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Sample records for sugarcane bagasse ash

  1. Post-processing, energy production use of sugarcane bagasse ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is a multi-processed by-product produced from the milling of sugarcane. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sugar, water, and other impurities from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Louisiana produces an estimated 3 million tons of bagasse each...

  2. Sugarcane bagasse ash as a seedling growth media component

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the eleven sugarcane mills in Louisiana processed 153,783 ha and 11.6 million mt of milable sugarcane, producing 1.3 million mt of raw sugar, and an estimated 2.7 million mt bagasse. Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel producing over 20,411 mt of sugarc...

  3. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

  4. Processing of Sugarcane Bagasse ash and Reactivity of Ash-blended Cement Mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajay, Goyal; Hattori, Kunio; Ogata, Hidehiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA), a sugar-mill waste, has the potential of a partial cement replacement material if processed and obtained under controlled conditions. This paper discusses the reactivity of SCBA obtained by control burning of sugarcane bagasse procured from Punjab province of India. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to ascertain the amorphousness and morphology of the minerals ash particles. Destructive and non-destructive tests were conducted on SCBA-blended mortar specimens. Ash-blended cement paste specimens were analyzed by XRD, thermal analysis, and SEM methods to evaluate the hydration reaction of SCBA with cement. Results showed that the SCBA processed at 600°C for 5 hours was reactive as ash-blended mortar specimens with up to 15% substitution of cement gave better strength than control specimens.

  5. Recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste in the production of clay bricks.

    PubMed

    Faria, K C P; Gurgel, R F; Holanda, J N F

    2012-06-30

    This work investigates the recycling of sugarcane bagasse ash waste as a method to provide raw material for clay brick bodies, through replacement of natural clay by up 20 wt.%. Initially, the waste sample was characterized by its chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, particle size, morphology and pollution potential. Clay bricks pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their technological properties (e.g., linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and tensile strength). The sintered microstructure was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste is mainly composed by crystalline silica particles. The test results indicate that the sugarcane bagasse ash waste could be used as a filler in clay bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way. PMID:22387325

  6. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araujo

    2010-06-15

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

  7. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement.

    PubMed

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araújo

    2010-06-01

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement. PMID:20163947

  8. Char from sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unused sugarcane bagasse represents an underutilized resource in sugarcane growing regions of the world. This is a renewable resource that can be used in a thermochemical process to create chars, which could be incorporated back into agricultural activities. The practice is likely to improve soil ...

  9. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

  10. Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

    1981-08-01

    Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

  11. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  12. Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on sugarcane bagasse

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez, A.

    1981-07-01

    The growth behavior of Cellulomonas has been examined in fermentation systems using alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse. During the batch operation diauxic growth was found which would not seem to be explained by catabolic repression. The relative variation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fermentation process suggests the initial utilization of easily degradable substrate, i.e., hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose, until their concentration becomes limiting, followed by utilization of the crystalline cellulose. The conversion of substrate was 70% with a yield of 0.355 g of biomass per gram of bagasse feed. (Refs. 13).

  13. Biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, V K; Singh, M P; Srivastava, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Takshak, S

    2012-01-01

    The chemically as well as hot water treated agrowaste sugarcane bagasse was subjected to degradation by Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The fungus degraded lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and carbon content of both chemically as well as hot water treated waste and produced in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body. Biodegradation of the waste in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During mycelial growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the sugarcane bagasse decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated substrate supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrates. Degradation of the hot water treated sugarcane bagasse was better and faster than chemically treated substrates. PMID:23273185

  14. Seizure modeling of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by chemically modified sugarcane bagasse fly ash: isotherms, kinetics, and column study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavna; Mistry, Chirag; Shah, Ajay

    2013-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a common environmental problem all over the world. The purpose of the research is to examine the applicability of bagasse fly ash (BFA)-an agricultural waste of sugar industry used for the synthesis of zeolitic material. The zeolitic material are used for the uptake of Pb(II) and Cd(II) heavy metal. Bagasse fly ash is used as a native material for the synthesis of zeolitic materials by conventional hydrothermal treatment without (conventional zeolitic bagasse fly ash (CZBFA)) and with electrolyte (conventional zeolitic bagasse fly ash in electrolyte media (ECZBFA)) media. Heavy metal ions Pb(II) and Cd(II) were successfully seized from aqueous media using these synthesized zeolitic materials. In this study, the zeolitic materials were well characterized by different instrumental methods such as Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, XRF, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic microphotographs. The presence of analcime, phillipsite, and zeolite P in adsorbents confirms successful conversion of native BFA into zeolitic materials. Seizure modeling of Pb(II) and Cd(II) was achieved by batch sorption experiments, isotherms, and kinetic studies. These data were used to compare and evaluate the zeolitic materials as potential sorbents for the uptake of heavy metal ions from an aqueous media. The Langmuir isotherm correlation coefficient parameters best fit the equilibrium data which indicate the physical sorption. Pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion model matches best which indicates that the rate of sorption was controlled by film diffusion. The column studies were performed for the practical function of sorbents, and breakthrough curves were obtained, which revealed higher sorption capacity as compared to batch method. Synthesized zeolitic material (CZBFA and ECZBFA), a low-cost sorbent, was proven as potential sorbent for the uptake of Pb(II) and Cd(II) heavy metal ions. PMID:22739768

  15. Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

    1985-02-01

    A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

  16. An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elkoury, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

  17. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant β- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good β-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  18. Low tech use of post-harvest, processed sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in 2015 to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for vegetable production. Louisiana processed 12.8 million tons (11.6 million mt) of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons (1.36 million mt) of raw sugar and an estimated 3 million tons (2.7 million...

  19. Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of β-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

  20. Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

    2013-07-01

    Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

  1. Optimizing hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

  3. Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by β-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by CC and COC links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

  4. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained with GC-pretreated bagasse is possibly due to the presence of one hydroxyl group in the GC molecular structure, resulting in more significant biomass delignification and defibrillation, though both solvent pretreatments reduced bagasse particles to a similar extent. The maximum glucan digestibility of GC/glycerol systems was less than that of EC/EG systems, which is likely attributed to glycerol being less effective than EG in biomass delignification and defibrillation. Acidified AC/AG solvent systems were more effective for pretreatment of lignin-containing biomass than MCC. PMID:24156757

  5. Isolation of a gastroprotective arabinoxylan from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Schiavini, Daniele N; Werner, Maria Fernanda; Baggio, Cristiane H; Pereira, Isabela T; da Silva, Luisa M; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2011-11-01

    After industrial processing, one-third of sugarcane culms is converted into residual bagasse. The xylan-rich hemicellulose components of the bagasse were extracted with hot aqueous alkali (AX-CRUDE). Approximately 82% of the extracted hemicelluloses was precipitated with ethanol (AX-PET). Both AX-CRUDE and AX-PET contained an arabinoxylan as confirmed by 13C NMR and methylation analysis. Fraction AX-PET was fed to female Wistar rats with ethanol-induced gastric lesions. Oral administrations of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg reduced the gastric lesion area by over 50%, and replenished ethanol-induced depletion of glutathione. The polysaccharide also increased mucus production by over 70%, indicating its cytoprotective action on experimentally induced gastric ulcers. These findings are significant, since a biologically active compound can be extracted in high yields from an abundant, readily available residue. PMID:21945160

  6. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). PMID:26210150

  7. The antibiotic activity and mechanisms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse extract against food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-10-15

    Sugarcane bagasse contains natural compositions that can significantly inhibit food-borne pathogens growth. In the present study, the phenolic content in sugarcane bagasse was detected as higher than 4 mg/g dry bagasse, with 470 mg quercetin/g polyphenol. The sugarcane bagasse extract showed bacteriostatic activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salomonella typhimurium. Additionally, the sugarcane bagasse extract can increase the electric conductivity of bacterial cell suspensions causing cellular leaking of electrolytes. Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested the antibacterial mechanism was probably due to the damaged cellular proteins by sugarcane bagasse extract. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the sugarcane bagasse extract might change cell morphology and internal structure. PMID:25952848

  8. Secretome analysis of Ganoderma lucidum cultivated in sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Manavalan, Tamilvendan; Manavalan, Arulmani; Thangavelu, Kalaichelvan P; Heese, Klaus

    2012-12-21

    Harmful environmental issues of fossil-fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable alternative fuels such as biofuel. Agricultural crop residues represent an abundant renewable resource for future biofuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically feasible, and should also be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We used these criteria to evaluate the white rot basidiomycota-derived fungus Ganoderma lucidum that secretes substantial amounts of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes useful for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass that were not described hitherto. The current bottleneck of lignocellulosic biofuel production is the hydrolysis of biomass to sugar. To understand the enzymatic hydrolysis of complex biomasses, we cultured G. lucidum with sugarcane bagasse as substrate and qualitatively analyzed the entire secretome. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and diverse enzymes were found, of which several were novel lignocellulosic biomass hydrolyzing enzymes. We further explored G. lucidum-derived cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degrading enzymes as valuable enzymes for the second generation of biofuel obtained from a lignocellulose substrate such as sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23000217

  9. Dilute-acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse with fungal treatment and fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recovering fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment followed by enzymatic saccharification. During pretreatment inhibitory compounds are often formed that impede fermenting microorganisms. Biological detoxification has been identified as a potential method to prepare biomass...

  10. Comprehensive utilization of glycerol from sugarcane bagasse pretreatment to fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Zheng, Anqing; Zhao, Zengli; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effects of glycerol pretreatment on subsequent glycerol fermentation and biomass fast pyrolysis were investigated. The liquid fraction from the pretreatment process was evaluated to be feasible for fermentation by Paenibacillus polymyxa and could be an economic substrate. The pretreated biomass was further utilized to obtain levoglucosan by fast pyrolysis. The pretreated sugarcane bagasse exhibited significantly higher levoglucosan yield (47.70%) than that of un-pretreated sample (11.25%). The promotion could likely be attributed to the effective removal of alkali and alkaline earth metals by glycerol pretreatment. This research developed an economically viable manufacturing paradigm to utilize glycerol comprehensively and enhance the formation of levoglucosan effectively from lignocellulose. PMID:26241838

  11. Study of structural modification of sugarcane bagasse employing hydrothermal treatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Jayr; Pimenta, Maria Teresa; Gurgel, Leandro; Squina, Fabio; Souza-Correa, Jorge; Curvelo, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Nowadays, the cellulosic ethanol is an important alternative way to many liquid biofuels using renewable biomass rich in polysaccharides. To be used as feedstock for ethanol production, the bagasse needs to be pretreated in order to expose its main constitutive. The present work proposes the use of different pretreatment processes to better expose the cellulose for hydrolysis and fermentation. In the present paper the sugarcane bagasse was submitted to a hydrothermal pretreatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). An RF microplasma torch was employed as APPs in Ar and Ar/O2 mixing. The bagasse was treated in discharge and post-discharge regions. The position and time of treatment was varied as well as the gas mixture. The quantity of polysaccharides was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed the release of a fraction of the hemicelluloses in the sugarcane bagasse. Modifications in the surface of the sugarcane fibers were monitored by employing scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

    2012-01-01

    The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods. PMID:22864427

  13. The surface reactivity and implied toxicity of ash produced from sugarcane burning.

    PubMed

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Tomatis, Maura; Horwell, Claire J; Dunster, Christina; Murphy, Fiona; Corazzari, Ingrid; Grendene, Francesca; Turci, Francesco; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive; Fubini, Bice

    2014-05-01

    Sugarcane combustion generates fine-grained particulate that has the potential to be a respiratory health hazard because of its grain size and composition. In particular, conversion of amorphous silica to crystalline forms during burning may provide a source of toxic particles. In this study, we investigate and evaluate the toxicity of sugarcane ash and bagasse ash formed from commercial sugarcane burning. Experiments to determine the main physicochemical properties of the particles, known to modulate biological responses, were combined with cellular toxicity assays to gain insight into the potential reactions that could occur at the particle-lung interface following inhalation. The specific surface area of the particles ranged from ∼16 to 90 m(2) g(-1) . The samples did not generate hydroxyl- or carbon-centered radicals in cell-free tests. However, all samples were able to 'scavenge' an external source of hydroxyl radicals, which may be indicative of defects on the particle surfaces that may interfere with cellular processes. The bioavailable iron on the particle surfaces was low (2-3 μmol m(-2) ), indicating a low propensity for iron-catalyzed radical generation. The sample surfaces were all hydrophilic and slightly acidic, which may be due to the presence of oxygenated (functional) groups. The ability to cause oxidative stress and membrane rupture in red blood cells (hemolysis) was found to be low, indicating that the samples are not toxic by the mechanisms tested. Cytotoxicity of sugarcane ash was observed, by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release, after incubation of relatively high concentrations of ash with murine alveolar macrophage cells. All samples induced nitrogen oxide release (although only at very high concentrations) and reactive oxygen species generation (although the bagasse samples were less potent than the sugarcane ash). However, the samples induced significantly lower cytotoxic effects and nitrogen oxide generation when compared with the positive control. PMID:22431484

  14. Catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by using microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Fong; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to research the catalytic effects on the microwave pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and thus to discuss the reaction performance, product distribution, and kinetic analysis. With the addition of metal-oxides served as catalysts, reaction results such as mass reduction ratio and reaction rate increased, even the maximum temperature decreased. Adding either NiO or CaO slightly increased the production of H2, while adding either CuO or MgO slightly decreased it. The addition of either CaO or MgO enhanced the gaseous production, and either NiO or CuO addition enhanced the liquid production. There could be several secondary reactions such as self-gasification and interactions among the gases originally produced during the pyrolysis stage to alter the composition of gaseous product and the final three-phase product distribution. The catalyst addition slightly increased the activation energy but greatly increased the pre-exponential factor. PMID:23948270

  15. Addition of feruloyl esterase and xylanase produced on-site improves sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Braga, Cleiton Márcio Pinto; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Paixão, Douglas Antônio Alvaredo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2014-10-01

    Accessory enzymes that assist biomass degradation could be used to improve the recovery of fermentable sugar for use in biorefineries. In this study, different fungal strains isolated from the Amazon rainforest were evaluated in terms of their ability to produce feruloyl esterase (FAE) and xylanase enzymes, and an assessment was made of the contributions of the enzymes in the hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. In the selection step, screening using plate assays was followed by shake flask submerged cultivations. After carbon source selection and cultivation in a stirred-tank bioreactor, Aspergillusoryzae P21C3 proved to be a promising strain for production of the enzymes. Supplementation of a commercial enzyme preparation with 30% (v/v) crude enzymatic complex from A. oryzae P21C3 increased the conversion of cellulose derived from pretreated sugarcane bagasse by 36%. Supplementation with FAE and xylanase enzymes produced on-site can therefore be used to improve the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. PMID:25151076

  16. The effect of fire retardants on combustion and pyrolysis of sugar-cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G J

    2011-09-01

    Experiments were conducted by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimetry to measure the affect of three fire retardants (ammonium sulphate, boric acid and borax) on the mass-loss rate and combustion characteristics of sugar-cane bagasse. Compared with untreated bagasse, bagasse impregnated with aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.5M fire retardants exhibited an increase in char mass production from 16% up to 41% when pyrolysed and up to a 41% reduction in total heat release (THR) during combustion. Char mass production was only a weak function of additive concentration over the range of concentrations (0.1-0.5M) used. Combining the additives did not show any synergistic effects for char production or heat release rate (HRR). Treatment of bagasse by these chemicals could be useful to enhance biochar yields in pyrolysis processes or to reduce flammability risk in composites containing bagasse. PMID:21680181

  17. Integrated versus stand-alone second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse and trash.

    PubMed

    Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cavalett, Otávio; Cunha, Marcelo P; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is often conceived considering independent, stand-alone production plants; in the Brazilian scenario, where part of the potential feedstock (sugarcane bagasse) for second generation ethanol production is already available at conventional first generation production plants, an integrated first and second generation production process seems to be the most obvious option. In this study stand-alone second generation ethanol production from surplus sugarcane bagasse and trash is compared with conventional first generation ethanol production from sugarcane and with integrated first and second generation; simulations were developed to represent the different technological scenarios, which provided data for economic and environmental analysis. Results show that the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process from sugarcane leads to better economic results when compared with the stand-alone plant, especially when advanced hydrolysis technologies and pentoses fermentation are included. PMID:22019267

  18. Efficient and repeated production of succinic acid by turning sugarcane bagasse into sugar and support.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengcheng; Tao, Shengtao; Zheng, Pu

    2016-07-01

    Here we reported an endeavor in making full use of sugarcane bagasse for biological production of succinic acid. Through NaOH pre-treatment and multi-enzyme hydrolysis, a reducing sugar solution mainly composed of glucose and xylose was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse. By optimizing portions of cellulase, xylanase, β-glucanase and pectinase in the multi-enzyme "cocktail", the hydrolysis percentage of the total cellulose in pre-treated sugarcane bagasse can be as high as 88.5%. A. succinogenes CCTCC M2012036 was used for converting reducing sugars into succinic acid in a 3-L bioreactor with a sugar-fed strategy to prevent cell growth limitation. Importantly, cells were found to be adaptive on the sugarcane bagasse residue, offering possibilities of repeated batch fermentation and replacement for MgCO3 with soluble NaHCO3 in pH modulation. Three cycles of fermentation without activity loss were realized with the average succinic acid yield and productivity to be 80.5% and 1.65g·L(-1)·h(-1). PMID:27035471

  19. Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L-arabinose, D-xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or...

  20. Hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology improves digestibility and ethanol production by SSF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

  1. PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND PRODUCT COST TO MANUFACTURE SUGARCANE BAGASSE-BASED GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process flow diagrams and manufacturing costs were developed to convert sugarcane bagasse to granular activated carbon. Unit operations in the conversion process consisted of milling, pelletization, pyrolysis/activation, washing with acid and water, and drying/screening/collecting of the final prod...

  2. Lignin enrichment and enzyme deactivation as the root cause of enzymatic hydrolysis slowdown of steam pretreated sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Joshua; Brienzo, Michel; García-Aparicio, María P; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-05-25

    The enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) rate normally decreases during the hydrolysis, leaving unhydrolyzed material as residue. This phenomenon occurs during the hydrolysis of both cellulose (avicel) and lignocellulosic material, in nature or even pretreated. The progression of EH of steam pretreated sugarcane bagasse was associated with an initial (fast), intermediate (slower) and recalcitrant (slowest) phases, at glucan to glucose conversion yields of 61.7, 81.6 and 86%, respectively. Even though the EH of avicel as a simpler material than steam pretreated sugarcane bagasse, EH slowdown was present. The less thermo-stable endo-xylanase lost 58% of initial enzyme activity, followed by β-glucosidase that lost 16%, culminating in FPase activity loss of 30% in the first 24hours. After 72hours of EH the total loss of FPase activity was 40% compared to the initial activity. Analysis of the solid residue from EH showed that lignin content, phenolic compounds and ash increased while glucan decreased as hydrolysis progressed. During the initial fast phase of EH, the total solid residue surface area consisted predominantly of internal surface area. Thereafter, in the intermediate and recalcitrant phases of EH, the ratio of external:internal surface area increased. The proposed fiber damage and decrease in internal surface area, probably by EH action, was visualized by scanning electron microscopy imagery. The higher lignin/glucan ratio as EH progressed and enzyme deactivation by thermo instability were the main effects observed, respectively to substrate and enzyme. PMID:26820122

  3. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  4. Mechanical Properties and Morphological Study of Fly-Ash-Bagasse Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Deepak; Gope, Prakash Chandra; Maheshwari, Mohit Kumar; Sharma, Ravinder Kumar

    2012-10-01

    In recent years the natural fiber epoxy composite has attracted substantial importance as a potential structural material. The natural fiber composites can be very cost effective material. In the present investigation the development of a Fly ash—Bagasse fiber composite material has been discussed. The Bagasse fiber has been used in two different sizes for the developed material. In two developed composites, diameter of Bagasse fiber has been varied between 13-16 μm and 83-95 μm in length. Correspondingly in other two developed composites; length of Bagasse fiber has been varied from 1 to 5 mm. It was observed that the density decreases by mixing the fiber was more as compared to the composite having both Bagasse fiber and Fly ash. A Bagasse fiber composite with size in the range of μm exhibited better tensile strength than the composite having Bagasse fiber size in mm. The compressive strength of the material increases, if Fly ash alone is used for the composite material but, when Bagasse fiber was mixed with the Fly ash, it was found that there has been a decrease in the compressive strength. It was also observed that there has been a decrease in the flexural strength of the material by mixing the Bagasse fiber in the matrix. The microstructure of composite material was investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscope. The images from Scanning Electron Microscope demonstrated that the Fly ash and Bagasse fiber particles are uniformly distributed over the matrix.

  5. Optimization of steam explosion as a method for increasing susceptibility of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Morjanoff, P.J.; Gray, P.P.

    1987-04-01

    The technique of autohydrolysis steam explosion was examined as a means for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse. Treatment conditions were optimized so that following enzymatic hydrolysis, pretreated bagasse would give 65.1 g sugars/100 g starting bagasse. Released sugars comprised 38.9 g glucose, 0.6 g cellobiose, 22.1 g xylose, and 3.5 g arabinose, and were equivalent to 83% of the anhydroglucan and 84% of the anhydroxylan content of untreated bagasse. Optimum conditions were treatment for 30 s with saturated steam at 220/sup 0/C with a water-to-solids ratio of 2 and the addition of 1 g H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//100 g dry bagasse. Bagasse treated in this manner was not inhibitory to fermentation by Saccharomyces uvarum except at low inoculum levels when fermentation time was extended by up to 24 h. Pretreated saccharified bagasse was inhibitory to Pachysolen tannophilus and this was attributed to the formation of acetate from the hydrolysis of acetyl groups present in the hemicullulose. The major advantage of the pretreatment is the achievement of high total sugar yield with moderate enzyme requirement and only minor losses due to sugar decomposition.

  6. A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  7. Optimization of sugarcane bagasse conversion by hydrothermal treatment for the recovery of xylose.

    PubMed

    Boussarsar, Houda; Rogé, Barbara; Mathlouthi, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    This work aims at the valorization of sugarcane bagasse by extracting xylose which is destined to the production of xylitol after purification and hydrogenation. Our approach consists in applying the principle of biorefinery to sugarcane bagasse because of its hemicellulose composition (particularly rich in xylan: (92%)). Optimizing of the thermal treatment was investigated. A treatment at 170 degrees C for 2 h was found optimal, with higher solubilzation of hemicellulose than that at 150 degrees C and lower degradation of sugar monomers than 190 degrees C. Recovery of xylose was high and the purity of xylose solution (78%) allows expecting an easy purification and separation of xylose before hydrogenation. Analysis of thermal hydrolyzates shows the presence of xylan oligomers and polymers with large distribution of DPs. This fraction should be submitted to enzymatic treatment to recover more xylose monomer. PMID:19664914

  8. Flexural properties of sugarcane bagasse pith and rind reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirawan, R.; Sapuan, S. M.; Robiah, Y.; Khalina, A.

    2010-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is divided into two major components. They are pith and rind. Pith is the inner part of sugarcane bagasse while rind is the outer part of it. In this study, the flexural properties of pith reinforced poly (vinyl chloride) composites were compared to that of rind composites with the same matrix in variation of fibre content. The composites were produced by compression moulding method. The fibre contents were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% in weight. Three-point bending tests were carried out to measure the flexural properties of the composites. It has been found that, in general, the addition of fibre improved the flexural modulus of the materials. Meanwhile, the rind composites were of superior flexural properties compared to the pith composites.

  9. Atmospheric pressure plasma pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse: the influence of moisture in the ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Souza-Corrêa, J A; Oliveira, C; Wolf, L D; Nascimento, V M; Rocha, G J M; Amorim, J

    2013-09-01

    Sugarcane bagasse samples were pretreated with ozone via atmospheric O2 pressure plasma. A delignification efficiency of approximately 80 % was observed within 6 h of treatment. Some hemicelluloses were removed, and the cellulose was not affected by ozonolysis. The quantity of moisture in the bagasse had a large influence on delignification and saccharification after ozonation pretreatment of the bagasse, where 50 % moisture content was found to be best for delignification (65 % of the cellulose was converted into glucose). Optical absorption spectroscopy was applied to determine ozone concentrations in real time. The ozone consumption as a function of the delignification process revealed two main reaction phases, as the ozone molecules cleave the strong carbon-carbon bonds of aromatic rings more slowly than the weak carbon-carbon bonds of aliphatic chains. PMID:23817790

  10. Optimization of pretreatment and fermentation conditions for production of extracellular cellulase complex using sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaque, Mohammad; Solomon, Sushil; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB), a lignocellulosic byproduct of juice extraction from sugarcane, is rich in cellulose (40-42%). This could be used as a substrate for the production of cellulase complex. Fermentation conditions were optimized for production of cellulase complex (CMCase, Cellulobiase and FPase) by wild type Trichoderma sp. using sugarcane bagasse as sole carbon source. Alkaline treatment (2% NaOH) of bagasse (AlSCB) was found suitable for the production of reducing sugar over the acidic pretreatment method. After 5 days of incubation period, 5% substrate concentration at pH 5.0 and 400C resulted in maximum production of CMCase (0.622 U), while maximum (3.388 U) production of cellulobiase was obtained at 300C. The CMCase was precipitated and purified to the extent of 59.06 fold by affinity chromatography with 49.09% recovery. On 12% SDS-PAGE, a single band corresponding to 33 kDa was observed. The Km and Vmax for CMCase from Trichoderma was found 507.04 mg/ml and 65.32 mM/min, respectively. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 300C at pH-5.0 (0.363 U) and was stable over range of 20-60°C and pH 5.0-7.5. PMID:25489168

  11. Kinetics of cadmium, chromium, and lead sorption onto chemically modified sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Mahmood-ul-Hassan, M; Suthar, V; Rafique, E; Ahmad, R; Yasin, M

    2015-07-01

    In this study, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) adsorption potential of unmodified and modified sugarcane bagasse and ground wheat straw was explored from aqueous solution through batch equilibrium technique. Both the materials were chemically modified by treating with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) alone and in combination with nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Two kinetic models, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order were used to follow the adsorption process and reaction fallowed the later model. The Pb removal by both the materials was highest and followed by Cr and Cd. The chemical treatment invariably increased the adsorption capacity and NaOH treatment proved more effective than others. Langmuir maximum sorption capacity (q m) of Pb was utmost (12.8-23.3 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 14.5-22.4 mg/g of wheat straw) and of Cd was least (1.5-2.2 mg/g of sugarcane bagasse, 2.5-3.8 mg/g of wheat straw). The q m was in the order of Pb > Cr > Cd for all the three adsorbents. Results demonstrate that agricultural waste materials used in this study could be used to remediate the heavy metal-polluted water. PMID:26116198

  12. Study of thermal treatment combined with radiation on the decomposition of polysaccharides in sugarcane bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment is a physical and chemical process that reduces the crystalline structure and disrupts the hydrogen bonding of cellulose to improve the accessibility to hydrolytic depolymerization reactions. The combination of pretreatment technologies intends to decrease the severity of the processes and to avoid excessive sugar degradation and formation of toxic by-products. An effective pretreatment preserves the pentose fractions and limits the formation of degradation products that inhibits the growth of fermentative microorganisms. This study presents the evaluation of the cleavage of polysaccharides from sugarcane bagasse using ionizing radiation combined with thermal and diluted acid treatment to further enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis of cellulose. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were irradiated using a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with different absorbed doses, and then were submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid, m/m) hydrolysis for 10, 20 and 40 min at 180 °C. Taking into account the sugars and by-products liberated in these treatments the conversion rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses were calculated.

  13. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  14. Construction of individual, fused, and co-expressed proteins of endoglucanase and β-glucosidase for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kurniasih, Sari Dewi; Alfi, Almasul; Natalia, Dessy; Radjasa, Ocky Karna; Nurachman, Zeily

    2014-01-01

    At least a combination of endoglucanase (EglII) and β-glucosidase (BglZ) is required for hydrolyzing crystalline cellulose. To understand the catalytic efficiency of combination enzymes for converting biomass to sugars, EglII and BglZ were constructed in the form of individual, fused as well as co-expression proteins, and their activities for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse were evaluated. The genes, eglII isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PSM3.1 earlier and bglZ from B. amyloliquefaciens ABBD, were expressed extracellularly in Bacillus megaterium MS941. EglII exhibited both exoglucanase and endoglucanase activities, and BglZ belonging to the glycoside hydrolase 1 family (GH 1) showed β-glucosidase activity. A combination of EglII and BglZ showed activity on substrates Avicel, CMC and sugarcane bagasse. Specifically for hydrolyzing sugarcane bagasse, fused protein (fus-EglII+BglZ), co-expression protein (coex-BglZ+EglII), and mixed-individual protein (mix-EglII+BglZ) produced cellobiose as the main product, along with a small amount of glucose. The amount of reducing sugars released from the hydrolyzing bleached sugarcane bagasse (BSB) using fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ was 2.7- and 4.2-fold higher, respectively, than steamed sugarcane bagasse (SSB), indicating the synergetic enzymes worked better on treated sugarcane bagasse. Compared with fus-EglII+BglZ and mix-EglII+BglZ, coex-BglZ+EglII released more mol reducing sugars from SSB, indicating the enzymes were potential for biomass conversion. Additionally, coex-BglZ+EglII acted on BSB 2.5-fold faster than fus-EglII+BglZ. Thus, coex-bglZ+eglII expression system was the best choice to produce enzymes for hydrolyzing sugarcane baggase. PMID:24598011

  15. New cultive medium for bioconversion of C5 fraction from sugarcane bagasse using rice bran extract

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Debora Danielle Virginio; Cândido, Elisangela de Jesus; de Arruda, Priscila Vaz; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The use of hemicellulosic hydrolysates in bioprocesses requires supplementation as to ensure the best fermentative performance of microorganisms. However, in light of conflicting data in the literature, it is necessary to establish an inexpensive and applicable medium for the development of bioprocesses. This paper evaluates the fermentative performance of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and Candida guilliermondii growth in sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate supplemented with different nitrogen sources including rice bran extract, an important by-product of agroindustry and source of vitamins and amino acids. Experiments were carried out with hydrolysate supplemented with rice bran extract and (NH4)2SO4; peptone and yeast extract; (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract and non-supplemented hydrolysate as a control. S. stipitis produced only ethanol, while C. guilliermondii produced xylitol as the main product and ethanol as by-product. Maximum ethanol production by S. stipitis was observed when sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate was supplemented with (NH4)2SO4, peptone and yeast extract. Differently, the maximum xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii was obtained by employing hydrolysate supplemented with (NH4)2SO4 and rice bran extract. Together, these findings indicate that: a) for both yeasts (NH4)2SO4 was required as an inorganic nitrogen source to supplement sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate; b) for S. stipitis, sugarcane hemicellulosic hydrolysate must be supplemented with peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen source; and: c) for C. guilliermondii, it must be supplemented with rice bran extract. The present study designed a fermentation medium employing hemicellulosic hydrolysate and provides a basis for studies about value-added products as ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic materials. PMID:25763056

  16. Thermochemical Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse into Bio-Crude Oils by Fluidized-Bed Pyrolysis Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad Rofiqul; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Uddin, Md. Shazib

    Thermochemical conversion of sugarcane bagasse into bio-crude oils by fluidized-bed reactor has been taken into consideration in this study. The bagasse in particle form was pyrolyzed in an externally heated 7cm diameter and 37.5cm high fluidized-bed reactor with nitrogen as a carrier gas. The reactor chamber and gas-preheater were heated by means of a renewable energy biomass source cylindrical heater. At a reactor bed temperature of 450°C for a feed particle size of 420-600µm and at a gas flow rate of 30 l/min, an oil yield of 48wt% of dry feed was obtained. The pyrolysis process temperature was found to have influenced on the product yields. Characterization of the whole pyrolysis liquids obtained at optimum operating conditions has been carried out including physical properties, elemental analyses, GCV, FT-IR, and 1H NMR analysis. The results show that pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse waste is a good option for producing bio-crude oils to be used as alternative to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstocks.

  17. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities is that the activity against commercial substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose, does not always correspond to the activity against the natural lignocellulosic material. Besides that, the macroscopic characteristics of the raw material, such as insolubility and heterogeneity, hinder its use for high throughput screenings. Results In this paper, we present the preparation of a colloidal suspension of particles obtained from sugarcane bagasse, with minimal chemical change in the lignocellulosic material, and demonstrate its use for high throughput assays of hydrolases using Brazilian termites as the screened organisms. Conclusions Important differences between the use of the natural substrate and commercial cellulase substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose or crystalline cellulose, were observed. This suggests that wood feeding termites, in contrast to litter feeding termites, might not be the best source for enzymes that degrade sugarcane biomass. PMID:22081987

  18. Effect of phenolic compounds from pretreated sugarcane bagasse on cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Michele; Ximenes, Eduardo; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    This work shows both cellulases and hemicellulases are inhibited and deactivated by water-soluble and acetone extracted phenolics from sugarcane bagasse pretreated at 10% (w/v) for 30 min in liquid hot water at 180 or 200°C. The dissolved phenolics in vacuum filtrate increased from 1.4 to 2.4 g/L as temperature increased from 180 to 200°C. The suppression of cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis by phenolics is dominated by deactivation of the β-glucosidase or β-xylosidase components of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme by acetone extract at 0.2-0.65 mg phenolics/mg enzyme protein and deactivation of cellulases and hemicellulases by the water soluble components in vacuum filtrate at 0.05-2mg/mg. Inhibition was a function of the type of enzyme and the manner in which the phenolics were extracted from the bagasse. PMID:26364828

  19. Simulated performance of reactor configurations for hot-water pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Archambault-Léger, Véronique; Shao, Xiongjun; Lynd, Lee R

    2014-09-01

    During the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass for subsequent microbial or enzymatic processing, the fiber reactivity typically increases with increasing severity but so does sugar degradation. Experimental results with sugarcane bagasse show that this tradeoff can be mitigated substantially by pretreatment in a flow-through (FT) mode. A model that incorporates both kinetics and mass transfer was developed to simulate the performance of pretreatment in plug flow, counter-current flow, cross flow, discrete counter-current and partial FT configurations. The simulated results compare well to the literature for bagasse pretreated in both batch and FT configurations. A variety of FT configurations result in sugar degradation that is very low (1-5%) and 5-20-fold less than a conventional plug flow configuration. The performance exhibits strong sensitivity to the extent of hemicellulose solubilization, particularly for a conventional plug flow configuration. PMID:25088298

  20. Catalytic conversion of sugarcane bagasse to cellulosic ethanol: TiO2 coupled nanocellulose as an effective hydrolysis enhancer.

    PubMed

    Jabasingh, S Anuradha; Lalith, D; Prabhu, M Arun; Yimam, Abubekker; Zewdu, Taye

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the production of cellulosic ethanol from bagasse using the synthesized TiO2 coupled nanocellulose (NC-TiO2) as catalyst. Aspergillus nidulans AJSU04 cellulase was used for the hydrolysis of bagasse. NC-TiO2 at various concentrations was added to bagasse in order to enhance the yield of reducing sugars. Complex interaction between cellulase, bagasse, NC-TiO2 and the reaction environment is thoroughly studied. A mathematical model was developed to describe the hydrolysis reaction. Ethanol production from enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse catalyzed with NC-TiO2 was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 20602. The glucose release rates and ethanol concentrations were determined. Ethanol produced was found to be strongly dependent on pretreatment given, hydrolysis and fermentation conditions. The study confirmed the promising accessibility of NC-TiO2, for enhanced glucose production rates and improved ethanol yield. PMID:26572403

  1. Effect of dry torrefaction on kinetics of catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniyanto, Sutijan, Deendarlianto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Decreasing world reserve of fossil resources (i.e. petroleum oil, coal and natural gas) encourage discovery of renewable resources as subtitute for fossil resources. Biomass is one of the main natural renewable resources which is promising resource as alternate resources to meet the world's energy needs and raw material to produce chemical platform. Conversion of biomass, as source of energy, fuel and biochemical, is conducted using thermochemical process such as pyrolysis-gasification process. Pyrolysis step is an important step in the mechanism of pyrolysis - gasification of biomass. The objective of this study is to obtain the kinetic reaction of catalytic pyrolysis of dry torrified sugarcane bagasse which used Ca and Mg as catalysts. The model of kinetic reaction is interpreted using model n-order of single reaction equation of biomass. Rate of catalytic pyrolysis reaction depends on the weight of converted biomass into char and volatile matters. Based on TG/DTA analysis, rate of pyrolysis reaction is influenced by the composition of biomass (i.e. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) and inorganic component especially alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM). From this study, it has found two equations rate of reaction of catalytic pyrolysis in sugarcane bagasse using catalysts Ca and Mg. First equation is equation of pyrolysis reaction in rapid zone of decomposition and the second equation is slow zone of decomposition. Value of order reaction for rapid decomposition is n > 1 and for slow decomposition is n<1. Constant and order of reactions for catalytic pyrolysis of dry-torrified sugarcane bagasse with presence of Ca tend to higher than that's of presence of Mg.

  2. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results. PMID:22122978

  3. Aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose and production of xylose syrup

    SciTech Connect

    Saska, M.; Ozer, E.

    1995-03-20

    At the optimum level of severity, the aqueous extraction of sugarcane bagasse, an abundant agricultural residue, gave, depending on the degree of comminution, 60% to 89% yield of xylose, most of it in the form of a water soluble xylan. A process for producing xylose-rich syrups was conceived and tested, consisting of aqueous extraction, acid hydrolysis of the concentrated aqueous extract, centrifugal clarification of the hydrolysate, and recovery of the acid by continuous ion exclusion. The cost estimate indicates operating costs on the order of $0.12 to $0.15/kg xylose, in the form of xylose-rich molasses.

  4. Bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agunsoye, J. O.; Aigbodion, V. S.

    Bagasse filled recycled polyethylene bio-composites were produced by the compounding and compressive molding method. Two sets of composites were produced using uncarbonized (UBp) and carbonized (CBp) bagasse particles by varying the bagasse particles from 10 to 50 wt%. The surface morphology and the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The results showed that the uniform distribution of the bagasse particles in the microstructure of the polymer composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement of the mechanical properties. The bagasse particles added to the RLDPE polymer improved its rigidity and the hardness values of the composites. The tensile and bending strengths of the composite increased with increasing percentage of the bagasse to a maximum of 20 wt%UBp and 30 wt%CBp. The impact energy and fracture toughness decreases with wt% bagasse particles. The developed composites have the best properties in the ranges of 30 wt% bagasse particle additions and for optimum service condition, carbonized bagasse particles addition should not exceed 30 wt%.

  5. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 immobilized on chemically modified sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangping; He, Aiyong; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min

    2015-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was chemically modified by polyethylenimine (PEI) and glutaraldehyde (GA) and then used as a support to immobilize Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 in the process of butanol production. Compared with batch fermentation using unmodified sugarcane bagasse, 22.3 g/L total solvents were produced by cells immobilized on 4 g/L PEI treated sugarcane bagasse with high solvent productivity of 0.62 g/(L h) and glucose consumption rate of 1.67 g/(L h). Improvement of 14, 43, and 37 % in total solvent titer, solvent productivity and glucose consumption rate was observed, respectively. Enhanced solvent production of 25.14 g/L was obtained when using a high concentration of glucose of 80 g/L. Continuous fermentation was studied using PEI/GA modified sugarcane bagasse as immobilization support with a range of dilution which rates from 0.2 to 2.5 to find an optimal condition. The maximum solvent productivity of 11.32 g/(L h) was obtained at a high dilution rate of 2.0 h(-1). PMID:25694132

  6. Characteristics and oil sorption effectiveness of kapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks: oil removal suitability matrix.

    PubMed

    Ali, Norizan; El-Harbawi, Mohanad; Jabal, Ayman Abo; Yin, Chun-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics and water/oil sorption effectiveness ofkapok fibre, sugarcane bagasse and rice husks have been compared. The three biomass types were subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface tension analyses for liquid-air and oil-water systems were conducted. Both kapok fibre and sugarcane bagasse exhibit excellent oil sorption capabilities for diesel, crude, new engine and used engine oils as their oil sorption capacities all exceed 10 g/g. The synthetic sorbent exhibits oil sorption capacities comparable with sugarcane bagasse, while rice husks exhibit the lowest oil sorption capacities among all the sorbents. Kapok fibre shows overwhelmingly high oil-to-water sorption (O/W) ratios ranging from 19.35 to 201.53 while sugarcane bagasse, rice husks and synthetic sorbent have significantly lower O/W ratios (0.76-2.69). This suggests that kapok fibre is a highly effective oil sorbent even in well-mixed oil-water media. An oil sorbent suitability matrix is proposed to aid stakeholders in evaluating customized oil removal usage of the natural sorbents. PMID:22629620

  7. Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.

    PubMed

    Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

    2014-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (εG) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s−1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S < 10.0 g L−1 and QAIR > 27.0 L min−1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi. PMID:24078146

  8. A novel promising Trichoderma harzianum strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex using sugarcane bagasse in natura.

    PubMed

    Benoliel, Bruno; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is a major producer of agro-industrial residues, such as sugarcane bagasse, which could be used as raw material for microbial production of cellulases as an important strategy for the development of sustainable processes of second generation ethanol production. For this purpose, this work aimed at screening for glycosyl hydrolase activities of fungal strains isolated from the Brazilian Cerrado. Among 13 isolates, a Trichoderma harzianum strain (L04) was identified as a promising candidate for cellulase production when cultured on in natura sugarcane bagasse. Strain L04 revealed a well-balanced cellulolytic complex, presenting fast kinetic production of endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases, achieving 4,022, U.L(-1) (72 h), 1,228 U.L(-1) (120 h) and 1,968 U.L(-1) (48 h) as the highest activities, respectively. About 60% glucose yields were obtained from sugarcane bagasse after 18 hours hydrolysis. This new strain represents a potential candidate for on-site enzyme production using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. PMID:24349958

  9. Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

  10. Pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse and co-pyrolysis with an Argentinean subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bonelli, P.R.; Buonomo, E.L.; Cukierman, A.L.

    2007-07-01

    Physicochemical properties of the charcoal arising from pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at 600{sup o}C and 800{sup o}C were determined to evaluate potentialities for specific end uses. The charcoals were found fairly adequate as solid bio-fuels. Their quality was comparable to charcoals obtained from some other agro-industrial by-products, reportedly proposed as substitutes of wood-based ones. Surface properties of the charcoal generated at the higher temperature indicated that it is reasonably suited for potential use as low-cost rough adsorbent, soil amender, and/or for further upgrading to activated carbon. Moreover, kinetic measurements for pyrolysis of the sugarcane bagasse individually and mixed with an Argentinean subbituminous coal in equal proportions were conducted by thermogravimetry for the range 25 -900{sup o}C. Data modeling accounting for variations in the activation energy with process evolution provided a proper description of pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis over the entire temperature range.

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse using high total solids and low enzyme loadings.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; da Silva, Larissa; Ballem, Annielly Comelli; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Chiarello, Luana Marcele; Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano

    2014-10-23

    Hydrolysis of phosphoric acid-impregnated steam-treated sugarcane bagasse was pre-optimized using a face-centered central composite design in which the process variables were the substrate total solids (TS, %), agitation intensity (AI, rpm) and enzyme loading (EL, gg(-1)). Pretreatment was carried out at 180°C for 10min using cane bagasse with 50wt% moisture content containing 9.5mg of H3PO4 per gram of dry biomass. Hydrolyses were performed for 96h at 50°C using Cellic CTec2® and water-washed steam-treated substrates. The highest amount of fermentable sugars was obtained with 20wt% TS, producing 76.8gL(-1) of glucose equivalents, which corresponded to a total glucan conversion of 69.2wt% and to a theoretical net increase of 39% in ethanol production from the same sugarcane tonnage without considering the use of leaves, tops and the additional yields from C5 sugars. PMID:25459822

  12. Formic acid as a potential pretreatment agent for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse to bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Satyanagalakshmi, Karri; Janu, Kanakambaran Usha; Sajna, Kuttavan Valappil; Kurien, Noble; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, growing attention has been focused on the use of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for the production of ethanol, a possible renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Several pretreatment processes have been developed for decreasing the biomass recalcitrance, but only a few of them seem to be promising. In this study, effect of various organic solvents and organic acids on the pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse was studied. Among the different organic acids and organic solvents tested, formic acid was found to be effective. Optimization of process parameters for formic acid pretreatment was carried out. The structural changes before and after pretreatment was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The X-ray diffraction profile showed that the degree of crystallinity was more for pretreated biomass than that of untreated. The FTIR spectra shown at the stretching of hydrogen bonds of pretreated sugarcane bagasse arose at higher number. It also revealed that the cellulose content in the solid residue increased because the hemicelluloses fraction in raw materials was released by acid hydrolytic reaction. PMID:20526821

  13. Lipid production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g grown in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Tsigie, Yeshitila Asteraye; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Truong, Chi-Thanh; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the possibility of utilizing detoxified sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (DSCBH) as an alternative carbon source to culture Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g for microbial oil and biodiesel production. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis with 2.5% HCl resulted in maximum total sugar concentration (21.38 g/L) in which 13.59 g/L is xylose, 3.98 g/L is glucose, and 2.78 g/L is arabinose. Detoxification of SCBH by Ca(OH)₂ neutralization reduced the concentration of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural by 21.31% and 24.84%, respectively. Growth of Y. lipolytica Po1g in DSCBH with peptone as the nitrogen source gave maximum biomass concentration (11.42 g/L) compared to NH₄NO₃ (6.49 g/L). With peptone as the nitrogen source, DSCBH resulted in better biomass concentration than D-glucose (10.19 g/L), D-xylose (9.89 g/L) and NDSCBH (5.88 g/L). The maximum lipid content, lipid yield and lipid productivity of Y. lipolytica Po1g grown in DSCBH and peptone was 58.5%, 6.68 g/L and 1.76 g/L-day, respectively. PMID:21757339

  14. Adsorption characteristics of cellulase and β-glucosidase on Avicel, pretreated sugarcane bagasse, and lignin.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniele Longo; Moreira Neto, João; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; Bonomi, Antonio; Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Although adsorption is an essential step in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, literature reports controversial results in relation to the adsorption of the cellulolitic enzymes on different biomasses/pretreatments, which makes difficult the description of this phenomenon in hydrolysis mathematical models. In this work, the adsorption of these enzymes on Avicel and sugarcane bagasse pretreated by the hydrothermal bagasse (HB) and organosolv bagasse (OB) methods was evaluated. The results have shown no significant adsorption of β-glucosidase on Avicel or HB. Increasing solids concentration from 5% (w/v) to 10% (w/v) had no impact on the adsorption of cellulase on the different biomasses if stirring rates were high enough (>100 rpm for Avicel and >150 rpm for HB and OB). Adsorption equilibrium time was low for Avicel (10 Min) when compared with the lignocellulosic materials (120 Min). Adsorption isotherms determined at 4 and 50 °C have shown that for Avicel there was a decrease in the maximum adsorption capacity (Emax) with the temperature increase, whereas for HB increasing temperature increased Emax . Also, Emax increased with the content of lignin in the material. Adsorption studies of cellulase on lignin left after enzymatic digestion of HB show lower but significant adsorption capacity (Emax = 11.92 ± 0.76 mg/g). PMID:25322902

  15. Bioelectricity versus bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: is it worth being flexible?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is the most efficient crop for production of (1G) ethanol. Additionally, sugarcane bagasse can be used to produce (2G) ethanol. However, the manufacture of 2G ethanol in large scale is not a consolidated process yet. Thus, a detailed economic analysis, based on consistent simulations of the process, is worthwhile. Moreover, both ethanol and electric energy markets have been extremely volatile in Brazil, which suggests that a flexible biorefinery, able to switch between 2G ethanol and electric energy production, could be an option to absorb fluctuations in relative prices. Simulations of three cases were run using the software EMSO: production of 1G ethanol + electric energy, of 1G + 2G ethanol and a flexible biorefinery. Bagasse for 2G ethanol was pretreated with a weak acid solution, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, while 50% of sugarcane trash (mostly leaves) was used as surplus fuel. Results With maximum diversion of bagasse to 2G ethanol (74% of the total), an increase of 25.8% in ethanol production (reaching 115.2 L/tonne of sugarcane) was achieved. An increase of 21.1% in the current ethanol price would be enough to make all three biorefineries economically viable (11.5% for the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery). For 2012 prices, the flexible biorefinery presented a lower Internal Rate of Return (IRR) than the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery. The impact of electric energy prices (auction and spot market) and of enzyme costs on the IRR was not as significant as it would be expected. Conclusions For current market prices in Brazil, not even production of 1G bioethanol is economically feasible. However, the 1G + 2G dedicated biorefinery is closer to feasibility than the conventional 1G + electric energy industrial plant. Besides, the IRR of the 1G + 2G biorefinery is more sensitive with respect to the price of ethanol, and an increase of 11.5% in this value would be enough to achieve feasibility. The ability of the flexible biorefinery to take advantage of seasonal fluctuations does not make up for its higher investment cost, in the present scenario. PMID:24088415

  16. Improvement of enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by dilute-alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment and subsequent disk milling.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toyokazu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Inoue, Seiichi; Endo, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    Dilute-alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment (HT) was conducted to improve the enzymatic degradability of sugarcane bagasse. Wet-disk milling (DM) was also performed after HT. Sodium carbonate with 0-6% concentration on dry weight basis of bagasse was used as the alkali catalyst. A content of more than 4% of the alkali catalyst was necessary for producing a higher amount of glucose than that produced after HT without an alkali catalyst. HT with 6% of the alkali catalyst, which decreased the pH to the neutral region, retained more xylan and less lignin than HT without an alkali. Subsequent DM improved the enzymatic degradability further and increased the specific surface area. For a substrate concentration of 10%, the amounts of glucose and xylose produced were 344 and 188 mg/g-bagasse, respectively. These values corresponded to yields of 77% and 67% on the basis of the glucan and xylan contents in raw bagasse, respectively. PMID:22196074

  17. Assessing the potential of coal ash and bagasse ash as inorganic amendments during composting of municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Mohee, Romeela; Boojhawon, Anuksha; Sewhoo, Babita; Rungasamy, Selven; Somaroo, Geeta D; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2015-08-15

    This study investigates the potential of incorporating inorganic amendments such as coal and bagasse ashes in different composting mixes. 10 different composting mixes were assessed as follows: A-20% bagasse ash (BA) with unsorted municipal solid wastes (UMSW); B-40% BA with UMSW; C-UMSW; D-20% BA with sorted municipal solid wastes (SMSW); E-40% BA with SMSW; F-SMSW; G-20% coal ash (CA) with UMSW; H-40% CA with UMSW; I-20% CA with SMSW and J-40% CA with SMSW. The composting processes were carried out in rotary drum composters. Composting mixes D, F, G and I achieved a temperature above 55 °C for at least 3 days, with the following peak temperatures: D-62 °C, F-57 °C, G-62 °C and I-58 °C. D resulted in the highest average net Volatile solids (VS) degradation of 68.6% and yielded the highest average volume reduction of 66.0%. The final compost from D, G, I, C and F were within range for electrical conductivities (EC) (794-1770 μS/cm) and pH (6.69-7.12). The ashes also helped in maintaining high average water holding capacities within the range of 183-217%. The C/N ratio of sorted wastes was improved by the addition of 20% coal ash and bagasse ash. Higher germination indices, above 0.8 were obtained for the ash-amended compost (D, G, I), indicating the feasibility and enhancement of using bagasse and coal ash as inorganic amendment in the composting process. Regarding heavy metals content, the chromium concentration for the composting mix G was found to be the highest whereas mixes D and I showed compliance with the MS (Mauritian Standards) 164 standards. PMID:26093343

  18. Antioxidant activities of lignin extracted from sugarcane bagasse via different chemical procedures.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhili; Ge, Yuanyuan

    2012-12-01

    Lignin was extracted from sugarcane bagasse via different chemical procedures with ethanol and alkaline solutions. The products (EL, AL) were characterized by UV, FT-IR, (13)C NMR, TGA, GPC and potentiometric titration. The results indicated AL had more phenolic hydroxyl (PhOH) and methoxyl groups (OCH(3)), and larger molecular mass and better thermal stability than EL. The lignins were further evaluated as potential antioxidants. The results demonstrated the radical scavenging activity (RSA) of AL was 79.0%, 91.3% higher than EL at the concentration of 300 mg L(-1). The stronger antioxidant activity of AL was due to its higher quantities of PhOH and OCH(3) groups. PMID:22982809

  19. Nanocellulose prepared by acid hydrolysis of isolated cellulose from sugarcane bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulandari, W. T.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    Cellulose in nanometer range or called by nano-cellulose has attracted much attention from researchers because of its unique properties. Nanocellulose can be obtained by acid hydrolysis of cellulose. The cellulose used in this study was isolated from sugarcane bagasse, and then it was hydrolyzed by 50% sulfuric acid at 40 °C for 10 minutes. Nanocellulose has been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Analysis of FTIR showed that there were not a new bond which formed during the hydrolysis process. Based on the TEM analysis, nano-cellulose has a spherical morphology with an average diameter of 111 nm and a maximum distribution of 95.9 nm determined by PSA. The XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity degree of nano-cellulose was higher than cellulose in the amount of 76.01%.

  20. Water barrier properties of starch films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals obtained from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Slavutsky, Aníbal M; Bertuzzi, María A

    2014-09-22

    Water transport in edible films based on hydrophilic materials such as starch, is a complex phenomenon due to the strong interaction of sorbed water molecules with the polymeric structure. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. Starch and starch/CNC films were formulated and their water barrier properties were studied. The measured film solubility, contact angle, and water sorption isotherm indicated that reinforced starch/CNC films have a lower affinity to water molecules than starch films. The effects that the driving force and the water activity (aw) values at each side of the film have on permeability were analyzed. Permeability, diffusivity, and solubility coefficients indicated that the permeation process depends mostly on the tortuous pathway formed by the incorporation of CNC and therefore were mainly controlled by water diffusion. The interaction between CNC and starch chain is favoured by the chemical similarities of both molecules. PMID:24906728

  1. Image analysis of modified cellulose fibers from sugarcane bagasse by zirconium oxychloride.

    PubMed

    Mulinari, D R; Cruz, T G; Cioffi, M O H; Voorwald, H J C; Da Silva, M L C P; Rocha, G J M

    2010-09-01

    Surface modification of natural fibers has been made using different methods. In this paper, cellulose fibers from sugarcane bagasse were bleached and modified by zirconium oxychloride in situ. The chemically modified cellulose fibers were compared to those of bleached ones. Cellulose fibers were modified with ZrO(2).nH(2)O nanoparticles through the use of zirconium oxychloride in acidic medium in the presence of cellulose fibers using urea as the precipitating agent. The spatial distribution characterization of hydrous zirconium oxide on cellulose fibers was carried out by combining both processing and image analyses obtained by SEM and statistical methodologies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) were also used to characterize the nanocomposite. Results indicated that ZrO(2).nH(2)O nanoparticles of about 30-80nm diameter deposited on cellulose fibers were heterogeneously dispersed. PMID:20599190

  2. Preparation and characterization of amine-functionalized sugarcane bagasse for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shihe; Chen, Siyu; Chen, Shuixia; Zhuang, Linzhou; Ma, Nianfang; Xu, Teng; Li, Qihan; Hou, Xunan

    2016-03-01

    A low-cost solid amine adsorbent for CO2 capture was prepared by using sugarcane bagasse (SB), a dominant agro-industrial residue in the sugar and alcohol industry as raw materials. In this preparation process, acrylamide was grafted on SB, and the grafted fiber was then aminated with different type of amine reagents to introduce primary and secondary amine groups onto the surface of SB fibers. The graft and amination conditions were optimized. The prepared solid amine adsorbent showed remarkable CO2 adsorption capacity and the adsorption capacity of the solid amine adsorbent could reach 5.01 mmol CO2/g at room temperature. The comparison of adsorption capacities of amine fibers aminated with various amination agents demonstrated that fibers aminated with triethylenetetramine would obtain higher adsorption capacities and higher amine efficiency. These adsorbents also showed good regeneration performance, the regenerated adsorbent could maintain almost the same adsorption capacity for CO2 after 10 recycles. PMID:26706226

  3. Clean energy from sugarcane waste: feasibility study of an innovative application of bagasse and barbojo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellepiane, Daniela; Bosio, Barbara; Arato, Elisabetta

    Due to the existing difficulty of finding energy sources and reducing pollution, the use of renewable sources and highly efficient technologies for electrical energy production stands out as one of the promising solutions for the future. This paper shows the results of the combination of these two aspects, namely, a molten carbonate fuel cell system fed with biomass derived syngas. In particular, the biogas comes from bagasse and barbojo, the sugarcane residues. So far in developing countries they have been wasted or partly used with poorly efficient technology. The feasibility of such an application is studied by means of the process simulator Aspen Plus © in which a detailed Fortran model has been integrated for the electrochemical reactor simulation. The results of the predictive model are presented and discussed; in particular, the substantial economic and environmental advantages obtainable by applying the technical solution here proposed to the Peruvian energy scenario, are shown.

  4. Biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by integrating dark- and photo-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rai, Pankaj K; Singh, S P; Asthana, R K; Singh, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by integrating dark-fermentation by Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 2822 and photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01 was investigated. The SCB was hydrolysed by sulphuric acid and the hydrolysate detoxified by passing through adsorbent resin column (Amberlite XAD-4) to remove the inhibitory furfural, and subjected to dark-fermentation. The cellulosic residue from acid hydrolysis was hydrolysed by the new isolate Cellulomonas fimi to release sugars for H2 production by E. aerogenes, through simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF). Cumulative H2 production during dark-fermentation and SSFF was 1000 and 613 ml/L, respectively. The spent media of dark-fermentation and SSFF were utilized for photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01. The cumulative H2 production was 755 ml/L for dark-fermentation and 351 ml/L for SSFF spent medium. PMID:24291314

  5. Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2010-10-15

    Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol. PMID:20521302

  6. Experimental investigation of ionic liquid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with 1,3-dimethylimadazolium dimethyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Samaneh; Raeissi, Sona; Sarshar, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    In this study, an imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL), 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ([Mmim][DMP]), was applied for pretreating sugarcane bagasse to produce bioethanol. The main goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of bagasse pretreatment with this IL, and to verify the effect of different operational parameters on the pretreatment process. Results indicated that temperature and duration of IL-pretreatment have optimum values. Within the range investigated, a maximum fermentable sugar conversion of 70.38% was achieved with this IL at 120°C and 120min. The corresponding value was 28.65% for the untreated biomass. The main cause for the observed enhancement in enzymatic hydrolysis was the reduction of cellulose crystallinity in the IL-pretreated biomass, as compared to the untreated sample, because it resulted in higher accessibility of the enzymes to the biomass after pretreatment. Moreover, the results indicated that aqueous [Mmim][DMP] mixtures are not as effective for pretreatment as the pure IL. PMID:25804532

  7. Mathematical modeling of enzyme production using Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and sugarcane bagasse as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Gelain, Lucas; da Cruz Pradella, José Geraldo; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model to describe the kinetics of enzyme production by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 was developed using a low cost substrate as main carbon source (pretreated sugarcane bagasse). The model describes the cell growth, variation of substrate concentration and production of three kinds of enzymes (cellulases, beta-glucosidase and xylanase) in different sugarcane bagasse concentrations (5; 10; 20; 30; 40 gL(-1)). The 10 gL(-1) concentration was used to validate the model and the other to parameter estimation. The model for enzyme production has terms implicitly representing induction and repression. Substrate variation was represented by a simple degradation rate. The models seem to represent well the kinetics with a good fit for the majority of the assays. Validation results indicate that the models are adequate to represent the kinetics for a biotechnological process. PMID:26378961

  8. Adsorption studies of aqueous Pb(II) onto a sugarcane bagasse/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Izzeldin A. A.; Martincigh, Bice S.; Ngila, J. Catherine; Nyamori, Vincent O.

    Adsorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solution onto a sugarcane bagasse/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite was investigated by using a series of batch adsorption experiments and compared with the metal uptake ability of sugarcane bagasse. The efficiency of the adsorption processes was studied experimentally at various pH values, contact times, adsorbent masses, temperatures and initial Pb2+ concentrations. A pH of 4.5 was found to be the optimum pH to obtain a maximum adsorption percentage in 120 min of equilibration time. The composite showed a much enhanced adsorption capacity for Pb2+ of 56.6 mg g-1 compared with 23.8 mg g-1 for bagasse at 28 °C. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm provided the best fit to the equilibrium adsorption data. The pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Elovich kinetics models were used to analyse the rate of lead adsorption and the results show that the Elovich model is more suitable. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption, namely ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°, were determined over the temperature range of 20-45 °C. The adsorption of Pb2+ onto both bagasse and the sugarcane bagasse/MWCNT composite was found to be spontaneous but for the former adsorbent it was enthalpy-driven whereas for the latter it was entropy-driven. Desorption of the lead-loaded adsorbents was fairly efficient with 0.1 mol dm-3 HCl. Overall this composite has the potential to be a good adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ from wastewaters.

  9. Comparative study of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and organosolv pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse to improve the overall sugar yield.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hailong; You, Yanzhi; Lei, Fuhou; Liu, Zuguang; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Green liquor (GL) combined with H2O2 (GL-H2O2) and green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-ethanol) were chosen for treating sugarcane bagasse. Results showed that the glucose yield (calculated from the glucose content as a percentage of the theoretical glucose available in the substrates)of sugarcane bagasse from GL-ethanol pretreatment (97.7%) was higher than that from GL-H2O2 pretreatment (41.7%) after 72h hydrolysis with 18 filter paper unit (FPU)/g-cellulose for cellulase, 27,175 cellobiase units (CBU)/g-cellulose for β-glucosidase. Furthermore, about 94.1% of xylan was converted to xylose after GL-ethanol pretreatment without additional xylanase, while the xylose yield was only 29.2% after GL-H2O2 pretreatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that GL-ethanol pretreatment could break up the fiber severely. Moreover, GL-ethanol pretreated substrate was more accessible to cellulase and more hydrophilic than that of GL-H2O2 pretreated. Therefore, GL-ethanol pretreatment is a promising method for improving the overall sugar (glucose and xylan) yield of sugarcane bagasse. PMID:25846186

  10. Comparison of submerged and solid state pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by Pandoraea sp. ISTKB: Enzymatic and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Madan; Singhal, Anjali; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2016-03-01

    Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by Pandoraea sp. ISTKB was evaluated under submerged (SmF) and solid state (SSF) culture conditions. Number of bacteria was 2.7 times higher in SmF as compared with SSF. Enzymes produced under SmF were xylanase, LiP, MnP and laccase. In SSF xylanase and laccase were detected. CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase were not detected. Delignification was highest in SmF with 19.94% and 10.43% removal of hemicelluloses and lignin, respectively. FTIR analysis suggested the degradation of lignin/hemicellulose component. SEM analysis showed pores were three times bigger in SmF as compared with raw bagasse. Maximum CR dye was absorbed by treated SmF bagasse. Enzymatic saccharification increased by 3.7 times after SmF treatment in comparison to raw bagasse. Pretreatment of bagasse by Pandoraea sp. ISTKB was more efficient under SmF than SSF. High negative correlation between saccharification vs lignin/hemicelluloses content justified the need for pretreatment of lignocellulosic waste before saccharification. PMID:26720135

  11. Injection of air into the headspace improves fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by Escherichia coli MM170.

    PubMed

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Tong, Z; Castro, E; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-07-01

    Microaeration (injecting air into the headspace) improved the fermentation of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from the phosphoric acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 170°C for 10 min. In addition, with 10% slurries of phosphoric acid pretreated bagasse (180°C, 10 min), air injection into the headspace promoted xylose utilization and increased ethanol yields from 0.16 to 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight using a liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process (L+SScF). This process was scaled up to 80 L using slurries of acid pretreated bagasse (96 h incubation; 0.6L of air/min into the headspace) with ethanol yields of 312-347 L (82-92 gal) per tone (dry matter), corresponding to 0.25 and 0.27 g/g bagasse (dry weight). Injection of small amounts of air into the headspace may provide a convenient alternative to subsurface sparging that avoids problems of foaming, sparger hygiene, flotation of particulates, and phase separation. PMID:21531547

  12. Fixed-Bed Adsorption Study of Metal Ions on Bagasse Fly Ash (BFA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, Chandra Wahyu; Prasetya, Agus

    2008-05-01

    Bagasse fly ash (BFA) has become a prospective low cost adsorbent preference for remediating wastewater containing many types of contaminant from organic compounds to toxic metal ions. The abundant availability and its unique characteristics such as large surface area and mesoporous pore size become the major reasons for utilizing BFA as adsorbents. In this paper, the continuous adsorption of Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Ni(II) into fixed bed column of bagasse fly ash (BFA) at room temperature were conducted. The experimental data are represented by breakthrough curves. Fundamental constants which govern the rate of adsorption, such as effective diffusivity of metal ions, have estimated by fitting the data with a breakthrough curve model. The effective diffusivity can be used to predict breakthrough curves in any other adsorption conditions. Meanwhile, the intensive material characterizations have been conducted before the adsorption experiments which successfully reveal the material uniqueness.

  13. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs), still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline) cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU) yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse) from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83%) > >[C2mim]Cl(53%) = [C4mim]Cl(53%). Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography). Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin remained dissolved in the aqueous IL solution. Of the three IL studied [C2mim]OAc gave the best saccharification yield, material recovery and delignification. The effects of [C2mim]OAc pretreatment resemble those of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of [C2mim]Cl and [C4mim]Cl resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. The use of imidazolium IL solvents with shorter alkyl chains results in accelerated dissolution, pretreatment and degradation. PMID:22920045

  14. Optimization of high solids fed-batch saccharification of sugarcane bagasse based on system viscosity changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xie, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Viscosity trends in alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) slurries undergoing high solids fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis were measured for a range of solids loading from 15% to 36%. Solids liquefaction times were related to system viscosity changes. The viscosity decreased quickly for low solids loading, and increased with increasing solids content. Fed-batch hydrolysis was initiated with 15% solids loading, and an additional 8%, 7% and 6% were successively added after the system viscosity decreased to stable values to achieve a final solids content of 36%. Two enzyme-adding modes with 8.5FPU/g solid were investigated. The batch mode with all enzyme being added at the beginning of the reaction produced the highest yields, with approximately 231.7g/L total sugars and 134.9g/L glucose being obtained after 96h with nearly 60% of the final glucan conversion rate. This finding indicates that under the right conditions, the fed-batch strategy might be a plausible way to produce high sugars under high solids. PMID:26150018

  15. Power consumption evaluation of different fed-batch strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Luciano Jacob; Badino, Alberto Colli; Cruz, Antonio José Gonçalves

    2016-05-01

    The minimization of costs in the distillation step of lignocellulosic ethanol production requires the use of a high solids loading during the enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain a more concentrated glucose liquor. However, this increase in biomass can lead to problems including increased mass and heat transfer resistance, decreased cellulose conversion, and increased apparent viscosity with the associated increase in power consumption. The use of fed-batch operation offers a promising way to circumvent these problems. In this study, one batch and four fed-batch strategies for solids and/or enzyme feeding during the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse were evaluated. Determinations of glucose concentration, power consumption, and apparent viscosity were made throughout the experiments, and the different strategies were compared in terms of energy efficiency (mass of glucose produced according to the energy consumed). The best energy efficiency was obtained for the strategy in which substrate and enzyme were added simultaneously (0.35 kgglucose kWh(-1)). This value was 52 % higher than obtained in batch operation. PMID:26899602

  16. Sugarcane bagasse derivative-based superabsorbent containing phosphate rock with water-fertilizer integration.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kang; Zheng, Xi-Liang; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Lin, Zuan-Tao; Jiang, Gang-Biao

    2012-10-01

    To improve the water-fertilizer utilization ratio and mitigate the environmental contamination, an eco-friendly superabsorbent polymer (SPA), modified sugarcane bagasse/poly (acrylic acid) embedding phosphate rock (MSB/PAA/PHR), was prepared. Ammonia, phosphate rock (PHR) and KOH were admixed in the presence of acrylic acid to provide nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, respectively. Impacts on water absorption capacity of the superabsorbent polymer (SAP) were investigated. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water and 0.9 wt.% (weight percent) NaCl solution reached 414 gg(-1) and 55 gg(-1) (water/prepared SAP), respectively. The available NPK contents of the combination system were 15.13 mgg(-1), 6.93 mgg(-1) and 52.05 mgg(-1), respectively. Moreover, the release behaviors of NPK in the MSB/PAA/PHR were also studied. The results showed that the MSB/PAA/PHR has outstanding sustained-release plant nutrients property. PMID:22840007

  17. Isolation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate-tolerant yeast mutants by continuous selection

    SciTech Connect

    Lodics, T.A.; Gong, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Hemicellulose, one of the major constituents of plant cell-wall materials, comprises up to 40% of agricultural residues and hardwoods. Upon hydrolysis, hemicellulose yields a mixture of carbohydrates of which D-xylose is the major component. Hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates can easily be obtained by use of dilute acids under mild hydrolysis conditions. These sugars as well as cellulose-derived carbohydrates, are potential substrates for ethanol production. Often during acid hydrolysis many potentially toxic chemicals are formed which have been found to inhibit yeast growth and ethanol production. It is, therefore, necessary to overcome the inhibitory effect before a fermentation can be implemented. In addition to these fermentation inhibitors, salts formed as a result of neutralization of acid hydrolyzate can also affect the yeasts, thereby decreasing the fermentation rate. Previously, we have shown that ethanol can be produced from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolyzate by a xylose-fermentating yeast, Candida species XF217, after the hydrolyzate had been treated with ion-exchange resins. This communication describes the isolation of hydrolyzate-tolerant yeast strains by a continuous adaptation and selection technique and also the growth and fermentative abilities of the strain, P11-20 in neutralized hydrolyzate.

  18. One-Pot dry chemo-mechanical deconstruction for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Sambusiti, C; Licari, A; Solhy, A; Aboulkas, A; Cacciaguerra, T; Barakat, A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was the application of an innovative dry chemo-mechanical pretreatment using different mechanical stresses to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The effect of different milling methods on physicochemical composition, enzymatic hydrolysis, bioethanol production and energy efficiency was also evaluated. SB was pretreated with NaOH and H3PO4 at high materials concentration (5 kg/L). Results indicate that vibratory milling (VBM) was more effective in the reduction of particles size and cellulose crystallinity compared to centrifugal (CM) and ball (BM) milling. NaOH pretreatment coupling to BM and VBM was preferred to enhance glucose yields and bioethanol production, while CM consumed less energy compared to BM and VBM. Moreover, the highest energy efficiency (η=0.116 kg glucose/kWh) was obtained with NaOH-CM. Therefore, the combination of dry NaOH and CM appears the most suitable and interesting pretreatment for the production of bioethanol from SB. PMID:25656863

  19. Evaluation of Pb (II) biosorption utilizing sugarcane bagasse colonized by Basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Palin, D; Rufato, K B; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Caetano, J; Alberton, O; Jesus, D A; Dragunski, D C

    2016-05-01

    The contamination of water resources by metallic ions is a serious risk to public health and the environment. Therefore, a great emphasis has been given to alternative biosorption methods that are based on the retention of aqueous-solution pollutants; in the last decades, several agricultural residues have been explored as low-cost adsorbent. In this study, the ability of Pb (II) biosorption using sugarcane bagasse modified by different fungal species was evaluated. The presence of carbonyl, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups in the biosorbent was observed by spectroscopy in the infrared region. By scanning electron microscopy, changes in the morphology of modified material surfaces were observed. The highest adsorption capacity occurred at pH 5.0, while the shorter adsorbate-adsorbent equilibrium was at 20 min, and the system followed the pseudo-second-order model. The maximum biosorption in isotherms was found at 58.34 mg g(-1) for modified residue by Pleurotus ostreatus U2-11, and the system followed the Langmuir isotherm. The biosorption process was energetically spontaneous with low desorption values. This modification showed great potential for filters to remove Pb (II) and provide the preservation of water resources and animal health. PMID:27063515

  20. Comparative study of different alcoholate pretreatments for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Yan, Qiuli; Fu, Jing; Lv, Xiaojing; Xiong, Chunjiang; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

    2016-07-01

    Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) with alcoholates, sodium methoxide (CH3ONa), potassium methoxide (CH3OK) and sodium ethoxide (C2H5ONa), was investigated. Analyses of lignocellulose composition and enzymatic saccharification indicated that C2H5ONa showed the highest enzymatic efficiency of 102.1%. The response surface optimization of C2H5ONa pretreatment showed that under optimal conditions (4% of C2H5ONa, 121°C, 1h), 65.4% of lignin was removed and the enzymatic efficiency reached 105.2%. Hydrolysis of SCB with cellulases and xylanase at a ratio of 4:1 showed the strongest synergism with reducing sugar production of 21g/L and conversion rates of cellulose and xylan reaching 110.4% and 94.5%, respectively. These results indicated that C2H5ONa is a promising alkali to pretreat SCB and the synergism between cellulases and xylanase has a significant effect on enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated SCB. PMID:27035479

  1. Enhanced biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by Clostridium thermocellum supplemented with CaCO3.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing-Qing; Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was used to degrade sugarcane bagasse (SCB) directly for hydrogen production, which was significantly enhanced by supplementing medium with CaCO3. The effect of CaCO3 concentration on the hydrogen production was investigated. The hydrogen production was significantly enhanced with the CaCO3 concentration increased from 10mM to 20mM. However, with the CaCO3 concentration further increased from 20mM to 100mM, the hydrogen production didn't increase further. Under the optimal CaCO3 concentration of 20mM, the hydrogen production reached 97.83±5.19mmol/L from 2% sodium hydroxide-pretreated SCB, a 116.72% increase over the control (45.14±1.03mmol/L), and the yield of hydrogen production reached 4.89mmol H2/g SCBadded. Additionally, CaCO3 promoted the biodegradation of SCB and the growth of C. thermocellum. The stimulatory effects of CaCO3 on biohydrogen production are mainly attributed to the buffering capacity of carbonate. The study provides a novel strategy to enhance biohydrogen production from lignocellulose. PMID:26356113

  2. Sugarcane bagasse for the removal of erythrosin B and methylene blue from aqueous waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Kaur, Harleen

    2011-12-01

    Present study explores the potentiality of locally available cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin-rich agricultural by-product sugarcane bagasse (SB) for the removal of erythrosin B (EB) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous waste. The SB has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy analytical techniques. Batch experiments have been carried out to determine the influence of parameters like initial dye concentration, pH of the medium, contact time between the adsorbate and adsorbent, weight of adsorbent and system temperature on the removal of EB and MB. Optimum conditions for adsorption are found to be pH 9, temperature 308 K and an equilibration time of 1 h. Under these conditions equilibrium isotherms have been analysed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. Based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, the predicted maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of SB for EB and MB are found to be 500 mg g-1 (at 328 K) and 1,000 mg g-1 (at 308 K), respectively. The separation factor reveals the favourable nature of the isotherm for the studied dyes—SB system. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorptions of dyes are spontaneous and endothermic process. High temperatures favour EB adsorption whereas optimum temperature for MB adsorption is 318 K.

  3. Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis and simultaneous remotion of organic inhibitors from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Burkholderia sp.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mateus Schreiner Garcez; Gomez, José Gregório Cabrera; Taciro, Marilda Keico; Mendonça, Thatiane Teixeira; Silva, Luiziana Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Burkholderia sp. F24, originally isolated from soil, was capable of growth on xylose and removed organic inhibitors present in a hemicellulosic hydrolysate and simultaneously produced poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB). Using non-detoxified hydrolysate, Burkholderia sp. F24 reached a cell dry weight (CDW) of 6.8 g L(-1), containing 48 % of P3HB and exhibited a volumetric productivity (PP3HB) of 0.10 g L(-1) h(-1). Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers (P3HB-co-3HV) were produced using xylose and levulinic acid (LA) as carbon sources. In shake flask cultures, the 3HV content in the copolymer increased from 9 to 43 mol% by adding LA from 1.0 to 5.0 g L(-1). In high cell density cultivation using concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysate F24 reached 25.04 g L(-1) of CDW containing 49 % of P3HB and PP3HB of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1). Based on these findings, second-generation ethanol and bioplastics from sugarcane bagasse is proposed. PMID:25059637

  4. Relationship between physicochemical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse varieties for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Brienzo, Michel; Tyhoda, Luvuyo; Benjamin, Yuda; Görgens, Johann

    2015-03-25

    The structural and physicochemical characteristics are associated with resistance of plant cell walls to saccharification by enzymes. The effect of physicochemical properties on glucose yield of bagasse from different varieties of sugarcane at low and high enzyme dosages was investigated. The result showed that glucose yield at low enzyme dosage was positively linear correlated with the yield at high enzyme dosage, for both the untreated and pretreated materials. The pretreatment significantly increased the accessibility of substrates by enzyme due to the increase of internal and external surface area. Glucose yield also showed a linear correlation with dye adsorption. However, the increase in glucose yield as a result of pretreatment did not correlate with the increases in crystallinity index and decreases in degree of polymerization. The Principal Component Analysis of infrared data indicated that lignin was the main component that differentiated the varieties before and after pretreatment. These results suggested that the key differences in pretreatment responses among varieties could be mainly attributed to their differences in the internal and external surface area after pretreatment. PMID:25576176

  5. Dimethyl sulfide biofiltration using immobilized Hyphomicrobium VS and Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m in sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Treto Fernández, H; Rodríguez Rico, I; Jover de la Prida, J; Van Langenhove, H

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a carrier material of microorganisms in two different biofilters used to remove dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from a gas stream. The first biofilter was inoculated with Hyphomicrobium VS and the second with Thiobacillus thioparus Tk-m. During the operation of the biofilters the empty bed residence time (EBRT) was varied from 90 to 180 seconds and the inlet concentration of DMS from 12 to 50 ppmv. The inlet load was varied in the range of 0.62 to 5.2 (g DMS/m3 h). The maximum elimination capacity (EC) of the biofilter inoculated with Hyphomicrobium VS was 5 g DMS/m3 h; however, for the biofilter inoculated with T. thioparus Tk-m the maximum EC was 3.9 g DMS/m3 h. For T. thioparus TK-m the maximum removal efficiency (RE) obtained was 85.1 +/- 5.2% at 12 ppmv DMS inlet concentration, inlet load of 0.62 g DMS/m3 h and 180 s EBRT. The highest removal efficiency for Hyphomicrobium VS was 97.6 + 4.8% at 12 ppmv DMS inlet concentration, load of 0.62 g DMS/m3 h and 180 s EBRT. PMID:23530338

  6. Optimization of sugarcane bagasse autohydrolysis for methane production from hemicellulose hydrolyzates in a biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Baêta, Bruno Eduardo Lôbo; Lima, Diego Roberto Sousa; Adarme, Oscar Fernando Herrera; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Aquino, Sérgio Francisco de

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize through design of experiments, the process variables (temperature - T, time - t and solid-to-liquid ratio - SLR) for sugarcane bagasse (SB) autohydrolysis (AH) to obtain hemicellulose hydrolyzates (HH) prone to anaerobic digestion (AD) and biochemical methane production (BMP). The results indicated that severe AH conditions, which lead to maximum hemicelluloses dissolution and sugar content in the HH, were not the best for BMP, probably due to the accumulation of toxic/recalcitrant compounds (furans and lignin). Mild AH conditions (170°C, 35min and SLR=0.33) led to the highest BMP (0.79Nm(3)kg TOC(-1)), which was confirmed by the desirability tool. HH produced by AH carried out at the desired condition DC2 (178.6°C, 43.6min and SLR=0.24) showed the lowest accumulation of inhibitory compounds and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and highest BMP (1.56Nm(3)kg TOC(-1)). The modified Gompertz model best fit the experimental data and led to a maximum methane production rate (R) of 2.6mmol CH4d(-1) in the best condition. PMID:26476615

  7. Enhancement of the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse by steam pretreatment impregnated with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; Vaz Rossell, Carlos Eduardo; de Moraes Rocha, George Jackson; Zacchi, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to steam pretreatment impregnated with hydrogen peroxide. Analyses were performed using 2(3) factorial designs and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at two different solid concentrations and with washed and unwashed material to evaluate the importance of this step for obtaining high cellulose conversion. Similar cellulose conversion were obtained at different conditions of pretreatment and hydrolysis. When the cellulose was hydrolyzed using the pretreated material in the most severe conditions of the experimental design (210 °C, 15 min and 1.0% hydrogen peroxide), and using 2% (w/w) water-insoluble solids (WIS), and 15 FPU/g WIS, the cellulose conversion was 86.9%. In contrast, at a milder pretreatment condition (190 °C, 15 min and 0.2% hydrogen peroxide) and industrially more realistic conditions of hydrolysis (10% WIS and 10 FPU/g WIS), the cellulose conversion reached 82.2%. The step of washing the pretreated material was very important to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars. PMID:22753357

  8. Understanding the cellulolytic system of Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and enhancing saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by supplementation with pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Cota, Júnio; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Cairo, João Paulo Lourenço Franco; Lima, Deise Juliana; Squina, Fábio Marcio; Ruller, Roberto; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Supplementation of cellulase cocktails with accessory enzymes can contribute to a higher hydrolytic capacity in releasing fermentable sugars from plant biomass. This study investigated which enzymes were complementary to the enzyme set of Trichoderma harzianum in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse. Specific activities of T. harzianum extract on different substrates were compared with the extracts of Penicillium echinulatum and Trichoderma reesei, and two commercial cellulase preparations. Complementary analysis of the secretome of T. harzianum was also used to identify which enzymes were produced during growth on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. These analyses enabled the selection of the enzymes pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) to be further investigated as supplements to the T. harzianum extract. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse saccharification was evaluated using response surface methodology. The supplementation of T. harzianum enzymatic extract with pectinase and AF increased the efficiency of hydrolysis by up to 116%. PMID:23391738

  9. Effect of reduced sulfur compounds on the fermentation of phosphoric acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nieves, I U; Geddes, C C; Miller, E N; Mullinnix, M T; Hoffman, R W; Fu, Z; Tong, Z; Ingram, L O

    2011-04-01

    The addition of reduced sulfur compounds (thiosulfate, cysteine, sodium hydrosulfite, and sodium metabisulfite) increased growth and fermentation of dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse by ethanologenic Escherichia coli (strains LY180, EMFR9, and MM160). With sodium metabisulfite (0.5mM), toxicity was sufficiently reduced that slurries of pretreated biomass (10% dry weight including fiber and solubles) could be fermented by E. coli strain MM160 without solid-liquid separation or cleanup of sugars. A 6-h liquefaction step was added to improve mixing. Sodium metabisulfite also caused spectral changes at wavelengths corresponding to furfural and soluble products from lignin. Glucose and cellobiose were rapidly metabolized. Xylose utilization was improved by sodium metabisulfite but remained incomplete after 144 h. The overall ethanol yield for this liquefaction plus simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process was 0.20 g ethanol/g bagasse dry weight, 250 L/tonne (61 gal/US ton). PMID:21353535

  10. Effects of the pretreatment method on high solids enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of the cellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luiza Helena da Silva; Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse at high solids loadings in the pretreatment (20-40% w/v) and hydrolysis (10-20% w/v) stages. The best conditions for diluted sulfuric acid, AHP and Ox-B pretreatments were determined and mass balances including pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation were calculated. From a technical point of view, the best pretreatment was AHP, which enabled the production of glucose concentrations near 8% with high productivity (3.27 g/Lh), as well as ethanol production from 100.9 to 135.4 kg ethanol/ton raw bagasse. However, reagent consumption for acid pretreatment was much lower. Furthermore, for processes that use pentoses and hexoses separately, this pretreatment produces the most desirable pentoses liquor, with higher xylose concentration in the monomeric form. PMID:26004382

  11. Analysis of by-product formation and sugar monomerization in sugarcane bagasse pretreated at pilot plant scale: differences between autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Edwin; Bakker, Rob; van Zeeland, Alniek; Sanchez Garcia, David; Punt, Arjen; Eggink, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is an interesting feedstock for the biobased economy since a large fraction is polymerized sugars. Autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment conditions combined with enzyme hydrolysis were used on lignocellulose rich bagasse to acquire monomeric. By-products found after pretreatment included acetic, glycolic and coumaric acid in concentrations up to 40, 21 and 2.5 g/kg dry weight bagasse respectively. Alkaline pretreated material contained up to 45 g/kg bagasse DW of sodium. Acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment results in a furan formation of 14 g/kg and 25 g/kg DW bagasse respectively. Enzyme monomerization efficiencies of pretreated solid material after 72 h were 81% for acid pretreatment, 77% for autohydrolysis and 57% for alkaline pretreatment. Solid material was washed with superheated water to decrease the amount of by-products. Washing decreased organic acid, phenol and furan concentrations in solid material by at least 60%, without a major sugar loss. PMID:25643957

  12. Mixing design for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse: methodology for selection of impeller configuration.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Luciano Jacob; Badino, Alberto Colli; Cruz, Antonio José Gonçalves

    2016-02-01

    One of the major process bottlenecks for viable industrial production of second generation ethanol is related with technical-economic difficulties in the hydrolysis step. The development of a methodology to choose the best configuration of impellers towards improving mass transfer and hydrolysis yield together with a low power consumption is important to make the process cost-effective. In this work, four dual impeller configurations (DICs) were evaluated during hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) experiments in a stirred tank reactor (3 L). The systems tested were dual Rushton turbine impellers (DIC1), Rushton and elephant ear (down-pumping) turbines (DIC2), Rushton and elephant ear (up-pumping) turbines (DIC3), and down-pumping and up-pumping elephant ear turbines (DIC4). The experiments were conducted during 96 h, using 10 % (m/v) SCB, pH 4.8, 50 °C, 10 FPU/g biomass, 470 rpm. The mixing time was successfully used as the characteristic parameter to select the best impeller configuration. Rheological parameters were determined using a rotational rheometer, and the power consumptions of the four DICs were on-line measured with a dynamometer. The values obtained for the energetic efficiency (the ratio between the cellulose to glucose conversion and the total energy) showed that the proposed methodology was successful in choosing a suitable configuration of impellers, wherein the DIC4 obtained approximately three times higher energetic efficiency than DIC1. Furthermore a scale-up protocol (factor scale-up 1000) for the enzymatic hydrolysis reactor was proposed. PMID:26650719

  13. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos; Gomes, Arthur Filipe Sousa; Franciscon, Emanuele Giuliane; Oliveira, Jean Maikon de; Baffi, Milla Alves

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3), A. sydowii (SBCM7) and A. fumigatus (SBC4). The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0-8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors. PMID:26413077

  14. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Bruna Silveira Lamanes; Gomes, Arthur Filipe Sousa; Franciscon, Emanuele Giuliane; de Oliveira, Jean Maikon; Baffi, Milla Alves

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3), A. sydowii (SBCM7) and A. fumigatus (SBC4). The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors. PMID:26413077

  15. Synthesis of Silica Aerogel from Bagasse Ash by Ambient Pressure Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawan, Nazriati Heru; Winardi, Sugeng

    2011-12-01

    Silica aerogels having very high surface area and pore volume have been succesfully synthesized from bagasse ash by ambient pressure drying (APD) method. Silica in bagasse ash was extracted by alkali extraction to produce sodium silicate solution. This is done by boiling bagasse ash in 2 N NaOH solution under continuous stirring for 1 h. To avoid the collapse of gel structure during drying at ambient pressure condition, the silica surface was modified with alkyl functional groups by a single step sol-gel process. Silicic acid produced by exchanging Na+ ions in dilute sodium silicate solution with H+ ions from cation resin was added with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and let the reaction of TMCS with water pore proceeds for several minutes to produce hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and HCl. Then, HMDS was added to allow the modification of silica surface in which the silanol groups were exchanged with alkyl groups originating from HMDS. The solution pH was then adjusted to 8-9 by adding NH4OH solution to induce gel formation. The hydrogel was aged at 40 °C for 18 h and at 60 °C for 1 h. Then, it was dried at 80 °C at ambient pressure condition. The silica aerogels obtained have specific surface, as measured by BET method, ranging from 450.2 to 1360.4 m2/g depending on the synthesis condition. The pore volume was ranging from 0.7 to 1.9 cm3/g. It seems that silica aerogels with very high surface area and pore volume can be obtained if the silanols group in the silica surface was exchanged succesfully with alkyl groups from HMDS.

  16. Characterization of Lignocellulolytic Activities from a Moderate Halophile Strain of Aspergillus caesiellus Isolated from a Sugarcane Bagasse Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Miranda, Estefan; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixón; Cuervo-Soto, Laura; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise; Atriztán-Hernández, Karina; Morales-Herrera, Catalina; Rodríguez-Hernández, Rocío; Folch-Mallol, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    A moderate halophile and thermotolerant fungal strain was isolated from a sugarcane bagasse fermentation in the presence of 2 M NaCl that was set in the laboratory. This strain was identified by polyphasic criteria as Aspergillus caesiellus. The fungus showed an optimal growth rate in media containing 1 M NaCl at 28°C and could grow in media added with up to 2 M NaCl. This strain was able to grow at 37 and 42°C, with or without NaCl. A. caesiellus H1 produced cellulases, xylanases, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and esterases. No laccase activity was detected in the conditions we tested. The cellulase activity was thermostable, halostable, and no differential expression of cellulases was observed in media with different salt concentrations. However, differential band patterns for cellulase and xylanase activities were detected in zymograms when the fungus was grown in different lignocellulosic substrates such as wheat straw, maize stover, agave fibres, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust. Optimal temperature and pH were similar to other cellulases previously described. These results support the potential of this fungus to degrade lignocellulosic materials and its possible use in biotechnological applications. PMID:25162614

  17. Modifying solubility of polymeric xylan extracted from Eucalyptus grandis and sugarcane bagasse by suitable side chain removing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Katiana R; Chimphango, Annie F A; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-10-20

    α-l-Arabinofuranosidase (AbfB) and novel α-d-glucuronidase (Agu1B) enzymes were applied for selective hydrolysis of beechwood (Fagus sylvatica) xylan (Sigma-Aldrich) as well as xylans extracted from Eucalyptus grandis and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse, leading to precipitation of these carbohydrate biopolymers. Hemicellulose extraction was performed with two mild-alkali methods, Höije and Pinto. Precipitation occurred after removal of 67, 40 and 16% 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid (MeGlcA) present in polymeric xylans from beechwood, E. grandis (Pinto) and E. grandis (Höije), respectively. Precipitation was maximized at Agu1B levels of 3.79-7.53mg/gsubstrate and hemicellulose concentrations of 4.5-5.0% (w/v). Polymeric xylan from sugarcane bagasse precipitated after removal of 48 and 22% of arabinose and MeGlcA, respectively, at optimal AbfB and Agu1B dosages of 9.0U/g and 6.4mg/g, respectively. Both the purity of polymeric xylans and structure thereof had a critical impact on the propensity for precipitation, and morphology of the resulting precipitate. Nano-to micro-meter precipitates were produced, with potential for carbohydrate nanotechnology applications. PMID:26256174

  18. Statistical Optimization of Laccase Production and Delignification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Pleurotus ostreatus in Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Susan Grace; Faraco, Vincenza; Amore, Antonella; Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior; Thomaz Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Laccases are oxidative enzymes related to the degradation of phenolic compounds, including lignin units, with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. Delignification is a necessary pretreatment step in the process of converting plant biomass into fermentable sugars. The objective of this work was to optimize the production of laccases and to evaluate the delignification of sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus ostreatus in solid-state fermentation. Among eight variables (pH, water activity, temperature, and concentrations of CuSO4, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, asparagine, and yeast extract), copper sulfate and ammonium sulfate concentrations were demonstrated to significantly influence laccase production. The replacement of ammonium sulfate by yeast extract and the addition of ferulic acid as inducer provided increases of 5.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively, in laccase activity. Optimization of laccase production as a function of yeast extract, copper sulfate, and ferulic acid concentrations was performed by response surface methodology and optimal concentrations were 6.4 g/L, 172.6 μM, and 1.86 mM, respectively. Experimentally, the maximum laccase activity of 151.6 U/g was produced at the 5th day of solid-state fermentation. Lignin content in sugarcane bagasse was reduced from 31.89% to 26.36% after 5 days and to 20.79% after 15 days by the biological treatment of solid-state fermentation. PMID:26180784

  19. Characterization of commercial cellulases and their use in the saccharification of a sugarcane bagasse sample pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Santos, Victor T O; Esteves, Paula J; Milagres, Adriane M F; Carvalho, Walter

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to correlate the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose contained in a sugarcane bagasse sample pretreated with dilute H(2)SO(4) with the levels of independent variables such as initial content of solids and loadings of enzymes and surfactant (Tween 20), for two cellulolytic commercial preparations. The preparations, designated cellulase I and cellulase II, were characterized regarding the activities of total cellulases, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, cellobiase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase, and phenoloxidases (laccase, manganese and lignin peroxidases), as well as protein contents. Both extracts showed complete cellulolytic complexes and considerable activities of xylanases, without activities of phenoloxidases. For the enzymatic hydrolyses, two 2(3) central composite full factorial designs were employed to evaluate the effects caused by the initial content of solids (1.19-4.81%, w/w) and loadings of enzymes (1.9-38.1 FPU/g bagasse) and Tween 20 (0.0-0.1 g/g bagasse) on the cellulose digestibility. Within 24 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, all three independent variables influenced the conversion of cellulose by cellulase I. Using cellulase II, only enzyme and surfactant loadings showed significant effects on cellulose conversion. An additional experiment demonstrated the possibility of increasing the initial content of solids to values much higher than 4.81% (w/w) without compromising the efficiency of cellulose conversion, consequently improving the glucose concentration in the hydrolysate. PMID:20953894

  20. Effect of chemical factors on integrated fungal fermentation of sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production by a white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60.

    PubMed

    Khuong, Le Duy; Kondo, Ryuichiro; De Leon, Rizalinda; Anh, To Kim; Meguro, Sadatoshi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kamei, Ichiro

    2014-09-01

    Bioethanol production through integrated fungal fermentation (IFF), involving a unified process for biological delignification with consolidated biological processing by the white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60, was applied to sugarcane bagasse. Initial moisture content of the bagasse was found to affect biological delignification by MG-60, and 75% moisture content was suitable for selective lignin degradation and subsequent ethanol production. Additives, such as basal media, organic compounds, or minerals, also affected biological delignification of bagasse by MG-60. Basal medium addition improved both delignification and ethanol production. Some inorganic chemical factors, such as Fe(2+), Mn(2+), or Cu(2+), reduced bagasse carbohydrate degradation by MG-60 during delignifying incubations and resulted in increased ethanol production. The present results indicated that suitable culture conditions could significantly improve IFF efficiency. PMID:24968109

  1. Unraveling the structure of sugarcane bagasse after soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia (SCAA) and ethanol production by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fuel ethanol production from sustainable and largely abundant agro-residues such as sugarcane bagasse (SB) provides long term, geopolitical and strategic benefits. Pretreatment of SB is an inevitable process for improved saccharification of cell wall carbohydrates. Recently, ammonium hydroxide-based pretreatment technologies have gained significance as an effective and economical pretreatment strategy. We hypothesized that soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia-mediated thermochemical pretreatment (SCAA) would overcome the native recalcitrance of SB by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded holocellulosic microfibrils. Results In this study, we designed an experiment considering response surface methodology (Taguchi method, L8 orthogonal array) to optimize sugar recovery from ammonia pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SB) by using the method of soaking in concentrated aqueous ammonia (SCAA-SB). Three independent variables: ammonia concentration, temperature and time, were selected at two levels with center point. The ammonia pretreated bagasse (SCAA-SB) was enzymatically hydrolysed by commercial enzymes (Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188) using 15 FPU/g dry biomass and 17.5 Units of β-glucosidase/g dry biomass at 50°C, 150 rpm for 96 h. A maximum of 28.43 g/l reducing sugars corresponding to 0.57 g sugars/g pretreated bagasse was obtained from the SCAA-SB derived using a 20% v/v ammonia solution, at 70°C for 24 h after enzymatic hydrolysis. Among the tested parameters, pretreatment time showed the maximum influence (p value, 0.053282) while ammonia concentration showed the least influence (p value, 0.612552) on sugar recovery. The changes in the ultra-structure and crystallinity of native SCAA-SB and enzymatically hydrolysed SB were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The enzymatic hydrolysates and solid SCAA-SB were subjected to ethanol fermentation under separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 respectively. Higher ethanol production (10.31 g/l and yield, 0.387 g/g) was obtained through SSF than SHF (3.83 g/l and yield, 0.289 g/g). Conclusions SCAA treatment showed marked lignin removal from SB thus improving the accessibility of cellulases towards holocellulose substrate as evidenced by efficient sugar release. The ultrastructure of SB after SCAA and enzymatic hydrolysis of holocellulose provided insights of the degradation process at the molecular level. PMID:23856012

  2. Structural characterisation of pretreated solids from flow-through liquid hot water treatment of sugarcane bagasse in a fixed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Prashant; Lekha, Prabashni; Reynolds, Wienke; Kirsch, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Untreated sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse pretreated with flow-through liquid hot water (LHW) treatment (170-207°C and 204-250 ml/min) in a fixed-bed reactor have been structurally characterised. Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate changes in the residues, in particular due to the fate of lignin. FEG-SEM results show that the LHW treatment modified the surface morphology of the pretreated bagasse with lignin droplets being observed on the fibre surface. TEM showed an increase in the plant cell wall porosity and lignin migration across the plant cell wall. Increases in pretreatment temperature were observed to increase the average size and density of lignin droplets on the fibre surface. The results provide evidence that for LHW flow-through treatment, just as for batch treatment, lignin repolymerisation and deposition on the surface of pretreated sugarcane bagasse is an important consideration. PMID:25728342

  3. Experimental study and neural network modeling of sugarcane bagasse pretreatment with H2SO4 and O3 for cellulosic material conversion to sugar.

    PubMed

    Gitifar, Vahid; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Sarshar, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    In this study, pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis is investigated using two categories of pretreatment methods: dilute acid (DA) pretreatment and combined DA-ozonolysis (DAO) method. Both methods are accomplished at different solid ratios, sulfuric acid concentrations, autoclave residence times, bagasse moisture content, and ozonolysis time. The results show that the DAO pretreatment can significantly increase the production of glucose compared to DA method. Applying k-fold cross validation method, two optimal artificial neural networks (ANNs) are trained for estimations of glucose concentrations for DA and DAO pretreatment methods. Comparing the modeling results with experimental data indicates that the proposed ANNs have good estimation abilities. PMID:24035818

  4. Direct Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Sugars and Sugarcane Bagasse by a Recombinant Trichoderma reesei Strain HJ48

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:24995362

  5. Controlled release of drugs from cellulose acetate matrices produced from sugarcane bagasse: monitoring by square-wave voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Almeida, Flávia; Ribeiro, Sabrina D; Tormin, Thiago F; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Assunção, Rosana M N; Barud, Hernane

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, cellulose triacetate (CTA) was produced from sugarcane bagasse and used as matrices for controlled release of paracetamol. Symmetric and asymmetric membranes were obtained by formulations of CTA/dichloromethane/drug and CTA/dichloromethane/water/drug, respectively, and they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Different morphologies of membranes were observed by SEM, and the incorporation of paracetamol was confirmed by lowering of the glass transition temperature (Tg) in the DSC curves. This indicates the existence of interactions between the matrix and the drug. The evaluation of drug release was based on the electrochemical monitoring of paracetamol through its oxidation at a glassy carbon electrode surface using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), which provides fast, precise and accurate in situ measurements. The studies showed a content release of 27% and 45% by the symmetric and asymmetric membranes, respectively, during 8 h. PMID:26596497

  6. Biorefineries based on coffee cut-stems and sugarcane bagasse: furan-based compounds and alkanes as interesting products.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal M, Valentina; Gómez P, Álvaro; Cardona A, Carlos A

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment for a biorefinery based on sugarcane bagasse (SCB), and coffee cut-stems (CCS). Five scenarios were evaluated at different levels, conversion pathways, feedstock distribution, and technologies to produce ethanol, octane, nonane, furfural, and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). These scenarios were compared between each other according to raw material, economic, and environmental characteristics. A single objective function combining the Net Present Value and the Potential Environmental Impact was used through the Analytic Hierarchy Process approach to understand and select the best configurations for SCB and CCS cases. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance for SCB and CCS is the one that considers ethanol, furfural, and octane production (scenario 1). The global economic margin was 62.3% and 61.6% for SCB and CCS respectively. The results have shown the potential of these types of biomass to produce fuels and platform products. PMID:26280100

  7. Optimization of endoglucanase and xylanase activities from Fusarium verticillioides for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maíra N; Guimarães, Valéria M; Falkoski, Daniel L; Paes, Guilherme B T; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Visser, Evan M; Alfenas, Rafael F; Pereira, Olinto L; de Rezende, Sebastião T

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is an important but expensive step in the production of ethanol from biomass. Thus, the production of efficient enzymatic cocktails is of great interest for this biotechnological application. The production of endoglucanase and xylanase activites from F. verticillioides were optimized in a factorial design (2(5)) followed by a CCDR design. Endoglucanase and xylanase activities increased from 2.8 to 8.0 U/mL and from 13.4 to 114 U/mL, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature were determined for endoglucanase (5.6, 80 °C), cellobiase (5.6, 60 °C), FPase (6.0, 55 °C) and xylanase (7.0, 50 °C). The optimized crude extract was applied in saccharification and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse from which 9.7 g/L of ethanol was produced at an ethanol/biomass yield of 0.19. PMID:24170331

  8. Direct ethanol production from lignocellulosic sugars and sugarcane bagasse by a recombinant Trichoderma reesei strain HJ48.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Chen, Dong; Wei, Yutuo; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Zhenchong; Chen, Ying; Huang, Ribo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing. PMID:24995362

  9. Saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse using enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 for sugars release and ethanol production.

    PubMed

    de Cassia Pereira, Josiani; Travaini, Rodolfo; Paganini Marques, Natalia; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Bocchini Martins, Daniela Alonso

    2016-03-01

    The saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 was studied. Fungal enzymes provided slightly higher sugar release than commercial enzymes, working at 50°C. Sugar release increased with temperature increase. Kinetic studies showed remarkable glucose release (4.99g/L, 3%w/w dry matter) at 60°C, 8h of hydrolysis, using an enzyme load of 10FPU (filter paper unit). FPase and β-glucosidase activities increased during saccharification (284% and 270%, respectively). No further significant improvement on glucose release was observed increasing the enzyme load above 7.5FPUperg of cellulose. Higher dry matter contents increased sugars release, but not yields. The fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided glucose-to-ethanol conversions around to 63%. PMID:26773948

  10. Pyrolysis of Sawdust, Rice Husk and Sugarcane Bagasse: Kinetic Modeling and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters using Different Optimization Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonde, Ruta Dhanram; Chaurasia, Ashish Subhash

    2015-04-01

    The present study provides the kinetic model to describe the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice-husk and sugarcane bagasse as biomass. The kinetic scheme used for modelling of primary pyrolysis consisting of the two parallel reactions giving gaseous volatiles and solid char. Estimation of kinetic parameters for pyrolysis process has been carried out for temperature range of 773-1,173 K. As there are serious issues regarding non-convergence of some of the methods or solutions converging to local-optima, the proposed kinetic model is optimized to predict the best values of kinetic parameters for the system using three approaches—Two-dimensional surface fitting non-linear regression technique, MS-Excel Solver Tool and COMSOL software. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. The estimated value of kinetic parameters are compared with earlier researchers and found to be matching well.

  11. Mass balance of pilot-scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion followed by alkaline delignification.

    PubMed

    Rocha, George J M; Martín, Carlos; da Silva, Vinícius F N; Gómez, Edgardo O; Gonçalves, Adilson R

    2012-05-01

    Five pilot-scale steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse followed by alkaline delignification were explored. The solubilised lignin was precipitated with 98% sulphuric acid. Most of the pentosan (82.6%), and the acetyl group fractions were solubilised during pretreatment, while 90.2% of cellulose and 87.0% lignin were recovered in the solid fraction. Approximately 91% of the lignin and 72.5% of the pentosans contained in the steam-exploded solids were solubilised by delignification, resulting in a pulp with almost 90% of cellulose. The acidification of the black liquors allowed recovery of 48.3% of the lignin contained in the raw material. Around 14% of lignin, 22% of cellulose and 26% of pentosans were lost during the process. In order to increase material recovery, major changes, such as introduction of efficient condensers and the reduction in the number of washing steps, should be done in the process setup. PMID:22391588

  12. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment and use of surfactants during enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Jéssica Faria; Ferraz, André; Aguiar, André

    2016-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a by-product from the sugar and ethanol industry which contains approximately 70 % of its dry mass composed by polysaccharides. To convert these polysaccharides into fuel ethanol it is necessary a pretreatment step to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the recalcitrant raw material. In this work, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by an alkaline-sulfite chemithermomechanical process for increasing its enzymatic digestibility. Na2SO3 and NaOH ratios were fixed at 2:1, and three increasing chemical loads, varying from 4 to 8 % m/m Na2SO3, were used to prepare the pretreated materials. The increase in the alkaline-sulfite load decreased the lignin content in the pretreated material up to 35.5 % at the highest chemical load. The pretreated samples presented enhanced glucose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum glucose yield (64 %) was observed for the samples pretreated with the highest chemical load. The use of 2.5 g l(-1) Tween 20 in the hydrolysis step further increased the glucose yield to 75 %. Semi-simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of the pretreated materials indicated that the ethanol yield was also enhanced as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum ethanol yield was 56 ± 2 % for the sample pretreated with the highest chemical load. For the sample pretreated with the lowest chemical load (2 % m/m NaOH and 4 % m/m Na2SO3), adding Tween 20 during the hydrolysis process increased the ethanol yield from 25 ± 3 to 39.5 ± 1 %. PMID:26718203

  13. Co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans Recombinant Strains Produces an Enzymatic Cocktail as Alternative to Alkaline Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Matheus S.; Damasio, André R. de L.; Crnkovic, Paula M.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; da Silva, Ana M.; da Silva, Jean C. R.; Segato, Fernando; de Lucas, Rosymar C.; Jorge, João A.; Polizeli, Maria de L. T. de M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. A clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60–80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. However, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. Replacing these methods with co-cultivated enzymatic cocktails is an alternative. Here we propose a pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse using a multi-enzymatic cocktail from the co-cultivation of four Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains. The co-cultivation resulted in the simultaneous production of GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfA), GH11 endo-1,4-xylanase (XlnA), GH43 endo-1,5-arabinanase (AbnA) and GH12 xyloglucan specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XegA). This core set of recombinant enzymes was more efficient than the alternative alkaline method in maintaining the cellulose integrity and exposing this cellulose to the following saccharification process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed residual byproducts on the alkali pretreated biomass, which were not found in the enzymatic pretreatment. Therefore, the enzymatic pretreatment was residue-free and seemed to be more efficient than the applied alkaline method, which makes it suitable for bioethanol production. PMID:27199917

  14. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    PubMed

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16gL(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58gL(-1)h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. PMID:26943936

  15. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Silvio R.; Souza, Agda E.; Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S.; Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma.

    2014-12-15

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings.

  16. Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jijiao; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Letian; Zhu, J Y; Ingram, Lonnie

    2014-02-01

    The structure of lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment process of sugarcane bagasse in a pilot scale and the effect of the lignin extracted by ethanol on subsequent cellulose hydrolysis were investigated. The lignin structural changes caused by pretreatment were identified using advanced nondestructive techniques such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC), quantitative (13)C, and 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The structural analysis revealed that ethanol extractable lignin preserved basic lignin structure, but had relatively lower amount of ?-O-4 linkages, syringyl/guaiacyl units ratio (S/G), p-coumarate/ferulate ratio, and other ending structures. The results also indicated that approximately 8% of mass weight was extracted by pure ethanol. The bagasse after ethanol extraction had an approximate 22% higher glucose yield after enzyme hydrolysis compared to pretreated bagasse without extraction. PMID:24412855

  17. Removal of Zn2+ from aqueous single metal solutions and electroplating wastewater with wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Flaviane Vilela; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

    2010-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of a new chelating material derived from wood sawdust, Manilkara sp., and not only the use of a new support, but also a chemically modified sugarcane bagasse synthesized in our previous work to remove Zn(2+) from aqueous solutions and electroplating wastewater. The first part describes the chemical modification of wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse using ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD) as modifying agent in order to introduce carboxylic acid and amine functional groups into these materials. The obtained materials such as the modified sugarcane bagasse, EB, and modified wood sawdust, ES were then characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and CHN. The second part evaluates the adsorption capacity of Zn(2+) by EB and ES from aqueous single metal solutions and real electroplating wastewater, which concentration was determined through direct titration with EDTA and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Adsorption isotherms were developed using Langmuir model. Zn(2+) adsorption capacities were found to be 80 mg/g for ES and 105 mg/g for EB whereas for the industrial wastewater these values were found to be 47 mg/g for ES and 45 mg/g for EB. Zn(2+) adsorption in the wastewater was found to be lower than in Zn(2+) spiked solution due to the competition between other cations and/or interference of other ions, mainly Ca(2+) and Cl(-) that were present in the wastewater. PMID:20047793

  18. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of So Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

  19. Sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis: rheological data as criteria for impeller selection.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leonardo Tupi Caldas; Pereira, Lucas Tupi Caldas; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Freitas, Suely Pereira

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to select an efficient impeller to be used in a stirred reactor for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse. All experiments utilized 100 g (dry weight)/l of steam-pretreated bagasse, which is utilized in Brazil for cattle feed. The process was studied with respect to the rheological behavior of the biomass hydrolysate and the enzymatic conversion of the bagasse polysaccharides. These parameters were applied to model the power required for an impeller to operate at pilot scale (100 l) using empirical correlations according to Nagata [16]. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using a blend of cellulases, ?-glucosidase, and xylanases produced in our laboratory by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus awamori. Hydrolyses were performed with an enzyme load of 10 FPU/g (dry weight) of bagasse over 36 h with periodic sampling for the measurement of viscosity and the concentration of glucose and reducing sugars. The mixture presented pseudoplastic behavior. This rheological model allowed for a performance comparison to be made between flat-blade disk (Rushton turbine) and pitched-blade (45) impellers. The simulation showed that the pitched blade consumed tenfold less energy than the flat-blade disk turbine. The resulting sugar syrups contained 22 g/l of glucose, which corresponded to 45% cellulose conversion. PMID:20844924

  20. Production of bioethanol, methane and heat from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, S C; Carrere, H; Maciel Filho, R; Costa, A C

    2011-09-01

    The potential of biogas production from the residues of second generation bioethanol production was investigated taking into consideration two types of pretreatment: lime or alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Bagasse was pretreated, enzymatically hydrolyzed and the wastes from pretreatment and hydrolysis were used to produce biogas. Results have shown that if pretreatment is carried out at a bagasse concentration of 4% DM, the highest global methane production is obtained with the peroxide pretreatment: 72.1 Lmethane/kgbagasse. The recovery of lignin from the peroxide pretreatment liquor was also the highest, 112.7 ± 0.01 g/kg of bagasse. Evaluation of four different biofuel production scenarios has shown that 63-65% of the energy that would be produced by bagasse incineration can be recovered by combining ethanol production with the combustion of lignin and hydrolysis residues, along with the anaerobic digestion of pretreatment liquors, while only 32-33% of the energy is recovered by bioethanol production alone. PMID:21689929

  1. Valorization of an industrial organosolv-sugarcane bagasse lignin: Characterization and use as a matrix in biobased composites reinforced with sisal fibers.

    PubMed

    Ramires, Elaine C; Megiatto, Jackson D; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain; Frollini, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, the main focus was the characterization and application of the by-product lignin isolated through an industrial organosolv acid hydrolysis process from sugarcane bagasse, aiming at the production of bioethanol. The sugarcane lignin was characterized and used to prepare phenolic-type resins. The analysis confirmed that the industrial sugarcane lignin is of HGS type, with a high proportion of the less substituted aromatic ring p-hydroxyphenyl units, which favors further reaction with formaldehyde. The lignin-formaldehyde resins were used to produce biobased composites reinforced with different proportions of randomly distributed sisal fibers. The presence of lignin moieties in both the fiber and matrix increases their mutual affinity, as confirmed by SEM images, which showed good adhesion at the biocomposite fiber/matrix interface. This in turn allowed good load transference from the matrix to the fiber, leading to biobased composites with good impact strength (near 500 J m(-1) for a 40 wt% sisal fiber-reinforced composite). The study demonstrates that sugarcane bagasse lignin obtained from a bioethanol plant can be used without excessive purification in the preparation of lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced biobased composites displaying high mechanical properties. PMID:20589841

  2. Biomass based activated carbon obtained from sludge and sugarcane bagasse for removing lead ion from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hu-Chun; Zhang, He-Ran; Li, Jin-Bo; Ding, Wen-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Sewage sludge and bagasse were used as raw materials to produce cheap and efficient adsorbent with great adsorption capacity of Pb(2+). By pyrolysis at 800 °C for 0.5 h, the largest surface area (806.57 m(2)/g) of the adsorbent was obtained, enriched with organic functional groups. The optimal conditions for production of the adsorbent and adsorption of Pb(2+) were investigated. The results of adsorb-ability fitted the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order model well. The highest Pb(2+) (at pH = 4.0) adsorption capacity was achieved by treating with 60% (v/v) HNO3. This is a promising approach for metal removal from wastewater, as well as recycling sewage sludge and bagasse to ease their disposal pressure. PMID:26093255

  3. Sugarcane bagasse as support for immobilization of Bacillus pumilus HZ-2 and its use in bioremediation of mesotrione-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Shaohua; Ding, Jie; Xiao, Ying; Han, Haitao; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    The degrading microorganisms isolated from environment usually fail to degrade pollutants when used for bioremediation of contaminated soils; thus, additional treatments are needed to enhance biodegradation. In the present study, the potential of sugarcane bagasse as bacteria-immobilizing support was investigated in mesotrione biodegradation. A novel isolate Bacillus pumilus HZ-2 was applied in bacterial immobilization, which was capable of degrading over 95 % of mesotrione at initial concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 mg L(-1) within 4 days in flask-shaking tests. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the bacterial cells were strongly absorbed and fully dispersed on bagasse surface after immobilization. Specially, 86.5 and 82.9 % of mesotrione was eliminated by bacteria immobilized on bagasse of 100 and 60 mesh, respectively, which indicated that this immobilization was able to maintain a high degrading activity of the bacteria. Analysis of the degradation products determined 2-amino-4-methylsulfonylbenzoic acid (AMBA) and 4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoic acid (MNBA) as the main metabolites in the biodegradation pathway of mesotrione. In the sterile soil, approximately 90 % of mesotrione was degraded after supplementing 5.0 % of molasses in bacteria-bagasse composite, which greatly enhanced microbial adaptability and growth in the soil environment. In the field tests, over 75 % of mesotrione in soil was degraded within 14 days. The immobilized preparation demonstrated that mesotrione could be degraded at a wide range of pH values (5.0-8.0) and temperatures (25-35 °C), especially at low concentrations of mesotrione (5 to 20 mg kg(-1)). These results showed that sugarcane bagasse might be a good candidate as bacteria-immobilizing support to enhance mesotrione degradation by Bacillus p. HZ-2 in contaminated soils. PMID:26337896

  4. High-value zeolitic material from bagasse fly ash: utilization for dye elimination.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavna A; Shah, Ajay V; Patel, Harendra D; Mistry, Chirag B

    2013-06-01

    Bagasse fly ash (BFA), a sugar industry waste, was used to prepare zeolitic material (ZFA) by means of alkaline hydrothermal treatment. ZFA showed improved morphology as a result of this treatment. The adsorption of the reactive dyes turquoise blue (TB) and brilliant magenta (BM), on both BFA and ZFA, was investigated in a batch contact system. A series of batch experiments revealed that optimal dye removal occurs at a 200 mg/L to 300 mg/L solute concentration, 60 minutes of agitation time, 5 g/L to 10 g/L adsorbent dose, a pH level of 2 to 4, and a temperature of 298 K. ZFA showed enhanced adsorption capacity as compared to BFA. According to the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity was 12.66 mg/g and 45.45 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on BFA; and 21.74 mg/g and 100.00 mg/g for turquoise blue and brilliant magenta dyes, respectively, on ZFA. Kinetic studies showed that the correlation coefficients best fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, confirming that the adsorption rate was controlled by a hemisorptions process. PMID:23833819

  5. The influence of pretreatment methods on saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by an enzyme extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and commercial cocktails: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Visser, Evan Michael; Alfenas, Rafael Ferreira; Nogueira, Bráulio Ris G; de Campos, Guilherme Galvão; Milagres, Adriane Ferreira; de Vries, Ronald P; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze

    2015-09-01

    Biomass enzymatic hydrolysis depends on the pretreatment methods employed, the composition of initial feedstock and the enzyme cocktail used to release sugars for subsequent fermentation into ethanol. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with 1% H2SO4 and 1% NaOH and the biomass saccharification was performed with 8% solids loading using 10 FPase units/g of bagasse of the enzymatic extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and three commercial cocktails for a comparative study. Overall, the best glucose and xylose release was obtained from alkaline pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The C. cubensis extract promoted higher release of glucose (5.32 g/L) and xylose (9.00 g/L) than the commercial mixtures. Moreover, the C. cubensis extract presented high specific enzyme activities when compared to commercial cocktails mainly concerning to endoglucanase (331.84 U/mg of protein), β-glucosidase (29.48 U/mg of protein), β-xylosidase (2.95 U/mg of protein), pectinase (127.46 U/mg of protein) and laccase (2.49 U/mg of protein). PMID:26094192

  6. Enzymic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by autohydrolysis-steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Dekker, R.F.H.; Wallis, A.F.A.

    1983-12-01

    Pretreatment of bagasse by autohydrolysis at 200 degrees C for 4 min and explosive defibration resulted in the solubilization of 90% of the hemicellulose (a heteroxylan) and in the production of a pulp that was highly susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei C-30 and QM 9414, and by a commercial preparation, Meicelase. Saccharification yields of 50% resulted after 24 h at 50 degrees C (pH 5.0) in enzymic digests containing 10% (w/v) bagasse pulps and 20 filter paper cellulase units (FPU). Saccharifications could be increased to more than 80% at 24 h by the addition of exogeneous ..beta..-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. The crystallinity of cellulose in bagasse remained unchanged following autohydrolysis-explosion and did not appear to hinder the rate or extent of hydrolysis of cellulose. Autohydrolysis-exploded pulps extracted with alkali or ethanol to remove lignin resulted in lower conversions of cellulose (28-36% after 25 h) than unextracted pulps. Alkali extracted pulps arising from autohydrolysis times of more than 10 min at 200 degrees C were less susceptible to enzymic hydrolysis than unextracted pulps and alkali-extracted pulps arising from short autohydrolysis times (e.g., 2 min at 200 degrees C). Autohydrolysis-explosion was as effective a pretreatment method as 0.25M NaOH (70 degrees C/2 h); both yielded pulps that resulted in high cellulose conversions with T. reesei cellulase preparations and Meicelase. Supplementation of T. reesei C-30 cellulase preparations with A. niger ..beta..-glucosidases was effective in promoting the conversion of cellulose into glucose. A ratio of FPU to ..beta..-glucosidase of 1:1.25 was the minimum requirement to achieve more than 80% conversion of cellulose into glucose within 24 h. Other factors which influenced the extent of saccharification were the enzyme-substrate ratio, the substrate concentration, and the saccharification mode. (Refs. 30).

  7. A biotechnological process efficiently co-produces two high value-added products, glucose and xylooligosaccharides, from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jian-Long; Zhao, Shuai; Liang, Rui-Ming; Yin, Xin; Jiang, Sui-Xin; Su, Lin-Hui; Yang, Qi; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Liang; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a co-production of two high value-added products, glucose and xylooligosaccharides (XOS), was investigated by utilizing sugarcane bagasse (SB) within a multi-product bio-refinery framework optimized by Box-Behnken design-based response surface methodology. The developed process resulted in a maximum cellulose conversion of xylan-removed SB, 98.69±1.30%, and a maximum extracted SB xylan conversion into XOS (xylobiose and xylotriose) of 57.36±0.79% that was the highest SB xylan conversion reported in the literature, employing cellulase from Penicillium oxalicum EU2106 and recombinant endo-β-1,4-xylanase in Pichia pastoris. Consequently, a mass balance analysis showed that the maximum yields of glucose and XOS were 34.43±0.32g and 5.96±0.09g per 100g raw SB. Overall, this described process may be a preferred option for the comprehensive utilization of SB. PMID:26773956

  8. Desorption and photodegradation of methylene blue from modified sugarcane bagasse surface by acid TiO2 hydrosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Chi, Ru-An; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Xiao, Chun-Qiao

    2012-02-01

    Waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was modified by pyromellitic dianhydride to improve its adsorption capacity for cationic dyes. Results showed that the adsorption capacity of the modified SCB for methylene blue was 564 mg g-1, which was about 12 times than that obtained on the unmodified SCB. Methylene blue loaded modified SCB was regenerated by a self-clean eluent: TiO2 hydrosol with pH ranged from 1 to 4, and HNO3 solution with the same pH range was tested at the same time for comparison. Results showed that desorption kinetics of methylene blue in the hydrosol systems fit two-step kinetic model and controlled mainly by the slow step. As a self-clean eluent, acid hydrosol could firstly desorb and then photodegrade methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. After five desorption-photodegradation cycles, 78.3% of the absorbed dyes could be desorbed by using hydrosol (pH 2) as eluent. The hydrosol could be continuously used in desorption and photodegradation process, which would economize large volume of the eluent and moreover it would not bring secondary pollution.

  9. Simultaneous removal of cationic and anionic dyes by the mixed sorbent of magnetic and non-magnetic modified sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-xia; Zhu, Jing; Feng, Li-yuan; Chi, Ru-an

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic carboxyl groups modified (MMS) and non-magnetic amine groups modified (AMS) sugarcane bagasse were prepared and mixed to remove cationic and anionic dye simultaneously from aqueous solution. For comparison, the adsorption performances of MMS, AMS and the mixed sorbent for basic magenta (cationic dye) and congo red (anionic dye) were investigated in the binary system. Zeta potential analysis showed that MMS was negatively charged and AMS was positively charged in the investigated pH range. The adsorption capacities of MMS for basic magenta and congo red were 1.24 and 0.04mmolg(-1), while those of AMS were 0.04 and 1.55mmolg(-1), respectively. Both of MMS and AMS had high adsorption capacity and affinity toward opposite-charged dye but low adsorption capacity and affinity toward similar-charged dye. Adsorption experiments in the binary system showed that only the mixed sorbent could remove the two dyes simultaneously from aqueous solution (removal efficiencies >90%). The amounts of basic magenta and congo red absorbed on the mixed sorbent both increased linearly with the increase of their initial concentrations in the investigated range. The dye loaded mixed magnetic and non-magnetic sorbents could be separated by a magnet. MMS and AMS could be regenerated by using acid and alkaline eluents, respectively. After regeneration, the MMS and AMS could be mixed again and used repeatedly. The mixed sorbent had great potential in practical dye waste water treatment. PMID:25897851

  10. Investigation of the pellets produced from sugarcane bagasse during liquid hot water pretreatment and their impact on the enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Yu, Qiang; Qi, Wei

    2015-08-01

    In the process of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment, there are numbers of pellets formed on the lignocellulosic surface. The characteristics and effect of pellets on the enzymatic hydrolysis of LHW-treated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) were investigated. After SCB was treated with LHW at 180°C, the pellets deposited on the surface of solid residues were extracted gently with 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. They were composed of 81.0% lignin, 7.0% glucan, and 3.2% xylan. The LHW pretreatment solution (PS) was sprayed to the filter paper, and the pellets were observed on its surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data showed that lignin was also the main component of the PS pellets. The effect of the pellets on enzymatic hydrolysis was chiefly attributed to the steric hindrance, not the cellulase adsorption. The structural characteristics of LHW-treated SCB might play a more important role in influencing the enzymatic hydrolysis than the pellets. PMID:25916262

  11. Competitive adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ on magnetic modified sugarcane bagasse prepared by two simple steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic modified sugarcane bagasse with high adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption rate was prepared by two simple steps. Experimental results showed that the adsorption capacities of the magnetic sorbent for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 1.2 and 1.1 mmol g-1, respectively. Pseudo-second-order and pseudo-first-order kinetic model both could predict the adsorption and desorption kinetic process occurred on the modified sorbent. EDX analysis showed that Pb2+ and Cd2+ were adsorbed on the sorbent mainly through ion exchange. Competitive adsorption results showed that the presence of Pb2+ exerted a great inhibitory effect on Cd2+ adsorption, and the inhibitory effect increased with the increase of the initial concentration ratio of Pb2+ and Cd2+ (C0Pb: C0Cd). Pb2+ could be selectively adsorbed by the magnetic sorbent when the values of C0Pb: C0Cd was higher than or equal to 4:1. It was also found that Langmuir competitive model was suitable to predict the sorption isotherm in the binary system. The as prepared magnetic sorbent had a potential in heavy metal wastewater treatment.

  12. Consolidated bioprocessing of sugarcane bagasse and chicken manure to ammonium carboxylates by a mixed culture of marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhihong; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2010-04-01

    The MixAlco process, an example of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), was utilized for anaerobic fermentation of 80% lime-treated sugarcane bagasse/20% chicken manure at 55 degrees Celsius by a mixed culture of marine microorganisms. NH(4)HCO(3) was recommended by this study to replace CaCO(3) buffer to neutralize the produced carboxylic acids. The resulting ammonium carboxylates can be converted to gasoline or mixed alcohol fuels by downstream processing. Four-stage countercurrent fermentations at various volatile solids loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT) showed the highest acid productivity (1.27 g/(L x day)) and highest conversion (76%) occurred at a total acid concentration of 24.4 and 31.3g/L, respectively. The Continuum Particle Distribution Model (CPDM) predicted the experimental total acid concentrations and conversions within 9.05% and 14.39%, respectively. The CPDM "map" indicates that both high acid concentrations (>50 g/L) and high conversions (>72%) are possible with 300 g substrate/(L liquid) concentration, 30 days liquid residence time, 5.4 g/(L x day) solid loading rate, and NH(4)HCO(3) buffer. The present study suggests that mixed culture biotechnology in the MixAlco process provides an alternative "carboxylate platform" for biomass conversion. PMID:20044250

  13. Streptomyces misionensis PESB-25 Produces a Thermoacidophilic Endoglucanase Using Sugarcane Bagasse and Corn Steep Liquor as the Sole Organic Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Raquel de Carvalho; Gravina-Oliveira, Mônica Pires; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Freitas; do Nascimento, Rodrigo Pires; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Macrae, Andrew; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Streptomyces misionensis strain PESB-25 was screened and selected for its ability to secrete cellulases. Cells were grown in a liquid medium containing sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen source, whose concentrations were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A peak of endoglucanase accumulation (1.01 U·mL−1) was observed in a medium with SCB 1.0% (w/v) and CSL 1.2% (w/v) within three days of cultivation. S. misionensis PESB-25 endoglucanase activity was thermoacidophilic with optimum pH and temperature range of 3.0 to 3.6 and 62° to 70°C, respectively. In these conditions, values of 1.54 U mL−1 of endoglucanase activity were observed. Moreover, Mn2+ was demonstrated to have a hyperactivating effect on the enzyme. In the presence of MnSO4 (8 mM), the enzyme activity increased threefold, up to 4.34 U·mL−1. Mn2+ also improved endoglucanase stability as the catalyst retained almost full activity upon incubation at 50°C for 4 h, while in the absence of Mn2+, enzyme activity decreased by 50% in this same period. Three protein bands with endoglucanase activity and apparent molecular masses of 12, 48.5 and 119.5 kDa were detected by zymogram. PMID:23586048

  14. Butyric acid production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Liu, Xiaoguang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-02-01

    A fermentation process using Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) was developed for butyric acid production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate. SCB was first treated with dilute acid and then hydrolyzed with cellulases. The hydrolysate containing glucose and xylose was used as carbon source for the fermentation without detoxification. The bacterium was able to grow at a specific growth rate of ∼0.06 h(-1) in media containing 15-20% (w/v) SCB in serum bottles. In batch cultures in the FBB, both glucose and xylose in the SCB hydrolysate were simultaneously converted to butyrate with a high yield (0.45-0.54 g/gsugar) and productivity (0.48-0.60 g/Lh). A final butyrate concentration of 20.9 g/L was obtained in a fed-batch culture, with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/Lh and butyrate yield of 0.48 g/g sugar consumed. This work demonstrated the feasibility of using SCB as a low-cost feedstock to produce butyric acid. PMID:23270719

  15. Mapping the lignin distribution in pretreated sugarcane bagasse by confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delignification pretreatments of biomass and methods to assess their efficacy are crucial for biomass-to-biofuels research and technology. Here, we applied confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using one- and two-photon excitation to map the lignin distribution within bagasse fibers pretreated with acid and alkali. The evaluated spectra and decay times are correlated with previously calculated lignin fractions. We have also investigated the influence of the pretreatment on the lignin distribution in the cell wall by analyzing the changes in the fluorescence characteristics using two-photon excitation. Eucalyptus fibers were also analyzed for comparison. Results Fluorescence spectra and variations of the decay time correlate well with the delignification yield and the lignin distribution. The decay dependences are considered two-exponential, one with a rapid (τ1) and the other with a slow (τ2) decay time. The fastest decay is associated to concentrated lignin in the bagasse and has a low sensitivity to the treatment. The fluorescence decay time became longer with the increase of the alkali concentration used in the treatment, which corresponds to lignin emission in a less concentrated environment. In addition, the two-photon fluorescence spectrum is very sensitive to lignin content and accumulation in the cell wall, broadening with the acid pretreatment and narrowing with the alkali one. Heterogeneity of the pretreated cell wall was observed. Conclusions Our results reveal lignin domains with different concentration levels. The acid pretreatment caused a disorder in the arrangement of lignin and its accumulation in the external border of the cell wall. The alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from the middle of the bagasse fibers, but was less effective in its removal from their surfaces. Our results evidenced a strong correlation between the decay times of the lignin fluorescence and its distribution within the cell wall. A new variety of lignin fluorescence states were accessed by two-photon excitation, which allowed an even broader, but complementary, optical characterization of lignocellulosic materials. These results suggest that the lignin arrangement in untreated bagasse fiber is based on a well-organized nanoenvironment that favors a very low level of interaction between the molecules. PMID:23548159

  16. Diversity of Fungi on Decomposing Leaf Litter in a Sugarcane Plantation and Their Response to Tillage Practice and Bagasse Mulching: Implications for Management Effects on Litter Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiko; Niswati, Ainin; Swibawa, I G; Haryani, Sri; Gunito, Heru; Shimano, Satoshi; Fujie, Koichi; Kaneko, Nobuhiro

    2015-10-01

    To minimize the degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) content in conventional sugarcane cropping, it is important to understand how the fungal community contributes to SOM dynamics during the decomposition of sugarcane leaf litter. However, our knowledge of fungal diversity in tropical agroecosystems is currently limited. Thus, we determined the fungal community structure on decomposing sugarcane leaf litter and their response to different soil management systems using the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) amplicon sequencing method afforded by Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). The results indicate that no-tillage had positive effects on the relative abundance of Zygomycota and of some taxa that may prefer a moist environment over conventional tillage, whereas bagasse mulching decreased the richness of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and had positive effect on the relative abundance of slow-growing taxa, which may prefer poor nutrient substrates. Furthermore, a combination of no-tillage and bagasse mulching increased the abundance of unique OTUs. We suggest that the alteration of fungal communities through the changes in soil management practices produces an effect on litter decomposition. PMID:25933637

  17. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse by physical activation with CO2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachrun, Sutrisno; AyuRizka, Noni; Annisa, SolichaHidayat; Arif, Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the effects of different carbonization temperatures (400, 600, and 800oC) on characteristics of porosity in activated carbon derived from carbonized sugarcane bagassechar at activation temperature of 800oC. The results showed that the activated carbon derived from high carbonized temperature of sugarcane bagassechars had higher BET surface area, total volume, micropore volume and yield as compared to the activated carbon derived from low carbonized temperature. The BET surface area, total volume and micropore volume of activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagassechars obtained at 800oC of carbonized temperature and activation time of 120 min were 661.46m2/g, 0.2455cm3/g and 0.1989cm3/g, respectively. The high carbonization temperature (800oC) generated a highly microporous carbonwith a Type-I nitrogen adsorption isotherm, while the low carbonization temperature (400 and 600oC) generated a mesoporous one with an intermediate between types I and IInitrogen adsorption isotherm.

  18. The influence of presaccharification, fermentation temperature and yeast strain on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Carlos J A; Costa, Daniela A; Rodrigues, Marina Q R B; dos Santos, Ancly F; Lopes, Mariana R; Abrantes, Aline B P; dos Santos Costa, Patrcia; Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flvia M L; Fietto, Luciano G

    2012-04-01

    Ethanol can be produced from cellulosic biomass in a process known as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The presence of yeast together with the cellulolytic enzyme complex reduces the accumulation of sugars within the reactor, increasing the ethanol yield and saccharification rate. This paper reports the isolation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae LBM-1, a strain capable of growth at 42 C. In addition, S. cerevisiae LBM-1 and Kluyveromyces marxianus UFV-3 were able to ferment sugar cane bagasse in SSF processes at 37 and 42 C. Higher ethanol yields were observed when fermentation was initiated after presaccharification at 50C than at 37 or 42 C. Furthermore, the volumetric productivity of fermentation increased with presaccharification time, from 0.43 g/L/h at 0 h to 1.79 g/L/h after 72 h of presaccharification. The results suggest that the use of thermotolerant yeasts and a presaccharification stage are key to increasing yields in this process. PMID:22285296

  19. Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.

    PubMed

    Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and cristobalite in bagasse ash is significant as the ash is recycled onto the fields where erosion and/or mechanical disturbance could break down the deposits and re-suspend respirable-sized particulate. Appropriate methods for treatment and disposal of bagasse ash must, therefore, be employed and adequate protection given to workers exposed to these dusts. PMID:20520870

  20. Removal of arsenic species from water by batch and column operations on bagasse fly ash.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman; Asim, Mohd; Khan, Tabrez A

    2014-03-01

    Bagasse fly ash (BFA, a sugar industrial waste) was used as low-cost adsorbent for the uptake of arsenate and arsenite species from water. The optimum conditions for the removal of both species of arsenic were as follows: pH 7.0, concentration 50.0 μg/L, contact time 50.0 min, adsorbent dose 3.0 g/L, and temperature 20.0 °C, with 95.0 and 89.5 % removal of arsenate and arsenite, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms were used to analyze the results. The results of these models indicated single-layer uniform adsorption on heterogeneous surface. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°, were also calculated. At 20.0 to 30.0 °C, the values of ΔG° lie in the range of -4,722.75 to -4,878.82 and -4,308.80 to -4,451.73 while the values of ΔH° and ΔS° were -149.90 and -121.07, and 15.61 and 14.29 for arsenate and arsenite, respectively, indicating that adsorption is spontaneous and exothermic. Pseudo-first-order kinetics was followed. In column experiments, the adsorption decreased as the flow rate increased with the maximum removal of 98.9 and 95.6 % for arsenate and arsenite, respectively. The bed depth service time and Yoon and Nelson models were used to analyze the experimental data. The adsorption capacity (N o) of BFA on column was 3.65 and 2.98 mg/cm(3) for arsenate and arsenite, respectively. The developed system for the removal of arsenate and arsenite species is economic, rapid, and capable of working under natural conditions. It may be used for the removal of arsenic species from any contaminated water resources. PMID:24203255

  1. Adsorption of Benzoic Acid in Aqueous Solution by Bagasse Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the studies on the benzoic acid (BA) onto bagasse fly ash (BFA) was studied in aqueous solution in a batch system. Physico-chemical properties including surface area, surface texture of the GAC before and after BA adsorption onto BFA were analysed using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The optimum initial pH for the adsorption of BA was found to be 5.56. The adsorbent dose was 10 g/l for BFA and the equilibrium time 8 h of reaction. Pseudo first and second order models were used to find the adsorption kinetics. It was found that intraparticle diffusion played important role in the adsorption mechanisms of BA and the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second order kinetic model rather than the pseudo first order kinetic model. Isotherm data were generated for BA solution having initial concentrations of BA in the range of 10-200 mg/l for the BFA dosage of 10 g/l at temperatures of 288, 303, and 318 K. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was favorably influenced by an increase in temperature. Equilibrium data were well represented by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model. Values of the change in entropy ( ΔS 0), heat of adsorption ( ΔH 0) for adsorption of BA on BFA was found to be 120.10 and 19.61 kJ/mol respectively. The adsorption of BA onto BFA was an endothermic reaction. Desorption of BA from BFA was studied by various solvents method. Acetic acid was found to be a better eluant for desorption of BA with a maximum desorption efficiency of 55.2 %. Owing to its heating value, spent BFA can be used as a co-fuel for the production of heat in boiler furnaces.

  2. Mechanistic study on ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Ramadoss, Govindarajan; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the ultrasound assisted pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using metal salt with hydrogen peroxide for bioethanol production. Among the different metal salts used, maximum holocellulose recovery and delignification were achieved with ultrasound assisted titanium dioxide (TiO2) pretreatment (UATP) system. At optimum conditions (1% H2O2, 4 g SCB dosage, 60 min sonication time, 2:100 M ratio of metal salt and H2O2, 75°C, 50% ultrasound amplitude and 70% ultrasound duty cycle), 94.98 ± 1.11% holocellulose recovery and 78.72 ± 0.86% delignification were observed. The pretreated SCB was subjected to dilute acid hydrolysis using 0.25% H2SO4 and maximum xylose, glucose and arabinose concentration obtained were 10.94 ± 0.35 g/L, 14.86 ± 0.12 g/L and 2.52 ± 0.27 g/L, respectively. The inhibitors production was found to be very less (0.93 ± 0.11 g/L furfural and 0.76 ± 0.62 g/L acetic acid) and the maximum theoretical yield of glucose and hemicellulose conversion attained were 85.8% and 77%, respectively. The fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and at the end of 72 h, 0.468 g bioethanol/g holocellulose was achieved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of pretreated SCB was made and its morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds formed during the pretreatment were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PMID:26384901

  3. Delignification of sugarcane bagasse using glycerol-water mixtures to produce pulps for saccharification.

    PubMed

    Novo, Lísias Pereira; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio Aprigio da Silva

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the organosolv delignification of depithed bagasse using glycerol-water mixtures without a catalyst. The experiments were performed using two separate experimental designs. In the first experiment, two temperatures (150 and 190°C), two time periods (60 and 240 min) and two glycerol contents (20% and 80%, v/v) were used. In the second experiment, which was a central composite design, the glycerol content was maintained at 80%, and a range of temperatures (141.7-198.3°C) and time (23-277 min) was used. The best result, obtained with a glycerol content of 80%, a reaction time of 150 min and a temperature of 198.3°C, produced pulps with 54.4% pulp yield, 7.75% residual lignin, 81.4% delignification and 13.7% polyose content. The results showed that high contents of glycerol tend to produce pulps with higher delignification and higher polyoses content in relation to the pulps obtained from low glycerol content reactions. In addition, the proposed method shows potential as a pretreatment for cellulose saccharification. PMID:21906937

  4. Characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of Trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.

    PubMed

    A L Rocha, Vanessa; N Maeda, Roberto; Pereira, Nei; F Kern, Marcelo; Elias, Luisa; Simister, Rachael; Steele-King, Clare; Gómez, Leonardo D; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing Trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. The component enzymes were identified by LCMS-MS. Glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. Other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (AA9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at levels of 1%. In total, proteases and lipases represented 5 and 1% of the total secretome, respectively, with the rest of the secretome being made up of proteins of unknown or putative function. This enzyme cocktail was efficient in catalysing the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse cellulolignin to fermentable sugars for potential use in ethanol production. Apart from mapping the secretome of T. harzianum, which is a very important tool to understand the catalytic performance of enzyme cocktails, the gene coding for T. harzianum swollenin was expressed in Aspergillus niger. This novel aspect in this work, allowed increasing the swollenin concentration by 95 fold. This is the first report about the heterologous expression of swollenin from T. harzianum, and the findings are of interest in enriching enzyme cocktail with this important accessory protein which takes part in the cellulose amorphogenesis. Despite lacking detectable glycoside activity, the addition of swollenin of T. harzianum increased by two-fold the hydrolysis efficiency of a commercial cellulase cocktail. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:327-336, 2016. PMID:26697775

  5. A strain of Meyerozyma guilliermondii isolated from sugarcane juice is able to grow and ferment pentoses in synthetic and bagasse hydrolysate media.

    PubMed

    Martini, Cristina; Tauk-Tornisielo, Sâmia Maria; Codato, Carolina Brito; Bastos, Reinaldo Gaspar; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina

    2016-05-01

    The search for new microbial strains that are able to withstand inhibitors released from hemicellulosic hydrolysis and are also still able to convert sugars in ethanol/xylitol is highly desirable. A yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice and identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii was evaluated for the ability to grow and ferment pentoses in synthetic media and in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. The yeast grew in xylose, arabinose and glucose at the same rate at an initial medium pH of 5.5. At pH 4.5, the yeast grew more slowly in arabinose. There was no sugar exhaustion within 60 h. At higher xylose concentrations with a higher initial cell concentration, sugar was exhausted within 96 h at pH 4.5. An increase of 350 % in biomass was obtained in detoxified hydrolysates, whereas supplementation with 3 g/L yeast extract increased biomass production by approximately 40 %. Ethanol and xylitol were produced more significantly in supplemented hydrolysates regardless of detoxification. Xylose consumption was enhanced in supplemented hydrolysates and arabinose was consumed only when xylose and glucose were no longer available. Supplementation had a greater impact on ethanol yield and productivity than detoxification; however, the product yields obtained in the present study are still much lower when compared to other yeast species in bagasse hydrolysate. By the other hand, the fermentation of both xylose and arabinose and capability of withstanding inhibitors are important characteristics of the strain assayed. PMID:27038950

  6. Combining treatments to improve the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Ryan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory side products from dilute acid pretreatment is a major challenge for conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. Six strategies to detoxify sugarcane hydrolysates were investigated alone, and in combinations (vacuum evaporation of volatiles, high pH treatment with ammonia, laccase, bisulfite, microaeration, and inoculum size). High pH was the most beneficial single treatment, increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (measured by ethanol production) from 15% (control) to 70% hydrolysate. Combining treatments provided incremental improvements, consistent with different modes of action and multiple inhibitory compounds. Screening toxicity using tube cultures proved to be an excellent predictor of relative performance in pH-controlled fermenters. A combination of treatments (vacuum evaporation, laccase, high pH, bisulfite, microaeration) completely eliminated all inhibitory activity present in hydrolysate. With this combination, fermentation of hemicellulose sugars (90% hydrolysate) to ethanol was complete within 48 h, identical to the fermentation of laboratory xylose (50 g/L) in AM1 mineral salts medium (without hydrolysate). PMID:25864026

  7. The Use of Seaweed and Sugarcane Bagasse for the Biological Treatment of Metal-contaminated Waters Under Sulfate-reducing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Márcia Monteiro Machado; de Mello, Luiz Antonio Oliveira; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Augusto

    When wetlands reach maximum treatment capacity to remove heavy metals, removal can still take place through precipitation as sulfide because of the biological reduction of sulfate. To achieve this goal, anaerobic conditions must be attained, a sulfate source must exist, and an adequate substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is also required. In the present work, two ligneous-cellulosic materials, a brown seaweed and sugarcane bagasse, have been selected as substrates for SRB growth. Experiments were simultaneously conducted in continuous operation in two columns (0.57 L each), one containing the ligneous-cellulosic material plus inoculum and another containing only the ligneous-cellulosic material. In this work, the removal of cadmium and zinc was studied because of their presence in effluents from mining/metallurgy operations. Results obtained indicated that the inoculated reactor was able to treat the effluent more efficiently than the noninoculated reactor considering the time course of the tests.

  8. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment. PMID:26642223

  9. High yield pulp from bagasse

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, G.V.; Torres, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical composition of bagasse is similar to that of hardwood (Fagus sylvatica), but bagasse contains more pentosans and ash and less lignin. The strength of mechanical pulp from bagasse was lower than that of semimechanical pulp prepared from bagasse in the presence of NaOH and alkaline Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/. Mechanical and semimechanical pulps responded well to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ bleaching, giving products with 57-58% brightness.

  10. Addition of metal ions to a (hemi)cellulolytic enzymatic cocktail produced in-house improves its activity, thermostability, and efficiency in the saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, V M; Tardioli, P W; Giordano, R L C; Farinas, C S

    2016-05-25

    High activity and stability are essential for (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes used in biomass conversion, while non-productive binding of cellulases to lignin reduces saccharification efficiency and needs to be avoided. One potential strategy is the addition of inexpensive metal ions. This paper describes the influence of divalent metal ions on the activity, thermostability, and saccharification efficiency of (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes produced in-house by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The use of Mn(2+) provided the best (hemi)cellulolytic activity and stability, with an increase in endoglucanase activity of up to 57%. The use of Mn(2+) was then investigated in the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse submitted to acid, steam-explosion, and hydrothermal pretreatments. The addition of Mn(2+) ions at 10mM in the saccharification of acid-pretreated bagasse resulted in a 34% increase in glucose release. These positive effects appeared to be due to a reduction in non-productive enzyme adsorption. The findings suggest that the addition of inexpensive metal ions can help to improve activity, thermostability, and saccharification efficiency of (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes. PMID:26709004

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide combined with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and ethanol for the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano; Vanelli, Bruno Angelo; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2015-09-01

    The use of green solvents for the partial delignification of milled sugarcane bagasse (1mm particle size) and for the enhancement of its susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out for 2h using 40 g of supercritical carbon dioxide combined with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 15.8 g of ethanol. The effects of temperature (110-180 °C), pressure (195-250 bar) and IL-to-bagasse mass ratio (0:1-1:1) were investigated through a factorial design in which the response variables were the extent of delignification and both anhydroglucose and anhydroxylose contents in the pretreated materials. The highest delignification degree (41%) led to the best substrate for hydrolysis, giving a 70.7 wt% glucose yield after 12h using 5 wt% and Cellic CTec2® (Novozymes) at 10 mg g(-1) total solids. Hence, excellent substrates for hydrolysis were produced with a minimal IL requirement, which could be recovered by ethanol washing for its downstream processing and reuse. PMID:26056781

  12. 7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319.15a Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and...

  13. 7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319.15a Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and...

  14. 7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319.15a Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and...

  15. 7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319.15a Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and...

  16. 7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319.15a Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and...

  17. Comparison of start-up strategies and process performance during semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake co-digested with bagasse.

    PubMed

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes F; Nikolausz, Marcell; Radetski, Claudemir M; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2016-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugarcane filter cake and the option of co-digestion with bagasse were investigated in a semi-continuous feeding regime to assess the main parameters used for large-scale process designing. Moreover, fresh cattle manure was considered as alternative inoculum for the start-up of biogas reactors in cases where digestate from a biogas plant would not be available in remote rural areas. Experiments were carried out in 6 lab-scale semi-continuous stirred-tank reactors at mesophilic conditions (38±1°C) while the main anaerobic digestion process parameters monitored. Fresh cattle manure demonstrated to be appropriate for the start-up process. However, an acclimation period was required due to the high initial volatile fatty acids concentration (8.5gL(-1)). Regardless the mono-digestion of filter cake presented 50% higher biogas yield (480mLgVS(-1)) than co-digestion with bagasse (320mLgVS(-1)) during steady state conditions. A large-scale co-digestion system would produce 58% more biogas (1008m(3)h(-1)) than mono-digestion of filter cake (634m(3)h(-1)) due to its higher biomass availability for biogas conversion. Considering that the biogas production rate was the technical parameter that displayed the most relevant differences between the analyzed substrate options (0.99-1.45m(3)biogasm(3)d(-1)). The decision of which substrate option should be implemented in practice would be mainly driven by the available construction techniques, since economically efficient tanks could compensate the lower biogas production rate of co-digestion option. PMID:26584558

  18. Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of the most important crops globally, providing most of the world’s sugar and bio-energy (ethanol and electricity). This contribution has been underpinned by the successful introgression of genes from wild germplasm, particularly from Saccharum spontaneum, by breeders in the early 1...

  19. Use of spectroscopic and imaging techniques to evaluate pretreated sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for cellulase production under solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Crestana, Silvio; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2014-03-01

    The enzymatic cocktail of cellulases is one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels and other chemicals. Here, the influence of liquid hot water, dilute acid, alkali, and combined acid/alkali pretreatments on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) used for cellulase production was investigated by means of spectroscopic and imaging techniques. Chemical composition and structural characteristics, such as crystallinity (determined by X-ray diffraction), functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy), were used to correlate SCB pretreatments with enzymatic biosynthesis by a strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The combined acid/alkali pretreatment resulted in a SCB with higher cellulose content (86.7%). However, the high crystallinity (74%) of the resulting biomass was detrimental to microbial uptake and enzyme production. SCB pretreated with liquid hot water yielded the highest filter paper cellulase (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase activities (0.4, 14.9, and 26.1 U g(-1), respectively). The results showed that a suitable pretreatment for SCB to be used as a substrate for cellulase production should avoid severe conditions in order to preserve amorphous cellulose and to enhance the physical properties that assist microbial access. PMID:24363237

  20. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with NH4OH-H2O2 and ionic liquid for efficient hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhisheng; Zhu, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2012-09-01

    An efficient pretreatment method using NH(4)OH-H(2)O(2) and ionic liquid (IL) was developed for the recovery of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The regenerated SCB from the combined pretreatment exhibited significantly enhanced enzymatic digestibility with an efficiency of 91.4% after 12h of hydrolysis, which was 64% higher than the efficiency observed for the regenerated SCB after the individual NH(4)OH-H(2)O(2) pretreatment. 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl) dissolved the cellulose from the NH(4)OH-H(2)O(2)-pretreated SCB, and the crystallinity index (CrI) detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was reduced by 42%. The recycled and fresh [Amim]Cl demonstrated the same performance on the pretreatment of SCB for the enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. The regenerated SCB was subsequently used in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SScF) for bioethanol production by cellulase and yeast. The pretreatment did not have a negative effect on bioethanol fermentation, and an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g was achieved with a corresponding fermentation efficiency of 94.5%. PMID:22728201

  1. Successive pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse in a packed bed flow-through column reactor aiming to support biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Terán-Hilares, R; Reséndiz, A L; Martínez, R T; Silva, S S; Santos, J C

    2016-03-01

    A packed bed flow-through column reactor (PBFTCR) was used for pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Alkaline pretreatment was performed at 70°C for 4h with fresh 0.3M NaOH solution or with liquor recycled from a previous pretreatment batch. Scheffersomyces stipitis NRRL-Y7124 was used for fermentation of sugars released after enzymatic hydrolysis (20FPUg(-1) of dry SCB). The highest results for lignin removal were 61% and 52%, respectively, observed when using fresh NaOH or the first reuse of the liquor. About 50% of cellulosic and 57% of hemicellulosic fractions of pretreated SCBs were enzymatically hydrolyzed and the maximum ethanol production was 23.4gL(-1) (ethanol yield of 0.4gpgs(-1)), with near complete consumption of both pentoses and hexoses present in the hydrolysate during the fermentation. PBFTCR as a new alternative for SCB-biorefineries is presented, mainly considering its simple configuration and efficiency for operating with a high solid:liquid ratio. PMID:26720138

  2. Oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse derived solid acid catalysts for rapid esterification of fatty acids and moisture-assisted transesterification of oils under pseudo-infinite methanol.

    PubMed

    Ezebor, Francis; Khairuddean, Melati; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Boey, Peng Lim

    2014-04-01

    The use of pseudo-infinite methanol in increasing the rate of esterification and transesterification reactions was studied using oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived solid acid catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonisation at 400°C for 8h, followed by sulfonation at 150°C for 15h and characterised using TGA/DTA, XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, EA and titrimetric determinations of acid sites. Under optimal reaction conditions, the process demonstrated rapid esterification of palmitic acid, with FAME yields of 93% and 94% in 45min for OPT and SCB catalysts, respectively. With the process, moisture levels up to 16.7% accelerated the conversion of low FFA oils by sulfonated carbon catalysts, through moisture-induced violent bumping. Moisture assisted transesterification of palm olein containing 1.78% FFA and 8.33% added water gave FAME yield of 90% in 10h, which was two folds over neat oil. PMID:24561631

  3. Plasmidic Expression of nemA and yafC* Increased Resistance of Ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180 to Nonvolatile Side Products from Dilute Acid Treatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Artificial Hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Aiqin; Zheng, Huabao; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysate-resistant Escherichia coli SL100 was previously isolated from ethanologenic LY180 after sequential transfers in AM1 medium containing a dilute acid hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse and was used as a source of resistance genes. Many genes that affect tolerance to furfural, the most abundant inhibitor, have been described previously. To identify genes associated with inhibitors other than furfural, plasmid clones were selected in an artificial hydrolysate that had been treated with a vacuum to remove furfural. Two new resistance genes were discovered from Sau3A1 libraries of SL100 genomic DNA: nemA (N-ethylmaleimide reductase) and a putative regulatory gene containing a mutation in the coding region, yafC*. The presence of these mutations in SL100 was confirmed by sequencing. A single mutation was found in the upstream regulatory region of nemR (nemRA operon) in SL100. This mutation increased nemA activity 20-fold over that of the parent organism (LY180) in AM1 medium without hydrolysate and increased nemA mRNA levels >200-fold. Addition of hydrolysates induced nemA expression (mRNA and activity), in agreement with transcriptional control. NemA activity was stable in cell extracts (9 h, 37°C), eliminating a role for proteinase in regulation. LY180 with a plasmid expressing nemA or yafC* was more resistant to a vacuum-treated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate and to a vacuum-treated artificial hydrolysate than LY180 with an empty-vector control. Neither gene affected furfural tolerance. The vacuum-treated hydrolysates inhibited the reduction of N-ethylmaleimide by NemA while also serving as substrates. Expression of the nemA or yafC* plasmid in LY180 doubled the rate of ethanol production from the vacuum-treated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. PMID:26826228

  4. Enhanced saccharification kinetics of sugarcane bagasse pretreated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride at high temperature and without complete dissolution.

    PubMed

    Kimon, Karatzos Sergios; Leslie Alan, Edye; William Orlando Sinclair, Doherty

    2011-10-01

    Dissolution of bagasse with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride at high temperatures (110-160 °C) is investigated as a pretreatment process for saccharification and fermentation based biofuel production. Material balances are reported and used along with enzymatic saccharification data to identify optimum pretreatment conditions (150 °C for 90 min). At all pretreatment temperatures, dissolved and reprecipitated material is enriched in cellulose, has a low crystallinity and the cellulose component is easily and quantitatively hydrolysed (100%, 3h, 15 FPU). At pretreatment temperatures ≤ 150 °C, the undissolved material has only slightly lower crystallinity than the starting. At pretreatment temperatures ≥ 150 °C, the undissolved material has low crystallinity and when combined with the dissolved material has a saccharification rate and extent similar to completely dissolved material. Complete dissolution is not necessary to maximise saccharification efficiency at temperatures ≥ 150 °C. PMID:21840707

  5. Multi-scale structural and chemical analysis of sugarcane bagasse in the process of sequential acid–base pretreatment and ethanol production by Scheffersomyces shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy usage of gasoline, burgeoning fuel prices, and environmental issues have paved the way for the exploration of cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol production technologies are emerging and require continued technological advancements. One of the most challenging issues is the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the desired sugars yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. We hypothesized that consecutive dilute sulfuric acid-dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment would overcome the native recalcitrance of sugarcane bagasse (SB) by enhancing cellulase accessibility of the embedded cellulosic microfibrils. Results SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate after concentration by vacuum evaporation and detoxification showed 30.89 g/l xylose along with other products (0.32 g/l glucose, 2.31 g/l arabinose, and 1.26 g/l acetic acid). The recovered cellulignin was subsequently delignified by sodium hydroxide mediated pretreatment. The acid–base pretreated material released 48.50 g/l total reducing sugars (0.91 g sugars/g cellulose amount in SB) after enzymatic hydrolysis. Ultra-structural mapping of acid–base pretreated and enzyme hydrolyzed SB by microscopic analysis (scanning electron microcopy (SEM), transmitted light microscopy (TLM), and spectroscopic analysis (X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy) elucidated the molecular changes in hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin components of bagasse. The detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate was fermented by Scheffersomyces shehatae (syn. Candida shehatae UFMG HM 52.2) and resulted in 9.11 g/l ethanol production (yield 0.38 g/g) after 48 hours of fermentation. Enzymatic hydrolysate when fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 174 revealed 8.13 g/l ethanol (yield 0.22 g/g) after 72 hours of fermentation. Conclusions Multi-scale structural studies of SB after sequential acid–base pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis showed marked changes in hemicellulose and lignin removal at molecular level. The cellulosic material showed high saccharification efficiency after enzymatic hydrolysis. Hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysates revealed moderate ethanol production by S. shehatae and S. cerevisiae under batch fermentation conditions. PMID:24739736

  6. Efficient Open Fermentative Production of Polymer-Grade L-Lactate from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate by Thermotolerant Bacillus sp. Strain P38

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is one of the top 30 potential building-block chemicals from biomass, of which the most extensive use is in the polymerization of lactic acid to poly-lactic-acid (PLA). To reduce the cost of PLA, the search for cheap raw materials and low-cost process for lactic acid production is highly desired. In this study, the final titer of produced L-lactic acid reached a concentration of 185 g·L−1 with a volumetric productivity of 1.93 g·L−1·h−1 by using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as the sole carbon source simultaneously with cottonseed meal as cheap nitrogen sources under the open fed-batch fermentation process. Furthermore, a lactic acid yield of 0.99 g per g of total reducing sugars was obtained, which is very close to the theoretical value (1.0 g g−1). No D-isomer of lactic acid was detected in the broth, and thereafter resulted in an optical purity of 100%, which exceeds the requirement of lactate polymerization process. To our knowledge, this is the best performance of fermentation on polymer-grade L-lactic acid production totally using lignocellulosic sources. The high levels of optically pure l-lactic acid produced, combined with the ease of handling and low costs associated with the open fermentation strategy, indicated the thermotolerant Bacillus sp. P38 could be an excellent candidate strain with great industrial potential for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production from various cellulosic biomasses. PMID:25192451

  7. Ultra-structural mapping of sugarcane bagasse after oxalic acid fiber expansion (OAFEX) and ethanol production by Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diminishing supplies of fossil fuels and oil spills are rousing to explore the alternative sources of energy that can be produced from non-food/feed-based substrates. Due to its abundance, sugarcane bagasse (SB) could be a model substrate for the second-generation biofuel cellulosic ethanol. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB remains a challenge for the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol. We hypothesized that oxalic-acid-mediated thermochemical pretreatment (OAFEX) would overcome the native recalcitrance of SB by enhancing the cellulase amenability toward the embedded cellulosic microfibrils. Results OAFEX treatment revealed the solubilization of hemicellulose releasing sugars (12.56 g/l xylose and 1.85 g/l glucose), leaving cellulignin in an accessible form for enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest hydrolytic efficiency (66.51%) of cellulignin was achieved by enzymatic hydrolysis (Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozym 188). The ultrastructure characterization of SB using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform–near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed structural differences before and after OAFEX treatment with enzymatic hydrolysis. Furthermore, fermentation mediated by C. shehatae UFMG HM52.2 and S. cerevisiae 174 showed fuel ethanol production from detoxified acid (3.2 g/l, yield 0.353 g/g; 0.52 g/l, yield, 0.246 g/g) and enzymatic hydrolysates (4.83 g/l, yield, 0.28 g/g; 6.6 g/l, yield 0.46 g/g). Conclusions OAFEX treatment revealed marked hemicellulose degradation, improving the cellulases’ ability to access the cellulignin and release fermentable sugars from the pretreated substrate. The ultrastructure of SB after OAFEX and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulignin established thorough insights at the molecular level. PMID:23324164

  8. Comparative secretome analysis of Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 and Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 during solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lignocellulosic enzymes of Trichoderma species have received particular attention with regard to biomass conversion to biofuels, but the production cost of these enzymes remains a significant hurdle for their commercial application. In this study, we quantitatively compared the lignocellulolytic enzyme profile of a newly isolated Trichoderma asperellum S4F8 strain with that of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30, cultured on sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Results Comparison of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of S4F8 and Rut C30 showed that S4F8 had significantly higher hemicellulase and β-glucosidase enzyme activities. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the two fungal secretomes enabled the detection of 815 proteins in total, with 418 and 397 proteins being specific for S4F8 and Rut C30, respectively, and 174 proteins being common to both strains. In-depth analysis of the associated biological functions and the representation of glycoside hydrolase family members within the two secretomes indicated that the S4F8 secretome contained a higher diversity of main and side chain hemicellulases and β-glucosidases, and an increased abundance of some of these proteins compared with the Rut C30 secretome. Conclusions In SCB SSF, T. asperellum S4F8 produced a more complex lignocellulolytic cocktail, with enhanced hemicellulose and cellobiose hydrolysis potential, compared with T. reesei Rut C30. This bodes well for the development of a more cost-effective and efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme cocktail from T. asperellum for lignocellulosic feedstock hydrolysis. PMID:24286470

  9. Effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse pretreated by acidified glycerol solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Harrison, Mark D; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2015-09-01

    In this study, for the first time the effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis was inhibited slightly with 2.0 wt% glycerol, leading to reduction in glucan digestibility from 84.9% without glycerol to 82.9% (72 h). With 5.0 wt% and 10.0 wt% glycerol, glucan digestibility was reduced by 4.5% and 11.0%, respectively. However, glycerol did not irreversibly inhibit cellulase enzymes. Ethanol fermentation was not affected by glycerol up to 5.0 wt%, but was inhibited slightly at 10.0 wt% glycerol, resulting in reduction in ethanol yield from 86.0% in the absence of glycerol to 83.7% (20 h). Based on the results of laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, it was estimated that 0.142 kg ethanol can be produced from 1.0 kg dry bagasse (a glucan content of 38.0%) after pretreatment with acidified glycerol solution. PMID:26056778

  10. Effective pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with combination pretreatment and its hydrolyzates as reaction media for the biosynthesis of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by whole cells of E. coli CCZU-K14.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Di, Jun-Hua; Wu, Yin-Qi; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Chong, Gang-Gang; Ding, Yun; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SB) was pretreated with combination pretreatment (e.g., sequential KOH extraction and ionic liquid soaking, sequential KOH extraction and Fenton soaking, or sequential KOH extraction and glycerol soaking). After the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SBs, it was found that all these three concentrated hydrolyzates could be used for the asymmetric bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(S)-CHBE]. Compared with glucose, arabinose and cellobiose couldn't promote the initial reaction rate, and xylose could increase the intracellular NADH content. Moreover, it was the first report that hydrolyzates could be used for the effective biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (∼500g/L; 98.0% yield) from 3000 COBE by whole cells of Escherichia coli CCZU-K14 in the presence of β-CD (0.4mol β-CD/mol COBE), l-glutamine (200mM) and glycine (500mM). In conclusion, it is a new alternative to utilize bioresource for the synthesis of key chiral intermediate (S)-CHBE. PMID:27060248

  11. Butanol production employing fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum GX01 using alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus QS 7-2-4.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zong-Wen; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Liang, Jing-Juan; Du, Liang-Wei; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SB) is a potential feedstock for butanol production. However, biological production of butanol from SB is less economically viable. In this study, evaluation of eight pretreatments on SB showed that alkali pretreatment efficiently removed lignin from SB while retaining the intact native structure of the released microfibrils. In total, 99% of cellulose and 100% of hemicellulose in alkali-pretreated SB were hydrolysed by enzymes from Thermoascus aurantiacus. The hydrolysate was used to produce butanol in a fed-batch fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. At 60h, 14.17 and 21.11gL(-1) of butanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) were produced from 68.89gL(-1) of total sugars, respectively, yielding 0.22 and 0.33gg(-1) of sugars. The maximum yield of butanol and ABE reached 15.4g and 22.9g per 100g raw SB, respectively. This established process may have potential application for butanol production from SB. PMID:27089425

  12. Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1982-12-01

    Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

  13. Identification of glycosyl hydrolases from a metagenomic library of microflora in sugarcane bagasse collection site and their cooperative action on cellulose degradation.

    PubMed

    Kanokratana, Pattanop; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Pootanakit, Kusol; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulose decomposition is a natural process involving the cooperative action of various glycosyl hydrolases (GH) on plant cell wall components. In this study, a metagenomic library was constructed to capture the genetic diversity of microbes inhabiting an industrial bagasse collection site. A variety of putative genes encoding GH families 2, 3, 5, 9, 11, and 16 were identified using activity-based screening, which showed low to moderate homology to various cellulases and hemicellulases. The recombinant GH9 endoglucanase (Cel9) and GH11 endo-xylanase (Xyn11) were thermophilic with optimal activity between 75C and 80C and the maximal activity at slightly acidic to neutral pH range. The enzymes exhibited cooperative activity with Trichoderma reesei cellulase on the degradation of lignocellulosic substrates. Mixture design showed positive interactions among the enzyme components. The optimal combination was determined to be 41.4% Celluclast, 18.0% Cel9, and 40.6% Xyn11 with the predicted relative reducing sugar of 658% when compared to Celluclastalone on hydrolysis of alkaline-pretreated bagasse. The work demonstrates the potential of lignocellulolytic enzymes from a novel uncultured microbial resource for enhancing efficiency of biomass-degrading enzyme systems for bio-industries. PMID:25441441

  14. Fast pyrolysis of sweet soghum bagasse in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, M.; Peacocke, C.; Bridgewater, A.V.; Piskorz, J.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-12-31

    Samples of Italian sorghum bagasse were dried and ground and then pyrolyzed in the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis bench scale reactor unit. Results were typical of agricultural grasses of this kind, and resembled those obtained from similar tests of sugar cane bagasse. A maximum liquid yield (dry feed basis) of 68% by weight of dry feed was achieved, with a corresponding char yield (ash included) of 16%. The high ash content of the bagasse (9.2%) gave a char with a very high ash content ({approx}50%), with calcium as the most abundant cation. Yields of hydroxyacetaldehyde were comparable to those obtained from softwoods. Deionized bagasse gave significant yields of anhydrosugars on pyrolysis. Sorghum bagasse appears to be a suitable feedstock, either for pyrolysis to yield an alternative fuel oil, or after pretreatment and pyrolysis, to yield a solution of fermentable sugars.

  15. Sugarcane as a renewable resource

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.A.; Edye, L.A.

    1995-12-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown, generally as a perennial crop, in tropical and subtropical areas; some 750 million tonnes are produced each year. Food, feed and energy are the major products of the sugarcane plant; sugarcane fiber, bagasse, fuels the cane processing plants and provides electricity to local grids through cogeneration. A range of chemicals and polymers is available from process streams and sugars. Microbial products are discussed in the comparison paper on sugarbeet. Chemical transformations reviewed herein include production of sucrose mono-, di- and poly-esters, polyurethanes, carboxylic acid derivatives, and thermally stable polymers. Processes and product will be reviewed.

  16. Effects of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) on tensile properties and morphology of polypropylene (PP), recycle acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Omar, Latifah; Zainal, Mustaffa; Ting, Sam Sung; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-01

    The performance of sugarcane baggase (SCB) treated with γ-APS filled polypropylene (PP)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) biocomposites were investigated. The composites with different filler loading ranging from 5 to 30 wt % were prepared using heated two roll mill by melt mixing at temperature of 180 °C. Tensile properties of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites which is tensile strength, Young Modulus and elongation at break were investigated. Increasing of treated SCB filler loading in PP/NBRr/SCB composites have increased the Young modulus however decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites. From the results, γ-APS treated SCB composites shown higher tensile strength and Young Modulus but lower elongation at break when compared to the untreated SCB composites. This is due to the stronger bonding between γ-APS treated SCB with PP/NBRr matrices. These findings was supported by micrograph pictures from morphological study. SCB filler treated with γ-APS has improved the adhesion as well as gave strong interfacial bonding between SCB filler and PP/NBRr matrices which results in good tensile strength of PP/NBRr/SCB composites.

  17. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane production, and reduced greenhouse gas emission. Overall, the conversion of sugarcane harvest residue to biochar as soil amendment improves sugarcane production for both agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane residue biochar also showed the potential of other environmental use for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  18. Sugarcane and pinewood biochar effects on activity and aerobic soil dissipation of metribuzin and pendimethalin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars were produced by pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (350°C and 700°C) and pine wood (400°C) and are abbreviated BC350, BC700, and WC400, respectively. Metribuzin adsorption by batch equilibrium showed that BC700 had the greatest adsorption capacity followed by BC350 and WC400. The bagasse bioch...

  19. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, S.H.; Neto, C.C.; Ferrara, M.A.; Torres, J.C.R.; Magalhaes, D.B.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of applying a steam explosion pretreatment process to sugarcane bagasse was investigated, and the effectiveness of the pretreatment in terms of hemicellulose solubilization and enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was determined. The steam requirement for the pretreatment was also investigated at the pilot-plant scale, and these results are presented.

  1. Composition of Residue from Sugarcane and Related Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Louisiana, a facility near Jennings will produce cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) bagasse and “energy canes”. This study was done to obtain basic information on the composition of the cell wall residue left after expressing the juice in different Saccharum genotypes. Fou...

  2. Variation of bagasse crystallinity and cellulase activity during the fermentation of cellulomonas bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez, A.; Montalvo, R.; Canales, M.

    1981-07-01

    A characteristic behavior of the fermentation process was observed during the growth of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse. At the early stage of the fermentation the crystallinity index of bagasse increased, suggesting that the major metabolized fraction corresponded to the hemicellulose during this stage. Some time later the crystallinity achieved a steady state and then decreased, which indicated that the most complex structure of bagasse was being attacked. The analysis of the cellulolytic activity of extracellular enzyme in the medium showed a sharp increase followed by an abrupt leveling off and decline in activity. These results along with the reduction of crystallinity index and bagasse utilization (70%) justify the assumption that the C1 component was present in the cellulase complex synthesized by the bacteria. (Refs. 12).

  3. Impact of cultivar selection and process optimization on ethanol yield from different varieties of sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of ‘energycane’ varieties of sugarcane is underway, targeting the use of both sugar juice and bagasse for ethanol production. The current study evaluated a selection of such ‘energycane’ cultivars for the combined ethanol yields from juice and bagasse, by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment optimization of bagasse for sugar yields. Method A central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of dilute acid pretreatment parameters followed by enzymatic hydrolysis on the combined sugar yield of bagasse samples. The pressed slurry generated from optimum pretreatment conditions (maximum combined sugar yield) was used as the substrate during batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes at different solid loadings and enzyme dosages, aiming to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40 g/L. Results Significant variations were observed in sugar yields (xylose, glucose and combined sugar yield) from pretreatment-hydrolysis of bagasse from different cultivars of sugarcane. Up to 33% difference in combined sugar yield between best performing varieties and industrial bagasse was observed at optimal pretreatment-hydrolysis conditions. Significant improvement in overall ethanol yield after SSF of the pretreated bagasse was also observed from the best performing varieties (84.5 to 85.6%) compared to industrial bagasse (74.5%). The ethanol concentration showed inverse correlation with lignin content and the ratio of xylose to arabinose, but it showed positive correlation with glucose yield from pretreatment-hydrolysis. The overall assessment of the cultivars showed greater improvement in the final ethanol concentration (26.9 to 33.9%) and combined ethanol yields per hectare (83 to 94%) for the best performing varieties with respect to industrial sugarcane. Conclusions These results suggest that the selection of sugarcane variety to optimize ethanol production from bagasse can be achieved without adversely affecting juice ethanol and cane yield, thus maintaining first generation ethanol production levels while maximizing second generation ethanol production. PMID:24725458

  4. Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.

    PubMed

    Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

  5. Experiment and simulation study on alkalis transfer characteristic during direct combustion utilization of bagasse.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yanfen; Cao, Yawen; Chen, Tuo; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2015-10-01

    Bagasse is utilized as fuel in the biggest biomass power plant of China, however, alkalis in the fuel created severe agglomeration and slagging problems. Alkalis transfer characteristic, agglomeration causes in engineering practice, additive improvement effects and mechanism during bagasse combustion were investigated via experiments and simulations. Only slight agglomeration occurs in ash higher than 800°C. Serious agglomeration in practical operation should be attributed to the gaseous alkalis evaporating at high temperature and condensing on the cooler grain surfaces in CFB. It can be speculated that ash caking can be avoided with temperature lower than 750°C and heating surface corrosion caused by alkali metal vapor can be alleviated with temperature lower than 850°C. Kaolin added into the bagasse has an apparent advantage over CaO additive both in enhancing ash fusion point and relieving alkali-chloride corrosion by locking alkalis in dystectic solid compounds over the whole temperature range. PMID:26196420

  6. The Penicillium echinulatum Secretome on Sugar Cane Bagasse

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniela A.; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M.; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M. P.; Pauletti, Bianca A.; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Murakami, Mario T.; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J. P.; Pradella, Jose G. C.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Squina, Fabio M.

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  7. The Penicillium echinulatum secretome on sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela A; Cota, Júnio; Alvarez, Thabata M; Brüchli, Fernanda; Bragato, Juliano; Pereira, Beatriz M P; Pauletti, Bianca A; Jackson, George; Pimenta, Maria T B; Murakami, Mario T; Camassola, Marli; Ruller, Roberto; Dillon, Aldo J P; Pradella, Jose G C; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Squina, Fabio M

    2012-01-01

    Plant feedstocks are at the leading front of the biofuel industry based on the potential to promote economical, social and environmental development worldwide through sustainable scenarios related to energy production. Penicillium echinulatum is a promising strain for the bioethanol industry based on its capacity to produce large amounts of cellulases at low cost. The secretome profile of P. echinulatum after grown on integral sugarcane bagasse, microcrystalline cellulose and three types of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was evaluated using shotgun proteomics. The comprehensive chemical characterization of the biomass used as the source of fungal nutrition, as well as biochemical activity assays using a collection of natural polysaccharides, were also performed. Our study revealed that the enzymatic repertoire of P. echinulatum is geared mainly toward producing enzymes from the cellulose complex (endogluganases, cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases). Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family members, important to biomass-to-biofuels conversion strategies, were identified, including endoglucanases GH5, 7, 6, 12, 17 and 61, β-glycosidase GH3, xylanases GH10 and GH11, as well as debranching hemicellulases from GH43, GH62 and CE2 and pectinanes from GH28. Collectively, the approach conducted in this study gave new insights on the better comprehension of the composition and degradation capability of an industrial cellulolytic strain, from which a number of applied technologies, such as biofuel production, can be generated. PMID:23227186

  8. Seasonal variations of sugarcane stalk and extraneous matter on pH, color and ash as they affect the production of high quality raw sugars (Part II)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a trend in the U.S. and world-wide to produce very high pol (VHP) and very low color (VLC) raw sugars for new refineries. In Louisiana (LA), a new refinery is requesting VHP/VLC sugar with lower ash concentrations for liquid sugar manufacture and short, medium, and long-term refinery strat...

  9. Proximate and Ultimate Analyses of Bagasse, Sorghum and Millet Straws as Precursors for Active Carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lori, J. A.; Lawal, A. O.; Ekanem, E. J.

    This study reports the proximate and ultimate characteristics of bagasse, sorghum and millet straws in relation to their suitability for producing highly porous carbon. The results of ad hoc samples indicated, that particle size has a decisive influence on the proximate characteristics of bagasse, sorghum and millet straws. The effects of particle size on weight loss characteristics; rates of dehydration and de-volatilization of the carbon precursors were used to assess particle sizes that may be appropriate for carbonization. Particle sizes of 425-1180 µm are thus, suggested to be the most desirable, for the production of good quality porous carbon. This range of particles of bagasse, sorghum and millet straws were associated with diminishing ash contents. However, the optimum particle size of the cellulosic materials that is expected to yield highly porous carbon with minimum ash contents is 1180 µm.

  10. Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (μg) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ≥ underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

  11. Hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by mycelial biomass of Penicillium funiculosum

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Deshpande, V.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Mishra, C.

    1985-07-01

    Cellulose bioconversion has great promise for producing unlimited quantities of fermentable feedstocks and liquid fuels. Extensive studies on the production of extracellular cellulase and on the saccharification of various cellulosic substrates using cellulases have been reported. Use of mycelial biomass having cell bound cellulase for saccharification of cellulose was studied in Aspergillus terreus by Miller and Srinivasan. Extracellular cellulase production by P. funiculosum and its application for cellulose hydrolysis have been reported earlier by the authors. The present communication reports the hydrolysis of lignocellulose using mycelial biomass of P. funiculosum cultivated on cellulose and its reuse potential. 10 references.

  12. Sugarcane pests and their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pest management factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pest management ...

  13. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content

    PubMed Central

    Vicentini, Renato; Bottcher, Alexandra; Brito, Michael dos Santos; dos Santos, Adriana Brombini; Creste, Silvana; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome. PMID:26241317

  14. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Two Sugarcane Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, Renato; Bottcher, Alexandra; Brito, Michael Dos Santos; Dos Santos, Adriana Brombini; Creste, Silvana; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Cesarino, Igor; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar and first generation ethanol production. Recently, the residue of sugarcane mills, named bagasse, has been considered a promising lignocellulosic biomass to produce the second-generation ethanol. Lignin is a major factor limiting the use of bagasse and other plant lignocellulosic materials to produce second-generation ethanol. Lignin biosynthesis pathway is a complex network and changes in the expression of genes of this pathway have in general led to diverse and undesirable impacts on plant structure and physiology. Despite its economic importance, sugarcane genome was still not sequenced. In this study a high-throughput transcriptome evaluation of two sugarcane genotypes contrasting for lignin content was carried out. We generated a set of 85,151 transcripts of sugarcane using RNA-seq and de novo assembling. More than 2,000 transcripts showed differential expression between the genotypes, including several genes involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway. This information can give valuable knowledge on the lignin biosynthesis and its interactions with other metabolic pathways in the complex sugarcane genome. PMID:26241317

  15. Lignification in Sugarcane: Biochemical Characterization, Gene Discovery, and Expression Analysis in Two Genotypes Contrasting for Lignin Content1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Brombini dos Santos, Adriana; Vicentini, Renato; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Goeminne, Geert; Moura, Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva; Nobile, Paula Macedo; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Antonio dos Anjos, Ivan; Creste, Silvana; Boerjan, Wout; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is currently one of the most efficient crops in the production of first-generation biofuels. However, the bagasse represents an additional abundant lignocellulosic resource that has the potential to increase the ethanol production per plant. To achieve a more efficient conversion of bagasse into ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Because several studies have shown a negative effect of lignin on saccharification yield, the characterization of lignin biosynthesis, structure, and deposition in sugarcane is an important goal. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of lignin deposition during sugarcane stem development, using histological, biochemical, and transcriptional data derived from two sugarcane genotypes with contrasting lignin contents. Lignin amount and composition were determined in rind (outer) and pith (inner) tissues throughout stem development. In addition, the phenolic metabolome was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed the identification of 35 compounds related to the phenylpropanoid pathway and monolignol biosynthesis. Furthermore, the Sugarcane EST Database was extensively surveyed to identify lignin biosynthetic gene homologs, and the expression of all identified genes during stem development was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our data provide, to our knowledge, the first in-depth characterization of lignin biosynthesis in sugarcane and form the baseline for the rational metabolic engineering of sugarcane feedstock for bioenergy purposes. PMID:24144790

  16. Effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to soil on nitrate leaching in calcaric soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameyama, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Shinogi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrate leaching in soils is often an important aspect in agriculture. Nitrate is leached from the root zone, where plants can utilize them, by surplus rainfall because little nitrate is absorbed by soil colloids. Miyako Island (target area) is located in the subtropical zone and comprised of coral limestone with high permeability. Land surface is covered with calcaric dark red soil that is called “Shimajiri-Maji”. Since the soil has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity, fertilizer-derived nitrogen easily leaches from the root zone during surplus rainfall and the nitrogen utilization efficiency of crops is relatively low. Biochars, charcoal produced from pyrolysis of biomass, are known to adsorb dissolved nitrate. Sugarcane bagasse is the main biomass resource on the island because agriculture is the main industry on the island and sugarcane is cultivated in approximately 70% of the farmland. However, the adsorption characteristics of bagasse-charcoals for nitrate have not yet been clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependency of carbonization temperatures on the nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse-charcoals and the effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to the soil on NO3-N transport in the soil for optimal use of bagasse-charcoal as a soil amendment in Miyako Island. Sugarcane bagasse were air-dried and heated in a batch-type carbonization furnace at five different carbonization temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) with a holding time of 2 h. Nitrate adsorption by soil and bagasse-charcoals at each carbonization temperature was measured by the batch equilibrium technique. NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils (rates of charcoal addition: 0, 5 and 10 wt %) was evaluated in the column experiments. The breakthrough curves of NO3-N concentrations in the effluents from the bottom of the columns were analyzed with a convective-dispersion model. The model described one-dimensional transport of a sorbing solute thorough a homogeneous saturated soil. Linear adsorption equation that considered rates of charcoal addition was used to describe NO3-N adsorption of charcoal-amended soils (S=Kd C R, where C is solution concentration [mg cm-3], S is sorbed concentration [mg -1], Kd is the sorption distribution coefficient [cm-3 kg-1] and R is rates of charcoal addition [wt %]). The experimental and analytical results were as follows: (1) Batch experiments using five different bagasse-charcoals revealed that nitrate was adsorbed at 700°C and 800°C and was scarcely adsorbed at less than 700°C. (2) Column experiments using charcoal-amended soils revealed that NO3-N transport in soils was delayed by adsorption effects of bagasse-charcoal. (3) Analysis with the convective-dispersion model showed that the experimental and simulated results were in good agreement at all charcoal-amended soils. Therefore, the adsorption equation that considers the rates of charcoal addition is effective to describe NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils.

  17. The development of multi-objective optimization model for excess bagasse utilization: A case study for Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Buddadee, Bancha Wirojanagud, Wanpen Watts, Daniel J. Pitakaso, Rapeepan

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimization model is proposed as a tool to assist in deciding for the proper utilization scheme of excess bagasse produced in sugarcane industry. Two major scenarios for excess bagasse utilization are considered in the optimization. The first scenario is the typical situation when excess bagasse is used for the onsite electricity production. In case of the second scenario, excess bagasse is processed for the offsite ethanol production. Then the ethanol is blended with an octane rating of 91 gasoline by a portion of 10% and 90% by volume respectively and the mixture is used as alternative fuel for gasoline vehicles in Thailand. The model proposed in this paper called 'Environmental System Optimization' comprises the life cycle impact assessment of global warming potential (GWP) and the associated cost followed by the multi-objective optimization which facilitates in finding out the optimal proportion of the excess bagasse processed in each scenario. Basic mathematical expressions for indicating the GWP and cost of the entire process of excess bagasse utilization are taken into account in the model formulation and optimization. The outcome of this study is the methodology developed for decision-making concerning the excess bagasse utilization available in Thailand in view of the GWP and economic effects. A demonstration example is presented to illustrate the advantage of the methodology which may be used by the policy maker. The methodology developed is successfully performed to satisfy both environmental and economic objectives over the whole life cycle of the system. It is shown in the demonstration example that the first scenario results in positive GWP while the second scenario results in negative GWP. The combination of these two scenario results in positive or negative GWP depending on the preference of the weighting given to each objective. The results on economics of all scenarios show the satisfied outcomes.

  18. Exploiting sugarcane for energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energycane can be described as sugarcane varieties with fiber content that is higher than the level seen in sugarcane varieties used for commercial sugar production. This fiber content is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Approximately 70 percent of the dry weight of sugarcane is cel...

  19. Simulation of integrated first and second generation bioethanol production from sugarcane: comparison between different biomass pretreatment methods.

    PubMed

    Dias, Marina O S; da Cunha, Marcelo Pereira; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V

    2011-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is used as a fuel in conventional bioethanol production, providing heat and power for the plant; therefore, the amount of surplus bagasse available for use as raw material for second generation bioethanol production is related to the energy consumption of the bioethanol production process. Pentoses and lignin, byproducts of the second generation bioethanol production process, may be used as fuels, increasing the amount of surplus bagasse. In this work, simulations of the integrated bioethanol production process from sugarcane, surplus bagasse and trash were carried out. Selected pre-treatment methods followed, or not, by a delignification step were evaluated. The amount of lignocellulosic materials available for hydrolysis in each configuration was calculated assuming that 50% of sugarcane trash is recovered from the field. An economic risk analysis was carried out; the best results for the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process were obtained for steam explosion pretreatment, high solids loading for hydrolysis and 24-48 h hydrolysis. The second generation ethanol production process must be improved (e.g., decreasing required investment, improving yields and developing pentose fermentation to ethanol) in order for the integrated process to be more economically competitive. PMID:20838849

  20. Microencapsulation of alginate-immobilized bagasse with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442: enhancement of survivability and thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Shaharuddin, Shahrulzaman; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2015-03-30

    The aim of this research was to enhance the survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 against heat exposure via a combination of immobilization and microencapsulation processes using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sodium alginate (NaA), respectively. The microcapsules were synthesized using different alginate concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and NaA:SB ratio of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:1.5. This beneficial step of probiotic immobilization before microencapsulation significantly enhanced microencapsulation efficiency and cell survivability after heat exposure of 90C for 30s. Interestingly, the microcapsule of SB-immobilized probiotic could obtain protection from heat using microencapsulation of NaA concentration as low as 1%. SEM images illustrated the incorporation of immobilized L. rhamnosus within alginate matrices and its changes after heat exposure. FTIR spectra confirmed the change in functional bonding in the presence of sugarcane bagasse, probiotic and alginate. The results demonstrated a great potential in the synthesis of heat resistant microcapsules for probiotic. PMID:25563958

  1. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  2. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  3. Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode.

    PubMed

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Guangwei; Cai, Huaqiang; Liu, Hong; Wong, C P; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-10-21

    Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1) was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices. PMID:25201446

  4. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing.

    PubMed

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5-181 Nm³·tonFM(-1)), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  5. Biogas Production from Sugarcane Waste: Assessment on Kinetic Challenges for Process Designing

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Leandro; Leite, Athaydes; Nikolausz, Marcell; Schmidt, Thomas; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Biogas production from sugarcane waste has large potential for energy generation, however, to enable the optimization of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process each substrate characteristic should be carefully evaluated. In this study, the kinetic challenges for biogas production from different types of sugarcane waste were assessed. Samples of vinasse, filter cake, bagasse, and straw were analyzed in terms of total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, macronutrients, trace elements, and nutritional value. Biochemical methane potential assays were performed to evaluate the energy potential of the substrates according to different types of sugarcane plants. Methane yields varied considerably (5–181 Nm3·tonFM−1), mainly due to the different substrate characteristics and sugar and/or ethanol production processes. Therefore, for the optimization of AD on a large-scale, continuous stirred-tank reactor with long hydraulic retention times (>35 days) should be used for biogas production from bagasse and straw, coupled with pre-treatment process to enhance the degradation of the fibrous carbohydrates. Biomass immobilization systems are recommended in case vinasse is used as substrate, due to its low solid content, while filter cake could complement the biogas production from vinasse during the sugarcane offseason, providing a higher utilization of the biogas system during the entire year. PMID:26404248

  6. Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical ripening of sugarcane is an important component to profitable sugar production in the U.S. as well as other sugarcane industries throughout the world. Harvesting of sugarcane often begins before the sugarcane reaches a desirable level of maturity. This is especially true in the Louisiana ...

  7. Sugarcane and Energycane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Energycane” is a term that is used to describe sugarcane grown solely for the production of renewable energy. A Type I energycane has somewhat lower sugar content (10-14%) and higher fiber content (14-20%) than a commercial sugarcane cultivar bred for sugar production. In contrast, a Type II energy...

  8. Sugarcane borer in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is one of the most important of the above-ground pests of sugarcane in Florida. This article presents information pertaining to the borer’s biology, damage to cane, scouting, biological control, cultural control and chemical control. ...

  9. Sugarcane Rusts in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust symptoms were first observed in Florida in June 2007 on cultivar CP 80-1743. The causal agent, Puccinia kuehnii, was subsequently verified morphologically and molecularly constituting the first confirmed report of sugarcane orange rust in the Western Hemisphere. Orange rust was...

  10. Categorizing sugarcane cultivar resistance to the sugarcane aphid and yellow sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in the U.S. is chiefly colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava, which vector economically important viruses of the crop. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to categorize commercial sugarcane cultivars for the...

  11. Categorizing Sugarcane Cultivar Resistance to the Sugarcane Aphid and Yellow Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a disease that has been added to certifica...

  12. Microbial utilization and biopolyester synthesis of bagasse hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Stahl, Heiko

    2008-11-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potentially inexpensive renewable feedstock for the biorefineries of fuels, chemicals and materials. Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated in dilute acid solution under moderately severe conditions, releasing sugars and other hydrolysates including volatile organic acids, furfurals and acid soluble lignin. Utilization of the hydrolysates by an aerobic bacterium, Ralstonia eutropha, was investigated to determine if the organic inhibitors can be removed for potential recycling and reuse of the process water. Simultaneous biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) for the production of value-added bioplastics was also investigated. An inhibitory effect of hydrolysates on microbial activity was observed, but it could be effectively relieved by using (a) a large inoculum, (b) a diluted hydrolysate solution, and (c) a tolerant strain, or a combination of the three. The major organic inhibitors including formic acid, acetic acid, furfural and acid soluble lignin were effectively utilized and removed to low concentration levels (less than 100ppm) while at the same time, PHA biopolyesters were synthesized and accumulated to 57wt% of cell mass under appropriate C/N ratios. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) was the predominant biopolyester formed on the hydrolysates, but the cells could also synthesize co-polyesters that exhibit high ductility. PMID:18474421

  13. Selected organic compounds from biomass burning found in the atmospheric particulate matter over sugarcane plantation areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Celeste Yara Moreira; Azevedo, Débora de Almeida; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    Atmospheric particulate matter, from three sites in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, and smoke samples from the burning of sugarcane leaves and bagasse were analyzed for biomass burning emissions. Samples were acquired using a standard high-volume air sampler; extracts were prepared and fractionated into aromatic and polar compounds. These fractions were subjected to gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Polar and aromatic fractions were identified and quantified. Compounds such as levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan were found in the polar fractions, and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aromatic fractions. Concentrations of levoglucosan ranged from 0.15 to 1.65 ng/m 3, 0.36 to 6.83 ng/m 3 and 0.19 to 28.42 ng/m 3 at the downtown Corpo de Bombeiros, suburban (Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense) and countryside (Lake de Cima, LC) sites; and from 10.55 to 35.06 ng/m 3 and 2.7 ng/m 3 in the smoke samples from the burnt leaves and bagasse, respectively. The LC site is, at face value, a non-polluted countryside area, surrounded by sugarcane plantations. This fact explains why the highest concentrations of levoglucosan were detected there. Sugarcane burning is not the main source of toxic compounds, such as PAH, e.g. benzo( a)pyrene, in the atmospheric particulate matter. No or small concentrations of PAHs were found in the sugarcane leaves/bagasse burning samples. Their presence in the studied sites can be ascribed to vehicular exhaust. Therefore, these are the two major sources of atmospheric pollution in this area.

  14. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    PubMed

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

  15. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids).

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of sugarcane has a tremendous potential to complement traditional breeding in crop improvement and will likely transform sugarcane into a bio-factory for value-added products. We describe here Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sugarcane. Embryogenic callus induced from immature leaf whorls was used as target for transformation with the hypervirulent Agrobacterium strain AGL1 carrying a constitutive nptII expression cassette in vector pPZP200. Selection with 30 mg/L geneticin during the callus phase and 30 mg/L paromomycin during regeneration of shoots and roots effectively suppressed the development of non-transgenic plants. This protocol was successful with a commercially important sugarcane cultivar, CP-88-1762, at a transformation efficiency of two independent transgenic plants per g of callus. PMID:25416267

  16. Hierarchical porous carbon aerogel derived from bagasse for high performance supercapacitor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Jian; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Yu, Guangwei; Cai, Huaqiang; Liu, Hong; Wong, C. P.; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g-1 at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1 was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices.Renewable, cost-effective and eco-friendly electrode materials have attracted much attention in the energy conversion and storage fields. Bagasse, the waste product from sugarcane that mainly contains cellulose derivatives, can be a promising candidate to manufacture supercapacitor electrode materials. This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of highly porous carbon aerogels by using bagasse as a raw material. Macro and mesoporous carbon was first prepared by carbonizing the freeze-dried bagasse aerogel; consequently, microporous structure was created on the walls of the mesoporous carbon by chemical activation. Interestingly, it was observed that the specific surface area, the pore size and distribution of the hierarchical porous carbon were affected by the activation temperature. In order to evaluate the ability of the hierarchical porous carbon towards the supercapacitor electrode performance, solid state symmetric supercapacitors were assembled, and a comparable high specific capacitance of 142.1 F g-1 at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1 was demonstrated. The fabricated solid state supercapacitor displayed excellent capacitance retention of 93.9% over 5000 cycles. The high energy storage ability of the hierarchical porous carbon was attributed to the specially designed pore structures, i.e., co-existence of the micropores and mesopores. This research has demonstrated that utilization of sustainable biopolymers as the raw materials for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials is an effective way to fabricate low-cost energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03574g

  17. Sugarcane response to bermudagrass interference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted with the objectives of determining differences in the competitiveness of three phenotypically different sugarcane cultivars, CP 70-321, HoCP 85-845, and LCP 85-384, with bermudagrass, and the effects of bermudagrass interference on sugarcane. Sugarcane was planted at tw...

  18. Alternative cropping systems for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Research was conducted at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit at Houma, LA to determine the impac...

  19. Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the start of the sugarcane harvest season in Louisiana, late-September or early-October, sucrose content in sugarcane is relatively low compared to late in the harvest season. In order for early-harvested sugarcane to be profitable, chemicals, primarily herbicides, have been evaluated for their e...

  20. Effects of bagasse microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyacrylamide on key properties of bagasse paper.

    PubMed

    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman; Syverud, Kristin; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Ghasemain, Ali; Resalati, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the benefits of using bagasse microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in bagasse paper. Two different types of MFC were produced from DED bleached soda bagasse pulp. The MFC was added to soda bagasse pulp furnishes in different amounts. Cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) was selected as retention aid. The results show that addition of MFC increased the strength of paper as expected. Interestingly, 1% MFC in combination with 0.1% C-PAM yielded similar drainage time as the reference pulp, which did not contain MFC. In addition, the samples containing 1% MFC and 0.1% C-PAM yielded (i) a significant increment of the tensile index, (ii) a minor decrease of opacity and (iii) preserved Gurley porosity. Hence, this study proves that small fractions of MFC in combination with adequate retention aids can have positive effects with respect to paper properties, which is most interesting from an industrial point of view. PMID:24274512

  1. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. PMID:23021947

  2. Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse. Influence of catalyst type and chemical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Encinar, J.M.; Beltran, F.J.; Ramiro, A.; Gonzalez, J.F.

    1997-10-01

    Catalyzed pyrolysis of grape and olive bagasse under different experimental conditions has been studied. Variables investigated were temperature and type and concentration of catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an isothermal manner. Products of pyrolysis are gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}), liquids (methanol, acetone, furfurylic alcohol, phenol, furfural, naphthalene, and o-cresol), and solids (chars). Temperature is a significant variable, yielding increases of fixed carbon content, gases, and to a lesser extent, ash percentage. Catalyst presence also yields increases of solid phase content, but the amount of liquid components decrease. Among catalysts applied those of Fe and Zn are the most advisable to obtain gases. Chemical treatment of bagasses with sulfuric or phosphoric acid washing leads to lower char yields, although fixed carbon content is higher and ash presence diminishes with respect to catalyst pyrolysis without chemical pretreatment. A pyrolysis kinetic study based on gas generation from thermal decomposition of residues has been carried out. From the model proposed, rate constants for the formation of each gas, reaction order of the catalyst, and activation energies were determined.

  3. Ash Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Maurice R.

    Ash refers to the inorganic residue remaining after either ignition or complete oxidation of organic matter in a foodstuff. A basic knowledge of the characteristics of various ashing procedures and types of equipment is essential to ensure reliable results. Two major types of ashing are used: dry ashing, primarily for proximate composition and for some types of specific mineral analyses; wet ashing (oxidation), as a preparation for the analysis of certain minerals. Microwave systems now are available for both dry and wet ashing, to speed the processes. Most dry samples (i.e., whole grain, cereals, dried vegetables) need no preparation, while fresh vegetables need to be dried prior to ashing. High-fat products such as meats may need to be dried and fat extracted before ashing. The ash content of foods can be expressed on either a wet weight (as is) or on a dry weight basis. For general and food-specific information on measuring ash content, see references (1-11).

  4. Improving Sugarcane Flood Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help co...

  5. Herbicide effects on sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of all the areas of the world where sugarcane is grown, Louisiana lies furthest from the Equator. As such, its growing season is the shortest as it is affected by frost in the late–winter (February/March) at the start of the growing season and the fear of freezing temperatures during the harvest se...

  6. Development of the Cuban bagasse boiler practice

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper shows how Cuban bagasse boiler practice began simultaneously with the design of the spreader-stoker boilers RETO and the retrofitting of the horse-shoe furnace German boilers into the RETAL ones. Now the main trend is the retrofitting of the boilers RETO for suspension burning using two systems: the vertical swirl or tangenital fired furnace; and the horizontal swirl furnace. In this paper the main technical characteristics and parameters are presented, as well as the results of the tests with different boilers. Data about temperature gas concentration profiles are different furnaces are also included. The conclusion is that the horizontal swirl furnace is actually the most promising technical solution for the suspension burning of a coarse and polidispersed bagasse like the Cuban one. The generalization of the bagasse suspension burning in horizontal swirl furnace boilers by retrofitting of the existing ones is a present task for the Cuban sugar industry, as well as the design of new high steam parameter boilers using this combustion system.

  7. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  8. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger during Growth on Sugarcane Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Souza, Amanda Pereira; de Santana, Eliane Silva; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Buckeridge, Marcos; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Background Our dependence on fossil fuel sources and concern about the environment has generated a worldwide interest in establishing new sources of fuel and energy. Thus, the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous because it is an inexhaustible energy source and has minimal environmental impact. Currently, Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol, which is produced from sugarcane juice fermentation. However, several studies suggest that Brazil could double its production per hectare by using sugarcane bagasse and straw, known as second-generation (2G) bioethanol. Nevertheless, the use of this biomass presents a challenge because the plant cell wall structure, which is composed of complex sugars (cellulose and hemicelluloses), must be broken down into fermentable sugar, such as glucose and xylose. To achieve this goal, several types of hydrolytic enzymes are necessary, and these enzymes represent the majority of the cost associated with 2G bioethanol processing. Reducing the cost of the saccharification process can be achieved via a comprehensive understanding of the hydrolytic mechanisms and enzyme secretion of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing microorganisms. In many natural habitats, several microorganisms degrade lignocellulosic biomass through a set of enzymes that act synergistically. In this study, two fungal species, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei, were grown on sugarcane biomass with two levels of cell wall complexity, culm in natura and pretreated bagasse. The production of enzymes related to biomass degradation was monitored using secretome analyses after 6, 12 and 24 hours. Concurrently, we analyzed the sugars in the supernatant. Results Analyzing the concentration of monosaccharides in the supernatant, we observed that both species are able to disassemble the polysaccharides of sugarcane cell walls since 6 hours post-inoculation. The sugars from the polysaccharides such as arabinoxylan and β-glucan (that compose the most external part of the cell wall in sugarcane) are likely the first to be released and assimilated by both species of fungi. At all time points tested, A. niger produced more enzymes (quantitatively and qualitatively) than T. reesei. However, the most important enzymes related to biomass degradation, including cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, β-xylosidases, endoxylanases, xyloglucanases, and α-arabinofuranosidases, were identified in both secretomes. We also noticed that the both fungi produce more enzymes when grown in culm as a single carbon source. Conclusion Our work provides a detailed qualitative and semi-quantitative secretome analysis of A. niger and T. reesei grown on sugarcane biomass. Our data indicate that a combination of enzymes from both fungi is an interesting option to increase saccharification efficiency. In other words, these two fungal species might be combined for their usage in industrial processes. PMID:26053961

  9. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  10. Breeding sugarcane for cold climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit’s variety development program provides the local sugarcane industry with early maturing varieties containing the “Ho” designations that are adapted to the temperate climate of the region. In recent studies, we have used a growth chamber to expose diverse wild va...

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of sugarcane fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogenetic positions of Puccinia spp. infecting sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was determined using 42 newly generated rust sequences and 25 sequences from Genbank. Rust specimens on sugarcane were collected from 161 locations in 25 countries and identified based on light micro...

  12. Sugarcane smut and its control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...

  13. Registration of "CPSG-3481 Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CPSG-3481’ (Reg. No. , PI 676023) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was a new cultivar developed through cooperative research conducted by the Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute in Pakistan and the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station in USA, and released to growers for loam soils...

  14. Sugarcane Diseases: Futuristic Management Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane pathology and disease control practices are changing due to social, economic and technological events. Sugarcane is becoming more important economically because of the increasing price and demand for sugar and its use for bio-energy. These pressures make the control of diseases more import...

  15. Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41 ± 0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed of mixed sugars (glucose and xylose) and inhibitors such as acetate, HMF and furfural at concentrations of 3.2 ± 0.1, 0.4 and 0.5 g/l, respectively, exhibited highest cell growth rate of 0.079 g/l/h and an ethanol yield of 0.39 ± 0.02 g/g sugar converted. Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibited prolonged fermentation time on bagasse hydrolysate after wet explosion at 200°C and 6 bar O2 where the inhibitors concentration was further increased. Nonetheless, ethanol was produced up to 18.7 ± 1.1 g/l resulting in a yield of 0.38 ± 0.02 g/g after 82 h of fermentation. PMID:23895663

  16. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-15

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  17. Fundamental and molecular composition characteristics of biochars produced from sugarcane and rice crop residues and by-products.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang Yoon; Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J

    2016-01-01

    Biochar conversion of sugarcane and rice harvest residues provides an alternative for managing these crop residues that are traditionally burned in open field. Sugarcane leaves, bagasse, rice straw and husk were converted to biochar at four pyrolysis temperatures (PTs) of 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, and 750 °C and evaluated for various elemental, molecular and surface properties. The carbon content of biochars was highest for those produced at 650-750 °C. Biochars produced at 550 °C showed the characteristics of biochar that are commonly interpreted as being stable in soil, with low H/C and O/C ratios and pyrolysis fingerprints dominated by aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. At 550 °C, all biochars also exhibited maximum CEC values with sugarcane leaves biochar (SLB) > sugarcane bagasse biochar (SBB) > rice straw biochar (RSB) > rice husk biochar (RHB). The pore size distribution of biochars was dominated by pores of 20 nm and high PT increased both smaller and larger than 50 nm pores. Water holding capacity of biochars increased with PT but the magnitude of the increase was limited by feedstock types, likely related to the hydrophobicity of biochars as evident by molecular composition, besides pore volume properties of biochars. Py-GC/MS analysis revealed a clear destruction of lignin with decarboxylation and demethoxylation at 450 °C and dehydroxylation at above 550 °C. Overall, biochar molecular compositions became similar as PT increased, and the biochars produced at 550 °C demonstrated characteristics that have potential benefit as soil amendment for improving both C sequestration and nutrient dynamics. PMID:26058554

  18. Experiences with the sugarcane aphid as a pest of sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), has been a sporadic but sometimes serious problem on sugarcane in Louisiana since its first discovery in 1999. LSU AgCenter and USDA-ARS scientists have studied aspects of sugarcane aphid management on sugarcane, including pest status, varietal re...

  19. Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...

  20. Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Galvão, C. A.

    2012-08-01

    The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 °C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH.

  1. Application of tetra-n-methylammonium hydroxide on cellulose dissolution and isolation from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chao; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Fengxue; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping; Zhao, Yin

    2016-01-20

    Cellulose isolation, a promising way for lignocellulosic biomass utilization, is always restricted by the poor solubility of cellulose. In this paper, tetra-n-methylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was confirmed to be capable of readily dissolving/regenerating cellulose without chemical modification at room temperature. Meanwhile, cellulose isolation from lignocellulosic biomass by initially dissolving the biomass in TMAH followed by cellulose precipitation was proposed, and the isolated substance with average cellulose purity of 92.1 ± 0.3% could be obtained throughout this process under the optimum conditions: temperature 52 °C, time 60 min, and loading ratio of TMAH/biomass (w/w) 7.2:1. Besides, high efficiency cellulose isolation (i.e. >70% cellulose purity) could be continuously remained during 4-round cycles by using the recycled TMAH solvent without distinct activity loss. PMID:26572437

  2. Sugarcane bagasse and pine wood biochar effects on aerobic soil dissipation of metribuzin and pendimethalin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is considerable interest in biochar use as an agricultural soil amendment. Available data indicate that there is potential for both positive and negative impact. On the positive side are increased organic matter, increased herbicide persistence, and improved soil physical properties. Negative ...

  3. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    SciTech Connect

    İnaç, Esra; Baytaş, A. Filiz

    2013-12-16

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  4. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaç, Esra; Baytaş, A. Filiz

    2013-12-01

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  5. Managing damaging freeze events in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of sugarcane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugarcane producing countries of the world, but is most frequent on the mainland of the United States, especially in the state of Louisiana. The frequent winter freezes that occur in the sugarcane areas of Louisiana have fo...

  6. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L−1) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L−1, resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

  7. Prediction of the degradability of sugarcane cellulosic residues by indirect methods

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, A.; Conde, J.; Otero, M.A.

    1981-12-01

    The effect of mild NaOH treatments on sugarcane cellulosic wastes (bagasse, pith, and straw) to increase their biological degradability has been studied. At a level of 8% NaOH (on a dry matter basis) 60% digestibility measured by the in vitro technique was achieved for all materials tested. Indirect methods to predict the digestibility of treated materials such as the bacterial degradability, enzymatic degradability, hot-water solubility, and chemical oxygen demand were tried as alternative methods to the rumen fluid technique. High correlation coefficients for all materials were obtained with all alternative techniques. The minimal r value was 0.96 while the highest was 0.99. An important reduction of time and reagents is achieved by the utilization of the solubility and chemical oxygen demand tests. (Refs. 8).

  8. High-Yield Endoglucanase Production by Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 Cultivated in Pretreated Sugarcane Mill Byproduct.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Aline Machado; Ferreira, Marcela Costa; da Cruz, Juliana Cunha; Pedro, Kelly Cristina Nascimento Rodrigues; Carvalho, Daniele Fernandes; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Pereira, Nei

    2010-01-01

    The low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the present paper, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. This fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase activity (6,358 U·L(-1)) after 72 hours of process, and further relevant β-glucosidase and FPase activities (742 and 445 U·L(-1), resp.). The crude enzyme extract demonstrated appropriate characteristics for its application in cellulose hydrolysis, such as high thermal stability at up to 50°C, accessory xylanase activity, and absence of proteolytic activity towards azocasein. This strain showed, therefore, potential for the production of complete cellulolytic complexes aiming at the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. PMID:21048871

  9. Composting of sugar-cane waste by-products through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Deepshikha; Singh, Bhanu L; Kumar, Umesh; Shweta

    2010-09-01

    The waste by-products of the sugar-cane industry, bagasse (b), pressmud (p) and trash (t) have been subjected to bioinoculation followed by vermicomposting to shorten stabilization time and improve product quality. Press-mud alone and in combination with other by-products of sugar processing industries was pre-decomposed for 30 days by inoculation with combination of Pleurotus sajorcaju, Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas striatum. This treatment was followed by vermicomposting for 40 days with the native earthworm, Drawida willsi. The combination of both treatments reduced the overall time required for composting to 20 days and accelerated the degradation process of waste by-products of sugar processing industry, thereby producing a nutrient-enriched compost product useful for sustaining high crop yield, minimizing soil depletion and value added disposal of waste materials. PMID:20403689

  10. Production of potentially hazardous respirable silica airborne particulate from the burning of sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Williamson, Ben J.; Horwell, Claire J.; Monro, Alex K.; Kirk, Caroline A.; Oppenheimer, Clive

    In some areas of the world where agricultural burning is practised, the airborne particles produced have been linked to respiratory disease in humans. Here, we investigate the abundance and form of silica (SiO 2) minerals found within ash and aerosol produced by the experimental burning of sugarcane. Samples of sugarcane leaf were incinerated over a range of temperatures, time scales and airflow conditions, the latter to investigate the effects of wind and updrafts during natural fires. The silica content of the residual ash (from still air simulations) was measured using an improved wet chemical methodology, described here. This indicated that the release of silica from the plant material into the atmosphere increases with increasing temperature of combustion. Airborne particulate, sampled using air-pump-filter apparatus, was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with automated image and elemental analysis. For airborne particulate formed at 1100 °C (with airflow), 17% of the particles are in the respirable size fraction (<4 μm in diameter) and contain silica. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, a component of this silica is present as the potentially toxic polymorph cristobalite. For the residual ash, samples produced with no additional airflow were found to contain cristobalite, however none could be identified in ash formed with an airflow. It is considered likely that this is due to release of cristobalite to the atmosphere (as sampled on filters). This pilot study shows that potentially toxic particles could be released during sugarcane burning and reinforces the need for further study into the emissions and re-suspension of ash from the burning of biomass.

  11. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  12. Decomposition of lignin from sugar cane bagasse during ozonation process monitored by optical and mass spectrometries.

    PubMed

    Souza-Corrêa, J A; Ridenti, M A; Oliveira, C; Araújo, S R; Amorim, J

    2013-03-21

    Mass spectrometry was used to monitor neutral chemical species from sugar cane bagasse that could volatilize during the bagasse ozonation process. Lignin fragments and some radicals liberated by direct ozone reaction with the biomass structure were detected. Ozone density was monitored during the ozonation by optical absorption spectroscopy. The optical results indicated that the ozone interaction with the bagasse material was better for bagasse particle sizes less than or equal to 0.5 mm. Both techniques have shown that the best condition for the ozone diffusion in the bagasse was at 50% of its moisture content. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to analyze the lignin bond disruptions and morphology changes of the bagasse surface that occurred due to the ozonolysis reactions as well. Appropriate chemical characterization of the lignin content in bagasse before and after its ozonation was also carried out. PMID:23441875

  13. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  14. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  15. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  16. SUGARCANE VARIETY CENSUS FLORIDA 2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Cultivars originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by USDA-ARS, the Univ...

  17. Sugarcane Genotype Tolerance to Wireworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) growers in Florida normally apply a soil insecticide at planting to limit wireworm (Melanotus communis Gyllenhall) damage to seed cane (vegetative plantings of stalks). The objective of this study was to measure the tolerance of eight commercial su...

  18. Ash leachate test on Redoubt ash

    Undergraduate student Janelle Dyer (USGS ARRA student appointment) performs an ash leachate test on Redoubt ash in the Alaska Tephra Laboratory and Data Center in Anchorage, Alaska. This test is done to analyze the geochemical reaction between volcanic ash and drinking water sources during eruptions...

  19. Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

  20. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  1. Effect of Sugarcane Mosaic caused by Sorghum mosaic virus on sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic is caused by two viruses, Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCVM) or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV). In Louisiana, SrMV is the predominant mosaic pathogen affecting sugarcane. In a field experiment established in 2012, plots were planted with seed cane with or without mosaic symptoms. The mosaic...

  2. Anaerobic digestion of stillage to produce bioenergy in the sugarcane-to-ethanol industry.

    PubMed

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Garcia, Marcelo Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    Stillage is the main wastewater from ethanol production, containing a high chemical oxygen demand in addition to acidic and corrosive characteristics. Though stillage may be used as a soil fertilizer, its land application may be considered problematic due its high polluting potential. Anaerobic digestion represents an effective alternative treatment to reduce the pollution load of stillage. In addition, the methane gas produced within the process may be converted to energy, which can be directly applied to the treatment plant. The objective of this paper was to investigate the energetic potential of anaerobic digestion applied to stillage in the sugarcane ethanol industry. An overall analysis of the results indicates energy recovery capacity (ERC) values for methane ranging from 3.5% to 10%, respectively, for sugarcane juice and molasses. The processes employed to obtain the fermentable broth, as well as the distillation step, represent the main limiting factors to the energetic potential feasibility. Considering financial aspects the annual savings could reach up to US$ 30 million due to anaerobic digestion of stillage in relatively large-scale distilleries (365,000 m3 of ethanol per year). The best scenarios were verified for the association between anaerobic digestion of stillage and combustion of bagasse. In this case, the fossil fuels consumption in distilleries could be fully ceased, such the ERC of methane could reach values ranging from 140% to 890%. PMID:24600872

  3. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process. PMID:26771596

  4. VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE CONVEYORS TO LEFT WITH BOILER HOUSE WING’S GABLE END IN LEFT BACKGROUND. A CONDENSATE TANK IS TO THE RIGHT, WITH BOILING HOUSE GABLE END IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  5. A report on the transmissibility of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sugarcane yellow leaf virus through seed in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, exotic germplasm of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is mainly received as vegetative cuttings because the extensive actions required to meet existing APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) permit conditions make the importation of sugarcane seed impractical. While taking...

  6. Registration of ‘Ho 02-113’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 02-113’ sugarcane was released by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugarcane League of the U.S.A. This high-fiber sugarcane variety was released for use as a biofuel feedstock to fill the rising i...

  7. Evaluation of aphid resistance among sugarcane cultivars in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane, interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes). Five sugarcane cultivars, LCP 85-384, HoCP 91-555, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540, and L 97-128, rep...

  8. Registration of 'CP 94-1100' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  9. SUGARCANE EMERGENCE AFTER LONG DURATION UNDER WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing water storage in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida would improve conservation of the region's organic soils but reduce yields of the major crop, sugarcane. Growers in Florida normally apply a soil insecticide when planting sugarcane to limit wireworm damage to buds of planted st...

  10. Breeding sugarcane for temperate and cold environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana represents one of the worlds more temperate environments where sugarcane is commercially grown. Since its inception in the 1920s, The USDA-ARS breeding program at the Sugarcane Research Laboratory in Houma, Louisiana, U.S.A. has focused on breeding varieties adapted to this unique envir...

  11. Registration of 'CP 98-1029' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  12. Genetic Diversity and Genome Complexity of Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as a C4 plant, is one of the most efficient crops in converting solar energy into chemical energy. Sugarcane cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized the most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to stresses that may exist in t...

  13. "Ho" varieties for the Texas sugarcane industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2011, over 175 “Ho” or “HoCP” varieties from the USDA sugarcane variety development program have been introduced to the Texas sugarcane industry for further increase and testing. The best of these varieties are eventually planted in outfield tests at different locations, with the ultimate goal...

  14. SUGARCANE MOSAIC ASSOCIATED TO SORGHUM MOSAIC VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A summary of the role of sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) as a pathogen of sorghum is presented for inclusion in the book entitled Virus Diseases of Poaceae. A detailed, technical description of (SCMV) is included in another chapter in the book that describes the role of SCMV as a pathogen of sugarcan...

  15. Herbicide options for suppressing bermudagrass in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass is a problematic weed in Louisiana sugarcane. The most effective herbicide options are limited to the fallow period prior to planting. Frequently, efforts to eliminate bermudagrass from fields during the fallow season are unsuccessful. This subjects newly planted sugarcane to competitio...

  16. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle may potentially reduce production expenses for Louisiana sugarcane growers. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both on an annual basis and ...

  17. Exploring Broad Genetic Resources Available to Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is used for sugar and energy. It has a high photosynthetic efficiency and is one of the most productive crops globally. Breeders of energycane and sugarcane have overlapping goals in creating cultivars that resist biotic and abiotic stresses. The World Collection of Sugarc...

  18. Elimination of five sugarcane viruses from sugarcane using in vitro culture of axillary bud and apical meristem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procedures were developed for the in vitro elimination of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) and Fiji disease virus (FDV) from infected sugarcane. In vitro shoot regeneration, elongation and virus el...

  19. AmeriFlux US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Ray; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuW Maui Sugarcane Windy. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and site meteorology.

  20. AmeriFlux US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Ray; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuM Maui Sugarcane Middle. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Lee/sheltered in soil and meteorology.

  1. Development of an analytical method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane and sweet sorghum products.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marsha R; Eggleston, Gillian; Gilbert, Audrey; Chung, Yoo Jin

    2016-01-01

    A rapid research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to quantify total, insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar crop products. Several variables affecting starch solubilisation were evaluated, (1) heating method, (2) boiling time, (3) probe ultrasonication time, (4) water loss, (5) concentration, (6) sample colour, and (7) sample. The optimised method solubilises < 40,000 ppm insoluble starch with microwave-assisted sonication in 6 min, has acceptable precision (<6% CV), accuracy (⩾ 95%), uses a corn starch reference, and incorporates a colour blank to remove contribution from natural colourants found in industrial samples. This method was validated using factory samples and found applicable to sugarcane and sweet sorghum bagasse (3% CV), mixed juices (2%), massecuites (4%), molasses (7%), and raw sugars (12%), 100% satisfactory performance z-scores were also obtained. Total starch values obtained with this method were significantly higher than those measured using other methods presently accepted by the sugar industry. PMID:26212940

  2. Asymmetric Ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers are reporting remarkable new findings that shed light on a decade-long debate about one kind of supernovae, the explosions that mark a star's final demise: does the star die in a slow burn or with a fast bang? From their observations, the scientists find that the matter ejected by the explosion shows significant peripheral asymmetry but a nearly spherical interior, most likely implying that the explosion finally propagates at supersonic speed. These results are reported today in Science Express, the online version of the research journal Science, by Lifan Wang, Texas A&M University (USA), and colleagues Dietrich Baade and Ferdinando Patat from ESO. "Our results strongly suggest a two-stage explosion process in this type of supernova," comments Wang. "This is an important finding with potential implications in cosmology." ESO PR Photo 44/06 ESO PR Photo 44/06 Clumpy Explosion (Artist's Impression) Using observations of 17 supernovae made over more than 10 years with ESO's Very Large Telescope and the McDonald Observatory's Otto Struve Telescope, astronomers inferred the shape and structure of the debris cloud thrown out from Type Ia supernovae. Such supernovae are thought to be the result of the explosion of a small and dense star - a white dwarf - inside a binary system. As its companion continuously spills matter onto the white dwarf, the white dwarf reaches a critical mass, leading to a fatal instability and the supernova. But what sparks the initial explosion, and how the blast travels through the star have long been thorny issues. The supernovae Wang and his colleagues observed occurred in distant galaxies, and because of the vast cosmic distances could not be studied in detail using conventional imaging techniques, including interferometry. Instead, the team determined the shape of the exploding cocoons by recording the polarisation of the light from the dying stars. Polarimetry relies on the fact that light is composed of electromagnetic waves that oscillate in certain directions. Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflected off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation. If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. This is what broad-band polarimetry can accomplish. If additional spectral information is available ('spectro-polarimetry'), one can determine whether the asymmetry is in the continuum light or in some spectral lines. In the case of the Type Ia supernovae, the astronomers found that the continuum polarisation is very small so that the overall shape of the explosion is crudely spherical. But the much larger polarization in strongly blue-shifted spectral lines evidences the presence, in the outer regions, of fast moving clumps with peculiar chemical composition. "Our study reveals that explosions of Type Ia supernovae are really three-dimensional phenomena," says Dietrich Baade. "The outer regions of the blast cloud is asymmetric, with different materials found in 'clumps', while the inner regions are smooth." "This study was possible because polarimetry could unfold its full strength thanks to the light-collecting power of the Very Large Telescope and the very precise calibration of the FORS instrument," he adds. The research team first spotted this asymmetry in 2003, as part of the same observational campaign (ESO PR 23/03 and ESO PR Photo 26/05). The new, more extensive results show that the degree of polarisation and, hence, the asphericity, correlates with the intrinsic brightness of the explosion. The brighter the supernova, the smoother, or less clumpy, it is. "This has some impact on the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles," says Ferdinando Patat. "This kind of supernovae is used to measure the rate of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, assuming these objects behave in a uniform way. But asymmetries can introduce dispersions in the quantities observed." "Our discovery puts strong constraints on any successful models of thermonuclear supernova explosions," adds Wang. Models have suggested that the clumpiness is caused by a slow-burn process, called 'deflagration', and leaves an irregular trail of ashes. The smoothness of the inner regions of the exploding star implies that at a given stage, the deflagration gives way to a more violent process, a 'detonation', which travels at supersonic speeds - so fast that it erases all the asymmetries in the ashes left behind by the slower burning of the first stage, resulting in a smoother, more homogeneous residue.

  3. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  4. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  5. An-Overview on invertase in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Yadav, Ashok; Lal, Ramji

    2013-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum is one of the most cultivated hybrid varieties among the sugarcane varieties. In sugarcane plant sucrose is the major carbohydrate which can be stored and transported. Different physiological and biochemical studies on this crop report that invertase activity and sucrose concentration some how are key limiting step in the process of sucrose accumulation. Significant efforts have been made in relation to the sucrose cycle by altering the sucrose phosphate synthetase, sucrose synthetase and invertase. In sugarcane two types of invertase enzymes have been reported on the basis of pH and cellular localization. Invertase breaks the sucrose into hexoses as a source of energy and carbon. It has also been reported that this enzyme is involved in the process of cell differentiation and plant development. Progress has been made for the understanding of invertase activity and its role in sugarcane plant. With the help of biotechnology it is possible to target the desired gene with genetic engineering approach to increase sucrose content by careful manipulation of invertase (enzyme) gene to increase the sucrose yield in sugarcane. Purpose of this mini review is to high-light the role of invertase in sugarcane and how to overcome sucrose recovery in sugarcane. PMID:23847400

  6. Molecular structure, thermal analysis and electrical properties of cyanoethyl and carbamoyl ethyl bagasse raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nada, A. M. A.; Seoudi, R.

    2006-09-01

    Infrared absorption spectra, thermal analysis as well as dielectric properties of cyano and carbamoyl ethylated bagasse raw materials and their hydrolysis with NaOH were studied. A new band appeared in the infrared spectra at 2252 cm -1, characteristic to cyano group and a new shoulder appeared at 3150 cm -1, characteristic to NH 2 of amide group for cyanoethyl and carbamoyl ethyl raw material, respectively. Also the band intensity at 1636 cm -1 characteristic of the amide group in the carbamoyl ethyl bagasse was found to be higher than that in case of bagasse raw material. A new band was seen at 1736 cm -1, characteristic to C=O of carboxyl group which formed due to hydrolysis of cyano or carbamoyl groups. The crystallinity indices of the produced bagasse derivative were calculated and the increase is attributed to cyano, carbamoyl and hydrolysis process. Incorporation of cyano group into bagasse increases its resistance against thermal degradation. So, loss in weight from TG curves under major decomposition temperature (350 °C) was about 59% for cyanoethyl bagasse raw material while it was about 69% at 350 °C for bagasse raw material and 60% for carbamoyl ethyl bagasse. A kinetic study of the thermal degradation process revealed that, bagasse and its derivatives followed a first order reaction and the degradation of derivatives was more complex. The dielectric constant ( ɛ') and AC electrical conductivity were studied with frequencies over the range (50-2000 Hz) for cyanoethylated, hydrolyzed cyanoethylated and carbamoyl ethylated bagasse raw material at two fixed temperatures (30 and 100 °C). Generally, the dielectric constant decreased and the conductivity increased with increasing frequencies. The increase in the nitrogen content in bagasse raw material due to cyanoethylation, carbamoyl ethylation and their hydrolysis cyanoethylated resulted in an increase in the dielectric constant.

  7. Advanced ash management technologies for CFBC ash.

    PubMed

    Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

    2003-01-01

    The combustion of high-sulphur coal demands the reduction of sulphur emissions. The sorbent most often used in sulphur capture technology is calcium-based. Ashes from technologies such as circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC), therefore, contain high calcium levels. The use and disposal of these ashes poses challenges, because of highly exothermic reactions with water, high-pH leachates, and excessive expansion of solidified materials. This paper looks at the potential of two post-combustion ash treatment processes, CERCHAR hydration and AWDS disposal, in solving these challenges. A high-sulphur coal-derived CFBC ash is examined, after CERCHAR hydration treatment, in conjunction with a conventionally hydrated ash, in a range of chemical, geotechnical and utilization scenarios. The ashes are used to make no-cement and roller-compacted concrete as well as Ash Water Dense Suspensions (AWDS). The solidified mortar paste from no-cement concrete is subjected to an extensive geochemical examination to determine how solidification progresses and strength develops, from a chemical point of view. PMID:12909091

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

  9. The recovery of by-products and pulping chemicals from industrial soda bagasse spent liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, J.S.M.; Vander Klashorst, G.H. )

    1989-03-01

    The authors discuss the recovery and use of lignin and hemicellulose and the recycling of chemicals from spent liquors from soda bagasses pulping. The product sales value of a bagasse pulp mill can also be doubled. Profitability can be improved substantially, and a serious environmental problem can also be solved. These discussions are based on laboratory work and on some industrial trials.

  10. Production of compost with bagasse and vinasses for cane crop in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Castro Gomez, R.J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Recent laboratory experiments have shown that a mixture of bagasse, animal manure and vinasse can be transformed into compost suitable for agriculture. The factors necessary for good composting are discussed, these include the carbon-nitrogen ratio, moisture, aeration and temperature. A mixture of 300 kg cane bagasse and 38 kg poultry manure moistened with vinasse gave the best results.

  11. Sugar cane bagasse: an alternative fuel in the Brazilian citrus industry

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.L.; Steger, E.

    1988-05-01

    This article will briefly discuss the production of sugar cane bagasse and advantages for using it as an alternative fuel. In particular, this article will focus on how Citrosuco Paulista, (a multi-plant producer of citrus concentrates), modified its existing boilers and dryers to accommodate the new sugar cane bagasse fuel.

  12. A specific, robust, and automated method for routine at-line monitoring of the concentration of cellulases in genetically modified sugarcane plants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi; Baldock, Sara J; Fielden, Peter R; Grieve, Bruce D

    2011-02-01

    Bagasse is one of the waste crop materials highlighted as commercially viable for cellulosic bio-ethanol production via enzymatic conversion to release fermentable sugars. Genetically modified sugarcane expressing cellobiohydrolases (CBH), endoglucanase (EG), and β-glucosidases (BG) provide a more cost-effective route to cellulose breakdown compared to culturing these enzymes in microbial tanks. Hence, process monitoring of the concentration profile of these key cellulases in incoming batches of sugarcane is required for fiscal measures and bio-ethanol process control. The existing methods due to their non-specificity, requirement of trained analysts, low sample throughput, and low amenability to automation are unsuitable for this purpose. Therefore, this paper explores a membrane-based sample preparation method coupled to capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to quantify these enzymes. The maximum enzyme extraction efficiency was obtained by using a polyethersulfone membrane with molecular cut-off of 10 kDa. The use of 15 mM, pH 7.75, phosphate buffer resulted in CZE separation and quantification of CBH, EG, and BG within 10 min. Migration time reproducibility was between 0.56% and 0.7% and hence, suitable for use with automatic peak detection software. Therefore, the developed CZE method is suitable for at-line analysis of BG, CBH, and EG in every batch of harvested sugarcane. PMID:21136205

  13. Preparation of antioxidants from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yongguang; Tang, Qiang; Fu, Xiong; Yu, Shujuan; Wu, Shaowei; Chen, Mingshun

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction with piecewise distillation separation was used to obtain antioxidants from sugarcane molasses. Extraction pressure, time, temperature, flow rate of CO2 and ethanol content were selected as the independent variables. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extract. Results showed that conditions to obtain the highest total oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of sugarcane molasses extract were determined to be an extraction pressure of 33.3 MPa, temperature of 43.3 C, time of 86.7 min, 90% ethanol content of sugarcane molasses and flow rate of CO2 of 20 L/h. Under the conditions stated above, the experimental value was 2584.9. This study indicated that supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction with piecewise distillation separation can effectively extract antioxidants from sugarcane molasses. PMID:24444974

  14. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  15. Leaching of Mixtures of Biochar and Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Amonette, J. E.; Drake, Meghan M; Brown, Steven D; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2009-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments.2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations.10, 11, 16 Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and reduces available aluminum.3, 17 Combinations of these benefits likely lead to the observed increased yields for crops including corn and sugarcane.17 with biochar addition to soil. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) 8, 17 than do unammended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way.18 Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes.15 Here, we are examining the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluating leaching of organic carbon and metals from the mixtures.

  16. Production of SCP and cellulase by Aspergillus terreus from bagasse substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Neelakantan, S.

    1982-01-01

    The fermentation of 1.0% untreated bagasse under optimum cultural and nutritional conditions with Aspergillus terreus GN1 indicated that the maximum rate of protein and cellulase production could be obtained during three days of submerged fermentation. Even though 16.4% protein recovery, 0.55 units CMCase/mL, and 0.027 FPase units/mL were obtained on the seventh day, the rates of increase in protein recovery and cellulase production were slower than those obtained up to three days, which were 14.3% protein recovery, 0.45 units cMCase/mL, and 0.019 units FPase/mL. There was an initial lag in the utilization of cellulose up to two days due to the utilization of the water-soluble carbohydrate present in untreated bagasse. Cellulose utilization and water-soluble carbohydrate content during fermentation were correlated with protein recovery and enzyme production. The protein and cellulase production during three days fermentation with 1.0% untreated and treated bagasse were compared and the protein content of the total biomass was calculated into constituent protein contributed by the fungal mycelium and the undegraded bagasse. The total biomass recovered with untreated and treated bagasse was 1020 and 820 mg/g bagasse substrate, respectively, and contained 14.3 and 20.6% crude protein, respectively. The contribution of fungal biomass and undegraded bagasse was 309 and 711, and 373 and 447 mg/g untreated and treated bagasse substrates, respectively. In an 8-L-flask trial during three days of fermentation, the recovery of SCP and cellulase were 66 g and 32,400 units (Sigma) for treated bagasse and 82 g and 8200 units (Sigma) for untreated bagasse, respectively. (Refs. 18).

  17. Bioconversion of sugarcane biomass into ethanol: an overview about composition, pretreatment methods, detoxification of hydrolysates, enzymatic saccharification, and ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Canilha, Larissa; Kumar Chandel, Anuj; dos Santos Milessi, Thais Suzane; Fernandes Antunes, Felipe Antônio; da Costa Freitas, Wagner Luiz; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2012-01-01

    Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production. PMID:23251086

  18. Bioconversion of Sugarcane Biomass into Ethanol: An Overview about Composition, Pretreatment Methods, Detoxification of Hydrolysates, Enzymatic Saccharification, and Ethanol Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Canilha, Larissa; Chandel, Anuj Kumar; Suzane dos Santos Milessi, Thais; Antunes, Felipe Antônio Fernandes; Luiz da Costa Freitas, Wagner; das Graças Almeida Felipe, Maria; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2012-01-01

    Depleted supplies of fossil fuel, regular price hikes of gasoline, and environmental damage have necessitated the search for economic and eco-benign alternative of gasoline. Ethanol is produced from food/feed-based substrates (grains, sugars, and molasses), and its application as an energy source does not seem fit for long term due to the increasing fuel, food, feed, and other needs. These concerns have enforced to explore the alternative means of cost competitive and sustainable supply of biofuel. Sugarcane residues, sugarcane bagasse (SB), and straw (SS) could be the ideal feedstock for the second-generation (2G) ethanol production. These raw materials are rich in carbohydrates and renewable and do not compete with food/feed demands. However, the efficient bioconversion of SB/SS (efficient pretreatment technology, depolymerization of cellulose, and fermentation of released sugars) remains challenging to commercialize the cellulosic ethanol. Among the technological challenges, robust pretreatment and development of efficient bioconversion process (implicating suitable ethanol producing strains converting pentose and hexose sugars) have a key role to play. This paper aims to review the compositional profile of SB and SS, pretreatment methods of cane biomass, detoxification methods for the purification of hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysis, and the fermentation of released sugars for ethanol production. PMID:23251086

  19. Florida's sugarcane industry and the role of the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida’s sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) industry of 420,000 acres produces 1.9 million tons of sugar annually, approximately 20 percent of the yearly sugar consumption in the United States. Canal Point sugarcane cultivars produced by the cooperative program of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, a...

  20. The effect of sugarcane yellow leaf virus infection on yield of Sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of field experiment were conducted to determine the effect of SCYLV infection on cane and sugar yield of four commercial sugarcane cultivars (LCP 85-384, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540 and L 97-128) that occupied 93% of the sugarcane production area in Louisiana in 2006. The experiments were harve...

  1. Integrated management of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass is a difficult perennial weed to manage in Louisiana sugarcane. Research was conducted to compare interrow tillage practice, postharvest residue management, and herbicide placement on bermudagrass proliferation and sugarcane yield. Tillage frequencies included conventional (four tillage...

  2. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  3. PCDD and PCDF Emissions from Simulated Sugarcane Field Burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass densit...

  4. Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguro, Jean Vittorio

    The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and 100% are predicted for some cycles with the addition of optimum heat recovery systems.

  5. Pheromone-based trapping of West Indian sugarcane weevil in a sugarcane plantation.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, Allan C; Gonzalez, Lilliana; Gomez, Manuel; Rodriguez, Carlos; Andrade, Romano

    2002-08-01

    Attraction of Metamasius hemipterus (Oliver) to gallon and bamboo traps baited with insecticide-treated sugarcane, the male-produced pheromone, 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 2-methyl-4-heptanol is more efficient if ethyl acetate is added. The optimal traps are ground-level gallon traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane, pheromone, and ethyl acetate. Capture rates of ground-level gallon traps are doubled by placing an insecticide-laced pad under the trap, but significantly decreased by placing the trap on a stick above ground. The efficiency of ground-level gallon traps is the same as ground level ramp traps. Mass-trapping M. hemipterus in newly planted sugarcane using ground level bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone over six months revealed populations were low for the first two months, became maximum at five months, and declined thereafter. Capture rates of traps bordering newly planted and mature sugarcane were not significantly different from capture rates of traps in the interior of the plots. Capture rates of bamboo traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane and deployed at 30 traps/ha averaged 6 weevils/trap/week compared with 66 weevils/trap/week for traps additionally containing pheromone lures and deployed at 5 traps/ha. Capture rates for bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone and deployed at 10 and 15 traps/ha were 43 and 38 weevils/trap/week, respectively. Total captures were higher in those plots with a higher density of insecticide-laden sugarcane and pheromone baited traps, and the differences were approximately proportional to trap density in the range of 5-15 traps/ha. Capture rates of traps containing insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone were always higher than of traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane, but in the first two months after planting the differences were much greater than in months 3-6 after planting. PMID:12371817

  6. Hierarchical structured carbon derived from bagasse wastes: A simple and efficient synthesis route and its improved electrochemical properties for high-performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Haobin; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Xiao, Yong; Cai, Yijin; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao

    2016-01-01

    Bagasse-derived hierarchical structured carbon (BDHSC) with tunable porosity and improved electrochemical performance is prepared via simple and efficient hydrothermal carbonization combined with KOH activation. Experimental results show that sewage sludge acts as a cheap and efficient structure-directing agent to regulate the morphology, adjust the porosity, and thus improve the supercapacitive performance of BDHSC. The as-resulted BDHSC exhibits an interconnected framework with high specific surface area (2296 m2 g-1), high pore volume (1.34 cm3 g-1), and hierarchical porosity, which offer a more favorable pathway for electrolyte penetration and transportation. Compared to the product obtained from bagasse without sewage sludge, the unique interconnected BDHSC exhibits enhanced supercapacitive performances such as higher specific capacitance (320 F g-1), and better rate capability (capacitance retention over 70.8% at a high current density of 50 A g-1). Moreover, the BDHSC-based symmetric supercapacitor delivers a maximum energy density of over 20 Wh kg-1 at 182 W kg-1 and presents an excellent long-term cycling stability. The developed approach in the present work can be useful not only in production of a variety of novel hierarchical structured carbon with promising applications in high-performance energy storage devices, but also in high-value utilization of biomass wastes and high-ash-content sewage sludge.

  7. Development and biotechnological application of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 identified from sugarcane soil metagenome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Thabata M; Goldbeck, Rosana; dos Santos, Camila Ramos; Paixão, Douglas A A; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L; Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pereira, Isabela; Jackson, George; Cota, Junio; Büchli, Fernanda; Citadini, Ana Paula; Ruller, Roberto; Polo, Carla Cristina; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Murakami, Mário T; Squina, Fabio M

    2013-01-01

    Metagenomics has been widely employed for discovery of new enzymes and pathways to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In this context, the present study reports the isolation, recombinant expression, biochemical and structural characterization of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 (SCXyl) identified from sugarcane soil metagenome. The recombinant SCXyl was highly active against xylan from beechwood and showed optimal enzyme activity at pH 6,0 and 45°C. The crystal structure was solved at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing the classical (β/α)8-barrel fold with a conserved active-site pocket and an inherent flexibility of the Trp281-Arg291 loop that can adopt distinct conformational states depending on substrate binding. The capillary electrophoresis analysis of degradation products evidenced that the enzyme displays unusual capacity to degrade small xylooligosaccharides, such as xylotriose, which is consistent to the hydrophobic contacts at the +1 subsite and low-binding energies of subsites that are distant from the site of hydrolysis. The main reaction products from xylan polymers and phosphoric acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PASB) were xylooligosaccharides, but, after a longer incubation time, xylobiose and xylose were also formed. Moreover, the use of SCXyl as pre-treatment step of PASB, prior to the addition of commercial cellulolytic cocktail, significantly enhanced the saccharification process. All these characteristics demonstrate the advantageous application of this enzyme in several biotechnological processes in food and feed industry and also in the enzymatic pretreatment of biomass for feedstock and ethanol production. PMID:23922891

  8. Development and Biotechnological Application of a Novel Endoxylanase Family GH10 Identified from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Paixão, Douglas A. A.; Gonçalves, Thiago A.; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L.; Almeida, Rodrigo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pereira, Isabela; Jackson, George; Cota, Junio; Büchli, Fernanda; Citadini, Ana Paula; Ruller, Roberto; Polo, Carla Cristina; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Murakami, Mário T.; Squina, Fabio M.

    2013-01-01

    Metagenomics has been widely employed for discovery of new enzymes and pathways to conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In this context, the present study reports the isolation, recombinant expression, biochemical and structural characterization of a novel endoxylanase family GH10 (SCXyl) identified from sugarcane soil metagenome. The recombinant SCXyl was highly active against xylan from beechwood and showed optimal enzyme activity at pH 6,0 and 45°C. The crystal structure was solved at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing the classical (β/α)8-barrel fold with a conserved active-site pocket and an inherent flexibility of the Trp281-Arg291 loop that can adopt distinct conformational states depending on substrate binding. The capillary electrophoresis analysis of degradation products evidenced that the enzyme displays unusual capacity to degrade small xylooligosaccharides, such as xylotriose, which is consistent to the hydrophobic contacts at the +1 subsite and low-binding energies of subsites that are distant from the site of hydrolysis. The main reaction products from xylan polymers and phosphoric acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (PASB) were xylooligosaccharides, but, after a longer incubation time, xylobiose and xylose were also formed. Moreover, the use of SCXyl as pre-treatment step of PASB, prior to the addition of commercial cellulolytic cocktail, significantly enhanced the saccharification process. All these characteristics demonstrate the advantageous application of this enzyme in several biotechnological processes in food and feed industry and also in the enzymatic pretreatment of biomass for feedstock and ethanol production. PMID:23922891

  9. Clarification Properties of Trash and Stalk Tissues from Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the U.S. and world-wide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane harvesting on processing, and the use of sugarcane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugarcane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon crop of five commercial, Louisian...

  10. Registration of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

  11. Virus Strains Causing Mosaic in Louisiana and Florida Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), respectively, affects sugarcane in Louisiana and Florida. Between 2004 and 2007, surveys were conducted in both states to determine which virus and virus strains were causing mosaic of sugarcane. In Louisiana, leaf sam...

  12. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  15. Registration of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

  16. Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selec...

  17. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and the rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program wa...

  18. Relationship between sugarcane rust severity and soil properties in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the extent of temporal and spatial variability of sugarcane rust (Puccinia melanocephala) present in commercially cultivated sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., cv LCP 85-384) grown in South Louisiana. Sugarcane fields at two locations in Ghee...

  19. Physiological Responses of Sugarcane to Orange Rust Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is a relatively new disease in the United States that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane cultivars in Florida. The objective of this study was to determine physiological responses of sugarcane to orange rust infection by quantifyi...

  20. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  1. Estimation of sugarcane sucrose and biomass with remote sensing techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing techniques were used to predict sucrose levels (TRS) and gross cane yield in field-grown sugarcane. To estimate sucrose levels, leaves were collected from plant-cane and first-ratoon sugarcane plants from the variety maturity studies conducted at the USDA-ARS-SRRC, Sugarcane Research...

  2. Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content

    PubMed Central

    Papini-Terzi, Flávia S; Rocha, Flávia R; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugênio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M

    2009-01-01

    Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants. PMID:19302712

  3. Extraction and comparison of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals from bleached sugarcane bagasse pulp using two different oxidation methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaitao; Sun, Peipei; Liu, He; Shang, Shibin; Song, Jie; Wang, Dan

    2016-03-15

    Two kinds of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CCNs) were prepared by using ultrasonic assisted 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy radical (TEMPO) mediated oxidation and one-step ammonium persulfate (APS) oxidation, which were denoted as TEMPO-oxidized CCNs (TO-CCNs) and APS-oxidized CCNs (AO-CCNs), respectively. The effects of oxidant content on the yield, carboxyl content, degree of polymerization (DPv) and morphology of the oxidized celluloses in the two oxidation methods were studied. Furthermore, the chemical structure, crystallinity and thermal stability of TO-CCNs and AO-CCNs were evaluated and compared by Fourier transformed infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. The results showed that with increase of oxidant content in the two methods, the carboxyl groups on the surfaces of TO-CCNs and AO-CCNs were both improved. And a remarkable decline of the DPv of cellulose sample also appeared in the two oxidative treatments. In addition, AO-CCNs exhibited a higher crystallinity and an enhanced thermal stability compared with TO-CCNs. PMID:26794758

  4. Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2005 Billion Ton Study is in need of updating and a focus change from strategic assessment to a comprehensive resource assessment to address issues raised since the 2005 publication and assist the bioenergy and bioproducts industries as they project biomass supplies into the future. With yield ...

  5. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P.; Deschamps, F.C.

    1995-12-31

    Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

  6. Detecting sugarcane yellow leaf virus in asymptomatic sugarcane leaves with hyperspectral remote sensing and associated leaf pigment changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) does not produce visual symptoms in most susceptible sugarcane plants until late in the growing season. High-resolution, hyperspectral reflectance data from SCYLV-infected and non-infected leaves of two cultivars, LCP 85-384 and Ho...

  7. Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Simultaneous Energy Cane and Sugarcane Genetic Improvement -- Results of a Survey of International Sugarcane Breeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following Brazil's dramatic success in utilizing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for large-scale ethanol production, and with a growing interest in energy crops worldwide, sugarcane breeders have been charged with genetically improving cane as an energy crop. We conducted a survey of sugarcane breeders i...

  8. Increased digestibility of bagasse by pretreatment with alkalis and steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Playne, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Alkali treatment and steam explosion of bagasse were investigated in order to develop economical and effective methods of increasing the digestibility of bagasse. The treated bagasse was to be used as a substrate for the production of volatile fatty acids by anaerobic acidogenic bacteria. The alkalis examined were NaOH, NH3 (aqueous), NaOH + NH3, Ca(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3, at ambient temperature and in combination with steam explosion at 200 degrees C, 6.9 MPa, and 5 min cooking times. Digestibilities of up to 733 g organic matter (OM)/kg bagasse dry matter (DM) were obtained for bagasse treated with NaOH and Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3; less than 430 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with aqueous NH3; and up to 724 g OM was obtained for bagasse treated with Ca(OH)2. This digestibility was only achieved by using high concentrations of Ca(OH)2, i.e., 180-300 g/kg bagasse. Steam explosion increased the digestibility of bagasse up to 740 g OM in the presence of alkali but only to 610 g OM in the absence of alkali. The digestibility of bagasse without pretreatment was 190 g OM/kg bagasse DM. More than one-half the hemicellulose present was solubilized by pretreatment. The composition of the liquid fraction of steam-exploded material was examined and contained mainly xylose monomers and oligomers (112 g/kg original bagasse DM) and acetic acid (33 g/kg original DM). The relative costs of the alkalis used were obtained for the United States, Australia, and Europe. Lime (Ca(OH)2) was the least expensive alkali per unit of additional digestible OM obtained. Ammonia was the most expensive alkali to use, except in the United States where the difference in its cost relative to other alkalis was smaller. However, ammonia provides organic nitrogen for microbial growth, and could be recycled. With acidogenic fermentations, alkali is able to double as a neutralizing agent during fermentation.

  9. Sugarcane and other crops as fuel feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    The use of sugarcane as a feedstock for fuel alcohol production in Brazil, and in Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Panama stimulated tremendous interest in the potential of agricultural crops for renewable energy sources. The cost of the feedstock is important. Corn, the current major agricultural feedstock in US fuel alcohol production, costs 60 to 80% of the selling price of the alcohol produced from it. Production costs for sugarcane and sugarbeets are higher than for corn. Sugarcane and sugarbeets, yield more fermentable carbohydrates per acre than any other crop. Sugarcane has the distinct advantage of containing a large amount of fiber in the harvested portion. The feedstock cost of sugarcane can be reduced by producing more cane per acre. Sweet sorghum has been discussed as a fuel crop. Cassana, the tapioca source, is thought to be a fuel crop of major potential. Feedstock cost can also be reduced through management decisions that reduce costly practices. Cultivation and fertilizer costs can be reduced. The operating cost of the processing plant is affected by the choice of crops grown for feedstock, both by their cost and by availability. (DP)

  10. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  11. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  12. Coal combustion ash haulback

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.E.; Gray, T.A.

    1998-12-31

    Coal mining disturbs large tracts of land which must be reclaimed. Unfortunately, iron sulfides which are common in most coals and the adjacent strata weather, forming acid mine drainage (AMD) which degrades surface and ground water. Burning of coal produces combustion by products, most of which are placed in ponds or landfills. Suitable disposal areas are difficult to find and permit, especially in urban areas. This has led to ash haulback--where the waste generated during coal burning is hauled back to a mine for disposal. The potential advantages of coal combustion ash haulback are: Disposal occurs in a disturbed area (mine) rather than disturb additional land near the power plant; The same vehicles used to haul coal from the mine can be used to return the ash to the mine; Ash, if alkaline, may provide neutralization of acidic water or mine overburden commonly found at coal mines; and Low permeability ash could reduce ground water flow through the mine backfill, thus reducing leaching of acid forming constituents or metals. Placement of ash in surface mines provides an efficient, cost-effective method of disposal while at the same time contributing to reclamation of the mine. Wise natural resource management suggests a reasonable approach to disposal of coal ash is to return it to its original location--the mine.

  13. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, J P; Yu, Y; Miller-Smith, H; Frisch, D A; Woo, S S; Wing, R A

    1999-08-01

    Modern cultivated sugarcane is a complex aneuploid polyploid with an estimated genome size of 3000 Mb. Although most traits in sugarcane show complex inheritance, a rust locus showing monogenic inheritance has been documented. In order to facilitate cloning of the rust locus, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the cultivar R570. The library contains 103,296 clones providing 4.5 sugarcane genome equivalents. A random sampling of 240 clones indicated an average insert size of 130 kb allowing a 98% probability of recovering any specific sequence of interest. High-density filters were gridded robotically using a Genetix Q-BOT in a 4 × 4 double-spotted array on 22.5-cm(2) filters. Each set of five filters provides a genome coverage of 4x with 18,432 clones represented per filter. Screening of the library with three different barley chloroplast gene probes indicated an exceptionally low chloroplast DNA content of less than 1%. To demonstrate the library's potential for map-based cloning, single-copy RFLP sugarcane mapping probes anchored to nine different linkage groups and three different gene probes were used to screen the library. The number of positive hybridization signals resulting from each probe ranged from 8 to 60. After determining addresses of the signals, clones were evaluated for insert size and HindIII-fingerprinted. The fingerprints were then used to determine clone relationships and assemble contigs. For comparison with other monocot genomes, sugarcane RFLP probes were also used to screen a Sorghum bicolor BAC library and two rice BAC libraries. The rice and sorghum BAC clones were characterized for insert size and fingerprinted, and the results compared to sugarcane. The library was screened with a rust resistance RFLP marker and candidate BAC clones were subjected to RFLP fragment matching to identify those corresponding to the same genomic region as the rust gene. PMID:22665173

  14. Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianan; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Zhou, Ming; Gong, Aihua

    2014-08-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields. PMID:25036467

  15. Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianan; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Zhou, Ming; Gong, Aihua

    2014-08-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields.

  16. Topochemistry of environmentally friendly pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to fermentable sugar.

    PubMed

    Mou, Hongyan; Heikkil, Elina; Fardim, Pedro

    2014-04-23

    In this work, dilute alkaline and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were conducted in comparison with hydrotropic pretreatment to improve the delignification of bagasse prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The surface chemical composition of bagasse after pretreatments was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The surface distribution of lignin and extractives on the bagasse fiber was significantly changed by dilute alkaline, alkaline peroxide, and hydrotropic pretreatments. Hydrotropic pretreatment typically showed, other than the decrease of surface coverage by lignin and extractives, dramatic removal of xylan, thereby leading to more cellulose exposed on the fiber surface after pretreatment. Fiber morphology after pretreatments was more favorable for enzyme hydrolysis as well. However, the hydrotropic treatment had clear advantages because the enzymatic hydrolysis yields of glucan and xylan of pretreated bagasse were 83.9 and 14.3%, respectively. PMID:24689355

  17. Coal ash monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1981-07-14

    A monitor for determining the ash content of coal in rail cars consisting of a structure including means for irradiating each car as it passes the structure with a known dose of neutrons, means for detecting and measuring the intensities of gamma -rays emitted by ash-forming elements in the coal, and means for providing an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming elements. There also are included interlocks for ensuring that the neutron source is only operated when a loaded car is in the appropriate position.

  18. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molding Composites Reinforced by Bagasse Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yong; Fukumoto, Isao

    BMC (Bulk Molding Compound) is composed of UP (Unsaturated Polyester) resin, glass fibers, and bagasse fibers which have been obtained after squeezing sugar cane. Our purpose is to use the bagasse fibers as reinforcement and filler in BMC to fabricate composites by injection molding and injection compression molding. The mechanical properties of injection molding composites were improved after adding the bagasse fibers. Observing the fracture surface of the tensile test specimen through SEM, we could notice the glass fibers were penetrated into the bagasse fibers longitudinally. Along with UP resin solidifying, the glass fibers were firmly fixed in the bagasse fibers and finally united with them. This phenomenon could bring on the same effect as the glass fibers length was prolonged, so that the adhesion interface between fiber and matrix resin became larger, which leads to the increase in the mechanical properties. Otherwise, it was observed that UP resin sufficiently permeated the bagasse fibers and solidified. This also contributes to enhancing the mechanical properties drastically.

  19. Efficient extraction of bagasse hemicelluloses and characterization of solid remainder.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuangquan; Nie, Shuangxi; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Shuangfei; Qin, Chengrong

    2015-06-01

    To reduce the degradation of cellulose and obtain high molecular weight of hemicellulose from the extracts, pH pre-corrected hot water pretreatment was developed by employing sodium hydroxide (3.9mol/L). The response surface model was established to optimize the extraction process. The species composition and purity of hemicellulose extract was analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The obtained solid remainder was analyzed by FTIR and SEM. The results showed that the component of xylose in hemicellulose extract was similar with commercial xylan. FTIR and SEM were shown to be able to evaluate solid remainder composition and surface characterization of the bagasse. The biggest balance between solid remainder and dissolved solid was obtained. Not only the yield of dissolved solid was improved, but the structure of solid remainder was also proved, which was beneficial to pulping and papermaking. PMID:25746474

  20. Quantification of sugarcane yellow leaf virus in sugarcane following transmission through aphid vector, Melanaphis sacchari.

    PubMed

    Chinnaraja, C; Viswanathan, R

    2015-12-01

    Yellow leaf caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is a serious constraint to sugarcane production in India and currently the disease epidemics occur on many of the susceptible varieties under field conditions. Studies were conducted on the virus transmission by sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari in sugarcane by inoculating virus-free meristem derived from micro- propagated plants of sugarcane cv Co 86032 with viruliferous aphids. Virus transmission was confirmed through RT-PCR assays and subsequently SCYLV population was established through RT-qPCR. A maximum of 22.3 × 10(3), 3.16 × 10(6) and 4.78 × 10(6) copies of SCYLV-RNA targets were recorded in the plants after 7, 180 and 300 days, respectively. This study showed that the aphid species M. sacchari acts as an effective vector of SCYLV. The relative standard curve method in RT-qPCR efficiently detected the increment in SCYLV copy numbers in sugarcane following transmission through M. sacchari. PMID:26645033

  1. Sugar cane bagasse as a possible source of fermentable carbohydrates. I. Characterization of bagasse with regard to monosaccharide, hemicellulose, and amino acid composition

    SciTech Connect

    du Toit, P.J.; Olivier, S.P.; van Biljon, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Hemicellulose fractions of plant materials have recently attracted attention as a possible source of fermentable sugars to be used via fermentation for the production of liquid fuels, mainly ethanol. Individual monosaccharides present in bagasse hemicellulose were determined using HPLC and other chromatographic procedures. The presence of higher oligomers of the monosaccharides could also be determined. The pentosan fraction of bagasse was successfully hydrolyzed and extracted with 5% (m/v) HCl, and the rate of release of individual monosaccharides was determined. Xylose was the main component in the hydrolyzates, while glucose, arabinose, and galactose present in the side chains of the pentosans were initially released at a fast rate. This treatment resulted in obtaining 229 mg/g xylose (85% of theoretical maximum) and 44 mg/g glucose from bagasse. Only arabinose (2.8 mg/g) and galactose (0.75 mg/g) was also present in detectable quantities. A total of 309 mg monosaccharides were obtained from 1 g of bagasse by this treatment. The results indicated that hydrolysis conditions for specific plant materials depend on the composition of the specific material being utilized. A part of the pentosan fraction (77.1%) was hydrolyzed at a high rate, while 22.9% was more stable and hydrolyzed more slowly. Although 39.8% dry bagasse could be obtained in solution by treatment with dilute alkali, only about 72% of the available hemicelluloses could be extracted in this way if the bagasse was not delignified beforehand. Amino acids and peptides or proteins were also extracted to very much the same extent with the alkali.

  2. Microscopy Characterization of Silica-Rich Agrowastes to be used in Cement Binders: Bamboo and Sugarcane Leaves.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Josefa; Soriano, Lourdes; Santamarina, M Pilar; Akasaki, Jorge L; Melges, José Luiz P; Payá, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    Agrowastes are produced worldwide in huge quantities and they contain interesting elements for producing inorganic cementing binders, especially silicon. Conversion of agrowastes into ash is an interesting way of yielding raw material used in the manufacture of low-CO2 binders. Silica-rich ashes are preferred for preparing inorganic binders. Sugarcane leaves (Saccharum officinarum, SL) and bamboo leaves (Bambusa vulgaris, BvL and Bambusa gigantea, BgL), and their corresponding ashes (SLA, BvLA, and BgLA), were chosen as case studies. These samples were analyzed by means of optical microscopy, Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Spodograms were obtained for BvLA and BgLA, which have high proportions of silicon, but no spodogram was obtained for SLA because of the low silicon content. Different types of phytoliths (specific cells, reservoirs of silica in plants) in the studied leaves were observed. These phytoliths maintained their form after calcination at temperatures in the 350-850°C range. Owing to the chemical composition of these ashes, they are of interest for use in cements and concrete because of their possible pozzolanic reactivity. However, the presence of significant amounts of K and Cl in the prepared ashes implies a limitation of their applications. PMID:26343378

  3. Effects of Johnsongrass Density and Pre-Harvest Burning on Sugarcane Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Johnsongrass interference with sugarcane results in substantial yield losses. However, light infestations are sometimes overlooked due to the cost and difficulty of controlling rhizomatous johnsongrass in sugarcane. Studies were conducted to examine the effect of johnsongrass density and sugarcane h...

  4. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  5. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus. PMID:20416060

  6. Selenium in fly ash.

    PubMed

    Gutenmann, W H; Bache, C A; Youngs, W D; Lisk, D J

    1976-03-01

    Selenium, at concentrations exceeding 200 parts per million (ppm) (dry weight), has been found in white sweet clover voluntarily growing on beds of fly ash in central New York State. Guinea pigs fed such clover concentrated selenium in their tissues. The contents of the honey stomachs of bees foraging on this seleniferous clover contained negligible selenium. Mature vegetables cultured on 10 percent (by weight) fly ash-amended soil absorbed up to 1 ppm of selenium. Fly ashes from 21 states contained total selenium contents ranging from 1.2 to 16.5 ppm. Cabbage grown on soil containing 10 percent (by weight) of these fly ashes absorbed selenium (up to 3.7 ppm) in direct proportion (correlation coefficient r = .89) to the selenium concentration in the respective fly ash. Water, aquatic weeds, algae, dragonfly nymphs, polliwogs, and tissues of bullheads and muskrats from a fly ash-contaminated pond contained concentrations of selenium markedly elevated over those of controls. PMID:1251212

  7. Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

  8. REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH IN LOUISIANA SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisianas sugarcane producers and millers have been under increased economic pressure for the past several years. If the industry is to survive in the long term, then new technologies that maximize productivity and profitability must be identified and adopted. Several tests were initiated in 200...

  9. EVALUATION OF FAMILY APPRAISAL METHODS IN SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Louisiana, sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) breeders rely upon information obtained from family appraisal trials to make decisions that impact several important aspects of breeding programs. Decisions about parents to retain for future crossing, cross combinations to make, and numbers of cross...

  10. Sugarcane Rusts and Cultivar Options in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane Rusts and Cultivar Options in Florida In late June 2007, an outbreak of rust was observed in Florida on CP 80-1743, a variety previously resistant to brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala. The rust appeared only on the upper leaves and the pustules were all young actively sporulati...

  11. Registration of 'UFCP 74-1010' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    UFCP 74-1010 (Reg. no. ) was released by the University of Florida (UF) and the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS), Canal Point (CP) for its potential use in cellulosic ethanol production. UFCP 74-1010, a cross between sugarcane varieties CP 66-56-4 a...

  12. Wide row spacing in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest in the Louisiana sugarcane industry for a wider 8 foot row spacing than the conventional 6 foot row spacing. The wide row provides room for two drills of cane about 30 inches apart on each row. This type of wide row spacing lowers acre-feet from 7260 to 5445, thus reducing ...

  13. Effects of cultivation frequency on sugarcane yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing the number of cultivations during one or more years of a four year crop cycle reduces production expenses and could increase profitability if yields are not adversely affected. This study was initiated to determine the effects of cultivation on yields of sugarcane grown on a clay soil both ...

  14. Efficient Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurements of Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with many crops, chlorophyll fluorescence emission is a promising tool for measuring responses of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) to biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll fluorescence can be easily measured using portable fluorometers. However, several factors should be considered in order to op...

  15. Sugarcane Variety Census:Florida 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  16. Breeding for sugarcane borer resistance in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing resistant varieties is a key component of the Integrated Pest Management Program for managing the sugarcane borer in Louisiana; however, the release of resistant varieties to growers is sporadic. The challenge facing the Louisiana industry is how to increase resistance in its varieties witho...

  17. Biological nitrogen fixation in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is a major input for sugarcane with crops in Louisiana receiving between 90 and 180 kg/ha with the cost of N increasing 75% in the last decade. Biological N fixation (BNF) may be a viable alternative to fertilizer N. The process relies on endophytic bacteria (bacteria that live among th...

  18. How much fertilizer nitrogen does sugarcane need?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen rate recommendations for sugarcane in Louisiana take into account crop age (plant cane or stubble) and soil texture (light or heavy). Recommended rates in the 1950s ranged from 40 pounds N/A for plant cane on light-textured soil to 100 pounds of N/A for stubble cane on heavy-textured soil a...

  19. Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2012-06-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

  20. Breeding commercial sugarcane varieties for the industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent literature suggests that sugarcane breeding in the United States has reached a sugar yield plateau. If so, this could have huge implications for the future of the industry and breeding per se because yield improvement might have to be achieved through secondary, non-sugar-related traits, or t...

  1. Registration of 'UFCP 78-1013' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum sp.) cultivar UFCP 78-1013 (Reg. no. ) was developed through the collaborative effort of the University of Florida (UF) and the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS), Canal Point (CP) for its potential use in cellul...

  2. Minimizing the effects of poor sugarcane stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane stand establishment is crucial to produce profitable yields throughout the crop cycle. In this article, we will review some reasons for stand problems, discuss sugarcane’s ability to compensate for these problems, and describe cultural practices that may increase yields where stands are no...

  3. Economically important sugarcane diseases in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major diseases with potential to cause economic losses in the Louisiana sugarcane industry include ratoon stunt and leaf scald caused by bacterial pathogens, mosaic and yellow leaf caused by virus pathogens, and brown and orange rusts and smut caused by fungal pathogens. The most efficient method o...

  4. Unique cropping systems for Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Louisiana sugarcane field is typically replanted every four years due to declining yields, and, although, it is a costly process, it is both necessary and an opportunity to maximize the financial return during the next four year cropping cycle. Fallow planting systems (FPS) during the fallow perio...

  5. Sugarcane exposure and the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S M; Stockwell, H G; Pinkham, P A; Armstrong, A W; Witter, D A

    1992-08-01

    A case-control study was conducted of the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma from environmental and occupational exposures associated with sugarcane production. A slight, not statistically significant, excess risk of lung cancer was observed among participants who reported working in the sugarcane industry (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 0.5-7.5). No increased risk was observed among our population, associated with living near sugarcane growing areas. Little difference was observed between cases and controls in years employed in the industry or jobs performed. Only one mesothelioma case and no controls reported working in the sugarcane industry. PMID:1511673

  6. PCDD and PCDF emissions from simulated sugarcane field burning.

    PubMed

    Gullett, Brian K; Touati, Abderrahmane; Huwe, Janice; Hakk, Heldur

    2006-10-15

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density found during the practice of preharvest field burning. Eight composite burn tests consisting of 3-33 kg of biomass were conducted, some with replicate samplers. Emission factor calculations using sampled concentration and measured mass loss compared well to rigorous carbon balance methods commonly used in field sampling. The two sources of sugarcane had distinctive emission levels, as did tests on separate seasonal gatherings of the Florida sugarcane. The average emission factor for two tests of Hawaii sugarcane was 253 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg of carbon burned (ng TEQ/kg(Cb)) (rsd = 16%) and for two gatherings of Florida sugarcane was 25 ng TEQ/kg(Cb) (N = 4, rsd = 50%) and 5 ng TEQ/kg(Cb) (N = 2, rsd = 91%). The Hawaii sugarcane, as well as most of the Florida sugarcane, had emission values which were well above the value of 5 ng TEQ/kg(Cb) commonly attributed to biomass combustion. Application of this emission factor range to the amount of U.S. sugarcane fields burned suggests that this practice may be a relatively minor source of PCDDs and PCDFs in the U.S. national inventory, but the limited sample size and range of results make this conclusion tenuous. PMID:17120546

  7. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing; Xu, Jingsheng

    2015-10-23

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. PMID:26362180

  8. Engineering Model for Ash Formation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-02

    Ash deposition is controlled by the impaction and sticking of individual ash particles to heat transfer surfaces. Prediction of deposition therefore requires that the important factors in this process be predictable from coal and operational parameters. Coal combustion, boiler heat transfer, ash formation, ash particle aerodynamic, and ash particle sticking models are all essential steps in this process. The model described herein addresses the prediction of ash particle size and composition distributions based upon combustionmore » conditions and coal parameters. Key features of the model include a mineral redistribution routine to invert CCSEM mineralogical data, and a mineral interaction routine that simulates the conversion of mineral matter into ash during coal burning and yields ash particle size and composition distributions.« less

  9. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. PMID:25647030

  10. Modification of natural matrix lac-bagasse for matrix composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Widjaya, Karna; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Material technology continues to be developed in order to a material that is more efficient with composite technology is a combination of two or more materials to obtain the desired material properties. The objective of this research was to modification and characterize the natural matrix lac-bagasse as composite films. The first step, natural matrix lac was changed from solid to liquid using an ethanol as a solvent so the matrix homogenly. Natural matrix lac was modified by adding citric acid with concentration variation. Secondly, the bagasse delignification using acid hydrolysis method. The composite films natural matrix lac-bagasse were prepared with optimum modified the addition citric acid 5% (v/v) and delignification bagasse optimum at 1,5% (v/v) in hot press at 80°C 6 Kg/cm-1. Thirdly, composite films without and with modification were characterized functional group analysis using FTIR spectrophotometer and mechanical properties using Universal Testing Machine. The result of research showed natural matrix lac can be modified by reaction with citric acid. FTIR spectra showed without and with modification had functional groups wide absorption 3448 cm-1 group -OH, C=O ester strong on 1712 cm-1 and the methylene group -CH2 on absorption 1465 cm-1. The mechanical properties showed tensile strength 0,55 MPa and elongation at break of 0,95 %. So that composite films natural matrix lac can be made with reinforcement bagasse for material application.

  11. Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, β-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, β-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and β-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  12. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  13. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  14. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  15. Creep behavior of bagasse fiber reinforced polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanjun; Wu, Qinglin; Lei, Yong; Yao, Fei

    2010-05-01

    The creep behavior of bagasse-based composites with virgin and recycled polyvinyl chloride (B/PVC) and high density polyethylene (B/HDPE) as well as a commercial wood and HDPE composite decking material was investigated. The instantaneous deformation and creep rate of all composites at the same loading level increased at higher temperatures. At a constant load level, B/PVC composites had better creep resistance than B/HDPE systems at low temperatures. However, B/PVC composites showed greater temperature-dependence. Several creep models (i.e., Burgers model, Findley's power law model, and a simpler two-parameter power law model) were used to fit the measured creep data. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) was attempted for long-term creep prediction. The four-element Burgers model and the two-parameter power law model fitted creep curves of the composites well. The TTS principle more accurately predicted the creep response of the PVC composites compared to the HDPE composites. PMID:20064712

  16. Tannase Production by Solid State Fermentation of Cashew Apple Bagasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podrigues, Tigressa H. S.; Dantas, Maria Alcilene A.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    The ability of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (CAB) as substrate. The effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 mL of water was added to 100.0 g of CAB. The fungal strain was able to grow on CAB without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 U/g of dry substrate (gds). Optimization of process parameters such as supplementation with tannic acid, phosphorous, and different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources was studied. The addition of tannic acid affected the enzyme production and maximum tannase activity (2.40 U/gds) was obtained with 2.5% (w/w) supplementation. Supplementation with ammonium nitrate, peptone, and yeast extract exerted no influence on tannase production. Ammonium sulphate improved the enzyme production in 3.75-fold compared with control. Based on the experimental results, CAB is a promising substrate for solid state fermentation, enabling A. oryzae growth and the production of tannase, with a maximum activity of 3.42 U/gds and enzyme productivity of 128.5×10-3 U·gds -1·h-1.

  17. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse for L-(+)-lactic Acid production using Lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    John, Rojan P; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok

    2006-09-01

    Saccharification and fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) bagasse was carried out in a single step for the production of L-(+)-lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Using 15.5% w/v of cassava bagasse as the raw material, a maximum starch to lactic acid conversion of 96% was obtained with L. casei with a productivity rate of 1.40 mg/mLxh and maximum yield of 83.8 mg/mL. It was 94% with L. delbrueckii with a productivity rate of 1.36 mg/mLxh and maximum yield of 81.9 mg/mL. Supplementation of bagasse with 0.01% w/v MnCl2 showed positive influence on the lactic acid production by L. casei. PMID:16960284

  18. Modification of sandy soil hydrophysical environment through bagasse additive under laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Halim, A. A.; Kumlung, Arunsiri

    2015-01-01

    Until now sandy soils can be considered as one roup having common hydrophysical problems. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of bagasse as an amendment to improve hydrophysical properties of sandy soil, through the determination of bulk density, aggregatesize distribution, total porosity, hydraulic conductivity, pore-space structure and water retention. To fulfil this objective, sandy soils were amended with bagasse at the rate of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4% on the dry weight basis. The study results demonstrated that the addition of bagasse to sandy soils in between 3 to 4% on the dry weight basis led to a significant decrease in bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, and rapid-drainable pores, and increase in the total porosity, water-holding pores, fine capillary pores, water retained at field capacity, wilting point, and soil available water as compared with the control treatment

  19. Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose. PMID:24025853

  20. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. PMID:23711947

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of sugarcane yellow leaf virus isolates from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV), the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease (YLD), was first reported in China in 2006. In order to determine the distribution existence of SCYLV in major sugarcane-growing provinces in China, leaf samples were collected from 22 sugarcane clones (Saccharum ...

  2. Improving Sugarcane as a Bioenergy Crop in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of the world’s most important crops. Large-scale sugarcane-based ethanol production in Brazil, together with an impressive energy balance reported therein, has helped to generate interest in sugarcane as a bioenergy crop in the U.S. An advantage of sugarcane is the production of f...

  3. Pyrolysis of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse: non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ounas, A; Aboulkas, A; El Harfi, K; Bacaoui, A; Yaacoubi, A

    2011-12-01

    Thermal degradation and kinetics for olive residue and sugar cane bagasse have been evaluated under dynamic conditions in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). The effect of heating rate was evaluated in the range of 2-50 K min(-1) providing significant parameters for the fingerprinting of the biomass. The DTG plot for the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse clearly shows that the bagasse begins to degrade at 473 K and exhibits two major peaks. The initial mass-loss was associated with hemicellulose pyrolysis and responsible for the first peak (538-543 K) whereas cellulose pyrolysis was initiated at higher temperatures and responsible for the second peak (600-607 K). The two biomass mainly devolatilized around 473-673 K, with total volatile yield of about 70-75%. The char in final residue was about 19-26%. Mass loss and mass loss rates were strongly affected by heating rate. It was found that an increase in heating rate resulted in a shift of thermograms to higher temperatures. Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were applied to determine apparent activation energy to the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse. Two different steps were detected with apparent activation energies in the 10-40% conversion range have a value of 153-162 kJ mol(-1) and 168-180 kJ mol(-1) for the hemicellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. In the 50-80% conversion range, this value is 204-215 kJ mol(-1) and 231-240 kJ mol(-1) for the cellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. PMID:22004591

  4. Agro-industry sugarcane residues disposal: the trends of their conversion into energy carriers in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso Pippo, W; Garzone, P; Cornacchia, G

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to carry out a review of the disposal practices for the agro-industry's sugarcane residue and the trends of energy use in Cuba. The lack of an alternative energy carrier to electricity with storage capability for use in off-season has to date been an unsolvable question. The improvement of cogeneration capacity via implementation of CEST or BIG/GTCC and the barriers for their implementation, the introduction of a medium size (3 ton/h) fast pyrolysis module (FPM3) as a solution for off-season energy demand in the agro-industry, and an assessment of the energy required to do so, were also analyzed. Bio-oil production from bagasse and sugarcane agriculture residues (SCAR) and their particularities at the sugar mill are treated. The influence of sugar facility production process configuration is analyzed. The fast pyrolysis products and the trends of their end uses in Cuba are presented. The production cost of a ton of Bio-oil for FPM3 conditions was calculated at 155 USD/ton and the payback time as a function of selling price between 160 and 110 USD/ton was estimated to be from 1.5 to 4 years. The economic feasibility of the FPM3 was estimated, comparing the added values for three scenarios: 1st case, currently-used sugar production, 16.5 USD/ton of cane; 2nd case, factoring in the cogeneration improvement, 27 USD/ton of cane; and 3rd case, with cogeneration improvement and Bio-oil production, 40 USD/ton of cane. The energy use of SCAR and the introduction of FPM3 in the sugar mill are promising improvements that could result in a potential surplus of 80 kWh(e)/ton of cane in-season, or 6 x 10(6)ton of Bio-oil (LHV=15 MJ/kg) for use off-season in a milling season of 4 million tons of raw sugar. PMID:16797957

  5. NDVI to detect sugarcane aphid injury to grain sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. The purpose of this report is to describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants i...

  6. Variable rate lime application in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer sugarcane growers a management system that decreases costs and maximizes profits, while minimizing any potential negative environmental impact. The utility of variable-rate (VR) lime application in the initial production year (plant cane) of a 3-yr sugarcane crop cyc...

  7. Seeking Traits that Identify Productive Sugarcane Varieties for Sand Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objective of this study is to determine if there are easily measured traits of sugarcane that can help determine if a genotype will be productive on...

  8. Sugarcane Genotype Selection for Sand Soils in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of high yielding sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) genotypes for organic (muck) soils in Florida has been more successful than for sand soils. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of 31 sugarcane genotypes on sand soils with and without mill mud added at the rate of 1510 cubic...

  9. Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  10. Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

  11. Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF VIRUS ISOLATES CAUSING MOSAIC OF SUGARCANE IN LOUSIANA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten strains of sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and three strains of sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) have been shown to cause sugarcane mosaic in Louisiana, USA; however, surveys conducted between the 1970s and 1995 identified strains of SrMV only. In 2001 and 2002, approximately 350 leaf samples from pla...

  13. Registration of ‘CP 01-1372’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purposes of this research were to ...

  14. LEAF WHORL INOCULATION METHOD FOR SCREENING SUGARCANE RUST RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms consistent with sugarcane orange rust were first observed in Florida in June 2007, these were subsequently confirmed morphologically and molecularly as being caused by Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of orange rust. This was the first documented occurrence of sugarcane orange rust in the...

  15. Registration of ‘CPCL 97-2730’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  16. Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties Currently, there is a shift world-wide from the harvesting of burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane. With increased pressure from public and environmental agencies to further restrict or curtail burning in the U.S. and many ...

  17. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane), leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product. PMID:26009693

  18. Dealing with plant stress in Louisiana sugarcane production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane can encounter several grower-induced stresses during the early part of the growing season. The purpose of this article is to transfer research findings in the area of crop stress physiology and in particular in the area of residue removal in an effort to communicate how Louisiana sugarcan...

  19. DIVERSITY AMONG MAINLAND USA SUGARCANE CULTIVARS EXAMINED BY SSR GENOTYPING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSR’s have been effective in examining diversity to improve plant breeding strategies however, the identification of useful SSR’s is critical and can be difficult especially in the complex sugarcane genome. Diversity among the cultivars grown and used for the sugarcane breeding programs of Florida, ...

  20. Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of sugarcane germplasm for juice quality traits such as starch content could encourage their use for germplasm enhancement. Starch content among sugarcane germplasm was evaluated in three experiments. Experiment I had 49 accessions including 5 Saccharum spontaneum, 13 S. barberi, ...

  1. Part II: Dealing with Plant Stress in Louisiana Sugarcane Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane can encounter several grower-induced stresses during the later part of the growing season. The purpose of this article is to transfer research findings in the areas of cultivation, planting practices, and ripener usage in an effort to communicate how Louisiana sugarcane producers can more...

  2. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I; Mattos, Raphael S; Ferreira, Thaís H; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches. PMID:25755657

  3. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

  4. Repeatability of Sugarcane Selection on Sand and Organic Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Canal Point (CP) Sugarcane Cultivar Development Program (a cooperative program between the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida and the Florida Sugarcane League) has been more successful at breeding for cultivars adapted to organic soils (muck) than for those adapted to sand soils. Currently, onl...

  5. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of priority is as follows: (1) The Catastrophic Risk... sugarcane in the county insured under this policy. (b) Instead of reporting your sugarcane production for... must remain intact for our inspection; and (2) You must give us notice at least 15 days before...

  6. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... under this policy. (b) Instead of reporting your sugarcane production for the previous crop year as... damage or loss: (1) All sugarcane stubble must remain intact for our inspection; and (2) You must give us... unit number and the number of acres you intend to harvest as seed. Failure to give us timely...

  7. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... under this policy. (b) Instead of reporting your sugarcane production for the previous crop year as... damage or loss: (1) All sugarcane stubble must remain intact for our inspection; and (2) You must give us... unit number and the number of acres you intend to harvest as seed. Failure to give us timely...

  8. Identifying a new causal agent of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of economic concern that infects maize, sorghum, and sugarcane worldwide. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and contains a linear, positive sense ssRNA genome 10 kb long. It is transmitted non-persistently via aphids and ...

  9. Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

  10. Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

  11. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amandeep; Lal, Uma Ranjan; Mukhtar, Hayat Muhammad; Singh, Prabh Simran; Shah, Gagan; Dhawan, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn.) is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane), leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product. PMID:26009693

  12. Registration of ‘CPCL 99-4455’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The objectives of this research were t...

  13. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I.; Mattos, Raphael S.; Ferreira, Thaís H.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches. PMID:25755657

  14. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a) Proportionate shares and the provisions of this section and §§ 1435.312 through 1435.316 apply only to...

  15. Preliminary observations of sugarcane trash degradation for repurposing as mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential use for sugarcane trash is to convert it to mulch. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a compost enhancer or nitrogen would accelerate degradation of leaf trash. Trash was obtained from a sugarcane grower, and was treated with water only, a commercial compost starter composed o...

  16. Doveweed Control with Preemergence and Postemergence Herbicides in Fallowed Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doveweed infestation of fallowed sugarcane is becoming a management concern for Louisiana’s sugarcane growers. Doveweed is poorly controlled with glyphosate and this allows it to establish dense infestations across formed rows which can impede planting practices. The objectives of this research were...

  17. Sugarcane postharvest residue management in a temperate climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full retention of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) post-harvest residue often reduces subsequent ratoon crop yields in Louisiana. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of different removal methods and removal timings on sugarcane growth and yield and to determine if...

  18. Sugarcane Post-Harvest Residue Management in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Failure to remove sugarcane post-harvest residue often reduces ratoon crop yields in temperate climates. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effects of various residue management practices on sugarcane yield. For the first experiment, timing of post-harvest residue was based on th...

  19. Sugarcane aphid resistance in sorghum and a host range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid (SCA), Melanaphis sacchari, has been present in the United States primarily on sugarcane in Florida, Hawaii, and Louisiana until 2013 where it was found on grain sorghum near Beaumont, Texas. Since 2013, the SCA has been rapidly spreading and overwintering. Depending on the plant...

  20. Soil health for increasing sugarcane yield and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil health can be defined as the capacity of the soil to continually produce high yields of sugarcane. Soil organic matter, native fertility, adequate moisture and drainage, soil workability, and high levels of beneficial microorganisms all contribute to soil health. Sugarcane growers in Louisiana ...

  1. Potential of diazotrophic bacteria associated with sugarcane for energycane production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crosses between sugarcane and wild species of Saccharum and other closely related genera are made to introgress new genes from the wild species into sugarcane. Characteristics of the progeny from these crosses may include increased biomass and the ability to be grown in a broader geographical range ...

  2. Sugarcane yield and morphological responses to long-term flooding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in south Florida is often subjected to flooding in the summer months or following hurricanes. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adaptation and yield response to l...

  3. Independently segregating simple sequence repeats (SSR) alleles in polyploid sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complex nuclear genomic and flower structures of sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum hybrids spp., 2n = 10x = 100 – 130) render sugarcane a difficult subject for genetics research. Using a capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-labeling-based SSR genotyping platform, the segregation of a multi-a...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  5. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a... sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  6. Systematics of rust and associated fungi from sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The systematic positions of rust pathogens infecting sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) were determined using independent and combined sequence data. Rust specimens on sugarcane were sent from 175 locations in 25 countries. In all collections except one, the morphology and nuclear large ...

  7. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...

  8. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the reaction of young, recently planted, or recently ratooned sugarcane during spring months. The purpose of this study was to test t...

  9. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  10. Hygroscopic properties of volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathem, T. L.; Kumar, P.; Nenes, A.; Dufek, J.; Sokolik, I. N.; Trail, M.; Russell, A.

    2011-06-01

    Limited observational data exists on the physical interactions between volcanic ash particles and water vapor; yet it is thought that these interactions can strongly impact the microphysical evolution of ash, with implications for its atmospheric lifetime and transport, as well as formation of water and ice clouds. In this study, we investigate for the first time, the hygroscopic properties of ultra-fine volcanic ash (<125 μm diameter) from the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, El Chichón in 1982, Tungurahua in 2006, Chaitén in 2008, Mt. Redoubt in 2009, and Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. The hygroscopicity of the ash particles is quantified by their ability to uptake water and nucleate into cloud drops under controlled levels of water vapor supersaturation. Evidence presented strongly suggests that ash uptakes water efficiently via adsorption and a simple parameterization of ash hygroscopicity is developed for use in ash plume and atmospheric models.

  11. Feasibility study for bagasse congeneration in Kenya. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Kenya's Ministry of Agriculture. The purpose of the report is to determine the economic, technical, and financial viability of implementing bagasse based cogeneration projects in Kenya. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary, (2) Terms of Reference, (3) Bagasse Fuel for Generation, (4) The Electrical Power Situation in Kenya, (5) Export Electricity Potential from Nyando Sugar Belt, (6) Export Potential from Proposed New Sugar Factories; (7) Financial, (8) Project Financing, (9) Demonstration Project.

  12. Field Evaluation of Sugarcane Orange Rust for First Clonal Stage of the CP Sugarcane Cultivar Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consistent development of high-yielding sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical to commercial sugarcane production. Currently, orange rust (caused by Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler) is a big challenge for the suga...

  13. Effect of Post-Harvest Residue on Ratoon Crops of Sugarcane Infected with Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is a luteovirus that causes yellow leaf of sugarcane. Previous studies in Louisiana focusing on the effect of post-harvest residue found that retention of the residue often reduces yield of subsequent ratoon crops. A field experiment to determine the potential in...

  14. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  15. SUGARCANE BORER (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) MANAGEMENT THRESHOLD ASSESSMENT ON FOUR SUGARCANE CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Judicious application of insecticides is an important component of integrated pest management of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Louisiana. Timing of these applications if critical for effective control and applications of insecticides has been traditionally set at a 5% infested st...

  16. The latest progress in sugarcane molecular genetics research at the USDA-ARS, Sugarcane Research Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, two sugar molecular genetics tools were developed in the USDA-ARS, Southeast Area, Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, LA. One is the high throughput fluorescence- and capillary electrophoregrams (CE)-based SSR genotyping tool and the other is single pollen collection and SSR genotyping...

  17. ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

    1999-12-01

    The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

  18. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200–2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines. PMID:26931824

  19. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines. PMID:26931824

  20. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-03-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  1. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  2. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-22

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  3. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-05-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months. PMID:26508073

  4. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to investigate the sintering process of volcanic ash. In order to analyze the mineral transformation and microstructure evolution, the qualitative as well as quantitative crystalline phase analysis of volcanic ash samples directly taken from furnace by per 100 oC in the range of between 100 and 1400 oC as well as evaluation of microstructure of volcanic ash taken from from furnace by per 20 oC in the range of between 1000 and 1300 oC has been made by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, we obtain the viscosity temperature curve for volcanic ash during melting process on the basis of the characteristic temperature obtained by HSM.

  5. Bioprocessing of bagasse hydrolysate for ethanol and xylitol production using thermotolerant yeast.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Dheeran, Pratibha; Singh, Surendra P; Mishra, Indra M; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of xylose-rich and glucose-rich bagasse hydrolysates, obtained from the two-stage acid hydrolysis was studied using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. The yeast could grow on xylose-rich hydrolysate at 50C with the dry cell weight, cell mass yield and maximum specific growth rate of 5.35gl(-1), 0.58gg(-1) and 0.13h(-1), respectively. The yeast was found to be very promising for ethanol as well as xylitol production from the sugars obtained from the lignocellulosic biomass. Batch fermentations of xylose-rich and glucose-rich hydrolysates yielded 0.61gg(-1) xylitol and 0.43gg(-1) ethanol in the broth, respectively based on the sugars present in the hydrolysate. Overall ethanol yield of 165g (210ml) and 183g xylitol per kg of bagasse was obtained, when bagasse hydrolysate was used as a substrate. Utilization of both the glucose and xylose sugars makes the process most economical by producing both ethanol and xylitol based on biorefinery concept. On validating the experimental data of ethanol fermentation, the modified Luong kinetic model for product inhibition as well as inhibition due to inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysate, the model was found to be the best fit for ethanol formation from bagasse hydrolysate using Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. PMID:25090978

  6. Energy-dense liquid fuel intermediates by pyrolysis of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) shrub and bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule is a perennial shrub grown in the southwestern United States that is used to produce high quality, natural rubber latex. However, only about 10% of the plant material is used for latex production; the remaining biomass, called bagasse, can be used for renewable fuel production. Fast pyroly...

  7. Effect of pretreatment methods on the synergism of cellulase and xylanase during the hydrolysis of bagasse.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lili; Gonçalves, Geisa A L; Takasugi, Yusaku; Mori, Yutaro; Noda, Shuhei; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Noriho

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pretreatment with peracetic acid (PAA) or an ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [Emim][OAc]) on the synergism between endoglucanase and endoxylanase in the hydrolysis of bagasse was investigated. An endoglucanase, Cel6A, with a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and two endoxylanases, XynZ-C without a CBM and Xyn11A with an intrinsic xylan/cellulose binding module (XBM), were selected. The hemicellulose content, especially arabinan, and the cellulose crystallinity of bagasse were found to affect the cellulase-xylanase synergism. More specifically, higher synergism (above 3.4) was observed for glucan conversion, at low levels of arabinan (0.9%), during the hydrolysis of PAA pretreated bagasse. In contrast, [Emim][OAc] pretreated bagasse, showed lower cellulose crystallinity and achieved higher synergism (over 1.9) for xylan conversion. Ultimately, the combination of Cel6A and Xyn11A resulted in higher synergism for glucan conversion than the combination of Cel6A with XynZ-C, indicating the importance of the molecular architecture of enzymes for metabolic synergism. PMID:25768418

  8. An atlas of volcanic ash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G.

    1974-01-01

    Volcanic ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions were studied, using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy to characterize each ash type and to relate ash morphology to magma composition and eruption type. The ashes are best placed into two broad genetic categories: magnetic and hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic). Ashes from magmatic eruptions are formed when expanding gases in the magma form a froth that loses its coherence as it approaches the ground surface. During hydrovolcanic eruptions, the magma is chilled on contact with ground or surface waters, resulting in violent steam eruptions. Within these two genetic categories, ashes from different magma types can be characterized. The pigeon hole classification used here is for convenience; there are eruptions which are driven by both phreatic and magmatic gases.

  9. Ash in the Soil System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect, climate/meteorological conditions after the ash spread/fire and soil background characteristics. In addition, after the fire heating can change soil original properties increasing the complexity of the ash effects on soil properties. After fire, ash is highly dynamic and very easily transported by wind until the first rains. When wetted, ash compacts and binds onto soil surface, and wind has low capacity to transport it. The post-rain ash dynamic is influenced by water erosion (in slope areas), infiltration into soil profile and vegetation recuperation. This means that ash produced in one place will have implications in other areas, including not burned areas (e.g wind transport and water erosion). This is a clear indication that ash effects go much further than the fire affected area. Due the heterogeneity of soil and ash properties and their dynamic across the landscape, the impacts of ash on soil system can be diverse, producing a mosaic of different effects and responses after ash treatment and/ or fire. In this communication it will be presented and discussed the advances and scientific development of ash effects and dynamic in soil system.

  10. Ameliorative effect of fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Agronomic effectiveness and environmental impact of fly ashes used to reclaim pyritic acid mine spoils were investigated in the laboratory and field. Mine spoils at two abandoned sites were amended with three rates of fly ash, three rates of rock phosphate, and seeded with alfalfa and wheat. Application of fly ash decreased bulk density and increased moisture retention capacity of spoils. Fly ash application reduced cation exchange capacity, acidity, toxic levels of Al, Fe, and Mn in soils by buffering soil pH at 6.5, and retarded pyrite oxidation. The reduction in cation exchange capacity was compensated by release of plant nutrients through diffusion and dissolution of plerospheres in fly ash. Improvement of spoil physical, chemical and microbial properties resulted in higher yield, more nitrogen fixation, and utilization of P from rock phosphate by alfalfa. Laboratory investigations demonstrated that neutralization potential and the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron were more important for classifying fly ashes than the total elemental analysis presently used in a taxonomic classification system. Contamination of the food chain through plant removal of Mo and As in fly ash treated mine spoils was observed only for Mo and only for the first year of cropping. Plant available As and Mo decreased with time. Laboratory leaching and adsorption studies and a field experiment showed that trace metals do not leach from fly ashes at near neutral pH and more oxyanions will leach from fly ashes with low neutralization potential and low amounts of amorphous oxides of iron.

  11. Effects of production and market factors on ethanol profitability for an integrated first and second generation ethanol plant using the whole sugarcane as feedstock

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sugarcane is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production, especially if the lignocellulosic fraction can also be treated in second generation (2G) ethanol plants. However, the profitability of 2G ethanol is affected by the processing conditions, operating costs and market prices. This study focuses on the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and maximum profitability of ethanol production in an integrated first and second generation (1G + 2G) sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The feedstock used was sugarcane juice, bagasse and leaves. The lignocellulosic fraction was hydrolysed with enzymes. Yields were assumed to be 95% of the theoretical for each of the critical steps in the process (steam pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), fermentation, solid/liquid separation, anaerobic digestion) in order to obtain the best conditions possible for ethanol production, to assess the lowest production costs. Techno-economic analysis was performed for various combinations of process options (for example use of pentoses, addition of leaves), EH conditions (water-insoluble solids (WIS) and residence time), operating cost (enzymes) and market factors (wholesale prices of electricity and ethanol, cost of the feedstock). Results The greatest reduction in 2G MESP was achieved when using the pentoses for the production of ethanol rather than biogas. This was followed, in decreasing order, by higher enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (EHE), by increasing the WIS to 30% and by a short residence time (48 hours) in the EH. The addition of leaves was found to have a slightly negative impact on 1G + 2G MESP, but the effect on 2G MESP was negligible. Sugarcane price significantly affected 1G + 2G MESP, while the price of leaves had a much lower impact. Net present value (NPV) analysis of the most interesting case showed that integrated 1G + 2G ethanol production including leaves could be more profitable than 1G ethanol, despite the fact that the MESP was higher than in 1G ethanol production. Conclusions A combined 1G + 2G ethanol plant could potentially outperform a 1G plant in terms of NPV, depending on market wholesale prices of ethanol and electricity. Therefore, although it is more expensive than 1G ethanol production, 2G ethanol production can make the integrated 1G + 2G process more profitable. PMID:24559312

  12. Can ash clog soil pores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Stoof, Cathelijne; Gevaert, Anouk; Gevaert, Anouk; Baver, Christine; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica; Morales, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Martin, Deborah; Steenhuis, Tammo; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire can greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events, and ash is thought to play a large role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire. Although ash can store rainfall and thereby reduce runoff and erosion for a limited period after wildfires, it has also been hypothesized to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Several researchers have attributed the commonly observed increase in runoff and erosion after fire to the potential pore-clogging effect of ash. Evidence is however incomplete, as to date, research has solely focused on identifying the presence of ash in the soil, with the actual flow processes associated with the infiltration and pore-clogging of ash remaining a major unknown. In several laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ash causes pore clogging to the point that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs. We first visualized and quantified pore-scale infiltration of water and ash in sand of a range of textures and at various infiltration rates, using a digital bright field microscope capturing both photo and video. While these visualization experiments confirm field and lab observation of ash washing into soil pores, we did not observe any clogging of pores, and have not been able to create conditions for which this does occur. Additional electrochemical analysis and measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity indicate that pore clogging by ash is not plausible. Electrochemical analysis showed that ash and sand are both negatively charged, showing that attachment of ash to sand and any resulting clogging is unlikely. Ash also had quite high saturated conductivity, and systems where ash was mixed in or lying on top of sand had similarly high hydraulic conductivity. Based on these various experiments, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that pore clogging by ash contributes to the frequently observed increase in post-fire runoff, at least for the medium to coarse sands evaluated here. Infiltration reductions and increases in runoff in these systems are more likely caused by the hydrologic effects of the textural interface between ash and soil, or by other fire-induced changes such as vegetation removal, decrease in roughness, and changes in soil water repellency. This is important information for determining the desired focus of post-fire management activities.

  13. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  14. Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.

  15. Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

  16. Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

  17. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  18. Incineration and incinerator ash processing

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Parallel small-scale studies on the dissolution and anion exchange recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Rocky Flats Plant. Results from these two studies are discussed in context with incinerator design considerations that might help to mitigate ash processing related problems. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Pollen influx and volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Mehringer, P J; Blinman, E; Petersen, K L

    1977-10-21

    Pollen influx can be used to estimate the duration of short-term depositional events. When applied to volcanic ashes, it may also provide information on the season and ecological effects of ashfall. In our initial application of the method to volcanic ashes from Lost Trail Pass, Bitterroot Mountains, Montana, we have illustrated that (i) two falls of Glacier Peak ash, which occurred about 11,250 (14)C years ago, were separated by 10 to 25 years; and (ii) volcanic ash from a major eruption of Mount Mazama (about 6700 (14)C years ago) first fell in the autumn and 4.6 centimeters of ash was deposited before the following spring. We also believe there is a reasonable probability that (i) about 1 centimeter of ash fell during the following year and about 1.7 centimeters fell the year after; (ii) in all, the sporadic primary Mazama ashfall lasted for nearly 3 years; (iii) Mazama ash resulted in low lake productivity, as measured by the occurrence of Botryococcus and Pediastrum; (iv) Mazama ash, perhaps through a mulching effect, may have produced increased vigor and pollen production in some sagebrush steppe genera; and (v) as measured by the records of fossil pollen and acid-resistant algae, effects on the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems were short-lived. With refinement of the methods and broader geographic application, pollen influx studies may prove valuable for separating the regional and chronological details of tephra attributed to Mazama, Glacier Peak, and other Cascade Range volcanoes. PMID:17770486

  20. Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

  1. Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1989-01-01

    Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

  2. Contribution of cane bagasse used as a fuel in the sugar industry to changes in outdoor and indoor air quality in middle Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindy, K. T.

    The present one-year study is concerned with the degree of relationship between the changes in quantity and quality of outdoor and indoor settled dust in Abu Qurqas town in Middle Egypt and the combustion of cane bagasse in boiler furnaces in a sugar factory located in the same town. It can be suggested that this process is responsible for increasing the rate of outdoor and indoor deposition of combustible matter by 2-8 and 2-7 times, respectively, during the period of December-April. However, it can be suggested also that the same process has a limited role, as it is a source of ash content of both outdoor and indoor settled dust and is ineffective in polluting the two environments with calcium, chloride and sulphate ions and tar fraction. Indoor levels of settled dust and its constituents were found to be lowest during cold months. This causes the indoor levels of combustible matter resulting from the sugar factory to be lower than the outdoor levels by 41-45% during December-March and by 28% during April which is a relatively warm month in Middle Egypt.

  3. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The early pyroclastic phase of the formation of Kima'Kho, a tuya in northern B.C., Canada produced a subaqueous pyroclastic cone which became emergent during the latter stages of formation. Armoured lapilli are pervasive within the emergent upper third of the sequence. No other types of ash aggregates have been observed. Petrographic and textural analysis of the armoured lapilli shows them to comprise a central 2-30 mm-sized, juvenile, vesiculated pyroclast, concentrically coated by mm-scale layers of 10-250 μm sized ash particles. At Kima'Kho, the armoured lapilli are shown to be a direct indicator of fallout from a sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured lapilli (no accretionary lapilli) at Kima'Kho and diverse ash aggregates but no armoured lapilli at A418. Here we investigate vent-proximal ash aggregation and the specific conditions which lead to the formation of coated ash pellets and armoured lapilli.

  4. Using fly ash for construction

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  5. Saccharification and ethanol fermentation from cholinium ionic liquid-pretreated bagasse with a different number of post-pretreatment washings.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Omote, Sayuri; Ogino, Chiaki; Kuroda, Kosuke; Noguchi, Mana; Endo, Takatsugu; Kakuchi, Ryohei; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Choline acetate (ChOAc), a cholinium ionic liquid (IL), was compared with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimOAc) with regard to biomass pretreatment, inhibition on cellulase and yeast, residuals in pretreated biomass, and saccharification and fermentation of pretreated biomass. Irrespective of ChOAc and EmimOAc, cellulose and hemicellulose saccharification of the IL-pretreated bagasse were over 90% and 60%, respectively. Median effective concentrations (EC50) based on cellulase activity were 32 wt% and 16 wt% for ChOAc and EmimOAc, respectively. The EC50 based on yeast growth were 3.1 wt% and 0.3 wt% for ChOAc and EmimOAc respectively. The residuals in IL-pretreated bagasse were 10% and 23% for ChOAc and EmimOAc, respectively, when washed 2 times after pretreatment. Ethanol yield on a bagasse basis were 60% and 24% for ChOAc and EmimOAc, respectively, in the saccharification and fermentation of IL-pretreated bagasse when washed 2 times. ChOAc-pretreated bagasse could be saccharified and fermented with fewer wash times than EmimOAc-pretreated bagasse. PMID:25898080

  6. Registration of 'HoCP 91-552' sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘HoCP 91-552’ sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross ‘LCP 81-10’ x ‘CP 72-356’ made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 91-552 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana A...

  7. Cloning, expression and characterization of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) transketolase.

    PubMed

    Kalhori, Nahid; Nulit, R; Go, Rusea

    2013-10-01

    Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants. PMID:24132392

  8. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06–407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03–1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01–77 and LC 05–136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05–136, and YZ 05–51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26499905

  9. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  10. Transgenic Sugarcane with a cry1Ac Gene Exhibited Better Phenotypic Traits and Enhanced Resistance against Sugarcane Borer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shiwu; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Chunfeng; Guo, Jinlong; Zhou, Dinggang; Wu, Qibin; Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping

    2016-01-01

    We developed sugarcane plants with improved resistance to the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F). An expression vector pGcry1Ac0229, harboring the cry1Ac gene and the selectable marker gene, bar, was constructed. This construct was introduced into the sugarcane cultivar FN15 by particle bombardment. Transformed plantlets were identified after selection with Phosphinothricin (PPT) and Basta. Plantlets were then screened by PCR based on the presence of cry1Ac and 14 cry1Ac positive plantlets were identified. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the copy number of cry1Ac gene in the transgenic lines varied from 1 to 148. ELISA analysis showed that Cry1Ac protein levels in 7 transgenic lines ranged from 0.85 μg/FWg to 70.92 μg/FWg in leaves and 0.04 μg/FWg to 7.22 μg/FWg in stems, and negatively correlated to the rate of insect damage that ranged from 36.67% to 13.33%, respectively. Agronomic traits of six transgenic sugarcane lines with medium copy numbers were similar to the non-transgenic parental line. However, phenotype was poor in lines with high or low copy numbers. Compared to the non-transgenic control plants, all transgenic lines with medium copy numbers had relatively equal or lower sucrose yield and significantly improved sugarcane borer resistance, which lowered susceptibility to damage by insects. This suggests that the transgenic sugarcane lines harboring medium copy numbers of the cry1Ac gene may have significantly higher resistance to sugarcane borer but the sugarcane yield in these lines is similar to the non-transgenic control thus making them superior to the control lines. PMID:27093437

  11. Free amino acids - determinant of sugarcane resistance/susceptibility to stalk borer and sap feeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two relatively new key species in Louisiana that conform to the plant stress hypothesis are the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner). High performance liquid chromatography differentiated insect resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultiva...

  12. Effect of Recurrent Selection for Sucrose on Growth and Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane Internodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial sugarcane cultivars are complex, polyploid, interspecific hybrids, primarily of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum. Most breeding programs need about twelve years to develop a new cultivar. Since the 1920s, Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used modified recurrent selection...

  13. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A.; Vitolo, M.

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Biodelignification of Lemon Grass and Citronella Bagasse by White-Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Rolz, C.; de Leon, R.; de Arriola, M. C.; de Cabrera, S.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid-state culture on lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) bagasse. The two lignocellulosic substrates had 11% permanganate lignin and a holocellulose fraction of 58%. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20°C, nine fungi produced a solid residue from lemon grass with a higher in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility than the original bagasse; seven did the same for citronella. The best fungus for both substrates was Bondarzewia berkeleyi; it increased the in vitro dry matter enzyme digestibility to 22 and 24% for lemon grass and citronella, respectively. The increases were correlated with weight loss and lignin loss. All fungi decreased lignin contents: 36% of the original value for lemon grass and 28% for citronella. Practically all fungi showed a preference for hemicellulose over cellulose. PMID:16347155

  15. Volcanic ash in deep marine sediment: A comparison of dispersed ash and adjacent ash layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, R. P.; Murray, R. W.; Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of dispersed volcanic ash in pelagic marine sediment (as differentiated from ash found in discrete layers) has been known since the 1970's. Most previous studies have assessed the dispersed component through sedimentological and petrographic methods. As part of an effort to quantitatively determine the amount, and chemical composition, of dispersed ash in pelagic sediments, we are undertaking a systematic study of the western Pacific marine sediments. ODP Site 1149 (Leg 185), located immediately east of the Izu-Bonin Arc, consists of aluminosilicate clay and large amounts of volcanic ash (>75 ash layers described in units I and II). In addition to the ash layers, there is abundant dispersed ash (20 - 50% of the bulk). Using a multi-elemental geochemical and statistical approach we can characterize and quantify this dispersed ash component, and thus complement the original ash layer record by a novel dataset. At Site 1149, our previous work based on refractory trace element end members of potential sources (from the literature) indicate that Chinese Loess, Ryukyu Dacite (Japan), and an average of Izu-Bonin Front Arc material yield the best mixing to explain the bulk sedimentary composition (Scudder et al., 2009, EPSL, 284, 639-648). Contribution of a significant distal Ryukyu Arc component to the sediment eastward of Izu-Bonin (i.e., Site 1149) is surprising, yet is required by our chemical results, and is consistent with the previous work of Egeberg et al. (1992). While Scudder et al. (2009) was based on a small number of samples (~15 samples for complete major, trace, and REE analysis) and a modest element menu, we here present the results from an expansive suite of analyses (>80 samples) allowing us to test the effect of sample number on the statistical results and achieve additional quantitative resolution of volcanic and upper crustal sources (e.g., loess). This further improves our statistical ability to resolve temporal changes that may be related to variation in arc volcanism through time. Most importantly, we are able to discern an additional source(s) of material beyond our previous work that was based on more limited data. Furthermore, we compare the composition of the dispersed ash component to that of the discrete ash layers. We analyzed 26 ash layers, sampled from the entire span of Units I and II. We are able to identify at least two broad compositional groupings. The first ash population is similar to upper crustal material such as loess, though several key diagnostic compositions are distinctive. The second ash layer population broadly exhibits lower SiO2 with higher TiO2, MgO, Fe2O3, and Sc. These two ash groups are consistent with the two ashes identified by Scudder et al. (2009) as the sources of the dispersed ash in the bulk sediment, with the first ash layer population representing the Ryukyu Dacite component and the second population being similar to the Izu-Bonin Front Arc. Additional studies of the ash shard chemistry as well as multivariate statistical analyses of the enhanced bulk sedimentary data set will allow further resolution of sources, and the development of a quantitative inventory of the sedimentary sequence being subducted into the Izu-Bonin arc system.

  16. Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis. Results The available stalk number, stalk diameter, single stalk weight and theoretical yield of ratoon cane (RS) were found to be significantly lower than those of plant cane (NS). The activities of several carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus processing enzymes, including invertase, peroxidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase were found to be significantly lower in RS soil than in NS soil. BIOLOG analysis indicated a significant decline in average well-color development (AWCD), Shannons diversity and evenness indices in RS soil as compared to NS soil. To profile the rhizospheric metaproteome, 109 soil protein spots with high resolution and repeatability were successfully identified. These proteins were found to be involved in carbohydrate/energy, amino acid, protein, nucleotide, auxin and secondary metabolisms, membrane transport, signal transduction and resistance, etc. Comparative metaproteomics analysis revealed that 38 proteins were differentially expressed in the RS soil as compared to the control soil or NS soil. Among these, most of the plant proteins related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and stress response were up-regulated in RS soil. Furthermore, several microbial proteins related to membrane transport and signal transduction were up-regulated in RS soil. These proteins were speculated to function in root colonization by microbes. Conclusions Our experiments revealed that sugarcane ratooning practice induced significant changes in the soil enzyme activities, the catabolic diversity of microbial community, and the expression level of soil proteins. They influenced the biochemical processes in the rhizosphere ecosystem and mediated the interactions between plants and soil microbes. PMID:23773576

  17. Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

    2012-12-01

    The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro-regions) from Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009); (ii) One index that indicates the degree of relative occurrence of vulnerable areas in relation to contamination risk of surface and groundwater by effluents from sugarcane agroindustry from a model made by Barbalho e Campos (2010); (iii) two indicators that evaluate the commitment degree of the available water to meet the demand of sugarcane potential expansion distinctly for dryland and irrigation system; (iv) two indicators that evaluate the attendance level of the sugarcane water demand considering the limits of available water from local water resource in terms of maximum area that the culture can expand in a sustainable way For the estimation of water supply was used a spatially distributed model of specific flow (FERRAZ, 2012). The results show that the indicators were able to characterize and distinguish the different territorial units of analysis and the spatial models used satisfactorily met, in terms of level of detail, the purposes explained. The Sudoeste de Goiás and Quirinópolis microregions exhibit higher favorability, from the point of view of water sustainability therefore have areas where culture can be grown in dry system and still rely on higher available water volumes to supply the demand of sugarcane cultivation in the areas of compulsory irrigation.

  18. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Wang, H.P.; Lin, K.S.

    1997-12-01

    Resource recovery plants with waste sorting process prior to incineration have not been successfully developed in many developing countries. The reuse potential of incineration ash in light of toxicity and compressive strength remains unclear due to the inhomogeneous composition and higher moisture content of solid waste in Taiwan. A comparative evaluation of the ash generated from two types of incineration processes were performed in this paper. The results indicate that fly ash collected from both types of incineration processes are classified as hazardous materials because of higher metal contents. The reuse of bottom ash collected from refuse-derived fuel incineration process as fine aggregate in concrete mixing would present 23% lower compressive strength as compared with the normal condition.

  19. Modifiers of the ash properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Vaclav; Najser, Jan; Pilat, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this article is to perform an experimental verification of the impact of added substances to limit or prevent sintering of solid fuel ash, which is formed during the thermochemical conversion of fuels. As a modifiers of ash sintering and melting temperature were used halloysite (aluminosilicate) and limestone, which has similar mechanism of action. Both of them act on the principle of a strong chemical adsorption of potassium ions, which largely cause a reduction of ash fusibility. Influence of the modifiers was observed after tests provided at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. Modifiers were dosed in amounts of 2, 5 and 10 wt.%.

  20. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.