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1

Genetic transformation and pyramiding of aprotinin-expressing sugarcane with cry1Ab for shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus) resistance.  

PubMed

We evaluated the insecticidal toxicity of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins against neonate larvae of sugarcane shoot borer Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in vitro on diet surface. With the lowest LC(50) value, Cry1Ab emerged as the most effective among the three toxins. Sugarcane cultivars Co 86032 and CoJ 64 were transformed with cry1Ab gene driven by maize ubiquitin promoter through particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems. Gene pyramiding was also attempted by retransforming sugarcane plants carrying bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin) gene, with cry1Ab. Southern analysis confirmed multiple integration of the transgene in case of particle bombardment and single site integration in Agrobacterium-mediated transformants. The expression of cry1Ab was demonstrated through Western analysis and the toxin was quantified using ELISA. The amount of Cry1Ab protein in different events varied from 0.007 to 1.73% of the total soluble leaf protein; the events transformed by Agrobacterium method showed significantly higher values. In in vivo bioassay with neonate larvae of shoot borer, transgenics produced considerably lower percentage of deadhearts despite suffering feeding damage by the borer compared with the untransformed control plants. Expressed Cry1Ab content was negatively related to deadheart damage. Aprotinin-expressing sugarcane pyramided with cry1Ab also showed reduction in damage. The potential of producing sugarcane transgenics with cry1Ab and aprotinin genes resistant to early shoot borer was discussed in the light of the results obtained. PMID:20179936

Arvinth, S; Arun, S; Selvakesavan, R K; Srikanth, J; Mukunthan, N; Ananda Kumar, P; Premachandran, M N; Subramonian, N

2010-04-01

2

Breeding for sugarcane borer resistance in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growing resistant varieties is a key component of the Integrated Pest Management Program for managing the sugarcane borer in Louisiana; however, the release of resistant varieties to growers is sporadic. The challenge facing the Louisiana industry is how to increase resistance in its varieties witho...

3

Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

4

Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

5

Management of feeding damage and survival of southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic field corn.  

PubMed

The efficacy of transgenic corn hybrids expressing an insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta-endotoxin from different transformation events was evaluated in field corn, Zea mays L., against the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Susceptibilities of neonates and third instars were determined on Bt and non-Bt corn plants (V6 and R1 stages) in field plots and corn leaf tissue feeding exposure in laboratory bioassays. Bt corn hybrids associated with MON810 and CBH351 transformation events sustained significantly less injury by southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer during mid-whorl stage infestations compared with their respective non-Bt hybrid equivalents. Southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer feeding injury to ear leaf-sheath and husk tissues during the silking stage of corn was significantly reduced in MON810 and CBH351 Bt corn compared with their respective non-Bt hybrids. However, resistance levels to feeding injury in Bt hybrids associated with the MON810 event were significantly higher than that in the hybrid associated with the CBH351 event. Southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer caused more feeding injury to husk tissue than to ear leaf-sheath tissue in both Bt and non-Bt hybrids infested during the silking stage. Laboratory performance of the MON810 event against southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer varied among hybrids associated with the same event. Third instars of southwestern corn borer were highly susceptible to MON810 Bt corn hybrids in leaf tissue experiments. However, sugarcane borer larvae were susceptible to the MON810 event only in one of the Bt hybrids evaluated. Sugarcane borer mortality was significantly lower after 96 h of feeding exposure on CBH351 Bt corn leaf tissue than on MON810 Bt corn leaf tissue. Plant resistance to southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer increased as plants matured, independent of the presence of a Bt construct. These results are essential to estimate the importance of Bt transgenic corn in areas of southern United States and other areas where mixed populations of southwestern corn borer and sugarcane borer are predominant and cause severe damage to corn production. PMID:15666772

Castro, Boris A; Leonard, B Rogers; Riley, Thomas J

2004-12-01

6

Rice tillering and yield as affected by artificial and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) culm injury.  

PubMed

A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate the tillering and yield response of rice, Oryza sativa L., whose culms were injured artificially or by larval sugarcane borers, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Artificially injured plants produced approximately 0.49 more tillers than uninjured plants, similar to what has previously been reported for larval injured plants. In contrast, artificial injury did not affect yield per tiller, whereas larval injury did. The proximity of larval injury to the panicle had a negative impact on tiller yield, whereas artificial injury did not. Artificial injury apparently resulted in less injury to vascular tissue than did sugarcane borer larval injury. Until an artificial method of injury is developed that mimics the effects of larval feeding, further injury studies will continue to require sugarcane borer larvae. PMID:20388284

Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E

2010-04-01

7

Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize, Zea mays L., expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb toxin has been planted to extensive areas across the United States and several other countries, but no resistance has been documented in field populations oflepidopteran target pests. This article describes the first report of resistance alleles to commercially available Cry1Ab Bt maize in a Louisiana population of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Two hundred thirteen two-parent isolines of D. saccharalis were screened for Cry1Ab resistance on Bt maize leaf tissue using an F2 screening technique. Larvae representing three isolines survived >15 d on Bt tissue in the F2 generation. The second generation backcross progeny (B1F2) derived from isoline 52 completed larval development on Bt maize in the greenhouse. Segregation and resistance frequency analysis associated with isoline 52 suggested that Bt resistance is probably determined by a nearly completely recessive allele at a single locus. With this assumption, the estimated resistance allele frequency in this population is 0.0023, within a 95% confidence interval of 0.0003-0.0064. PMID:17370824

Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Andow, David A

2007-02-01

8

Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.  

PubMed

This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

2006-06-01

9

Sampling for the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on sugarcane in Louisiana.  

PubMed

A 3-yr study was conducted in 0.6- to 2.0-ha sugarcane fields throughout south Louisiana under varying sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), density levels to determine the spatial dispersion of infestations and to develop a sequential sampling plan. Infestations of D. saccharalis were randomly dispersed. Infestation levels (percentage of stalks infested) ranged from 0.6 to 33.3%. Frequency distributions of the number of infested stalks indicated that the Poisson distribution best fit the data Tests of other distributions (negative binomial [aggregated], binomial [uniform], geometric, and hypergeometric) resulted in poorer fits. The sequential sampling plan devised, with lower and upper D. saccharalis infestation limits of 2 and 5% and 5 and 10%, required maximum average sample numbers of 7.1 and 5.5 (20-stalk samples), respectively, to make terminating management decisions. It is our assessment that implementation of these plans would decrease sampling effort by 50-60% when compared with sampling programs currently in use for D. saccharalis management decisions in Louisiana. PMID:11425035

Schexnayder, H P; Reagan, T E; Ring, D R

2001-06-01

10

Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

11

Allele frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1ab corn in Louisiana populations of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., has been widely used to manage a corn borer complex in the mid-southern region of the United States. The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has become a dominant cornstalk boring species in some areas of this region, especially in Louisiana. Therefore, management of sugarcane borer resistance to Bt corn is critical to ensure the long-term sustainability of Bt corn for the region. This study screened 280 two-parent family-lines of sugarcane borer from four geographical populations in Louisiana during 2005 to determine whether Bt resistance allele frequency in sugarcane borer is sufficiently low to meet the rare resistance assumption of the current "high dose/refuge" resistance management strategy for Bt corn. These sugarcane borer family-lines were examined for Bt resistance by using novel F2 screening procedures. No major Bt resistance alleles were detected in these four populations. The estimated frequency of major Bt resistance alleles was < 0.0027, with a 95% probability and a detection power of 94%. The estimated minor resistance allele frequency was 0.0063, with a 95% CI of 0.0025-0.0117. During a previous study, a major Bt resistance allele was detected in one individual from 213 family-lines of another Louisiana population of sugarcane borer. Combining these data with the current screen, the frequency of major Bt resistance alleles across the five populations was 0.001, with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0001-0.0028 and a detection power of 95%. Major Bt resistance allele frequencies in Louisiana sugarcane borer populations seem to be low, and they should support the rare resistance allele requirement of the high dose/refuge strategy. PMID:18459416

Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H; Cook, Donald R; Baldwin, Jack; Tindall, Kelly V; Lee, Donna R

2008-04-01

12

Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

13

Reduced susceptibility to tebufenozide in populations of the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana.  

PubMed

Susceptibility of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), to tebufenozide was measured using a feeding bioassay, and values obtained were compared with baselines generated before the use of this insecticide in Louisiana sugarcane, Saccharum spp. Results from our study suggest that susceptibility to tebufenozide is decreasing in field-collected sugarcane borers. Inflections in the log dosage-probit lines were detected for many of the field collections, indicating increased heterogeneity within these populations in response to tebufenozide. Where appropriate, probit transformation was used to estimate susceptibility, and significant differences (1.6 - 2.7-fold) were measured in LC50 values between some field-collected cohorts and the previously measured baseline. In addition, a discriminating concentration (0.5 ppm) was used to estimate resistance frequencies in cohorts for which probit transformation was not appropriate. Results from these tests suggest that frequencies of resistance were high (49% in one cohort) in populations from some locations. Lighter weight pupae of the survivors from one of the more resistant cohorts suggests that tebufenozide resistance mechanisms may have a biological cost in terms of ecological fitness at early stages of resistance development. As a result of continued resistance monitoring, alternation of management chemistry is expected to help preserve this valuable sugarcane integrated pest management tactic. PMID:16022328

Reay-Jones, F P F; Akbar, W; McAllister, C D; Reagan, T E; Ottea, J A

2005-06-01

14

Evaluation of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrids against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the CrylAb protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of five non-Bt and seven Bt field corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in a greenhouse study. Larval survival was recorded 21 d after infestation of neonates on potted plants. Larval survival across the three sugarcane borer genotypes and five non-Bt corn hybrids after 21 d ranged from 23.6 +/- 5.2% (mean +/- SEM) to 57.5 +/- 5.2%. Mean survival of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on vegetative and reproductive plant stages was 12 and 21%, respectively. During the vegetative stages, all seven Bt corn hybrids were highly efficacious against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer, with a larval survival rate of <2% for the Bt-susceptible genotype and < or =5% for the heterozygotes. However, 8-18% of the heterozygous genotype survived on reproductive stage plants for four of the seven Bt corn hybrids tested. The variation in performance of Bt corn cultivars at vegetative and reproductive growth stages against Cry1Ab resistant sugarcane borer suggests differential seasonal expression that may hasten resistance in the field. Bt corn hybrids expressing a "high dose" for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), may not produce a sufficient high dose for the sugarcane borer. PMID:18232406

Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H

2007-12-01

15

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

16

Tolerance and compensatory response of rice to sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury.  

PubMed

A 3-yr field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), as affected by cultivar (Cocodrie, Francis, and Jefferson), stage of crop growth during which the injury occurred (third tiller stage, panicle differentiation stage, and heading stage), and sugarcane borer density. The proportion of rice tillers with sugarcane borer injury (leaf and leaf sheath injury and/or stem injury) was lower when injury occurred at the third tiller stage (0.05) than at panicle differentiation (0.19) and heading (0.18). When injury occurred at the two latter stages, both the proportion of tillers with injury and the proportion of tillers with stem injury were negatively correlated with rainfall. Rainfall resulted in dislodgement and mortality of sugarcane borer eggs and larvae before the larvae entered the stems. Rice plant density in this study (111.1 plants/m2) was higher than recorded for previous research on rice compensation using potted rice or conducted in low-density hill production systems (26.7-51.3 plants/m2). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were observed. Stem injured plants produced approximately 0.69 more tillers than uninjured plants, whereas tillers with leaf and leaf sheath injury produced larger panicles, up to 39.5 and 21.0% heavier than uninjured tillers, when injury occurred at third tiller stage and at panicle differentiation, respectively. Rice yield was not reduced with up to 23% injured tiller and up to 10% injured stems at the third tiller stage, 42% injured tillers and 17% injured stems at panicle differentiation, and 28% injured tillers and 14% injured stems at heading. Significant between-plant compensation was not detected, suggesting competition between adjacent plants is not significantly reduced by injury. Our results suggest that rice can tolerate and/or compensate for a level of stem borer injury previously considered to be economically damaging. PMID:18559187

Lv, J; Wilson, L T; Longnecker, M T

2008-06-01

17

Impact of Hurricane Rita storm surge on sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management in Louisiana.  

PubMed

Twelve thousand to 16,000 ha of Louisiana sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) fields were flooded by saltwater from the Hurricane Rita storm surge in September 2005. A four treatment, 12-replication study comparing storm surge flooded and nonflooded plant and ratoon sugarcane fields was conducted during summer 2006 to assess sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), pest severity, pest control actions, and soil-associated arthropod abundance and diversity. Even with a significant 2.4-fold increase in the average number of insecticide applications used for D. saccharalis management in flooded fields, growers still incurred higher injury. A significant 2.8-fold reduction in the predaceous red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, was associated with the storm surge, whereas no reduction in abundance of other soil-associated arthropods was recorded. Arthropod diversity measured by the Shannon diversity index significantly increased by a factor of 1.3 in sugarcane fields flooded by the storm surge. Increase in D. saccharalis pest severity associated with the storm surge caused an estimated loss in revenue between $1.9 and $2.6 million to the Louisiana sugarcane industry for the 2006 production season. PMID:19610419

Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Akbar, W; Cormier, H J; Flanagan, J W; Blouin, D C

2009-06-01

18

Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for genetic studies of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

We present polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated for genetic studies of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius). We isolated 16 microsatellite loci through an enriched genomic library protocol. After characterization, 12 markers showed polymorphic information expressed in the observed number of alleles (ranging from 2 to 7; 5 on average) and in the polymorphism information content (ranging from 0.292 to 0.771; 0.535 on average). These markers can be used in further studies to understand the basic ecological characteristics of the sugarcane borer, e.g., dispersion patterns and population genetic differentiation, associated with distinct geographic scales and host plants. PMID:23765969

Pavinato, V A C; Silva-Brandão, K L; Monteiro, M; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Dias, F L F; Omoto, C

2013-01-01

19

Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in Texas; it can attack a number of grassy crop and noncrop host plants, and has spread into Louisiana. Through small plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the...

20

Comparative susceptibility of European corn borer, southwestern corn borer, and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Cry1Ab protein in a commercial Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrid.  

PubMed

One field strain each of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner); southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.); were collected from cornfields in northeastern Louisiana. Susceptibilities of the field strain and a corresponding laboratory strain of the three borer species to Cry1Ab protein in DK69-70 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrid were determined by exposing neonates to intact leaf tissues from whorl stage plants or by feeding neonates or third instars on a meridic diet treated with different concentrations of Cry1lAb protein extracted from Bt corn leaves. Mortality and growth of larvae were evaluated after 2 and 4 d posttreatment in the bioassays by using intact leaf tissues or after 7 d in the bioassays by using diet incorporating Cry1Ab protein. D. saccharalis was the least susceptible species to Cry1Ab protein among the three species, followed by D. grandiosella, whereas O. nubilalis was most susceptible. The 2-d mortality of D. saccharalis neonates on intact Bt leaf tissues was lower than that of O. nubilalis and D. grandiosella. All neonates of O. nubilalis were killed on the diet treated with Cry1Ab protein at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. The mortality of D. grandiosella was > 75% at 1 mg/kg, but it was < 6% for D. saccharalis at 1 mg/kg. The LC50 values of D. saccharalis were 3- and 11-fold higher than those of D. grandiosella and O. nubilalis, respectively. The LC90 values of D. saccharalis were 8- and 32-fold higher than those of D. grandiosella and O. nubilalis, respectively. Larval growth of the three species on Cry1Ab-treated diet was inhibited, but the inhibition was greater for O. nubilalis and D. grandiosella than for D. saccharalis. The lower susceptibility of D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab protein suggests that it is necessary to verify if a high-dose Bt corn for O. nubilalis and D. grandiosella is also a high dose for D. saccharalis. PMID:16573340

Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Gable, Rhett H

2006-02-01

21

UPDATE ON RESEARCH INTO THE USE OF INSECTICIDES AGAINST THE SUGARCANE BORER Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

E-print Network

The use of insecticides against the borer Eldana saccharina Walker is one of four research programmes against this pest. This programme comprises projects examining field insecticide trials, seedcane protection trials, insecticide persistence studies and the examination of droplet distribution and penetration in the crop. In field trials, eldana damage was too low to show clear treatment effects. However, results from an aerial application trial, did show treatment differences and multiple applications were more effective than a single application. Trials investigating the dipping of seedcane in insecticide solutions, showed that the synthetic pyrethroids were the most effective insecticides tested. Studies investigating the persistence of insecticides in sugarcane show that mortality of neonate larvae exposed to synthetic pyrethroids remained high (70%) after the treatments were exposed to sunlight for up to eight weeks. The study investigating the distribution and penetration of droplets showed that these could penetrate more than 200cm horizontally in mature cane.

G. W. Leslie

22

Mitochondria in the midgut epithelial cells of sugarcane borer parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron, 1891).  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been controlled by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); however, very little is known about the effect of the parasitism in the host organs, including the midgut. This work aims to verify mitochondrial alteration in the different midgut epithelial cells of D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes. Midgut fragments (anterior and posterior region) of both non-parasitized and parasitized larvae were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The mitochondria of midgut epithelial cell in the parasitized larvae exhibit morphological alteration, represented by matrix rarefaction and vacuolisation. These mitochondrial alterations are more pronounced in the anterior midgut region during the parasitism process, mainly in the columnar cell. PMID:20231974

Pinheiro, D O; Silva, M D; Gregório, E A

2010-02-01

23

Critical electrolyte concentration of silk gland chromatin of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis, induced using agrochemicals.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals. PMID:25299111

Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C

2014-01-01

24

Selection and life history traits of tebufenozide-resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Varying susceptibility to tebufenozide was recorded in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), collected from Louisiana sugarcane locations with different selection pressures. Results from diet incorporation bioassays with tebufenozide indicated significant increases in LC50 (3.78-fold) and LC90 (7-fold) values for a colony from Duson (DU), an area with higher selection pressure, compared with a colony from Alexandria (ALEX), an area with no selection pressure. Differences were not detected in LC50 values among colonies from areas where use of tebufenozide was discontinued or rotated with other chemistries. Selections with tebufenozide of DU larvae over 12 generations resulted in a highly resistant colony (DU-R) with 27.1- and 83.3-fold increases in LC50 and LC90 values, respectively. Comparison of pupal weight, days to pupation, and emergence after exposure to an equitoxic (LC20) concentration of tebufenozide revealed a decrease in pupal weight (34 and 33% for males and females, respectively), and an increase in days to pupation (47 and 40% for males and females, respectively), and emergence (43 and 33% for males and females, respectively) for the DU-R colony compared with the parent DU colony. Fecundity of DU-R females decreased to 72 eggs per female compared with 180 (DU) and 261 (ALEX). Egg viability of the ALEX and DU colonies was 61 and 56%, respectively, whereas only 27% of eggs laid by females from the DU-R colony hatched. These results are discussed in terms of their practical implications for control of D. saccharalis in Louisiana sugarcane. PMID:19133473

Akbar, W; Ottea, J A; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Huang, F

2008-12-01

25

Efficacy of non-purine and purine cytokinins on shoot regeneration in vitro in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of two non-purine cytokinins, TDZ (N-phenyl-N' - (1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl) urea) and 4-CPPU (N- (2-chloro-4- pyridyl) N-phenylurea) and meta-topolin (6 (3-hydroxybenzylamino) purine) a biologically active aromatic compound, on shoot regeneration in sugarcane var. CoS 8436 and Co 1148 and S. officinarum clone 'Gungera' was observed at 15, 25 and 35 d. 4-CPPU significantly enhanced shoot regeneration in var. CoS 8436, but

Vandana Vinayak; Ashok K Dhawan; V K Gupta

26

F2 screen for resistance to a Bacillus thuringiensis-maize hybrid in the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

A novel F2 screening technique was developed for detecting resistance in sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-maize expressing the Cry1Ab insecticidal protein. The F2 screening method involved (i) collecting larvae from maize fields; (ii) establishing two-parent families; (iii) screening F2 neonates for survival on Bt-maize leaf tissues; and (iv) confirming resistance on commercial Bt-maize plants. With the F2 screening method, 213 iso-line families of D. saccharalis were established from field collections in northeast Louisiana, USA and were screened for Bt resistance. One family was confirmed to carry a major Bt resistance allele(s). In a laboratory bioassay, larval mortality of the Bt-resistant D. saccharalis on Bt-maize leaf tissues was significantly lower than that of a Bt-susceptible strain. This Bt-resistant D. saccharalis population is the first corn stalk borer species that has completed larval development on commercial Bt-maize. The F2 screening protocol developed in this study could be modified for detecting Bt resistance alleles in other similar corn stalk borers, such as the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and the southwestern corn borer, D. grandiosella Dyar. PMID:17916262

Huang, F N; Leonard, B R; Andow, D A

2007-10-01

27

Conventional resistance of experimental maize lines to corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Plant resistance is a useful component of integrated pest management for several insects that are economically damaging to maize, Zea mays L. In this study, 15 experimental lines of maize derived from a backcross breeding program were evaluated for resistance to corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith); southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Experimental line 100-R-3 was resistant in the field to leaf feeding by fall armyworm and line 116-B-10 was resistant in the field to leaf feeding by fall armyworm and leaf and stalk feeding by southwestern corn borer. When corn earworm larvae were fed field harvested silks from experimental line 81-9-B in the laboratory, their pupal weights were significantly lower than the pupal weights of larvae that were fed silks from the resistant control, Zapalote Chico. Maysin levels lower than those commonly associated with corn earworm resistance were present in the resistant experimental line, 107-8-7, indicating a new basis confers resistance to corn earworm in this line. These resistant experimental lines will provide plant breeders with new sources of resistance to lepidopterous insects for the development of improved maize breeding populations. PMID:10902359

Abel, C A; Wilson, R L; Wiseman, B R; White, W H; Davis, F M

2000-06-01

28

Purification of elastase-like chymotrypsin from cardamom shoot and Capsule borer [corrected].  

PubMed

An elastase-like chymotrypsin was purified by aprotinin-agarose affinity chromatography from the midgut extract of cardamom shoot and capsule borer, Conogethes punctiferalis. The purified enzyme had a Vmax of 687.6 +/- 22.1 nmole pNA released/min/mg protein, Km of 0.168 +/- 0.012 mM with SAAPLpNA as substrate and gave a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 72.1 kDa. Casein zymogram revealed one clear zone of proteolytic activity, which corresponded to the band obtained with SDS-PAGE indicating that this could be a single-polypeptide enzyme. PMID:18072546

Josephrajkumar, A; Chakrabarty, R; Thomas, G

2007-11-01

29

Selection, egg viability, and fecundity of the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with tebufenozide.  

PubMed

Two separate attempts to select the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for resistance to tebufenozide were unsuccessful. Both selected colonies were lost after the fourth generation due to a lack of oviposition. Differences were not detected in fecundity or percent egg viability for 5-d-old third instars exposed to concentrations (EC5, EC15, and EC30) of tebufenozide for 7 d. Decreases (P < or = 0.01) in mean female pupal weights were detected in larvae exposed to EC15 and EC30 concentrations. An ovicidal impact using serial dilutions of tebufenozide (10, 100, and 200 ppm) also was detected. Percent viability was reduced from 98% for untreated eggs to 61% for eggs dipped in 10 ppm and below 6% for eggs dipped in > or = 100 ppm. Eggs treated with 200 ppm did not hatch. Though some embryonic development was observed on eggs treated with the high concentrations (100 and 200 ppm), sclerotization of head capsule was not apparent. The ovicidal property of tebufenozide may enhance its effectiveness in controlling populations of the D. saccharalis on an area-wide basis. Fecundity and egg viability were affected in later generations of selection; however, separate studies assessing individuals that were exposed to sublethal concentration (EC5, EC15, and EC30) of tebufenozide as third instars for 7 d in one generation did not detect differences. PMID:11777063

Rodriguez, L M; Ottea, J A; Reagan, T E

2001-12-01

30

Geographical susceptibility of Louisiana and Texas populations of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidopetera: Crambidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The susceptibility of 18 field populations of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) to two sources of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein was determined by laboratory bioassays. Fifteen of the 18 field populations were collected from seven locations across Louisiana and the other 3 popula...

31

Inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Inheritance traits of a Cry1Ab-resistant strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) were analyzed using various genetic crosses. Reciprocal parental crosses between Cry1Ab-susceptible and Cry1Ab-resistant populations, F(1) by F(1) crosses, and backcrosses of F(1) with the Cry1Ab-resistant population were successfully completed. Larval mortality of the parental and cross-populations were assayed on Cry1Ab diet and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn leaf tissue. Maternal effects and sex linkage were examined by comparing the larval mortality between the two F(1) populations. Dominance levels of resistance were measured by comparing the larval mortality of the Cry1Ab-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous populations. Number of genes associated with the resistance was evaluated by fitting the observed mortality of F(2) and backcross populations with a Mendelian monogenic inheritance model. Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis was likely inherited as a single or a few tightly linked autosomal genes. The resistance was incompletely recessive on Bt corn leaf tissue, while the effective dominance levels (D(ML)) of resistance increased as Cry1Ab concentrations decreased with Cry1Ab-treated diet. D(ML) estimated based on larval mortality on intact Bt corn plants reported in a previous study ranged from 0.08 to 0.26. This variability in D(ML) levels of Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis suggests that Bt corn hybrids must express a sufficient dose of Bt proteins to make the resistance genes functionally recessive. Thus, Bt resistant heterozygous individuals can be killed as desired in the "high/dose refuge" resistance management strategy for Bt corn. PMID:19527726

Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Rogers Leonard, B; Ottea, James

2009-09-01

32

Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Ab resistance in sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.).  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major target species of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the U.S. mid-south region. In this study, the fitness of seven insect genotypes of D. saccharalis were assayed on non-toxic diet, which included a Cry1Ab-susceptible strain (SS-2009), two Cry1Ab-resistant strains (RR-43A(BC), RR-L5B(BC)), and four F1 hybrids (F1-R43A(m)S(f), F1-R43A(f)S(m), F1-R5B(m)S(f), and F1-R5B(f)S(m)). The F1 hybrids were generated by reciprocal crosses of SS-2009 with RR-43ABC and RR-L5BBC, respectively. Biological parameters measured were neonate-to-pupa survivorship, neonate-to-pupa development time, pupal mass, pupa-to-adult emergence rate, and progeny (neonates) production. The overall performance of the two resistant strains and the four F1 genotypes was either similar or better than SS-2009 for all biological parameters measured, suggesting a lack of fitness costs associated with the Cry1Ab resistance traits in both RR-43A(BC) and RR-L5B(BC). In addition, resistance stability was evaluated by measuring the Cry1Ab susceptibility of RR-43A(BC) and RR-L5B(BC) in the absence of selection pressure. Laboratory bioassays showed that larval mortality of the two resistant strains did not significantly increase after selection pressure was removed for 16 generations across all Cry1Ab concentrations assayed. The results provide valuable information on assessing resistance risk and developing effective management strategies for the sustainable use of Bt corn technology. PMID:24503242

Zhang, Liping; Leonard, B Rogers; Chen, Mao; Clark, Thomas; Anilkumar, Konasale; Huang, Fangneng

2014-03-01

33

Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major corn borer pest and a target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in South America and the U.S. mid-southern region. With a major role in dietary protein digestion, midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. ...

34

Laboratory and field tests of spray-dried and granular formulations of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer.  

PubMed

Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. The formulations were prepared using biodegradable polymers such as modified corn starch as an encapsulating agent, gelatin as an adherent, powdered sugarcane as a feeding stimulant and a Bt var. kurstaki GM-34 strain from a non-sugarcane region as the active ingredient. The spore-crystal complex of this strain was mixed at three different concentrations (30, 70 and 100 g kg(-1)) with the other ingredients. The blends were prepared as spray-dried and granular formulations, and then submitted to laboratory tests with two day old larvae of D. saccharalis and field tests in sugarcane crops with natural sugarcane borer infestation. Spray-dried formulations in laboratory bioassays caused mortality near 100% with all three concentrations, and granular formulations caused mortality around 84%. The field tests showed that spray-dried formulations at 70 and 100 g kg(-1) concentrations were as effective as a commercial bioinsectide (Lepinox), while granular formulations were ineffective. PMID:16786544

Rosas-García, Ninfa M

2006-09-01

35

Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

Joyce, Andrea L; White, William H; Nuessly, Gregg S; Solis, M Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J; Lewis, Matthew L; Medina, Raul F

2014-01-01

36

Susceptibility of Cry1Ab-resistant and -susceptible sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to four Bacillus thuringiensis toxins.  

PubMed

Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a primary corn stalk borer pest targeted by transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in many areas of the mid-southern region of the United States. Recently, genes encoding for Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 Bt proteins were transferred into corn plants (event MON 89034) for controlling lepidopteran pests. This new generation of Bt corn with stacked-genes of Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 will become commercially available in 2009. Susceptibility of Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of D. saccharalis were evaluated on four selected Bt proteins including Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1A.105, and Cry2Ab2. The Cry1Ab-resistant strain is capable of completing its larval development on commercial Cry1Ab-expressing corn plants. Neonates of D. saccharalis were assayed on a meridic diet containing one of the four Cry proteins. Larval mortality, body weight, and number of surviving larvae that did not gain significant weight (<0.1mg per larva) were recorded after 7 days. Cry1Aa was the most toxic protein against both insect strains, followed in decreasing potency by Cry1A.105, Cry1Ac, and Cry2Ab2. Using practical mortality (larvae either died or no significant weight gain after 7 days), the median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of the Cry1Ab-resistant strain was estimated to be >80-, 45-, 4.1-, and -0.5-fold greater than that of the susceptible strain to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins, respectively. This information should be useful to support the commercialization of the new Bt corn event MON 89034 for managing D. saccharalis in the mid-southern region of the United States. PMID:18955062

Wu, Xiaoyi; Rogers Leonard, B; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Abel, Craig A; Head, Graham P; Huang, Fangneng

2009-01-01

37

Application of indoxacarb for managing shoot and fruit borer of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its decontamination.  

PubMed

Indoxacarb was applied at 75 and 150 g a.i. ha(-1) for two years to an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crop grown in the field plots in order to evaluate its efficacy for management of the lepidopteron pest, shoot and fruit borer. The residues of the insecticide were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean initial deposits of indoxacarb on eggplant fruits were found to be 2.60-2.634 mg kg(-1) and 3.64-3.68 mg kg(-1) from the two rates of applications, respectively. They declined with time and reached to non-detectable (< 0.02 mg kg(-1)) after 15-20 d. Residues dissipated with a half-life of 3.0-3.8 d from both first and second-year application. A 3 d waiting period for harvest of fruits after insecticide application and processing resulted in the residue levels that were below the Codex maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 mg kg(-1) thereby achieving a maximum safety and minimum risk to consumers. The best combination of chemicals for decontamination of indoxacarb was found to be by washing with a mixture of alkali and potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) thereby resulting in the removal of 67.5% and 59.2 % residues for 5 and 10 microg g(-1) spiking doses, respectively. Major products formed on reaction of indoxacarb with alkali were identified by electron spray ionization chromatography/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). The per cent reduction on the weight and number basis of treated eggplant plots were compared to those observed in control plots to demonstrate the effectiveness of indoxacarb treatment on shoot and fruit borer population. PMID:19280483

Saimandir, Jayakrishnan; Gopal, Madhuban

2009-03-01

38

Ultrastructure of the excretory duct in the silk gland of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

The excretory duct in the silk gland of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis consists of two morphologically distinct regions, recognized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The thin posterior region, adjacent to the glandular region, presents a regular surface. Secretory vesicles containing either electron-dense or fibrillar cuticular-like materials are observed in their apical cytoplasm; the same cuticular materials were detected as extracellular deposits among the microvilli. The short anterior region, near the common duct, exhibits surface protrusions; there are no secretory vesicles in their apical cytoplasm. These results show that only the duct cells at the posterior region are involved in the secretion of the cuticular intima elements. Desmosome-like structures were visualized linking together adjacent microvillar membranes only in the cells of anterior duct region, with unknown function. The transition between the duct and the glandular region is abrupt; the cells of the glandular and posterior duct regions present large amounts of microtubules. Nerve fibers can be observed between the duct cells in their two regions, suggesting that control of silk secretion may occur in the excretory duct via neurotransmitter liberation. PMID:18088967

Victoriano, Eliane; Gregório, Elisa A

2002-09-01

39

Morphological aspects of cluster formation in the germarium of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Diatraea saccharalis F. is one of the greatest pests of the sugar cane culture. This report aimed to characterize the germarium region of the sugarcane borer by light and transmission electron microscopy, emphasizing the morphological steps of the ovarian cluster formation. In the germarium of this insect, four zones could be morphologically identified during the cluster formation. In the most apical end of each ovariole--Zone I--the germ line stem cells undergo complete mitotic division, originating the cystoblasts. In the Zone II, each cystoblast produces a group of eight cells, the cystocytes, which are interconnected by the ring canals. Clusters containing all the cystocytes in the meiosis, characterizes the Zone III. Germ cells with ultrastructural features of apoptosis are also detected in this Zone. In the Zone IV the cystocytes differentiate, morphologically, into one oocyte and seven nurse cells. Interstitial somatic cells and pre-follicle cells exhibit, in their cytoplasm, heterogeneous vacuoles containing degenerated cellular fragments, characterized as apoptotic bodies. Our results pointed out to the morphological evidences related with important control mechanisms for new clusters/follicles production and for the cellular arrangement into the germarium, resulting from the programmed cell death. We believe that the morphological characterization of ovarian cluster formation in D. saccharalis provided valuable information for the understanding of the initial steps of oogenesis and contributed for the knowledge of the cellular mechanisms related with the oocyte production and with reproduction in insects. PMID:17144137

Santos, Daniela C; Gregório, Elisa A

2006-01-01

40

Effects of entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus temperata infection on the intestinal microbiota of the sugarcane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Photorhabdus temperata is an entomopathogenic bacterium that is associated with nematodes of the Heterorhabditidae family in a symbiotic relationship. This study investigated the effects of P. temperata infection on the intestinal microbiota of the sugarcane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis. Histopathology of the infection was also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Groups of 20 larvae were infected by injection of approximately 50 bacterial cells directly into the hemocoel. After different periods of infection, larvae were dissected and different tissues were used for bacterial cell quantification. P. temperata was highly virulent with an LD(50) of 16.2 bacterial cells at 48h post-infection. Infected larvae started dying as soon as 30h post-infection with a LT(50) value of 33.8h (confidence limits 32.2-35.6) and an LT(90) value of 44.8h (CL 40.8-51.4). Following death of the larvae, bacteria from the midgut did not invade the hemocoel. In the midgut epithelium, P. temperata occupied the space underneath the basal lamina. The cultivable intestinal bacterial populations decreased as soon as 1h post-infection and at 48h post-infection, 90% of the gut microbiota had died. The role of P. temperata in control of the midgut microbiota was discussed. PMID:18406423

Carneiro, Cíntia N B; DaMatta, Renato A; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P

2008-09-01

41

Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

2013-01-01

42

Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

2013-01-01

43

Young and Fast Growing Plants as Better Feeding Material for Deltocephalus vulgaris , a Leafhopper Vector of Sugarcane Grassy Shoot Phytoplasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deltocephalus vulgaris Dash & Viraktamath has recently been established as a vector of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma. Germinating (single bud\\u000a settlings of CoS 95255) under glass house were transplanted in 12” size pots. These were covered with cages of fibreglass\\u000a sheet. The leafhoppers were released in cages. The increase in population was to the tune of 3–5 times on young

VIJAI SINGH; Arun Baitha; Sangeeta Srivastava

2005-01-01

44

Structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is an economically important pest of several major crops in North and South America. There is great concern over potential resistance development to the valuable transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn. Cost-effective monitoring methods, especially regarding molecular markers that could detect early changes in resistance allele frequency in field populations of D. saccharalis, are needed. This article reports the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of D. saccharalis (GenBank: FJ240227). The mitochondrial genome sequence of D. saccharalis has the typical metazoan mitogenome structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 2?rRNA genes, and 22?tRNA genes, with a total size of 15,490?bp. The A+T content of the full mitogenome is 80.1% and the significant A+T bias is at the control region (94.9%), as compared to the extremely low G content (0.6%). In all 13 protein coding genes, 9 start with the common Met initiator codon (ATA or ATG) and 3 use ATT (Ile), whereas CGA (Arg) is used as a start codon in COI. Eleven of the 13 protein coding genes use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas COI and COII use incomplete ones, which terminated with a single T-nucleotide abutting on tRNA. There are seven major noncoding spacers (628?bp), including six intergenic spacers and an A+T-rich region, which are scattered in the mitogenome. Several microsatellite-like elements were observed in these noncoding regions. The complete mitochondrial sequences of D. saccharalis reported in this study can provide useful data in analyzing divergence of lepidopteran insects and in developing DNA-based diagnoses and genetic makers. PMID:20849253

Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiuyue; Fan, Zhenxin; Yue, Bisong; Huang, Fangneng; King, Emily; Ran, Jianghong

2011-01-01

45

Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (lepidoptera: crambidae) to transgenic bt corn.  

PubMed

Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement. PMID:24914780

Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

2014-08-01

46

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vicilins bind to the peritrophic membrane of larval sugarcane stalk borer (Diatraea saccharalis).  

PubMed

In this work, we show that vicilins from two Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) genotypes, Epace-10 and IT 81D-1045, which are susceptible and resistant to attack by the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus, respectively, associate with the peritrophic membrane (PM) from larvae of Diatraea saccharalis. Solutions with increasing concentrations of vicilins were incubated with PM of the larvae and subsequently analysed by electrophoresis with SDS. It was observed that the majority of the bands of approximately 50,000 Da (characteristic of vicilins) did not appear in the separating gel and only lower molecular weight polypeptides were seen. When vicilins were incubated with PM, and the solution was then heated after the incubation, the band pattern in the gel appeared completely different. It was observed that the vicilins were being hydrolysed by proteinases associated with the PM. When the incubated samples were heated after the reaction, the major bands reappeared, demonstrating that most of the vicilin molecules had bound to the PM of D. saccharalis. These results suggest that when the vicilins are in contact with the PM they are bound and also digested by the PM of this insect. The major and several minor proteinases from the PM were extracted with Triton X-100 and their activity and the inhibition of this activity were analysed by ingel assays. Based on the effects of proteinase inhibitors, the PM-associated activity is due to serine class proteinases. Larvae of D. saccharalis were fed on artificial diets containing purified vicilins from Epace-10 or IT 81D-1045 seeds. Vicilins from Epace-10 did not affect the larval development, while IT 81D-1045 vicilins reduced significantly the survival rate of the sugar cane borer. PMID:16256689

Mota, A C; Damatta, R A; Lima Filho, M; Silva, C P; Xavier-Filho, J

2003-09-01

47

Sucrose hydrolases from the midgut of the sugarcane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

A beta-fructosidase (EC 3.2.1.26) was isolated from the midgut of larval sugar cane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis by mild-denaturing electrophoresis and further purified to near homogeneity by gel filtration. beta-Fructosidase hydrolysed sucrose, raffinose and the fructosyl-trisaccharide isokestose, but it had no activity against maltose, melibiose and synthetic substrates for alpha-glucosidases. Two other sucrose hydrolases, one resembling a alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) and the other one active specifically against sucrose (sucrase) were detected in the larval midgut of D. saccharalis. All three sucrose hydrolases were associated with the midgut epithelium of larval D. saccharalis. Relative molecular mass (M(r)) of the beta-fructosidase was estimated around 45,000 (by gel filtration). The other two sucrose hydrolases had M(r) of 54,000 (alpha-glucosidase) and 59,000 (sucrase). The pH optima of the sucrose hydrolases were 5-10 for both alpha-glucosidase and sucrase and 7-8 for beta-fructosidase. Considering V(max)/K(m) ratios, beta-fructosidase preferentially cleaves isokestose rather than raffinose and sucrose. In order to evaluate the possible contribution of microorganisms isolated from the midgut to the pool of sucrose hydrolases, washed midgut epithelia were homogenised and plated onto appropriate media. Seven bacterial and one yeast species were isolated. None of the sucrose hydrolases extracted from the microorganisms corresponded to the enzymes isolated from midgut tissue homogenates. This result suggests that the major sucrose hydrolases found in the midgut of larval D. saccharalis were probably produced by the insect themselves not by the gut microflora. PMID:15607512

Carneiro, Cíntia N B; Isejima, Eliza M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P

2004-11-01

48

Spherites in the midgut epithelial cells of the sugarcane borer parasitized by Cotesia flavipes.  

PubMed

Diatraea saccharalis, the main pest of sugarcane, has been controlled by Cotesia flavipes. Very little is known about the effect of parasitism on the host organs, including the midgut. The Lepidoptera midgut epithelium is composed of columnar, goblet, regenerative, and endocrine cells. Spherites have been described in columnar and regenerative cells of several Lepidoptera species, and presented a lot of functional meaning. We identified spherites in the midgut epithelial cells of non-parasitized D. saccharalis larvae analyzed the effect of parasitism on spherite morphology and distribution along the length of the midgut. Midgut fragments of both non-parasitized and parasitized larvae were processed for transmission electron microscopy. All the midgut epithelial cells showed spherites, but they were not preferentially located in a particular part of the cells. Parasitized larvae had more spherites, mainly in the columnar cells, than non-parasitized larvae. This observation was associated with an ionic imbalance within the insect host. Spherites were more abundant in the anterior midgut region than in other regions, which suggests that this region is involved in ion transport by intracellular and/or paracellular route. The morphological variability of spherites in the cells of parasitized larvae was related to the developmental stages of these structures. PMID:18669324

Pinheiro, Daniela de Oliveira; Conte, Hélio; Gregório, Elisa Aparecida

2008-04-01

49

Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane is one of the most important crops globally, providing most of the world’s sugar and bio-energy (ethanol and electricity). This contribution has been underpinned by the successful introgression of genes from wild germplasm, particularly from Saccharum spontaneum, by breeders in the early 1...

50

Persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice.  

PubMed

Fipronil gives effective control of early shoot borer and termites in sugarcane. The persistence and metabolism of fipronil in sugarcane leaves and juice were studied following application of fipronil (Regent 0.3 G) at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of sugarcane leaves were collected at various time intervals. Samples of sugarcane juice were collected at harvest. Residues of fipronil and its metabolites were quantified by gas liquid chromatograph. The limit of quantification of fipronil and its metabolites was 0.01 mg kg(-1) for sugarcane leaves and juice. Total residues of fipronil and its metabolites in sugarcane leaves after 7 days of its application at 75 and 300 g a.i. ha(-1) were 0.26 and 0.66 mg kg(-1), respectively. Residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 following fipronil application at either concentration. In sugarcane leaves, fipronil was found to be the main constituent, followed by its metabolites amide, desulfinyl, sulfone and sulfide. Samples of sugarcane juice did not reveal the presence of fipronil or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest. PMID:24343262

Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

2014-02-01

51

Molecular characterization of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I and their phylogenetic relationship.  

PubMed

Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is an important insect pest infesting brinjal or eggplant in India. Molecular characterization of nine different populations belonging to various brinjal growing regions was done using Cytochorome C Oxidase I (COI) gene. Nucleotide analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of the COI indicate that the L. orbonalis from different geographical regions are homogenous. The results showed less nucleotide diversity (? = 0.007895) and overall mean distance (0.008 ± 0.003). Topologies of neighbour-joining (NJ) trees indicate all the populations belong to single major clade. Therefore, it is inferred that there was no significant molecular diversity within L. orbonalis of different geographical locations of India with respect to COI. PMID:25675712

Shashank, P R; Ojha, Rakshit; Venkatesan, T; Jalali, S K; Bhanu, K R M

2015-01-01

52

Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera, Crambidae] was first discovered in  

E-print Network

Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera sugarcane, rice, corn, lemongrass, sorghum, and sudangrass causing millions of dollars in increased in Florida, pheromone traps that attract Mexican rice borer (MRB) male moths were initially placed around

Jawitz, James W.

53

Susceptibility of Cry1Ab maize-resistant and -susceptible strains of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to four individual Cry proteins.  

PubMed

Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major target of Bt maize in South America and many areas of the US mid-south region. Six laboratory strains of D. saccharalis were established from six single-pair F(2) families possessing major resistance alleles to Cry1Ab maize hybrids. Susceptibility of the six strains was evaluated on diet treated with each of four purified trypsin-activated Bt proteins, Cry1Ab, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac and Cry1F. Bt susceptibility of the six strains was compared with that of known Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of D. saccharalis. At least two of the six strains demonstrated a similar level (>526-fold) of resistance to Cry1Ab as shown in the known Cry1Ab-resistant strain, while resistance levels were relatively lower for other strains (116- to 129-fold). All the six strains were highly cross-resistant to Cry1Aa (71- to 292-fold) and Cry1Ac (30- to 248-fold), but only with a low level to Cry1F (<7-fold). Larval growth of all six strains was also inhibited on Bt-treated diet, but, except for Cry1F, the growth inhibition of the six strains was considerably less than that of the Cry1Ab-susceptible larvae. The results provide clear evidence that the observed resistance to Cry1Ab maize in the six strains is a result of resistance to the Cry1Ab protein in the plants. The low level of cross-resistance between Cry1A and Cry1F suggests that pyramiding these two types of Bt proteins into a plant could be a good strategy for managing D. saccharalis. PMID:23270874

Zhang, Liping; Huang, Fangneng; Rogers Leonard, B; Chen, Mao; Clark, Thomas; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Wangila, David S; Yang, Fei; Niu, Ying

2013-03-01

54

Down regulation of a gene for cadherin, but not alkaline phosphatase, associated with Cry1Ab resistance in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins (i.e., Cry1Ab) in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of transgenic Bt crops. Understanding the pests' resistance mechanisms will facilitate development of effective strategies for delaying or countering resistance. Alterations in expression of cadherin- and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been associated with Bt resistance in several species of pest insects. In this study, neither the activity nor gene regulation of ALP was associated with Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis. Total ALP enzymatic activity was similar between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains of D. saccharalis. In addition, expression levels of three ALP genes were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and -RR, and cDNA sequences did not differ between susceptible and resistant larvae. In contrast, altered expression of a midgut cadherin (DsCAD1) was associated with the Cry1Ab resistance. Whereas cDNA sequences of DsCAD1 were identical between the two strains, the transcript abundance of DsCAD1 was significantly lower in Cry1Ab-RR. To verify the involvement of DsCAD1 in susceptibility to Cry1Ab, RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to knock-down DsCAD1 expression in the susceptible larvae. Down-regulation of DsCAD1 expression by RNAi was functionally correlated with a decrease in Cry1Ab susceptibility. These results suggest that down-regulation of DsCAD1 is associated with resistance to Cry1Ab in D. saccharalis. PMID:21991350

Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ottea, James; Husseneder, Claudia; Leonard, B Rogers; Abel, Craig; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng

2011-01-01

55

Down Regulation of a Gene for Cadherin, but Not Alkaline Phosphatase, Associated with Cry1Ab Resistance in the Sugarcane Borer Diatraea saccharalis  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins (i.e., Cry1Ab) in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of transgenic Bt crops. Understanding the pests' resistance mechanisms will facilitate development of effective strategies for delaying or countering resistance. Alterations in expression of cadherin- and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been associated with Bt resistance in several species of pest insects. In this study, neither the activity nor gene regulation of ALP was associated with Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis. Total ALP enzymatic activity was similar between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains of D. saccharalis. In addition, expression levels of three ALP genes were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and -RR, and cDNA sequences did not differ between susceptible and resistant larvae. In contrast, altered expression of a midgut cadherin (DsCAD1) was associated with the Cry1Ab resistance. Whereas cDNA sequences of DsCAD1 were identical between the two strains, the transcript abundance of DsCAD1 was significantly lower in Cry1Ab-RR. To verify the involvement of DsCAD1 in susceptibility to Cry1Ab, RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to knock-down DsCAD1 expression in the susceptible larvae. Down-regulation of DsCAD1 expression by RNAi was functionally correlated with a decrease in Cry1Ab susceptibility. These results suggest that down-regulation of DsCAD1 is associated with resistance to Cry1Ab in D. saccharalis. PMID:21991350

Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ottea, James; Husseneder, Claudia; Leonard, B. Rogers; Abel, Craig; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng

2011-01-01

56

Molecular characterization and RNA interference of three midgut aminopeptidase N isozymes from Bacillus thuringiensis-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

Aminopeptidase N (APN) proteins located at the midgut epithelium of some lepidopteran species have been implicated as receptors for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. cDNAs of three APN isoforms, DsAPN1, DsAPN2, and DsAPN3, from Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were identified and sequenced using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end (5' RACE). The characteristic APN sequence features were derived from deduced amino acid sequences of the cloned cDNAs. cDNA sequences of the three APN genes were identical between the Cry1Ab-SS and -RR strains. However, total APN proteolytic activity and gene expression of the three APNs from Cry1Ab-RR larvae were significantly lower than those of the Cry1Ab-SS strain. RNA interference (RNAi) was employed using an oral droplet feeding technique for the three APNs of the Cry1Ab-SS strain. Down-regulating expressions of the three APN genes by RNAi were corresponding to the reductions in the specific APN activity. In addition, silencing of all three APNs in D. saccharalis in vivo by RNAi resulted in a decrease in Cry1Ab susceptibility. Our results showed that reduction in expression of the three APNs is functionally associated with the Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis. PMID:20685334

Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ottea, James; Husseneder, Claudia; Leonard, B Rogers; Abel, Craig; Huang, Fangneng

2010-08-01

57

Short and long-term antinutritional effect of the trypsin inhibitor ApTI for biological control of sugarcane borer.  

PubMed

Plant-derived trypsin inhibitors have been shown to have potent anti-insect effects and are a promising alternative for the biological control of pests. In this work, we tested the anti-insect activity of Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor (ApTI) against Diatraea saccharalis larvae, a major insect pest in sugarcane. The addition of 0.1% ApTI in short-term assays resulted in 87% and 63% decreased trypsin and chymotrypsin activities respectively. ApTI was not digested after 60h incubation with D. saccharalis midgut proteases. The chronic effects of ApTI on F0 and F1 generations of D. saccharalis were also analyzed. The larvae from the F0 generation showed 55% and 21% decreased larval and pupal viability, respectively. ApTI-fed larvae from the F1 generation showed a decrease of 33% in survival rate and 23% in the average larval weight. Moreover, ApTI treatment reduced trypsin and chymotrypsin activities in F1 larvae. Thus, the anti-insect effects of ApTI on consecutive generations (F0 and F1) of D. saccharalis larvae demonstrate its potential for long-term control of this pest. PMID:24355140

da Silva, Desireé S; de Oliveira, Caio F R; Parra, José R P; Marangoni, Sergio; Macedo, Maria L R

2014-02-01

58

Induction of a gloverin-like antimicrobial polypeptide in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis challenged by septic injury.  

PubMed

Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest for Brazilian sugarcane. In the present study, we detected two distinct spots in hemolymph from septic injured larvae (HDs1 and HDs2), which are separated by 2DE gel electrophoresis. Both spots were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, which revealed the sequence VFGTLGSDDSGLFGK present in both HDs1 and HDs2. This sequence had homology and 80% identity with specific Lepidoptera antimicrobial peptides called gloverins. Analyses using the ImageMaster 2D software showed pI 8.94 of the HDs1 spot, which is similar to that described to Hyalophora gloveri gloverin (pI 8.5). Moreover, the 14-kDa molecular mass of the spot HDs1 is compatible to that of gloverins isolated from the hemolymph of Trichoplusia ni, Helicoverpa armigera and H. gloveri. Antimicrobial assays with partially purified fractions containing the HDs1 and HDs2 polypeptides demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli. This is the first report of antimicrobial polypeptides in D. saccharalis, and the identification of these peptides may help in the generation of new strategies to control this pest. PMID:20490430

Silva, J L C; Barbosa, J F; Bravo, J P; Souza, E M de; Huergo, L F; Pedrosa, F O; Esteves, E; Daffre, S; Fernandez, M A

2010-05-01

59

Electrophysiological studies and identification of possible sex pheromone components of Brazilian populations of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

Virgin female gland extracts of sugarcane moth Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from three locations in Brazil, have been analyzed. By GC-MS analysis and comparison of the chromatographic retention time of the components of the pheromone gland with those retention times of synthetic standards, we observed the presence of (Z)-hexadec-11-enal (1), hexadecanal (2), (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (4), (9Z,11Z)-hexadecadienal (5) and (9E,11E)-hexadecadienal (6), as minor components besides the major constituent (9Z,11E)-hexadecadienal (3) already reported. We found no variations in the composition of the gland extracts deriving from the three Brazilian populations and only two compounds, (Z)-hexadec-11-enal (1) and (9Z,11E)-hexadecadienal (3), elicited antennal responses (GC-EAD). In electroantennography (EAG), however, pure compounds 1 and 3, a binary mixture containing 1 and 3, and a mixture containing all of the six synthetic compounds 1-6 elicited a depolarization in male antennae of D. saccharalis, without any statistically different delay. The EAG responses to the other isomers of 9,11-hexadecadienal were small and not significantly different from the control, except for the (9Z,11Z)-isomer (5) which showed an relatively strong electroantennal activity. PMID:12241007

Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Santangelo, Ellen M; Stein, Kathrin; Unelius, C Rikard; Eiras, Alvaro E; Corrêa, Arlene G

2002-01-01

60

Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although successfully introduced and established in sugarcane fields around the world, attempts to establish Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Bracondiae) in the temperate sugarcane fields of Louisiana as a parasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) ...

61

Origin and expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (coleoptera: scolytinae): a mixture of historical natural expansion and contemporary human-mediated relocation.  

PubMed

The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

Lü, Jun; Hu, Shao-ji; Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

2014-01-01

62

Ecology and tactics of control for three sugarcane stalkboring species in the Western Hemisphere and Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter focuses on three species, the sugarcane borer, the Mexican rice borer, and the eldana borer, because they are economically important in their ranges and because among them are examples of interspecific competition, similarities between species of different continents and differences bet...

63

Sugarcane (saccharum spp. Hybrids).  

PubMed

Genetic transformation of sugarcane has a tremendous potential to complement traditional breeding in crop improvement and will likely transform sugarcane into a bio-factory for value-added products. We describe here Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sugarcane. Embryogenic callus induced from immature leaf whorls was used as target for transformation with the hypervirulent Agrobacterium strain AGL1 carrying a constitutive nptII expression cassette in vector pPZP200. Selection with 30 mg/L geneticin during the callus phase and 30 mg/L paromomycin during regeneration of shoots and roots effectively suppressed the development of non-transgenic plants. This protocol was successful with a commercially important sugarcane cultivar, CP-88-1762, at a transformation efficiency of two independent transgenic plants per g of callus. PMID:25416267

Wu, Hao; Altpeter, Fredy

2015-01-01

64

Life table studies of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane.  

PubMed

The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Reproductive and life table parameters for E. lignosellus were examined at nine constant temperatures from 13 to 36 °C with sugarcane as the larval food source. The pre- and postoviposition periods decreased with increasing temperatures and reached their minimums at 33 and 36 °C, respectively. The oviposition period was longest at 27 °C. The mean fecundity, stage-specific survival, stage-specific fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were greatest at 30 °C and decreased with increasing or decreasing temperature. The net reproductive rate was greatest at 27 °C. The Logan-6 model best described the relationship between temperature and intrinsic rate of increase. The generation and population doubling times were longest at 13 and shortest at 33 and 30 °C, respectively. The most favorable temperatures for E. lignosellus population growth were between 27 and 33°C. Life table parameters for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane were greater than for the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on an artificial diet at 30 °C. The intrinsic rates of increase for the sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on sugarcane or corn were the same as for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane at 27 °C, but the net reproductive rate was four times higher for the former than the latter borer species. PMID:22182570

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A

2010-12-01

65

Somaclonal variation in insect?resistant transgenic sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid) plants produced by cell electroporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of 42 transgenic sugarcane ( hybrid, cv. Ja60-5) clones expressing a truncated cryIA(b) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was evaluated in field trials under artificial borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fab.) infection. Five clones displaying the highest borer tolerance were selected and analysed with molecular tools (RAPD, AFLP and RAMP) to verify genomic changes. Results of field trials provided evidence both

Ariel D. Arencibia; Elva R. Carmona; Maria T. Cornide; Stefano Castiglione; José O'Relly; Antonio Chinea; Pedro Oramas; Francesco Sala

1999-01-01

66

Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and Cry1Ab-resistant strains of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

Diatraea saccharalis is a major corn borer pest. Midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. Alteration of midgut proteinases is responsible for Bt resistance development in some species. To clone midgut trypsin and chymotrypsin cDNAs and to test if the Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis is associated with changes in midgut proteinases, total midgut tryptic and chymotryptic activities, cDNA sequences, and gene expressions of three trypsin and three chymotrypsin genes were comparatively examined between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and Cry1Ab-resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains. Full-length cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and three chymotrypsin-like proteinases were sequenced from Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR larvae. These cDNAs code for active forms of midgut serine proteinases with all functional motifs, including signal peptide, conserved His-Asp-Ser for the catalytic triad, three pairs of cysteines for disulfide bridge configurations, and conserved substrate specificity determination residues. In general, cDNA and putative protein sequences are highly similar between Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR strains, except for a few nucleotide and predicted amino acid substitutions, whose function need to be further clarified. Total trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR strains. Transcriptional levels of the trypsin and chymotrypsin genes had numerical difference between Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR strains, but the difference was not statistically significant. Data suggest that the development of Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis was not significantly associated with these trypsins and chymotrypsins. Results clarified the role of six midgut proteinases and provided a foundation for continuing examination of potential involvement of other midgut proteinases in Bt resistance development and other important biochemical processes. PMID:23955944

Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ottea, James; Husseneder, Claudia; Leonard, B Rogers; Abel, Craig; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng

2013-08-01

67

Adventitious Shoot Regeneration of Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Rochelle R. Beasley1 and Paula M. Pijut2y j  

E-print Network

borer resistance To date no in vitro regeneration protocol for black ash has been developed system for emerald ash borer resistance. To date, no in vitro regeneration protocol for black ash hasM thidiazuron and 13.3 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) for shoot induction (Du & Pijut 2008). All media included 3

68

Evaluation of lectin-expressing transgenic sugarcane against stalkborers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effects on life history parameters.  

PubMed

The impact of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) expressed in transgenic sugarcane on life history parameters of Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar)] and sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.)] (both Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was evaluated. In the laboratory, lyophilized sugarcane leaf sheath tissue was incorporated in a meridic diet resulting in a GNA concentration of 0.47% of total protein, and used for insect bioassays over two successive generations. Deleterious effects of GNA were not observed on survival, weight, and developmental periods of larvae and pupae, nor on adult fecundity and egg viability of D. saccharalis. Moreover, in the first generation, addition of transgenic sugarcane tissue to the diet enhanced larval growth in D. saccharalis resulting in higher larval and pupal weight compared with diet with nontransgenic sugarcane, but this effect was not observed in the second generation. In contrast, larval survival, percent adult emergence, and female fecundity of E. loftini were significantly reduced when fed transgenic sugarcane diet compared with nontransgenic sugarcane diet. In addition, a substantial reduction of female pupal weight of E. loftini was observed in the second generation. For both species, the only consistent effect of GNA in both generations was a reduction in adult female longevity. Life table parameters showed that GNA at the level found in the transgenic diet negatively affected development and reproduction of E. loftini, whereas it had a nil to positive effect on development and reproduction of D. saccharalis. PMID:12020029

Sétamou, M; Bernal, J S; Legaspi, J C; Mirkov, T E; Legaspi, B C

2002-04-01

69

Resistance to stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) among Texas rice cultivars.  

PubMed

A 4-yr field study was conducted to assess the resistance of rice, Oryza sativa L., cultivars to injury from the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (both Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Several cultivars showed reduced levels of injury ('CLXL8', 'XL8', 'Wells', 'Cheniere', and 'XP710' in 2003; CLXL8, XP723, Cheniere, and 'CL161' in 2004) and lower stem borer yield loss (CLXL8 in 2004) than the more susceptible 'Priscilla'. The resistant CLXL8 also had less injury and yield loss in 2004 and higher yield in 2003 than 'Cocodrie', currently the most popular rice cultivar in Texas and Louisiana. Linear regression analyses between whiteheads and main crop rice yield showed steeper negative slopes for the more resistant cultivars than the more susceptible cultivars, indicating a greater yield loss per whitehead on the resistant cultivars. Compensation from insect injury likely explains the positive associations established in our study between main crop yield and whiteheads for some cultivars. Cultivar resistance is anticipated to become a major control tactic in reducing infestations of E. loftini and D. saccharalis in the Texas and Louisiana rice industries. PMID:17066824

Way, M O; Reay-Jones, F P F; Reagan, T E

2006-10-01

70

Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

2008-01-01

71

Sugarcane functional genomics: gene discovery for agronomic trait development.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

Menossi, M; Silva-Filho, M C; Vincentz, M; Van-Sluys, M-A; Souza, G M

2008-01-01

72

Shooting Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an opportunity for students to develop concepts and skills with fractions, decimals, and percentages in the context of shooting baskets. Students take turns tossing a ball into a wastebasket a number of times determined by a random card draw, while other students keep track of the number of shots made. The class processes the data by creating fractions and converting them into decimals and percentages, and then uses them to analyze and interpret the results.

Jewell, Laura

2011-01-01

73

Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

74

The Cotton-Square Borer.  

E-print Network

it on this food plant. Hops, beans, and hawthorn, Crat~gus, have been recorded as the most common food plants of the insect in the Northeastern States. Additional pl~nts attacked by the cotton-square borer in this region include hound's tongue, Cynoglossum; St...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

1929-01-01

75

Sugarcane Rusts in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane orange rust symptoms were first observed in Florida in June 2007 on cultivar CP 80-1743. The causal agent, Puccinia kuehnii, was subsequently verified morphologically and molecularly constituting the first confirmed report of sugarcane orange rust in the Western Hemisphere. Orange rust was...

76

Sugarcane and Energycane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Energycane” is a term that is used to describe sugarcane grown solely for the production of renewable energy. A Type I energycane has somewhat lower sugar content (10-14%) and higher fiber content (14-20%) than a commercial sugarcane cultivar bred for sugar production. In contrast, a Type II energy...

77

Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

E-print Network

stressed and healthy trees Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) Ash is widespread #12;2 Where is EAB From1 Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Wednesday, April 20, 2001 12:20 PM 160 Plant Biotech Building Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis

Gray, Matthew

78

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)  

E-print Network

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) The oak pinhole borer, Platypus of a continuing supply of breeding material in the form of weakened oaks suffering from `oak dieback and decline be produced by the female and subsequently her offspring. Adult beetle on oak timber, cut to show tunnels

79

Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At the start of the sugarcane harvest season in Louisiana, late-September or early-October, sucrose content in sugarcane is relatively low compared to late in the harvest season. In order for early-harvested sugarcane to be profitable, chemicals, primarily herbicides, have been evaluated for their e...

80

Nitrate Paradigm Does Not Hold Up for Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil. PMID:21552564

Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

2011-01-01

81

Laboratory and field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana against sugarcane stalkborers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.  

PubMed

Of approximately 18,200 ha planted to sugarcane in south Texas, only approximately 80 ha (<0.5%) are treated with insecticides because this type of control is widely regarded as ineffective against stalkboring pyralids, the key pests of sugarcane. Therefore, nonchemical control measures, such as resistant varieties and biological controls, must be evaluated to mitigate the losses caused by stalkborers. We performed laboratory and field evaluations on the use of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) (strain GHA) against the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), which causes damage in south Texas estimated at between 10 and 20 million dollars annually. We also performed bioassays against the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Pyralidae), the key pest in other sugarcane growing areas. In the bioassays, E. loftini was substantially more susceptible to B. bassiana than D. saccharalis, based on both 5-d LD50 values and survival times. A commercial oil-based formulation of B. bassiana was evaluated in the field using the following treatments: oil alone (control), B. bassiana + oil, and B. bassiana + Silwet L-77 carrier at an application rate of 5 x 10(13) spores per hectare. Neither numbers of E. loftini per stalk, nor stalk damage (approximately 20% bored internodes) were significantly affected by treatment. The application of B. bassiana + Silwet significantly affected the numbers of internodes showing high damage, but not those with low or medium damage. Analysis of yield data and juice quality showed no significant treatment effects. We conclude that the application of Beauveria + Silwet offers the best chances for reducing damage caused by E. loftini of those treatments tested. However, reductions in insect incidence or damage did not result in measurable increases in yield or sugar quality, probably because of insufficient coverage. Effective control of stalkboring pyralids in sugarcane using B. bassiana will likely require improvements in delivery technology. PMID:14658512

Legaspi, J C; Poprawski, T J; Legaspi, B C

2000-02-01

82

Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

83

Registration of ‘Ho 02-113’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ho 02-113’ sugarcane was released by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugarcane League of the U.S.A. This high-fiber sugarcane variety was released for use as a biofuel feedstock to fill the rising i...

84

Sugarcane Diseases: Futuristic Management Strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane pathology and disease control practices are changing due to social, economic and technological events. Sugarcane is becoming more important economically because of the increasing price and demand for sugar and its use for bio-energy. These pressures make the control of diseases more import...

85

Breeding sugarcane for cold climates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit’s variety development program provides the local sugarcane industry with early maturing varieties containing the “Ho” designations that are adapted to the temperate climate of the region. In recent studies, we have used a growth chamber to expose diverse wild va...

86

Sugarcane smut and its control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...

87

The Sugarcane Defense Protein SUGARWIN2 Causes Cell Death in Colletotrichum falcatum but Not in Non-Pathogenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN) have been characterized in sugarcane, SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins). Induction of SUGARWINs occurs in response to Diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. In addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activities toward Fusarium verticillioides, an opportunistic fungus that usually occurs after D. saccharalis borer attacks on sugarcane. In this study, we sought to evaluate the specificity of SUGARWIN2 to better understand its mechanism of action against phytopathogens and the associations between fungi and insects that affect plants. We used Colletotrichum falcatum, a fungus that causes red rot disease in sugarcane fields infested by D. saccharalis, and Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes pineapple disease in sugarcane. We also tested whether SUGARWIN2 is able to cause cell death in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that does not infect sugarcane, and in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is used for bioethanol production. Recombinant SUGARWIN2 altered C. falcatum morphology by increasing vacuolization, points of fractures and a leak of intracellular material, leading to germling apoptosis. In C. paradoxa, SUGARWIN2 showed increased vacuolization in hyphae but did not kill the fungi. Neither the non-pathogenic fungus A. nidulans nor the yeast S. cerevisiae was affected by recombinant SUGARWIN2, suggesting that the protein is specific to sugarcane opportunistic fungal pathogens. PMID:24608349

Franco, Flávia P.; Santiago, Adelita C.; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Moura, Daniel S.; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

2014-01-01

88

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

89

Induced over-expression of AtDREB2A CA improves drought tolerance in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable sugarcane production and, in some cases, yield losses caused by drought are nearly 50%. DREB proteins play vital regulatory roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. The transcription factor DREB2A interacts with a cis-acting DRE sequence to activate the expression of downstream genes that are involved in drought-, salt- and heat-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of stress-inducible over-expression of AtDREB2A CA on gene expression, leaf water potential (?L), relative water content (RWC), sucrose content and gas exchanges of sugarcane plants submitted to a four-days water deficit treatment in a rhizotron-grown root system. The plants were also phenotyped by scanning the roots and measuring morphological parameters of the shoot. The stress-inducible expression of AtDREB2A CA in transgenic sugarcane led to the up-regulation of genes involved in plant response to drought stress. The transgenic plants maintained higher RWC and ?L over 4 days after withholding water and had higher photosynthetic rates until the 3rd day of water-deficit. Induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane increased sucrose levels and improved bud sprouting of the transgenic plants. Our results indicate that induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane enhanced its drought tolerance without biomass penalty. PMID:24656336

Reis, Rafaela Ribeiro; da Cunha, Bárbara Andrade Dias Brito; Martins, Polyana Kelly; Martins, Maria Thereza Bazzo; Alekcevetch, Jean Carlos; Chalfun, Antônio; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Qin, Feng; Mizoi, Junya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Carvalho, Josirley de Fátima Corrêa; de Sousa, Carlos Antônio Ferreira; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Kobayashi, Adilson Kenji; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa

2014-05-01

90

Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem.  

PubMed

Attempts to establish Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Louisiana sugarcane fields to control the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) have been unsuccessful. Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to overcome barriers preventing establishment. In addition, we evaluated C. flavipes' ability to search for D. saccharalis in sugarcane without above-ground internodes. Diatraea evanescens Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was investigated as an alternative host for C. flavipes. Cotesia flavipes was reared for five generations on D. evanescens without any indication of diminishing fitness as measured by days to parasite pupation and average cocoon mass weight. However, there was a significant reduction in percent parasitism, cocoon mass weight, and percent emergence when C. flavipes parasitized D. evanescens as compared with D. saccharalis, resulting in a 75% reduction in the gross reproductive rate (R(0)). Greenhouse studies indicated little difference in parasitism of D. saccharalis on the weed hosts johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), and vaseygrass, Paspalum urvillei Steud. However, when planted as refuge plots, we found it difficult to establish infestations of D. saccharalis in either of these hosts, or in two energy sugarcanes. After 3 yr of infesting host plants and releasing parasitoids only one parasitized D. saccharalis larvae was recovered within the johnsongrass refuge. Diatraea evanescens readily established in vaseygrass; however, these larvae appear inaccessible to C. flavipes. In contrast, parasitism of D. saccharalis by C. flavipes infesting young sugarcane was 30%. PMID:22506999

White, W H; Wilson, L T

2012-04-01

91

Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selec...

92

Registration of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

93

Multiple Shoot Regeneration from Young Shoots of Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to initiate multiple shoots from the young shoot of kenaf. Young shoots along with the cotyledons were\\u000a excised from ten-day old aseptically germinated seeds and pre-cultured for two weeks in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with benzyl adenine (BA) or a combination of BA and kinetin. After two weeks in culture, elongated shoots were excised

Samanthi P. Herath; Takayuki Suzuki; Kazumi Hattori

2004-01-01

94

School Shootings Stun Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

2005-01-01

95

Mechanism of shoot gravitropism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A better understanding of the cellular basis of plant shoot gravitropism was sought. A critical evaluation of the role of auxin gravitropism was provided. An alternative hypothesis which links Ca(42) fluxes to the asymmetric growth that leads to gravicurvature was evaluated.

Rayle, D. L.

1984-01-01

96

Microbial Control of Plum Curculio and Peachtree Borers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruits. Stone fruits are also plagued by clear-winged moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), e.g., peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes). Microbial control agents have potential as a...

97

BORER DAMAGE IN GREEN ASH TREES FROM DIFFERENT PROVENANCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young trees of green ash (Fraxlnus pennsyivanica) from 43 geographic origins throughout the species' range were heavily attacked (81 %) by the ash borer (Podosesia syringae) or its sibling species P. aureoclncta, with no differences among provenances. Faster growing trees were attacked more often than weak trees. The few fast- growing, borer-free trees remaining are being vegetatively propagated and used

Frank S. Santamour; Kim C. Steiner

1986-01-01

98

The Binomial Distribution in Shooting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

2009-01-01

99

In vitro generation of somaclonal variant plants of sugarcane for tolerance to Fusarium sacchari.  

PubMed

KEY MESSAGE : A combination of in vitro culture and mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) followed by culture filtrate-mediated selection produced variant sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to Fusarium sacchari. Eldana saccharina is a destructive pest of the sugarcane crop in South Africa. Fusarium sacchari PNG40 (a fungal strain harmful to E. saccharina) has the potential to be an endophytic biological control agent of the stalk borer. However, the fungus causes Fusarium stalk rot in sugarcane. In the current study, sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to F. sacchari PNG40 were produced by exposing embryogenic calli to the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), followed by in vitro selection during somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration on media containing F. sacchari culture filtrates (CF). The incorporation of 100 ppm CF in the culture media at the embryo maturation stage, at germination, or at both, resulted in callus necrosis and consequent reduced plantlet yield. Subsequent trimming of the roots of regenerated plants and their exposure to 1,500 ppm CF served as a further selection treatment. Plants produced from EMS-treated calli displayed improved root re-growth in the presence of CF pressure compared with those from non-treated calli. The tolerance of CF-selected plants was confirmed in greenhouse tests by inoculation with F. sacchari PNG40, re-isolation of Fusarium spp. from undamaged tissue of asymptomatic plants and establishment of the identity of fungal isolates as PNG40 using molecular analysis. The restriction of PNG40 presence to the inoculation lesion in some plants suggested their resistance to the fungus. Genotypes exhibiting symptomless endophytic colonization by PNG40 were identified and will be utilised for testing biological control strategies against E. saccharina. PMID:23090725

Mahlanza, Tendekai; Rutherford, R Stuart; Snyman, Sandy J; Watt, M Paula

2013-02-01

100

Shooting Star Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

1997-01-01

101

Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners discover that plants aren't just shoots (stem, branches, leaves, and flowers) growing above ground, but contain plenty of roots growing undergroundâmore than half the mass of a plant can be its roots. Learners dig up "mystery" plants to investigate their root structures, and match them to different types of root systems. Learners also learn about animals found near plant roots and how humans use roots.

Science, Lawrence H.

2008-01-01

102

Parasitism of Lepidopterous Stem Borers in Cultivated and Natural Habitats  

PubMed Central

Plant infestation, stem borer density, parasitism, and parasitoid abundance were assessed during two years in two host plants, Zea mays (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae) and Sorghum bicolor (L.) (Cyperales: Poaceae), in cultivated habitats. The four major host plants (Cyperus spp., Panicum spp., Pennisetum spp., and Sorghum spp.) found in natural habitats were also assessed, and both the cultivated and natural habitat species occurred in four agroecological zones in Kenya. Across habitats, plant infestation (23.2%), stem borer density (2.2 per plant), and larval parasitism (15.0%) were highest in maize in cultivated habitats. Pupal parasitism was not higher than 4.7% in both habitats, and did not vary with locality during each season or with host plant between each season. Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) and C. flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were the key parasitoids in cultivated habitats (both species accounted for 76.4% of parasitized stem borers in cereal crops), but not in natural habitats (the two Cotesia species accounted for 14.5% of parasitized stem borers in wild host plants). No single parasitoid species exerted high parasitism rates on stem borer populations in wild host plants. Low stem borer densities across seasons in natural habitats indicate that cereal stem borer pests do not necessarily survive the non-cropping season feeding actively in wild host plants. Although natural habitats provided refuges for some parasitoid species, stem borer parasitism was generally low in wild host plants. Overall, because parasitoids contribute little in reducing cereal stem borer pest populations in cultivated habitats, there is need to further enhance their effectiveness in the field to regulate these pests. PMID:21526933

Mailafiya, Duna Madu; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kairu, Eunice Waitherero; Dupas, Stéphane; Calatayud, Paul-André

2011-01-01

103

USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

104

Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

105

Transcriptome Analysis and Functional Genomics of Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is a genetically complex polyploid with increasing economic importance as a feedstock for biofuel production. The\\u000a characterization of sugarcane genes and their association with biological traits such as sugar accumulation, biomass yield\\u000a and stress tolerance has so far primarily relied on studies of the sugarcane transcriptome. Associations of gene expression\\u000a with biological traits have been based on alterations in

John M. Manners; Rosanne E. Casu

2011-01-01

106

Bronze Birch Borer STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology  

E-print Network

-shaped emergence hole on paper birch (Betula spp.). S. Katovich, USFS, Bugwood.org #12;Key diagnostic features bronze birch borer (Coleoptera) and D-shaped emergence holes on birch (Betula spp.). S. Katovich, USFS

New Hampshire, University of

107

Propagation of banana through encapsulated shoot tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants were regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips of banana. Shoot tips (ca 4 mm) isolated from multiple shoot cultures of banana cv. Basrai were encapsulated in 3% sodium alginate containing different gel matrices. The encapsulated shoot tips regenerated in vitro on different substrates. Use of White's medium resulted in 100% conversion of encapsulated shoot tips into plantlets. The plantlets were

T. R. Ganapathi; P. Suprasanna; V. A. Bapat; P. S. Rao

1992-01-01

108

Shooting Star Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the Sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space propulsion research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of SSE and its thermal vacuum test to simulate in-orbit conditions at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflection of the engineering model under extreme condition, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the Sun, as well as vacuum.

1997-01-01

109

Shooting the Monkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EJS simulation allows the user to simulate the classical shoot the monkey demonstration. The user can change the initial velocity of the projectile, the positions and aim of the gun, and the position of the monkey. The simulation was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ntnu_fkh_projectileNfreefall.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or EJS.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2010-06-22

110

A School Shooting Plot Foiled  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

2010-01-01

111

Why Not Shoot? Selmer Bringsjord  

E-print Network

we got here in the first place: evolution. But our hypothetical shooter, we can assume, readily concedes that if enough people shoot each other, the human race is in dire straits: the extrapolation questions. Evolution may well explain why, generally, members of homo sapiens don't shoot each other

Bringsjord, Selmer

112

The endodermis and shoot gravitropism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoots and roots of higher plants exhibit negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. A variety of gravitropic mutants have recently been isolated from Arabidopsis, the characterization of which demonstrates that the molecular mechanisms of the gravitropic responses in roots, hypocotyls and inflorescence stems are different. The cytological and molecular analysis of two mutants, shoot gravitropism 1 (sgr1), which is allelic to

Masao Tasaka; Takehide Kato; Hidehiro Fukaki

1999-01-01

113

Drought Tolerance Conferred to Sugarcane by Association with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: A Transcriptomic View of Hormone Pathways  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane interacts with particular types of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide fixed-nitrogen and plant growth hormones to host plants, promoting an increase in plant biomass. Other benefits, as enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses have been reported to some diazotrophs. Here we aim to study the effects of the association between the diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 and sugarcane cv. SP70-1143 during water depletion by characterizing differential transcriptome profiles of sugarcane. RNA-seq libraries were generated from roots and shoots of sugarcane plants free of endophytes that were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and subjected to water depletion for 3 days. A sugarcane reference transcriptome was constructed and used for the identification of differentially expressed transcripts. The differential profile of non-inoculated SP70-1143 suggests that it responds to water deficit stress by the activation of drought-responsive markers and hormone pathways, as ABA and Ethylene. qRT-PCR revealed that root samples had higher levels of G. diazotrophicus 3 days after water deficit, compared to roots of inoculated plants watered normally. With prolonged drought only inoculated plants survived, indicating that SP70-1143 plants colonized with G. diazotrophicus become more tolerant to drought stress than non-inoculated plants. Strengthening this hypothesis, several gene expression responses to drought were inactivated or regulated in an opposite manner, especially in roots, when plants were colonized by the bacteria. The data suggests that colonized roots would not be suffering from stress in the same way as non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, shoots specifically activate ABA-dependent signaling genes, which could act as key elements in the drought resistance conferred by G. diazotrophicus to SP70-1143. This work reports for the first time the involvement of G. diazotrophicus in the promotion of drought-tolerance to sugarcane cv. SP70-1143, and it describes the initial molecular events that may trigger the increased drought tolerance in the host plant. PMID:25489849

Vargas, Lívia; Santa Brígida, Ailton B.; Mota Filho, José P.; de Carvalho, Thais G.; Rojas, Cristian A.; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van Bel, Michiel; Farrinelli, Laurent; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Vandepoele, Klaas; Hemerly, Adriana S.

2014-01-01

114

Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

2014-01-01

115

Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

2014-01-01

116

INSECT AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

117

Genetic Diversity and Genome Complexity of Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as a C4 plant, is one of the most efficient crops in converting solar energy into chemical energy. Sugarcane cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized the most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to stresses that may exist in t...

118

Neurophysiological responses to gun-shooting errors.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the neural responses to errors in a shooting game - and how these neural responses may relate to behavioral performance - by examining the ERP components related to error detection (error-related negativity; ERN) and error awareness (error-related positivity; Pe). Participants completed a Shooter go/no-go task, which required them to shoot at armed targets using a gaming gun, and avoid shooting innocent non-targets. The amplitude of the ERN and Pe was greater for shooting errors than correct shooting responses. The ERN and Pe amplitudes elicited by incorrect shooting appeared to have good internal reliability. The ERN and Pe amplitudes elicited by shooting behaviors also predicted better behavioral sensitivity towards shoot/don't-shoot stimuli. These results suggest that it is possible to obtain online brain response measures to shooting responses and that neural responses to shooting are predictive of behavioral responses. PMID:25448268

Xu, Xiaowen; Inzlicht, Michael

2014-11-01

119

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

2012-04-01

120

Predominant nifH transcript phylotypes related to Rhizobium rosettiformans in field-grown sugarcane plants and in Norway spruce.  

PubMed

Although some sugarcane cultivars may benefit substantially from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the responsible bacteria have been not identified yet. Here, we examined the active diazotrophic bacterial community in sugarcane roots from Africa and America by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using broad-range nifH-specific primers. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles obtained from sugarcane showed a low diversity at all sample locations with one phylotype amounting up to 100% of the nifH transcripts. This major phylotype has 93.9-99.6% DNA identity to the partial nifH sequence from a strain affiliated with Rhizobium rosettiformans. In addition, nifH transcripts of this phylotype were also detected in spruce roots sampled in Germany, where they made up 91% of nifH transcripts detected. In contrast, in control soil or shoot samples two distinct nifH transcript sequences distantly related to nifH from Sulfurospirillum multivorans or Bradyrhizobium elkanii, respectively, were predominant. These results suggest that R. rosettiformans is involved in root-associated nitrogen fixation with sugarcane and spruce, plants that do not form root-nodule symbioses. PMID:23761284

Burbano, Claudia Sofía; Liu, Yuan; Rösner, Kim Leonie; Reis, Veronica Massena; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Hurek, Thomas

2011-06-01

121

Carbon balance of sugarcane bioenergy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important criterion for bioenergy systems evaluation is their greenhouse gas mitigation potential. Sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to produce grid-bound surplus electricity but also have net CO2 emissions associated with the upstream fossil-fuel consumption for plantation management, transportation and processing of the fibrous biomass. However, when compared to coal-based power generation systems, sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to avoid

Revin Panray Beeharry

2001-01-01

122

Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching  

PubMed Central

Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

2015-01-01

123

Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.  

PubMed

The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2013-12-01

124

Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the

Robert K. Lawrence

125

Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

2012-02-01

126

WOUND COMPARTMENTALIZATION POTENTIAL AND BORER DAMAGE IN GREEN ASH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash trees that exhibited strong Wall 2 com- partmentalization of chisel wounds made in the trunk had less wood discoloration associated with ash borer activity than did weak compartmentalizing trees. The wood of weak compart- mentalizers was extensively colonized by microorganism s (bacteria and stain fungi) and many such trees were declining. Despite the fact that both strong and

Frank S. Santamour

127

Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...

128

Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

129

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae),  

E-print Network

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded at one site in Riverside County in 2012. It was likely brought into the state on oak firewood collected at least 2000, GSOB has caused extensive injury and mortality to oaks in woodlands and mixed

Ishida, Yuko

130

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Bu-prestidae), is a flatheaded borer new to California that poses a significant  

E-print Network

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Bu- prestidae), is a flatheaded borer new to California that poses a significant threat to oak trees. The pest is native to southeastern collected and identified in California in 2004 in San Di- ego County but was not linked to extensive oak

Ishida, Yuko

131

School Shootings in Policy Spotlight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2006-01-01

132

School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

Schiller, Juliet

2013-01-01

133

Carbon footprint of sugar produced from sugarcane in eastern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon footprint (CFP) of sugar produced from sugarcane in eastern Thailand was estimated from greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) during the sugarcane cultivation and milling process. The use of fossil fuels, chemical and organic fertilizer and sugarcane biomass data during cultivation were collected from field surveys, questionnaires and interviews. Sugar mill emissions, fossil fuel utilization and greenhouse gas

M. Yuttitham; Shabbir H. Gheewala; A. Chidthaisong

2011-01-01

134

Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Simultaneous Energy Cane and Sugarcane Genetic Improvement -- Results of a Survey of International Sugarcane Breeders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Following Brazil's dramatic success in utilizing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for large-scale ethanol production, and with a growing interest in energy crops worldwide, sugarcane breeders have been charged with genetically improving cane as an energy crop. We conducted a survey of sugarcane breeders i...

135

Genetically Enhanced Sorghum and Sugarcane: Engineering Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Storage together with Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency into the Saccharinae  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: UIUC is working to convert sugarcane and sorghum—already 2 of the most productive crops in the world—into dedicated bio-oil crop systems. Three components will be engineered to produce new crops that have a 50% higher yield, produce easily extractable oils, and have a wider growing range across the U.S. This will be achieved by modifying the crop canopy to better distribute sunlight and increase its cold tolerance. By directly producing oil in the shoots of these plants, these biofuels could be easily extracted with the conventional crushing techniques used today to extract sugar.

None

2012-02-15

136

Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

2010-01-01

137

Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis in lily shoot tips cryopreserved by droplet vitrification  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...

138

Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2005 Billion Ton Study is in need of updating and a focus change from strategic assessment to a comprehensive resource assessment to address issues raised since the 2005 publication and assist the bioenergy and bioproducts industries as they project biomass supplies into the future. With yield ...

139

Transformation of plants via the shoot apex.  

PubMed

The terms "meristem" and "shoot tip" culture have often been indiscriminately interchanged. According to Cutter 1), the apical meristem refers to only that portion of the shoot apex lying distal to the youngest leaf primordium. The shoot apex, or shoot tip, consists of the apical meristem and one to three subjacent leaf primordia. True apical meristem culture of higher plants was first demonstrated by Smith and Murashige 2). The isolated tissues of the apical domes develop directly into plants, demonstrating the developmental automony of the angiosperm shoot apical meristem. PMID:21390619

Smith, R H; Ulian, E; Gould, J H

1990-01-01

140

Patterns of photoassimilate translocation to reproductive shoots from adjacent shoots in Camellia sasanqua by manipulation of sink-source balance between the shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

To know to what extent reproductive shoots are autonomous in Camellia\\u000a sasanqua, we manipulated the sink-source balance between the reproductive shoots and their adjacent shoots by selecting vegetative\\u000a or reproductive adjacent shoots, or defoliating the reproductive shoots, and photosynthetically labeled adjacent shoots with\\u000a 13C. The atom% of 13C did not increase in the unlabeled shoots that had leaves, whereas that

Hiroki Oitate; Ko Noguchi; Kosei Sone; Ichiro Terashima; Alata Antönio Suzuki

2011-01-01

141

Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching.  

PubMed

Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

2014-01-01

142

4-H Shooting Sports Club Risk Management Plan (SS04) Date____________ Club shooting sports discipline(s) Archery _________ Hunting _________  

E-print Network

-H Shooting Sports Plan under Storage of Firearms and Ammunition. 5-HEALTH AND SAFETY- 5A Official 44-H Shooting Sports Club Risk Management Plan (SS04) Date____________ Club shooting sports________________________________________ Primary 4-H Master Shooting Sports Leader: ___________________________________________ Assistant Leader

Tullos, Desiree

143

EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists  

E-print Network

EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists Department of Entomology Field Crops E-17-W PURDUE EXTENSION Corn borer populations Indiana growers have seen corn borer damage decline to the point that it is no longer considered the key

Ginzel, Matthew

144

Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 20092019 Kent F. Kovacs a,  

E-print Network

in the cities of the United States, predominantly white and green ash (F. americana, F. pennsylvanica), enhancesAnalysis Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009­2019 Kent F. Kovacs a Emerald ash borer Cost of ash treatment, removal, and replacement Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis

Liebhold, Andrew

145

Generation of crystalline silica from sugarcane burning.  

PubMed

Sugarcane leaves contain amorphous silica, which may crystallise to form crystalline silica polymorphs (cristobalite or quartz), during commercial sugarcane harvesting where sugarcane plants are burned. Respirable airborne particulate containing these phases may present an occupational health hazard. Following from an earlier pilot study (J. S. Le Blond, B. J. Williamson, C. J. Horwell, A. K. Monro, C. A. Kirk and C. Oppenheimer, Atmos. Environ., 2008, 42, 5558-5565) in which experimental burning of sugarcane leaves yielded crystalline silica, here we report on actual conditions during sugarcane burning on commercial estates, investigate the physico-chemical properties of the cultivated leaves and ash products, and quantify the presence of crystalline silica. Commercially grown raw sugarcane leaf was found to contain up to 1.8 wt% silica, mostly in the form of amorphous silica bodies (with trace impurities e.g., Al, Na, Mg), with only a small amount of quartz. Thermal images taken during several pre-harvest burns recorded temperatures up to 1056 degrees C, which is sufficient for metastable cristobalite formation. No crystalline silica was detected in airborne particulate from pre-harvest burning, collected using a cascade impactor. The sugarcane trash ash formed after pre-harvest burning contained between 10 and 25 wt% SiO(2), mostly in an amorphous form, but with up to 3.5 wt% quartz. Both quartz and cristobalite were identified in the sugarcane bagasse ash (5-15 wt% and 1-3 wt%, respectively) formed in the processing factory. Electron microprobe analysis showed trace impurities of Mg, Al and Fe in the silica particles in the ash. The absence of crystalline silica in the airborne emissions and lack of cristobalite in trash ash suggest that high temperatures during pre-harvest burning were not sustained long enough for cristobalite to form, which is supported by the presence of low temperature sylvite and calcite in the residual ash. The occurrence of quartz and cristobalite in bagasse ash is significant as the ash is recycled onto the fields where erosion and/or mechanical disturbance could break down the deposits and re-suspend respirable-sized particulate. Appropriate methods for treatment and disposal of bagasse ash must, therefore, be employed and adequate protection given to workers exposed to these dusts. PMID:20520870

Le Blond, Jennifer S; Horwell, Claire J; Williamson, Ben J; Oppenheimer, Clive

2010-07-01

146

Nematode Interactions with Weeds and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus in Louisiana Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Weeds did not appear to serve as reservoirs for phytophagous Louisiana sugarcane nematode populations except for Criconemella spp., Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchorhynchus annulatus, and total phytophagous nematode densities were lower on weed-stressed cane and were accompanied by reduced accumulations of free cysteine, proline, and 13 other free amino acids in sugarcane. A significant weed-virus interaction for sugarcane free cysteine accumulation was detected; T. annulatus populations were highly correlated (r = 0.59, P ? 0.001) with the weed-induced and virus-induced changes in free cysteine. Sugarcane nematodes interacted differently with the weed and virus stresses and changes in host plant stress-related free amino acid concentrations. PMID:19287686

Showler, A. T.; Reagan, T. E.; Shao, K. P.

1990-01-01

147

Control of the lesser cornstalk borer on peanuts  

E-print Network

cornstalk borer aoths inside tha experiaontal ares. The treataonts were randoaised and replicated four tines. An eauleifiable DDT concentrate containing 2 pounds of technical aaterial per gallon ?as used as an insecticide at the rate of l. 5 younds..., Nr. N. J. Reinhsrd, and Dr. D. C. Norton for their advice and constructive criticise. 300640 TABLB OP CONTBNTS Pago Introduction Revise ef Literature The Rffect of Ayplications of Varying Volunes ef Spray Baterial The Bffect oi Varying...

Cunningham, Walter Holland

1958-01-01

148

Bt Corn and the European Corn Borer: Evaluation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive predictive model uses years of past weather data and a model of the European corn borer's life cycle under different temperatures to calculate the net benefit of planting Bt corn versus non-Bt corn in a certain geographic area. Great data visualization. Requires Flash. This is an excellent tool incorporating a large volume of data. The tool should be quite useful for IPM classes.

0002-11-30

149

Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus. PMID:20416060

2010-01-01

150

Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers  

E-print Network

Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers Ambroise Dalecky1 of Ostrinia nubilalis, a major lepidopteran corn pest. At the local scale, resident females mated regardless evolution to Bt crops: Predispersal mating of European corn borers. PLoS Biol 4(6): e181. DOI: 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

INCIDENCE OF WOOD BORER ACTIVITY IN GREEN ASH WINDBREAK PLANTINGS IN NORTH DAKOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was made during midsummer 1972 to measure damage by the carpenterworm, Prionoxystus robiniae, and the ash borer, Podosesia syringae, to green ash in windbreaks in North Dakota. Intensity of infestation was determined in four land resource areas and four age classes of windbreaks. Of the 96 windbreaks examined Statewide, the ash borer was present in 51 percent and

Scott Tunnock; Arden Tagestadll

152

Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat  

E-print Network

and invasive green beetle known for killing Ash trees in the United States (US) [8,9]. The borer is nativeSentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat Brahim - Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48120, USA {brahim,wgrosky}@umich.edu Abstract. The Emerald Ash

Medjahed, Brahim

153

Comparison Of Trap Types and Colors for Capturing Emerald Ash Borer Adults at Different Population Densities  

E-print Network

SAMPLING Comparison Of Trap Types and Colors for Capturing Emerald Ash Borer Adults at DifferentÃ?cial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have in the Ã?eld sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green

154

Molecular changes in the maize composite EPS12 during selection for resistance to pink stem borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre) is the most important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) throughout the Mediterranean area. The maize composite EPS12 has been chosen as the base population for a breeding program based on its resistance to pink stem borer, with the main selection criterion being resistance to stem tunneling. Yield was taken as a secondary

A. Butrón; R. Tarrío; P. Revilla; A. Ordás; R. A. Malvar

2005-01-01

155

Street Tree Diversity in Eastern North America and Its Potential for Tree Loss to Exotic Borers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of catastrophic tree losses caused by Dutch elm disease, foresters recommended that the urban forest be diversified. The intent was to create a more sustainable urban forest that would not be decimated by a single pathogen or insect pest. However, recent introductions of deadly borers such as Asian longhorned beetle and emerald ash borer reveal that new introductions

Michael J. Raupp; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Erin C. Raupp

2006-01-01

156

Searching for New Sources of Pink Stem Borer Resistance in Maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main corn (Zea mays L.) pest in the Mediterranean area. Although, screening for resistance to this pest has been successful, the level of resistance shown by the most resistant varieties is not high. The objectives of the present work were: (i) the evaluation for pink stem borer resistance of the nontested

A. Butrón; G. Sandoya; R. Santiago; A. Ordás; A. Rial; R. A. Malvar

2006-01-01

157

Assessment of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Biotypes and Bermudagrass Interference with Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids).  

E-print Network

??Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers.) collected from 17 Louisiana sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) fields and two sites outside sugarcane-growing area was evaluated for genetic diversity,… (more)

Fontenot, Dexter Paul

2014-01-01

158

Registration of ‘CP 05-1526’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘CP 05-1526’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and released to growers for organic and sand soils in Florida in October 2012. CP 05-1526 was selected...

159

Sugarcane internode composition during crop development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The utilization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol or other biofuel requires a better understanding of its composition. Two experiments were designed to better understand how cell wall composition changes over with development over time and with season in s...

160

Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

161

Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

2012-06-01

162

EVALUATION OF FAMILY APPRAISAL METHODS IN SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Louisiana, sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Hybrids) breeders rely upon information obtained from family appraisal trials to make decisions that impact several important aspects of breeding programs. Decisions about parents to retain for future crossing, cross combinations to make, and numbers of cross...

163

Prolific shoot regeneration of Astragalus cariensis Boiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolific shoot regeneration via organogenesis was induced from leaf and leaf petiole explants of the endemic Astragalus cariensis species on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA) within 8 week. The\\u000a highest number of shoots (23\\/explants) was obtained from leaf explants cultured on MS with 0.5 mg\\/l NAA and 4 mg\\/l BA. Elongated\\u000a shoots were successfully rooted in

Semiha Erisen; Mustafa Yorgancilar; Emine Atalay; Mehmet Babaoglu

2010-01-01

164

Histochemical and ultrastructural evidence of lipid secretion by the silk gland of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

The silk gland in Lepidoptera larvae is responsible for the silk production used for shelter or cocoon construction. The secretion of fibroin and sericin by the different silk gland regions are well established. There are few attempts to detect lipid components in the insect silk secretion, although the presence of such element may contribute to the resistance of the shelter to wet environment. This study characterizes the glandular region and detects the presence of lipid components in the secretion of the silk gland of Diatraea saccharalis(Fabricius). The silk gland was submitted to histochemical procedure for lipid detection or conventionally prepared for ultrastructural analyses. Lipid droplets were histochemically detected in both the apical cytoplasm of cell of the anterior region and in the lumen among the microvilli. Ultrastructural analyses of the anterior region showed lipid material, visualized as myelin-like structures within the vesicular Golgi complex and in the apical secretory globules, mixed up with the sericin; similar material was observed into the lumen, adjacent to the microvilli. Lipids were not detected in the cells neither in the lumen of the posterior region. Our results suggest that the silk produced by D. saccharalis has a minor lipid content that is secreted by the anterior region together with the sericin. PMID:18060296

Victoriano, Eliane; Pinheiro, Daniela O; Gregório, Elisa A

2007-01-01

165

Mortality staging of dominant lethals induced in the F1 generation of the sugarcane borer; Diatraea saccharalis (f.).  

PubMed

Comparative egg maturation was observed between fertile eggs laid by unirradiated females, by unirradiated females mated with irradiated males, by irradiated females mated with normal males, and by virgin unirradiated females. Haploid eggs turn yellow and dry by the fifth day. Eggs from irradiated parents develop more slowly than normal eggs. Most embryos from parents irradiated as P generation adults at 16.8 kilorads for males and 12.0 kR for females die early in embryonic development. A description of egg development is included. PMID:17387934

Walker, D W; Quintana-Muñiz, V

1968-10-01

166

Computational systems biology of sucrose accumulation in sugarcane.  

E-print Network

??Thesis (MSc (Biochemistry)) – University of Stellenbosch, 2006. This thesis is about mathematical modelling of sucrose accumulation in the storage perenchyma of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) In… (more)

Uys, Lafras

2006-01-01

167

A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.  

PubMed

Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides. PMID:23321083

Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

2012-12-01

168

Midgut proteases of the cardamom shoot and capsule borer Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their interaction with aprotinin.  

PubMed

Protease inhibitors cause mortality in a range of insects, and transgenic plants expressing protease inhibitors have been protected against pest attack, particularly internal feeders that are not amenable to control by conventional means. A study of luminal proteases in Conogethes punctiferalis Guenée was performed to identify potential targets for proteinaceous biopesticides, such as protease inhibitors. The midgut protease profile of the gut lumen from C. punctiferalis was studied to determine the conditions for optimal protein hydrolysis. Optimum conditions for peptidase activity were found to be in 50 mm Tris-HCl, pH 10 containing 20 mm CaCl2; incubation for 30 min at 40 degrees C. Four synthetic substrates, i.e. benzoyl-arg-p-nitroanilide, benzoyl-tyr-p-nitroanilide, succinyl-ala-ala-pro-leu-p-nitroanilide (SAAPLpNA) and leu-p-nitroanilide were hydrolysed by C. punctiferalis gut proteases in Tris-HCl buffer pH 10. Trypsin and elastase-like chymotrypsin were the prominent digestive proteases, and age-related modulation of midgut proteases existed for trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase-like chymotrypsin and leucine aminopeptidase. Serine protease inhibitors such as aprotinin, soybean trypsin inhibitor and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride inhibited peptidase activity. Some metal ions such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Pb(2+) and Co(2+) enhanced BApNA-ase activity whereas others like Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+) and Hg(2+) were inhibitory at 6 mm concentration. Trypsin and elastase-like chymotrypsin were significantly inhibited by 94% and 29%, respectively, by aprotinin (150 nm) under in vitro conditions. A possible incorporation of protease inhibitors into transgenic plants is discussed. PMID:16441909

Josephrajkumar, A; Chakrabarty, R; Thomas, G

2006-02-01

169

Coiling of Underground Shoots of Convolvulus arvensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE shoots ascending from the rootstock of Convolvulus arvensis, before they reach the surface of the ground, are frequently found to be coiled. The coils vary in diameter from one to two inches or more, and lie closely adpressed upon one another. A considerable length of shoot, in some cases three or four feet, is thus compressed into a small

J. E. H. Blake

1921-01-01

170

Cell signaling within the shoot meristem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot apical meristems are self-renewing stem cell populations that generate all of the above-ground organs (i.e. stems, leaves and flowers) of higher plants. Recent studies have identified new molecular components required for proper shoot meristem activity, and they have revealed that complex, intercellular communication pathways play important roles in coordinating meristem function.

Jennifer C Fletcher; Elliot M Meyerowitz

2000-01-01

171

Cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter in Plant Cell Culture, Development and Biotechnology describes student laboratory exercises for cryopreservation of the growing shoot tips of plants in liquid nitrogen. It includes two exercises involving step by step protocols for use with shoot tips. Vitrification (fast freezing) an...

172

Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets  

E-print Network

hickory shuckworm medium 20 g pectin 2 ml linseed oil Anthon et al. peach twi. g borer medium 5 g pectin 10 g glucose substituted for 10 sucrose 36 g vitamins 12 ml linseed oil 15 g vitamins Modifications per 1000 ml water quanity of diet. a...). One modification was the addition of 20 g of pectin to possibly stimulate feeding. The other was the addition of linseed oil in an attempt to correct abnormal wing expansion, which was obtained when rearing the insect on the unmodified diet...

Mastro, Victory Carl

1973-01-01

173

Multiple shoot regeneration of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) from a shoot apex culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a medium was developed that would stimulate multiple shoot initiation from shoot apex explants of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf). Adventitious shoot formation on a shoot induction media supplemented with combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic\\u000a acid (2,4-D) (0, 0.5, 2.3??mol·l–1) and thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N?-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea; TDZ) (0, 1, 5, 20??mol·l–1) was evaluated. Multiple shoot induction medium with 1??mol·TDZ l–1 resulted in the

M. Srivatanakul; S. H. Park; J. R. Sanders; M. G. Salas; R. H. Smith

2000-01-01

174

Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and development of herbicide-resistant sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrids) using axillary buds.  

PubMed

Direct regeneration from explants without an intervening callus phase has several advantages, including production of true type progenies. Axillary bud explants from 6-month-old sugarcane cultivars Co92061 and Co671 were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strains LBA4404 and EHA105 that harboured a binary vector pGA492 carrying neomycin phosphotransferase II, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) and an intron containing beta-glucuronidase (gus-intron) genes in the T-DNA region. A comparison of kanamycin, geneticin and phosphinothricin (PPT) selection showed that PPT (5.0 mg l(-1)) was the most effective selection agent for axillary bud transformation. Repeated proliferation of shoots in the selection medium eliminated chimeric transformants. Transgenic plants were generated in three different steps: (1) production of putative primary transgenic shoots in Murashige-Skoog (MS) liquid medium with 3.0 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 5.0 mg l(-1) PPT, (2) production of secondary transgenic shoots from the primary transgenic shoots by growing them in MS liquid medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) BA, 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kin), 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 5.0 mg l(-1) PPT for 3 weeks, followed by five more cycles of shoot proliferation and selection under same conditions, and (3) rooting of transgenic shoots on half-strength MS liquid medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA and 5.0 mg l(-1) PPT. About 90% of the regenerated shoots rooted and 80% of them survived during acclimatisation in greenhouse. Transformation was confirmed by a histochemical beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and PCR amplification of the bar gene. Southern blot analysis indicated integration of the bar gene in two genomic locations in the majority of transformants. Transformation efficiency was influenced by the co-cultivation period, addition of the phenolic compound acetosyringone and the Agrobacterium strain. A 3-day co-cultivation with 50 micro M acetosyringone considerably increased the transformation efficiency. Agrobacterium strain EHA105 was more effective, producing twice the number of transgenic shoots than strain LBA4404 in both Co92061 and Co671 cultivars. Depending on the variety, 50-60% of the transgenic plants sprayed with BASTA (60 g l(-1) glufosinate) grew without any herbicide damage under greenhouse conditions. These results show that, with this protocol, generation and multiplication of transgenic shoots can be achieved in about 5 months with transformation efficiencies as high as 50%. PMID:15133712

Manickavasagam, M; Ganapathi, A; Anbazhagan, V R; Sudhakar, B; Selvaraj, N; Vasudevan, A; Kasthurirengan, S

2004-09-01

175

Improving Sugarcane as a Bioenergy Crop in the U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane is one of the world’s most important crops. Large-scale sugarcane-based ethanol production in Brazil, together with an impressive energy balance reported therein, has helped to generate interest in sugarcane as a bioenergy crop in the U.S. An advantage of sugarcane is the production of f...

176

Analysis on leaf-stripping effect of sugarcane feeding way for centrifugal leaf-stripping machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding way of sugarcane influenced the leaf-striping effect for the centrifugal type leaf -stripping machine. In this paper, two feeding ways, fed from root and top of sugarcane stalk, were analyzed by using the method of theoretical analysis and test. The influence of structure and morphology of sugarcane leaves, the motion state of sugarcane stalks in leaf -stripping process

Mou Xiangwei; Ou Yinggang; Liu Qingting; Zeng Zhiqiang

2011-01-01

177

Modeling within-season sugarcane growth for optimal harvest system selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent switch from wholestalk to combine sugarcane harvesters has raised questions concerning which harvester is more profitable. Combine harvesters recovery more of the sugarcane in the field than wholestalk harvesters, but also have higher trash levels reducing sucrose recovery. The objective of the research presented in this article is to determine the optimal sugarcane harvest system selection for sugarcane

M. E. Salassi; J. B. Breaux; C. J. Naquin

2002-01-01

178

Impact of Heavy Metals on Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops in the tropics and subtropics, where it is mainly used to manufacture crystal\\u000a sugar. It is cultivated between the latitudes of 35°N and 35°S. Theoretically, it has the potential to produce 805 t?ha?1 wet cane or 470 t?ha?1 dry matter. The highest harvestable sugar cane yield achieved so far is close

D. V. Yadav; Radha Jain; R. K. Rai

179

Sugarcane improvement in Guangxi: Progress and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the history of replacements of improved sugarcane varieties and their significant contributions to the\\u000a cane yield and sugar content in the past several decades in Guangxi. Five obvious replacements of the varieties were recorded\\u000a typically from local initial cultivated species(S. Sinense) varieties Bamboo cane and Rose Bamboo cane to POJ2878, F134, Guitang 11 (GT11) and ROC16 which

Yu-mo Tan; Hong He

2004-01-01

180

Parasitism by the Endoparasitoid, Cotesia flavipes Induces Cellular Immunosuppression and Enhances Susceptibility of the Sugar Cane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis to Bacillus thuringiensis  

PubMed Central

Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). The aim of this research was to analyze cellular immunosuppression of D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes in terms of encapsulation, melanization, and hemocyte nodule formation. The encapsulation assay was done 1 and 6 days after parasitoid oviposition. In addition, the susceptibility of parasitized and nonparasitzed larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis HD 73 strain was assessed. 3, 12, and 24 h after bead injection; the percentages of encapsulation were significantly higher in unparasitized larvae compared to larvae parasitized 1 and 6 days after oviposition. Interestingly, there was a significant reduction in numbers of beads encapsulated at 1 day after oviposition compared to 6 days, and unparasitized larvae. The percentage of melanized beads decreased significantly in parasitized larvae compared to control. There was a reduction in the number of nodules in parasitized larvae compared to unparasitized controls. Larvae that were injected with polyndavirus 24 h before beads were injected showed significantly reduced encapsulation responses relative to control larvae. The D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes exhibited higher susceptibility to B. thuringiensis. These results suggest that parasitization induced host immunosuppression, and the immunosuppression factors could impair the defense capacity against microbial pathogens - causing an increase in pathogen susceptibility. PMID:22225507

Mahmoud, A.M.A.; De Luna-Santillana, E.J.; Rodríguez-Perez, M.A.

2011-01-01

181

Parasitism by the endoparasitoid, Cotesia flavipes induces cellular immunosuppression and enhances susceptibility of the sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis to Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). The aim of this research was to analyze cellular immunosuppression of D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes in terms of encapsulation, melanization, and hemocyte nodule formation. The encapsulation assay was done 1 and 6 days after parasitoid oviposition. In addition, the susceptibility of parasitized and nonparasitzed larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis HD 73 strain was assessed. 3, 12, and 24 h after bead injection; the percentages of encapsulation were significantly higher in unparasitized larvae compared to larvae parasitized 1 and 6 days after oviposition. Interestingly, there was a significant reduction in numbers of beads encapsulated at 1 day after oviposition compared to 6 days, and unparasitized larvae. The percentage of melanized beads decreased significantly in parasitized larvae compared to control. There was a reduction in the number of nodules in parasitized larvae compared to unparasitized controls. Larvae that were injected with polyndavirus 24 h before beads were injected showed significantly reduced encapsulation responses relative to control larvae. The D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes exhibited higher susceptibility to B. thuringiensis. These results suggest that parasitization induced host immunosuppression, and the immunosuppression factors could impair the defense capacity against microbial pathogens--causing an increase in pathogen susceptibility. PMID:22225507

Mahmoud, A M A; De Luna-Santillana, E J; Rodríguez-Perez, M A

2011-01-01

182

Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch  

PubMed Central

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-01-01

183

Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.  

PubMed

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-01-01

184

Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...

185

Registration of 'HoCP 91-552' sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘HoCP 91-552’ sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross ‘LCP 81-10’ x ‘CP 72-356’ made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 91-552 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana A...

186

Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

187

Identifying a new causal agent of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of economic concern that infects maize, sorghum, and sugarcane worldwide. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and contains a linear, positive sense ssRNA genome 10 kb long. It is transmitted non-persistently via aphids and ...

188

SOME INSECTS AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

189

Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

190

Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.  

PubMed

Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

2012-01-01

191

RATOON STUNT AND YELLOW LEAF EFFECTS ON SUGARCANE YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Separate trials were established to determine the effects of ratoon stunt, caused by Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) and yellow leaf, caused by Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV), on sugarcane yields in plant and first-ratoon crops. In 1-m long plots, responses of eight cultivars were tested for r...

192

Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

193

Sugarcane yield and morphological responses to long-term flooding.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane in south Florida is often subjected to flooding in the summer months or following hurricanes. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adaptation and yield response to l...

194

Cell–cell signaling in the shoot meristem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shoot meristem is a proliferating, changing cell population yet displays a stable organization. Recent studies have addressed how signaling processes coordinate the behaviour of shoot meristem cells.

Achim Haecker; Thomas Laux

2001-01-01

195

75 FR 29189 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp., including green ash, white ash, black ash, and several...

2010-05-25

196

76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive woodboring insect that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp., including green ash, white ash, black ash, and several...

2011-01-10

197

76 FR 5679 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring insect that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp., including green ash, white ash, black ash, and several...

2011-02-02

198

Susceptibility of the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes is an important pest of Prunus spp. We determined the susceptibility of S. pictipes to six entomopathogenic nematode species: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelatus, Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. riobrave. Nematode viru...

199

Antibiosis mechanism of resistance to pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera in wild relatives of chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the major constraints to chickpea production worldwide. The levels of resistance to pod borer in the cultivated\\u000a chickpea germplasm are moderate, and therefore, we studied the reaction of 32 accessions of wild relatives of chickpea for\\u000a resistance to H. armigera under greenhouse conditions. Accessions ICC 17257, IG 70002, IG 70003, IG 70012,

H. C. Sharmad; G. Pampapathy; S. K. Lanka; T. J. Ridsdill-Smith

2005-01-01

200

Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-12-01

201

Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.  

PubMed

In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack. PMID:23865188

Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

2013-06-01

202

USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

2009-04-03

203

Sugarwin: a sugarcane insect-induced gene with antipathogenic activity.  

PubMed

In sugarcane fields, colonization of the stalk by opportunistic fungi usually occurs after the caterpillar Diatraea saccharalis attacks the sugarcane plant. Plants respond to insect attack by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN), sugarcane wound-inducible proteins SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2, have been identified in sugarcane by an in silico analysis. Antifungal properties have been described for a number of BARWIN homologues. We report that a SUGARWIN::green fluorescent protein fusion protein is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the extracellular space of sugarcane plants. The induction of sugarwin transcripts occurs in response to mechanical wounding, D. saccharalis damage, and methyl jasmonate treatment. The accumulation of transcripts is late induced and is restricted to the site of the wound. Although the transcripts of sugarwin genes were strongly increased following insect attack, the protein itself did not show any effect on insect development; rather, it altered fungal morphology, leading to the apoptosis of the germlings. These results suggest that, in the course of evolution, sugarwin-encoding genes were recruited by sugarcane due to their antipathogenic activity. We rationalize that sugarcane is able to induce sugarwin gene expression in response to D. saccharalis feeding as a concerted plant response to the anticipated invasion by the fungi that typically penetrate the plant stalk after insect damage. PMID:22250584

Medeiros, Ane H; Franco, Flávia P; Matos, Juliana L; de Castro, Patrícia A; Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; Goldman, Gustavo H; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

2012-05-01

204

Seasonal cycle of shoot development in selected Actinidia species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal cycles of shoot development for 10 Actinidia species are described. A female and a male vine were studied for six species. Shoots were sampled at monthly intervals during the growing season and timing of budbreak, shoot lengths, numbers of nodes, areas of leaves, numbers and node positions of flowers or fruit, and fruit size were measured. Budbreak, shoot growth,

Angela M. Snowball

1997-01-01

205

Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg\\/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with

A. C. Tavares; M. C. Pimenta; M. T. Gonçalves

1996-01-01

206

Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

2013-01-01

207

Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.  

PubMed

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions. PMID:22217762

Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

2011-12-01

208

Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

2012-04-01

209

Smoke-water improves shoot growth and indigo accumulation in shoots of Isatis indigotica seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although smoke treatments have successfully been used for promoting the germination of many seeds, there are no reports on the effect of smoke on secondary metabolite production in plants. This study highlights the effects of smoke-water on shoot growth and accumulation of indigo in shoots of Isatis indigotica Fort., a Chinese medicinal plant. Results showed that seedlings treated with smoke-water

J. Zhou; J. Van Staden; L. P. Guo; L. Q. Huang

2011-01-01

210

Nutrient composition of spent wash and its impact on sugarcane growth and biochemical attributes.  

PubMed

Nutrient composition of crude and digested spent wash and effect of their application on sugarcane growth and biochemical attributes were studied. Higher concentrations of essential nutrients (P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) were present in crude spent wash (CSW) as compared to the digested spent wash (DSW); sulphur content was the highest (765 ?g ml(-1) in DSW and 1,609 ?g ml(-1) in CSW) among all nutrients analyzed. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid cultivar CoLk 8102) setts grown in soil pot culture conditions with different rates of crude spent wash (5, 10, 20 and 100 ml kg(-1) soil) along with digested spent wash (100 ml kg(-1) soil) showed improvement in bud sprouting (10.5 %), settling height (40 %), root number (9.4 %), root length (13.2 %), chlorophyll a (52.9 %) and b (55.3 %) contents and activity of catalase (98 %) enzyme over control at low rate of crude spent wash (5 ml kg(-1) soil). Whereas, higher doses of spent wash (20 and 100 ml kg(-1) soil) decreased these parameters markedly except peroxidase which was found higher at all the levels of both CSW and DSW. Findings indicated stimulatory effect of low rate of crude spent wash (5 ml kg(-1) soil) on root and shoot growth and inhibitory effect of higher dose (100 ml kg(-1) soil) of both crude and digested spent wash, therefore, judicious application of spent wash will improve crop productivity and alleviate environmental pollution problems. PMID:23573045

Jain, Radha; Srivastava, S

2012-01-01

211

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)  

PubMed Central

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

212

Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer,  

E-print Network

serious, killing the tree. Controls for RHATB: 3. Keep trunks exposed, free of vegetation, weeds or trash Roundheaded apple-tree borer larva #12;control apple maggot, leafminers, and other pests. Backyard trees, covered in the current New England Tree Fruit Management Guide. 6. You could try mechanical "worming

New Hampshire, University of

213

Marker assisted breeding in sugarcane : a complex polyploid.  

E-print Network

??Thesis (PhD (Genetics))—University of Stellenbosch, 2007. Association analysis was used to improve the efficiency of breeding sugarcane varieties for the negatively correlated traits of resistance… (more)

Butterfield, Michael Keith

2007-01-01

214

BOREAS TE-12 SSA Shoot Geometry Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected shoot geometry data in 1993 and 1994 from aspen, jack pine, and black spruce trees. Collections were made at the Southern Study Area Nipawin Fen Site (SSA FEN), Young Jack Pine (YJP), Old Jack Pine (OJP), Old Aspen (OA), Young Aspen (YA), Mixed Site (MIX), and Old Black Spruce (OBS) sites. A caliper was used to measure shoot and needle lengths and widths. A volume displacement procedure was used to measure the weight of the shoot or twig submerged in water. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Cheng, L.; Yang, Litao

2000-01-01

215

Advanced satellite imagery to classify sugarcane crop characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques that provide a rapid and widespread assessment of crop properties equip industry decision makers with knowledge\\u000a to improve their farming environment, both tactically and strategically. An interdisciplinary approach that links the fields\\u000a of hyperspectral remote sensing, statistical data mining and sugarcane systems was undertaken to establish new relationships\\u000a to determine variety type and crop age of sugarcane plants. In

Y. L. Everingham; K. H. Lowe; D. A. Donald; D. H. Coomans; J. Markley

2007-01-01

216

Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*  

PubMed Central

The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

2008-01-01

217

Parthenolide: from plant shoots to cancer roots.  

PubMed

Parthenolide (PTL), a sesquiterpene lactone (SL) originally purified from the shoots of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), has shown potent anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. It is currently being tested in cancer clinical trials. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of parthenolide revealed key chemical properties required for biological activities and epigenetic mechanisms, and led to the derivatization of an orally bioavailable analog, dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT). Parthenolide is the first small molecule found to be selective against cancer stem cells (CSC), which it achieves by targeting specific signaling pathways and killing cancer from its roots. In this review, we highlight the exciting journey of parthenolide, from plant shoots to cancer roots. PMID:23688583

Ghantous, Akram; Sinjab, Ansam; Herceg, Zdenko; Darwiche, Nadine

2013-09-01

218

Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of sugarcane legumain.  

PubMed

Plant legumains, also termed vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), are cysteine peptidases that play key roles in plant development, senescence, programmed cell death and defense against pathogens. Despite the increasing number of reports on plant cysteine peptidases, including VPEs, the characterization of sugarcane VPEs and their inhibition by endogenous cystatins have not yet been described. This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of a sugarcane cysteine peptidase. In this work, a recombinant sugarcane legumain was expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. Kinetic studies of the recombinant CaneLEG revealed that this enzyme has the main characteristics of VPEs, such as self-activation and activity under acidic pH. CaneLEG activity was strongly inhibited when incubated with sugarcane cystatin 3 (CaneCPI-3). Quantitative analysis of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 gene expression indicated a tissue-specific expression pattern for both genes throughout sugarcane growth, with the strong accumulation of CaneLEG transcripts throughout the internode development. Furthermore, the CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 genes exhibited up-regulation in plantlets treated with abscisic acid (ABA). These results suggest that CaneCPI-3 may be a potential endogenous inhibitor of CaneLEG and these genes may be involved in plant stress response mediated by ABA. Also, the expression analysis provides clues for the putative involvement of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 in sugarcane development and phytohormone response. PMID:22721948

Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Gerald, Lee T S; Meneghin, Silvana P; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

2012-08-01

219

High frequency shoot regeneration from nodal and shoot tip explants in Holarrhena antidysenterica L.  

PubMed

Shoot tip and nodal segment explants of Holarrhena antidysenterica when cultured on MS medium containing BAP (1.0-3.0 mg/l) with NAA (0.2-1.0 mg/l) and BAP (1.0-3.0 mg/l) with Kn. (0.2-1.0 mg/l) produced multiple shoots. Maximum multiple shoots was found in MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l) and NAA (0.5 mg/l). Subculture on the same medium resulted in rapid shoot multiplication at an average rate of 16 new shoots per subculture. Addition of urea (100 mg/l) in the medium increased the number of shoots up to 22 per culture. For best rooting, the shoots were excised from the culture flask and implanted individually on half strength MS medium with 0.5 mg/l each of IBA, IAA and NAA. After 20 days of transfer on root induction medium 95% rooting was achieved. Regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and established in soil. About 90% of plantlets survived under open field conditions. PMID:12018535

Ahmed, G; Roy, P K; Mamun, A N

2001-12-01

220

Effects of 12-week shooting training and mode of feedback on shooting scores among novice shooters.  

PubMed

The mode of feedback has been shown to have an effect on motor skill learning. This study investigated effects of an intensive 12-week shooting training period, and of the mode of feedback on scores in standing and running target shooting among 30 novices with limited shooting experience. They were divided into one control (no training) and three training groups. One out of the three training groups received only KR (knowledge of results) while the two other groups received KR+KP (knowledge of performance). One of the KR+KP groups received additional visual feedback (FB-II group), which included videos, graphic and written materials about kinematic and kinetic characteristics of their respective shooting techniques compared to performance of international level shooters. Each training group improved their scores in the running target shooting. There were no significant differences between the three training groups in improvements of sum scores (performance outcome). The current study showed that among novice shooters both KR alone and KR+KP improved running target shooting outcome, and that KR and KP together did not lead to a significantly better shooting performance than KR alone. PMID:11782269

Viitasalo, J T; Era, P; Konttinen, N; Mononen, H; Mononen, K; Norvapalo, K

2001-12-01

221

A New stalk rot disease of sugarcane caused by phaeocytostroma sacchari in india  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual stalk rot was noticed in sugarcane varieties at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, and in clones of\\u000a sugarcane germplasm at the Sugarcane Breeding Institute Research Centre, Kannur, at maturity stage of the crop. Affected cane\\u000a stalks showed straw coloured rind discolouration. Internally, orange-brown rotting was noticed at nodal regions, which extended\\u000a further to internodal region emitting a distinctive

R. Viswanathan; M. N. Premachandran; M. Balamuralikrishnan; R. Jothi

2003-01-01

222

SHOOT AND FLORAL MERISTEM MAINTENANCE IN ARABIDOPSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The shoot apical meristem of higher plants functions as a site of continuous organogenesis, within which a small pool of pluripotent stem cells replenishes the cells incorporated into lateral organs. This article summarizes recent results demonstrating that the fate of stem cells in Arabidopsis sho...

223

Shoot Meristem Formation in Vegetative Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the plant body is derived from the activities of groups of specialized cells, known as apical meristems, at the growing tips. In a typical flowering plant, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) gives rise to the bulk of the above-ground portion of the plant, whereas root meristems give rise to the bulk of the subterranean plant body. Of

Randall A. Kerstettera

1997-01-01

224

Shoot the Moon Wang Sang Koon  

E-print Network

1 AAS 00-166 Shoot the Moon Wang Sang Koon , Martin W. Lo* , Jerrold E. Marsden , Shane D. Ross at the Moon which required less V than a standard Hohmann transfer to the Moon. In this paper, we apply the same dynamical systems techniques used to produce the "Petit Grand Tour" of Jovian moons to reproduce

Koon, Wang Sang

225

Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes th...

226

Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the entire set of 221 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers from the International Sugarcane Microsatellite Consortium for their utility on molecular characterization of elite U.S. germplasm. Five elite U.S. sugarcane clones were tested, including two cu...

227

Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate 152 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers originally developed in India for their transferability to germplasm being used by sugarcane breeders in the U.S. The commercial sugarcane cultivar, LCP 85-384, was used for the initial screening of the SSR marker...

228

ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has been ...

229

ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has bee...

230

Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components. PMID:20108026

Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C

2010-01-01

231

Monitoring the Blind Shaft Borer Project, Oak Grove, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, plans of the United States to obtain energy self-sufficiency included a significant increase in coal production, primarily from new underground mines in the Eastern states. The poor condition of coal shaft sinking companies was a major concern. The US Bureau of Mines perceived similarities between shaft sinking and tunnel boring and felt that a machine could be produced for faster, safer shaft sinking. In January 1975, the Robbins Co., a major producer of tunnel boring machines, submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Bureau of Mines to develop, design, build and demonstrate a Blind Shaft Borer (BSB). In June 1975, a contract was initiated to start work on a BSB. After the Department of Energy was formed, the project was transferred to their Department of Fossil Fuel. In late 1978, while the BSB was being assembled for the field trial near Oak Grove, Alabama, the DOE contracted with Williams Brothers Engineering Company to monitor the site activities and provide technical advice to the Technical Project Manager. This report reviews the BSB project prior to the field trial, describes field trial operations as observed by Williams Brothers Engineering Company personnel and provides a summary of daily activities. It also details project problems, interim efforts to resolve them, results obtained and recommendations to preclude their re-occurrence on future BSB projects.

Amstutz, R.; Danowski, T.

1982-03-01

232

Digestive amylase from the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus Horn.  

PubMed

A combination of ion-exchange chromatography, preparative electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography allowed a 1209-fold purification of one of the two major digestive alpha-amylases from larvae of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus Horn. The purified enzyme showed a molecular mass of 60.2 kDa, an isoelectric point of 4.7 and an optimal pH for activity of 6.0. The enzyme was heat labile and it was recognized by proteinaceous inhibitors from amaranth seeds (Amaranthus hypochondriacus), whereas extracts from maize (Zea mays) and tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) produced very low inhibition. When the enzyme was measured at different stages of development, maximal activity was found in the second instar larvae. Activity drastically decreased to a very low level during the pupae stage and increased again at the adult stage. A zymogram of the different developmental stages showed two main bands of alpha-amylase activity, which almost disappeared at the pupae stage to increase again during the adult stage, revealing a new, smaller band. This new band may be required for a better adaptation of the adult insect to its new environment. PMID:11007185

Mendiola-Olaya, E; Valencia-Jiménez, A; Valdés-Rodríguez, S; Délano-Frier, J; Blanco-Labra, A

2000-07-01

233

Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.  

PubMed

Abstract Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed. PMID:25411988

Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

2014-11-20

234

Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ? 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the three control plots. PMID:22546447

Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

2010-10-01

235

76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the pest's preferred host. PSB has been reported to also occasionally attack other conifers such as fir (Abies spp.) and spruce (Picea spp.) at low levels. During ``shoot feeding,'' young beetles tunnel into the center of pine shoots...

2011-01-10

236

Effect of CPPU on in vitro axillary shoot proliferation and adventitious shoot regeneration in kiwifruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of CPPU, N?(2?chloro?4?pyridyl)?N?phenylurea, on the development of axillary buds and on adventitious shoot regeneration was investigated in mature leaves of in vitro?cultured shoots of Actinidia chinensis Planch (Sel. K190) and Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev. cultivars Hayward and Tomuri. In the multiplication phase, 2.2 mM CPPU induced proliferation rates comparable to 4.4 mM benzyadenine (BA) both in Hayward and

E. Caboni; R. Biasi; G. Delia; M. Tonelli

2009-01-01

237

Developmental phases and STM expression during Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana wasstudied with regard to the timing of key developmental phases and expression ofthe SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) gene.Shoot regeneration in the highly organogenic ecotype C24 was affected byexplanttype and age. The percentage of C24 cotyledon explants producing shootsdecreased from 90% to 26% when donor seedlings were more than 6 dold, but 96% of root explants produced shoots

Qun-hua Zhao; Roxanne Fisher; Carol Auer

2002-01-01

238

Shoot demography in new England populations of Maianthemum canadense desf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demography of shoots of eight populations of a herbaceous perennial exhibiting clonal growth, is presented. The study was done along an elevational gradient, from a more open secondary mixed forest to a denser, more mature stand. Most shoots lived one to three years on the average, but shoots as old as twelve years were found. Large variation in formation

Juan F. Silva; Todd M. Kana; Otto T. Solbrig

1982-01-01

239

Induction of adventitious shoots in vitro in Campanula carpatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient protocols have been developed to induce adventitious shoots in different types of explants of Campanula carpatica Jacq. More than five shoots per explant developed on hypocotyls of 5-week-old seedlings after 2 weeks of culture. Hypocotyls produced twice as many shoots as the cotyledons. TDZ proved to be about 6 times more efficient than BA. NAA had to be added

Sridevy Sriskandarajah; Stefan Frello; Margrethe Serek

2001-01-01

240

ROOT AND SHOOT PRUNING IN ROOT-BALLED ACER PLATANOIDES L.: EFFECTS ON ESTABLISHMENT AND SHOOT ARCHITECTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various combinations of root and shoot pruning treatments were applied to semi-mature, root-balled trees of Acer platanoides L. prior to planting in an experimental plot at the Bush Estate, near Edinburgh. After 3 years observation and measurement, the treatments had little effect on survival or girth. However, performance as gauged by annual shoot increments, was significantly affected by shoot pruning,

Catherine Findlay; Fred Last; Peter Aspinall; Catharine Ward Thompson; Nigel Rudd

1997-01-01

241

In Vitro multiple shoot induction and plant regeneraton from shoot apex of Hibiscus actosella Welw. ex. Hiern  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration was achieved from shoot apices in two Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern variants by using the growth regulators thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N’-1,2,3-thidazol-5-ylurea, TDZ) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) and growing shoot apices for 30 days in 21 different media...

242

The Effects of Different Media on Shoot Proliferation From the Shoot Tip of Aloe vera L.  

PubMed Central

Background Aloe vera L. is an important pharmaceutical plant from which several medicinal and cosmetic compounds are extracted. Aloe is naturally propagated through offset, which is a slow and expensive labor cost method with low economical income. Objectives In this study, the effect of different media on shoot proliferation of the shoot tip of Aloe vera L. was investigated. Materials and Methods In vitro techniques are some of the suggested methods for rapid propagation of Aloe. In this experiment, the shoot tips of mother plants were grown in a greenhouse. After surface sterilization of the explants, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The experiment was carried out in the form of a randomized complete design with three replications. Results The results showed that MS media containing 1.5 mg/L kinetin along with 0.15 or 0.3 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of proliferated shoots. In addition, the percentage of proliferated shoots in MS medium containing 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.15 mg/L NAA was significantly higher than the other treatments. Conclusions Analysis of the interactive effects of NAA, kinetin and BAP on shoot proliferation showed that most of the proliferated shoots produced in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L kinetin + 0.15 mg/L NAA were significantly different from other treatments. Rooting quality was greater in MS media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA than a 1.0 mg/L NAA treatment. PMID:24624195

Daneshvar, Mohammad Hosein; Moallemi, Noorolah; Abdolah Zadeh, Nazanin

2013-01-01

243

Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

1989-01-01

244

Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

245

Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

246

Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

247

Male Aggregation Pheromone of Date Palm Fruit Stalk Borer Oryctes elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at

Didier Rochat; Kazem Mohammadpoor; Christian Malosse; Arman Avand-Faghih; Martine Lettere; Josiane Beauhaire; Jean-Paul Morin; Adeline Pezier; Michel Renou; Gholam Abbas Abdollahi

2004-01-01

248

Susceptibility of eggs and adult fecundity of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, exposed to methoprene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of tests was conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the lesser grain borer, exposed to the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with met...

249

Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female...

250

Parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in western Pennsylvania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

251

Use of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid for control of emerald ash borer in an ash nursery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We wish to determine the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for control and management of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We have undertaken this work at a commercial tree nursery in southern Michigan within the EAB-infested area. App...

252

Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

253

Biological control of emerald ash borers: the role of indigenous North American parasitoids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated parasitoids were conducted in Cranberry Township, PA; Granville, PA; and Cheltenham, MD. Several species of parasitic Hymenoptera were collected from EAB-infested green ash trees or reared from late-instar E...

254

Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan, U.S. and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Little information about A. planipennis is available from its native range and it was not known whether this invasive pest would exhibit a preference for a

Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; David L. Cappaert

2007-01-01

255

Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...

256

Wanted4-H Wasp Watchers Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) invasive beetle introduced from  

E-print Network

Eastern Asia that kills all Ash Species native to North America. It is a small, metallic green beetleWanted4-H Wasp Watchers Situation: Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ­ invasive beetle introduced from measuring 1/2" long and 1/8" wide. 40 million ash trees have died or are dying, 7.5 billion are at risk

Walter, M.Todd

257

FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera  

E-print Network

of other green leaf volatiles (GLVs) with Z3-6:OH. Traps were placed in the lower canopy of ash trees results suggest that Z3-6:OHÐbaited green traps placed in the ash canopy would be a superior lure, green prism traps, ash canopy, monitoring The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

258

Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du

2008-01-01

259

COB BORER MUSSIDIA NIGRIVENELLA RAGONOT (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) OF MAIZE IN IVORY COAST. II - ECOLOGICAL DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvae of Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot, attack various fruits; it is the main maize cob borer in Ivory Coast. The development of attack during the cultivation, the behaviour of larvae in the field, the spatial distribution of eggs and larvae, the mortality of pre-imaginal instars and the annual fluctuations of populations are considered in this paper. This insect may represent

P. MOYAL; M. TRAN; Côte D'Ivoire

1991-01-01

260

Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

2002-01-01

261

Response of grape root borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from vitaceae species and rootstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer larvae moving freely within Petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to filter paper discs treated with ethanol- and hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts ...

262

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH PLUS METHOPRENE FOR CONTROL OF LESSER GRAIN BORER, RHYZOPERTHA DOMINICA, IN ROUGH RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), is a major insect pest of all stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE), a natural inert dust, and methoprene, an insect growth regulator, are two insecticides registered for direct application for stored grains. However, methopre...

263

On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

264

POSSIBLE DEGRADATIVE ROLES OF A COFFEE BERRY BORER-ASSOCIATED YEAST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Pichia guilliermondii based on 26s ribosomal gene sequences. Liquid culture experiments with media containing different caffeine lev...

265

THE PRESENCE OF THE COFFEE BERRY BORER (SCOLYTIDAE) IN PUERTO RICO: FACT OR FICTION?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A detailed examination of the coffee berry borer literature shows that reports indicating the presence of the insect in Puerto Rico in the early 1940's were based on an insect misidentification. One of these erroneous reports was used in a widely cited coffee book that includes a list of countries ...

266

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

267

76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...APHIS-2010-0059] Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer...the public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash...treatment schedule T314-a, which provides a heat treatment schedule for ash logs,...

2011-01-19

268

European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper Vonny M. Barlow, Graduate Research Associate, Virginia Tech  

E-print Network

European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper Vonny M. Barlow, Graduate Research Associate, Virginia and third generations are considered to be the most damaging to crops like bell pepper. Fig. 1. Female (left species. In Virginia, it is the number one pest of pepper, Capsicum annuum L. This pest can damage over 50

Liskiewicz, Maciej

269

MYCOBIOTA ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI (FERRARI) (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, feces and the galleries of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee fa...

270

On the Eyes of Male Coffee Berry Borers as Rudimentary Organs  

PubMed Central

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1±4.10) than in females (127.5±3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

Vega, Fernando E.; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F.

2014-01-01

271

The biology and control of the lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.  

E-print Network

it in the wood of sugar casks. Cotton (1963) thinks that it. was introduced into this country about a hundred years ago in seed wheat. Tucker (1912) re- ported the presence of the lesser grain borer in Louisiana as a pest of rough rice. Linsley...

Thomson, Valiavetil

1966-01-01

272

G.V.P. REDDY Development of semiochemical-based strategies for old-house borer,  

E-print Network

G.V.P. REDDY Development of semiochemical-based strategies for old-house borer, Hylotrupes bajulus (Reddy & Guerrero, 2004; 2010). To improve the surveillance capability, much research has been done (Reddy et al., 2005a; 2005b). Additionally, our previous studies indicate a ground trap baited

Reddy, Gadi VP

273

Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

274

Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for infestation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tests were conducted to determine whether differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) mixed with intact kernels affected progeny production of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in two rough rice varieties, Francis and Wells. Wells had been previously classified as...

275

On the eyes of male coffee berry borers as rudimentary organs.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1 ± 4.10) than in females (127.5 ± 3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

Vega, Fernando E; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F

2014-01-01

276

Effect of emerald ash borer on structure and material properties of ash trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borer (EAB) currently occurs in fifteen states in the United States, as well as Ontario and Quebec in Canada. A decline in ash tree strength following EAB infestation is potentially hazardous to public safety, particularly when trees are left standing for several years after dying. Dead ...

277

Parasitization by Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) influences expression of prophenoloxidase in Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A prophenoloxidase (PPO) cDNA (OfPPO) was cloned from the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis. Sequence analysis revealed a full length transcript of the OfPPO cDNA with 2686 bp, containing a 2079 bp open reading frame (ORF), a 73-bp 5’-untranslated region, and a 534-bp 3’-untranslated region with ...

278

Monitoring and First Discovery of the Mexican Rice Borer Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, has expanded its range from the Lower Rio Grande Valley to east Texas, and now into southwest Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Agricultural and Forestry and Louisiana State University AgCenter scientists forecast that natural and unintended movement will r...

279

Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

280

Identification and validation of sugarcane streak mosaic virus-encoded microRNAs and their targets in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Plants have developed several defense mechanisms to cope with various pathogens (bacteria, fungi, virus, and phytoplasma). Among these, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated defense against viral infection was found to be a major innate immune response. As a counter attack strategy against the host defense, viruses produce suppressors of host RNAi pathway. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of short (~18-22 nucleotide) non-coding single-stranded RNAs involved in RNAi pathway leading to post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) is a distinct strain of Potyviridae family which has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome causing mosaic disease in sugarcane. In this study, we computationally predicted and experimentally validated the miRNA encoded by the SCSMV genome with detection efficiency of 99.9 % in stem-loop RT-qPCR and predicted their potential gene targets in sugarcane. These sugarcane target genes considerably broaden future investigation of the SCSMV-encoded miRNA function during viral pathogenesis and might be applied as a new strategy for controlling mosaic disease in sugarcane. PMID:24145912

Viswanathan, Chandran; Anburaj, Jeyaraj; Prabu, Gajjeraman

2014-02-01

281

Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in EPS21. This novel trait could be useful in maize breeding programs to improve borer resistance. PMID:21999882

2011-01-01

282

Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired less than two or three months after the cut. The radar signal decreases about 5dB for images acquired some days after the cut and 3 dB for data acquired two month after the cut (VV-37°). The difference in radar signal becomes negligible (<1 dB) between harvested fields and mature canes for sugarcane harvested since three months or more. PMID:22163387

Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

2010-01-01

283

Multitemporal observations of sugarcane by TerraSAR-X images.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired less than two or three months after the cut. The radar signal decreases about 5dB for images acquired some days after the cut and 3 dB for data acquired two month after the cut (VV-37°). The difference in radar signal becomes negligible (<1 dB) between harvested fields and mature canes for sugarcane harvested since three months or more. PMID:22163387

Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Rémi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

2010-01-01

284

Contact pheromone components and diel periodicity of sexual communication in peach twig borers, anarsia lineatella (lepidoptera: gelechiidae).  

E-print Network

??Sexual communication of the peach twig borer moth, Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), was re-investigated. In a field-trapping experiment, females were more attractive to foraging… (more)

Schlamp, Kristine Kim

2005-01-01

285

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel borer design for application to single entry coal mine development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A health and safety analysis of a single entry coal tunnel borer system is given. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rule, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagen and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-01-01

286

Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.  

PubMed

Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice. PMID:19811767

Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

2010-01-01

287

Genetic structure and gene flow among European corn borer populations from the Great Plains to the Appalachians of North America  

EPA Science Inventory

Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...

288

75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and spread...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and...

2010-08-03

289

Bamboo shoots: a novel source of nutrition and medicine.  

PubMed

Bamboos, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae, are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource. Various edible species and exotic food products (fermented shoots, pickle, etc.) and recipes of bamboo shoots (bamboo beer, bamboo cookies) are consumed worldwide. Change in nutritional composition of different species of bamboo shoots with processing has also been reviewed. Bamboo shoots possess high protein, moderate fiber, and less fat content. They are also endowed for having essential amino acids, selenium, a potent antioxidant, and potassium, a healthy heart mineral. Occurrence of taxiphyllin, a cyanogenic glycoside in raw shoots, and its side effect on human health calls for the demand to innovate processing ways using scientific input to eliminate the toxic compound without disturbing the nutrient reserve. Lastly, the paper also reviews the utilization of medicinal properties acquired by bamboo shoot. Using the traditional knowledge, pharmaceutical preparations of bamboo shoots like bamboo salt, bamboo vinegar, bamboo extracts for diabetes and cholesterol control, etc. are now gaining importance. Further investigation is required by the researchers to make novel nutraceutical products and benefit the society. PMID:23391018

Singhal, Poonam; Bal, Lalit Mohan; Satya, Santosh; Sudhakar, P; Naik, S N

2013-01-01

290

Comparative mapping in the Poaceae family reveals translocations in the complex polyploid genome of sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of sugarcane genetics has lagged behind that of other members of the Poaceae family such as wheat, rice, barley and sorghum mainly due to the complexity, size and polyploidization of the genome. We have used the genetic map of a sugarcane cultivar to generate a consensus genetic map to increase genome coverage for comparison to the sorghum genome. We have utilized the recently developed sugarcane DArT array to increase the marker density within the genetic map. The sequence of these DArT markers plus SNP and EST-SSR markers was then used to form a bridge to the sorghum genomic sequence by BLAST alignment to start to unravel the complex genomic architecture of sugarcane. Results Comparative mapping revealed that certain sugarcane chromosomes show greater levels of synteny to sorghum than others. On a macrosyntenic level a good collinearity was observed between sugarcane and sorghum for 4 of the 8 homology groups (HGs). These 4 HGs were syntenic to four sorghum chromosomes with from 98% to 100% of these chromosomes covered by these linked markers. Four major chromosome rearrangements were identified between the other four sugarcane HGs and sorghum, two of which were condensations of chromosomes reducing the basic chromosome number of sugarcane from x?=?10 to x?=?8. This macro level of synteny was transferred to other members within the Poaceae family such as maize to uncover the important evolutionary relationships that exist between sugarcane and these species. Conclusions Comparative mapping of sugarcane to the sorghum genome has revealed new information on the genome structure of sugarcane which will help guide identification of important genes for use in sugarcane breeding. Furthermore of the four major chromosome rearrangements identified in this study, three were common to maize providing some evidence that chromosome reduction from a common paleo-ancestor of both maize and sugarcane was driven by the same translocation events seen in both species. PMID:25059596

2014-01-01

291

Optimizing hydrothermal pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using response surface methodology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane bagasse was characterized as a feedstock for production of ethanol using hydrothermal pretreatment. Reaction temperature and time were varied between 160-200 deg C and 5-20 min, respectively, using a response surface experimental design. The liquid fraction was analyzed for soluble carbohy...

292

HEALTHY CROP AND HEALTHY GROUNDWATER - SUGARCANE IN THE BURDEKIN DELTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Burdekin delta good soils, favourable climate and plentiful water combine to produce some of the highest yielding sugarcane in Australia. The freshwater aquifer system, which underlies the delta, is a major contributor to the prosperity of the region and its maintenance has been the responsibility of the Burdekin Water Boards since the mid-1960's. In the face of rising

Philip Charlesworth; Chris Chinn; Keith Bristow; Gary Ham

293

Identification of sources of resistance to sugarcane red rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, adversely affects sugarcane stand establishment in Louisiana by rotting planted stalks. Since cultivar resistance is the most effective control method, a study was conducted to identify sources of resistance to red rot and evaluate variability within Sacc...

294

50 years of sugarcane germplasm enhancement - roadblocks, hurdles, and success  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1959, a sugarcane germplasm enhancement program was initiated in Houma Louisiana, USA. This program was intended to develop parental material with an expanded genetic base for the commercial breeding program. What has come to be known as the “basic breeding program” is a long-term undertaking ...

295

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

2011-01-01

296

EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZA ON THE NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SUGARCANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi commonly infect plant roots, forming beneficial symbiotic relationships. The primary benefits of VAM plants are the enhanced acquisition and recycling of nutrients, particularly P, as well as soil moisture. This study compared the relationship between soil and leaf chemical elements of sugarcane variety N12 with low and high % mycorrhization (%myc). Seventy-one soil and leaf

S F JAMAL; P CADET; R S RUTHERFORD; C J STRAKER

297

The application of precision agriculture technologies to sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The availability of global positioning systems (GPS) has made it possible to abandon traditional ways of managing sugarcane fields as whole units in favor of approaches that address within-field variability. A series of experiments was initiated to determine if soil electrical conductivity (EC) map...

298

Sugarcane Stemborers and their parasites in southern Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 40,000 stemborer larvae, pupae, and parasite cocoons were collected during 1982-1995 from commercial sugarcane fields and allowed to complete development under laboratory conditions. Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F) comprised 92.4% (36,897/39,945) and 5.2% (2,057/...

299

Screening for Brown Rust Resistance in Sugarcane by Whorl Inoculation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is an agronomically important disease of sugarcane in Florida. Cultivar resistance is the best means of managing the disease. Unfortunately, natural infection is not always efficient in determining resistant cultivars and a more reliable screening method...

300

Impact of sugarcane diseases on yield and control practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane diseases reduce yields and cause the withdrawal of cultivars from production. Three diseases, ratoon stunt, yellow leaf and smut are discussed to demonstrate methods of spread and control practices required. Ratoon stunt, caused by the bacterial pathogen, Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli, is im...

301

Acoustic detection of Melolonthine larvae in Australian sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decision support systems have been developed for risk analysis and control of root-feeding white grub pests in Queensland sugarcane, based partly on manual inspection of cane soil samples. Acoustic technology was considered as a potential alternative to this laborious procedure. Field surveys were...

302

Sugarcane Response to High Water Tables and Intermittent Flooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) production has engendered environmental concerns of nutrient transfer to neighboring ecosystems and subsidence of organic soils on which the crop is often grown. These environmental issues might be ameliorated if water was retained on the fields to minimize nutrient trans...

303

Cover crop options and pros and cons in Louisiana sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivation of sugarcane in Louisiana usually involves planting seed and waiting 18 months before the harvest of the plant-cane crop. Additional stubble crops are harvested each year between Oct. and Jan. until the stubble is broken out to make the way for a new seed crop the following year. Typical...

304

The molecular path to in vitro shoot regeneration.  

PubMed

Plant regeneration through de novo shoot organogenesis in tissue culture is a critical step in most plant transformation and micropropagation procedures. Establishing an efficient regeneration protocol is an empirical process and requires optimization of multiple factors that influence the regeneration capacity. Here, we review the molecular process of shoot induction in a two-step regeneration protocol and focus on the role of auxins and cytokinins. First, during incubation on an auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM), organogenic callus is produced that exhibits characteristics of a root meristem. Subsequent incubation on a cytokinin-rich shoot induction medium (SIM) induces root to shoot conversion. Through a detailed analysis of the different aspects of shoot regeneration, we try to reveal hinge points and novel candidate genes that may be targeted to increase shoot regeneration capacity in order to improve transformation protocols. PMID:24355763

Motte, Hans; Vereecke, Danny; Geelen, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan

2014-01-01

305

Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term.

Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

2014-10-01

306

Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought  

PubMed Central

Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term. PMID:25351427

Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

2014-01-01

307

Abietic and dehydroabietic acid derivatives from needle-free shoots of shoots of Pinus sylvestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl ethers of hydroxy and keto derivatives of abietic and dehydroabietic acids — 12a-hydroxy- and 12-ketoabietic and 12-hydroxy-, 15-hydroxy-, and 17-ketodehydroabietic acids — have been isolated from an extract of needle-free shoots of the Scotch pine and have been identified in the form of methyl esters.

V. I. Roshchin; L. A. Kolodynskaya; V. A. Raldugin; V. A. Pentegova

1985-01-01

308

Media and Control of Violence: Communication in School Shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines school shootings to explore the role that communication processes play in the dynamics related to the\\u000a control of violence. We argue that much of what we observe in regard to school shootings is a mass-media phenomenon. Many\\u000a such acts of violence carry expressive, communicative connotations, and thus school shootings should be understood as discursive\\u000a processes. We present

Glenn W. Muschert; Massimo Ragnedda

309

In vitro shoot regeneration from olive cultivar tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petioles, leaf discs and midribs of several olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars, collected from potted greenhouse plants, field-grown and in vitro shoots, were used to test their morphogenic capacity. Adventitious shoots were induced only in petioles from in vitro-grown shoots of cultivars Moraiolo, Dolce Agogia and Halkidikis, grown on Olive Medium (OM) plus 18 µM zeatin within 4 to 5

Massimo Mencuccini; Eddo Rugini

1993-01-01

310

Phytochrome coordinates Arabidopsis shoot and root development.  

PubMed

The phytochrome family of photoreceptors are potent regulators of plant development, affecting a broad range of responses throughout the plant life cycle, including hypocotyl elongation, leaf expansion and apical dominance. The plant hormone auxin has previously been linked to these phytochrome-mediated responses; however, these studies have not identified the molecular mechanisms that underpin such extensive phytochrome and auxin cross-talk. In this paper, we show that phytochrome regulates the emergence of lateral roots, at least partly by manipulating auxin distribution within the seedling. Thus, shoot-localized phytochrome is able to act over long distances, through manipulation of auxin, to regulate root development. This work reveals an important role for phytochrome as a coordinator of shoot and root development, and provides insights into how phytochrome is able to exert such a powerful effect on growth and development. This new link between phytochrome and auxin may go some way to explain the extensive overlap in responses mediated by these two developmental regulators. PMID:17419844

Salisbury, Frances J; Hall, Anthony; Grierson, Claire S; Halliday, Karen J

2007-05-01

311

Effect of Nitrogen on Rhizobacteria Associated with Wheat Shoot Productivity.  

E-print Network

??The effect of nitrogen fertilizer on rhizobacteria associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum) shoot productivity was determined by using pyrosequencing technique. Easpur Loam soils was treated… (more)

Elghair, Samia Ahmed Ali

2012-01-01

312

Micropropagation of Withania somnifera from germinating seeds and shoot tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot multiplication was achieved in vitro from shoot tips of aseptically germinated seedlings of Withania somnifera L. using low concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA), viz. 2.2, 4.4 and 8.9 µM. Maximum number of shoots were obtained when 2.3 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 2.5 µM indolebutyric acid (IBA) was added to medium containing 4.4 µM BA during initiation of shoot multiplication,

Jayanti Sen; A. K. Sharma

1991-01-01

313

Promotion of sink activity of developing rose shoots by light.  

PubMed

Holding young rose shoots (Rosa hybrida cv. Marimba) in darkness while the rest of the plant was in light reduced the amount of (14)C assimilates recovered from the darkened shoot by half. Relative specific activity of the shoot tip grown in light was 13.5 times greater than that of the darkened one. The flower bud at the shoot tip degenerated in darkness and died. Shoots 2 to 3 centimeters long, after flower initiation, were most sensitive to the dark treatment. The degeneration is a gradual and reversible process in the first 8 days of darkness, followed by irreversible damage and atrophy. Darkening enhanced the ability of the young leaves to compete for the available assimilates over that of the darkened shoot tip. The enhancement of the mobilizing ability of the shoot tip by light is independent of photosynthesis since spraying with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or holding shoots in a CO(2)-free atmosphere did not diminish the promoting effect of light on flower bud development or assimilate import. The possibility that light exerts its effect by photoproduction of ATP was also excluded inasmuch as no differences were found in ATP levels of shoot tips held in darkness and those held in light. PMID:16661566

Mor, Y; Halevy, A H

1980-11-01

314

Augmentation and Aldicarb Treatment of Nematodes in Selected Sugarcane Weed Habitats  

PubMed Central

In a single experiment, field-grown Louisiana sugarcane was augmented with phytoparasitic nematodes, treated with aldicarb, or left untreated in both weedy and weed-free habitats to study interactions among nematodes, weeds, sugarcane, and sugarcane free amino acid titers. Aldicarb reduced three of the six phytoparasitic nematode genera at various times during the two growing seasons and was associated with 17% more free proline in the sugarcane. Nematode augmentation resulted in higher field populations of Meloidogyne spp. Free cysteine, histidine, proline, and serine concentrations in sugarcane were lower where nematodes were added. Densities of Tylenchorhynchus annulatus and total phytoparasitic nematodes were lower in weedy habitats compared to weed-free conditions. Sixteen of the 17 sugarcane free amino acids were significantly lower in weed-free areas. It is suggested that further research be conducted on the relationship of plant stresses to free amino acid levels to better understand plant-mediated interactions among crop pests. PMID:19283191

Showler, A. T.; Reagan, T. E.; Flynn, J. L.

1991-01-01

315

Engineering Advantages, Challenges and Status of Sugarcane and other Sugar-Based Biomass Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a highly productive tropical stem crop that has been cultivated for its high sugar content for hundreds of years.\\u000a In recent times, sugarcane has been the focus of several programs aiming at the production of fuel ethanol. Compared to starch-based\\u000a sources such as corn, production of ethanol from sugarcane has obvious advantages due to the amount

Ricardo A. Dante; Plinio T. Cristofoletti; Isabel R. Gerhardt

316

Shoot inversion-induced ethylene in Pharbitis nil induces the release of apical dominance by restricting shoot elongation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shoot inversion induces outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) adjacent to the bend in the stem in Pharbitis nil. In order to determine whether or not ethylene produced by shoot inversion plays a direct role in promoting or inhibiting bud outgrowth, comparisons were made of endogenous levels of ethylene in the HLB and HLB node of plants with and without inverted shoots. That no changes were found suggests that the control of apical dominance does not involve the direction action of ethylene. This conclusion is further supported by evidence that the direct application of ethylene inhibitors or ethrel to inactive or induced lateral buds has no significant effect on bud outgrowth. The hypothesis that ethylene evolved during shoot inversion indirectly promotes the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) in restricting terminal bud (TB) growth is found to be supported by the following observations: (1) the restriction of TB growth appears to occur before the beginning of HLB outgrowth; (2) the treatment of the inverted portion of the shoot with AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action, dramatically eliminates both the restriction of TB growth and the promotion of HLB outgrowth which usually accompany shoot inversion; and (3) the treatment of the upper shoot of an upright plant with ethrel mimics shoot inversion by retarding upper shoot growth and inducing outgrowth of the lateral bud basipetal to the treated region.

Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

1985-01-01

317

Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.  

PubMed

The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites. PMID:24498741

Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

2013-12-01

318

Monitoring and efficacy of selected insecticides for European corn borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hubn., Lepidoptera: Crambidae) control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (H?bner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the major arthropod pest of corn in Croatia. However, chemical control is carried out\\u000a only in maize for seed production, and in sweet corn. A 3-year investigation was carried out in corn fields in northwest Croatia\\u000a to establish the most attractive pheromone lure for ECB monitoring, the optimal timing

Renata Bažok; Jasminka Igrc Barèiæ; Tomislav Kos; Tanja Gotlin Èuljak; Martina Šiloviæ; Siniša Jelovèan; Antonela Kozina

2009-01-01

319

Differential Response in Foliar Chemistry of Three Ash Species to Emerald Ash Borer Adult Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses\\u000a of the three most common North American ash species (black, green, and white ash) in northeastern USA to

Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

2011-01-01

320

Distinguishing Defensive Characteristics in the Phloem of Ash Species Resistant and Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis\\u000a of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high

Don Cipollini; Qin Wang; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Jeff R. Powell; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms

2011-01-01

321

Identification of a coffee berry borer-associated yeast: does it break down caffeine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers ( Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)) and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Candida fermentati (Saito) Bai, based on sequencing of the nuclear large subunit 26S rDNA variable D1\\/D2 domain. Liquid culture experiments using P. burtonii in media containing different caffeine

Fernando E. Vega; Michael B. Blackburn; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Patrick F. Dowd

2003-01-01

322

Sex pheromone of the european corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

teans-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (96%) andcis-11-tetradecenyl acetate (4%) are pheromone components of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), from New York. This isomeric blend extracted from the female abdominal tips is very similar to the most attractive synthetic mixture in the field in New York. AnO. nubilalis strain from London, Ontario, was found to produce 97%cis-11-tetradecenyl acetate and 3%trans-11-tetradecenyl acetate.

J. Kochansky; R. T. Cardé; J. Liebherr; W. L. Roelofs

1975-01-01

323

Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

1984-04-01

324

Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. PMID:25477936

de Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

2014-01-01

325

Why does the bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata , attack long shoots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata, attacked longer shoot length classes on its host, Salix cinerea, more frequently than shorter shoots. Shoot length accounted for 76 to 93 percent of the variance in number of galls per 100 shoots in three habitats: forest, watermeadow, and lakeside. The reasons for this pattern were addressed with studies on shoot length in relation to:

P. W. Price; H. Roíninen; J. Tahvanainen

1987-01-01

326

Novel barriers to prevent dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) and rodent damage in apple plantings.  

PubMed

We evaluated a combination of noninsecticidal alternatives to control trunk-damaging dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), consisting of novel barrier technologies, used alone or in combination with mating disruption. Barrier formulations evaluated included fibrous barriers of nonwoven ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and nonfibrous barriers of rubberized paint (elastomer) used in building coatings. To examine efficacy of dogwood borer control in orchards, all barrier trials were replicated in field tests, both in combination with mating disruption and without it. Trunk inspections to determine whether mating disruption and barriers effectively reduced actual tree infestation showed pheromone disruption significantly reduced infestation compared with the untreated check, but was not as effective as trunk handgun sprays of chlorpyrifos. EVA trunk barriers were effective in preventing borer infestation compared with untreated trees. The elastomer did not differ from the check or the EVA treatment. There was no interaction between disruption and barrier treatments. Barrier field life and durability was assessed over 2 yr by comparing degradation over time due to weathering and other environmental effects including animal damage. The EVA persisted and remained more intact than the elastomer, but was in need of reapplication after 2 yr. Barriers were also screened for efficacy against voles in small-plot trials in nonorchard locations with known high vole pressure; they were tested either alone, combined with a repellent (thiram), or, in the case of the elastomer only, combined with an abrasive (sand). Only the EVA significantly lowered vole chewing damage relative to the untreated checks. PMID:25026680

Agnello, Arthur M; Kain, David P; Gardner, Jeffrey; Curtis, Paul D; Ashdown, Michael L; Hoffmann, Michael P

2014-06-01

327

Genetic control of shoot organ boundaries.  

PubMed

The initiation of plant lateral organs from the shoot meristem is associated with the formation of boundaries that separate the primordia from surrounding tissue. A distinctive set of cells is present along the boundary, and these 'boundary cells' display characteristic patterns of cell division, morphology and gene expression. A certain class of the NAC transcription factors is important for growth suppression at the boundary, and auxin and microRNAs participate in boundary formation by regulating NAC gene expression. Other factors regulate different aspects of boundary functions, such as the establishment of the border of different cell identities, the initiation of axillary meristems, or the proper development of organs and tissues in adjacent regions. PMID:16337829

Aida, Mitsuhiro; Tasaka, Masao

2006-02-01

328

Improving competitive ability of chickpea with sowthistle: roots or shoots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An experiment was conducted to examine the extent of root and canopy interference of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). Sowthistle was surrounded with either two or eight chickpea plants. There were different types of competition: no competition, shoot competition, root competition and full competition (root and shoot). The performance of sowthistle grown in full competition

S-Zahra-Hosseini Cici; Paul Kristiansen; Brian M Sindel

329

MODELING SHOOT EMERGENCE OF CANADA THISTLE BASED ON DAY DEGREES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the most serious weeds in northern temperate agricultural environments is Canada thistle. The timing of shoot emergence of weeds represents important information that enables managers to implement control operations at critical times. Shoot emergence from adventitious root buds of Canada this...

330

Axillary shoot bud development in selected Actinidia species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of shoot buds of 10 Actinidia species from inception at budbreak to full?size, dormant buds is described as an important prerequisite for understanding vine physiology. Bud diameter was measured, leaf initials, and axillary structures were identified and counted with a dissecting microscope. Areas of the subtending leaves were measured. Both shoot bud size and leaf area decreased from the

Angela M. Snowball

1997-01-01

331

Gene expression in arabidopsis shoot tips after liquid nitrogen exposure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...

332

Gene Expression patterns in cryogenically stored Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genes expressed in response to cryostress in plant shoot tips are not known. In this project we compared the gene expression patterns in untreated, cryoprotectant-treated, and recovering shoot tips using differential display methods. This project identified two genes that appeared to be differ...

333

Advanced Hunter Education and Shooting Sports Responsibility. Bulletin 555A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed as a compendium from which instructors can select materials and instructional aids for use in hunter education and shooting sports programs. Presented in the manual are 43 lessons and 34 laboratory activities that have been organized into units on the following topics: shooting sports responsibility, the learning process…

Benson, Delwin E.; Richardson, Rodd E.

334

Original article Photosynthesis and shoot water status of seedlings  

E-print Network

Original article Photosynthesis and shoot water status of seedlings from different oak species — Stress effects induced on shoot photosynthesis and leaf water status by root hypoxia due. Predawn leaf water potential remained high in all cases, in- dicating that reductions in photosynthesis

Boyer, Edmond

335

Micropropagation of kiwifruit using non-axenic shoot tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) shoot tips were subjected to a standard surface sterilization procedure and cultured on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium in the presence of two surviving bacterial contaminants. The fresh weight increase of the cultures and the number of shoots produced were greater in liquid medium than in medium solidified with 0.4 or 0.8% agar. A greater

Paul L. Monette

1986-01-01

336

Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

337

Effects of shoot pruning on carbon partitioning in poplar trees  

SciTech Connect

The effects of removal of all but the largest shoot on shoot growth, gas exchange (P/sub N/) and /sup 14/C- partitioning were determined on trees previously decapitated. Pruned trees had higher shoot and leaf relative growth rates, a higher rate of P/sub N/ but a lower turnover of carbohydrates, particularly sucrose. They also exported less carbohydrates but translocation was basipetal to the roots. Unpruned multi-stemmed plants showed a higher rate of turnover of carbohydrates which accumulated acropetally. The downward movement and accumulation of newly fixed carbon was correlated with the release of apical dominance on the lower stem of pruned trees resulting in a high specific activity in the new sprouts compared with the low translocation of carbon to the smaller shoots of multi-shoot trees. These results will be discussed in terms of carbon partitioning and source-sink relationships.

Tschaplinski, T.J.; Blake, T.J.

1986-04-01

338

Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms  

PubMed Central

Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

MacLeish, Kenneth T.

2015-01-01

339

Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of american firearms.  

PubMed

Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

2015-02-01

340

Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer.  

PubMed

Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and beta-glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were placed under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter, the CaMV35S promoter, and the Brassica Bp10 gene promoter to achieve high and tissue-specific expression of the lepidopteran-specific delta-endotoxins. The integration, expression, and inheritance of these genes were demonstrated in R0 and R1 generations by Southern, Northern, and Western analyses and by other techniques. Accumulation of high levels (up to 3% of soluble proteins) of CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) proteins was detected in R0 plants. Bioassays with R1 transgenic plants indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to two major rice insect pests, striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) and yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with mortalities of 97-100% within 5 days after infestation, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in transgenic rice plants. PMID:9501164

Cheng, X; Sardana, R; Kaplan, H; Altosaar, I

1998-03-17

341

Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants expressing synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes are highly toxic to striped stem borer and yellow stem borer  

PubMed Central

Over 2,600 transgenic rice plants in nine strains were regenerated from >500 independently selected hygromycin-resistant calli after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The plants were transformed with fully modified (plant codon optimized) versions of two synthetic cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) coding sequences from Bacillus thuringiensis as well as the hph and gus genes, coding for hygromycin phosphotransferase and ?-glucuronidase, respectively. These sequences were placed under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter, the CaMV35S promoter, and the Brassica Bp10 gene promoter to achieve high and tissue-specific expression of the lepidopteran-specific ?-endotoxins. The integration, expression, and inheritance of these genes were demonstrated in R0 and R1 generations by Southern, Northern, and Western analyses and by other techniques. Accumulation of high levels (up to 3% of soluble proteins) of CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) proteins was detected in R0 plants. Bioassays with R1 transgenic plants indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to two major rice insect pests, striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) and yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), with mortalities of 97–100% within 5 days after infestation, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in transgenic rice plants. PMID:9501164

Cheng, Xiongying; Sardana, Ravinder; Kaplan, Harvey; Altosaar, Illimar

1998-01-01

342

Silencing of Molt-Regulating Transcription Factor Gene, CiHR3, Affects Growth and Development of Sugarcane Stem Borer, Chilo infuscatellus  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus. PMID:23427912

Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

2012-01-01

343

Silencing of molt-regulating transcription factor gene, CiHR3, affects growth and development of sugarcane stem borer, Chilo infuscatellus.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus. PMID:23427912

Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

2012-01-01

344

Inorganic nitrogen requirements during shoot organogenesis in tobacco leaf discs.  

PubMed

The role of nitrate, ammonium, and culture medium pH on shoot organogenesis in Nicotiana tabacum zz100 leaf discs was examined. The nitrogen composition of a basal liquid shoot induction medium (SIM) containing 39.4 mM and 20.6 mM was altered whilst maintaining the overall ionic balance with Na(+) and Cl(-) ions. Omission of total nitrogen and nitrate, but not ammonium, from SIM prevented the initiation and formation of shoots. When nitrate was used as the sole source of nitrogen, a high frequency of explants initiated and produced leafy shoots. However, the numbers of shoots produced were significantly fewer than the control SIM. Buffering nitrate-only media with the organic acid 2[N-morpholino]ethanesulphonic acid (MES) could not compensate for the omission of ammonium. Ammonium used as the sole source of nitrogen appeared to have a negative effect on explant growth and morphogenesis, with a significant lowering of media pH. Buffering ammonium-only media with MES stabilized pH and allowed a low frequency of explants to initiate shoot meristems. However, no further differentiation into leafy shoots was observed. The amount of available nitrogen appears to be less important than the ratio between nitrate and ammonium. Shoot formation was achieved with a wide range of ratios, but media containing 40 mM nitrate and 20 mM ammonium (70:30) produced the greatest number of shoots per explant. Results from this study indicate a synergistic effect between ammonium and nitrate on shoot organogenesis independent of culture medium pH. PMID:12021291

Ramage, Carl M; Williams, Richard R

2002-06-01

345

Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

2011-10-01

346

Surface Water Quality as Affected by Sugarcane Residue Management Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the impacts of three sugarcane residue management techniques, namely postharvest burning of residue (BR),\\u000a shredding of residue (SR), and full postharvest retention of residue (RR), on the water quality of surface runoff from February\\u000a 2006 to September 2007 in Iberia, LA. Total runoff volumes recorded were 58,418, 57,923, and 46,578 L for the BR, SR, and\\u000a RR treatments,

Theophilus K. Udeigwe; Jim J. Wang; Howard P. Viator; Lewis Gaston

2010-01-01

347

?-Carotene production in sugarcane molasses by a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Several wild strains and mutants of Rhodotorula spp. were screened for growth, carotenoid production and the proportion of -carotene produced in sugarcane molasses. A better\\u000a producer, Rhodotorula glutinis mutant 32, was optimized for carotenoid production with respect to total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration and pH. In shake\\u000a flasks, when molasses was used as the sole nutrient medium with 40 g

P Bhosale; R V Gadre

2001-01-01

348

Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil.\\u000a The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm3 engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes\\u000a agricultural and

Aldo Roberto Ometto; Michael Zwicky Hauschild; Woodrow Nelson Lopes Roma

2009-01-01

349

Plasma membrane targeted PIN proteins regulate shoot development in a moss  

E-print Network

response of etiolated gametophores. Whilst control shoots were kept in the dark and maintained their previous growth vectors (vertical arrows), wild-type shoots re-oriented towards the light source (arrowhead). pinA pinB mutant shoots showed no obvious... effect of auxin was revealed in Class V shoots, which lost apical cell function. Shoots terminated with irregularly shaped cells, or rhizoids, consistent with previous reports[47, 49] (Figure 1b). These data suggest that accumulation of auxin in shoots...

Bennett, Tom A.; Liu, Maureen M.; Aoyama, Nicole M.; Braun, Marion; Coudert, Yoan; Dennis, Ross J.; O'Connor, Devin; Wang, Xiao Y.; White, Chris D.; Decker, Eva L.; Reski, Ralf; Harrison, C. Jill

2014-01-01

350

Phylogeographical structure in mitochondrial DNA of eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in South and Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Abstract Leucinodes orbonalis is the most detrimental South and Southeast Asian insect pest of eggplant. To help reduce the impact of this pest, population genetic diversity and structure of L. orbonalis were examined in eight populations from six countries using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I DNA sequences. No correlation between genetic diversity and geographic distance was detected among populations. Low levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversities were observed in the Philippines population, suggesting recent colonization. No significant gene flow was found among local populations in different countries. The Vietnam population is highly differentiated, indicated by significant pairwise FST values, and may be ascribed to a new subspecies or race. India was confirmed to be the source of genetic variation in L. orbonalis populations. Our study showed that L. orbonalis formed subpopulations for each local region, and the corresponding pest management technology should be developed at the country scale. PMID:24491107

Chang, Jian-Cheng; Ponnath, Daniel W; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

2014-02-01

351

Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of ?-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

2013-03-01

352

Expression Analysis of Sugarcane Aquaporin Genes under Water Deficit  

PubMed Central

The present work is a pioneer study specifically addressing the aquaporin transcripts in sugarcane transcriptomes. Representatives of the four aquaporin subfamilies (PIP, TIP, SIP, and NIP), already described for higher plants, were identified. Forty-two distinct aquaporin isoforms were expressed in four HT-SuperSAGE libraries from sugarcane roots of drought-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, respectively. At least 10 different potential aquaporin isoform targets and their respective unitags were considered to be promising for future studies and especially for the development of molecular markers for plant breeding. From those 10 isoforms, four (SoPIP2-4, SoPIP2-6, OsPIP2-4, and SsPIP1-1) showed distinct responses towards drought, with divergent expressions between the bulks from tolerant and sensitive genotypes, when they were compared under normal and stress conditions. Two targets (SsPIP1-1 and SoPIP1-3/PIP1-4) were selected for validation via RT-qPCR and their expression patterns as detected by HT-SuperSAGE were confirmed. The employed validation strategy revealed that different genotypes share the same tolerant or sensitive phenotype, respectively, but may use different routes for stress acclimation, indicating the aquaporin transcription in sugarcane to be potentially genotype-specific. PMID:24490055

da Silva, Manassés Daniel; Silva, Roberta Lane de Oliveira; Costa Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar; Guimarães, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Veiga, Daniela Truffi; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Burnquist, William Lee; Kahl, Günter; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

2013-01-01

353

Imaging spectroscopy for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopy can provide real-time high throughput information on growing crops. The spectroscopic data can be obtained from space-borne, air-borne and handheld sensors. Such data have been used for assessing the nutritional status of some field crops (maize, rice, barely, potato etc.). In this study a handheld FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer in the 350 - 2500 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum was evaluated for its use to estimate sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentrations. Sugarcane leaf samples from one variety viz., N19 of two age groups (4-5 and 6-7 months) were subjected to spectral and chemical measurements. Leaf reflectance data were collected under controlled conditions and leaf nitrogen concentration was obtained using an automated combustion technique (Leco TruSpec N). The potential of spectroscopic data for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen status was evaluated using univariate correlation and regression analyses methods with the first-order reflectance across the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm. The variables that presented high correlation with nitrogen concentration were used to develop simple indices combining reflectances of 2-wavelengths. Simple linear regression was then used to select a model that yielded the highest R2. These were the R744 / R2142 index for the 4-5 months old cane crop and the (R2200 - R2025) / (R2200 + R2025) index for the 6-7 months old cane crop, with R2 of 0.74 and 0.87, respectively.

Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Ahmed, Fethi B.; van den Berg, Maurits

2008-10-01

354

Phenocritical times in the process of in vitro shoot organogenesis.  

PubMed

Shoot organogenesis occurs when leaf explants of Convolvulus arvensis are cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts, sucrose, vitamins, and 0.05 mg/liter IAA with 7.0 mg/liter 2-isopentenyl adenine. Under the influence of this shoot inducing medium (SIM), the explants become competent for the organogenic effects of SIM and eventually become determined for shoot formation. The induction process includes five separate transient sensitivities to inhibitors. Such stage-specific inhibitions reflect phenocritical times in development rather than general metabolic toxicities. The phenocopying agents are tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA), sorbitol, ribose, ammonium ion, and acetylsalicylic acid. The process of in vitro shoot organogenesis from leaf explants is now seen to include a series of discrete steps which precede morphological differentiation. An initial dedifferentiation process results in the formation of competent callus tissue along the cut edges of the explant. Under the influence of the phytohormone balance in SIM, shoot organogenic induction proceeds. This process involves a time which is sensitive to inhibition by salicylates followed by a time sensitive to TIBA which is followed in turn by a time sensitive to sorbitol and culminates in cells or groups of cells determined for shoot formation. This process also includes a time sensitive to inhibition by ribose, although its place in the order of events is not yet firmly assigned. There is also a sensitivity to ammonium ion (or lack of nitrate) at or near the time the explant becomes determined for shoot production. PMID:6420215

Christianson, M L; Warnick, D A

1984-02-01

355

Optoelectronic measures in the analysis of running target shooting.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the construct validity and practical significance of an optoelectronic shooting training system (Noptel ST 2000 Sport) for the technical analysis of running target shooting. A total of 37 male shooters of three different skill levels participated in the study. Principal component analysis revealed four common factors of 16 variables describing the aiming trajectory of the rifle barrel: (i) Holding area, (ii) Accuracy of aiming, (iii) Cleanness of triggering and (iv) Time on target. These factors were suggested to describe the essential components of running target shooting. According to the discriminant analysis, the shooters of various skill levels seemed to discriminate successfully into three groups when the aiming trajectory data were analysed. Finally, the aiming trajectory variables represented a 43% of the total variance in the shooting score. In summary, the present data indicated that the optoelectronic shooting training system had practical significance and supported the technical analysis of rifle barrel movement in running target shooting. A sub-set of variables, which reflect the essential information of running target shooting performance, were outlined for training and coaching purposes. PMID:12753494

Mononen, K; Viitasalo, J T; Era, P; Konttinen, N

2003-06-01

356

Impact of pathogen genetics on breeding for resistance to sugarcane diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases are limiting factors of sugarcane production and breeding for resistance to diseases is a major goal in sugarcane variety improvement. Diseases result from complex interactions between plants, pathogens and environment, including humans and insect vectors of pathogens. History has shown tha...

357

Genetic variability among the brown rust resistant and susceptible genotypes of sugarcane by RAPD technique  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Brown leaf rust in sugarcane is caused by Puccinia melanocephala (Syd. & P. Syd.), which is major cause of cultivar withdrawal. We attempted to analyze the RAPD diversity of two discrete phenotypic classes i.e. rust resistant (R) and rust susceptible (S) of six commercially available sugarcane elite...

358

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spiritsB  

E-print Network

Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar. Keywords: Coffee; Sugar-cane spirit; Chemometrics; Pattern recognition 1. Introduction Globalization has

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

359

Postharvest accumulation of resveratrol and piceatannol in sugarcane with enhanced antioxidant activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new plant source, sugarcane, was used to produce the stilbenes piceatannol and resveratrol. Both stilbenes were identified in sugarcane billet stalks (12 mm) after incubation at room temperature for 3 days. Low concentrations of piceatannol (30.6 ug/g) and resveratrol (12.3 ug/g) were detected a...

360

Sugarcane Response to Nitrogen Fertilization on a Histosol with shallow Water Table and Periodic Flooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables on Histosols in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida. Through microbial oxidation, these soils provide excess N for sugarcane, but it is not known if supplemental N would improve yields when micr...

361

MOLECULAR ASSESSMENT OF THE FIDELITY OF SUGARCANE CROSSES WITH HIGH-THROUGHPUT MICROSATELLITE GENOTYPING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the recent advent of high-throughput microsatellite genotyping in sugarcane, breeders now have an effective means to assess the fidelity of sugarcane crosses. Cross fidelity was defined as the proportion of progeny within each cross that inherited microsatellite DNA fingerprints from both pare...

362

Silicon Fertilizer Effects on Electrolyte Leakage from Sugarcane Leaf Cells after Exposure to Freezing Temperatures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in subtropical regions often sustains damage from freezing temperatures. Some sugarcane growers have reported that commercial fields fertilized with silicon had less freeze damage than non-silicon fertilized fields. The purpose of this study was to determine if fertilizer silicon red...

363

Sugarcane response to mill mud, fertilizer, and soybean nutrient sources on a sandy soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving soil organic matter and soil fertility are important factors in the sustainability of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) production. A 3-year field trial was established in 2004 on a sandy soil in Florida to compare the effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on sugarcane production. Th...

364

Mycolytic effect of extracellular enzymes of antagonistic microbes to Colletotrichum falcatum , red rot pathogen of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of selected bacteria and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere and endosphere regions were tested for the production of chitinolytic enzymes and their involvement in the suppression of Colletotrichum falcatum, red rot pathogen of sugarcane. Among several strains tested for chitinolytic activity, 12 strains showed a clearing zone on chitin-amended agar medium. Among these, bacterial strains AFG2, AFG 4,

R. Viswanathan; A. Ramesh Sundar; S. Merina Premkumari

2003-01-01

365

A structured approach to target starch solubilization and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial a-amylases have been used for many years ...

366

Control of rhizome johnsongrass (sorghum halepense) in sugarcane with trifloxysulfuron and asulam  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johnsongrass, in its perennial form, is a difficult weed problem for sugarcane growers in Louisiana. Studies were conducted to determine the benefit, if any, of the addition of trifloxysulfuron to postemergence (POST) applications of asulam for the selective control of johnsongrass in sugarcane. A...

367

The Role of Sugarcane Breeding and Selection in the Development of Bioenergy Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for renewable transportation fuel as well as food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is geared to developing high biomass (sugar and ce...

368

Abstract: Seasonal Fiber Responses of Three Sugarcane Cultivars to Soil Type and Crop Cycle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: Fiber content is an important trait of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars. Sufficient fiber is needed to generate electricity for the sugarcane mill and refinery, but excessive fiber reduces sugar recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample coll...

369

Seasonal Fiber Content of Three Sugarcane Cultivars in Three Crop Cycles on Sand and Muck Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate seasonal estimates of fiber are needed to maximize profits whether producing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for sucrose or ethanol. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample date and crop cycle on fiber content of three sugarcane cultivars growing on sand and organic...

370

COMPARISON OF NUTRIENT SOURCES OF MINERAL SOIL NUTRITION IN FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving soil organic matter and soil fertility are important factors in the sustainability of sugarcane production on mineral soils. A trial was established in 2004 on a sandy Spodosol in Florida to compare the effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on soil fertility and sugarcane produ...

371

Obtaining polymeric composite membranes from lignocellulosic components of sugarcane bagasse for use in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, several research groups and industries are studying applications for the residues from agrobusiness, other than burning them. Thinking about a better use for the sugarcane bagasse, this study aims to obtain membranes of cellulose acetate composite with oxidized lignin, both isolated from sugarcane bagasse. Thus, we obtain a product with higher commercial value, from a natural fiber, which has

Simone Coelho Nakanishi; Adilson Roberto Gonçalves; George Rocha; Maria de Lourdes Ballinas; Guillermo Gonzalez

2011-01-01

372

The presence and implication of soluble, swollen, and insoluble starch at the sugarcane factory and refinery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch impurity concentrations in sugarcane are country dependent and in recent years there has been a general world-wide increase. This has occurred mostly because of one or a combination of the following: (i) increased mechanical processing of unburnt (green) sugarcane; (ii) varying environmental...

373

Sugarcane Nutrient Content, Growth and Yield Responses to a Three-Month Summer Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to soil subsidence, pumping restrictions, or tropical storms. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables and periodic flooding, there is a lack of information on...

374

Micropropagation of Paulownia fortuneii through in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.  

PubMed

Primary cultures were established with nodal segments from juvenile shoots of two- year-old Paulownia fortuneii trees from a clonal plantation in Andhra Pradesh. A medium containing half-strength MS salts + RAP (1 mg/L) + sucrose (2%) produced optimum bud break in nodal explants. The same basal medium with reduced hormone level (0.5 mg/L) supported maximum multiplication of secondary cultures of P. fortuneii (1:6 in 6 weeks). Specific treatments were tested to enhance this rate of multiplication. In one approach, five to six week old in vitro grown shoots were ratooned (cutting the main shoot at the bottom leaving one node). The stumps (ratooned basal node) produced 2 to 3 axillary shoots, which grew into 4 to 5 nodes by 3 weeks; thus, providing additional shoots from the same explant. This provided 30% additional shoots in 4 cycles. Secondly, reducing the light intensity to 1200 lux resulted in higher shoot elongation, i.e, formation of 8 nodes in 5 weeks with healthier shoots than the normal intensity of 3000 lux under which only 6 nodes were produced in 6 weeks. In vitro-grown shoots could be successfully rooted ex vitro in vermiculite + cocopeat mixture (1:1 v/v) under 90% humidity, transferred to soil in polybags for hardening in the green house for 2 weeks and shifted to shade net for further hardening. After one month, the plants could be successfully transplanted to field with 95% survival. Micropropagated plants showed an excellent growth in the field attaining a height of 1.5 m and a collar diameter of 2.8 cm in 3 months. PMID:12562025

Venkateswarlu, B; Mukhopadhyay, J; Sreenivasan, E; Kumar, V M

2001-06-01

375

Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

MAUSETH, JAMES D.

2006-01-01

376

Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future. PMID:18330134

Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

2008-02-01

377

Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

PubMed Central

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion. PMID:21949771

Whitehill, Justin G. A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L.; Herms, Daniel A.; Bonello, Pierluigi

2011-01-01

378

Effects of shoot inversion on stem structure in Pharbitis nil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of shoot inversion on stem structure over 72 hr were investigated in Pharbitis nil by analyzing cell number, cell length, and the cross sectional areas of cells, tissues, and regions. An increase in stem diameter can be attributed to an increase in both cell number and cross sectional area of pith (primarily) and vascular tissue (secondarily). Qualitative observations of cell wall thickness in the light microscope did not reveal any significant effects of shoot inversion on this parameter. The inhibition of shoot elongation was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell length in the pith. The results are generally consistent with an ethylene effect on cell dimensions, especially in the pith.

Prasad, T. K.; Sack, F. D.; Cline, M. G.

1988-01-01

379

Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana with altered shoot gravitropism  

SciTech Connect

A procedure has been developed and used to screen 40,000 m-2 seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana for strains with altered shoot gravitropism. Several strains have been identified for which shoot gravitropism is considerably more random than that of their wild-type parent (based on frequency distribution histograms of the gravitropic response to a 1 g stimulus). One such strain exhibits normal hypocotyl phototropism and normal root gravitropism. Thus, the gravitropism pathway in the shoot contains at least one mutable element which is not required for root gravitropism.

Bullen, B.L.; Poff, K.L.

1987-04-01

380

[Cloning and sequencing of ACC oxidase gene from sugarcane].  

PubMed

The plant hormone ethylene is not only responsible for the initiation of fruit ripening, senescence and dormancy but also for regulating many other plant developmental processes, such as seed germination, root initiation, growth, floral differentiation, sex differentiation and responding to environment stresses. One of the rate-limiting steps for ethylene biosynthesizing in plant is catalyzed by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase. Understanding of ethylene expressive pattern in plant is an entrance to understand the roles of ethylene on plant. In this paper, two degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed, coding for two conservative amino acid regions in ACC oxidase protein family, the sequences of the two primers were TAGAGCTCGATGC[TA]TG [CT]GA[GA]AA[AC]TGGGG and CGTCTAGAGCTTC[GA]AATCTTGGCTCCTT respectively. A PCR amplification was performed on sugarcane (Saccharum L. Hybrid cv. ROC16) DNA template, and produced a fragment of 940 bp. By using the program of BLAST on NCBI GenBank database, the sequence presented a very high match with the ACC oxidase genes from other plants, 63 searched out sequences were all ACC oxidase genes. After alignment on PCgene program, the identities of the cloned fragment with ACC oxidase genes from rice and bamboo were both reaching about 88%. So we can concluded that the cloned sequence was a member of ACC oxidase genes fragment from sugarcane. The sequence has been submitted to the GenBank database, the accession number is AF442821. According to the ACC oxidase protein family, a 'intron' of 103 bp was excluded and the sequence coded 279 amino acids, which spanned 88% of the putative whole sequence in length. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from this fragment and the ACC oxidase sequences of other plants retrieved from GenBank were carried out by using PCgene program. The putative amino acid sequence shared a homology of 86% with the ACC oxidases of bamboo and rice, 74.6% with banana, 70% with tomato and potato and 68% with melon and carnation, which showed that the homology of sugarcane ACC oxidase with monocot was higher than with dicot. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that ACC oxidase from sugarcane and ACC oxidases from rice clustered together firstly, and then came those from banana, ACC oxidases of dicot from potato, tomato, petunia, melon, Arabidopsis thaliana and carnation came subsequently. It indicated that sugarcane ACC oxidase had a closer phylogenetic affinities to the monocot ACC oxidase sequences than to the dicot ACC oxidases sequences. The clustering results of ACC oxidase molecules accorded with morphological classification system. PMID:12812078

Wang, Zi-Zhang; Li, Yang-Rui; Zhang, Shu-Zhen; Lin, Jun-Fang; Guo, Li-Qiong

2003-01-01

381

A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.  

PubMed

In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial ?-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with ?-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial ?-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of ?-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail. PMID:25053042

Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

2015-01-01

382

Effects of cytokinin types and their concentrations on shoot proliferation and hyperhydricity in in vitro pear cultivar shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was made to clarify the effects of cytokinin type and their concentrations on shoot proliferation and hyperhydricity in in vitro Pyrus pyrifolia N. (`Hosui' and `Kosui') shoots. The shoots were subcultured in a woody plant medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 3-indolyl-butyric acid, 3% (w\\/v) sorbitol, 0.8% (w\\/v) agar, and with cytokinins kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N9-phenylurea (CPPU), 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea

Masanori Kadota; Yoshiji Niimi

2003-01-01

383

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development  

SciTech Connect

The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-02-15

384

Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

2012-04-01

385

Host-plant-associated genetic differentiation in Northern French populations of the European corn borer.  

PubMed

The phytophagous insects that damage crops are often polyphagous, feeding on several types of crop and on weeds. The refuges constituted by noncrop host plants may be useful in managing the evolution in pest species of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic crops. However, the benefits of these refuges may be limited because host-plant diversity may drive genetic divergence and possibly even host-plant-mediated sympatric speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the main pest of maize in Europe and North America, where it was introduced early in the 20th century. It has a wide host range but feeds principally on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). O. nubilalis is found on mugwort only in the northern part of France, whereas it is found on maize throughout France. The extent of genetic variation at allozyme markers was investigated in populations collected from the two host plants over the entire geographical distribution of the European corn borer on mugwort in France. Allelic differentiation between pairs of populations and hierarchical analyses of pools of samples from each host plant indicate that the group of populations feeding on maize differed from the group of populations feeding on mugwort. Our results suggest (1) host-plant-related divergent selection at the genomic region surrounding the Mpi locus and (2) limited gene flow between the populations feeding on mugwort and those infesting maize fields. These data indicate that adults emerging from mugwort would not be useful for managing the evolution of resistance to the B. thuringiensis toxins in European corn borer populations. PMID:12634820

Martel, C; Réjasse, A; Rousset, F; Bethenod, M-T; Bourguet, D

2003-02-01

386

Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.  

PubMed

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345

Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-06-01

387

Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  

PubMed

In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

2002-01-01

388

Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of Gypsophila paniculata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventitious shoots were successfully regenerated from leaf explants of Gypsophila paniculata L. The efficiency of shoot regeneration for cv. Arbel was tested on 18 media based on Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing\\u000a different concentrations of thidiazuron or 6-benzylaminopurine in combination with naphthaleneacetic acid. Both explant age\\u000a and that of the cuttings used as leaf donors affected the regeneration efficiency.

A. Zuker; A. Ahroni; H. Shejtman; A. Vainstein

1997-01-01

389

Somatic embryogenesis from pea embryos and shoot apices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions were defined for plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in pea, using explants from immature zygotic embryos or from shoot apices. For the induction of somatic embryos, an auxin (picloram or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) was required. Embryogenic callus originated from embryonic axis tissue of immature embryos and from the axillary-bud region and the plumula of shoot apices. A clear effect of

Wilfried Kysely; Hans-Jörg Jacobsen

1990-01-01

390

Plant regeneration from shoot tips and callus of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Two methods of in vitro culture were employed to regenerate papaya plants. One involved regeneration of plants from callus\\u000a and the other, production of multiple plants from single shoot-tip explants. Callus was induced from stem sections of papaya\\u000a seedlings in a medium containing 1 mg per 1 NAA and 0.1 mg per 1 kinetin. The callus regenerated shoots and\\/or embryoids

Shi-Tao Yie; S. I. Liaw

1977-01-01

391

Laboratory rearing of the rice stalk borer, Chilo plejadellus (Zincken) and notes on its biology  

E-print Network

. deposited in a oluster& 5Xe==eggs ov~eiaD-'4a-a ~xmsr similar- to- Chat oX-soaXe5, , ?, , ;:, :, ~. , ' ?. ":;:. ?; 1 on a fish. mach oiuster usually oontatns less thea $0 eggs, The average number of eggs laid Der female is P00, " The eggs (of... ~deroiaa o ttsllroilles (L ) Bosh Riley (1882) reported that dipterous larvae were found hest~ 8 pupa of the rice stalk . borer, but Chey apparently served mox'e as scavengers rathex than parasites. ingram (1/27) stated, Chat the eggs of xioe stalk box...

Supharngkasen, Phaisal

2012-06-07

392

Shoot Growth and Mortality Patterns of Urtica dioica, a Clonal Forb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and mortality patterns of the clonal forb Urtica dioica were investigated at the level of the individual shoot in two growing seasons, 1991 and 1992, in a natural stand. Shoot height and diameter at ground level of each shoot tagged in spring were measured repeatedly five times during the growing season. Dry weights of these repeatedly measured shoots

Toshihiko Hara; Miroslav Šr?tek

1995-01-01

393

Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis from cryopreserved shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis were achieved from cryopreserved shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’. Shoot tips (1.5-2 mm) were excised from adventitious shoots that were regenerated from basal leaf segments. Precultured shoot tips were then treated with MS containing 0.4 M sucro...

394

Chilling response of ‘Granny Smith’ apple lateral buds inhibited by distal shoot tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) shoots were decapitated before or after chilling and then forced to budburst to determine the influence of distal inhibition (paradormancy) on the chilling response of lateral buds. Shoots were chilled and forced with the presence or absence of an inhibitory distal disbudded shoot piece. Endogenous cytokinins were determined from distal and proximal segments of shoots segmented before

Nigel C Cook; Dirk U Bellstedt

2001-01-01

395

Genetic evidence that the endodermis is essential for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Shoots of higher plants exhibit negative gravitropism. However, little is known about the mechanism or site of gravity perception in shoots. We have identified two loci that are essential for normal shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the shoot gravitropism mutants sgr1 and sgr7 are allelic to the radial pattern mutants, scr and shr, respectively. Characterization

Hidehiro Fukaki; Joanna Wysocka-Diller; Takehide Kato; Hisao Fujisawa; Philip N. Benfey; Masao Tasaka

1998-01-01

396

Abiotic Limits for Germination of Sugarcane Seed in Relation to Environmental Spread.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is a vegetatively propagated crop and hence the production of seed and its fate in the environment has not been studied. The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires a research effort to understand sugarcane reproductive biology. This study contributes to this understanding by defining the abiotic limits for sugarcane seed germination. Using seed from multiple genetic crosses, germination was measured under different light regimes (light and dark), temperatures (from 18 °C to 42 °C) and water potentials (from 0 MPa to -1 MPa); cardinal temperatures and base water potential of germination were estimated based on the rates of germination. We found that sugarcane seed could germinate over a broad range of temperatures (from 11 °C to 42 °C) with optima ranging from 27 °C to 36 °C depending on source of seed. Water potentials below -0.5 MPa halved the proportion of seed that germinated. By comparing these limits to the environmental conditions in areas where sugarcane grows and has the potential to produce seed, water, but not temperature, will be the main limiting factor for germination. This new information can be taken into account when evaluating any risk of weediness during the assessment of GM sugarcane. PMID:25485029

Pierre, J S; Rae, A L; Bonnett, G D

2014-01-01

397

Shoot organization genes regulate shoot apical meristem organization and the pattern of leaf primordium initiation in rice.  

PubMed

The mechanism regulating the pattern of leaf initiation was analyzed by using shoot organization (sho) mutants derived from three loci (SHO1, SHO2, and SHO3). In the early vegetative phase, sho mutants show an increased rate of leaf production with random phyllotaxy. The resulting leaves are malformed, threadlike, or short and narrow. Their shoot apical meristems are relatively low and wide, that is, flat shaped, although their shape and size are highly variable among plants of the same genotype. Statistical analysis reveals that the shape of the shoot meristem rather than its size is closely correlated with the variations of plastochron and phyllotaxy. Rapid and random leaf production in sho mutants is correlated with the frequent and disorganized cell divisions in the shoot meristem and with a reduction of expression domain of a rice homeobox gene, OSH1. These changes in the organization and behavior of the shoot apical meristems suggest that sho mutants have fewer indeterminate cells and more determinate cells than wild type, with many cells acting as leaf founder cells. Thus, the SHO genes have an important role in maintaining the proper organization of the shoot apical meristem, which is essential for the normal initiation pattern of leaf primordia. PMID:11090216

Itoh, J I; Kitano, H; Matsuoka, M; Nagato, Y

2000-11-01

398

Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.  

PubMed

Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3?years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217?mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns. PMID:21895946

Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2012-02-01

399

The European corn borer, a serious pest of sweet corn, can turn a plump-looking ear  

E-print Network

66 u e The European corn borer, a serious pest of sweet corn, can turn a plump-looking ear of corn into an unappetizing mess. Sure, pesticides exist to prevent such damage, but who wants pesticides in their corn? So that you do not have to choose between a glamorous- looking ear of corn with a scary history

Wang, Z. Jane

400

Applications and mechanisms of wax-based semiochemical dispenser technology for disruption of grape root borer mating  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, is an important pest of cultivated grapes in the Eastern United States from North Carolina to Florida. There are few effective registered insecticides for effective control of this pest and their efficacy is limited. Pheromone-based mating disruption i...

401

Sex Pheromone Production and Perception in European Corn Borer Moths is Determined by Both Autosomal and Sex-Linked Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as

Wendell Roelofs; Thomas Glover; Xian-Han Tang; Isabelle Sreng; Paul Robbins; Charles Eckenrode; Christer Lofstedt; Bill S. Hansson; Bengt O. Bengtsson

1987-01-01

402

COMPARISON OF PHENOTYPIC AND MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION FOR STALK STRENGTH AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. An insect pest of maize that increases stalk lodging by stalk tunneling is the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner). Rind penetrometer resistance ...

403

Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

2008-01-01

404

Microbial Diversity in the Midguts of Field and Lab-Reared Populations of the European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInsects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB) is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of

Eugeni Belda; Laia Pedrola; Juli Peretó; Juan F. Martínez-Blanch; Arnau Montagud; Emilio Navarro; Javier Urchueguía; Daniel Ramón; Andrés Moya; Manuel Porcar; Purification Lopez-Garcia

2011-01-01

405

A novel approach to biological control with entomopathogenic nematodes: Prophylactic control of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of stone fruits in North America. In this study, we compared the virulence of four entomopathogenic nematode species in the laboratory. The highest virulence was observed in Steinernema carpocapsae followed by the two heterorhabditids spec...

406

The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

407

Interactive Influence of Leaf Age, Light Intensity, and Girdling on Green Ash Foliar Chemistry and Emerald Ash Borer Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance\\u000a to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected

Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland

2009-01-01

408

Identification and antennal electrophysiology of ash bark volatiles for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biologically active bark volatiles from ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) might be used as tools in monitoring the presence of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. Two compounds have been identified from the volatile emissions from white ash bark. These two compounds were readily sen...

409

Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

410

From forest to plantation? Obscure papers reveal alternate host plants for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...

411

Karnyothrips flavipes, a previously unreported predatory thrips of the coffee berry borer: DNA-based gut content analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new predator of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, was found in the coffee growing area of Kisii in Western Kenya. Field observations, laboratory trials and gut content analysis using molecular tools have confirmed the role of the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Phlaeothrip...

412

Biological control of coffee berry borer: the role of DNA-based gut-content analysis in assessment of predation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee worldwide, causing an estimated $500 million in damage annually. Infestation rates from 50-90% have been reported, significantly impacting coffee yields. Adult female H. hampei bore into the berry and lay eggs whose la...

413

Combination treatments with diatomaceous earth and methoprene to control the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in stored rough rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major insect pest of stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural inert dust that can be used to control stored-grain beetles, however, R. dominica is more tolerant to DE compared to other beetle species. Mortality of ad...

414

PHENOTYPIC VS MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR STALK STRENGTH AND SECOND GENERATION EUROPEAN CORN BORER RESISTANCE IN MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize (Zea mays L.) stalk lodging is breakage of the stalk at or below the ear, which may result in loss of the ear at harvest. Stalk lodging is often intensified by the stalk tunneling action of the second-generation of the European corn borer (2-ECB) (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)). Rind penetrome...

415

Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot and Symptomless Infection in Kernels of Maize Genetically Engineered for European Corn Borer Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., and Showers, W. B. 1997. Reduced Fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize geneti- cally engineered for European corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87: 1071-1077. Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp- tomless Fusarium infection

G. P. Munkvold; R. L. Hellmich; W. B. Showers

1997-01-01

416

Genetic Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

al., 1997). Some of these difficulties could be addressed and resolved through genetic analysis facilitated by mo- The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is lecular genetic maps (Paterson et al., 1991). Information an important pest of temperate maize (Zea mays L.). Damage to the stalk could be minimized by breeding for resistant genotypes but from such analysis could

Andrea J. Cardinal; Michael Lee; Natalya Sharopova; Wendy L. Woodman-Clikeman; Mary J. Long

2001-01-01

417

Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the

Tol van R. W. H. M; Linden van der A; H. J. Swarts; J. H. Visser

2007-01-01

418

EXPLORATORY SURVEY FOR THE EMERALD ASH BORER, AGRILUS PLANIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: BUPRESTIDAE), AND ITS NATURAL ENEMIES IN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina then peeled off the bark in search of A. planipennis and associated natural enemies.

Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

419

DISPERSAL OF ADULT DIATRAEA GRANDIOSELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CORN BORER RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT IN BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS MAIZE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dispersal of the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, was examined by release and recapture of dye-marked adults and by capture of feral adults in and around 50 ha center pivot irrigated fields of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize. Pheromone and black light traps were used to capture...

420

Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

421

Maize stem borer colonization, establishment and crop damage levels in a maize-leucaena agroforestry system in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of resource concentration on the population of stem-borers of maize in the maize-leucaena agroforestry system was evaluated. The studies covered six cropping seasons from October 1992 to August 1995, and were conducted at Mtwapa and Amoyo in coastal and western Kenya, respectively. Treatments included monocropped and intercropped (maize, leucaena) plots, weeded and unweeded plots, mulched and unmulched plots,

Callistus K. P. O. Ogol; John R. Spence; Andrew Keddie

1999-01-01

422

Biorational versus conventional insecticides e Comparative field study for managing red spider mite and fruit borer on tomato  

E-print Network

and fruit borer on tomato Gadi V.P. Reddy a, * , Ross H. Miller b a Western Triangle Agricultural Research Available online Keywords: Pest management Tetranychus marianae Helicoverpa armigera Tomato a b s t r a c t Tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum L. (Solanaceae), is an important crop worldwide that is grown both

Miller, Ross H.

423

Taxonomy of Mexican landraces of maize, Zea mays, based on their resistance to European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance to the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), of thirty-seven indigenous landraces of Mexican maize was examined. The relationship of resistance and existing taxonomy of maize according to Wellhausen et al., (1952), was subjected to numerical analyses. Variables examined were: seedling DIM-BOA content, the extent of leaf feeding damage by early instar larvae both in the field and

L. M. Reid; J. T. Arnason; C. Nozzolillo; B. R. Baum

1990-01-01

424

Transcript analysis and comparative evaluation of shaker and slowmo gene homologues from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The movement and dispersal of larval Lepidoptera are factors that govern their survival and distribution within the natural landscape. Homologs of the Drosophila behavior-linked genes slowmo and shaker involved in larval locomotion were identified from the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (L...

425

Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

426

Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

427

Plant responses to hidden herbivores: European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) attack on maize induces both defense and susceptibility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Herbivore-induced plant defenses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems or roots. Early attempts to characterize maize responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) larv...

428

A Global View of Transcriptome Dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum Challenge in Sugarcane by RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and “ROC”22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In total, transcriptome sequencing of eight samples revealed gene annotations of 65,852 unigenes. Correlation analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after S. scitamineum infection, most differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways in both sugarcane genotypes were common, covering most biological activities. However, expression of resistance-associated genes in Yacheng05-179 (24–48 h) occurred earlier than those in “ROC”22 (48–120 h), and more transcript expressions were observed in the former, suggesting resistance specificity and early timing of these genes in non-affinity sugarcane and S. scitamineum interactions. Obtained unigenes were related to cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. From these data, functional annotations associated with resistance were obtained, including signal transduction mechanisms, energy production and conversion, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and defense mechanisms. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes are involved in plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, cell wall fortification pathway and other resistance-associated metabolic pathways. Disease inoculation experiments and the validation of in vitro antibacterial activity of the chitinase gene ScChi show that this sugarcane chitinase gene identified through RNA-Seq analysis is relevant to plant-pathogen interactions. In conclusion, expression data here represent the most comprehensive dataset available for sugarcane smut induced by S. scitamineum and will serve as a resource for finally unraveling the molecular mechanisms of sugarcane responses to S. scitamineum. PMID:25171065

Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

429

In vitro regeneration of Salvia nemorosa L. from shoot tips and leaf explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Shoot tips and leaves excised from in vitro shoot cultures of Salvia nemorosa were evaluated for their organogenic capacity under in vitro conditions. The best shoot proliferation from shoot tips was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with\\u000a 8.9 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 2.9 ?M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Leaf lamina and petiole explants formed shoots through organogenesis via

Ewa Ska?a; Halina Wysoki?ska

2004-01-01

430

Regeneration of Elaeagnus angustifolia from leaf segments of in vitro-derived shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot regeneration was achieved from in vitro-produced leaves of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Half-leaf explants from the terminal part of the shoot produced more shoots than explants from the basal part of the in vitro-derived shoots on agar-solidified WPM medium supplemented with 1 µM benzyladenine (BA). In liquid medium of the same formulation, compact shoots that did not elongate were formed

Athanasios S. Economou; Eleni M. Maloupa

1995-01-01

431

Effect of humidity on egg hatchability and reproductive biology of the bamboo borer (Dinoderus minutus Fabricius).  

PubMed

Wood products are highly exposed to infestation by powder post beetles. Dinoderus minutus (bamboo borer) is a wood boring beetle that seriously damage dried bamboo and finished bamboo products. Management of D. minutus using pesticides showed negative effects on environment despite being very costly. By understanding influence of natural climatic conditions on their reproductive behaviour, could help us to develop a cost effective and environmental friendly strategy to cope up with this problem. In the present study, reproductive parameters and egg development of the bamboo borer were determined at 20%, 40%, 56%, 75% and 85% r.h. levels at constant temperature of 30°?±?2°C with 8 L-16D photoregime. From the results, eclosion to first instar larva was recorded at all relative humidities tested. The lowest shortest percentage of hatchability was recorded at 20% and 85% relative humidity with a mean incubation period of 4.63?±?0.25 and 10.43?±?0.32 days, respectively. It was noted that pre-ovipositional period decreased from 14.20?±?0.49 to 7.20?±?0.31 days as relative humidity increased from 20% to 75% and slightly increased to 8.00?±?0.37 days at 85% relative humidity. We conclude that female beetles may have a particular hygropreference in oviposition as total egg production increased with increasing relative humidity. PMID:23419805

Norhisham, Ahmad R; Abood, Faizah; Rita, Muhamad; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman

2013-12-01

432

Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations. PMID:22251716

Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

2011-10-01

433

The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China  

PubMed Central

The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

2010-01-01

434

Interspecific variation in resistance of Asian, European, and North American birches (Betula spp.) to bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) is the key pest of birches (Betula spp.) in North America, several of which have been recommended for ornamental landscapes based on anecdotal reports of borer resistance that had not been confirmed experimentally. In a 20-yr common garden experiment initiated in 1979 in Ohio, North American birch species, including paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall), 'Whitespire' gray birch (Betula populifolia Marshall), and river birch (Betula nigra L.), were much more resistant to bronze birch borer than species indigenous to Europe and Asia, including European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), monarch birch (Betula maximowicziana Regel), and Szechuan white birch (Betula szechuanica Jansson). Within 8 yr of planting, every European white, downy, and Szechuan birch had been colonized and killed, although 100% of monarch birch had been colonized and 88% of these plants were killed after nine years. Conversely, 97% of river birch, 76% of paper birch, and 73% Whitespire gray birch were alive 20 yr after planting, and river birch showed no evidence of colonization. This pattern is consistent with biogeographic theory of plant defense: North American birch species that share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer were much more resistant than naïve hosts endemic to Europe and Asia, possibly by virtue of evolution of targeted defenses. This information suggests that if bronze birch borer were introduced to Europe or Asia, it could threaten its hosts there on a continental scale. This study also exposed limitations of anecdotal observation as evidence of host plant resistance. PMID:22251643

Nielsen, David G; Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

2011-06-01

435

PkMADS1 is a novel MADS box gene regulating adventitious shoot induction and vegetative shoot development in Paulownia kawakamii.  

PubMed

Direct regeneration of shoot buds in vitro is an important technique in plant genetic manipulation. We describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel MADS box cDNA (PkMADS1) from Paulownia kawakamii leaf explants undergoing adventitious shoot regeneration. mRNA gel blot analysis confirmed the expression of PkMADS1 in the shoot-forming cultures, but no signal was observed in the callus-forming cultures. PkMADS1 transcripts were also detected in shoot apices, but not in root apices, initial leaf explants or the flower. In situ hybridization revealed that its expression was restricted to developing shoot primordia in the excised leaf cultures, suggesting a role for this gene in adventitious shoot formation. Transgenic Paulownia plants over-expressing the PkMADS1 gene showed some changes in phenotype, such as axillary shoot formation. In the antisense transformants, shoots were stunted and had altered phyllotaxy, and, in some lines, the shoot apical meristem appeared to have been used up early during shoot development. Leaf explants from the antisense transgenic plants showed a tenfold decrease in shoot regeneration compared with explants from sense transformants or wild-type. Our results show that PkMADS1 is a regulator of shoot morphogenesis. PMID:11851917

Prakash, A Pavan; Kumar, Prakash P

2002-01-01

436

DISTRIBUTION OF AND ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE LARGER GRAIN BORER PROSTEPHANUS TRUNCATUS (HORN) (COLEOPTERA: BOSTRICHIDAE) AND THE MAIZE WEEVIL SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTSCHULSKY (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) IN MAIZE STORES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interspecific interactions between the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera Curculionidae) were studied during two storage seasons in maize stores, in Bénin. Maize ears, randomly sampled from far...

437

Laboratory studies of biology and life history of Balcha indica (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), an ectoparasitoid attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Classical biological control efforts against emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) in North America primarily have focused on introduction and releases of exotic parasitoid species collected from northern parts of China. Recently, field surveys in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio and ...

438

Tree-derived stimuli affecting host-selection response of larva and adult peach twig borers, Anarsia Lineatella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  

E-print Network

??Volatiles from ripening peach fruit reportedly mediate host-finding by adult peach twig borers, Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, moths were repelled by in-situ ripe peach… (more)

Sidney, Mark Christopher

2005-01-01

439

Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United St...

440

Ontogeny of the Maize Shoot Apical Meristem[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The maize (Zea mays) shoot apical meristem (SAM) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. Laser microdissection of apical domains from developing maize embryos and seedlings was combined with RNA sequencing for transcriptomic analyses of SAM ontogeny. Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. Transcriptomic profiling before and after SAM initiation indicates that organogenesis precedes stem cell maintenance in maize; analyses of the first three lateral organs elaborated from maize embryos provides insight into their homology and to the identity of the single maize cotyledon. Compared with the newly initiated SAM, the mature SAM is enriched for transcripts that function in transcriptional regulation, hormonal signaling, and transport. Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific (SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. This study provides insight into the molecular genetics of SAM initiation and function in maize. PMID:22911570

Takacs, Elizabeth M.; Li, Jie; Du, Chuanlong; Ponnala, Lalit; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Yu, Jianming; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Timmermans, Marja C.P.; Sun, Qi; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

2012-01-01

441

Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease  

PubMed Central

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

442

Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

2014-07-01

443

Mapping of QTL for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer attack using the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the\\u000a source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population\\u000a is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few

Bernardo Ordas; Rosa A. Malvar; Rogelio Santiago; German Sandoya; Maria C. Romay; Ana Butron

2009-01-01

444

Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis cryIA(c) gene in transgenic peanut plants and its efficacy against lesser cornstalk borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) pods and seeds by aflatoxin-forming species of Aspergillus is linked to injury by the lesser cornstalk borer and frequently causes a severe reduction in crop quality. The lesser cornstalk borer is susceptible to the lepidopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein. We have introduced a codon-modified Bacillus thuringiensis cryIA(c) gene into peanut using microprojectile

Chong Singsit; Michael J. Adang; Robert E. Lynch; William F. Anderson; Aiming Wang; Guy Cardineau; Peggy Ozias-Akins

1997-01-01

445

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses using newly isolated yeast from toddy sap.  

PubMed

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

Kishore Babu, Neerupudi; Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-03-01

446

Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap  

PubMed Central

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-01-01

447

In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.  

PubMed

Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation. PMID:16585042

Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

2006-07-01

448

Light signaling and the phytohormonal regulation of shoot growth.  

PubMed

Shoot growth of dicot plants is rigorously controlled by the interactions of environmental cues with several groups of phytohormones. The signaling effects of light on shoot growth are of special interest, as both light irradiance and light quality change rapidly throughout the day, causing profound changes in stem elongation and leaf area growth. Among the several dicot species examined, we have focused on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) because its shoots are robust and their growth is highly plastic. Sunflower shoots thus constitute an ideal tissue for assessing responses to both light irradiance and light quality signals. Herein, we discuss the possible roles of gibberellins, auxin, ethylene, cytokinins and brassinosteroids in mediating the stem elongation and leaf area growth that is induced by shade light. To do this we uncoupled the plant's responses to changes in the red to far-red [R/FR] light ratio from its responses to changes in irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation [PAR]. Reducing each of R/FR light ratio and PAR irradiance results in increased sunflower stem elongation. However, the plant's response for leaf area growth differs considerably, with a low R/FR ratio generally promoting leaf area growth, whereas low irradiance PAR inhibits it. The increased stem elongation that occurs in response to lowering R/FR ratio and PAR irradiance is accomplished at the expense of leaf area growth. In effect, the low PAR irradiance signal overrides the low R/FR ratio signal in shade light's control of leaf growth and development. Three hormone groups, gibberellins, auxin and ethylene are directly involved in regulating these light-mediated shoot growth changes. Gibberellins and auxin function as growth promoters, with auxin likely acting as an up-regulator of gibberellin biosynthesis. Ethylene functions as a growth-inhibitor and probably interacts with gibberellins in regulating both stem and leaf growth of the sunflower shoot. PMID:25443853

Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P

2014-12-01

449

Sugarcane Genetic Controls Involved in the Association with Beneficial Endophytic Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is an economically important culture in Brazil, being the world most important source of sugar and ethanol production.\\u000a Brazilian sugarcane culture is able to obtain large and significant contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated Biological\\u000a Nitrogen Fixation (BNF), reducing the use of nitrogen fertilizers and leading to an increase in energy balance of the culture.\\u000a Different populations of endophytic N2-fixing

Thais Louise Gurjão de Carvalho; Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes Ferreira; Adriana S. Hemerly

2011-01-01

450

An improved way to determine nitrogen fertiliser requirements of sugarcane crops to meet global environmental challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) fertiliser management is increasingly important in sugarcane production as imperatives to reduce environmental\\u000a impacts of N escalate. In this paper we report testing of a new concept for N management in sugarcane, the N Replacement system.\\u000a This system relies on soil N cycling to ‘buffer’ differences in crop N needs and N fertiliser supply to individual crops,\\u000a and

P. J. Thorburn; J. S. Biggs; A. J. Webster; I. M. Biggs

2011-01-01

451

Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G?+?C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred by existing and newly isolated promoters in sugarcane tissues. The strategies used to design the synthetic luciferase transgenes could be applied to other transgenes that are aggressively silenced in sugarcane. PMID:24708613

2014-01-01

452

Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.  

PubMed

Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel production in developing countries such as Brazil. Finally, we support the inclusion of environmental values in the price of biofuels in order to discourage excessive replacement of natural ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, and pasture by bioenergy crops. PMID:18536250

Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

2008-06-01

453

High fructose formation from sugarcane syrup and molasses using Zymomonas mobilis mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fructose recovery yields were obtained using sugarcane syrup and C-molasses (equal to blackstrap molasses) and a fructokinase negative mutant ofZymomonas mobilis. The fructose recovery was 95.7% with sugarcane syrup and 99.4% with 300 g\\/L C-molasses or mixtures of both. High fructose corn syrup of a 48\\/52 mixture of glucose and fructose gave only a 65–70% fructose recovery due to

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle

1991-01-01

454

A life table of Mogannia iwasakii (Homoptera: Cicadiidae) in sugarcane field of Okinawa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A preliminary life table of the sugarcane cicada,Mogannia iwasakii, which became a pest of sugarcane in Okinawa recently, was presented based on the results of field survey. Mortality rates\\u000a during egg and later nymphal stages were low but a remarkable reduction of the number of individuals in a cohort took place\\u000a at the 1st nymphal instar, mainly due to predation

Masaaki Nagamine; Rinko Teruya; Yosiaki Itô

1975-01-01

455

Combined application of NPK on yield quality of sugarcane applied through SSDI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of combined application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium\\u000a (K) on growth, yield quality and nutrient balance of sugarcane with subsurface drip irrigation by using the sugarcane variety\\u000a ROC89\\/1626 and adopting “3414” project design. It was observed that the appropriate rate of N, P2O5 and K2O increased the plant height, cane

Lin Xu; Hai-Rong Huang; Li-Tao Yang; Yang-Rui Li

2010-01-01

456

A model for the structural growth of young Scots pine crowns based on light interception by shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the structural growth of the crown of a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is described. Each shoot produces new shoots, whose number and length are linearly related to the length of the parent shoot. The length of parent shoots is computed from the amount of direct and diffuse radiation intercepted by the parent shoot during the previous

Seppo Kellomäki; Harri Strandman

1995-01-01

457

Seasonal Variation of the Canopy Structure Parameters and Its Correlation with Yield-Related Traits in Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Population structure determines sugarcane yield, of which canopy structure is a key component. To fully understand the relations between sugarcane yield and parameters of the canopy structure, 17 sugarcane varieties were investigated at five growth stages. The results indicated that there were significant differences between characterized parameters among sugarcane populations at different growth stages. During sugarcane growth after planting, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf distribution (LD) increased, while transmission coefficient for diffuse radiation (TD), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), and extinction coefficient (K) decreased. Significant negative correlations were found between sugarcane yield and MFIA, TD, TR, and K at the early elongation stage, while a significant positive correlation between sugarcane yield and LD was found at the same stage. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 10%, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = 2380.12 + 46.25 × LD ? 491.82 × LAI + 1.36 × MFIA + 614.91 × TD ? 1908.05 × TR ? 182.53 ×??K + 1281.75 × LD ? 1.35 × MFIA + 831.2 × TR ? 407.8 ×??K + 8.21 × MFIA ? 834.50 × TD ? 1695.49 ×??K??(R2 = 0.94**). PMID:24453909

Luo, Jun; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Liping

2013-01-01

458

Plant Growth-Promoting Nitrogen-Fixing Enterobacteria Are in Association with Sugarcane Plants Growing in Guangxi, China  

PubMed Central

The current nitrogen fertilization for sugarcane production in Guangxi, the major sugarcane-producing area in China, is very high. We aim to reduce nitrogen fertilization and improve sugarcane production in Guangxi with the help of indigenous sugarcane-associated nitrogen-fixing bacteria. We initially obtained 196 fast-growing bacterial isolates associated with the main sugarcane cultivar ROC22 plants in fields using a nitrogen-deficient minimal medium and screened out 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that 42 of the 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates were affiliated with the genera Enterobacter and Klebsiella. Most of the nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria possessed two other plant growth-promoting activities of IAA production, siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Two Enterobacter spp. strains of NN145S and NN143E isolated from rhizosphere soil and surface-sterilized roots, respectively, of the same ROC22 plant were used to inoculate micropropagated sugarcane plantlets. Both strains increased the biomass and nitrogen content of the sugarcane seedlings grown with nitrogen fertilization equivalent to 180 kg urea ha?1, the recommended nitrogen fertilization for ROC22 cane crops at the seedling stage. 15N isotope dilution assays demonstrated that biological nitrogen fixation contributed to plant growth promotion. These results suggested that indigenous nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria have the potential to fix N2 associated with sugarcane plants grown in fields in Guangxi and to improve sugarcane production. PMID:22510648

Lin, Li; Li, Zhengyi; Hu, Chunjin; Zhang, Xincheng; Chang, Siping; Yang, Litao; Li, Yangrui; An, Qianli

2012-01-01

459

Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained with GC-pretreated bagasse is possibly due to the presence of one hydroxyl group in the GC molecular structure, resulting in more significant biomass delignification and defibrillation, though both solvent pretreatments reduced bagasse particles to a similar extent. The maximum glucan digestibility of GC/glycerol systems was less than that of EC/EG systems, which is likely attributed to glycerol being less effective than EG in biomass delignification and defibrillation. Acidified AC/AG solvent systems were more effective for pretreatment of lignin-containing biomass than MCC. PMID:24156757

2013-01-01

460

Pyramiding transgenes for multiple resistance in rice against bacterial blight, yellow stem borer and sheath blight.  

PubMed

Here we describe the development of transgene-pyramided stable elite rice lines resistant to disease and insect pests by conventional crossing of two transgenic parental lines transformed independently with different genes. The Xa21 gene (resistance to bacterial blight), the Bt fusion gene (for insect resistance) and the chitinase gene (for tolerance of sheath blight) were combined in a single rice line by reciprocal crossing of two transgenic homozygous IR72 lines. F4 plant lines carrying all the genes of interest stably were identified using molecular methods. The identified lines, when exposed to infection caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, showed resistance to bacterial blight. Neonate larval mortality rates of yellow stem borer ( Scirpophaga incertulas) in an insect bioassay of the same identified lines were 100%. The identified line pyramided with different genes to protect against yield loss showed high tolerance of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:12582865

Datta, K; Baisakh, N; Thet, K Maung; Tu, J; Datta, S K

2002-12-01

461

Increasing coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) female density in artificial diet decreases fecundity.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), females (one, two, or five) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae, and adults. Our results demonstrated that increasing female density from one to two or five individuals did not result in the expected two- or five-fold increase in progeny, despite ample food resources available. Instead, decreased fecundity was observed with increasing density for all experiments. The mechanism reducing fecundity was not identified, but possibly, volatiles are being produced (e.g., host-marking pheromones). The decrease in fecundity may explain why infestations of only one colonizing female per berry are the norm in the field. PMID:21404844

Vega, Fernando E; Kramer, Matthew; Jaramillo, Juliana

2011-02-01

462

Response of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from Vitaceae species and rootstocks.  

PubMed

Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), larvae moving freely within circular petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to dry filter paper discs treated with ethanol- or hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts and a nonhost. Larvae responded most strongly to discs treated with ethanol extracts, suggesting the presence of behaviorally active, polar compounds associated with roots. In single extract bioassays comparing extract versus solvent treated discs, larvae responded positively to ethanol extracts from all Vitis species and rootstocks and Virginia creeper [Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.], but not to apple (Malus domestica Borkh). Paired extract bioassays, in which an extract from the commercially important 3309 rootstock was used as the standard and presented simultaneously with extracts from other root sources, revealed examples of equal, significantly weaker and significantly stronger responses to the 3309 extract. Extracts of the 420 A and V. riparia 'Gloire' rootstocks appeared to possess qualities that elicited a consistently greater response than to 3309 extract in these pair-wise comparisons. The active compounds were eluted in ethanol during a 30-min extraction; larvae responded equally to 30- and 60-min 3309 root extracts in paired extract bioassays. Larvae responded equally to extracts of 3309 roots from three spatially separate vineyards in northern Virginia. These results are discussed in relation to the subterranean, plant-insect interactions of grape root borer neonates with the numerous native and non-native Vitis species that may serve as hosts in the eastern United States. PMID:22251689

Bergh, J C; Zhang, A; Meyer, J R; Kim, D

2011-08-01

463

Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin binding to brush border membrane vesicles of rice stem borers.  

PubMed

The receptor binding step in the molecular mode of action of five delta-endotoxins (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1C, Cry2A, and Cry9C) from Bacillus thuringiensis was examined to find toxins with different receptor sites in the midgut of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and yellow stem borer (YSB) Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Homologous competition assays were used to estimate binding affinities (K(com)) of (125)I-labelled toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The SSB BBMV affinities in decreasing order was: Cry1Ab = Cry1Ac > Cry9C > Cry2A > Cry1C. In YSB, the order of decreasing affinities was: Cry1Ac > Cry1Ab > Cry9C = Cry2A > Cry1C. The number of binding sites (B(max)) estimated by homologous competition binding among the Cry toxins did not affect toxin binding affinity (K(com)) to both insect midgut BBMVs. Results of the heterologous competition binding assays suggest that Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac compete for the same binding sites in SSB and YSB. Other toxins bind with weak (Cry1C, Cry2A) or no affinity (Cry9C) to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac binding sites in both species. Cry2A had the lowest toxicity to 10-day-old SSB and Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac were the most toxic. Taken together, the results of this study show that Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac could be combined with either Cry1C, Cry2A, or Cry9C for more durable resistance in transgenic rice. Cry1Ab should not be used together with Cry1Ac because a mutation in one receptor site could diminish binding of both toxins. PMID:15027071

Alcantara, Edwin P; Aguda, Remedios M; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H; Cohen, Michael B

2004-04-01

464

Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2014-03-01

465

Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.  

PubMed

Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun. PMID:23786069

Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

2013-04-01

466

The "Trouble Shooting" Checklist for School-Based Settings (Manual).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Trouble Shooting Checklist" (TSC) is a diagnostic and predictive instrument designed to aid educational change agents, faculty, and administrators in estimating the effects of particular variables on an institution's potential for successfully adopting innovations. The TSC consists of 100 descriptive statements that are broken down into seven…

Manning, Brad A.

467

Todd Strasser Takes Aim at School Shootings: An Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes an interview with Todd Strasser, the young adult book author of "Give a Boy a Gun", as well as an excerpt from one of his speeches. Addresses issues related to school shootings, the easy availability of guns, ridicule and bullying, peer pressure, and violence in media. (LRW)

Shoemaker, Joel

2001-01-01

468

STEM CELL REGULATION IN THE ARABIDOPSIS SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aerial structure of higher plants is generated dynamically throughout the life cycle through the activity of stem cells that are located at the growing shoot tip, the apical meristem. The stem cells continuously divide to renew themselves and provide cells for leaf, stem and flower formation. St...

469

Environmental Impacts of Lead Pellets at Shooting Ranges & Arsenical Herbicides  

E-print Network

Environmental Impacts of Lead Pellets at Shooting Ranges & Arsenical Herbicides On Golf Courses of Florida Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management University of Florida 2207-D NW 13"Street by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management. The authors would like to thank Captain. Ed Tyer

Ma, Lena

470

Buds on Actinidia arguta shoots do contain axillary meristems  

Microsoft Academic Search

First?order axillary buds from Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc.) Planch, ex Miq. shoots were shown to develop second?order axillary structures in the first growing season of their development. This is contrary to what has been reported earlier. More importantly, the now revised description of A. arguta bud development does not support the hypothesis that flower evocation in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa

E. F. Walton

1999-01-01

471

Radiocesium Distribution in Bamboo Shoots after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

PubMed Central

The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium 134Cs and 137Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight), respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots. PMID:24831096

Higaki, Takumi; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

2014-01-01

472

ROOTING RESPONSE OF SHOOT CUTTINGS FROM THREE PEACH GROWTH HABITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current year shoot cuttings were collected in October and August from three growth habits of peach (Compact, Pillar, and Standard), treated with one of four concentrations of indole butyric acid (0, 250, 1250, and 2500 mg L-1 IBA). Rooting response was measured after five weeks in the greenhouse. ...

473

Shoot Inversion Inhibition of Stem Elongation in Pharbitis nil1  

PubMed Central

Inversion of the upper shoot of Pharbitis nil results in the inhibition of elongation in the inverted stem. The objective of the present study was to determine how shoot inversion-induced gravity stress inhibited elongation and to elucidate the possible role of ethylene-induced glycoprotein and lignin in this process. Determinations of hydroxyproline, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), phenol, and lignin content/activity were carried out by appropriate spectrophotometric methods. It was found that inversion and Ethrel treatments of upright shoots caused significant increases in hydroxyproline content, peroxidase, and PAL activity in 12 hours and in phenol and lignin contents in 24 hours. All of these increases except for that of cytoplasmic peroxidase activity were partially reversed by AgNO3, the ethylene action inhibitor. It is concluded that possible cross-linking associated with the accumulation of ethylene-induced hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein and lignin may be responsible for the later stages of cessation of elongation in the inverted Pharbitis shoot. PMID:11539703

Prasad, Tottempudi K.; Cline, Morris G.

1987-01-01

474

PREDICTING CHEMICAL ACCUMULATION IN SHOOTS OF AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical exchange dynamics expected for diffusive transfer of a chemical between aqueous solution and plant shoots, and expected bioconcentration based on partitioning properties of the chemical, are explored by using a three-compartment model. he model utilizes three dynamic com...

475

Sink-source Transition in Peach Leaves during Shoot Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net photosynthesis, dark respiration, chlorophyll and carbohydrate content, and leaf and shoot growth of deciduous peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) saplings, grown in greenhouse conditions, were measured to assess changes in carbon balance during leaf development. The 6th, 12th, and 16th leaf node were measured from the first flush at the base through expansion to maturity (the first node being

Susanna Marchi; Luca Sebastiani; Riccardo Gucci; Roberto Tognetti

2005-01-01

476

A New Weighing Method to Measure Shoot Water Interception  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is the need to develop a method that can quantitatively measure water interception from plant shoots. Corn (Zea Mays L.) Corn was grown in 13 L buckets containing Valentine fine sand (Mixed, mesic Typic Ustipsamment) under a climate-controlled growth chamber. Plants were taken out of the growt...

477

MECHANISMS THAT CONTROL KNOX GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ARABIDOPSIS SHOOT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knotted1-like homeobox (knox) genes are expressed in specific patterns within shoot meristems and play an important role in meristem maintenance. Misexpression of the knox genes, KNAT1 or KNAT2, in Arabidopsis produces a variety of phenotypes, including lobed leaves and ectopic stipules and meristem...

478

DYNAMIC EMBEDDED OPTIMIZATION AND SHOOTING METHODS FOR POWER  

E-print Network

with understanding extremes of system behavior. Many analysis ques- tions take the form of boundary value problems be expressed as boundary value prob- lems, and solved using shooting methods. It is shown that performance system dynamics, dynamic embedded optimization, boundary value problems, limit cycles, grazing phenomena

479

DYNAMIC EMBEDDED OPTIMIZATION AND SHOOTING METHODS FOR POWER  

E-print Network

with understanding extremes of system behavior. Many analysis ques- tions take the form of boundary value problems be expressed as boundary value prob- lems, and solved using shooting methods. It is shown that performance: Power system dynamics, dynamic embedded optimization, boundary value problems, limit cycles, grazing

Hiskens, Ian A.

480

Direct regeneration of Drosera from leaf explants and shoot tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient protocol for the micropropagation of Drosera anglica, D. binata and D. cuneifolia is described. Proliferation was obtained from leaf segments and shoot tips, which served as initial explants. The regeneration capacity of explants was influenced by factors such as nutrient media, concentrations of growth regulators and the type of medium (liquid or solid). The highest number of plants

Anna Kawiak; Aleksandra Królicka; Ewa Lojkowska

2003-01-01

481

Auxins and Shoot Tropisms--A Tenuous Connection?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the Cholodny-Went hypothesis which explains geo- and phototropic curvature in shoots in terms of a perception phase at the apex with a response at some remote site. Hormonal messages, lateral transmission of a stimulus, auxin concentration gradients, and what should be taught concerning this hypothesis are discussed. (DS)

Hall, A. B.; And Others

1980-01-01

482

CPSM/Film shoots Georgia Institute of Technology  

E-print Network

1 CPSM/Film shoots 11/06 Georgia Institute of Technology Policy Statement for use of Campus Facilities for Filming Use of Institute name or likeness: Any use of the names, marks, logos, trademarks for the state of Georgia's film industry. As such, we have developed policies for safe and equitable use

483

Limited Genetic Diversity in the Endophytic Sugarcane Bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus  

PubMed Central

Acetobacter diazotrophicus isolates that originated from different sugarcane cultivars growing in diverse geographic regions of Mexico and Brazil were shown to have limited genetic diversity. Measurements of polymorphism in the electrophoretic mobilities of metabolic enzymes revealed that the mean genetic diversity per enzyme locus (among the four electrophoretic types distinguished) was 0.064. The results of the genetic analysis indicate that the genetic structure of A. diazotrophicus is clonal, with one largely predominant clone. Plasmids were present in 20 of 24 isolates, and the molecular sizes of the plasmids ranged from 2.0 to 170 kb. Two plasmids (a 20- to 24-kb plasmid detected in all 20 plasmid-containing isolates and a 170-kb plasmid observed in 14 isolates) were highly conserved among the isolates examined. Regardless of the presence of plasmids, all of the isolates shared a common pattern of nif structural gene organization on the chromosome. Images PMID:16349254

Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

1994-01-01

484

Dissolved Organic Carbon in Groundwater Overlain by Irrigated Sugarcane.  

PubMed

Elevated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been detected in groundwater beneath irrigated sugarcane on the Burdekin coastal plain of tropical northeast Australia. The maximum value of 82?mg/L is to our knowledge the highest DOC reported for groundwater beneath irrigated cropping systems. More than half of the groundwater sampled in January 2004 (n?=?46) exhibited DOC concentrations greater than 30?mg/L. DOC was progressively lower in October 2004 and January 2005, with a total decrease greater than 90% indicating varying load(s) to the aquifer. It was hypothesized that the elevated DOC found in this groundwater system is sourced at or near the soil surface and supplied to the aquifer via vertical recharge following above average rainfall. Possible sources of DOC include organic-rich sugar mill by-products applied as fertilizer and/or sugarcane sap released during harvest. CFC-12 vertical flow rates supported the hypothesis that elevated DOC (>40?mg/L) in the groundwater results from recharge events in which annual precipitation exceeds 1500?mm/year (average?=?960?mm/year). Occurrence of elevated DOC concentrations, absence of electron acceptors (O2 and NO3 (-) ) and both Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) greater than 1?mg/L in shallow groundwater suggest that the DOC compounds are chemically labile. The consequence of high concentrations of labile DOC may be positive (e.g., denitrification) or negative (e.g., enhanced metal mobility and biofouling), and highlights the need to account for a wider range of water quality parameters when considering the impacts of land use on the ecology of receiving waters and/or suitability of groundwater for irrigated agriculture. PMID:25213667

Thayalakumaran, Thabo; Lenahan, Matthew J; Bristow, Keith L

2014-09-11

485

Changes in Sb speciation with waterlogging of shooting range soils and impacts on plant uptake  

E-print Network

from mining, brake abrasion, and shooting (Hjortenkrans et al., 2007; Iijima et al., 2008). Shooting ranges (Bannon et al., 2009), Norway 800 and Finland 200 (Rasmussen et al., 2006). In 2000, 21 t of Sb

Short, Daniel

486

50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the...

2013-10-01

487

50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the...

2011-10-01

488

50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the...

2010-10-01