatment and fermentation conditions for production of extracellular cellulase complex using sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a lignocellulosic byproduct of juice extraction from sugarcane, is rich in cellulose (40-42%). This could be used as a substrate for the production of cellulase complex. Fermentation conditions were optimized for production of cellulase complex (CMCase, Cellulobiase and FPase) by wild type Trichoderma sp. using sugarcane bagasse as sole carbon source. Alkaline treatment (2% NaOH) of bagasse (AlSCB) was found suitable for the production of reducing sugar over the acidic pretreatment method. After 5 days of incubation period, 5% substrate concentration at pH 5.0 and 400C resulted in maximum production of CMCase (0.622 U), while maximum (3.388 U) production of cellulobiase was obtained at 300C. The CMCase was precipitated and purified to the extent of 59.06 fold by affinity chromatography with 49.09% recovery. On 12% SDS-PAGE, a single band corresponding to 33 kDa was observed. The Km and Vmax for CMCase from Trichoderma was found 507.04 mg/ml and 65.32 mM/min, respectively. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 300C at pH-5.0 (0.363 U) and was stable over range of 20-60°C and pH 5.0-7.5. PMID:25489168

Ashfaque, Mohammad; Solomon, Sushil; Pathak, Neelam

2014-01-01

55

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

2012-03-01

56

Construction of individual, fused, and co-expressed proteins of endoglucanase and ?-glucosidase for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

At least a combination of endoglucanase (EglII) and ?-glucosidase (BglZ) is required for hydrolyzing crystalline cellulose. To understand the catalytic efficiency of combination enzymes for converting biomass to sugars, EglII and BglZ were constructed in the form of individual, fused as well as co-expression proteins, and their activities for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse were evaluated. The genes, eglII isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PSM3.1 earlier and bglZ from B. amyloliquefaciens ABBD, were expressed extracellularly in Bacillus megaterium MS941. EglII exhibited both exoglucanase and endoglucanase activities, and BglZ belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 1 family (GH 1) showed ?-glucosidase activity. A combination of EglII and BglZ showed activity on substrates Avicel, CMC and sugarcane bagasse. Specifically for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse, fused protein (fus-EglII+BglZ), co-expression protein (coex-BglZ+EglII), and mixed-individual protein (mix-EglII+BglZ) produced cellobiose as the main product, along with a small amount of glucose. The amount of reducing sugars released from the hydrolyzing bleached sugarcane bagasse (BSB) using fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ was 2.7- and 4.2-fold higher, respectively, than steamed sugarcane bagasse (SSB), indicating the synergetic enzymes worked better on treated sugarcane bagasse. Compared with fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ, coex-BglZ+EglII released more mol reducing sugars from SSB, indicating the enzymes were potential for biomass conversion. Additionally, coex-BglZ+EglII acted on BSB 2.5-fold faster than fus-EglII+BglZ. Thus, coex-bglZ+eglII expression system was the best choice to produce enzymes for hydrolyzing sugarcane baggase. PMID:24598011

Kurniasih, Sari Dewi; Alfi, Almasul; Natalia, Dessy; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; Nurachman, Zeily

2014-01-01

57

New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract.  

PubMed

The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

2014-01-01

58

New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract  

PubMed Central

The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

2014-01-01

59

Production of fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse by enzymatic hydrolysis after autohydrolysis and mechanical refining.  

PubMed

The autohydrolysis process has been considered a simple, low-cost and environmental friendly technology for generation of sugars from biomass. In order to improve accessibility of enzymes during enzymatic hydrolysis as well as to allow the recovery of hemicellulose in the filtrate, the sugarcane bagasse was pretreated using autohydrolysis followed by a mechanical refining process. The autohydrolysis was carried out in three different conditions. Autohydrolysis at 190°C for 10min provided the highest overall sugar (19.2/100g raw bagasse) in prehydrolyzate. The enzymatic hydrolysis step was performed for all the post-treated solids with and without refining at enzyme loadings of 5 and 10FPU/g for 96h. A total of 84.4% of sugar can be recovered from sugarcane bagasse at 180°C for 20min with 5 FPU/g enzyme charge. The economic analysis for the proposed method showed that the bioethanol production can have a financial return larger than 12%. PMID:25590426

Batalha, Larisse Aparecida Ribas; Han, Qiang; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Colodette, Jorge Luiz; Borges Gomes, Fernando José

2015-03-01

60

Optimizing cellulase usage for improved mixing and rheological properties of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Consolidation of bioprocessing steps with lignocellulose is limited by hydrolysate toxicity, the fibrous nature of suspensions, and low activity of cellulase enzymes. Combinations of enzyme dose and treatment conditions improved the flow properties and pumping of acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse slurries (10% dry weight). Low levels of cellulase enzyme (0.1 and 0.5 FPU/g dry weight acid-pretreated bagasse) were found to reduce viscosities by 77-95% after 6 h, solubilizing 3.5% of the bagasse dry weight. Flow of slurries through small funnels was a useful predictor of success with centrifugal and diaphragm pumps. Equations were derived that describe viscosity and solubilized carbohydrates as a function of time and cellulase dosage. Blending of acid-pretreated bagasse (10% dry weight) with suspensions of acid-pretreated bagasse (10% dry weight) that had been previously digested with cellulase enzymes (low viscosity) did not increase viscosity in a linear fashion. Viscosity of these mixtures remained relatively constant until a threshold level of new fiber was reached, followed by a rapid increase with further additions. Up to 35% fresh acid-pretreated bagasse could be blended with enzyme-digested fiber (5.0 FPU/g dry weight acid-pretreated fiber; 6 h) with only a modest increase in viscosity. The smooth surfaces of enzyme-treated fiber are proposed to hinder the frequency and extent of interactions between fibrils of fresh fiber particles (acid-pretreated) until a threshold concentration is achieved, after which fiber interactions and viscosity increase dramatically. These results were used to model the viscosity in an ideal continuous stirred tank reactor (liquefaction) as a function of residence time and enzyme dosage. PMID:20678927

Geddes, Claudia C; Peterson, James J; Mullinnix, Michael T; Svoronos, Spyros A; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

2010-12-01

61

Non-cellulosic heteropolysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse - sequential extraction with pressurized hot water and alkaline peroxide at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The xylan-rich hemicellulose components of sugarcane bagasse were sequentially extracted with pressurized hot-water extraction (PHWE) and alkaline peroxide. The hemicelluloses were found to contain mainly arabinoxylans with varying substitutions confirmed by different chemical and spectroscopic methods. The arabinoxylans obtained from PHWE were found to be more branched compared to those obtained after alkaline extraction. Sequential extraction could be useful for the isolation of hemicelluloses with different degree of branching, molar mass, and functional groups from sugarcane bagasse, which can be of high potential use for various industrial applications. PMID:24495799

Banerjee, Protibha Nath; Pranovich, Andrey; Dax, Daniel; Willför, Stefan

2014-03-01

62

Sugarcane Silage, Sodium Hydroxide and Steam Pressure-Treated Sugarcane Bagasse, Corn Silage, Cottonseed Hulls, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Aspergillis oryzae Product in Complete Rations for Lactating Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments compared silages, by-product roughages, and added sodium bicarbonate. Thirty-four cows were fed diets containing 1) 30% cottonseed hulls, 2) corn silage to supply 25% of dry matter intake from nongrain portion, 3) alkali-treated sugarcane bagasse silage, or 4) sugarcane silage both to supply 25% of dry matter intake. Only dry matter intake differed for diets 1 and 2

B. Harris Jr.; H. H. Van Horn; K. E. Manookian; S. P. Marshall; M. J. Taylor; C. J. Wilcox

1983-01-01

63

Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results. PMID:22122978

2011-01-01

64

A study on the pretreatment of a sugarcane bagasse sample with dilute sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments based on a 23 central composite full factorial design were carried out in 200-ml stainless-steel containers to study the pretreatment,\\u000a with dilute sulfuric acid, of a sugarcane bagasse sample obtained from a local sugar–alcohol mill. The independent variables\\u000a selected for study were temperature, varied from 112.5°C to 157.5°C, residence time, varied from 5.0 to 35.0 min, and sulfuric\\u000a acid

Larissa Canilha; Victor T. O. Santos; George J. M. Rocha; João B. Almeida e Silva; Marco Giulietti; Silvio S. Silva; Maria G. A. Felipe; André Ferraz; Adriane M. F. Milagres; Walter Carvalho

65

Evaluation of technological alternatives for process integration of sugarcane bagasse for sustainable biofuels production—Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, there is a tremendous global interest in the biofuels production. However, first generation biofuels have been debated about that energy-crop compete with food crops and thus cause food deficiency and price increases. In this sense, researchers have started looking for potential feedstock for ethanol such as lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., sugarcane bagasse), which does not affect food security. In this

K. Ojeda; O. Ávila; J. Suárez; V. Kafarov

2011-01-01

66

Characteristics and oil sorption effectiveness of kapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks: oil removal suitability matrix.  

PubMed

The characteristics and water/oil sorption effectiveness ofkapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks have been compared. The three biomass types were subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface tension analyses for liquid-air and oil-water systems were conducted. Both kapok fibre and sugarcane bagasse exhibit excellent oil sorption capabilities for diesel, crude, new engine and used engine oils as their oil sorption capacities all exceed 10 g/g. The synthetic sorbent exhibits oil sorption capacities comparable with sugarcane bagasse, while rice husks exhibit the lowest oil sorption capacities among all the sorbents. Kapok fibre shows overwhelmingly high oil-to-water sorption (O/W) ratios ranging from 19.35 to 201.53 while sugarcane bagasse, rice husks and synthetic sorbent have significantly lower O/W ratios (0.76-2.69). This suggests that kapok fibre is a highly effective oil sorbent even in well-mixed oil-water media. An oil sorbent suitability matrix is proposed to aid stakeholders in evaluating customized oil removal usage of the natural sorbents. PMID:22629620

Ali, Norizan; El-Harbawi, Mohanad; Jabal, Ayman Abo; Yin, Chun-Yang

2012-01-01

67

Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse using high total solids and low enzyme loadings.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of phosphoric acid-impregnated steam-treated sugarcane bagasse was pre-optimized using a face-centered central composite design in which the process variables were the substrate total solids (TS, %), agitation intensity (AI, rpm) and enzyme loading (EL, gg(-1)). Pretreatment was carried out at 180°C for 10min using cane bagasse with 50wt% moisture content containing 9.5mg of H3PO4 per gram of dry biomass. Hydrolyses were performed for 96h at 50°C using Cellic CTec2® and water-washed steam-treated substrates. The highest amount of fermentable sugars was obtained with 20wt% TS, producing 76.8gL(-1) of glucose equivalents, which corresponded to a total glucan conversion of 69.2wt% and to a theoretical net increase of 39% in ethanol production from the same sugarcane tonnage without considering the use of leaves, tops and the additional yields from C5 sugars. PMID:25459822

Ramos, Luiz Pereira; da Silva, Larissa; Ballem, Annielly Comelli; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Chiarello, Luana Marcele; Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano

2014-10-23

68

Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

2014-09-01

69

Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal  

SciTech Connect

Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-07-01

70

Effect of lime pre-treatment on the synergistic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by hemicellulases.  

PubMed

Agricultural crop wastes are typically lignocellulosic in composition and thus partially recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation. The recalcitrant nature of plant biomass and the inability to obtain complete enzymatic hydrolysis has led to the establishment of various pre-treatment strategies. Alkaline pre-treatments increase the accessibility of the exposed surface to enzymatic hydrolysis through the removal of acetyl and uronic acid substituents on hemicelluloses. Unlike the use of steam and acid pre-treatments, alkaline pre-treatments (e.g. lime) solubilise lignin and a small percentage of the hemicelluloses. The most common alkaline pre-treatments that are employed make use of sodium hydroxide and lime. This study compared the synergistic degradation of un-treated and lime pre-treated sugarcane bagasse using cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal hemicellulases as free enzymes. The enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA and 62.5% ManA produced the highest amount of reducing sugar of 91.834 micromol/min for the degradation of un-treated bagasse. This enzyme combination produced a degree of synergy of 1.87. The free enzymes displayed an approximately 6-fold increase in the enzyme activity, i.e. the total amount of reducing sugar released (593.65 micromol/min) with the enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA, 25% ManA and 37.5% XynA for the lime pre-treated substrate and a degree of synergy of 2.14. To conclude, this study indicated that pre-treating the sugarcane bagasse is essential, in order to increase the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis by disruption of the lignin sheath, that the lime pre-treatment did not have any dramatic effect on the synergistic relationship between the free enzymes, and that time may play an important role in the establishment of synergistic relationships between enzymes. PMID:20156678

Beukes, Natasha; Pletschke, Brett I

2010-06-01

71

Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G ethanol and electric energy production, could be an option to absorb fluctuations in relative prices. Simulations of three cases were run using the software EMSO: production of 1G ethanol + electric energy, of 1G + 2G ethanol and a flexible biorefinery. Bagasse for 2G ethanol was pretreated with a weak acid solution, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, while 50% of sugarcane trash (mostly leaves) was used as surplus fuel. Results With maximum diversion of bagasse to 2G ethanol (74% of the total), an increase of 25.8% in ethanol production (reaching 115.2 L/tonne of sugarcane) was achieved. An increase of 21.1% in the current ethanol price would be enough to make all three biorefineries economically viable (11.5% for the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery). For 2012 prices, the flexible biorefinery presented a lower Internal Rate of Return (IRR) than the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery. The impact of electric energy prices (auction and spot market) and of enzyme costs on the IRR was not as significant as it would be expected. Conclusions For current market prices in Brazil, not even production of 1G bioethanol is economically feasible. However, the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery is closer to feasibility than the conventional 1G + electric energy industrial plant. Besides, the IRR of the 1G + 2G biorefinery is more sensitive with respect to the price of ethanol, and an increase of 11.5% in this value would be enough to achieve feasibility. The ability of the flexible biorefinery to take advantage of seasonal fluctuations does not make up for its higher investment cost, in the present scenario. PMID:24088415

2013-01-01

72

Removal of Basic Dyes (Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue) from Aqueous Solutions Using Bagasse Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse fly ash, a waste generated in sugar industries in India, has been converted into an inexpensive adsorbent material and utilized for the removal of two basic dyes, rhodamine B and methylene blue. Results include the effect of pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and presence of surfactant on the removal of rhodamine B and methylene blue. The adsorption data have

VINOD K. GUPTA; DINESH MOHAN; SAURABH SHARMA; MONICA SHARMA

2000-01-01

73

Ethanol production from xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse using low loading of commercial cellulase.  

PubMed

Xylan was always extracted as the feedstock for xylooligosaccharides production. The xylan-removed residue may contain high content of cellulose and thus had a possibility to be converted into ethanol. After soaked in 12% of NaOH at room temperature overnight, solubilization of cellulose, xylan, and lignin was 4.64%, 72.06%, and 81.87% respectively. The xylan-removed sugarcane bagasse (XRSB) was enzymatically hydrolyzed by using decreased cellulase loadings. The results showed that 7.5 FPU/g cellulose could obtain a cellulose conversion yield of 82%. Increasing the cellulase loading did not result in higher yield. Based on this, bioethanol production was performed using 7.5 FPU/g cellulose by employing fed-batch fermentation mode. The final ethanol concentration reached 40.59 g/L corresponding to 74.2% of the theoretical maximum. The high titer ethanol and low cellulase loading may reduce the overall cost. PMID:24841492

Li, Jingbo; Zhou, Pengfei; Liu, Hongmei; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Wenjuan; Gong, Yingxue; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

2014-07-01

74

Effect of alkaline pre-treatment on enzyme synergy for efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis in sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ammonium hydroxide (NH(4)OH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pre-treatment on the digestibility of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by hemicellulase action. It was found that pre-treatment of SCB with NH(4)OH removed a larger percentage of the SCB lignin and effectively increased SCB digestibility 13.13 fold. The greatest amount of reducing sugar (1194.88 ?mol/min) and largest degree of synergy (2.85) was obtained using a combination of two enzymes (25% ManA and 75% XynA) with NH(4)OH pre-treated SCB. In this study, NH(4)OH therefore appeared to be a more effective pre-treatment step for subsequent hydrolysis by hemicellulases. PMID:21353533

Beukes, Natasha; Pletschke, Brett I

2011-04-01

75

Biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by integrating dark- and photo-fermentation.  

PubMed

Hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by integrating dark-fermentation by Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 2822 and photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01 was investigated. The SCB was hydrolysed by sulphuric acid and the hydrolysate detoxified by passing through adsorbent resin column (Amberlite XAD-4) to remove the inhibitory furfural, and subjected to dark-fermentation. The cellulosic residue from acid hydrolysis was hydrolysed by the new isolate Cellulomonas fimi to release sugars for H2 production by E. aerogenes, through simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF). Cumulative H2 production during dark-fermentation and SSFF was 1000 and 613 ml/L, respectively. The spent media of dark-fermentation and SSFF were utilized for photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01. The cumulative H2 production was 755 ml/L for dark-fermentation and 351 ml/L for SSFF spent medium. PMID:24291314

Rai, Pankaj K; Singh, S P; Asthana, R K; Singh, Shweta

2014-01-01

76

Antioxidant activities of lignin extracted from sugarcane bagasse via different chemical procedures.  

PubMed

Lignin was extracted from sugarcane bagasse via different chemical procedures with ethanol and alkaline solutions. The products (EL, AL) were characterized by UV, FT-IR, (13)C NMR, TGA, GPC and potentiometric titration. The results indicated AL had more phenolic hydroxyl (PhOH) and methoxyl groups (OCH(3)), and larger molecular mass and better thermal stability than EL. The lignins were further evaluated as potential antioxidants. The results demonstrated the radical scavenging activity (RSA) of AL was 79.0%, 91.3% higher than EL at the concentration of 300 mg L(-1). The stronger antioxidant activity of AL was due to its higher quantities of PhOH and OCH(3) groups. PMID:22982809

Li, Zhili; Ge, Yuanyuan

2012-12-01

77

A biorefining process: Sequential, combinational lignocellulose pretreatment procedure for improving biobutanol production from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Here, for the first time, we designed a sequential, combinatorial lignocellulose pretreatment procedure (SCLPP) for microbial biofuel fermentation to reduce generation of microbial growth inhibitors and furthermore increase sugar yields. We tested this pretreatment process using sugarcane bagasse as substrate and assessed the effectiveness by analysis of biobutanol production through microbial clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 conversion. Our results showed that there were no inhibitory effects when using the hydrolysates as fermentation substrate. Under the SSF scheme, we observed the highest concentrations of butanol (6.4g/L) and total ABE (11.9g/L), resulting in a higher ABE productivity, compared with the SHF method. These findings suggest that the SCLPP is a feasible method for improving ABE production, lowering microbial inhibitor generation, and ensuring success in the subsequent fermentation process. Therefore, our work demonstrated developing a tractable integrated process that facilitates to increase biofuel production from agricultural residues rich in lignocellulose is feasible. PMID:25846185

Su, Haifeng; Liu, Gang; He, Mingxiong; Tan, Furong

2015-07-01

78

A novel anaerobic co-culture system for bio-hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

A novel co-culture of Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense with pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) under mild alkali conditions for bio-hydrogen production was established, exhibiting a cost-effective and synergetic advantage in bio-hydrogen production over monoculture of C. thermocellum or T. aotearoense with untreated SCB. The optimized pretreatment conditions were established to be 3% NaOH, and a liquid to solid ratio of 25:1 at 80°C for 3h. A final hydrogen production of 50.05±1.51 mmol/L was achieved with 40 g/L pretreated SCB at 55°C. The established co-culture system provides a novel consolidated bio-processing strategy for bioconversion of SCB to bio-hydrogen. PMID:23899575

Cheng, Jingrong; Zhu, Mingjun

2013-09-01

79

Experimental investigation of ionic liquid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with 1,3-dimethylimadazolium dimethyl phosphate.  

PubMed

In this study, an imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL), 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ([Mmim][DMP]), was applied for pretreating sugarcane bagasse to produce bioethanol. The main goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of bagasse pretreatment with this IL, and to verify the effect of different operational parameters on the pretreatment process. Results indicated that temperature and duration of IL-pretreatment have optimum values. Within the range investigated, a maximum fermentable sugar conversion of 70.38% was achieved with this IL at 120°C and 120min. The corresponding value was 28.65% for the untreated biomass. The main cause for the observed enhancement in enzymatic hydrolysis was the reduction of cellulose crystallinity in the IL-pretreated biomass, as compared to the untreated sample, because it resulted in higher accessibility of the enzymes to the biomass after pretreatment. Moreover, the results indicated that aqueous [Mmim][DMP] mixtures are not as effective for pretreatment as the pure IL. PMID:25804532

Bahrani, Samaneh; Raeissi, Sona; Sarshar, Mohammad

2015-06-01

80

Comparative study of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and organosolv pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse to improve the overall sugar yield.  

PubMed

Green liquor (GL) combined with H2O2 (GL-H2O2) and green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-ethanol) were chosen for treating sugarcane bagasse. Results showed that the glucose yield (calculated from the glucose content as a percentage of the theoretical glucose available in the substrates)of sugarcane bagasse from GL-ethanol pretreatment (97.7%) was higher than that from GL-H2O2 pretreatment (41.7%) after 72h hydrolysis with 18 filter paper unit (FPU)/g-cellulose for cellulase, 27,175 cellobiase units (CBU)/g-cellulose for ?-glucosidase. Furthermore, about 94.1% of xylan was converted to xylose after GL-ethanol pretreatment without additional xylanase, while the xylose yield was only 29.2% after GL-H2O2 pretreatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that GL-ethanol pretreatment could break up the fiber severely. Moreover, GL-ethanol pretreated substrate was more accessible to cellulase and more hydrophilic than that of GL-H2O2 pretreated. Therefore, GL-ethanol pretreatment is a promising method for improving the overall sugar (glucose and xylan) yield of sugarcane bagasse. PMID:25846186

Yu, Hailong; You, Yanzhi; Lei, Fuhou; Liu, Zuguang; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Jianxin

2015-07-01

81

Removal of lead and chromium from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive and effective adsorbent was developed from bagasse fly ash, obtained from a sugar industry, for the dynamic uptake of lead and chromium. Lead and chromium are sorbed by the developed adsorbent up to 96–98%. The removal of these two metal ions up to 95–96% was achieved by column experiments at a flow rate of 0.5 mlmin?1. The adsorption was found

V. K. Gupta; Imran Ali

2004-01-01

82

Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics  

PubMed Central

Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs), still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline) cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU) yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse) from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83%) > >[C2mim]Cl(53%)?=?[C4mim]Cl(53%). Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography). Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin remained dissolved in the aqueous IL solution. Of the three IL studied [C2mim]OAc gave the best saccharification yield, material recovery and delignification. The effects of [C2mim]OAc pretreatment resemble those of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of [C2mim]Cl and [C4mim]Cl resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. The use of imidazolium IL solvents with shorter alkyl chains results in accelerated dissolution, pretreatment and degradation. PMID:22920045

2012-01-01

83

Understanding the cellulolytic system of Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and enhancing saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by supplementation with pectinase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase.  

PubMed

Supplementation of cellulase cocktails with accessory enzymes can contribute to a higher hydrolytic capacity in releasing fermentable sugars from plant biomass. This study investigated which enzymes were complementary to the enzyme set of Trichoderma harzianum in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse. Specific activities of T. harzianum extract on different substrates were compared with the extracts of Penicillium echinulatum and Trichoderma reesei, and two commercial cellulase preparations. Complementary analysis of the secretome of T. harzianum was also used to identify which enzymes were produced during growth on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. These analyses enabled the selection of the enzymes pectinase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) to be further investigated as supplements to the T. harzianum extract. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse saccharification was evaluated using response surface methodology. The supplementation of T. harzianum enzymatic extract with pectinase and AF increased the efficiency of hydrolysis by up to 116%. PMID:23391738

Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Cota, Júnio; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Cairo, João Paulo Lourenço Franco; Lima, Deise Juliana; Squina, Fábio Marcio; Ruller, Roberto; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

2013-03-01

84

Coupled production of single cell oil as biodiesel feedstock, xylitol and xylanase from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept using fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands.  

PubMed

This work evaluates sugarcane bagasse (SCB) conversion, in a biorefinery approach, to coproduce biodiesel and high value products using two novel mangrove fungi. On acid pre-treatment, sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH) resulted in a xylitol yield of 0.51 g/g xylose consumed in 72 h by Williopsis saturnus. After SCB pretreatment, sugarcane bagasse residue (SCBR) was utilized using Aspergillus terreus for production of xylanase (12.74 U/ml) and cell biomass (9.8 g/L) which was extracted for single cell oil (SCO; 0.19 g/g) and transesterified to biodiesel. The FAME profile exhibited long chain SFAs and PUFAs with predicted biodiesel properties lying within the range specified by international standards. This biorefining approach of SCB utilization for co-production of xylitol, xylanase and SCO gains importance in terms of sustainability and eco-friendliness. PMID:23260270

Kamat, Srijay; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Gade, Wasudeo Namdeo

2013-05-01

85

Optimization of Verticillium lecanii spore production in solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Verticillium lecanii is an entomopathogen with high potential in biological control of pests. We developed a solid-state fermentation with sugarcane bagasse as carrier absorbing liquid medium to propagate V. lecanii spores. Using statistical experimental design, we optimized the medium composition for spore production. We first used one-factor-at-a-time design to identify corn flour and yeast extract as the best carbon and nitrogen sources for the spore production of V. lecanii. Then, we used two-level fractional factorial design to confirm corn flour, yeast extract, and KH(2)PO(4) as important factors significantly affecting V. lecanii spore production. Finally, we optimized these selected variables using a central composite design and response surface method. The optimal medium composition was (grams per liter): corn flour 35.79, yeast 8.69, KH(2)PO(4) 1.63, K(2)HPO(4) 0.325, and MgSO(4) 0.325. Under optimal conditions, spore production reached 1.1 x 10(10) spores/g dried carrier, much higher than that on wheat bran (1.7 x 10(9) spores/g initial dry matter). PMID:19221736

Shi, Yujie; Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Yang

2009-04-01

86

Relationship between physicochemical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse varieties for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

The structural and physicochemical characteristics are associated with resistance of plant cell walls to saccharification by enzymes. The effect of physicochemical properties on glucose yield of bagasse from different varieties of sugarcane at low and high enzyme dosages was investigated. The result showed that glucose yield at low enzyme dosage was positively linear correlated with the yield at high enzyme dosage, for both the untreated and pretreated materials. The pretreatment significantly increased the accessibility of substrates by enzyme due to the increase of internal and external surface area. Glucose yield also showed a linear correlation with dye adsorption. However, the increase in glucose yield as a result of pretreatment did not correlate with the increases in crystallinity index and decreases in degree of polymerization. The Principal Component Analysis of infrared data indicated that lignin was the main component that differentiated the varieties before and after pretreatment. These results suggested that the key differences in pretreatment responses among varieties could be mainly attributed to their differences in the internal and external surface area after pretreatment. PMID:25576176

Brienzo, Michel; Tyhoda, Luvuyo; Benjamin, Yuda; Görgens, Johann

2015-03-25

87

Isolation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate-tolerant yeast mutants by continuous selection  

SciTech Connect

Hemicellulose, one of the major constituents of plant cell-wall materials, comprises up to 40% of agricultural residues and hardwoods. Upon hydrolysis, hemicellulose yields a mixture of carbohydrates of which D-xylose is the major component. Hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates can easily be obtained by use of dilute acids under mild hydrolysis conditions. These sugars as well as cellulose-derived carbohydrates, are potential substrates for ethanol production. Often during acid hydrolysis many potentially toxic chemicals are formed which have been found to inhibit yeast growth and ethanol production. It is, therefore, necessary to overcome the inhibitory effect before a fermentation can be implemented. In addition to these fermentation inhibitors, salts formed as a result of neutralization of acid hydrolyzate can also affect the yeasts, thereby decreasing the fermentation rate. Previously, we have shown that ethanol can be produced from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by a xylose-fermentating yeast, Candida species XF217, after the hydrolyzate had been treated with ion-exchange resins. This communication describes the isolation of hydrolyzate-tolerant yeast strains by a continuous adaptation and selection technique and also the growth and fermentative abilities of the strain, P11-20 in neutralized hydrolyzate.

Lodics, T.A.; Gong, C.S.

1984-01-01

88

Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis and simultaneous remotion of organic inhibitors from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Burkholderia sp.  

PubMed

Burkholderia sp. F24, originally isolated from soil, was capable of growth on xylose and removed organic inhibitors present in a hemicellulosic hydrolysate and simultaneously produced poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB). Using non-detoxified hydrolysate, Burkholderia sp. F24 reached a cell dry weight (CDW) of 6.8 g L(-1), containing 48 % of P3HB and exhibited a volumetric productivity (PP3HB) of 0.10 g L(-1) h(-1). Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers (P3HB-co-3HV) were produced using xylose and levulinic acid (LA) as carbon sources. In shake flask cultures, the 3HV content in the copolymer increased from 9 to 43 mol% by adding LA from 1.0 to 5.0 g L(-1). In high cell density cultivation using concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysate F24 reached 25.04 g L(-1) of CDW containing 49 % of P3HB and PP3HB of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1). Based on these findings, second-generation ethanol and bioplastics from sugarcane bagasse is proposed. PMID:25059637

Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Mendonça, Thatiane Teixeira; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira

2014-09-01

89

Nickel(II) adsorption onto biomass based activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse pith.  

PubMed

Bioavailability of Nickel in the form of hydrated Nickel(II) attributes to its toxicological effects and hence its removal from aqueous solution is of great concern. Adsorption is used as an efficient technique for the removal of Nickel(II), hereafter Ni(II), from water and wastewaters. Activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse pith (SBP-AC), a waste biomass collected from juice shops in Sarkara Devi Temple, Chirayinkeezhu, Trivandrum, India during annual festival, is used as adsorbent in the study. The process of adsorption is highly dependent on solution pH, and maximum removal occurs in the pH range of 4.0-8.0. Moreover, the amount of Ni(II) adsorbed onto SBP-AC increased with the time increase and reached equilibrium at 4h. Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium data were analyzed for determining the best fit kinetic and isotherm models. The overall study reveals the potential value of steam pyrolysed SBP-AC as a possible commercial adsorbent in wastewater treatment strategies. PMID:21924900

Krishnan, K Anoop; Sreejalekshmi, K G; Baiju, R S

2011-11-01

90

One-Pot dry chemo-mechanical deconstruction for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the application of an innovative dry chemo-mechanical pretreatment using different mechanical stresses to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The effect of different milling methods on physicochemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis, bioethanol production and energy efficiency was also evaluated. SB was pretreated with NaOH and H3PO4 at high materials concentration (5kg/L). Results indicate that vibratory milling (VBM) was more effective in the reduction of particles size and cellulose crystallinity compared to centrifugal (CM) and ball (BM) milling. NaOH pretreatment coupling to BM and VBM was preferred to enhance glucose yields and bioethanol production, while CM consumed less energy compared to BM and VBM. Moreover, the highest energy efficiency (?=0.116kgglucose/kWh) was obtained with NaOH-CM. Therefore, the combination of dry NaOH and CM appears the most suitable and interesting pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from SB. PMID:25656863

Sambusiti, C; Licari, A; Solhy, A; Aboulkas, A; Cacciaguerra, T; Barakat, A

2015-04-01

91

Use of bagasse fly ash as an adsorbent for the removal of brilliant green dye from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the adsorption of brilliant green (BG) on carbon rich bagasse fly ash (BFA). BFA is a solid waste obtained from the particulate collection equipment attached to the flue gas line of the bagasse-fired boilers of cane sugar mills. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like initial pH (pH0), contact

Venkat S. Mane; Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava

2007-01-01

92

Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse  

E-print Network

is preferred. Fresh bagasse was of better quality than old bagasse. Treatment with NaOH yielded a larger bulk delignification phase than Ca(OH)2. Long-term lime pulping of bagasse was unsuitable for copy-quality paper, but it was appropriate for strawboard...C. ..................................................................................211 Figure 4.85 Digital microphotograph of the bagasse pulp from Batch #2 showing some pith particles...............................................218 Figure 4.86 Photograph of old bagasse after 6 months of lime treatment at 50oC under non...

Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

2005-02-17

93

Hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology improves digestibility and ethanol production by SSF.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for the production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160 and 200°C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohydrates and furan aldehydes. The solid fraction was analyzed for structural carbohydrates and Klason lignin. Pretreatment conditions were evaluated based on enzymatic extraction of glucose and xylose and conversion to ethanol using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation scheme. SSF experiments were conducted with the washed pretreated biomass. The severity of the pretreatment should be sufficient to drive enzymatic digestion and ethanol yields, however, sugars losses and especially sugar conversion into furans needs to be minimized. As expected, furfural production increased with pretreatment severity and specifically xylose release. However, provided that the severity was kept below a general severity factor of 4.0, production of furfural was below an inhibitory concentration and carbohydrate contents were preserved in the pretreated whole hydrolysate. There were significant interactions between time and temperature for all the responses except cellulose digestion. The models were highly predictive for cellulose digestibility (R (2) = 0.8861) and for ethanol production (R (2) = 0.9581), but less so for xylose extraction. Both cellulose digestion and ethanol production increased with severity, however, high levels of furfural generated under more severe pretreatment conditions favor lower severity pretreatments. The optimal pretreatment condition that gave the highest conversion yield of ethanol, while minimizing furfural production, was judged to be 190°C and 17.2 min. The whole hydrolysate was also converted to ethanol using SSF. To reduce the concentration of inhibitors, the liquid fraction was conditioned prior to fermentation by removing inhibitory chemicals using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria. PMID:22080307

da Cruz, Sandra Helena; Dien, Bruce S; Nichols, Nancy N; Saha, Badal C; Cotta, Michael A

2012-03-01

94

Utilization of agricultural residues of pineapple peels and sugarcane bagasse as cost-saving raw materials in Scenedesmus acutus for lipid accumulation and biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to optimize the lipid accumulation in microalgae by using two agricultural residues of pineapple peels and sugarcane bagasse as low-cost organic carbon sources. Green microalgae Scenedesmus acutus was isolated and selected for cultivation. Effects of three initial sugar concentrations and the stage for adding sugar during cultivation on biomass and lipid production were investigated. The results clearly showed that two-stage cultivation is more suitable than one-stage. The maximum biomass concentration and productivity were obtained at 3.85 g/L and 160.42 mg/L/day when sugarcane bagasse was used. The highest lipid content and lipid yield was reached at 28.05 % and 0.93 g/L when pineapple peels were used, while in the case of sugarcane bagasse, 40.89 % and 1.24 g/L lipid content and yield were obtained. Lipid content was found in normal condition (autotrophic) at 17.71 % which was approximately 2.13-fold lower than when sugarcane bagasse was used (40.89 %). Biodiesel production via in situ transesterification was also investigated; the main fatty acids of palmitic acid and oleic acid were found. This work indicates that using agricultural residues as organic carbon sources could be able to increase lipid content and reduce the cost of biofuel production. PMID:24817554

Rattanapoltee, Panida; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee

2014-07-01

95

Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation  

PubMed Central

A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

2014-01-01

96

A lab-scale study of constructed wetlands with sugarcane bagasse and sand media for the treatment of textile wastewater.  

PubMed

This paper reports the pollutant removal efficiencies of two lab-scale hybrid wetland systems treating a textile wastewater. The two systems had identical configurations, each consisting of a vertical flow (VF) and a horizontal flow (HF) wetland that were filled with organic sugarcane bagasse and sylhet sand as the main media. The systems were operated under high hydraulic loading (HL) (566-5660 mm/d), and inorganic nitrogen (254-508 gN/m(2) d) and organics loadings (9840-19680 g COD/m(2) d and 2154-4307 g BOD(5)/m(2) d). Simultaneous removals of BOD(5) (74-79%) and ammonia (59-66%) were obtained in the first stage VF wetlands, demonstrating the efficiency of the media for oxygen transfer to cope with the high pollutant loads. The organic carbon (C) content of sugarcane bagasse facilitated denitrification in the VF wetlands. Second stage HF wetlands provided efficient color removal under predominantly anaerobic condition. Overall, the wetland systems showed stable removal performances under high, and unsteady, pollutant loadings. PMID:23201526

Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi

2013-01-01

97

Effect of chemical factors on integrated fungal fermentation of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production by a white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production through integrated fungal fermentation (IFF), involving a unified process for biological delignification with consolidated biological processing by the white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60, was applied to sugarcane bagasse. Initial moisture content of the bagasse was found to affect biological delignification by MG-60, and 75% moisture content was suitable for selective lignin degradation and subsequent ethanol production. Additives, such as basal media, organic compounds, or minerals, also affected biological delignification of bagasse by MG-60. Basal medium addition improved both delignification and ethanol production. Some inorganic chemical factors, such as Fe(2+), Mn(2+), or Cu(2+), reduced bagasse carbohydrate degradation by MG-60 during delignifying incubations and resulted in increased ethanol production. The present results indicated that suitable culture conditions could significantly improve IFF efficiency. PMID:24968109

Khuong, Le Duy; Kondo, Ryuichiro; De Leon, Rizalinda; Anh, To Kim; Meguro, Sadatoshi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kamei, Ichiro

2014-09-01

98

Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor.  

PubMed

Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate changes in the residues, in particular due to the fate of lignin. FEG-SEM results show that the LHW treatment modified the surface morphology of the pretreated bagasse with lignin droplets being observed on the fibre surface. TEM showed an increase in the plant cell wall porosity and lignin migration across the plant cell wall. Increases in pretreatment temperature were observed to increase the average size and density of lignin droplets on the fibre surface. The results provide evidence that for LHW flow-through treatment, just as for batch treatment, lignin repolymerisation and deposition on the surface of pretreated sugarcane bagasse is an important consideration. PMID:25728342

Reddy, Prashant; Lekha, Prabashni; Reynolds, Wienke; Kirsch, Christian

2015-05-01

99

Experimental study and neural network modeling of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with H2SO4 and O3 for cellulosic material conversion to sugar.  

PubMed

In this study, pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis is investigated using two categories of pretreatment methods: dilute acid (DA) pretreatment and combined DA-ozonolysis (DAO) method. Both methods are accomplished at different solid ratios, sulfuric acid concentrations, autoclave residence times, bagasse moisture content, and ozonolysis time. The results show that the DAO pretreatment can significantly increase the production of glucose compared to DA method. Applying k-fold cross validation method, two optimal artificial neural networks (ANNs) are trained for estimations of glucose concentrations for DA and DAO pretreatment methods. Comparing the modeling results with experimental data indicates that the proposed ANNs have good estimation abilities. PMID:24035818

Gitifar, Vahid; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Sarshar, Mohammad

2013-11-01

100

Optimization of endoglucanase and xylanase activities from Fusarium verticillioides for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Enzymatic hydrolysis is an important but expensive step in the production of ethanol from biomass. Thus, the production of efficient enzymatic cocktails is of great interest for this biotechnological application. The production of endoglucanase and xylanase activites from F. verticillioides were optimized in a factorial design (2(5)) followed by a CCDR design. Endoglucanase and xylanase activities increased from 2.8 to 8.0 U/mL and from 13.4 to 114 U/mL, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature were determined for endoglucanase (5.6, 80 °C), cellobiase (5.6, 60 °C), FPase (6.0, 55 °C) and xylanase (7.0, 50 °C). The optimized crude extract was applied in saccharification and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse from which 9.7 g/L of ethanol was produced at an ethanol/biomass yield of 0.19. PMID:24170331

de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Paes, Guilherme B T; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Visser, Evan M; Alfenas, Rafael F; Pereira, Olinto L; de Rezende, Sebastião T

2014-02-01

101

Direct ethanol production from glucose, xylose and sugarcane bagasse by the corn endophytic fungi Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae.  

PubMed

Production of ethanol with two corn endophytic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides and Acremonium zeae, was studied. The yield of ethanol from glucose, xylose and a mixture of both sugars were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.50g/g ethanol/sugar for F. verticillioides and 0.37, 0.39 and 0.48g/g ethanol/sugar for A. zeae. Both fungi were able to co-ferment glucose and xylose. Ethanol production from 40g/L of pre-treated sugarcane bagasse was 4.6 and 3.9g/L for F. verticillioides and A. zeae, respectively, yielding 0.31g/g of ethanol per consumed sugar. Both fungi studied were capable of co-fermenting glucose and xylose at high yields. Moreover, they were able to produce ethanol directly from lignocellulosic biomass, demonstrating to be suitable microorganisms for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:23942376

de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Visser, Evan M; Siqueira, Germano A; Milagres, Adriane M F; de Rezende, Sebastião T

2013-10-10

102

Direct ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars and sugarcane bagasse by a recombinant Trichoderma reesei strain HJ48.  

PubMed

Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:24995362

Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

2014-01-01

103

Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production.  

PubMed

Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis process from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated to increase solids loading, produce high-concentration fermentable sugar and finally to reduce the cost of the production process. The optimal initial solids loading, feeding time and quantities were examined. The hydrolysis system was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading in flasks, where 7% fresh solids were fed consecutively at 6h, 12h, 24h to get a final solids loading of 33%. All the requested cellulase loading (10 FPU/g substrate) was added completely at the beginning of hydrolysis reaction. After 120 h of hydrolysis, the maximal concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose obtained were 9.376 g/L, 129.50 g/L, 56.03 g/L, respectively. The final total glucan conversion rate attained to 60% from this fed-batch process. PMID:24968110

Gao, Yueshu; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yunyun; Liang, Cuiyi

2014-09-01

104

Use of an Automatic Methane Potential Test System for evaluating the biomethane potential of sugarcane bagasse after different treatments.  

PubMed

A multi-channel analyzer was used to evaluate biogas potential of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The Automatic Methane Potential Test System contained fifteen parallel reactors and the same number of gas flow meters attached to the acquisition system. The set of reactors - gas flow meters gave reproducible results during anaerobic digestion of chemically defined carbon source and the units were used to evaluate the biomethane potential of SCB after different pretreatments, such as treatment with water, acid, acid followed by enzymatic treatment and acid followed by treatment with inactive enzymes. Combined pretreatment with 2% sulphuric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis (3.5% enzymes) resulted in conversion of 79% to monomeric sugars present in SCB. SCB treated with acid followed by enzymatic hydrolysis achieved the methane yield of 200 NL per kg VS(added). Enzymatic saccharification of acid pretreated SCB resulted in increase of methane yield by 16±5% compared to that from acid treated SCB. PMID:22446055

Badshah, Malik; Lam, Duong Minh; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

2012-06-01

105

Direct Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Sugars and Sugarcane Bagasse by a Recombinant Trichoderma reesei Strain HJ48  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:24995362

Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

2014-01-01

106

Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The structure of lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment process of sugarcane bagasse in a pilot scale and the effect of the lignin extracted by ethanol on subsequent cellulose hydrolysis were investigated. The lignin structural changes caused by pretreatment were identified using advanced nondestructive techniques such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC), quantitative (13)C, and 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structural analysis revealed that ethanol extractable lignin preserved basic lignin structure, but had relatively lower amount of ?-O-4 linkages, syringyl/guaiacyl units ratio (S/G), p-coumarate/ferulate ratio, and other ending structures. The results also indicated that approximately 8% of mass weight was extracted by pure ethanol. The bagasse after ethanol extraction had an approximate 22% higher glucose yield after enzyme hydrolysis compared to pretreated bagasse without extraction. PMID:24412855

Zeng, Jijiao; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Letian; Zhu, J Y; Ingram, Lonnie

2014-02-01

107

Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

2010-09-01

108

MÉTODOS DE PURIFICACIÓN DE HIDROLIZADOS DE BAGAZO DE CA?A DE AZÚCAR PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE XILITOL PURIFICATION METHODS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE HYDROLYSATES FOR XYLITOL OBTAINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three treatments methods for sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate were tested in order to minimize its toxicity for the biological production of xylitol; using ionic exchange resins (TH1 and TH2) and activated charcoal (TH3). The treated hydrolysates were fermented in shaker flasks by the yeast Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The statistical analysis showed that TH1 and TH2 were the best treatments.

M. Viñals Verde; I. Maciel de Mancilha; J. Batista de Almeida e Silva; A. I. Nápoles Solenzar

2006-01-01

109

Batch Removal of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution by H2SO4 Modified Sugarcane Bagasse: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch adsorption studies were carried out using H2SO4 modified sugarcane bagasse (HMSB) for the removal of hazardous Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. The effects of initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption process were investigated. The Langmuir isotherm model well described the equilibrium dye uptake while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed good agreement with the

Sagnik Chakraborty; Shamik Chowdhury; Papita Das Saha

2012-01-01

110

Batch Removal of Crystal Violet From Aqueous Solution by H2SO4 Modified Sugarcane Bagasse: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch adsorption studies were carried out using H2SO4 modified sugarcane bagasse (HMSB) for removal of hazardous Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. Effects of initial solution pH, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption process were investigated. The Langmuir isotherm model well described the equilibrium dye uptake while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed good agreement with the experimental kinetic

Sagnik Chakraborty; Shamik Chowdhury; Papita Das Saha

2012-01-01

111

Glassification of Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Using Fly Ash or Bagasse Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts contain significant quantities of iron and zinc found almost entirely as iron oxide, zinc oxide and zinc ferrite. The dust has been classified as a hazardous waste due to the relative high lead, cadmium and hexavalent chromium contents. An option for treating EAF dust with an economic and uncomplicated process is by using ashes. Silica

Sureerat POLSILAPA; Panyawat WANGYAO

112

Removal of Zn2+ from aqueous single metal solutions and electroplating wastewater with wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD).  

PubMed

This work describes the preparation of a new chelating material derived from wood sawdust, Manilkara sp., and not only the use of a new support, but also a chemically modified sugarcane bagasse synthesized in our previous work to remove Zn(2+) from aqueous solutions and electroplating wastewater. The first part describes the chemical modification of wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse using ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD) as modifying agent in order to introduce carboxylic acid and amine functional groups into these materials. The obtained materials such as the modified sugarcane bagasse, EB, and modified wood sawdust, ES were then characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and CHN. The second part evaluates the adsorption capacity of Zn(2+) by EB and ES from aqueous single metal solutions and real electroplating wastewater, which concentration was determined through direct titration with EDTA and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Adsorption isotherms were developed using Langmuir model. Zn(2+) adsorption capacities were found to be 80 mg/g for ES and 105 mg/g for EB whereas for the industrial wastewater these values were found to be 47 mg/g for ES and 45 mg/g for EB. Zn(2+) adsorption in the wastewater was found to be lower than in Zn(2+) spiked solution due to the competition between other cations and/or interference of other ions, mainly Ca(2+) and Cl(-) that were present in the wastewater. PMID:20047793

Pereira, Flaviane Vilela; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

2010-04-15

113

Sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis: rheological data as criteria for impeller selection.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to select an efficient impeller to be used in a stirred reactor for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse. All experiments utilized 100 g (dry weight)/l of steam-pretreated bagasse, which is utilized in Brazil for cattle feed. The process was studied with respect to the rheological behavior of the biomass hydrolysate and the enzymatic conversion of the bagasse polysaccharides. These parameters were applied to model the power required for an impeller to operate at pilot scale (100 l) using empirical correlations according to Nagata [16]. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using a blend of cellulases, ?-glucosidase, and xylanases produced in our laboratory by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus awamori. Hydrolyses were performed with an enzyme load of 10 FPU/g (dry weight) of bagasse over 36 h with periodic sampling for the measurement of viscosity and the concentration of glucose and reducing sugars. The mixture presented pseudoplastic behavior. This rheological model allowed for a performance comparison to be made between flat-blade disk (Rushton turbine) and pitched-blade (45°) impellers. The simulation showed that the pitched blade consumed tenfold less energy than the flat-blade disk turbine. The resulting sugar syrups contained 22 g/l of glucose, which corresponded to 45% cellulose conversion. PMID:20844924

Pereira, Leonardo Tupi Caldas; Pereira, Lucas Tupi Caldas; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Freitas, Suely Pereira

2011-08-01

114

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper  

E-print Network

versus Wheat Straw Paper Omar Omari, Marcus Cheung, Robert Chen, Hugo Chen University of British Columbia://kids-myshot.nationalgeographic.com/photos/view/60175/wheat-shot-by-paper-clip-girl http://bgbarman.bg/%D0%95%D0%BD%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BF Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper prepared by Omar Omari 54434105 Marcus Cheung 82207101 Robert Chen

115

High-value zeolitic material from bagasse fly ash: utilization for dye elimination.  

PubMed

Bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, was used to prepare zeolitic material (ZFA) by means of alkaline hydrothermal treatment. ZFA showed improved morphology as a result of this treatment. The adsorption of the reactive dyes turquoise blue (TB) and brilliant magenta (BM), on both BFA and ZFA, was investigated in a batch contact system. A series of batch experiments revealed that optimal dye removal occurs at a 200 mg/L to 300 mg/L solute concentration, 60 minutes of agitation time, 5 g/L to 10 g/L adsorbent dose, a pH level of 2 to 4, and a temperature of 298 K. ZFA showed enhanced adsorption capacity as compared to BFA. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity was 12.66 mg/g and 45.45 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on BFA; and 21.74 mg/g and 100.00 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on ZFA. Kinetic studies showed that the correlation coefficients best fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, confirming that the adsorption rate was controlled by a hemisorptions process. PMID:23833819

Shah, Bhavna A; Shah, Ajay V; Patel, Harendra D; Mistry, Chirag B

2013-06-01

116

Production of bioethanol from fermented sugars of sugarcane bagasse produced by lignocellulolytic enzymes of Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1.  

PubMed

Exiguobacterium sp. VSG-1 was isolated from the soil sample and characterized for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Production of these enzymes by the strain VSG-1 was carried out using steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and found to secrete cellulase, pectinase, mannanase, xylanase, and tannase. The growth and enzyme production were found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 37 °C. Upon steam explosion of SCB, the cellulose increased by 42 %, whereas hemicelluloses and lignin decreased by 40 and 62 %, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded SCB yielded 640 g/l of total sugars. Fermentation of sugars produced from pretreated SCB was carried out by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 5.0 and 30 °C. The alcohol produced was calculated and found to be 62.24 g/l corresponding to 78 % of the theoretical yield of ethanol. Hence, the strain VSG-1 has an industrial importance for the production of fermentable sugars for biofuels. PMID:23832861

Vijayalaxmi, S; Anu Appaiah, K A; Jayalakshmi, S K; Mulimani, V H; Sreeramulu, K

2013-09-01

117

Streptomyces misionensis PESB-25 Produces a Thermoacidophilic Endoglucanase Using Sugarcane Bagasse and Corn Steep Liquor as the Sole Organic Substrates  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces misionensis strain PESB-25 was screened and selected for its ability to secrete cellulases. Cells were grown in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source, whose concentrations were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A peak of endoglucanase accumulation (1.01?U·mL?1) was observed in a medium with SCB 1.0% (w/v) and CSL 1.2% (w/v) within three days of cultivation. S. misionensis PESB-25 endoglucanase activity was thermoacidophilic with optimum pH and temperature range of 3.0 to 3.6 and 62° to 70°C, respectively. In these conditions, values of 1.54?U?mL?1 of endoglucanase activity were observed. Moreover, Mn2+ was demonstrated to have a hyperactivating effect on the enzyme. In the presence of MnSO4 (8?mM), the enzyme activity increased threefold, up to 4.34?U·mL?1. Mn2+ also improved endoglucanase stability as the catalyst retained almost full activity upon incubation at 50°C for 4 h, while in the absence of Mn2+, enzyme activity decreased by 50% in this same period. Three protein bands with endoglucanase activity and apparent molecular masses of 12, 48.5 and 119.5?kDa were detected by zymogram. PMID:23586048

Rezende, Raquel de Carvalho; Gravina-Oliveira, Mônica Pires; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Macrae, Andrew; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

2013-01-01

118

Enzymic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by autohydrolysis-steam explosion  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of bagasse by autohydrolysis at 200 degrees C for 4 min and explosive defibration resulted in the solubilization of 90% of the hemicellulose (a heteroxylan) and in the production of a pulp that was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei C-30 and QM 9414, and by a commercial preparation, Meicelase. Saccharification yields of 50% resulted after 24 h at 50 degrees C (pH 5.0) in enzymic digests containing 10% (w/v) bagasse pulps and 20 filter paper cellulase units (FPU). Saccharifications could be increased to more than 80% at 24 h by the addition of exogeneous ..beta..-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. The crystallinity of cellulose in bagasse remained unchanged following autohydrolysis-explosion and did not appear to hinder the rate or extent of hydrolysis of cellulose. Autohydrolysis-exploded pulps extracted with alkali or ethanol to remove lignin resulted in lower conversions of cellulose (28-36% after 25 h) than unextracted pulps. Alkali extracted pulps arising from autohydrolysis times of more than 10 min at 200 degrees C were less susceptible to enzymic hydrolysis than unextracted pulps and alkali-extracted pulps arising from short autohydrolysis times (e.g., 2 min at 200 degrees C). Autohydrolysis-explosion was as effective a pretreatment method as 0.25M NaOH (70 degrees C/2 h); both yielded pulps that resulted in high cellulose conversions with T. reesei cellulase preparations and Meicelase. Supplementation of T. reesei C-30 cellulase preparations with A. niger ..beta..-glucosidases was effective in promoting the conversion of cellulose into glucose. A ratio of FPU to ..beta..-glucosidase of 1:1.25 was the minimum requirement to achieve more than 80% conversion of cellulose into glucose within 24 h. Other factors which influenced the extent of saccharification were the enzyme-substrate ratio, the substrate concentration, and the saccharification mode. (Refs. 30).

Dekker, R.F.H.; Wallis, A.F.A.

1983-12-01

119

Mapping the lignin distribution in pretreated sugarcane bagasse by confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Delignification pretreatments of biomass and methods to assess their efficacy are crucial for biomass-to-biofuels research and technology. Here, we applied confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using one- and two-photon excitation to map the lignin distribution within bagasse fibers pretreated with acid and alkali. The evaluated spectra and decay times are correlated with previously calculated lignin fractions. We have also investigated the influence of the pretreatment on the lignin distribution in the cell wall by analyzing the changes in the fluorescence characteristics using two-photon excitation. Eucalyptus fibers were also analyzed for comparison. Results Fluorescence spectra and variations of the decay time correlate well with the delignification yield and the lignin distribution. The decay dependences are considered two-exponential, one with a rapid (?1) and the other with a slow (?2) decay time. The fastest decay is associated to concentrated lignin in the bagasse and has a low sensitivity to the treatment. The fluorescence decay time became longer with the increase of the alkali concentration used in the treatment, which corresponds to lignin emission in a less concentrated environment. In addition, the two-photon fluorescence spectrum is very sensitive to lignin content and accumulation in the cell wall, broadening with the acid pretreatment and narrowing with the alkali one. Heterogeneity of the pretreated cell wall was observed. Conclusions Our results reveal lignin domains with different concentration levels. The acid pretreatment caused a disorder in the arrangement of lignin and its accumulation in the external border of the cell wall. The alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from the middle of the bagasse fibers, but was less effective in its removal from their surfaces. Our results evidenced a strong correlation between the decay times of the lignin fluorescence and its distribution within the cell wall. A new variety of lignin fluorescence states were accessed by two-photon excitation, which allowed an even broader, but complementary, optical characterization of lignocellulosic materials. These results suggest that the lignin arrangement in untreated bagasse fiber is based on a well-organized nanoenvironment that favors a very low level of interaction between the molecules. PMID:23548159

2013-01-01

120

Acetylation of sugarcane bagasse using NBS as a catalyst under mild reaction conditions for the production of oil sorption-active materials.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was esterified with acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide as a catalyst under mild conditions in a solvent free system. The extent of acetylation was measured by weight percent gain, which varied from 2.1% to 24.7% by changing the reaction temperature (25-130 degrees C) and duration (0.5-6.0 h). N-Bromosuccinimide was found to be a novel and highly effective catalyst for acetylation of hydroxyl groups in bagasse. At a concentration of 1% of the catalyst in acetic anhydride, a weight percent gain of 24.7% was achieved at 120 degrees C for 1 h, compared with 5.1% for the un-catalyst reaction under the same reaction condition. FT-IR and CP-MAS 13C-NMR studies produced evidence for acetylation. The thermal stability of the products decreased slightly upon chemical modification, but no significant decrease in thermal stability was observed for WPG > or = 24.7%. More importantly, the acetylation significantly increased hydrophobic properties of the bagasse. The oil sorption capacity of the acetylated bagasse obtained at 80 degrees C for 6 h, was 1.9 times higher than the commercial synthetic oil sorbents such as polypropylene fibres. Therefore, these oil sorption-active materials can be used to substitute non-biodegradable materials in oil spill cleanup. PMID:15288278

Sun, X F; Sun, R C; Sun, J X

2004-12-01

121

Adsorptive removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by bagasse fly ash and activated carbon-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of malachite green (MG) was studied using three adsorbents namely, bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, and activated carbons commercial grade (ACC) and laboratory grade (ACL). Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial MG concentration on the removal of MG. The initial pH

Indra Deo Mall; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; Nitin Kumar Agarwal; Indra Mani Mishra

2005-01-01

122

High yield pulp from bagasse  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of bagasse is similar to that of hardwood (Fagus sylvatica), but bagasse contains more pentosans and ash and less lignin. The strength of mechanical pulp from bagasse was lower than that of semimechanical pulp prepared from bagasse in the presence of NaOH and alkaline Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/. Mechanical and semimechanical pulps responded well to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ bleaching, giving products with 57-58% brightness.

Luna, G.V.; Torres, C.A.

1982-01-01

123

Use of cellobiohydrolase-free cellulase blends for the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and sugarcane bagasse pretreated by either ball milling or ionic liquid [Emim][Ac].  

PubMed

This study investigated the requirement of cellobiohydrolases (CBH) for saccharification of microcrystalline cellulose and sugarcane bagasse pretreated either by ball milling (BM) or by ionic liquid (IL) [Emim][Ac]. Hydrolysis was done using CBH-free blends of Pyrococcus horikoshii endoglucanase (EG) plus Pyrococcus furiosus ?-glucosidase (EGPh/BGPf) or Optimash™ BG while Acremonium Cellulase was used as control. IL-pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed more effectively by CBH-free enzymes than were the BM-pretreated substrates. IL-treatment decreased the crystallinity and increased the specific surface area (SSA), whereas BM-treatment decreased the crystallinity without increasing the SSA. The hydrolysis of IL-treated cellulose by EGPh/BGPf showed a saccharification rate of 3.92 g/Lh and a glucose yield of 81% within 9h. These results indicate the efficiency of CBH-free enzymes for the hydrolysis of IL-treated substrates. PMID:24091019

Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Kim, Han-Woo; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Endo, Takashi; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Bon, Elba P S

2013-12-01

124

The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests.

Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Mello, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

125

Surface carbohydrate analysis and bioethanol production of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with the white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and microwave hydrothermolysis.  

PubMed

Effects of pretreatments with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, and microwave hydrothermolysis of bagasse on enzymatic saccharification and fermentation were evaluated. The best sugar yield, 44.9 g per 100g of bagasse was obtained by fungal treatments followed by microwave hydrothermolysis at 180°C for 20 min. Fluorescent-labeled carbohydrate-binding modules which recognize crystalline cellulose (CjCBM3-GFP), non-crystalline cellulose (CjCBM28-GFP) and xylan (CtCBM22-GFP) were applied to characterize the exposed polysaccharides. The microwave pretreatments with and without the fungal cultivation resulted in similar levels of cellulose exposure, but the combined treatment caused more defibration and thinning of the plant tissues. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pulp fractions obtained by microwave hydrothermolysis with and without fungal treatment, gave ethanol yields of 35.8% and 27.0%, respectively, based on the holocellulose content in the pulp. These results suggest that C. subvermispora pretreatment could be beneficial part of the process to produce ethanol from bagasse. PMID:21903385

Sasaki, Chizuru; Takada, Rie; Watanabe, Takahito; Honda, Yoichi; Karita, Shuichi; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi; Watanabe, Takashi

2011-11-01

126

Use of spectroscopic and imaging techniques to evaluate pretreated sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for cellulase production under solid-state fermentation.  

PubMed

The enzymatic cocktail of cellulases is one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels and other chemicals. Here, the influence of liquid hot water, dilute acid, alkali, and combined acid/alkali pretreatments on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) used for cellulase production was investigated by means of spectroscopic and imaging techniques. Chemical composition and structural characteristics, such as crystallinity (determined by X-ray diffraction), functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy), were used to correlate SCB pretreatments with enzymatic biosynthesis by a strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The combined acid/alkali pretreatment resulted in a SCB with higher cellulose content (86.7%). However, the high crystallinity (74%) of the resulting biomass was detrimental to microbial uptake and enzyme production. SCB pretreated with liquid hot water yielded the highest filter paper cellulase (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase activities (0.4, 14.9, and 26.1 U g(-1), respectively). The results showed that a suitable pretreatment for SCB to be used as a substrate for cellulase production should avoid severe conditions in order to preserve amorphous cellulose and to enhance the physical properties that assist microbial access. PMID:24363237

Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Crestana, Silvio; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

2014-03-01

127

Low cost CaCl? pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhancement of textile dyes adsorption and subsequent biodegradation of adsorbed dyes under solid state fermentation.  

PubMed

Pretreatments to sugarcane bagasse (SCB) such as CaCl2, alkali, ammonia, steam and milling showed 91%, 46%, 47%, 42% and 56% adsorption of Solvent Red 5B (SR5B); 92%, 57%, 58%, 56% and 68% adsorption of simulated dyes mixture (SDM), and 86%, 45%, 49%, 44% and 56% adsorption of a real textile effluent (RTE), respectively. However, the untreated SCB showed 32%, 38% and 30% adsorption of SR5B, SDM and RTE, respectively. Adsorption of SR5B on CaCl2 pretreated SCB follows pseudo-second order kinetics. SEM and FTIR analysis reveals the delignification of CaCl2 pretreated SCB. SR5B, SDM and RTE adsorbed on CaCl2, alkali, ammonia, steam and milling pretreated SCB were decolorized under solid state fermentation using isolated Providencia staurti strain EbtSPG. Tray bioreactor study showed 86% American Dye Manufacturers Institute (ADMI) removal of RTE in 72h. Biodegradation of adsorbed SR5B was confirmed using FTIR, HPLC and HPTLC. PMID:23411459

Kadam, Avinash A; Lade, Harshad S; Patil, Swapnil M; Govindwar, Sanjay P

2013-03-01

128

Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with NH4OH-H2O2 and ionic liquid for efficient hydrolysis and bioethanol production.  

PubMed

An efficient pretreatment method using NH(4)OH-H(2)O(2) and ionic liquid (IL) was developed for the recovery of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The regenerated SCB from the combined pretreatment exhibited significantly enhanced enzymatic digestibility with an efficiency of 91.4% after 12h of hydrolysis, which was 64% higher than the efficiency observed for the regenerated SCB after the individual NH(4)OH-H(2)O(2) pretreatment. 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl) dissolved the cellulose from the NH(4)OH-H(2)O(2)-pretreated SCB, and the crystallinity index (CrI) detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was reduced by 42%. The recycled and fresh [Amim]Cl demonstrated the same performance on the pretreatment of SCB for the enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. The regenerated SCB was subsequently used in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SScF) for bioethanol production by cellulase and yeast. The pretreatment did not have a negative effect on bioethanol fermentation, and an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g was achieved with a corresponding fermentation efficiency of 94.5%. PMID:22728201

Zhu, Zhisheng; Zhu, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenqiang

2012-09-01

129

Adsorption of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous single metal solutions by succinylated twice-mercerized sugarcane bagasse functionalized with triethylenetetramine.  

PubMed

This study describes the preparation of two new chelating materials, MMSCB 3 and 5, derived from succinylated twice-mercerized sugarcane bagasse (MMSCB 1). MMSCB 3 and 5 were synthesized from MMSCB 1 using two different methods as described by Gurgel and Gil (2009). In the first method MMSCB 1 was activated with 1,3-diisopropylcarbodiimide and in the second with acetic anhydride (to form an internal anhydride) and later both were reacted with triethylenetetramine in order to obtain MMSCB 3 and 5. New obtained materials were characterized by mass percent gain, concentration of amine groups, FTIR, and elemental analysis. MMSCB 3 and 5 showed mass percent gain of 19.9 and 57.1%, concentration of amine groups of 2.0 and 2.1 mmol/g, and nitrogen content of 5.8 and 4.4%. The capacity of MMSCB 3 and 5 to adsorb Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) from aqueous single metal ion solutions was evaluated at different contact times, pHs, and initial metal ion concentrations. Adsorption isotherms were well fitted by Langmuir model. Maximum adsorption capacities of MMSCB 3 and 5 for Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) were found to be 59.5 and 69.4, 86.2 and 106.4, 158.7 and 222.2 mg/g, respectively. PMID:19656543

Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

2009-10-01

130

Batch and multi-step fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse at high solid loadings for high sugar and ethanol titers.  

PubMed

Formiline pretreatment pertains to a biomass fractionation process. In the present work, Formiline-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was hydrolyzed with cellulases by batch and multi-step fed-batch processes at 20% solid loading. For wet pulp, after 144 h incubation with cellulase loading of 10 FPU/g dry solid, fed-batch process obtained ~150 g/L glucose and ~80% glucan conversion, while batch process obtained ~130 g/L glucose with corresponding ~70% glucan conversion. Solid loading could be further increased to 30% for the acetone-dried pulp. By fed-batch hydrolysis of the dried pulp in pH 4.8 buffer solution, glucose concentration could be 247.3±1.6 g/L with corresponding 86.1±0.6% glucan conversion. The enzymatic hydrolyzates could be well converted to ethanol by a subsequent fermentation using Saccharomices cerevisiae with ethanol titer of 60-70 g/L. Batch and fed-batch SSF indicated that Formiline-pretreated substrate showed excellent fermentability. The final ethanol concentration was 80 g/L with corresponding 82.7% of theoretical yield. PMID:23127840

Zhao, Xuebing; Dong, Lei; Chen, Liang; Liu, Dehua

2013-05-01

131

Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane is one of the most important crops globally, providing most of the world’s sugar and bio-energy (ethanol and electricity). This contribution has been underpinned by the successful introgression of genes from wild germplasm, particularly from Saccharum spontaneum, by breeders in the early 1...

132

Multi-scale structural and chemical analysis of sugarcane bagasse in the process of sequential acid–base pretreatment and ethanol production by Scheffersomyces shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy usage of gasoline, burgeoning fuel prices, and environmental issues have paved the way for the exploration of cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol production technologies are emerging and require continued technological advancements. One of the most challenging issues is the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the desired sugars yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. We hypothesized that consecutive dilute sulfuric acid-dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment would overcome the native recalcitrance of sugarcane bagasse (SB) by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded cellulosic microfibrils. Results SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate after concentration by vacuum evaporation and detoxification showed 30.89 g/l xylose along with other products (0.32 g/l glucose, 2.31 g/l arabinose, and 1.26 g/l acetic acid). The recovered cellulignin was subsequently delignified by sodium hydroxide mediated pretreatment. The acid–base pretreated material released 48.50 g/l total reducing sugars (0.91 g sugars/g cellulose amount in SB) after enzymatic hydrolysis. Ultra-structural mapping of acid–base pretreated and enzyme hydrolyzed SB by microscopic analysis (scanning electron microcopy (SEM), transmitted light microscopy (TLM), and spectroscopic analysis (X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy) elucidated the molecular changes in hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin components of bagasse. The detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate was fermented by Scheffersomyces shehatae (syn. Candida shehatae UFMG HM 52.2) and resulted in 9.11 g/l ethanol production (yield 0.38 g/g) after 48 hours of fermentation. Enzymatic hydrolysate when fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 174 revealed 8.13 g/l ethanol (yield 0.22 g/g) after 72 hours of fermentation. Conclusions Multi-scale structural studies of SB after sequential acid–base pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis showed marked changes in hemicellulose and lignin removal at molecular level. The cellulosic material showed high saccharification efficiency after enzymatic hydrolysis. Hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysates revealed moderate ethanol production by S. shehatae and S. cerevisiae under batch fermentation conditions. PMID:24739736

2014-01-01

133

Efficient Open Fermentative Production of Polymer-Grade L-Lactate from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate by Thermotolerant Bacillus sp. Strain P38  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid is one of the top 30 potential building-block chemicals from biomass, of which the most extensive use is in the polymerization of lactic acid to poly-lactic-acid (PLA). To reduce the cost of PLA, the search for cheap raw materials and low-cost process for lactic acid production is highly desired. In this study, the final titer of produced L-lactic acid reached a concentration of 185 g·L?1 with a volumetric productivity of 1.93 g·L?1·h?1 by using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as the sole carbon source simultaneously with cottonseed meal as cheap nitrogen sources under the open fed-batch fermentation process. Furthermore, a lactic acid yield of 0.99 g per g of total reducing sugars was obtained, which is very close to the theoretical value (1.0 g g?1). No D-isomer of lactic acid was detected in the broth, and thereafter resulted in an optical purity of 100%, which exceeds the requirement of lactate polymerization process. To our knowledge, this is the best performance of fermentation on polymer-grade L-lactic acid production totally using lignocellulosic sources. The high levels of optically pure l-lactic acid produced, combined with the ease of handling and low costs associated with the open fermentation strategy, indicated the thermotolerant Bacillus sp. P38 could be an excellent candidate strain with great industrial potential for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production from various cellulosic biomasses. PMID:25192451

Guo, Ling; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo; Ma, Yanhe

2014-01-01

134

Ultra-structural mapping of sugarcane bagasse after oxalic acid fiber expansion (OAFEX) and ethanol production by Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Diminishing supplies of fossil fuels and oil spills are rousing to explore the alternative sources of energy that can be produced from non-food/feed-based substrates. Due to its abundance, sugarcane bagasse (SB) could be a model substrate for the second-generation biofuel cellulosic ethanol. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB remains a challenge for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol. We hypothesized that oxalic-acid-mediated thermochemical pretreatment (OAFEX) would overcome the native recalcitrance of SB by enhancing the cellulase amenability toward the embedded cellulosic microfibrils. Results OAFEX treatment revealed the solubilization of hemicellulose releasing sugars (12.56 g/l xylose and 1.85 g/l glucose), leaving cellulignin in an accessible form for enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest hydrolytic efficiency (66.51%) of cellulignin was achieved by enzymatic hydrolysis (Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188). The ultrastructure characterization of SB using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform–near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed structural differences before and after OAFEX treatment with enzymatic hydrolysis. Furthermore, fermentation mediated by C. shehatae UFMG HM52.2 and S. cerevisiae 174 showed fuel ethanol production from detoxified acid (3.2 g/l, yield 0.353 g/g; 0.52 g/l, yield, 0.246 g/g) and enzymatic hydrolysates (4.83 g/l, yield, 0.28 g/g; 6.6 g/l, yield 0.46 g/g). Conclusions OAFEX treatment revealed marked hemicellulose degradation, improving the cellulases’ ability to access the cellulignin and release fermentable sugars from the pretreated substrate. The ultrastructure of SB after OAFEX and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulignin established thorough insights at the molecular level. PMID:23324164

2013-01-01

135

Comparative secretome analysis of Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 and Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 during solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background The lignocellulosic enzymes of Trichoderma species have received particular attention with regard to biomass conversion to biofuels, but the production cost of these enzymes remains a significant hurdle for their commercial application. In this study, we quantitatively compared the lignocellulolytic enzyme profile of a newly isolated Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 strain with that of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, cultured on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Results Comparison of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of S4F8 and Rut C30 showed that S4F8 had significantly higher hemicellulase and ?-glucosidase enzyme activities. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the two fungal secretomes enabled the detection of 815 proteins in total, with 418 and 397 proteins being specific for S4F8 and Rut C30, respectively, and 174 proteins being common to both strains. In-depth analysis of the associated biological functions and the representation of glycoside hydrolase family members within the two secretomes indicated that the S4F8 secretome contained a higher diversity of main and side chain hemicellulases and ?-glucosidases, and an increased abundance of some of these proteins compared with the Rut C30 secretome. Conclusions In SCB SSF, T. asperellum S4F8 produced a more complex lignocellulolytic cocktail, with enhanced hemicellulose and cellobiose hydrolysis potential, compared with T. reesei Rut C30. This bodes well for the development of a more cost-effective and efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail from T. asperellum for lignocellulosic feedstock hydrolysis. PMID:24286470

2013-01-01

136

The influence of Aspergillus niger transcription factors AraR and XlnR in the gene expression during growth in D-xylose, L-arabinose and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The interest in the conversion of plant biomass to renewable fuels such as bioethanol has led to an increased investigation into the processes regulating biomass saccharification. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism capable of producing a wide variety of plant biomass degrading enzymes. In A. niger the transcriptional activator XlnR and its close homolog, AraR, controls the main (hemi-)cellulolytic system responsible for plant polysaccharide degradation. Sugarcane is used worldwide as a feedstock for sugar and ethanol production, while the lignocellulosic residual bagasse can be used in different industrial applications, including ethanol production. The use of pentose sugars from hemicelluloses represents an opportunity to further increase production efficiencies. In the present study, we describe a global gene expression analysis of A. niger XlnR- and AraR-deficient mutant strains, grown on a D-xylose/L-arabinose monosaccharide mixture and steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse. Different gene sets of CAZy enzymes and sugar transporters were shown to be individually or dually regulated by XlnR and AraR, with XlnR appearing to be the major regulator on complex polysaccharides. Our study contributes to understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms responsible for plant polysaccharide-degrading gene expression, and opens new possibilities for the engineering of fungi able to produce more efficient enzymatic cocktails to be used in biofuel production. PMID:23892063

de Souza, Wagner Rodrigo; Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; de Gouvêa, Paula Fagundes; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Battaglia, Evy; Goldman, Maria Helena S; de Vries, Ronald P; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-11-01

137

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the design and operation of a batch, anaerobic, in vitro fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by a mixed culture of ruminal microflora. The bagasse was supplemented with a small amount of alfalfa (0.16 g alfalfa/g bagasse...

Lee, Chang-Ming

1993-01-01

138

Efficient conversion of sugarcane stalks into ethanol employing low temperature alkali pretreatment method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative route for bio-ethanol production from sugarcane stalks (juice and bagasse) featuring a previously reported low temperature alkali pretreatment method was evaluated. Test-tube scale pretreatment-saccharification experiments were carried out to determine optimal LTA pretreatment conditions for sugarcane bagasse with regard to the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose. Free fermentable sugars and bagasse recovered from 2kg of sugarcane

Long Wu; Yuan Li; Mitsuhiro Arakane; Masakazu Ike; Masahisa Wada; Yoshifumi Terajima; Shoko Ishikawa; Ken Tokuyasu

2011-01-01

139

Effect of particles of ashes produced from sugarcane burning on the respiratory system of rats.  

PubMed

The practice of burning sugarcane obtained by non-mechanized harvesting exposes workers and the people of neighboring towns to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) that is harmful to health, and may trigger a series of cardiorespiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the micro-particles coming from sugarcane burning residues and to verify the effects of this micro-particulate matter on lung and tracheal tissues. Micro-particulate matter (PM10) was obtained by dissolving filter paper containing burnt residues in NaCl solution. This material was instilled into the Wistar rats' nostrils. Histological analyses (hematoxylin and eosin - HE) of cardiac, lung and tracheal tissues were performed. Inflammatory mediators were measured in lung tissues by using ELISA. The chemical composition of the particulate material revealed a large quantity of the phthalic acid ester, high concentrations of phenolic compounds, anthracene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Histological analysis showed a reduction in subjacent conjunctive tissue in the trachea, lung inflammation with inflammatory infiltrate formation and reduction of alveolar spaces and a significant increase (p<0.05) in the release of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, and INF-? in the group treated with PM10 when compared to the control group. We concluded that the burning sugarcane residues release many particles, which have toxic chemical compounds. The micro-particulate matter can induce alterations in the respiratory system. PMID:25462680

Ferreira, L E N; Muniz, B V; Bittar, T O; Berto, L A; Figueroba, S R; Groppo, F C; Pereira, A C

2014-11-01

140

Enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali\\/peracetic acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for ethanol and 2,3-butanediol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic digestibility of alkali\\/peracetic acid (PAA)-pretreated bagasse was systematically investigated. The effects of initial solid consistency, cellulase loading and addition of supplemental ?-glucosidase on the enzymatic conversion of glycan were studied. It was found the alkali–PAA pulp showed excellent enzymatic digestibility. The enzymatic glycan conversion could reach about 80% after 24h incubation when enzyme loading was 10FPU\\/g solid. Simultaneous

Xuebing Zhao; Yuanquan Song; Dehua Liu

2011-01-01

141

Identification of glycosyl hydrolases from a metagenomic library of microflora in sugarcane bagasse collection site and their cooperative action on cellulose degradation.  

PubMed

Lignocellulose decomposition is a natural process involving the cooperative action of various glycosyl hydrolases (GH) on plant cell wall components. In this study, a metagenomic library was constructed to capture the genetic diversity of microbes inhabiting an industrial bagasse collection site. A variety of putative genes encoding GH families 2, 3, 5, 9, 11, and 16 were identified using activity-based screening, which showed low to moderate homology to various cellulases and hemicellulases. The recombinant GH9 endoglucanase (Cel9) and GH11 endo-xylanase (Xyn11) were thermophilic with optimal activity between 75°C and 80°C and the maximal activity at slightly acidic to neutral pH range. The enzymes exhibited cooperative activity with Trichoderma reesei cellulase on the degradation of lignocellulosic substrates. Mixture design showed positive interactions among the enzyme components. The optimal combination was determined to be 41.4% Celluclast, 18.0% Cel9, and 40.6% Xyn11 with the predicted relative reducing sugar of 658% when compared to Celluclast alone on hydrolysis of alkaline-pretreated bagasse. The work demonstrates the potential of lignocellulolytic enzymes from a novel uncultured microbial resource for enhancing efficiency of biomass-degrading enzyme systems for bio-industries. PMID:25441441

Kanokratana, Pattanop; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Pootanakit, Kusol; Champreda, Verawat

2015-04-01

142

Fast pyrolysis of sweet soghum bagasse in a fluidized bed  

SciTech Connect

Samples of Italian sorghum bagasse were dried and ground and then pyrolyzed in the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis bench scale reactor unit. Results were typical of agricultural grasses of this kind, and resembled those obtained from similar tests of sugar cane bagasse. A maximum liquid yield (dry feed basis) of 68% by weight of dry feed was achieved, with a corresponding char yield (ash included) of 16%. The high ash content of the bagasse (9.2%) gave a char with a very high ash content ({approx}50%), with calcium as the most abundant cation. Yields of hydroxyacetaldehyde were comparable to those obtained from softwoods. Deionized bagasse gave significant yields of anhydrosugars on pyrolysis. Sorghum bagasse appears to be a suitable feedstock, either for pyrolysis to yield an alternative fuel oil, or after pretreatment and pyrolysis, to yield a solution of fermentable sugars.

Palm, M. [Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gotheborg (Sweden); Peacocke, C.; Bridgewater, A.V. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Piskorz, J.; Scott, D.S. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

1993-12-31

143

Design of a bagasse charcoal briquette-making device for use in Haiti  

E-print Network

Charcoal made from bagasse, the fibrous remains of sugarcane production, has the potential to serve as an alternate cooking fuel in Haiti, where the reliance on wood has led to severe deforestation. Current production ...

Vechakul, Jessica

2005-01-01

144

Effect of Auger Speed and Air Flow on Discharge Rate of Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse as a by-product of sugar mill factories is a good resource in agricultural industries. It is used as fuel, Cellulose, livestock feed and fertilizer resources in most countries that produce sugarcane. The sugar manufacturing plants in Iran use cheap mazut as fuel. A reasonable application of bagasse in Iran is t o incorporate it deeply in soil to improve

Ali Asghari; Reza Alimardani; Asadollah Akram; Hosein Karparvar

2008-01-01

145

BIODEGRADATION OF THE CELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE BY FUNGAL CELLULASE BIODEGRADACIÓN DE CELULOSA DE BAGAZO DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR POR HONGOS CELULOLÍTICOS BIODEGRADACIÓN DE CELULOSA DE BAGAZO DE CAÑA DE AZUCRE POR FUNGOS CELULOLÍTICOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme production by Aspergillus niger IZ 9 was evaluated in different carbon sources: glucose; non-treated bagasse; bagasse treated with 4% solution of sodium hydroxide; bagasse treated with 4% solution of sodium hydroxide-phosphoric acid-steam; and filter paper. Maximum production of cellulase was obtained with filter paper, when the average activity was 0.44 UI mL-. With relationship to the work-temperature, maximum

C. L Aguiar

2001-01-01

146

Bagasse energy cogeneration potential in the Zimbabwean sugar industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cogeneration of steam and electricity has become the norm in the sugarcane industry worldwide. This process has been taken further to a stage where sugar companies can export a substantial amount of energy to the grid. Mauritius and Reunion Islands have implemented state of the art technology in bagasse energy cogeneration. It is on this basis that the potential

Charles Mbohwa

2003-01-01

147

Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. II: cassava bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as cassava bagasse. Cassava bagasse, which is a fibrous material, is the by-product of the cassava-processing industry. It contains about 30–50% starch on dry weight basis. Due to its rich organic nature and low ash content, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes

Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol; Luciana P. S Vandenberghe; Radjiskumar Mohan

2000-01-01

148

Composition of Residue from Sugarcane and Related Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Louisiana, a facility near Jennings will produce cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) bagasse and “energy canes”. This study was done to obtain basic information on the composition of the cell wall residue left after expressing the juice in different Saccharum genotypes. Fou...

149

Impact of cultivar selection and process optimization on ethanol yield from different varieties of sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background The development of ‘energycane’ varieties of sugarcane is underway, targeting the use of both sugar juice and bagasse for ethanol production. The current study evaluated a selection of such ‘energycane’ cultivars for the combined ethanol yields from juice and bagasse, by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment optimization of bagasse for sugar yields. Method A central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of dilute acid pretreatment parameters followed by enzymatic hydrolysis on the combined sugar yield of bagasse samples. The pressed slurry generated from optimum pretreatment conditions (maximum combined sugar yield) was used as the substrate during batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes at different solid loadings and enzyme dosages, aiming to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40 g/L. Results Significant variations were observed in sugar yields (xylose, glucose and combined sugar yield) from pretreatment-hydrolysis of bagasse from different cultivars of sugarcane. Up to 33% difference in combined sugar yield between best performing varieties and industrial bagasse was observed at optimal pretreatment-hydrolysis conditions. Significant improvement in overall ethanol yield after SSF of the pretreated bagasse was also observed from the best performing varieties (84.5 to 85.6%) compared to industrial bagasse (74.5%). The ethanol concentration showed inverse correlation with lignin content and the ratio of xylose to arabinose, but it showed positive correlation with glucose yield from pretreatment-hydrolysis. The overall assessment of the cultivars showed greater improvement in the final ethanol concentration (26.9 to 33.9%) and combined ethanol yields per hectare (83 to 94%) for the best performing varieties with respect to industrial sugarcane. Conclusions These results suggest that the selection of sugarcane variety to optimize ethanol production from bagasse can be achieved without adversely affecting juice ethanol and cane yield, thus maintaining first generation ethanol production levels while maximizing second generation ethanol production. PMID:24725458

2014-01-01

150

Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.  

PubMed

The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2013-12-01

151

The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

Ribeiro, Daniela A; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M P; Pauletti, Bianca A; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T B; Murakami, Mario T; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J P; Pradella, Jose G C; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Squina, Fabio M

2012-01-01

152

The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and ?-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, ?-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

2012-01-01

153

Sugarcane and Ethanol Production and Carbon Dioxide Balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol fuel has been considered lately an efficient option for reducing greenhouse gases emissions. Brazil has now more than\\u000a 30 years of experience with large-scale ethanol production. With sugarcane as feedstock, Brazilian ethanol has some advantages\\u000a in terms of energy and CO2 balances. The use of bagasse for energy generation contributes to lower greenhouse gases emissions. Although, when compared\\u000a with

Marcelo Dias De Oliveira

154

Seasonal variations of sugarcane stalk and extraneous matter on pH, color and ash as they affect the production of high quality raw sugars (Part II)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a trend in the U.S. and world-wide to produce very high pol (VHP) and very low color (VLC) raw sugars for new refineries. In Louisiana (LA), a new refinery is requesting VHP/VLC sugar with lower ash concentrations for liquid sugar manufacture and short, medium, and long-term refinery strat...

155

Research in bagasse pulp bleaching  

SciTech Connect

Bleaching of soda and sulfate bagasse pulps by CED, CEH, CEHD, and O/alkali CED sequences gave products with Elrepho brightness 85-90, Post color no. 1.3-2.5, viscosity 20-28 cP, tear factor 60-78, and breaking length 3710-4590 m. Bleaching bagasse pulp with Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/-NaClO increased its brightness increasing temperature, pH, and NaOCl consumption. Brightening of mechanical bagasse pulp with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaClO reduced the consumption of peroxide, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaOCl by 0.5-0.8, 0.5-1.5, and 10-12%, respectively.

Fernandez, N.; Naranjo, M.E.; Alvarez, J.; Sardinas, O.; Serrantes, M.

1982-01-01

156

Extrusion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-print Network

Tecnologia, the Center for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Food Protein Research and Development Center for financial support TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background...

Ocana Camacho, Ronay

1984-01-01

157

Hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by mycelial biomass of Penicillium funiculosum  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose bioconversion has great promise for producing unlimited quantities of fermentable feedstocks and liquid fuels. Extensive studies on the production of extracellular cellulase and on the saccharification of various cellulosic substrates using cellulases have been reported. Use of mycelial biomass having cell bound cellulase for saccharification of cellulose was studied in Aspergillus terreus by Miller and Srinivasan. Extracellular cellulase production by P. funiculosum and its application for cellulose hydrolysis have been reported earlier by the authors. The present communication reports the hydrolysis of lignocellulose using mycelial biomass of P. funiculosum cultivated on cellulose and its reuse potential. 10 references.

Rao, M.; Deshpande, V.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Mishra, C.

1985-07-01

158

Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).  

PubMed

The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (?g) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ? underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2014-01-01

159

All-cellulose nanocomposite film made from bagasse cellulose nanofibers for food packaging application.  

PubMed

All-cellulose nanocomposite (ACNC) film was produced from sugarcane bagasse nanofibers using N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride solvent. The average diameter of bagasse fibers (14 ?m) was downsized to 39 nm after disk grinding process. X-ray diffraction showed that apparent crystallinity and crystallite size decreased relatively to an increased duration of dissolution time. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that thermal stability of the ACNC was slightly less than that of the pure cellulose nanofiber sheet. Tensile strength of the fiber sheet, nanofiber sheet and ACNC prepared with 10 min dissolution time were 8, 101 and 140 MPa, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) of the ACNC film increased relatively to an increased duration of dissolution time. ACNC can be considered as a multi-performance material with potential for application in cellulose-based food packaging owing to its promising properties (tough, bio-based, biodegradable and acceptable levels of WVP). PMID:24607160

Ghaderi, Moein; Mousavi, Mohammad; Yousefi, Hossein; Labbafi, Mohsen

2014-04-15

160

The development of multi-objective optimization model for excess bagasse utilization: A case study for Thailand  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model is proposed as a tool to assist in deciding for the proper utilization scheme of excess bagasse produced in sugarcane industry. Two major scenarios for excess bagasse utilization are considered in the optimization. The first scenario is the typical situation when excess bagasse is used for the onsite electricity production. In case of the second scenario, excess bagasse is processed for the offsite ethanol production. Then the ethanol is blended with an octane rating of 91 gasoline by a portion of 10% and 90% by volume respectively and the mixture is used as alternative fuel for gasoline vehicles in Thailand. The model proposed in this paper called 'Environmental System Optimization' comprises the life cycle impact assessment of global warming potential (GWP) and the associated cost followed by the multi-objective optimization which facilitates in finding out the optimal proportion of the excess bagasse processed in each scenario. Basic mathematical expressions for indicating the GWP and cost of the entire process of excess bagasse utilization are taken into account in the model formulation and optimization. The outcome of this study is the methodology developed for decision-making concerning the excess bagasse utilization available in Thailand in view of the GWP and economic effects. A demonstration example is presented to illustrate the advantage of the methodology which may be used by the policy maker. The methodology developed is successfully performed to satisfy both environmental and economic objectives over the whole life cycle of the system. It is shown in the demonstration example that the first scenario results in positive GWP while the second scenario results in negative GWP. The combination of these two scenario results in positive or negative GWP depending on the preference of the weighting given to each objective. The results on economics of all scenarios show the satisfied outcomes.

Buddadee, Bancha [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: bancha_eng@yahoo.com; Wirojanagud, Wanpen [Research Center of Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)], E-mail: wanpen@kku.ac.th; Watts, Daniel J. [Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)], E-mail: daniel.watts@njit.edu; Pitakaso, Rapeepan [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ubonratchathani University, Ubonratchathani 34190 (Thailand)], E-mail: enrapepi@ubu.ac.th

2008-08-15

161

Lignification in sugarcane: biochemical characterization, gene discovery, and expression analysis in two genotypes contrasting for lignin content.  

PubMed

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is currently one of the most efficient crops in the production of first-generation biofuels. However, the bagasse represents an additional abundant lignocellulosic resource that has the potential to increase the ethanol production per plant. To achieve a more efficient conversion of bagasse into ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Because several studies have shown a negative effect of lignin on saccharification yield, the characterization of lignin biosynthesis, structure, and deposition in sugarcane is an important goal. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of lignin deposition during sugarcane stem development, using histological, biochemical, and transcriptional data derived from two sugarcane genotypes with contrasting lignin contents. Lignin amount and composition were determined in rind (outer) and pith (inner) tissues throughout stem development. In addition, the phenolic metabolome was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of 35 compounds related to the phenylpropanoid pathway and monolignol biosynthesis. Furthermore, the Sugarcane EST Database was extensively surveyed to identify lignin biosynthetic gene homologs, and the expression of all identified genes during stem development was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our data provide, to our knowledge, the first in-depth characterization of lignin biosynthesis in sugarcane and form the baseline for the rational metabolic engineering of sugarcane feedstock for bioenergy purposes. PMID:24144790

Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Santos, Adriana Brombini dos; Vicentini, Renato; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Goeminne, Geert; Moura, Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Nobile, Paula Macedo; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Anjos, Ivan Antonio dos; Creste, Silvana; Boerjan, Wout; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Mazzafera, Paulo

2013-12-01

162

Lignification in Sugarcane: Biochemical Characterization, Gene Discovery, and Expression Analysis in Two Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content1[W  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is currently one of the most efficient crops in the production of first-generation biofuels. However, the bagasse represents an additional abundant lignocellulosic resource that has the potential to increase the ethanol production per plant. To achieve a more efficient conversion of bagasse into ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Because several studies have shown a negative effect of lignin on saccharification yield, the characterization of lignin biosynthesis, structure, and deposition in sugarcane is an important goal. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of lignin deposition during sugarcane stem development, using histological, biochemical, and transcriptional data derived from two sugarcane genotypes with contrasting lignin contents. Lignin amount and composition were determined in rind (outer) and pith (inner) tissues throughout stem development. In addition, the phenolic metabolome was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of 35 compounds related to the phenylpropanoid pathway and monolignol biosynthesis. Furthermore, the Sugarcane EST Database was extensively surveyed to identify lignin biosynthetic gene homologs, and the expression of all identified genes during stem development was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our data provide, to our knowledge, the first in-depth characterization of lignin biosynthesis in sugarcane and form the baseline for the rational metabolic engineering of sugarcane feedstock for bioenergy purposes. PMID:24144790

Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Brombini dos Santos, Adriana; Vicentini, Renato; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Goeminne, Geert; Moura, Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Nobile, Paula Macedo; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Antonio dos Anjos, Ivan; Creste, Silvana; Boerjan, Wout; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Mazzafera, Paulo

2013-01-01

163

Self-heating and drying in two-dimensional bagasse piles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a two-dimensional model for self-heating and changes in water levels in bagasse piles of constant rectangular or triangular cross section. (Bagasse is the residue, mainly cellulose, that remains after sugar has been extracted from sugar-cane.) After milling, the bagasse has almost 50% water by weight, as hot water is used to remove the last of the sugar. The bagasse can be used as fuel in electrical power stations, but needs to be dried out before use. This paper discusses the way in which the drying out of a pile depends on the ambient conditions, and the shape and size of the pile. Accordingly, the energy equation, and equations for liquid water, water vapour and oxygen are solved numerically using the method of lines. The equations include terms describing heat conduction, diffusion of water vapour and oxygen, condensation and evaporation and an Arrhenius self-heating term. In addition, recent measurements show that there is also self-heating due to the presence of water in the bagasse, with a maximum effect near 60 °C, which is modelled by a modified Arrhenius expression. The local maximum in the heat release curve for the problem leads to approximate steady-state behaviour on short time scales that eventually is lost as the pile dries out. This interesting physical behaviour motivates an approximate analytical model for the rate at which liquid water is reduced in the pile. Analytical and numerical results are presented for a variety of pile configurations and some fairly general conclusions are drawn.

Sexton, M. J.; Macaskill, C.; Gray, B. F.

2001-12-01

164

Experimental assessment of the accuracy of genomic selection in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids with an aneuploid, highly heterozygous polyploid genome. The complexity of the sugarcane genome is the main obstacle to the use of marker-assisted selection in sugarcane breeding. Given the promising results of recent studies of plant genomic selection, we explored the feasibility of genomic selection in this complex polyploid crop. Genetic values were predicted in two independent panels, each composed of 167 accessions representing sugarcane genetic diversity worldwide. Accessions were genotyped with 1,499 DArT markers. One panel was phenotyped in Reunion Island and the other in Guadeloupe. Ten traits concerning sugar and bagasse contents, digestibility and composition of the bagasse, plant morphology, and disease resistance were used. We used four statistical predictive models: bayesian LASSO, ridge regression, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and partial least square regression. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed through the correlation between observed and predicted genetic values by cross validation within each panel and between the two panels. We observed equivalent accuracy among the four predictive models for a given trait, and marked differences were observed among traits. Depending on the trait concerned, within-panel cross validation yielded median correlations ranging from 0.29 to 0.62 in the Reunion Island panel and from 0.11 to 0.5 in the Guadeloupe panel. Cross validation between panels yielded correlations ranging from 0.13 for smut resistance to 0.55 for brix. This level of correlations is promising for future implementations. Our results provide the first validation of genomic selection in sugarcane. PMID:23907359

Gouy, M; Rousselle, Y; Bastianelli, D; Lecomte, P; Bonnal, L; Roques, D; Efile, J-C; Rocher, S; Daugrois, J; Toubi, L; Nabeneza, S; Hervouet, C; Telismart, H; Denis, M; Thong-Chane, A; Glaszmann, J C; Hoarau, J-Y; Nibouche, S; Costet, L

2013-10-01

165

Characterization of sugarcane and coconut fibers by thermal analysis and FTIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and coconut fiber was studied by thermal analysis in order to characterize their thermal behavior\\u000a and to identify their constituents by the aid of their thermogravimetric curves and to determine their heat capacity by means\\u000a of DSC. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR) was used to determine the main constituents present in both residues.\\u000a The thermal

Cheila G. Mothé; Iara C. de Miranda

2009-01-01

166

Exploiting sugarcane for energy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Energycane can be described as sugarcane varieties with fiber content that is higher than the level seen in sugarcane varieties used for commercial sugar production. This fiber content is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Approximately 70 percent of the dry weight of sugarcane is cel...

167

Microencapsulation of alginate-immobilized bagasse with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442: enhancement of survivability and thermotolerance.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to enhance the survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 against heat exposure via a combination of immobilization and microencapsulation processes using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sodium alginate (NaA), respectively. The microcapsules were synthesized using different alginate concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and NaA:SB ratio of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:1.5. This beneficial step of probiotic immobilization before microencapsulation significantly enhanced microencapsulation efficiency and cell survivability after heat exposure of 90°C for 30s. Interestingly, the microcapsule of SB-immobilized probiotic could obtain protection from heat using microencapsulation of NaA concentration as low as 1%. SEM images illustrated the incorporation of immobilized L. rhamnosus within alginate matrices and its changes after heat exposure. FTIR spectra confirmed the change in functional bonding in the presence of sugarcane bagasse, probiotic and alginate. The results demonstrated a great potential in the synthesis of heat resistant microcapsules for probiotic. PMID:25563958

Shaharuddin, Shahrulzaman; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

2015-03-30

168

Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1  

PubMed Central

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

2014-01-01

169

Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode.  

PubMed

Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1) was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices. PMID:25201446

Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Guangwei; Cai, Huaqiang; Liu, Hong; Wong, C P; Umar, Ahmad

2014-10-21

170

Investigation of Biomass Fly Ash in Thailand for Recycle to Glass Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the composition and phase of major biomasses fly ash in Thailand at different sintering temperatures by X-rays fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and X-Rays Diffractometer (XRD). All biomasses were sintered at different temperature (400°C, 600°C, 800°C, and 1,000°C) under same condition. The result found that Rice husk ash, Sugarcane leaves ash, Straw ash and Plam petiole ash at all

Y. Ruangtaweep; J. Kaewkhao; C. Kedkaew; P. Limsuwan

2011-01-01

171

Economic feasibility of bagasse charcoal in Haiti  

E-print Network

The economics of implementing bagasse-based charcoal manufacturing in Haiti was investigated. From these main inputs, three different manufacturing economic scenarios were modeled using a simple, dynamic excel spreadsheet. ...

Kamimoto, Lynn K. (Lynn Kam Oi)

2005-01-01

172

Dielectric properties of cyanoethylated bagasse composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse was converted into a thermo-moldable material by cyanoethylation. The effect of reaction conditions employed during the preparation of cyanoethylated bagasse (CE-B) fibers on dielectric properties of hot-pressed composites was studied. Increase in the nitrogen content of the cyanoethylated fiber, i.e., the nitrile groups resulted in an increase in the dielectric constant and a decrease in the dissipation factor (tan ?)

Mohammad L. Hassan

2002-01-01

173

Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse biochars.  

PubMed

The characteristics and mechanisms of Pb sorption by biochars produced from sugarcane bagasse at 250, 400, 500, and 600 °C were examined. The Pb sorption isotherms, kinetics and desorption were investigated. All biochars were effective in Pb sorption and were well described by Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum sorption capacity decreased from 21 to 6.1 mg g(-1) as temperature increased from 250 to 600 °C. The Pb sorption was rapid initially, probably controlled by cation exchange and complexation and then slowed down, which might be due to intraparticle diffusions. FTIR data and kinetic models suggested that oxygen functional groups were probably responsible for the high Pb sorption onto low temperature biochars (250 and 400 °C) whereas intraparticle diffusion was mainly responsible for low Pb sorption onto high temperature biochars (500 and 600 °C). Decreased phosphorus concentration indicated that P-induced Pb precipitation was also responsible for Pb sorption. Pyrolysis temperature significantly affected biochar properties and played an important role in Pb sorption capacity and mechanisms by biochars. PMID:24393563

Ding, Wenchuan; Dong, Xiaoling; Ime, Inyang Mandu; Gao, Bin; Ma, Lena Q

2014-06-01

174

Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemical ripening of sugarcane is an important component to profitable sugar production in the U.S. as well as other sugarcane industries throughout the world. Harvesting of sugarcane often begins before the sugarcane reaches a desirable level of maturity. This is especially true in the Louisiana ...

175

Ash Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ash refers to the inorganic residue remaining after either ignition or complete oxidation of organic matter in a foodstuff. A basic knowledge of the characteristics of various ashing procedures and types of equipment is essential to ensure reliable results. Two major types of ashing are used: dry ashing, primarily for proximate composition and for some types of specific mineral analyses;

Maurice R. Marshall

2010-01-01

176

Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g-1 at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1 was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices.Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g-1 at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1 was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03574g

Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Guangwei; Cai, Huaqiang; Liu, Hong; Wong, C. P.; Umar, Ahmad

2014-09-01

177

Cell wall proteomics of sugarcane cell suspension cultures.  

PubMed

The use of cell walls to produce cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse is a new challenge. A better knowledge of proteins involved in cell wall remodelling is essential to improve the saccharification processes. Cell suspension cultures were used for this first cell wall proteomics study of sugarcane. Proteins extracted from cell walls were identified using an adapted protocol. They were extracted using 0.2 M CaCl2 and 2 M LiCl after purification of cell walls. The proteins were then identified by the innovative nanoACQUITY UPLC MS/MS technology and bioinformatics using the translated SUCEST EST cluster database of sugarcane. The experiments were reproduced three times. Since Sorghum bicolor is the closest plant with a fully sequenced genome, homologous proteins were searched for to complete the annotation of proteins, that is, prediction of subcellular localization and functional domains. Altogether, 69 different proteins predicted to be secreted were identified among 377 proteins. The reproducibility of the experiments is discussed. These proteins were distributed into eight functional classes. Oxidoreductases such as peroxidases were well represented, whereas glycoside hydrolases were scarce. This work provides information about the proteins that could be manipulated through genetic transformation, to increase second-generation ethanol production. PMID:24436144

Calderan-Rodrigues, Maria Juliana; Jamet, Elisabeth; Bonassi, Maria Beatriz Calderan Rodrigues; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Begossi, Amanda Carmanhanis; Setem, Laís Vaz; Franceschini, Livia Maria; Fonseca, Juliana Guimarães; Labate, Carlos Alberto

2014-03-01

178

Optimization of hot-compressed water pretreatment of bagasse and characterization of extracted hemicelluloses.  

PubMed

Developing optimum treatment and separation procedures for hemicellulose components of lignocellulosic biomass could be useful in ethanol fermentation processes and obtaining pure hemicelluloses as biopolymers. Sugarcane bagasse analyses indicate that xylose is the major hemicellulose component constituting 17.7% of dry bagasse weight. In this study the effects of treatment conditions such as time, temperature and pressure on the yields of extracted hemicelluloses were studied. The optimum conditions were achieved at 180 °C for 30 min and 1 MPa pressure, with the yield of xylose reaching to 85% and the concentrations of sugar degradation products such as HMF and furfural remaining minimal at 0.95 and 0.07 g/L, respectively. Further, isolation of hemicelluloses from extracted hemicelluloses solutions was performed using Alfa Laval M20 membrane filtration system in two steps: (1) concentration of high molar mass hemicelluloses by ultrafiltration; and (2) separation of low molar mass hemicelluloses and oligomeric sugars by nanofiltration. The isolated hemicelluloses with the optimum pretreatment conditions were characterized by FT-IR and (13)C NMR techniques, resulting in agreement with typical spectra of xylan-type hemicelluloses. PMID:24299765

Sukhbaatar, Badamkhand; Hassan, El Barbary; Kim, Moon; Steele, Philip; Ingram, Leonard

2014-01-30

179

CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, the cumulative capacity of renewable energy systems such as bagasse cogeneration in India is far below their theoretical potential despite government subsidy programmes. One of the major barriers is the high investment cost of these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve

Pallav Purohit; Axel Michaelowa

2007-01-01

180

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids).  

PubMed

Genetic transformation of sugarcane has a tremendous potential to complement traditional breeding in crop improvement and will likely transform sugarcane into a bio-factory for value-added products. We describe here Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sugarcane. Embryogenic callus induced from immature leaf whorls was used as target for transformation with the hypervirulent Agrobacterium strain AGL1 carrying a constitutive nptII expression cassette in vector pPZP200. Selection with 30 mg/L geneticin during the callus phase and 30 mg/L paromomycin during regeneration of shoots and roots effectively suppressed the development of non-transgenic plants. This protocol was successful with a commercially important sugarcane cultivar, CP-88-1762, at a transformation efficiency of two independent transgenic plants per g of callus. PMID:25416267

Wu, Hao; Altpeter, Fredy

2015-01-01

181

Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse. Influence of catalyst type and chemical treatment  

SciTech Connect

Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse under different experimental conditions has been studied. Variables investigated were temperature and type and concentration of catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an isothermal manner. Products of pyrolysis are gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}), liquids (methanol, acetone, furfurylic alcohol, phenol, furfural, naphthalene, and o-cresol), and solids (chars). Temperature is a significant variable, yielding increases of fixed carbon content, gases, and to a lesser extent, ash percentage. Catalyst presence also yields increases of solid phase content, but the amount of liquid components decrease. Among catalysts applied those of Fe and Zn are the most advisable to obtain gases. Chemical treatment of bagasses with sulfuric or phosphoric acid washing leads to lower char yields, although fixed carbon content is higher and ash presence diminishes with respect to catalyst pyrolysis without chemical pretreatment. A pyrolysis kinetic study based on gas generation from thermal decomposition of residues has been carried out. From the model proposed, rate constants for the formation of each gas, reaction order of the catalyst, and activation energies were determined.

Encinar, J.M.; Beltran, F.J.; Ramiro, A.; Gonzalez, J.F. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica] [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica

1997-10-01

182

Ash Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Ash refers to the inorganic residue remaining after either ignition or complete oxidation of organic matter in a foodstuff. A\\u000a basic knowledge of the characteristics of various ashing procedures and types of equipment is essential to ensure reliable\\u000a results. Two major types of ashing are used: dry ashing, primarily for proximate composition and for some types of specific\\u000a mineral analyses;

Maurice R. Marshall

183

Thermal Coprocessing of High Density Polyethylene with Coal, Fly Ashes, and Biomass: Characterization of Liquid Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-pyrolysis of high density polyethylene with low cost additives, such as bituminous coal, bagasse fly ash, coal-based thermal power plant fly ash, and deoiled cake of jatropha, has been carried out in a batch reactor in the presence of nitrogen at 450°C under atmospheric pressure. Liquid products obtained by co-pyrolysis were characterized by ASTM D86 and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The

Y. C. Rotliwala; P. A. Parikh

2012-01-01

184

Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At the start of the sugarcane harvest season in Louisiana, late-September or early-October, sucrose content in sugarcane is relatively low compared to late in the harvest season. In order for early-harvested sugarcane to be profitable, chemicals, primarily herbicides, have been evaluated for their e...

185

Sugarcane response to bermudagrass interference  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was conducted with the objectives of determining differences in the competitiveness of three phenotypically different sugarcane cultivars, ‘CP 70-321’, ‘HoCP 85-845’, and ‘LCP 85-384’, with bermudagrass, and the effects of bermudagrass interference on sugarcane. Sugarcane was planted at tw...

186

Determining seed transmission of sugarcane mosaic virus and sugarcane yellow leaf virus in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The importation of sugarcane germplasm is essential to diversify sugarcane germplasm used in United States breeding programs. Foreign germplasm is received primarily as vegetative cuttings. Current permit requirements for importing sugarcane seed into the United States are impractical and limit the ...

187

Merits of excess bagasse as fuel for generating electricity. [Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising cost of fuel oil improves the economics for sugar factories of using excess bagasse to produce more electricity than they require for sale to the public utility companies. Recently, the United States Sugar Corporation, in Florida, initiated the operation of a 20 MW plant fueled with excess bagasse only, and the electricity it generates is sold to a

Perea

1981-01-01

188

Herbicide effects on sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Of all the areas of the world where sugarcane is grown, Louisiana lies furthest from the Equator. As such, its growing season is the shortest as it is affected by frost in the late–winter (February/March) at the start of the growing season and the fear of freezing temperatures during the harvest se...

189

Improving Sugarcane Flood Tolerance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help co...

190

Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

191

Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

Kiatkittipong, Worapon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongsuchoto, Porntip [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: prasert.p@chula.ac.th

2009-05-15

192

Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41?±?0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2?±?0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39?±?0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7?±?1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38?±?0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation. PMID:23895663

2013-01-01

193

Registration of ‘Ho 02-113’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ho 02-113’ sugarcane was released by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugarcane League of the U.S.A. This high-fiber sugarcane variety was released for use as a biofuel feedstock to fill the rising i...

194

Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

195

Ash Tree Identification Key Ash Tree Characteristics  

E-print Network

berries Walnut, Hickory, Mountain-Ash: alternate branching #12;Identifying Emerald Ash Borer what to do if you think you have the ash-killing Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) in your ash tree Verify the signs of EAB: 1/8" "D" shaped "S" shaped tunnels small, 3/4" metallic green beetles 1/8 D shaped exit holes

Walter, M.Todd

196

Sugarcane smut and its control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...

197

Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

Inaç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz

2013-12-01

198

Sugarcane bagasse pulps: biobleaching with commercial cartazyme HS and with Bacillus pumilus xylanase.  

PubMed

Organosolv (ethanol/water and acetosolv) pulps were treated with Bacillus pumilus xylanase for 4, 8, and 12 h and compared with commercial Cartazyme HS xylanase-treated pulps. Treatment of ethanol/water pulps with B. pumilus xylanase increased viscosity by 40% in 8 h of treatment compared with pulps treated without enzyme. However, acetosolv pulps treated with B. pumilus xylanase lost viscosity. Ethanol/water pulps treated with Cartazyme had a viscosity of 18.5 cP in 4 h of treatment. In the acetosolv pulps treated with commercial enzyme, the loss of viscosity was 20% compared with pulps treated without enzyme. Ethanol/water pulps treated with B. pumilus and Cartazyme had similar effects: a 44% reduction in kappa number for pulps treated with enzyme followed by alkaline extraction compared with pulps treated with alkaline extraction. In acetosolv pulps treated with B. pumilus, the kappa number was from 12 to 18, compared with pulps treated without enzyme, which had a 40% reduction in 4 and 12 h and a 60% reduction in 8 h. Cartazyme-treated acetosolv pulps had a kappa number of 14 in 4 and 8 h of treatment. For 12 h of treatment, the kappa number was 8. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the pulps showed that enzyme-treated pulps had changes in the 1000 cm-1 absorption owing to a C-O bond present in esters. Using principal component analysis, it is possible to differentiate the unbleached pulps and enzyme-treated pulps. PMID:15917597

Moriya, Regina Y; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Duarte, Marta C T

2005-01-01

199

Succinic acid production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate by Actinobacillus succinogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succinic acid, a four-carbon diacid, has been the focus of many research projects aimed at developing more economically viable\\u000a methods of fermenting sugar-containing natural materials. Succinic acid fermentation processes also consume CO2, thereby potentially contributing to reductions in CO2 emissions. Succinic acid could also become a commodity used as an intermediate in the chemical synthesis and manufacture\\u000a of synthetic resins

Elcio Ribeiro Borges; Nei Pereira

200

Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 °C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH.

Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Galvão, C. A.

2012-08-01

201

Transcriptome Profile of Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Induced by Sugarcane Bagasse  

PubMed Central

Profiling the transcriptome that underlies biomass degradation by the fungus Trichoderma harzianum allows the identification of gene sequences with potential application in enzymatic hydrolysis processing. In the present study, the transcriptome of T. harzianum IOC-3844 was analyzed using RNA-seq technology. The sequencing generated 14.7 Gbp for downstream analyses. De novo assembly resulted in 32,396 contigs, which were submitted for identification and classified according to their identities. This analysis allowed us to define a principal set of T. harzianum genes that are involved in the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose and the accessory genes that are involved in the depolymerization of biomass. An additional analysis of expression levels identified a set of carbohydrate-active enzymes that are upregulated under different conditions. The present study provides valuable information for future studies on biomass degradation and contributes to a better understanding of the role of the genes that are involved in this process. PMID:24558413

Horta, Maria Augusta Crivelente; Vicentini, Renato; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Laborda, Prianda; Crucello, Aline; Freitas, Sindélia; Kuroshu, Reginaldo Massanobu; Polikarpov, Igor; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Souza, Anete Pereira

2014-01-01

202

Experiences with the sugarcane aphid as a pest of sugarcane in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), has been a sporadic but sometimes serious problem on sugarcane in Louisiana since its first discovery in 1999. LSU AgCenter and USDA-ARS scientists have studied aspects of sugarcane aphid management on sugarcane, including pest status, varietal re...

203

Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...

204

Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

Cuzens, J.E.

1997-11-19

205

Character Association and Selection Indices in Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane breeders often face significant genotype x environment interactions in their trials grown under multiple environments. Hence, genotypes need to be tested for their stability across different environments keeping in view the significant interactions. An experiment comprising 28 sugarcane ge...

206

Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of ?-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of ?-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse. PMID:25496945

Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

2015-02-01

207

Registration of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

208

Managing damaging freeze events in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of sugarcane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugarcane producing countries of the world, but is most frequent on the mainland of the United States, especially in the state of Louisiana. The frequent winter freezes that occur in the sugarcane areas of Louisiana have fo...

209

Registration of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

210

Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selec...

211

High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct.  

PubMed

The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L(-1)) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant ?-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L(-1), resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

2010-01-01

212

High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct  

PubMed Central

The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L?1) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant ?-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L?1, resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

2010-01-01

213

On-line identification of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) methoxyflavones by liquid chromatography-UV detection using post-column derivatization and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L., Gramineae) bagasse and leaves were investigated for their flavonoid content and transgenic sugarcane ("Bowman-Birk" and "Kunitz") was compared with non-modified ("control") plants. Analyses were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array UV detection (LC/UV), also using post-column addition of shift reagents, and tandem MS (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS and collision-induced dissociation-MS). On-line UV and MS data demonstrated the presence of methoxyflavone glycosides and aglycones in a total of seven compounds. Three naturally occurring flavones glycosides and two unusual erythro- and threo-diastereoisomeric flavolignan 7-O-glucosides were identified together with their aglycones. PMID:16038194

Colombo, Renata a; Yariwake, Janete H; Queiroz, Emerson F; Ndjoko, Karine; Hostettmann, Kurt

2005-07-29

214

Categorizing sugarcane cultivar resistance to the sugarcane aphid and yellow sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  

PubMed

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a casual agent of yellow leaf disease whose absence has been added to certification standards for micropropagated sugarcane in Louisiana. Greenhouse studies were conducted to categorize dominant commercial sugarcane cultivars for their ability to tolerate aphid injury and to express antixenotic or antibiotic effects on both aphid species. Antixenosis tests showed no preference among cultivars by either aphid species. Loss of chlorophyll content in tolerance tests also did not show differences among cultivars for both aphid species. However, antibiosis tests revealed that life history parameters such as the duration of the reproductive period and fecundity of both aphid species were negatively affected on 'HoCP 91-555' compared with 'L 97-128'. Estimation of demographic statistics indicated that both aphid species exhibited a significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (1.8-2.8-fold) and longer doubling time (1.7-3.1-fold) on HoCP 91-555 relative to L 97-128. From these tests, cultivars in the current study can be ranked from most to the least susceptible as L 97-128 > 'LCP 85-384' > 'HoCP 96-540' > 'Ho 95-988' > HoCP 91-555 for M. sacchari and L 97-128 > LCP 85-384 > HoCP 91-555 for S. flava. Therefore, antibiosis is an important category of resistance in sugarcane to both aphid species, and HoCP 91-555 might provide useful germplasm for developing aphid resistant cultivars. PMID:20857758

Akbar, W; Showler, A T; Reagan, T E; White, W H

2010-08-01

215

VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE CONVEYORS TO LEFT WITH BOILER HOUSE WING?S GABLE END IN LEFT BACKGROUND. A CONDENSATE TANK IS TO THE RIGHT, WITH BOILING HOUSE GABLE END IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

216

Ash leachate test on Redoubt ash  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Undergraduate student Janelle Dyer (USGS ARRA student appointment) performs an ash leachate test on Redoubt ash in the Alaska Tephra Laboratory and Data Center in Anchorage, Alaska. This test is done to analyze the geochemical reaction between volcanic ash and drinking water sources during eruptions...

217

Anaerobic digestion of stillage to produce bioenergy in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry.  

PubMed

Stillage is the main wastewater from ethanol production, containing a high chemical oxygen demand in addition to acidic and corrosive characteristics. Though stillage may be used as a soil fertilizer, its land application may be considered problematic due its high polluting potential. Anaerobic digestion represents an effective alternative treatment to reduce the pollution load of stillage. In addition, the methane gas produced within the process may be converted to energy, which can be directly applied to the treatment plant. The objective of this paper was to investigate the energetic potential of anaerobic digestion applied to stillage in the sugarcane ethanol industry. An overall analysis of the results indicates energy recovery capacity (ERC) values for methane ranging from 3.5% to 10%, respectively, for sugarcane juice and molasses. The processes employed to obtain the fermentable broth, as well as the distillation step, represent the main limiting factors to the energetic potential feasibility. Considering financial aspects the annual savings could reach up to US$ 30 million due to anaerobic digestion of stillage in relatively large-scale distilleries (365,000 m3 of ethanol per year). The best scenarios were verified for the association between anaerobic digestion of stillage and combustion of bagasse. In this case, the fossil fuels consumption in distilleries could be fully ceased, such the ERC of methane could reach values ranging from 140% to 890%. PMID:24600872

Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

2014-01-01

218

Development and Biotechnological Application of a Novel Endoxylanase Family GH10 Identified from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome  

PubMed Central

Metagenomics has been widely employed for discovery of new enzymes and pathways to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In this context, the present study reports the isolation, recombinant expression, biochemical and structural characterization of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 (SCXyl) identified from sugarcane soil metagenome. The recombinant SCXyl was highly active against xylan from beechwood and showed optimal enzyme activity at pH 6,0 and 45°C. The crystal structure was solved at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing the classical (?/?)8-barrel fold with a conserved active-site pocket and an inherent flexibility of the Trp281-Arg291 loop that can adopt distinct conformational states depending on substrate binding. The capillary electrophoresis analysis of degradation products evidenced that the enzyme displays unusual capacity to degrade small xylooligosaccharides, such as xylotriose, which is consistent to the hydrophobic contacts at the +1 subsite and low-binding energies of subsites that are distant from the site of hydrolysis. The main reaction products from xylan polymers and phosphoric acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PASB) were xylooligosaccharides, but, after a longer incubation time, xylobiose and xylose were also formed. Moreover, the use of SCXyl as pre-treatment step of PASB, prior to the addition of commercial cellulolytic cocktail, significantly enhanced the saccharification process. All these characteristics demonstrate the advantageous application of this enzyme in several biotechnological processes in food and feed industry and also in the enzymatic pretreatment of biomass for feedstock and ethanol production. PMID:23922891

Paixão, Douglas A. A.; Gonçalves, Thiago A.; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L.; Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pereira, Isabela; Jackson, George; Cota, Junio; Büchli, Fernanda; Citadini, Ana Paula; Ruller, Roberto; Polo, Carla Cristina; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Murakami, Mário T.; Squina, Fabio M.

2013-01-01

219

Development and biotechnological application of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 identified from sugarcane soil metagenome.  

PubMed

Metagenomics has been widely employed for discovery of new enzymes and pathways to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In this context, the present study reports the isolation, recombinant expression, biochemical and structural characterization of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 (SCXyl) identified from sugarcane soil metagenome. The recombinant SCXyl was highly active against xylan from beechwood and showed optimal enzyme activity at pH 6,0 and 45°C. The crystal structure was solved at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing the classical (?/?)8-barrel fold with a conserved active-site pocket and an inherent flexibility of the Trp281-Arg291 loop that can adopt distinct conformational states depending on substrate binding. The capillary electrophoresis analysis of degradation products evidenced that the enzyme displays unusual capacity to degrade small xylooligosaccharides, such as xylotriose, which is consistent to the hydrophobic contacts at the +1 subsite and low-binding energies of subsites that are distant from the site of hydrolysis. The main reaction products from xylan polymers and phosphoric acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PASB) were xylooligosaccharides, but, after a longer incubation time, xylobiose and xylose were also formed. Moreover, the use of SCXyl as pre-treatment step of PASB, prior to the addition of commercial cellulolytic cocktail, significantly enhanced the saccharification process. All these characteristics demonstrate the advantageous application of this enzyme in several biotechnological processes in food and feed industry and also in the enzymatic pretreatment of biomass for feedstock and ethanol production. PMID:23922891

Alvarez, Thabata M; Goldbeck, Rosana; dos Santos, Camila Ramos; Paixão, Douglas A A; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L; Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pereira, Isabela; Jackson, George; Cota, Junio; Büchli, Fernanda; Citadini, Ana Paula; Ruller, Roberto; Polo, Carla Cristina; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Murakami, Mário T; Squina, Fabio M

2013-01-01

220

SUGARCANE VARIETY CENSUS FLORIDA 2002  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Cultivars originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by USDA-ARS, the Univ...

221

Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

222

Potential effect of sugarcane yellow leaf virus infection on yield of leading sugarcane cultivars in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field experiments were conducted to determine the potential effect of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV) infection on cane and sucrose yield of four sugarcane cultivars (LCP 85-384, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540 and L 97-128) that occupied a combined total of 93% of the sugarcane production area in Louisi...

223

Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

224

Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation.  

PubMed

Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed over the past 30 years, but attempts to further increase crop yield have been limited due to the complexity of the sugarcane genome. An alternative to boost the crop yield is the introduction of genes encoding desirable traits in the elite sugarcane cultivars. Genetically modified sugarcane with increased yield and pest and disease resistance has already proven its value not only by the increased sugar content but also for the improvement of the crop performance. However, transgene stability is still a challenge since transgene silencing seems to occur in a large proportion of genetically modified sugarcane plants. In addition, regulatory issues associated with the crop propagation model will also be a challenge to the commercial approval of genetically modified sugarcane. PMID:22093808

Arruda, Paulo

2012-06-01

225

Detection of sugarcane bacilliform virus in sugarcane germplasm.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV), a badnavirus was found in sugarcane genotypes of Saccharum officinarum L., S. barberi Jesw., S. sinense Roxb., S. robustum Brand and Jesw., and Saccharum hybrids. In most of the suspected genotypes the virus was found associated with clear foliar symptoms. However, certain symptom-free clones carried the virus too. The virus was detected by immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in suspected clones. The virions measured about 108-118 x 20-21 nm in size. The virus was serologically closely related to another badnavirus, banana streak virus (BSV). Virus titer was low in most of the genotypes. However, a close correlation between symptoms expression and virus titer existed in some genotypes. PMID:8886091

Viswanathan, R; Alexander, K C; Garg, I D

1996-02-01

226

California Dust and Ash  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... title:  Airborne Dust and Ash over Southern California     View Larger Image The Santa Ana winds that typically blow through Southern California during late fall and winter swept large amounts of dust and ash ...

2014-05-15

227

Emerald ash borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The emerald ash borer is an insect that was introduced to the United States on accident. The larvae of this insect feed on essential parts of the ash tree. This non-native species has killed several million trees already.

N/A N/A (USDA; Forest Service)

2004-11-13

228

A report on the transmissibility of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sugarcane yellow leaf virus through seed in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the United States, exotic germplasm of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is mainly received as vegetative cuttings because the extensive actions required to meet existing APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) permit conditions make the importation of sugarcane seed impractical. While taking...

229

Volcanic Ash Fall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication discusses volcanic ash fall in terms of composition and effects. This report discusses the negative effects of volcanic ash fall on machinery, human health, weather and man-made structures, using the Mount Saint Helens eruption of 1980 as an example. The composition of volcanic ash is discussed, as well as ancient and modern ash falls that have occurred in the United States.

Christopher Kenedi

230

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE PARTICLEBOARD School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries  

E-print Network

depends upon their ability to successfully perform in intended applications. Sugar cane is an important or is landfilled (Paturau 1989). Therefore, finding better ways of bagasse utilization becomes an important research interest with practical significance. Transforming bagasse into high quality industrial panel

231

Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry  

SciTech Connect

This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

1988-05-01

232

Activation of fly ash  

DOEpatents

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

1986-08-19

233

Activation of fly ash  

DOEpatents

Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

1986-01-01

234

The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production,

José Goldemberg; Suani Teixeira Coelho; Patricia Guardabassi

2008-01-01

235

Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

236

Registration of ‘CPCL 97-2730’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

237

Herbicide options for suppressing bermudagrass in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bermudagrass is a problematic weed in Louisiana sugarcane. The most effective herbicide options are limited to the fallow period prior to planting. Frequently, efforts to eliminate bermudagrass from fields during the fallow season are unsuccessful. This subjects newly planted sugarcane to competitio...

238

Genetic Diversity and Genome Complexity of Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as a C4 plant, is one of the most efficient crops in converting solar energy into chemical energy. Sugarcane cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized the most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to stresses that may exist in t...

239

Breeding sugarcane for temperate and cold environments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Louisiana represents one of the world’s more temperate environments where sugarcane is commercially grown. Since its inception in the 1920s, The USDA-ARS breeding program at the Sugarcane Research Laboratory in Houma, Louisiana, U.S.A. has focused on breeding varieties adapted to this unique envir...

240

Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

241

Registration of ‘CPCL 99-4455’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The objectives of this research were t...

242

Registration of 'CP 94-1100' Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

243

Registration of 'CP 98-1029' Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

244

Registration of ‘CP 01-1372’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purposes of this research were to ...

245

INSECT AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

246

SOME INSECT PESTS NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Eve...

247

SUGARCANE GENOTYPE EMERGENCE RESPONSE TO FLOOD DURATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the primary crop in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida where it is exposed to periodic floods. After sugarcane is planted, it is particularly susceptible to flooding until it sprouts. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on emergence of flood du...

248

Silicon nutrition and sugarcane production: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon (Si) is one of the most abundant elements found in the earth's crust, but is mostly inert and only slightly soluble. Agriculture activity tends to remove large quantities of Si from soil. Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other mineral nutrient, accumulating approximately 380 kg ha of Si, in a 12?month?old crop. Sugarcane (plant growth and

Narayan K. Savant; Gaspar H. Korndörfer; Lawrence E. Datnoff; George H. Snyderc

1999-01-01

249

Incinerator ash removal systems  

SciTech Connect

An incinerator is disclosed which includes apparatus for removing ash from an incinerating chamber and which comprises hydraulically operated plows that slide along the floor of the chamber to push the ash towards an ash trough. Ash removal efficiency is improved in accordance with the present invention by the hinged suspension of a brush from the plow face. An auxiliary plow is added to the waste material loading device to clear ash from the highest of several stepped floor levels even in the absence of no new load being entered. The auxiliary plow further includes a clevis assembly which pivots the brush away from the incinerator floor during reverse plow travel.

Sakash, G.; Dada, A. G.; Grier Jr., R. K.; McKeel, D. W.; Stern, H.

1985-08-13

250

Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and 100% are predicted for some cycles with the addition of optimum heat recovery systems.

Seguro, Jean Vittorio

251

Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer?  

E-print Network

Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer? Purdue Plant & Pest Diagnostic Laboratory #12;Ash Tree splits S-shaped galleries Diagnostic Symptoms of Emerald Ash Borer #12;Diagnostic Symptoms of EAB information on recent emerald ash borer finds in Indiana, please contact the Indiana Department of Natural

Ginzel, Matthew

252

Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content  

PubMed Central

Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse) in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass) of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages) varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment. Conclusion Some of the experimental sugarcane hybrids did have the combined characteristics of high biomass and high sucrose production with low lignin content. Conversion of glucan to glucose by commercial cellulases was increased in the samples with low lignin content. Chemical delignification further increased the cellulose conversion to values of more than 80%. Thus, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment. PMID:22145819

2011-01-01

253

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOEpatents

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14

254

A specific, robust, and automated method for routine at-line monitoring of the concentration of cellulases in genetically modified sugarcane plants.  

PubMed

Bagasse is one of the waste crop materials highlighted as commercially viable for cellulosic bio-ethanol production via enzymatic conversion to release fermentable sugars. Genetically modified sugarcane expressing cellobiohydrolases (CBH), endoglucanase (EG), and ?-glucosidases (BG) provide a more cost-effective route to cellulose breakdown compared to culturing these enzymes in microbial tanks. Hence, process monitoring of the concentration profile of these key cellulases in incoming batches of sugarcane is required for fiscal measures and bio-ethanol process control. The existing methods due to their non-specificity, requirement of trained analysts, low sample throughput, and low amenability to automation are unsuitable for this purpose. Therefore, this paper explores a membrane-based sample preparation method coupled to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to quantify these enzymes. The maximum enzyme extraction efficiency was obtained by using a polyethersulfone membrane with molecular cut-off of 10 kDa. The use of 15 mM, pH 7.75, phosphate buffer resulted in CZE separation and quantification of CBH, EG, and BG within 10 min. Migration time reproducibility was between 0.56% and 0.7% and hence, suitable for use with automatic peak detection software. Therefore, the developed CZE method is suitable for at-line analysis of BG, CBH, and EG in every batch of harvested sugarcane. PMID:21136205

Gupta, Ruchi; Baldock, Sara J; Fielden, Peter R; Grieve, Bruce D

2011-02-01

255

An-Overview on invertase in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Saccharum officinarum is one of the most cultivated hybrid varieties among the sugarcane varieties. In sugarcane plant sucrose is the major carbohydrate which can be stored and transported. Different physiological and biochemical studies on this crop report that invertase activity and sucrose concentration some how are key limiting step in the process of sucrose accumulation. Significant efforts have been made in relation to the sucrose cycle by altering the sucrose phosphate synthetase, sucrose synthetase and invertase. In sugarcane two types of invertase enzymes have been reported on the basis of pH and cellular localization. Invertase breaks the sucrose into hexoses as a source of energy and carbon. It has also been reported that this enzyme is involved in the process of cell differentiation and plant development. Progress has been made for the understanding of invertase activity and its role in sugarcane plant. With the help of biotechnology it is possible to target the desired gene with genetic engineering approach to increase sucrose content by careful manipulation of invertase (enzyme) gene to increase the sucrose yield in sugarcane. Purpose of this mini review is to high-light the role of invertase in sugarcane and how to overcome sucrose recovery in sugarcane. PMID:23847400

Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Yadav, Ashok; Lal, Ramji

2013-01-01

256

An-Overview on invertase in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Saccharum officinarum is one of the most cultivated hybrid varieties among the sugarcane varieties. In sugarcane plant sucrose is the major carbohydrate which can be stored and transported. Different physiological and biochemical studies on this crop report that invertase activity and sucrose concentration some how are key limiting step in the process of sucrose accumulation. Significant efforts have been made in relation to the sucrose cycle by altering the sucrose phosphate synthetase, sucrose synthetase and invertase. In sugarcane two types of invertase enzymes have been reported on the basis of pH and cellular localization. Invertase breaks the sucrose into hexoses as a source of energy and carbon. It has also been reported that this enzyme is involved in the process of cell differentiation and plant development. Progress has been made for the understanding of invertase activity and its role in sugarcane plant. With the help of biotechnology it is possible to target the desired gene with genetic engineering approach to increase sucrose content by careful manipulation of invertase (enzyme) gene to increase the sucrose yield in sugarcane. Purpose of this mini review is to high-light the role of invertase in sugarcane and how to overcome sucrose recovery in sugarcane. PMID:23847400

Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Yadav, Ashok; Lal, Ramji

2013-01-01

257

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

2012-04-01

258

Bioconversion of Sugarcane Biomass into Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods, Detoxification of Hydrolysates, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Ethanol Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production. PMID:23251086

Canilha, Larissa; Chandel, Anuj Kumar; Suzane dos Santos Milessi, Thais; Antunes, Felipe Antônio Fernandes; Luiz da Costa Freitas, Wagner; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

2012-01-01

259

2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 21 ASHES TO ASHES: LARGE FRAXINUS GERMPLASM  

E-print Network

@psu.edu. As the emerald ash borer (EAB) threatens the survival of our ash species, measures should be taken to preserve2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 21 ASHES TO ASHES: LARGE FRAXINUS of the genus, white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) and green ash (F. pennsylvanica Marsh.). The white ash

260

Preparation of antioxidants from sugarcane molasses.  

PubMed

Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction with piecewise distillation separation was used to obtain antioxidants from sugarcane molasses. Extraction pressure, time, temperature, flow rate of CO2 and ethanol content were selected as the independent variables. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extract. Results showed that conditions to obtain the highest total oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of sugarcane molasses extract were determined to be an extraction pressure of 33.3 MPa, temperature of 43.3 °C, time of 86.7 min, 90% ethanol content of sugarcane molasses and flow rate of CO2 of 20 L/h. Under the conditions stated above, the experimental value was 2584.9. This study indicated that supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction with piecewise distillation separation can effectively extract antioxidants from sugarcane molasses. PMID:24444974

Guan, Yongguang; Tang, Qiang; Fu, Xiong; Yu, Shujuan; Wu, Shaowei; Chen, Mingshun

2014-01-01

261

Perspective of the Sugarcane Industry in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugarcane industry in Brazil is experiencing a rapid shift towards creating the grounds for a green and sustainable biorefinary\\u000a industry. After 30 years of ProAlcool, the federal government program that boosted Brazil’s sugarcane industry by creating\\u000a a mandate to blend ethanol with gasoline, flex fuel engines now dominate Brazil’s automobile industry. Currently, bioethanol\\u000a replaces around 30% of the gasoline consumed

Paulo Arruda

2011-01-01

262

The Brazilian experience of sugarcane ethanol industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass has gained prominence in the last few years as one of the most important renewable energy sources. In Brazil, a sugarcane\\u000a ethanol program called ProAlcohol was designed to supply the liquid gasoline substitution and has been running for the last\\u000a 30 yr. The federal government’s establishment of ProAlcohol in 1975 created the grounds for the development of a sugarcane\\u000a industry

Sizuo Matsuoka; Jesus Ferro; Paulo Arruda

2009-01-01

263

The Brazilian Experience of Sugarcane Ethanol Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biomass has gained prominence in the last few years as one of the most important renewable energy sources. In Brazil, a sugarcane\\u000a ethanol program called ProAlcohol was designed to supply the liquid gasoline substitution and has been running for the last\\u000a 30 yr. The federal government’s establishment of ProAlcohol in 1975 created the grounds for the development of a sugarcane

Sizuo Matsuoka; Jesus Ferro; Paulo Arruda

264

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

Azzam, A.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

1989-01-01

265

Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields.

Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianan; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Zhou, Ming; Gong, Aihua

2014-08-01

266

Chemical and gamma-ray-modified bagasse as substrates for bioproduction of cellulases and protein  

SciTech Connect

Production of enzymes in the cellulolytic complex was determined in culture filtrates of six fungal isolates grown on chemically treated or gamma-irradiated bagasse. The enzymatic activities of the filtrates were determined by measurement of glucose release from cotton, filter paper, carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose, and cellobiose octaacetate. Cultures grown on basetreated and gamma-irradiated plus acid-treated bagasse provided culture filtrates with the highest enzymatic activities whereas alpha-cellulose, untreated, and acid-treated bagasse were the poorest substrates for enzyme production. Filtrates of trichoderma reesei QM 9414 yielded the highest cellulolytic activity in all test media. The largest accumulation of fungal-derived, extracellular protein was observed in media containing gamma-irradiated bagasse as the carbon substrate. (14 Refs.)

Lillehoj, E.B.; Han, Y.W.

1983-08-01

267

Chemical and gamma-ray-modified bagasse as substrates for bioproduction of cellulases and protein.  

PubMed

Production of enzymes in the cellulolytic complex was determined in culture filtrates of six fungal isolates grown on chemically treated or gamma-irradiated bagasse. The enzymatic activities of the filtrates were determined by measurement of glucose release from cotton, filter paper, carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose, and cellobiose octaacetate. Cultures grown on base-treated and gamma-irradiated plus acid-treated bagasse provided culture filtrates with the highest enzymatic activities whereas alpha-cellulose, untreated, and acid-treated bagasse were the poorest substrates for enzyme production. Filtrates of Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 yielded the highest cellulolytic activity in all test media. The largest accumulation of fungal-derived, extracellular protein was observed in media containing gamma-irradiated bagasse as the carbon substrate. PMID:18551552

Lillehoj, E B; Han, Y W

1983-08-01

268

Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields. PMID:25036467

Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianan; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Zhou, Ming; Gong, Aihua

2014-08-01

269

Sugarcane improvement: how far can we go?  

PubMed

In recent years, efforts to improve sugarcane have focused on the development of biotechnology for this crop. It has become clear that sugarcane lacks tools for the biotechnological route of improvement and that the initial efforts in sequencing ESTs had limited impact for breeding. Until recently, the models used by breeders in statistical genetics approaches have been developed for diploid organisms, which are not ideal for a polyploid genome such as that of sugarcane. Breeding programs are dealing with decreasing yield gains. The contribution of multiple alleles to complex traits such as yield is a basic question underlining the breeding efforts that could only be addressed by the development of specific tools for this grass. However, functional genomics has progressed and gene expression profiling is leading to the definition of gene networks. The sequencing of the sugarcane genome, which is underway, will greatly contribute to numerous aspects of research on grasses. We expect that both the transgenic and the marker-assisted route for sugarcane improvement will contribute to increased sugar, stress tolerance, and higher yield and that the industry for years to come will be able to rely on sugarcane as the most productive energy crop. PMID:21983270

Dal-Bianco, Maximiller; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Chapola, Roberto Giacomini; Hoffmann, Hermann Paulo; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

2012-04-01

270

Seasonal timing of glyphosate ripener application affects sugarcane’s response in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Glyphosate is applied as a ripener to ratoon sugarcane in Louisiana to increase theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) in harvested sugarcane. While glyphosate is applied as a ripener throughout the harvest season, recommendations for these applications have been based primarily on the response of s...

271

The effect of sugarcane yellow leaf virus infection on yield of Sugarcane in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of field experiment were conducted to determine the effect of SCYLV infection on cane and sugar yield of four commercial sugarcane cultivars (LCP 85-384, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540 and L 97-128) that occupied 93% of the sugarcane production area in Louisiana in 2006. The experiments were harve...

272

Effects of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infection on sugarcane in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Symptoms of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infection on sugarcane typically appear late in the growing season. In Louisiana, infected plants may be harvested before symptoms develop or late-season symptoms may be masked by the effects of chemical ripener or freezing temperatures. In a field exp...

273

ASSOCIATION OF SUGARCANE PITH, RIND HARDNESS, AND FIBER WITH RESISTANCE TO THE SUGARCANE BORER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Planting sugarcane varieties with natural resistance to the sugarcane borer is an attractive alternative to pesticides for controlling damaging infestations of this important insect pest. Unfortunately some of the plant traits (i.e. plant stalk fiber) that have been identified as conferring resistan...

274

Florida's sugarcane industry and the role of the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Florida’s sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) industry of 420,000 acres produces 1.9 million tons of sugar annually, approximately 20 percent of the yearly sugar consumption in the United States. Canal Point sugarcane cultivars produced by the cooperative program of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, a...

275

Ash and slag characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past year, the key accomplishments of this project have been progress toward elucidating the mechanism of formation of melilites during ashing and development of studies of coal ash slag surface tension. Melilites are a family of aluminosilicate minerals of which gehlenite, CaâAlâSiOâ, is a typical member. The importance of melilites is that they seem to be ubiquitous in

Schobert

1985-01-01

276

Kentucky Ash Education Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research explains coal combustion byproducts such as fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and gypsum. The site also outlines how coal is used for electricity. Several animations will help users visualize how coal is processed at an electrical power plant.

277

Chemical and gamma-ray-modified bagasse as substrates for bioproduction of cellulases and protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of enzymes in the cellulolytic complex was determined in culture filtrates of six fungal isolates grown on chemically treated or gamma-irradiated bagasse. The enzymatic activities of the filtrates were determined by measurement of glucose release from cotton, filter paper, carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose, and cellobiose octaacetate. Cultures grown on basetreated and gamma-irradiated plus acid-treated bagasse provided culture filtrates with the highest

E. B. Lillehoj; Y. W. Han

1983-01-01

278

Smoke and toxic species analyses from combustion of guayule bagasse modified fiberboards  

E-print Network

SMOKE AND TOXIC SPECIES ANALYSES FROM COMBUSTION OF GUAYULE BAGASSE MODIFIED FIBERBOARDS A Thesis by LISA DANIELLE PARIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Safety Engineering SMOKE AND TOXIC SPECIES ANALYSIS FROM COMBUSTION OF GUAYULE BAGASSE MODIFIED FIBERBOARDS A Thesis by LISA DANIELLE PARIS Approved as to style and content by: John P...

Paris, Lisa Danielle

1990-01-01

279

PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING  

EPA Science Inventory

The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

280

PCDD and PCDF Emissions from Simulated Sugarcane Field Burning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emissions from simulated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass densit...

281

Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane: Isolation of the Causal Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by

Michael J. Davis; A. Graves Gillaspie; Russell W. Harris; Roger H. Lawson

1980-01-01

282

SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

283

Virus Strains Causing Mosaic in Louisiana and Florida Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), respectively, affects sugarcane in Louisiana and Florida. Between 2004 and 2007, surveys were conducted in both states to determine which virus and virus strains were causing mosaic of sugarcane. In Louisiana, leaf sam...

284

Sugarcane yield response to soybean double-cropping in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The interruption of continuous sugarcane plantings with a soybean (Glycine max) crop during the spring/summer fallow period between sugarcane plantings represents an economical opportunity for sugarcane growers in Louisiana. The objective of the experiment was to determine if soybeans grown in the u...

285

Physiological Responses of Sugarcane to Orange Rust Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is a relatively new disease in the United States that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane cultivars in Florida. The objective of this study was to determine physiological responses of sugarcane to orange rust infection by quantifyi...

286

International Testing for Genetic Variability of Sugarcane Smut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cooperative project was conducted to determine the genetic variability among populations of the Ustilago scitaminea, the pathogen of sugarcane smut, from different sugarcane growing regions of the world. A common set of 11 sugarcane cultivars with different reported reactions to smut was distribu...

287

Coal combustion ash haulback  

SciTech Connect

Coal mining disturbs large tracts of land which must be reclaimed. Unfortunately, iron sulfides which are common in most coals and the adjacent strata weather, forming acid mine drainage (AMD) which degrades surface and ground water. Burning of coal produces combustion by products, most of which are placed in ponds or landfills. Suitable disposal areas are difficult to find and permit, especially in urban areas. This has led to ash haulback--where the waste generated during coal burning is hauled back to a mine for disposal. The potential advantages of coal combustion ash haulback are: Disposal occurs in a disturbed area (mine) rather than disturb additional land near the power plant; The same vehicles used to haul coal from the mine can be used to return the ash to the mine; Ash, if alkaline, may provide neutralization of acidic water or mine overburden commonly found at coal mines; and Low permeability ash could reduce ground water flow through the mine backfill, thus reducing leaching of acid forming constituents or metals. Placement of ash in surface mines provides an efficient, cost-effective method of disposal while at the same time contributing to reclamation of the mine. Wise natural resource management suggests a reasonable approach to disposal of coal ash is to return it to its original location--the mine.

Gray, R.E.; Gray, T.A. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

288

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

PubMed Central

Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants. PMID:19302712

Papini-Terzi, Flávia S; Rocha, Flávia R; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugênio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M

2009-01-01

289

Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Simultaneous Energy Cane and Sugarcane Genetic Improvement -- Results of a Survey of International Sugarcane Breeders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following Brazil's dramatic success in utilizing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for large-scale ethanol production, and with a growing interest in energy crops worldwide, sugarcane breeders have been charged with genetically improving cane as an energy crop. We conducted a survey of sugarcane breeders i...

290

Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production  

SciTech Connect

The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

Irvine, J.E.

1980-01-01

291

Sugarcane and other crops as fuel feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

The use of sugarcane as a feedstock for fuel alcohol production in Brazil, and in Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Panama stimulated tremendous interest in the potential of agricultural crops for renewable energy sources. The cost of the feedstock is important. Corn, the current major agricultural feedstock in US fuel alcohol production, costs 60 to 80% of the selling price of the alcohol produced from it. Production costs for sugarcane and sugarbeets are higher than for corn. Sugarcane and sugarbeets, yield more fermentable carbohydrates per acre than any other crop. Sugarcane has the distinct advantage of containing a large amount of fiber in the harvested portion. The feedstock cost of sugarcane can be reduced by producing more cane per acre. Sweet sorghum has been discussed as a fuel crop. Cassana, the tapioca source, is thought to be a fuel crop of major potential. Feedstock cost can also be reduced through management decisions that reduce costly practices. Cultivation and fertilizer costs can be reduced. The operating cost of the processing plant is affected by the choice of crops grown for feedstock, both by their cost and by availability. (DP)

Irvine, J.E.

1980-07-01

292

Ash cloud aviation advisories  

SciTech Connect

During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1992-06-25

293

Selenium in fly ash.  

PubMed

Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on 10 percent (by weight) fly ash-amended soil absorbed up to 1 ppm of selenium. Fly ashes from 21 states contained total selenium contents ranging from 1.2 to 16.5 ppm. Cabbage grown on soil containing 10 percent (by weight) of these fly ashes absorbed selenium (up to 3.7 ppm) in direct proportion (correlation coefficient r = .89) to the selenium concentration in the respective fly ash. Water, aquatic weeds, algae, dragonfly nymphs, polliwogs, and tissues of bullheads and muskrats from a fly ash-contaminated pond contained concentrations of selenium markedly elevated over those of controls. PMID:1251212

Gutenmann, W H; Bache, C A; Youngs, W D; Lisk, D J

1976-03-01

294

Comparison of Ash from PF and CFB Boilers and Behaviour of Ash in Ash Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 90% of electricity produced in Estonia is made by power plants firing local oil shale and 25% of the boilers are of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) variety. In 2007 approximately 6.5 million tons of ash was acquired as a byproduct of using oil shale for energy production. Approximately 1.5 million tons of that was ash from CFB boilers. Such ash is deposited in ash fields by means ofhydro ash removal.

Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.; Rootamm, R.; Konist, A.

295

Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

Schultz, Colin

2013-04-01

296

Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, ?-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, ?-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and ?-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

297

Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: Evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.  

PubMed

Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9g/L and 18.7g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26LCH4/gCOD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. PMID:25647030

Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

2015-04-01

298

VIRTUAL SUGARCANE BIOREFINERY: A TOOL TO COMPARE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF DIFFERENT  

E-print Network

;1G Ethanol, sugar and electricity producEon from sugarcane (annexed disVIRTUAL SUGARCANE BIOREFINERY: A TOOL TO COMPARE THE SUSTAINABILITY Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil ­ July 2011 #12;Concept Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

299

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil\\u000a and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability\\u000a of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization\\u000a resulted

Lei Liang; Yuan-ping Zhang; Li Zhang; Ming-jun Zhu; Shi-zhong Liang; Yu-nan Huang

2008-01-01

300

The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) project (http:\\/\\/sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br) that corresponded to signal transduction components.

Glaucia Mendes Souza; Ana Carolina Quirino Simoes; Katia Cristina Oliveira; Humberto Miguel Garay; Leonardo Costa Fiorini; Felipe dos Santos Gomes; Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior; Aline Maria da Silva

2001-01-01

301

Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus. PMID:20416060

2010-01-01

302

Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

303

SO3H-functionalized ionic liquid: efficient catalyst for bagasse liquefaction.  

PubMed

Liquefaction is a process for the production of biofuel or value-added biochemicals from non-food biomass. SO(3)H-, COOH-functionalized and HSO(4)-paired imidazolium ionic liquids were shown to be efficient catalysts for bagasse liquefaction in hot compressed water. Using SO(3)H-functionalized ionic liquid, 96.1% of bagasse was liquefied and 50.6% was selectively converted to low-boiling biochemicals at 543 K. The degree of liquefaction and selectivity for low-boiling products increased and the average molecular weight of the tetrahydrofuran soluble products decreased with increasing acidic strength of ionic liquids. Analysis of products and comparative characterization of raw materials and residues suggested that both catalytic liquefaction and hydrolysis processes contribute to the high conversion of bagasse. A possible liquefaction mechanism based on the generation of 3-cyclohexyl-1-propanol, one of the main products, is proposed. PMID:21906936

Long, Jinxing; Guo, Bin; Teng, Junjiang; Yu, Yinghao; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

2011-11-01

304

A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. PMID:23711947

Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

2013-07-01

305

Modification of sandy soil hydrophysical environment through bagasse additive under laboratory experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now sandy soils can be considered as one roup having common hydrophysical problems. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of bagasse as an amendment to improve hydrophysical properties of sandy soil, through the determination of bulk density, aggregatesize distribution, total porosity, hydraulic conductivity, pore-space structure and water retention. To fulfil this objective, sandy soils were amended with bagasse at the rate of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4% on the dry weight basis. The study results demonstrated that the addition of bagasse to sandy soils in between 3 to 4% on the dry weight basis led to a significant decrease in bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and rapid-drainable pores, and increase in the total porosity, water-holding pores, fine capillary pores, water retained at field capacity, wilting point, and soil available water as compared with the control treatment

Abd El-Halim, A. A.; Kumlung, Arunsiri

2015-01-01

306

Enhancement of starting up anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrate: fique's bagasse as an example.  

PubMed

In Colombia there are 20,000 ha of fique fields (Furcraea sp., family Agavaceae), that produce around 93,400 tons of fique's bagasse per year. These residuals are disposed into rivers and soil causing pollution. According to physicochemical characteristics, the lignocellulosic residues from fique crops (fique's bagasse) are appropriate carbon source to biogas production. Anaerobic digestion from fique's Bagasse (FB) requires a specialized microbial consortium capable of degrading its high lignocellulosic concentration. In this study, the capacities of seven microbial consortia for biomethane potential (BMP) from FB were evaluated. Inoculum of ruminal liquid achieved high hydrolytic activity (0.068 g COD/g VSS day), whereas pig waste sludge inoculum showed high methanogenic activity (0.146 g COD/g VSS day). Mixtures of these two inoculums (RL+PWS) showed the best yields for biomethane potential (0.3 m(3) CH4/Kg VS ad). PMID:22264427

Quintero, Mabel; Castro, Liliana; Ortiz, Claudia; Guzmán, Carolina; Escalante, Humberto

2012-03-01

307

Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose. PMID:24025853

Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

2013-11-01

308

Fermentation of liquefacted hydrothermally pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse to ethanol at high-solids content.  

PubMed

The ability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be utilized as feedstock for ethanol production at high initial dry matter concentration was investigated. In order to achieve high enzymatic hydrolysis yield, a hydrothermal pretreatment prior to liquefaction and saccharification was applied. Response surface methodology had been employed in order to optimize the pretreatment step, taking into account the yield of cellulose hydrolysis. Liquefaction of the pretreated bagasse was performed at a specially designed liquefaction chamber at 50 °C for either 12 or 24h using an enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g · DM and 18% DM. Fermentation of liquefacted bagasse was not affected by liquefaction duration and leaded to an ethanol production of 41.43 g/L and a volumetric productivity of 1.88 g/Lh. The addition of extra enzymes at the start up of SSF enhanced both ethanol concentration and volumetric productivity by 16% and 17% after 12 and 24h saccharification, respectively. PMID:23131642

Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul

2013-01-01

309

Biological nitrogen fixation in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen (N) is a major input for sugarcane with crops in Louisiana receiving between 90 and 180 kg/ha with the cost of N increasing 75% in the last decade. Biological N fixation (BNF) may be a viable alternative to fertilizer N. The process relies on endophytic bacteria (bacteria that live among th...

310

Registration of ‘CPCL 02-6848’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of 'CPCL 02-6848' (Reg. No. 667596; PI), sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by collaborative research of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. The female paren...

311

Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1102’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘CPCL 05-1102’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the product of research initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 05-1102 was released to growers in Fl...

312

Registration of ‘CP 06-2400’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: ‘CP 06-2400’ (Reg. No. ; PI 670018) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. and released to growers for organic (muck) soils in Fl...

313

Breeding commercial sugarcane varieties for the industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent literature suggests that sugarcane breeding in the United States has reached a sugar yield plateau. If so, this could have huge implications for the future of the industry and breeding per se because yield improvement might have to be achieved through secondary, non-sugar-related traits, or t...

314

SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM SPP.) RESPONSE TO FLUMIOXAZIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments were conducted to determine response of the sugarcane cultivars HoCP 91-555, LCP 85-845, and LCP 85-384 to flumioxazin during the first (plant cane) and second (first ratoon) production years. In the plant cane crop, flumioxazin was applied in September or October [at planting preemerge...

315

Registration of ‘CP 04-1935’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CP 04-1935 is sugarcane variety that was developed by a cooperative research involving the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. It was released to growers in Florida on 20 Sep. 2011. CP 04-1935 was selected from the cross between CP 94-2059 and CP 84-1322 made...

316

Registration of ‘CPCL 02-1295’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research to develop ‘CPCL 02-1295’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 02-1295 was released to growers in Flori...

317

Registration of ‘CPCL 02-0926’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘CPCL 02-0926’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the product of research initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 02-0926 was released to growers in Fl...

318

Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

319

Ash-based ceramic materials  

SciTech Connect

A ceramic material made from raw coal fly ash or raw municipal solid waste fly ash and sodium tetraborate or a mixture of sodium tetraborate and a calcium containing material that is triple superphosphate, lime, dolomitic lime, or mixtures thereof.

Talmy, I.G.; Haught, D.A.; Martin, C.A.

1994-09-01

320

Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes  

PubMed Central

Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus) with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6%) of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome. PMID:21083898

2010-01-01

321

RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

322

Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

None

1980-08-01

323

Ash and slag characterization  

SciTech Connect

In the past year, the key accomplishments of this project have been progress toward elucidating the mechanism of formation of melilites during ashing and development of studies of coal ash slag surface tension. Melilites are a family of aluminosilicate minerals of which gehlenite, Ca/sub 2/Al/sub 2/SiO/sub 7/, is a typical member. The importance of melilites is that they seem to be ubiquitous in high-temperature processing of low-rank coals, having been identified in gasification slags, ash deposits on boiler tubes, and ash agglomerates in fluid bed combustion. Our current hypothesis of the mechanism of melilite formation is that the near-simultaneity of two events is crucial. First, thermal cleavage of the carboxylic acid groups in the coal structure frees the alkali or alkaline earth cations which had been associated with these groups. Second, in approximately the same temperature range (and thus at about the same time during ashing) the clay minerals begin to undergo a structural rearrangement caused by thermal expansion and dehydration. Hence sodium or calcium cations become available for reaction just when the clay lattices are opening up and are susceptible to substitution. The cations are able to penetrate the clay lattice, forming substituted structures typical of relatively low-melting aluminosilicates. It is tempting to speculate that sodium and calcium should behave very much alike, since the oxides of both elements are strong bases and the cations have virtually identical radii. However, sodium acetate reacts with kaolinite for form nepheline, NaAlSiO/sub 4/, whereas calcium acetate reacts to form gehlenite. Nepheline and gehlenite have different structures and different melting behaviors.

Schobert, H.H.

1985-05-01

324

Hygroscopic properties of volcanic ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limited observational data exists on the physical interactions between volcanic ash particles and water vapor; yet it is thought that these interactions can strongly impact the microphysical evolution of ash, with implications for its atmospheric lifetime and transport, as well as formation of water and ice clouds. In this study, we investigate for the first time, the hygroscopic properties of ultra-fine volcanic ash (<125 ?m diameter) from the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, El Chichón in 1982, Tungurahua in 2006, Chaitén in 2008, Mt. Redoubt in 2009, and Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. The hygroscopicity of the ash particles is quantified by their ability to uptake water and nucleate into cloud drops under controlled levels of water vapor supersaturation. Evidence presented strongly suggests that ash uptakes water efficiently via adsorption and a simple parameterization of ash hygroscopicity is developed for use in ash plume and atmospheric models.

Lathem, T. L.; Kumar, P.; Nenes, A.; Dufek, J.; Sokolik, I. N.; Trail, M.; Russell, A.

2011-06-01

325

Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

1972-01-01

326

Author's personal copy Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse  

E-print Network

significantly impacted biochar properties, thereby their removal capacity and mechanisms. The removal properties and played an impor- tant role in Pb sorption capacity and mechanisms by biochars. Ó 2013 ElsevierAuthor's personal copy Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse biochars

Ma, Lena

327

Phenyllactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated sorghum bagasse.  

PubMed

Dilute acid-pretreated sorghum bagasse, which was predominantly composed of glucan (59%) and xylose (7.2%), was used as a lignocellulosic feedstock for d-phenyllactic acid (PhLA) production by a recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing phenylpyruvate reductase from Wickerhamia fluorescens. During fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of sorghum bagasse as a carbon source, the PhLA yield was reduced by 35% compared to filter paper hydrolysate, and metabolomics analysis revealed that NAD(P)H regeneration and intracellular levels of erythrose-4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate for PhLA biosynthesis markedly reduced. Compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) with sorghum bagasse hydrolysate, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sorghum bagasse under glucose limitation conditions yielded 4.8-fold more PhLA with less accumulation of eluted components, including p-coumaric acid and aldehydes, which inhibited PhLA fermentation. These results suggest that gradual enzymatic hydrolysis during SSF enhances PhLA production under glucose limitation and reduces the accumulation of fermentation inhibitors, collectively leading to increased PhLA yield. PMID:25689311

Kawaguchi, Hideo; Teramura, Hiroshi; Uematsu, Kouji; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Hirano, Ko; Sazuka, Takashi; Kitano, Hidemi; Tsuge, Yota; Kahar, Prihardi; Niimi-Nakamura, Satoko; Oinuma, Ken-Ichi; Takaya, Naoki; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

2015-04-01

328

Bagasse Pretreated with Hot Water 921 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vols. 98100, 2002  

E-print Network

Bagasse Pretreated with Hot Water 921 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vols. 98­100, 2002 and Biotechnology Vols. 98­100, 2002 922 Bigelow and Wyman environmental, and strategic advantages (1). Cellulose of modern genetics and other tools from the rapidly advancing field of biotechnology, the cost of producing

California at Riverside, University of

329

Bioprocessing of bagasse hydrolysate for ethanol and xylitol production using thermotolerant yeast.  

PubMed

Fermentation of xylose-rich and glucose-rich bagasse hydrolysates, obtained from the two-stage acid hydrolysis was studied using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. The yeast could grow on xylose-rich hydrolysate at 50 °C with the dry cell weight, cell mass yield and maximum specific growth rate of 5.35 g l(-1), 0.58 g g(-1) and 0.13 h(-1), respectively. The yeast was found to be very promising for ethanol as well as xylitol production from the sugars obtained from the lignocellulosic biomass. Batch fermentations of xylose-rich and glucose-rich hydrolysates yielded 0.61 g g(-1) xylitol and 0.43 g g(-1) ethanol in the broth, respectively based on the sugars present in the hydrolysate. Overall ethanol yield of 165 g (210 ml) and 183 g xylitol per kg of bagasse was obtained, when bagasse hydrolysate was used as a substrate. Utilization of both the glucose and xylose sugars makes the process most economical by producing both ethanol and xylitol based on biorefinery concept. On validating the experimental data of ethanol fermentation, the modified Luong kinetic model for product inhibition as well as inhibition due to inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysate, the model was found to be the best fit for ethanol formation from bagasse hydrolysate using Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. PMID:25090978

Kumar, Sachin; Dheeran, Pratibha; Singh, Surendra P; Mishra, Indra M; Adhikari, Dilip K

2015-01-01

330

Sugar Cane Bagasse Lignin in Resol-Type Resin: Alternative Application for Ligninphenol-Formaldehyde Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin can be recovered from sugar cane bagasse, which is widely available in Brazil as a residue from sugar mills. Many reports can be found in the literature on the partial replacement of phenol by lignin in phenolic-type resins, but normally only their application as an adhesive is considered. This work is part of a study intended to look for

Rogério S. J. Piccolo; Fernando Santos; Elisabete Frollini

1997-01-01

331

Energy-dense liquid fuel intermediates by pyrolysis of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) shrub and bagasse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Guayule is a perennial shrub grown in the southwestern United States that is used to produce high quality, natural rubber latex. However, only about 10% of the plant material is used for latex production; the remaining biomass, called bagasse, can be used for renewable fuel production. Fast pyroly...

332

Agro-industry sugarcane residues disposal: the trends of their conversion into energy carriers in Cuba.  

PubMed

The goal of the present work was to carry out a review of the disposal practices for the agro-industry's sugarcane residue and the trends of energy use in Cuba. The lack of an alternative energy carrier to electricity with storage capability for use in off-season has to date been an unsolvable question. The improvement of cogeneration capacity via implementation of CEST or BIG/GTCC and the barriers for their implementation, the introduction of a medium size (3 ton/h) fast pyrolysis module (FPM3) as a solution for off-season energy demand in the agro-industry, and an assessment of the energy required to do so, were also analyzed. Bio-oil production from bagasse and sugarcane agriculture residues (SCAR) and their particularities at the sugar mill are treated. The influence of sugar facility production process configuration is analyzed. The fast pyrolysis products and the trends of their end uses in Cuba are presented. The production cost of a ton of Bio-oil for FPM3 conditions was calculated at 155 USD/ton and the payback time as a function of selling price between 160 and 110 USD/ton was estimated to be from 1.5 to 4 years. The economic feasibility of the FPM3 was estimated, comparing the added values for three scenarios: 1st case, currently-used sugar production, 16.5 USD/ton of cane; 2nd case, factoring in the cogeneration improvement, 27 USD/ton of cane; and 3rd case, with cogeneration improvement and Bio-oil production, 40 USD/ton of cane. The energy use of SCAR and the introduction of FPM3 in the sugar mill are promising improvements that could result in a potential surplus of 80 kWh(e)/ton of cane in-season, or 6 x 10(6)ton of Bio-oil (LHV=15 MJ/kg) for use off-season in a milling season of 4 million tons of raw sugar. PMID:16797957

Alonso Pippo, W; Garzone, P; Cornacchia, G

2007-01-01

333

Improving Sugarcane as a Bioenergy Crop in the U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane is one of the world’s most important crops. Large-scale sugarcane-based ethanol production in Brazil, together with an impressive energy balance reported therein, has helped to generate interest in sugarcane as a bioenergy crop in the U.S. An advantage of sugarcane is the production of f...

334

Indicators of freeze-damaged sugarcane varieties which can predict processing problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In raw sugar manufacture, the quality of the sugarcane supply to the factory plays the most important role in production costs. Sugarcane can be very susceptible to damage by freezes, and freeze-deteriorated sugarcane can cause problems in processing which sometimes leads to a factory shut-down. A reliable indicator of whether a certain shipment of sugarcane can be processed economically is

Gillian Eggleston; Benjamin Legendre; Tom Tew

2004-01-01

335

Impact of Heavy Metals on Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops in the tropics and subtropics, where it is mainly used to manufacture crystal\\u000a sugar. It is cultivated between the latitudes of 35°N and 35°S. Theoretically, it has the potential to produce 805 t?ha?1 wet cane or 470 t?ha?1 dry matter. The highest harvestable sugar cane yield achieved so far is close

D. V. Yadav; Radha Jain; R. K. Rai

336

ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION  

SciTech Connect

The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

1999-12-01

337

Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting

Naquin

1998-01-01

338

Modeling volcanic ash dispersal  

ScienceCinema

Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

None

2011-10-06

339

Modeling volcanic ash dispersal  

SciTech Connect

Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

None

2010-10-22

340

MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches. PMID:25755657

Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I.; Mattos, Raphael S.; Ferreira, Thaís H.; Menossi, Marcelo

2015-01-01

341

Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...

342

DIVERSITY AMONG MAINLAND USA SUGARCANE CULTIVARS EXAMINED BY SSR GENOTYPING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

SSR’s have been effective in examining diversity to improve plant breeding strategies however, the identification of useful SSR’s is critical and can be difficult especially in the complex sugarcane genome. Diversity among the cultivars grown and used for the sugarcane breeding programs of Florida, ...

343

Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This

Christine Lasco Crago; Madhu Khanna; Jason Barton; Eduardo Giuliani; Weber Amaral

2010-01-01

344

Doveweed Control with Preemergence and Postemergence Herbicides in Fallowed Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Doveweed infestation of fallowed sugarcane is becoming a management concern for Louisiana’s sugarcane growers. Doveweed is poorly controlled with glyphosate and this allows it to establish dense infestations across formed rows which can impede planting practices. The objectives of this research were...

345

Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties Currently, there is a shift world-wide from the harvesting of burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane. With increased pressure from public and environmental agencies to further restrict or curtail burning in the U.S. and many ...

346

Repeatability of Sugarcane Selection on Sand and Organic Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Canal Point (CP) Sugarcane Cultivar Development Program (a cooperative program between the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida and the Florida Sugarcane League) has been more successful at breeding for cultivars adapted to organic soils (muck) than for those adapted to sand soils. Currently, onl...

347

RATOON STUNT AND YELLOW LEAF EFFECTS ON SUGARCANE YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Separate trials were established to determine the effects of ratoon stunt, caused by Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) and yellow leaf, caused by Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV), on sugarcane yields in plant and first-ratoon crops. In 1-m long plots, responses of eight cultivars were tested for r...

348

Potential of diazotrophic bacteria associated with sugarcane for energycane production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crosses between sugarcane and wild species of Saccharum and other closely related genera are made to introgress new genes from the wild species into sugarcane. Characteristics of the progeny from these crosses may include increased biomass and the ability to be grown in a broader geographical range ...

349

Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

350

Sugarcane yield and morphological responses to long-term flooding.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane in south Florida is often subjected to flooding in the summer months or following hurricanes. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adaptation and yield response to l...

351

Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental

Helen K. Watson

2011-01-01

352

Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

353

Seeking Traits that Identify Productive Sugarcane Varieties for Sand Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objective of this study is to determine if there are easily measured traits of sugarcane that can help determine if a genotype will be productive on...

354

HOW MUCH HAS RECURRENT SELECTION INCREASED SUCROSE YIELD IN SUGARCANE?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial sugarcane cultivars are complex, polyploid, interspecific hybrids, primarily of S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Most breeding programs need about twelve years to develop a new cultivar. Since the 1920's, Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used recurrent selection to improve sucr...

355

Morphological responses of sugarcane to long-term flooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to intense summer rainfall or tropical storm events. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adapta...

356

MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane.  

PubMed

There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches. PMID:25755657

Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I; Mattos, Raphael S; Ferreira, Thaís H; Menossi, Marcelo

2015-01-01

357

LEAF WHORL INOCULATION METHOD FOR SCREENING SUGARCANE RUST RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Symptoms consistent with sugarcane orange rust were first observed in Florida in June 2007, these were subsequently confirmed morphologically and molecularly as being caused by Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of orange rust. This was the first documented occurrence of sugarcane orange rust in the...

358

Part II: Dealing with Plant Stress in Louisiana Sugarcane Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane can encounter several grower-induced stresses during the later part of the growing season. The purpose of this article is to transfer research findings in the areas of cultivation, planting practices, and ripener usage in an effort to communicate how Louisiana sugarcane producers can more...

359

Independently segregating simple sequence repeats (SSR) alleles in polyploid sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The complex nuclear genomic and flower structures of sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum hybrids spp., 2n = 10x = 100 – 130) render sugarcane a difficult subject for genetics research. Using a capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-labeling-based SSR genotyping platform, the segregation of a multi-a...

360

SOME INSECTS AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

361

Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

362

Abacá mosaic virus: A distinct strain of Sugarcane mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abacá mosaic virus (AbaMV) is related to members of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. The ?2 kb 3? terminal region of the viral genome was sequenced and, in all areas analysed, found to be most similar to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and distinct from Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sorghum mosaic

C. F. Gambley; J. E. Thomas; L. V. Magnaye; L. Herradura

2004-01-01

363

Identifying a new causal agent of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of economic concern that infects maize, sorghum, and sugarcane worldwide. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and contains a linear, positive sense ssRNA genome 10 kb long. It is transmitted non-persistently via aphids and ...

364

An atlas of volcanic ash  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions were studied, using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy to characterize each ash type and to relate ash morphology to magma composition and eruption type. The ashes are best placed into two broad genetic categories: magnetic and hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic). Ashes from magmatic eruptions are formed when expanding gases in the magma form a froth that loses its coherence as it approaches the ground surface. During hydrovolcanic eruptions, the magma is chilled on contact with ground or surface waters, resulting in violent steam eruptions. Within these two genetic categories, ashes from different magma types can be characterized. The pigeon hole classification used here is for convenience; there are eruptions which are driven by both phreatic and magmatic gases.

Heiken, G.

1974-01-01

365

Ash in the Soil System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect, climate/meteorological conditions after the ash spread/fire and soil background characteristics. In addition, after the fire heating can change soil original properties increasing the complexity of the ash effects on soil properties. After fire, ash is highly dynamic and very easily transported by wind until the first rains. When wetted, ash compacts and binds onto soil surface, and wind has low capacity to transport it. The post-rain ash dynamic is influenced by water erosion (in slope areas), infiltration into soil profile and vegetation recuperation. This means that ash produced in one place will have implications in other areas, including not burned areas (e.g wind transport and water erosion). This is a clear indication that ash effects go much further than the fire affected area. Due the heterogeneity of soil and ash properties and their dynamic across the landscape, the impacts of ash on soil system can be diverse, producing a mosaic of different effects and responses after ash treatment and/ or fire. In this communication it will be presented and discussed the advances and scientific development of ash effects and dynamic in soil system.

Pereira, P.

2012-04-01

366

DNA profiling of sugarcane genotypes using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.  

PubMed

DNA profiles of 40 sugarcane genotypes were constructed with 30 RAPD markers. Sugarcane genotypes of both Saccharum officinarum and S. barberi were included in this study. Multiple alleles were detected from each RAPD; there was a high level of polymorphism. On average, 7.93 alleles were produced per primer, giving a total of 238 alleles. The genetic distances between these genotypes were assessed with the POPGENE DNA sequence analysis software. A dendrogram was constructed from these data; cultivated species of sugarcane formed clusters with S. barberi genotypes. The 40 genotypes were clustered into two main groups; genetic distances ranged from 20.29 to 64.66%. These RAPD fingerprints will help sugarcane breeders to evaluate the efficiency of current conventional breeding methods and will help characterize the genetic pedigree of commercial sugarcane varieties. These data will also be valuable for conservation and utilization of the genetic resources in germplasm collections. PMID:20391332

Tabasum, S; Khan, F A; Nawaz, S; Iqbal, M Z; Saeed, A

2010-01-01

367

Effect of Post-Harvest Residue on Ratoon Crops of Sugarcane Infected with Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is a luteovirus that causes yellow leaf of sugarcane. Previous studies in Louisiana focusing on the effect of post-harvest residue found that retention of the residue often reduces yield of subsequent ratoon crops. A field experiment to determine the potential in...

368

A multi-disciplinary approach to sugarcane research at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mission of the Sugarcane Research Unit (SRU) is to provide research-based solutions that enhance the viability of domestic sugarcane industry. To accomplish this mission, SRU uses a multidisciplinary approach to develop improved varieties and environmentally friendly production strategies. Cons...

369

Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

370

49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less...

2010-10-01

371

High Z (ash) analysis of TATB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ash content of TATB powder is determined using an x-ray spectrometer. Elemental identification of the ash is also determined. The instrument has been calibrated for the range of ash content < 0.10%.

Worley

1981-01-01

372

Characterization and genetic diversity of sugarcane streak mosaic virus causing mosaic in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Sixty-three sugarcane leaf samples were collected from fifty-eight sugarcane varieties, evolved from eleven major sugarcane growing states in India, Australia, South Africa and USA. In RT-PCR, using gene specific primers for sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV)-CP, 58 of 63 sugarcane samples were found positive to the virus infection and rest of the five samples were negative. Partial CP gene sequences of 42 SCSMV isolates including an isolate from aphid colony (Melanaphis indosacchari) infested on sugarcane variety from this study were characterized after cloning and sequencing for selective isolates represented by at least one isolate from each location. The new sequences identified in the study were named as SCSMV-CB isolates. Fifty two sequences including the 10 database sequences (complete CP cds) deposited earlier from this institute were compared with each other as well as GenBank database sequences of Potyviridae members viz., Rymovirus, Potyvirus, Ipomovirus, Tritimovirus and eight sequences of SCSMV reported from elsewhere. Among the SCSMV-CB isolates sequenced in the study, 85.7-100% (nucleotide) and 89.9-100% (amino acid) sequence identities were observed and with the other data base sequences of SCSMV, the respective identities were 82.2-97.5 and 89.7-98.6%. Grouping of the isolates by the maximum likelihood with molecular clock model, distributed 60 SCSMV sequences including the eight database sequences deposited by other SCSMV working groups from India and USA in 16 different phylogenetic groups. Although the isolates of SCSMV were relatively close to Ipomovirus and Tritimovirus, they were sandwiched between Rymovirus and Ipomovirus. The sequence comparison and phylogenetic studies revealed that the relatedness of SCSMV with the potyviral related genera was comparatively low to consider it as a member of earlier described potyviral genera, hence the genus "Susmovirus" (sugarcane streak mosaic virus) has been proposed, with SCSMV as the sole species to be included. The 52 SCSMV-CB isolates from this institute were distributed in 14 phylogenetic groups and the grouping pattern revealed that the virus isolates could not be grouped based on geographical origin of the host varieties or longevity of the host variety. PMID:18427969

Viswanathan, R; Balamuralikrishnan, M; Karuppaiah, R

2008-06-01

373

Effects of production and market factors on ethanol profitability for an integrated first and second generation ethanol plant using the whole sugarcane as feedstock  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production, especially if the lignocellulosic fraction can also be treated in second generation (2G) ethanol plants. However, the profitability of 2G ethanol is affected by the processing conditions, operating costs and market prices. This study focuses on the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and maximum profitability of ethanol production in an integrated first and second generation (1G?+?2G) sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The feedstock used was sugarcane juice, bagasse and leaves. The lignocellulosic fraction was hydrolysed with enzymes. Yields were assumed to be 95% of the theoretical for each of the critical steps in the process (steam pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), fermentation, solid/liquid separation, anaerobic digestion) in order to obtain the best conditions possible for ethanol production, to assess the lowest production costs. Techno-economic analysis was performed for various combinations of process options (for example use of pentoses, addition of leaves), EH conditions (water-insoluble solids (WIS) and residence time), operating cost (enzymes) and market factors (wholesale prices of electricity and ethanol, cost of the feedstock). Results The greatest reduction in 2G MESP was achieved when using the pentoses for the production of ethanol rather than biogas. This was followed, in decreasing order, by higher enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (EHE), by increasing the WIS to 30% and by a short residence time (48 hours) in the EH. The addition of leaves was found to have a slightly negative impact on 1G?+?2G MESP, but the effect on 2G MESP was negligible. Sugarcane price significantly affected 1G?+?2G MESP, while the price of leaves had a much lower impact. Net present value (NPV) analysis of the most interesting case showed that integrated 1G?+?2G ethanol production including leaves could be more profitable than 1G ethanol, despite the fact that the MESP was higher than in 1G ethanol production. Conclusions A combined 1G?+?2G ethanol plant could potentially outperform a 1G plant in terms of NPV, depending on market wholesale prices of ethanol and electricity. Therefore, although it is more expensive than 1G ethanol production, 2G ethanol production can make the integrated 1G?+?2G process more profitable. PMID:24559312

2014-01-01

374

Beneficial uses of ACFB ash  

SciTech Connect

Landfill disposal is today`s most common management option used by ash generators in power plants. The cost of ash disposal continues to increase due to stringent environmental regulatory requirements. How to manage ash in a cost effective manner has become more important in promoting the sales and marketing of Atmospheric Circulating Fluidized Bed (ACFB) combustion technology. A cost-effective and environmentally acceptable ash management is essential to ensure the continued development of this technology. The chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product determine how the waste will react with its environment and with systems for handling, disposal and utilization of the material. Diverse utilization options have been identified for ACFB residues and the potential uses include: agricultural applications, structural fill, and acidic waste neutralization. Most of these applications have to meet specifications by following certain test methods. As part of this ongoing ash management study, a data bank was established containing the chemical and physical characteristics of ash from Foster Wheeler commercial boilers located throughout the US and abroad. Based on laboratory investigation of ash characteristics, utilization options for different commercial boilers were concluded. It was demonstrated that all ACFB ash can be utilized for one or more of the purposes noted above.

Conn, R. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Sellakumar, K. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

375

Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

Okeefe, J. A.

1976-01-01

376

Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

377

Phosphorus removal by fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the possible use of fly ash generated from thermic power stations in the removal of phosphorus contained in aqueous solutions. A series of batch tests were conducted and the influence of temperature, phosphate concentration, and fly ash dosage on phosphate removal were investigated. The effect of adsorption dosage was not significant at

A. Ugurlu; B. Salman

1998-01-01

378

Bottom ash boosts poor soil  

SciTech Connect

This article describes agricultural uses of fluidized bed bottom ash residue from burning limestone and coal in electric power generating plants: as a limestone substitute, to increase calcium levels in both soil and plants, and as a gypsom-containing soil amendment. Apples and tomatoes are the crops used. The industrial perspective and other uses of bottom ash are also briefly described.

Stanley, D.

1993-04-01

379

Incineration and incinerator ash processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel small-scale studies on the dissolution and anion exchange recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Rocky Flats Plant. Results from these two studies are discussed in context with incinerator design considerations that might help to mitigate ash processing related problems. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Blum

1991-01-01

380

Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and ?-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. PMID:25846188

Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

2015-07-01

381

Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 ?m). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The early pyroclastic phase of the formation of Kima'Kho, a tuya in northern B.C., Canada produced a subaqueous pyroclastic cone which became emergent during the latter stages of formation. Armoured lapilli are pervasive within the emergent upper third of the sequence. No other types of ash aggregates have been observed. Petrographic and textural analysis of the armoured lapilli shows them to comprise a central 2-30 mm-sized, juvenile, vesiculated pyroclast, concentrically coated by mm-scale layers of 10-250 ?m sized ash particles. At Kima'Kho, the armoured lapilli are shown to be a direct indicator of fallout from a sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured lapilli (no accretionary lapilli) at Kima'Kho and diverse ash aggregates but no armoured lapilli at A418. Here we investigate vent-proximal ash aggregation and the specific conditions which lead to the formation of coated ash pellets and armoured lapilli.

Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

2012-12-01

382

Beneficial uses of CFB ash  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired generation accounts for almost 55 percent of the electricity produced in the United States. It has been estimated that over 90 million tons of coal combustion waste by-products were generated in 1990. Currently, only 30% of coal combustion waste is recycled for various beneficial applications. The remaining waste is primarily managed in landfills and surface impoundments. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology will play an important role in supplying power for future load growth and Title 4 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments compliance. CFB ash by-products have many beneficial uses. This paper describes potential applications of CFB ashes based on the ash characteristics. The beneficial uses of CFB ash discussed in this study include agricultural applications, acidic waste stabilizer, ash rock, sludge stabilizer, strip mine reclamation, and structural fill.

Young, L.J. [Ahlstrom Pyropower, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Cotton, J.L. Jr. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

383

Using fly ash for construction  

SciTech Connect

Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

Valenti, M.

1995-05-01

384

Characterisation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in sugarcane ESTs.  

PubMed

Commercial sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are both polyploid and aneuploid with chromosome numbers in excess of 100; these chromosomes can be assigned to 8 homology groups. To determine the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a means of improving our understanding of the complex sugarcane genome, we developed markers to a suite of SNPs identified in a list of sugarcane ESTs. Analysis of 69 EST contigs showed a median of 9 SNPs per EST and an average of 1 SNP per 50 bp of coding sequence. The quantitative presence of each base at 58 SNP loci within 19 contiguous sequence sets was accurately and reliably determined for 9 sugarcane genotypes, including both commercial cultivars and ancestral species, through the use of quantitative light emission technology in pyrophosphate sequencing. Across the 9 genotypes tested, 47 SNP loci were polymorphic and 11 monomorphic. Base frequency at individual SNP loci was found to vary approximately twofold between Australian sugarcane cultivars and more widely between cultivars and wild species. Base quantity was shown to segregate as expected in the IJ76-514 x Q165 sugarcane mapping population, indicating that SNPs that occur on one or two sugarcane chromosomes have the potential to be mapped. The use of SNP base frequencies from five of the developed markers was able to clearly distinguish all genotypes in the population. The use of SNP base frequencies from a further six markers within an EST contig was able to help establish the likely copy number of the locus in two genotypes tested. This is the first instance of a technology that has been able to provide an insight into the copy number of a specific gene locus in hybrid sugarcane. The identification of specific and numerous haplotypes/alleles present in a genotype by pyrophosphate sequencing or alternative techniques ultimately will provide the basis for identifying associations between specific alleles and phenotype and between allele dosage and phenotype in sugarcane. PMID:16791699

Cordeiro, Giovanni M; Eliott, Frances; McIntyre, C Lynne; Casu, Rosanne E; Henry, Robert J

2006-07-01

385

Water flux through cellulose triacetate films produced from heterogeneous acetylation of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the reaction of heterogeneous acetylation was applied to sugar cane bagasse. The product of heterogeneous acetylation was characterized using: (a) Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy based on the presence of the C?O stretch band of the carbonyl group (around 1740cm?1), (b) wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) based on the presence of a maximum in the region

Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Sebastião Francelino da Cruz; Daniel Pasquini; Daniel Alves Cerqueira; Vanessa de Souza Prado; Rosana Maria Nascimento de Assunção

2000-01-01

386

Study on co-liquefaction of coal and bagasse by factorial experiment design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-liquefaction of a Chinese bituminous coal with bagasse — a biomass waste — has been carried out in an autoclave of 300-ml capacity at a temperature range of 350–450°C, reaction time 15–45 min and cool hydrogen pressure 300–700 psig (2.04–4.76 MPa). The addition of baggasse and tetralin are beneficial to liquefaction. Optimization of the co-liquefaction process was carried out with

Islam Rafiqul; Bai Lugang; Yongjie Yan; Tingchen Li

2000-01-01

387

Study of the cellulases produced by three mesophilic actinomycetes grown on bagasse as substrate  

SciTech Connect

The cellulases that strains of Streptomyces albogrisolus, S. nitrosporeus, and Micromonospora melanosporea produce when grown on untreated ballmilled bagasse were investigated. Optimum conditions for extracellular cellulase production and activity were determined to be growth at pH 6.7-7.4 and 25-35 degrees C for 4-5 days and assay at pH 5.0-6.0 and 45-55 degrees C, respectively. The endoglucanases were thermally stable at 50 degrees C, but the Avicelases had a half-life of approximately 24 hours at this temperature. Nearly half of the endoglucanases and almost all of the Avicelases were absorbed on ballmilled bagasse after 15 minutes incubation at 50 degrees C. The ..beta..-glucosidases were found to be mainly intracellular or cell wall bound. These mesophilic actinomycetes concomitantly produced xylanases and ..beta..-xylosidases with cellulases that, apart from cellobiose and glucose, also release xylose from bagasse. This feature may be advantageous in the commercial application of the enzymes of mesophilic actinomycetes for the saccharification of natural cellulosic substrates.

Van Zyl, W.H.

1985-09-01

388

Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum  

SciTech Connect

The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.

Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

1980-01-01

389

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)  

PubMed Central

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

390

Volcanic Ash: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research will help students learn more about volcanic ash. The module begins with information on Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, which erupted in 2010 and disrupted air travel in Europe; users may then learn about other similar historic volcanic events. A course description, objectives, and bibliography are also included. This interactive online learning module would be a great addition to earth science or geology coursework; instructors may choose to assign completion of the online module to students independent of classwork, as the module is very easy to follow and provides a great deal of in-depth information on the topic. A print-friendly version, media gallery and technical notes are also available on the website. Users must create a free log-in in order to view or utilize the site.

391

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

392

Changes in Fly Ash With Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal beneficiation to remove carbon and ammonia makes coal fly ash marketable as a pozzolan for the concrete industry. The effect of these thermal treatments on the fly ash phase mineralogy (i.e. pozzolanic activity) may vary with ash composition. Fly ash samples with differing CaO contents were subjected to thermal treatment to evaluate changes in phase mineralogy. Samples were heated

John M. Fox

393

Volcanic Ash: Observation Tools and Dispersion Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is the fourth and final entry in the Volcanic Ash series. It covers the tools and techniques used for identifying and forecasting the transport of volcanic ash. Satellite and radar imagery are combined with observations and numerical model output to first identify the presence of volcanic ash and then to help forecast the transport of ash at various levels of the atmosphere.

2014-09-14

394

46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225...Certain Materials § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This...does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or...

2011-10-01

395

46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225...Certain Materials § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This...does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or...

2014-10-01

396

46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225...Certain Materials § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This...does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or...

2012-10-01

397

46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225...Certain Materials § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This...does not apply to the shipment of calcined pyrites that are the residual ash of oil or...

2013-10-01

398

7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116...

2014-01-01

399

7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116...

2011-01-01

400

7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

2014-01-01

401

7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

2013-01-01

402

7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

2012-01-01

403

Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

1989-01-01

404

Modifiers of the ash properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to perform an experimental verification of the impact of added substances to limit or prevent sintering of solid fuel ash, which is formed during the thermochemical conversion of fuels. As a modifiers of ash sintering and melting temperature were used halloysite (aluminosilicate) and limestone, which has similar mechanism of action. Both of them act on the principle of a strong chemical adsorption of potassium ions, which largely cause a reduction of ash fusibility. Influence of the modifiers was observed after tests provided at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. Modifiers were dosed in amounts of 2, 5 and 10 wt.%.

Peer, Vaclav; Najser, Jan; Pilat, Peter

2014-08-01

405

Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals  

PubMed Central

This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (?3.62?meq/g) and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0?min) than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40?ppm, adsorbent 2.0?g/L). The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax). As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W) removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20?min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin) took 90?min for the same removal efficiency. PMID:24578651

2014-01-01

406

Environmental Life Cycle Implications of Using Bagasse-Derived Ethanol as a Gasoline Oxygenate in Mumbai (Bombay)  

SciTech Connect

Bagasse is the fibrous residue generated during sugar production and can be a desirable feedstock for fuel ethanol production. About 15%--25% of the bagasse is left after satisfying the mills' energy requirements, and this excess bagasse can be used in a bioconversion process to make ethanol. It is estimated that a 23 million L/yr ({approximately}6 million gal/yr) ethanol facility is feasible by combining excess bagasse from three larger sugar mills in Maharashtra state. The plant could supply about half of the ethanol demand in Mumbai, assuming that all gasoline is sold as an E10 fuel, a blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume. The life cycle assessment (LCA) performed in this study demonstrated the potentially significant benefits of diverting excess bagasse in Maharashtra to ethanol production, as opposed to disposing it by burning. In particular, lower net values for the ethanol production scenario were observed for the following: fossil energy consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide , hydrocarbons (except methane), SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, and methane. The lower greenhouse potential of the ethanol scenario is also important in the context of Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation because India is a developing country.

Kadam, K.

2000-12-07

407

Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.  

PubMed

This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

2006-06-01

408

Improved Agrobacterium -mediated genetic transformation of GNA transgenic sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six plasmids carrying a snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) and one of three selection markers were successfully transferred into two sugarcane cultivars (FN81–745\\u000a and Badila) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Agrobacterium strains LBA4404, EHA105 and A281 that harboured a super-binary vector were used for sugarcane transformation. The use of\\u000a the hygromycin (Hyg) resistance gene (hpt II), phosphinothrincin (PPT) resistance gene (bar)

Dongting Zhangsun; Sulan Luo; Rukai Chen; Kexuan Tang

2007-01-01

409

Microprocessor-based ultrasonic height controller for sugarcane harvesters  

E-print Network

MICROPROCESSOR-BASED ULTRASONIC HEIGHT CONTROLLER FOR SUGARCANE HARVESTERS A Thesis by CRAIG ALLAN GOAD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1980 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering MICROPROCESSOR-BASED ULTRASONIC HEIGHT CONTROLLER FOR SUGARCANE HARVESTERS A Thesis by CRAIG ALLAN GOAD Approved as to style and content by: V. T. Rhyne (Chairman of Committee) Charlie G. Coble...

Coad, Craig Allan

1980-01-01

410

An automatic cutting height control system for a sugarcane harvester  

E-print Network

AN AUTOMATIC CUTTING HEIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A SUGARCANE HARVESTER A Thesis by SCOTT ANDREW HALE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A!1M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1985 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering AN AUTOMATIC CUTTING HEIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A SUGARCANE HARVESTER A Thesis by SCOTT ANDREW HALE Approved as to style and content by: Dr tephen . Sear cy (Chairman of Committee Dr. Charlie G...

Hale, Scott Andrew

1985-01-01

411

Pneumatic cleaning of sugarcane utilizing a high velocity air jet  

E-print Network

and nozzle size had the highest statistical signi- ficant value The interaction between them, defined as the air momentum flux, was determined as the main controlling factor in cleaning the sugarcane. There is a linear correlation between the amount...PNEUMATIC CLEANING OF SUGARCANE UTILIZING A HIGH VELOCITY AIR JET A Thesis by JOHN RAY FISHER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May l977...

Fisher, John Ray

1977-01-01

412

Quantitative analysis of the effect of selection history on sugar yield adaptation of sugarcane clones.  

PubMed

An objective of the CSR sugarcane breeding programme in Australia was to assess the scope for broadening the genetic base of the commercial sugarcane germ plasm through interspecific hybridization with Saccharum spontaneum clones. The contribution of both selection history and S. spontaneum to sugar yield and its components was investigated in the germ plasm pool assembled. The analysis was conducted on a data-set of 256 clones, consisting of parents and full-sib families generated from 32 biparental crosses, tested in six environments. The minimum number of generations back to S. spontaneum ancestor in the clone's pedigree was used as a germ plasm score. The geographical origin and selection history of each parent and their use in the biparental crosses were used to develop a selection history score for parents and offspring. The variation for seven attributes, cane yield, commercial cane sugar %, sugar yield, stalk number per stool, stalk weight, fibre % and ash % juice was partitioned according to the germ plasm and selection history scores. Significant (P<0.05) clone variation and clone x environment interaction for all attributes was present. The germ plasm scores accounted for a significant (P<0.05) component of the clone variation for all of the attributes except cane yield. There was an increase in sugar yield with an increase in the minimum number of generations back to a S. spontaneum clone. The selection history groups accounted for a high proportion of the variation among parental clones for all of the attributes except cane yield. This suggested that parents were the outcome of strong selection pressure for the commercial cane attributes. However, the selection history groups for the offspring produced by random mating of parents did not account for a high proportion of the variation for the attributes. Using the mixture method of classification we partitioned the 256 clones into five groups for patterns of performance for the seven attributes across the six environments. The five groups emphasized major differences in the patterns of performance for the seven attributes across environments. The distribution of germ plasm and selection history scores in each of the five groups indicated that their patterns of performance were associated with selection history and minimum generations to S. spontaneum. Therefore, both the analysis on selection history and germ plasm scores (extrinsic classification) and the analysis on the mixture method of classification (intrinsic classification) emphasized the influence of selection history on the sugar yield of sugarcane. PMID:24190405

Srivastava, B L; Cooper, M; Mullins, R T

1994-01-01

413

Life table studies of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane.  

PubMed

The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Reproductive and life table parameters for E. lignosellus were examined at nine constant temperatures from 13 to 36 °C with sugarcane as the larval food source. The pre- and postoviposition periods decreased with increasing temperatures and reached their minimums at 33 and 36 °C, respectively. The oviposition period was longest at 27 °C. The mean fecundity, stage-specific survival, stage-specific fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were greatest at 30 °C and decreased with increasing or decreasing temperature. The net reproductive rate was greatest at 27 °C. The Logan-6 model best described the relationship between temperature and intrinsic rate of increase. The generation and population doubling times were longest at 13 and shortest at 33 and 30 °C, respectively. The most favorable temperatures for E. lignosellus population growth were between 27 and 33°C. Life table parameters for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane were greater than for the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on an artificial diet at 30 °C. The intrinsic rates of increase for the sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on sugarcane or corn were the same as for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane at 27 °C, but the net reproductive rate was four times higher for the former than the latter borer species. PMID:22182570

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A

2010-12-01

414

Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in which more C was released as dissolved C than was oxidized to CO2 by the oxygen in water. We confirmed that both fly ash and two types of biochar (oak char [OKEB], and hardwood [HW] char) exhibited minimal leaching of heavy metals including Cr, Ni, Zn, Ga, and Ag, and no detectable leaching of Pb or Cd (data not shown) under the conditions tested. The Biochar HW had a slightly higher C/N ratio (334) and pH (7.7) than did the Biochar OKEB (284 and 6.5). There was no toxicity exhibited by the fly ash (not shown) or biochar leachates as measured by the Microtox© assay under the conditions tested. In previous results no toxicity was reported in testing the fly ash samples except for one high-pH sample. The most notable leachate component from both types of biochar, but not the fly ash, was organic carbon with the HW biochar leaching less organic carbon than the OKEB biochar (5.71 ppm vs. 59.3 ppm). Alone (in batch sorption experiments), or in mixtures of 90% soil and 10% biochar (column studies), we noted significant loss of carbon from the biochar into soluble components. However, when we added fly ash to the column experiments (80% soil, 10% fly ash, and 10% biochar) we observed significant decreases in the amounts of C leached (20% for HW, and 47% for OKEB). The results indicate that applying a combination of fly ash and biochar may result in maximizing the amount of carbon sequestration in soil while also increasing beneficial soil properties and fertility. The lower amount of carbon leached from the HW biochar compared to the OKEB biochar is likely due to the more recalcitrant form of the carbon in the HW char, due to its preparation at a higher temperature (600 ºC) than the OKEB biochar (450 ºC). High heat treatment temperatures during biochar preparation increase both the total carbon content of the biochar and the proportion of the carbon that is present in fused aromatic rings resistant to chemical and physical degradation.

Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

2009-06-22

415

Sugarcane Genotype Performance in Three Environments (Based on Crop Cycle) at Mardan, Pakistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane breeders often face significant genotype x environment interactions in their trials grown under multiple environments. Hence, genotypes need to be tested for their stability across different environments keeping in view the significant interactions. An experiment comprising 28 sugarcane ge...

416

Effect of Recurrent Selection for Sucrose on Growth and Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane Internodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial sugarcane cultivars are complex, polyploid, interspecific hybrids, primarily of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum. Most breeding programs need about twelve years to develop a new cultivar. Since the 1920’s, Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used modified recurrent selection...

417

Simultaneous detection and identification of four sugarcane viruses by one-step RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) caused by the Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) and sugarcane yellow leaf disease (SYLD) caused by the Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) are the two most prevalent and economically important viral diseases of sugarcane. In this study, a one-step quadruplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method that employed virus-specific primers was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of SCMV, SrMV, SCSMV and SCYLV. Several sets of primers for each target virus were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity by simplex and quadruplex RT-PCR. The optimum primer combinations and concentrations, RT temperature and time, and PCR annealing temperature and extension time were determined for the quadruplex RT-PCR. The assay was then validated using sugarcane samples affected with SMD and/or SYLD collected from sugarcane breeding fields and farmers' fields in southern China. PMID:19646484

Xie, Yujia; Wang, Mingqiang; Xu, Donglin; Li, Ruhui; Zhou, Guohui

2009-12-01

418

The structural changes of the bagasse hemicelluloses during the cooking process involving active oxygen and solid alkali.  

PubMed

This work describes the structural changes of bagasse hemicelluloses during the cooking process involving active oxygen (O(2) and H(2)O(2)) and solid alkali (MgO). The hemicelluloses obtained from the bagasse raw material, pulp, and yellow liquor were analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and (1)H-(13)C 2D hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy (HSQC). The results revealed that the structure of the bagasse hemicelluloses was L-arabino-(4-O-methylglucurono)-D-xylan. Some sugar units in hemicelluloses were oxidized under the cooking conditions. Additionally, the backbones and the ester linkages of hemicelluloses were heavily cleaved during the cooking process. PMID:22925766

Shi, Jian-Bin; Yang, Qiu-Lin; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Pang, Chun-Sheng; Xie, Tu-Jun; Liu, Ying

2012-10-01

419

Effects of Extrusion Pretreatment Parameters on Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Subsequent Conversion into Bioethanol  

PubMed Central

Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200?rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72?h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1?mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw).

Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

2015-01-01

420

Effects of extrusion pretreatment parameters on sweet sorghum bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis and its subsequent conversion into bioethanol.  

PubMed

Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200?rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72?h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1?mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw). PMID:25866776

Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Montoya-Chiw, Manuel; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

2015-01-01

421

Sugarcane ( Saccharum X officinarum ): A Reference Study for the Regulation of Genetically Modified Cultivars in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global interest in sugarcane has increased significantly in recent years due to its economic impact on sustainable energy\\u000a production. Sugarcane breeding and better agronomic practices have contributed to a huge increase in sugarcane yield in the\\u000a last 30 years. Additional increases in sugarcane yield are expected to result from the use of biotechnology tools in the near\\u000a future. Genetically modified (GM)

Adriana Cheavegatti-Gianotto; Hellen Marília Couto de Abreu; Paulo Arruda; João Carlos Bespalhok Filho; William Lee Burnquist; Silvana Creste; Luciana di Ciero; Jesus Aparecido Ferro; Antônio Vargas de Oliveira Figueira; Tarciso de Sousa Filgueiras; Mária de Fátima Grossi-de-Sá; Elio Cesar Guzzo; Hermann Paulo Hoffmann; Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell; Newton Macedo; Sizuo Matsuoka; Fernando de Castro Reinach; Eduardo Romano; William José da Silva; Márcio de Castro Silva Filho; Eugenio César Ulian

2011-01-01

422

Viruses causing mosaic disease in sugarcane and their genetic diversity in southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of cultivated hybrid sugarcane (Saccharum inter-specific hybrid) and noble sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in southern China for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) was conducted by RT-PCR from the years 2003 to 2006. SCMV and SrMV, but not SCSMV, were found. A high incidence of\\u000a SCMV and SrMV

D.-L. Xu; J.-W. Park; T. E. Mirkov; G.-H. Zhou

2008-01-01

423

Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro-regions) from Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009); (ii) One index that indicates the degree of relative occurrence of vulnerable areas in relation to contamination risk of surface and groundwater by effluents from sugarcane agroindustry from a model made by Barbalho e Campos (2010); (iii) two indicators that evaluate the commitment degree of the available water to meet the demand of sugarcane potential expansion distinctly for dryland and irrigation system; (iv) two indicators that evaluate the attendance level of the sugarcane water demand considering the limits of available water from local water resource in terms of maximum area that the culture can expand in a sustainable way For the estimation of water supply was used a spatially distributed model of specific flow (FERRAZ, 2012). The results show that the indicators were able to characterize and distinguish the different territorial units of analysis and the spatial models used satisfactorily met, in terms of level of detail, the purposes explained. The Sudoeste de Goiás and Quirinópolis microregions exhibit higher favorability, from the point of view of water sustainability therefore have areas where culture can be grown in dry system and still rely on higher available water volumes to supply the demand of sugarcane cultivation in the areas of compulsory irrigation.

Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

2012-12-01

424

Long duration ash probe  

DOEpatents

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

1994-07-26

425

Long duration ash probe  

DOEpatents

A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

1994-01-01

426

A kinetic study of sugarcane sucrose synthase.  

PubMed

The kinetic data on sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) sucrose synthase (SuSy, UDP-glucose: D-fructose 2-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.13) are limited. We characterized kinetically a SuSy activity partially purified from sugarcane variety N19 leaf roll tissue. Primary plot analysis and product inhibition studies showed that a compulsory order ternary complex mechanism is followed, with UDP binding first and UDP-glucose dissociating last from the enzyme. Product inhibition studies showed that UDP-glucose is a competitive inhibitor with respect to UDP and a mixed inhibitor with respect to sucrose. Fructose is a mixed inhibitor with regard to both sucrose and UDP. Kinetic constants are as follows: Km values (mm, +/- SE) were, for sucrose, 35.9 +/- 2.3; for UDP, 0.00191 +/- 0.00019; for UDP-glucose, 0.234 +/- 0.025 and for fructose, 6.49 +/- 0.61. values were, for sucrose, 227 mm; for UDP, 0.086 mm; for UDP-glucose, 0.104; and for fructose, 2.23 mm. Replacing estimated kinetic parameters of SuSy in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation with experimentally determined parameters of the partially purified isoform had significant effects on model outputs, with a 41% increase in sucrose concentration and 7.5-fold reduction in fructose the most notable. Of the metabolites included in the model, fructose concentration was most affected by changes in SuSy activity: doubling and halving of SuSy activity reduced and increased the steady-state fructose concentration by about 42 and 140%, respectively. It is concluded that different isoforms of SuSy could have significant differential effects on metabolite concentrations in vivo, therefore impacting on metabolic regulation. PMID:15479226

Schäfer, Wolfgang E; Rohwer, Johann M; Botha, Frederik C

2004-10-01

427

Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil  

PubMed Central

Background The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis. Results The available stalk number, stalk diameter, single stalk weight and theoretical yield of ratoon cane (RS) were found to be significantly lower than those of plant cane (NS). The activities of several carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus processing enzymes, including invertase, peroxidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase were found to be significantly lower in RS soil than in NS soil. BIOLOG analysis indicated a significant decline in average well-color development (AWCD), Shannon’s diversity and evenness indices in RS soil as compared to NS soil. To profile the rhizospheric metaproteome, 109 soil protein spots with high resolution and repeatability were successfully identified. These proteins were found to be involved in carbohydrate/energy, amino acid, protein, nucleotide, auxin and secondary metabolisms, membrane transport, signal transduction and resistance, etc. Comparative metaproteomics analysis revealed that 38 proteins were differentially expressed in the RS soil as compared to the control soil or NS soil. Among these, most of the plant proteins related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and stress response were up-regulated in RS soil. Furthermore, several microbial proteins related to membrane transport and signal transduction were up-regulated in RS soil. These proteins were speculated to function in root colonization by microbes. Conclusions Our experiments revealed that sugarcane ratooning practice induced significant changes in the soil enzyme activities, the catabolic diversity of microbial community, and the expression level of soil proteins. They influenced the biochemical processes in the rhizosphere ecosystem and mediated the interactions between plants and soil microbes. PMID:23773576

2013-01-01

428

Sugarcane Genotype Response to Nitrogen on a Sand Soil in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) grows on sand soils in Florida. Nitrogen deficiency may limit sugarcane yields on these sand soils. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N fertilizer rate on growth and physiological characteristics of three sugarcane genotypes. ...

429

First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

430

ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has been ...

431

EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES ON SUGARCANE BROWN RUST INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY AND ASSOCIATED YIELD LOSS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The extent of spatial and temporal variability of sugarcane rust (Puccinia melanocephala) infestation was related to variation in soil properties in five commercial fields of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., cv ‘LCP 85-384’) in South Louisiana. Sugarcane fields were grid-soil sam...

432

A Review of Sugarcane Deterioration in the United States and South Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A review of sugarcane deterioration that detrimentally affects processing in the United States (US) and South Africa (SA) is presented. Postharvest sugarcane deterioration products are dependent on sugarcane injury, environmental conditions, variety, cut-to-crush delays, and extent of adventitious i...

433

ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has bee...

434

Evaluation of Sugarcane Orange Rust for first clonal stage of the CP Cultivar Development Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consistent development of high-yielding sugarcane cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical to commercial sugarcane production in Florida. Currently, orange rust (caused by Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler) is a great challenge for the Florida sugarcane production...

435

Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic dive...

436

Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate 152 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers originally developed in India for their transferability to germplasm being used by sugarcane breeders in the U.S. The commercial sugarcane cultivar, LCP 85-384, was used for the initial screening of the SSR marker...

437

Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species) and DNA methylation (24-nt-species), respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome. PMID:22747909

2012-01-01

438

Fractionating pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by aqueous formic acid with direct recycle of spent liquor to increase cellulose digestibility--the Formiline process.  

PubMed

A lignocellulose pretreatment process was developed with formic acid delignification (FAD) followed by alkaline deformylation (AD), which was termed as Formiline process. In FAD, more than 80% of lignin and hemicellulose were removed, but cellulose formylation also happened. Formic acid concentration (FAC) was the most important factor affecting delignification and cellulose formylation. Increasing FAC could enhance degree of delignification but also increased cellulose formylation. The presence of formyl group could inhibit the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; however, removing formyl group with a small loading of alkali well recovered cellulose digestibility. The spent liquor could be directly recycled for delignification thus significantly decreasing energy consumption in solvent recovery. The Formiline-pretreated substrates showed an excellent enzymatic digestibility and could be very well converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharafication and fermentation (SSF). The final ethanol concentrations were 55.4 and 80.1g/L respectively at initial solid consistencies of 15% and 20%. PMID:22609710

Zhao, Xuebing; Liu, Dehua

2012-08-01

439

Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

2008-01-01

440

[(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].  

PubMed

In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

2014-10-01

441

Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

Koga-Vicente, A.

2011-12-01

442

Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

2013-03-01

443

De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of contrasting sugarcane varieties.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species. PMID:24523899

Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Costa, Estela Araujo; Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

2014-01-01

444

Supply and demand: sink regulation of sugar accumulation in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) accumulates sucrose to high concentrations and, as a result, has been the focus of extensive research into the biochemistry and physiology of sucrose accumulation. Despite this, the relationship between source leaf photosynthetic activity and sucrose accumulation in the culm sink is not well understood. The observations that photosynthetic activity declines during culm maturation in commercial cultivars and that high-sucrose-accumulating noble ancestral genotypes (Saccharum officinarum L.) photosynthesize at rates two-thirds of those of low-sucrose ancestors (Saccharum spontaneum L.) indicate that source-sink communication may play a pivotal role in determining sucrose yield. Although maturation of the culm results in a decreased demand for sucrose, recent evidence from partial leaf shading, defoliation, and transgenic studies indicates that sugarcane cultivars are capable of further increases in sugar content. Furthermore, sugarcane leaves appear to retain the capacity to increase the supply of assimilate to culm tissues under conditions of increased assimilate demand. The relationship between source and sink tissues in sugarcane should be viewed within a supply-demand paradigm; an often neglected conceptual approach in the study of this crop. Uncoupling of the signalling pathways that mediate negative feedback between source and sink tissues may result in improved leaf assimilation rates and, consequently, lead to increased sugarcane sucrose yields. PMID:19050062

McCormick, A J; Watt, D A; Cramer, M D

2009-01-01

445

De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species. PMID:24523899

Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

2014-01-01

446

Mutagenicity of the ash of rice straws by Ames' test.  

PubMed

Mutagenicity of fly ashes and bottom ashes of rice straw and rice husk was assayed by Ames' test. With respect to rice-straw ash, the extract from the fly ash was found to be more mutagenic than that from the bottom ash. In the case of rice husk, the mutagenicity of extract from the bottom ash was stronger than that from the fly ash. The extract from rice-husk bottom ash showed the strongest mutagenic activity among the four. PMID:3046058

Shibuya, N; Ohta, T; Sakai, H; Endoh, K; Yamamoto, M

1988-05-01

447

PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by  

E-print Network

PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture............................................................................................................. 2 Impact of Emerald Ash Borer

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

448

Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism.  

PubMed

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

449

Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

450

COMPARISON OF LEACHABLE TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS IN COAL GASIFIER ASH WITH LEVELS IN POWER PLANT ASH  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparison of the levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal. The 1-year study was conducted at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia, comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-f...

451

Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

E-print Network

1 Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Wednesday, April 20, 2001 12:20 PM 160 Plant Biotech Building Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and its natural enemies in China. Great

Gray, Matthew

452

Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du

2008-01-01

453

Linearizing Mile Run Times Garrett I. Ash, J. Marshall Ash, and Stefan Catoiu  

E-print Network

Linearizing Mile Run Times Garrett I. Ash, J. Marshall Ash, and Stefan Catoiu Garrett Ash (gash1. He ran his most recent 1500-meter race in 247.5 seconds. J. Marshall Ash (mash the latter race? Our analysis will not yield a definitive answer to this question, but will provide a basis

Ash, J. Marshall

454

Products from molten fly ash and scrubber sludge including fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention discloses methods of making finely divided products from fly ash compositions, including both dry fly ash compositions and aqueous suspensions of fly ash in combination with alkaline earth metal compounds. The fly ash composition, preferably including 10 to 50% combined alkaline earth metal oxides, is heated to molten condition while collecting gases evolving therefrom, including sulfur oxide gases.

L. J. Minnick; W. C. Webster; C. L. Smith

1979-01-01

455

Effects of extractives on some properties of bagasse/high density polypropylene composite.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of two variable parameters, namely the extractives and filler loading level, on the physical properties of composites were examined. Composites based on high density polyethylene (HDPE), bagasse flour (BF) as filler were made by injection molding. In order to increase the interphase adhesion, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE) was added as a coupling agent to all the composites studied. Three different solvents, ethanol-benzene, 1% NaOH and hot-water, were used to remove extractives. Physical properties, namely, water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) were investigated for a long period. At same filler loading, composites made with extracted bagasse had higher WA and TS values. In addition, the TS of samples showed a similar pattern to the water uptake data. The difference in WA between extracted and unextracted composites is due to blocking of -OH groups by extractives. The results also showed that as the BF content was increased, significant increase in WA and TS occurred. Statistical analysis confirmed that the effects of both variables and their interactions on the WA and TS properties were significant at 1% confidence level. PMID:23544557

Sheshmani, Shabnam

2013-04-15

456

Hydrolysis of ginger bagasse starch in subcritical water and carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Ginger bagasse from supercritical extraction was hydrolyzed using subcritical water and CO(2) to produce reducing sugars and other low molecular mass substances. Response surface methodology was used to find the best hydrolysis conditions; the degree of hydrolysis and the yield were the two response variables selected for maximization. The kinetic studies of the hydrolysis were performed at 150 bar and temperatures of 176, 188, and 200 degrees C. The higher degree of hydrolysis (97.1% after 15 min of reaction) and higher reducing sugars yield (18.1% after 11 min of reaction) were established for the higher process temperature (200 degrees C). Different mixtures of oligosaccharides with different molecular mass distributions were obtained, depending on the temperature and on the reaction time. The ginger bagasse hydrolysis was treated as a heterogeneous reaction with a first-order global chemical kinetic, in relation to the starch concentration, which resulted in an activation energy of 180.2 kJ/mol and a preexponential factor of 5.79 x 10(17)/s. PMID:15030241

Moreschi, Silvânia R M; Petenate, Ademir J; Meireles, M Angela A

2004-03-24

457

Synergistic effect and application of xylanases as accessory enzymes to enhance the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse.  

PubMed

Recently, the new trend in the second-generation ethanol industry is to use mild pretreatments, in order to reduce costs and to keep higher content of hemicellulose in the biomass. Nevertheless, a high enzyme dosage is still required in the conversion of (hemi)cellulose. The interaction between cellulases and xylanases seems to be an effective alternative to reduce enzyme loading in the saccharification process. At first, to evaluate the synergism of xylanases on bagasse degradation, we have produced two xylanases from glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and three xylanases from glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11), from two thermophilic organisms, Thermobifida fusca and Clostridium thermocellum, and one mesophilic organism, Streptomyces lividans. Peracetic acid (PAA) pretreated bagasse was used as substrate. The combination of XynZ-C (GH10, from C. thermocellum), and XlnB (GH11, from S. lividans) presented the highest degree of synergy after 6h (3.62). However, the combination of XynZ-C and Xyn11A (GH11, from T. fusca) resulted in the highest total yield of reducing sugars. To evaluate the synergism between xylanases and cellulases, commercial cellulase preparation from Trichoderma reesei was combined with the selected xylanases, XynZ-C and Xyn11A. About 2-fold increase was observed in the concentration of reducing sugars, when both xylanases, XynZ-C and Xyn11A, were added together with T. reesei cellulases in the reaction mixture. PMID:25837503

Gonçalves, Geisa A L; Takasugi, Yusaku; Jia, Lili; Mori, Yutaro; Noda, Shuhei; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Noriho

2015-05-01

458

Purification and properties of endoglucanase from a sugar cane bagasse hydrolyzing strain, Aspergillus glaucus XC9.  

PubMed

An endoglucanase (EG) from Aspergillus glaucus XC9 grown on 0.3% sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source was purified from the culture filtrate using ammonium sulfate, an anion exchange DEAE Sepharose fast flow column, and a Sephadex G-100 column, with a purification fold of 21.5 and a recovery of 22.3%. The ideal time for EG production is on the fourth day at 30 degrees C using bagasse as a substrate. Results obtained indicate that the enzyme was a monomer protein, and the molecular weight was determined to be 31 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of EG for the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) were pH 4.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. EG was stable over the pH range from 3.5 to 7.5 and at temperatures below 55 degrees C. Kinetic behavior of EG in the hydrolysis of CMC-Na followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with constant K(m) of 5.0 mg/mL at pH 4.0 and 50 degrees C. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) but inhibited by Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Cu(2+). The EDC chemical modification suggested that at least one carboxyl group probably acted as a proton donor in the enzyme active site. PMID:20415423

Tao, Yi-Ming; Zhu, Xiang-Zhi; Huang, Jian-Zhong; Ma, Su-Juan; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

2010-05-26

459

Single and multi-component adsorption of cadmium and zinc using activated carbon derived from bagasse—an agricultural waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low-cost activated carbon derived from bagasse, an agricultural waste material, has been investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods of removing heavy metals from wastewater. With a view to find a suitable application of the material, activated carbon has been derived, characterized and utilized for the removal of cadmium and zinc. The uptake of cadmium

Dinesh Mohan; Kunwar P. Singh

2002-01-01

460

Hydrogen production via supercritical water gasification of bagasse using Ni-Cu/?-Al2O3 nano-catalysts.  

PubMed

Biomass gasification in supercritical water media is a promising method for the production of hydrogen. In this research, Cu-promoted Ni/?-Al2O3 nano-catalysts were prepared with 2.5- 30?wt% Ni and 0.6- 7.5?wt% Cu loadings via the microemulsion method. Nano-catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) technique, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), H2 chemisorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) technique, as well as Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen-Sulfur (CHNS) analysis was carried out for elemental analysis of bagasse. Nano-catalysts were assessed in a batch micro-reactor under 400°C and 240?bar. The microemulsion method decreased the catalyst average particle size and increased the percentage dispersion and reduction of the catalysts. The total gas yield increased with an increase in Ni and Cu loadings up to 20?wt% Ni and 5?wt% Cu and then started to decrease. Using the microemulsion technique for the preparation of Ni-Cu/?-Al2O3 nano-catalyst, increased the hydrogen yield to 11.76 (mmol of H2/g of bagasse), CO yield to 2.67 (mmol of CO/g of bagasse) and light gaseous hydrocarbons to 0.6 (mmol of light gaseous hydrocarbons/g of bagasse). Promotion of Ni/?-Al2O3 with copper increased the mole fraction of hydrogen in the final gasification products to 58.1?mol%. PMID:25387488

Mehrani, Reza; Barati, Mohammad; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Karimi, Ali

2015-05-01

461

Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

462

Biosorption of reactive blue 5G dye onto drying orange bagasse in batch system: Kinetic and equilibrium modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, orange bagasse has been used as an alternative adsorbent for removal of reactive blue 5G dye from an aqueous solution. The influence of the dye solution pH, the biosorbent drying, the dye solution temperature and biosorbent grain size was studied in batch systems, in order to improve the biosorption kinetics and the experimental equilibrium conditions. Batch kinetic

Leila D. Fiorentin; Daniela E. G. Trigueros; Aparecido N. Módenes; Fernando R. Espinoza-Quiñones; Nehemias C. Pereira; Sueli T. D. Barros; Onélia A. A. Santos

2010-01-01

463

Effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on the chemical composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of energy cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for the pretreatment of lignocellulose as they are thermally stable, environmentally friendly, recyclable, and have low volatility. This study evaluated the effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][OAc]) for the pretreatment of energy cane bagasse in terms of biomass composition, structural changes and enzymatic digestibility. Energy cane bagasse was pretreated with [EMIM][OAc] (5% (w/w)) at 120 °C for 30 min followed by hydrolysis with commercially available enzymes, Spezyme CP and Novozyme 188. IL-treated energy cane bagasse resulted in significant lignin removal (32.0%) with slight glucan and xylan losses (8.8% and 14.0%, respectively), and exhibited a much higher enzymatic digestibility (87.0% and 64.3%) than untreated (5.5% and 2.8%) or water-treated (4.0% and 2.1%) energy cane bagasse in terms of both cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities, respectively. The enhanced digestibilities of IL-treated biomass can be attributed to delignification and reduction of cellulose crystallinity as confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. PMID:22617034

Qiu, Zenghui; Aita, Giovanna M; Walker, Michelle S

2012-08-01

464

Termite resistance and mechanical properties of biobased composition boards made from cotton gin byproducts and guayule bagasse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vast quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB), also known as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste, are being produced across the cotton belt of the United States annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production, also known as guayule bagasse (GB), is expected to increase as this in...

465

Spread of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus in initially disease-free sugarcane is linked to rainfall and host resistance in the humid tropical environment of Guadeloupe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus, the causal agent of yellow leaf, is transmitted from plant to plant by aphids. Understanding and evaluating the epidemic\\u000a risks due to spread of yellow leaf by aphids is an important feature for sugarcane production. Four distinct sugarcane trials\\u000a were set up with disease-free plants to study the relationship between spread of yellow leaf, the vector

Jean Heinrich Daugrois; Carine Edon-Jock; Sandrine Bonoto; Jean Vaillant; Philippe Rott

2011-01-01