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1

Larvipositional behaviour of Sturmiopsis inferens tns. (Tachinidae: Diptera) on sugarcane shoot borer in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larviposition by the Tachinid fly, Sturmiopsis inferens Tns. on sugarcane shoot borer larvae was studied. One adult female laid on an average 285 maggots (range 126–521). More than 90% of the maggots extruded were free of the enveloping chorion. Less than 4% were found to be unfertilized and undeveloped. The mean number of maggots laid per host was 1.21 and

H. David; S. Easwaramoorthy; V. Nandagopal; N. K. Kurup; M. Shanmugasundaram; G. Santhalakshmi

1988-01-01

2

Incidence of sugarcane shoot borer under different levels of weed competition, crop geometry, intercropping and nutrient supply systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of selected agronomic practices on the incidence of sugarcane shoot borerChilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was examined. In an experiment on critical periods of crop-weed competition, wherein sugarcane\\u000a crop was maintained with different weed regimes, the incidence of borer was significantly lower in weedy crop than in weed-free\\u000a crop. The study suggested that crop-weed vegetational diversity maintained up

J. Srikanth; K. P. Salin; S. Easwaramoorthy; C. Kailasam

2002-01-01

3

RADIATION DOSES FOR QUARANTINE SECURITY AGAINST MEXICAN RICE BORER AND SUGARCANE BORER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a stalk-boring insect which occurs in Texas and Mexico. This insect attacks sugarcane sorghum, corn, rice, wheat, oats, and wild grasses. The Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is also a stalk-boring insect of sugarcane, sorghum, corn, rice, and wild grasses occurring in the West Indies, the American tropics,

J. Legaspi; G. J. Hallman

4

Effects of harvest residue and tillage on lesser cornstalk borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage to sugarcane.  

PubMed

Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Cultural controls for E. lignosellus were evaluated in preparation for the potential loss of effective insecticides. Field studies conducted in 2006 compared the effects of harvest residues from green-harvested sugarcane (no preharvest burning to remove leaf matter) on E. lignosellus stalk damage and yield. Damage by E. lignosellus was significantly lower in plant cane plots that were covered with harvest residues collected from a green-harvested field before shoot emergence compared with plots without harvest residue. There were no yield differences between plots with and without harvest residues in plant or ratoon sugarcane fields in the 2006 study. The effects of three postharvest tillage levels (conventional, intermediate, and no tillage) were evaluated in preharvest burned and green-harvested fields in 2008 and 2009. Significantly less E. lignosellus damage was observed in the green- versus preharvest burned fields in both years. Intermediate and no-tillage plots had very little damage in green-harvested field. Conventional tillage plots had the greatest damage in the green-harvested field and the lowest damage in the preharvest burned field. In 2008, biomass yield was greater in the intermediate than conventional tillage in the green-harvested field, but it was greater in the conventional than in other tillage levels in the preharvest burned field. These studies demonstrated that cultural controls could greatly reduce E. lignosellus damage in sugarcane without the use of insecticides. PMID:21404853

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A; Webb, Susan E

2011-02-01

5

Broad-Sense Heritabilities, Genetic Correlations, and Selection Indices for Sugarcane Borer Resistance and Their Relation to Yield Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

tural methods, plant resistance potentially provides the most economic and environmentally effective means of The sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis (Frabricius)) causes control available to the production industry (Hensley, significant damage to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), rendering cultivar resistance important. Researchers assess borer-induced damage using 1981). Hence, cultivar characterization and selection for up to five different measures: percentage bored internodes, percentage resistance

S. B. Milligan; M. Balzarini; W. H. White

2003-01-01

6

Life tables of internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (K.), on resistant and susceptible varieties of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the population density of sugarcane internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur), and their causes were quantified on susceptible sugarcane variety Co.6304 planted during early and late main season in 1979 and on susceptible Co.6304 and resistant CoJ.64 during 1980 under artificial infestation conditions. The 1979 life tables showed an increasing trend index of 1.24 and 1.16 of

S. Easwaramoorthy; V. Nandagopal

1986-01-01

7

Allele frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1ab corn in Louisiana populations of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., has been widely used to manage a corn borer complex in the mid-southern region of the United States. The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has become a dominant cornstalk boring species in some areas of this region, especially in Louisiana. Therefore, management of sugarcane borer resistance to Bt corn is critical to ensure the long-term sustainability of Bt corn for the region. This study screened 280 two-parent family-lines of sugarcane borer from four geographical populations in Louisiana during 2005 to determine whether Bt resistance allele frequency in sugarcane borer is sufficiently low to meet the rare resistance assumption of the current "high dose/refuge" resistance management strategy for Bt corn. These sugarcane borer family-lines were examined for Bt resistance by using novel F2 screening procedures. No major Bt resistance alleles were detected in these four populations. The estimated frequency of major Bt resistance alleles was < 0.0027, with a 95% probability and a detection power of 94%. The estimated minor resistance allele frequency was 0.0063, with a 95% CI of 0.0025-0.0117. During a previous study, a major Bt resistance allele was detected in one individual from 213 family-lines of another Louisiana population of sugarcane borer. Combining these data with the current screen, the frequency of major Bt resistance alleles across the five populations was 0.001, with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0001-0.0028 and a detection power of 95%. Major Bt resistance allele frequencies in Louisiana sugarcane borer populations seem to be low, and they should support the rare resistance allele requirement of the high dose/refuge strategy. PMID:18459416

Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H; Cook, Donald R; Baldwin, Jack; Tindall, Kelly V; Lee, Donna R

2008-04-01

8

Evaluation of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrids against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the CrylAb protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of five non-Bt and seven Bt field corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in a greenhouse study. Larval survival was recorded 21 d after infestation of neonates on potted plants. Larval survival across the three sugarcane borer genotypes and five non-Bt corn hybrids after 21 d ranged from 23.6 +/- 5.2% (mean +/- SEM) to 57.5 +/- 5.2%. Mean survival of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on vegetative and reproductive plant stages was 12 and 21%, respectively. During the vegetative stages, all seven Bt corn hybrids were highly efficacious against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer, with a larval survival rate of <2% for the Bt-susceptible genotype and < or =5% for the heterozygotes. However, 8-18% of the heterozygous genotype survived on reproductive stage plants for four of the seven Bt corn hybrids tested. The variation in performance of Bt corn cultivars at vegetative and reproductive growth stages against Cry1Ab resistant sugarcane borer suggests differential seasonal expression that may hasten resistance in the field. Bt corn hybrids expressing a "high dose" for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), may not produce a sufficient high dose for the sugarcane borer. PMID:18232406

Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H

2007-12-01

9

Application of sex pheromones in sugarcane pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of moth borers are known to cause heavy losses in sugarcane production in different parts of the country. Because\\u000a of their concealed habits, the control of these borers becomes complex and hence a number of methods have been tried to suppress\\u000a their field population. The sex behaviour of four species of these borersviz., internode borer, stalk borer, shoot

H David; B F Nesbitt; S Easwaramoorthy; V Nandagopal

1985-01-01

10

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs.

Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

11

Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions.  

PubMed

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Texas; it can attack several grassy crop and noncrop host plants and has spread into Louisiana. Through small-plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the pest uses corn, Zea mays L., more than sugarcane and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, but when corn is harvested in late summer, injury to nearby sugarcane strongly increases during the next approximately equal to 2 mo to harvest. Corn was more infested than sugarcane and sorghum in commercial fields regardless of whether sampling occurred on field edges or farther into field interiors. Differences in numbers of infested stalks and in numbers of larval entry holes between field edges and interiors were not detected. We found that Mexican rice borer infestation of corn can cause loss of ears, and lodging, shattering, and complete destruction of maturing stalks. The larger quantities of adult Mexican rice borers captured in pheromone-based traps placed at corn field edges compared with sorghum and sugarcane field edges further indicates that corn is preferred to sugarcane and sorghum. The basis for the pest's attraction to corn and implications to potential range expansion to other U.S. sugarcane-growing regions are discussed. PMID:23156155

Showler, Allan T; Wilson, Blake E; Reagan, Thomas E

2012-10-01

12

The female sex pheromone of sugarcane stalk borer, Chilo auricilius identification of four components and field tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four pheromonal components have been detected in ovipositor washings and volatiles from female sugarcane stalk borers,Chilo auricilius Dudgeon (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), using combined gas chromatography-electroantennography. The components have been identified as (I) (Z)-7-do-decenyl acetate, (II) (Z)-8-tridecenyl acetate, (III) (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, and (IV) (Z)-10-pentadecenyl acetate by comparison of their gas chromatographic behavior with that of synthetic standards. In field tests carried out

Brenda F. Nesbitt; P. S. Beevor; A. Cork; D. R. Hall; H. David; V. Nandagopal

1986-01-01

13

Bioinsecticidal activity of conidia and dry mycelium preparations of two isolates of Beauveria bassiana against the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bb1 and Bb5 strains) were grown in solid-state and submerged cultures (SSC and SbC, respectively) in order to obtain conidia and dry mycelium preparations. The samples obtained at laboratory scale were tested as alternatives for their further use as mycoinsecticides to control the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis. The spore yields obtained in SSC indicated that

Jorge A Arcas; Beatriz M D??az; Roberto E Lecuona

1999-01-01

14

The female sex pheromone of sugarcane stalk borer,Chilo auricilius identification of four components and field tests.  

PubMed

Four pheromonal components have been detected in ovipositor washings and volatiles from female sugarcane stalk borers,Chilo auricilius Dudgeon (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), using combined gas chromatography-electroantennography. The components have been identified as (I) (Z)-7-do-decenyl acetate, (II) (Z)-8-tridecenyl acetate, (III) (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, and (IV) (Z)-10-pentadecenyl acetate by comparison of their gas chromatographic behavior with that of synthetic standards. In field tests carried out in northern India during 1982-1984, a combination of II, III, and IV in their naturally occurring ratio (8?4?1) was shown to provide a highly attractive synthetic source for trap use. (Z)-7-Dodecenyl acetate was found to reduce catches of maleC. auricilius, both when dispensed with the other three components and when released from dispensers surrounding a trap baited with the other three components. PMID:24307117

Nesbitt, B F; Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; David, H; Nandagopal, V

1986-06-01

15

Biocontrol of the Sugarcane Borer Eldana saccharina by Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac7 and Serratia marcescens chiA Genes in Sugarcane-Associated Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cry1Ac7 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 234, showing activity against the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina, was cloned under the control of the tac promoter. The fusion was introduced into the broad-host- range plasmid pKT240 and the integration vector pJFF350 and without the tac promoter into the broad-host- range plasmids pML122 and pKmM0. These plasmids were introduced into a Pseudomonas

KATRINA J. DOWNING; GRAEME LESLIE; JENNIFER A. THOMSON

2000-01-01

16

Density-dependent shoot-borer herbivory increases the age of first reproduction and mortality of neotropical tree saplings.  

PubMed

Shoot herbivory by the sapling specialist shoot-borer Cromarcha stroudagnesia (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Chrysauginae) is shown to have large direct and indirect effects on the rates of height increment and mortality of saplings of its host tree, Tabebuia ochracea (Bignoniaceae), in the secondary successional tropical dry forests of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Experiments and field observations over 3-4 years show a substantial reduction in sapling height increments due to C. stroudagnesia herbivory, of equivalent magnitude to the difference in height increments between undamaged saplings in canopy gaps and full understorey shade. Extrapolating this data at average amounts of C. stroudagnesia herbivory increases the duration of the pre-reproductive sapling life stage by about 40% relative to undamaged plants. This is an underestimate, as top shoot herbivory by C. stroudagnesia also increased the probability of canopy gap saplings being overtopped and shaded by surrounding vegetation. Sapling mortality was increased by C. stroudagnesia herbivory, with 11.8% of the most heavily damaged young saplings dying in 3 years while no undamaged saplings died. Cromarcha stroudagnesia herbivory strongly increases with the number of conspecific T. ochracea saplings and the number of conspecific shoots within 50 m of focal saplings. It is therefore likely to disproportionately decrease the number of saplings and rate of recruitment to reproductive age in areas of high conspecific sapling density. These results suggest that sapling herbivory, especially herbivory of terminal meristems, has an important but largely unexplored influence on the population dynamics of tropical tree species. They further demonstrate that sapling herbivory by insects, in addition to the well-studied insect predation and herbivory of seedlings, is likely to influence tree species coexistence in tropical forests. PMID:12684860

Sullivan, Jon J

2003-06-01

17

Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.

Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

2013-01-01

18

Morphological aspects of cluster formation in the germarium of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Diatraea saccharalis F. is one of the greatest pests of the sugar cane culture. This report aimed to characterize the germarium region of the sugarcane borer by light and transmission electron microscopy, emphasizing the morphological steps of the ovarian cluster formation. In the germarium of this insect, four zones could be morphologically identified during the cluster formation. In the most apical end of each ovariole--Zone I--the germ line stem cells undergo complete mitotic division, originating the cystoblasts. In the Zone II, each cystoblast produces a group of eight cells, the cystocytes, which are interconnected by the ring canals. Clusters containing all the cystocytes in the meiosis, characterizes the Zone III. Germ cells with ultrastructural features of apoptosis are also detected in this Zone. In the Zone IV the cystocytes differentiate, morphologically, into one oocyte and seven nurse cells. Interstitial somatic cells and pre-follicle cells exhibit, in their cytoplasm, heterogeneous vacuoles containing degenerated cellular fragments, characterized as apoptotic bodies. Our results pointed out to the morphological evidences related with important control mechanisms for new clusters/follicles production and for the cellular arrangement into the germarium, resulting from the programmed cell death. We believe that the morphological characterization of ovarian cluster formation in D. saccharalis provided valuable information for the understanding of the initial steps of oogenesis and contributed for the knowledge of the cellular mechanisms related with the oocyte production and with reproduction in insects. PMID:17144137

Santos, Daniela C; Gregório, Elisa A

2006-01-01

19

Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments.  

PubMed

Abstract The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

2013-10-01

20

Susceptibility of Cry1Ab maize-resistant and -susceptible strains of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to four individual Cry proteins.  

PubMed

Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major target of Bt maize in South America and many areas of the US mid-south region. Six laboratory strains of D. saccharalis were established from six single-pair F(2) families possessing major resistance alleles to Cry1Ab maize hybrids. Susceptibility of the six strains was evaluated on diet treated with each of four purified trypsin-activated Bt proteins, Cry1Ab, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac and Cry1F. Bt susceptibility of the six strains was compared with that of known Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of D. saccharalis. At least two of the six strains demonstrated a similar level (>526-fold) of resistance to Cry1Ab as shown in the known Cry1Ab-resistant strain, while resistance levels were relatively lower for other strains (116- to 129-fold). All the six strains were highly cross-resistant to Cry1Aa (71- to 292-fold) and Cry1Ac (30- to 248-fold), but only with a low level to Cry1F (<7-fold). Larval growth of all six strains was also inhibited on Bt-treated diet, but, except for Cry1F, the growth inhibition of the six strains was considerably less than that of the Cry1Ab-susceptible larvae. The results provide clear evidence that the observed resistance to Cry1Ab maize in the six strains is a result of resistance to the Cry1Ab protein in the plants. The low level of cross-resistance between Cry1A and Cry1F suggests that pyramiding these two types of Bt proteins into a plant could be a good strategy for managing D. saccharalis. PMID:23270874

Zhang, Liping; Huang, Fangneng; Rogers Leonard, B; Chen, Mao; Clark, Thomas; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Wangila, David S; Yang, Fei; Niu, Ying

2013-03-01

21

Short and long-term antinutritional effect of the trypsin inhibitor ApTI for biological control of sugarcane borer.  

PubMed

Plant-derived trypsin inhibitors have been shown to have potent anti-insect effects and are a promising alternative for the biological control of pests. In this work, we tested the anti-insect activity of Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor (ApTI) against Diatraea saccharalis larvae, a major insect pest in sugarcane. The addition of 0.1% ApTI in short-term assays resulted in 87% and 63% decreased trypsin and chymotrypsin activities respectively. ApTI was not digested after 60h incubation with D. saccharalis midgut proteases. The chronic effects of ApTI on F0 and F1 generations of D. saccharalis were also analyzed. The larvae from the F0 generation showed 55% and 21% decreased larval and pupal viability, respectively. ApTI-fed larvae from the F1 generation showed a decrease of 33% in survival rate and 23% in the average larval weight. Moreover, ApTI treatment reduced trypsin and chymotrypsin activities in F1 larvae. Thus, the anti-insect effects of ApTI on consecutive generations (F0 and F1) of D. saccharalis larvae demonstrate its potential for long-term control of this pest. PMID:24355140

da Silva, Desireé S; de Oliveira, Caio F R; Parra, José R P; Marangoni, Sergio; Macedo, Maria L R

2014-02-01

22

Sugarcane micropropagation and phenolic excretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane shoot formation was followed using a temporary immersion system. Plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, shoot number\\u000a and phenolic excretion to the culture medium were recorded during shoot formation. Shoot number increased for 30 days of culture\\u000a but formation of new shoots was greatly reduced from 31 to 40 days. Phenolic excretion also increased during the first 20\\u000a days

Jose Carlos Lorenzo; Osvaldo Peláez; Alfredo González; Mariela Cid; Alitza Iglesias; Boris González; Maritza Escalona; Patricia Espinosa; Carlos Borroto

2001-01-01

23

Life table studies of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane.  

PubMed

The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Reproductive and life table parameters for E. lignosellus were examined at nine constant temperatures from 13 to 36 °C with sugarcane as the larval food source. The pre- and postoviposition periods decreased with increasing temperatures and reached their minimums at 33 and 36 °C, respectively. The oviposition period was longest at 27 °C. The mean fecundity, stage-specific survival, stage-specific fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were greatest at 30 °C and decreased with increasing or decreasing temperature. The net reproductive rate was greatest at 27 °C. The Logan-6 model best described the relationship between temperature and intrinsic rate of increase. The generation and population doubling times were longest at 13 and shortest at 33 and 30 °C, respectively. The most favorable temperatures for E. lignosellus population growth were between 27 and 33°C. Life table parameters for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane were greater than for the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on an artificial diet at 30 °C. The intrinsic rates of increase for the sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on sugarcane or corn were the same as for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane at 27 °C, but the net reproductive rate was four times higher for the former than the latter borer species. PMID:22182570

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A

2010-12-01

24

Shoot branching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been

Sally P Ward; Ottoline Leyser

2004-01-01

25

Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stem borers in Africa.  

PubMed

Cereals (maize, sorghum, millet, rice) are extremely important crops grown in Africa for human consumption. Of the various insect pests attacking cereal crops in Africa, lepidopteran stem borers are by far the most injurious. All 21 economically important stem borers of cultivated grasses in Africa are indigenous except Chilo partellus, which invaded the continent from India, and C. sacchariphagus, which has recently been found in sugarcane in Mozambique. C. partellus is competitively displacing indigenous stem borers in East and southern Africa. A parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes, was introduced from Pakistan for biological control of C. partellus and caused a 32-55% decrease in stem borer densities. This article is an attempt to summarize the status of knowledge about economically important cereal stem borers in Africa with emphasis on their distribution, pest status and yield losses, diapause, natural enemies, cultural control, host plant resistance, and biological control. Special attention is given to Busseola fusca and C. partellus, the most important pests of maize and grain sorghum. PMID:11729089

Kfir, Rami; Overholt, W A; Khan, Z R; Polaszek, A

2002-01-01

26

Shoot branching.  

PubMed

The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been inferred from studies of branching mutants in pea and Arabidopsis. PMID:14732444

Ward, Sally P; Leyser, Ottoline

2004-02-01

27

Shipworms and Other Marine Borers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mollusks, crustaceans and other groups of invertebrates attack underwater structures causing great loss. This article describes shipworms (teredos) and other marine borers. Among the mollusks the most destructive are Teredo and Bankia (pelecypoda). Three ...

M. Castagna

1973-01-01

28

Shoot branching.  

PubMed

All plant shoots can be described as a series of developmental modules termed phytomers, which are produced from shoot apical meristems. A phytomer generally consists of a leaf, a stem segment, and a secondary shoot meristem. The fate and activity adopted by these secondary, axillary shoot meristems is the major source of evolutionary and environmental diversity in shoot system architecture. Axillary meristem fate and activity are regulated by the interplay of genetic programs with the environment. Recent results show that these inputs are channeled through interacting hormonal and transcription factor regulatory networks. Comparison of the factors involved in regulating the function of diverse axillary meristem types both within and between species is gradually revealing a pattern in which a common basic program has been modified to produce a range of axillary meristem types. PMID:15862100

McSteen, Paula; Leyser, Ottoline

2005-01-01

29

[Calling and mating behaviors of bamboo shoot borer Kumasia kumaso].  

PubMed

The calling and mating behaviors of Kumasia kumaso were studied in laboratory at (25 1) degrees C and (60 +/- 10) % RH under a cycle 14 L:10 D photo period, and the EAG response of male K. kumaso to female K. kumaso sex gland extracts was also tested. The calling and mating behaviors of K. kumaso could only be observed in scotophase. The females began calling at the first scotophase following emergence, and the peak of calling occurred during the second scotophase and decreased thereafter. The calling of the females commenced 0-4 h after dark, reached the maximum between the 5th and the 7th hour of the scotophase, and terminated during the last 1-2.5 h of the scotophase. Moth age had significant effects on the calling patterns. With increasing moth age, the onset time of calling advanced gradually, and the mean number of calling bouts as well as the calling length per bout had a gradual increase from calling day 1 to day 4 but decreased on day 5. The peak time and terminated time of calling advanced with increasing moth age. The mating of K. kumaso adults initiated during the first scotophase and terminated till the 5th scotophase following emergence, and the peak of mating was observed during the second scotophase. The peak of mating was observed 5.5-7.0 h after dark, and advanced with increasing moth age. Moth age affected the mean onset time of mating and the copulation duration significantly. With increasing moth age, the mean onset time of mating advanced, and the copulation duration decreased. Sex ratio had significant effects on the mating behavior as well. Treatment 2 female:1 male showed a significantly higher mating percentage, but an earlier onset time of mating and shorter copulation duration, as compared with treatment 1 female:1 male. The results of EAG test indicated that the male adults showed a significant EAG response to the sex gland extracts of 2-day-old virgin females. PMID:23479886

Shu, Jin-Ping; Teng, Ying; Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Deng, Shun; Wang, Hao-Jie

2012-12-01

30

Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).  

PubMed

The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (?g) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ? underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2014-01-01

31

Shooting Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an opportunity for students to develop concepts and skills with fractions, decimals, and percentages in the context of shooting baskets. Students take turns tossing a ball into a wastebasket a number of times determined by a random card draw, while other students keep track of the number of shots made. The class processes the data by creating fractions and converting them into decimals and percentages, and then uses them to analyze and interpret the results.

Jewell, Laura

2011-01-01

32

Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

2008-01-01

33

Sugarcane functional genomics: gene discovery for agronomic trait development.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

Menossi, M; Silva-Filho, M C; Vincentz, M; Van-Sluys, M-A; Souza, G M

2008-01-01

34

Temperature-dependent development of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is an important sugarcane pest in southern Florida. Development of immature stages (eggs, larvae, prepupae, and pupae) of lesser cornstalk borer was observed on sugarcane at constant temperatures (13, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, and 36 degrees C), 65-70% RH, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Total development (from egg deposition to adult emergence) ranged from 22.8 +/- 0.3 d at 33 degrees C to 120.7 +/- 2.8 d at 13 degrees C. Lesser cornstalk borer required 543.48 DD to complete development. Developmental time decreased with increase in temperature from 13 to 33 degrees C and increased markedly at 36 degrees C in all immature stages. One linear and six nonlinear models used to model insect development (Briere-1, Briere-2, Logan-6, Lactin, Taylor, and polynomial models) were tested to describe the relationship between temperature and developmental rate (d(-1)). Criteria used to select the best model were the greatest r (2), lowest residual sum of squares (RSS), and Akaike information criterion values. The Briere-1 model fit the data best and provided the best estimates of developmental temperature thresholds for all immature stages on sugarcane. The estimated lower and upper developmental thresholds for total development were 9.3 +/- 1.8 and 37.9 +/- 0.7 degrees C, respectively. The optimal temperature estimated for the total development was 31.39 +/- 0.9 degrees C. Based on these results, we can forecast the different stages of lesser cornstalk borer at different times in sugarcane. This will enable us to choose the best time to control this pest with greater precision. PMID:20550817

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A

2010-06-01

35

EFFECTS OF PRE-TRASHING SUGARCANE ON OVIPOSITION, AND ON PREDATION OF EGGS AND MOTHS OF ELDANA SACCHARINA (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the agronomic practice termed pre-trash­ ing on the survival of eggs and adults of the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina Walker was studied. Moths labelledwith the radio-isotope phosphorus-32 were released into field cages, and a Geiger counter was used to find egg batches laid by the females. The position and extent of predation on egg batches were recorded.

G. W. LESLIE

36

Design, Fabricate and Test a Conical Borer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes effort completed during the first year of a proposed three-year effort to design, fabricate, and test a conical self-advancing and self-rotating boring machine. The conical borer will use a proven and economical mechanical fragmentat...

H. Hug C. Peterson

1972-01-01

37

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

38

Intercropping study in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted to evaluate the performance of some horticultural crops and their effect on sugarcane under intercropping\\u000a system at the upland sugarcane experimental field of the National Cereals Research Institute farm, Badeggi (9° 45’ N, 06°\\u000a 07’ E ) in the Southern Guina Savanna of Nigeria in 1997 and 1998 dry seasons. The seven treatments tested consisted of

A. K. Gana; L. D. Busari

2003-01-01

39

Wooden Panel Deterioration by Tropical Marine Wood Borers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood destruction in test panels of Shorea leprosulawas related to the percentage of fouling, types of wood borers and the number of wood borers. The natural durability of Shorea leprosulapanels was estimated to be 4-5 months in Malaysian marine waters. A higher fouling cover resulted in lower rates of wooden panel deterioration. Larger numbers of wood borers brought about greater panel deterioration. Primary wood destruction was caused by bivalve wood borers, mainly Martesia striata, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Bankia campanellata, Teredo furciferaand Teredo bartschi. Martesia striatawas the important wood destroying agent in the intertidal zone and, together with the shipworms, was also responsible for panel destruction in the subtidal zone.

Singh, Harinder Rai; Sasekumar, A.

1996-06-01

40

Sugarcane Culture and Syrup Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication gives the basic information needed by growers of syrup sugarcane. It includes descriptions of the sugarcane plant characteristics needed in syrup varieties, the best varieties, cultural requirements and practices, and the diseases and inse...

D. M. Broadhead N. Zummo

1988-01-01

41

Shooting Without Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combat, man specializes in exerting lethal force at a distance. The mechanism for exerting this force has progressed from\\u000a stones to spears to firearms to rockets, but the basic shooting problem for the marksman has always been to effectively combine\\u000a accuracy and lethality at long range. This chapter is devoted to abstract models of the shooting process. Such models

Alan Washburn; Moshe Kress

42

Black Twig Borer...A Tree Killer in Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff), first discovered in Hawaii in 1961, has become widespread on many host plants throughout the islands. Beetle infestations have caused heavy damage to trees but only recently have attacks been associat...

R. E. Nelson C. J. Davis

1972-01-01

43

School Shootings Stun Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

2005-01-01

44

The Binomial Distribution in Shooting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

2009-01-01

45

Identification of the sex pheromone of the currant shoot borer Lampronia capitella.  

PubMed

Under an artificial light:dark cycle, females of Lampronia capitella were observed calling, with extended terminal abdominal segments, during the first 2 hr of the photoperiod. Extracts of terminal abdominal segments from females elicited large electroantennographic responses from male antennae. Gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection revealed three active peaks. Based on comparison of retention times and mass spectra of synthetic standards, these compounds were identified as (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienol and the corresponding acetate and aldehyde. The electroantennographic activity of the four geometric isomers of all three compounds was investigated, and the respective (Z,Z)-isomer was found to be the most active in all cases. Aldehydes generally elicited larger antennal responses than alcohols, whereas acetates were the least active compounds. A subtractive trapping assay in the field, based on a 13:26:100 micrograms mixture of (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienal, (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate, and (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienol confirmed that all three compounds are pheromone components. Subtraction of (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienol from the blend completely eliminated its attractiveness, whereas the other two-component blends showed reduced activity. This is the first pheromone identification from the monotrysian superfamily Incurvarioidea, confirming that the common pheromones among ditrysian moths (long-chain fatty acid derivatives comprising alcohols, acetates, and aldehydes with one or more double bonds) is not an autapomorphy of Ditrysia, but a synapomorphy of the more advanced heteroneuran lineages. PMID:15139314

Löfstedt, Christer; Zhu, Junwei; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Buda, Vincas; Jirle, Erling V; Hellqvist, Sven; Löfqvist, Jan; Plass, Ernst; Franke, Stephan; Francke, Wittko

2004-03-01

46

Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum.  

PubMed

Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as "molecular domestication", by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis. PMID:23055803

Kajihara, Daniela; de Godoy, Fabiana; Hamaji, Thais Alves; Blanco, Silvia Regina; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Rossi, Magdalena

2012-07-01

47

Grassmannian spectral shooting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new numerical method for computing the pure-point spectrum\\u000aassociated with the linear stability of coherent structures. In the context of\\u000athe Evans function shooting and matching approach, all the relevant information\\u000ais carried by the flow projected onto the underlying Grassmann manifold. We\\u000ashow how to numerically construct this projected flow in a stable and robust\\u000amanner.

Veerle Ledoux; Simon J. A. Malham; Vera Thümmler

2010-01-01

48

Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem.  

PubMed

Attempts to establish Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Louisiana sugarcane fields to control the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) have been unsuccessful. Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to overcome barriers preventing establishment. In addition, we evaluated C. flavipes' ability to search for D. saccharalis in sugarcane without above-ground internodes. Diatraea evanescens Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was investigated as an alternative host for C. flavipes. Cotesia flavipes was reared for five generations on D. evanescens without any indication of diminishing fitness as measured by days to parasite pupation and average cocoon mass weight. However, there was a significant reduction in percent parasitism, cocoon mass weight, and percent emergence when C. flavipes parasitized D. evanescens as compared with D. saccharalis, resulting in a 75% reduction in the gross reproductive rate (R(0)). Greenhouse studies indicated little difference in parasitism of D. saccharalis on the weed hosts johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), and vaseygrass, Paspalum urvillei Steud. However, when planted as refuge plots, we found it difficult to establish infestations of D. saccharalis in either of these hosts, or in two energy sugarcanes. After 3 yr of infesting host plants and releasing parasitoids only one parasitized D. saccharalis larvae was recovered within the johnsongrass refuge. Diatraea evanescens readily established in vaseygrass; however, these larvae appear inaccessible to C. flavipes. In contrast, parasitism of D. saccharalis by C. flavipes infesting young sugarcane was 30%. PMID:22506999

White, W H; Wilson, L T

2012-04-01

49

Effects of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage on sugarcane yield.  

PubMed

Feeding by lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), larvae on sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) causes leaf damage, dead hearts, and dead plants that can result in stand and yield loss. A 2-yr greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine sugarcane variety and plant age-specific feeding responses to E. lignosellus. Plants growing from single-eye setts of three varieties were exposed to a single generation of E. lignosellus larvae beginning at the three-, five-, and seven-leaf stages. Results indicated that the physical damage and resulting yield loss of plants attacked by E. lignosellus larvae were dependent on the variety and leaf stage at which they were infested. Significantly more plant damage was observed in all three varieties when infested at the three- than at the seven-leaf stage. Larvae caused significantly more plant damage and reduced yield in CP 89-2143 than in CP 78-1628. Tiller production increased in CP78-1628 and CP 88-1762 when infested at the three-leaf stage, whereas tiller production, biomass and sugar yield decreased in CP 89-2143 when infested at all leaf stages, compared with the untreated control. There was no reduction in yield when CP 78-1628 was infested at the three- or five-leaf stages. Biomass was reduced in CP 88-1762 when plants were infested at any of the leaf stages, but sugar yield was reduced only when infested at the seven-leaf stage. These results indicate that compensation in response to E. lignosellus damage was variety dependent and declined with the delay in infestation time. PMID:21510195

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A; Webb, Susan E

2011-04-01

50

European corn borer sex pheromone : Structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The biological activity of analogs of the pheromone components of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis, (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen1-ol acetate, in which modifications were made in the terminal alkyl portion were studied in the three pheromonal types of the insect. European corn borer males respond to pheromonal stimuli at three levels of behavioral activity, i.e., short-range sexual stimulation, activation in the flight tunnel, and response in the field. Structural requirements for elicitation of response at these levels were found to be increasingly restrictive, respectively. Flighttunnel activity was induced only by compounds that had a total chain length of 13 or 14 carbons and in which branching at carbon 13 was limited to one methyl group or a cyclopropyl group. Three new analogs were active in the flight tunnel, viz., (E and (Z)-13-methyl-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-12-cyclopropyl-11-dodecen-1-ol acetate. The cyclopropyl analog was the most active analog against theZZ type of the European corn borer. TheE isomer, however, was pheromonally inactive in theEE type and was shown to be a pheromone antagonist. This dissimilarity is most likely due to differences in structure of the receptors in the European corn borer strains. Analogs that were biologically active against the European corn borer were tested against the redbanded leafroller,Argyrotaenia velutinana, which also uses (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate as part of its pheromone. Results showed that the redbanded leafroller pheromone acceptor system is different from that of the European com borer; marginal behavioral response was elicited by only one of the new analogs. Thus, although both species use 11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate isomers as their pheromone, the mechanisms by which they are perceived are different. PMID:24271802

Schwarz, M; Klun, J A; Fritz, G L; Uebel, E C; Raina, A K

1989-02-01

51

Chemiluminescence from bamboo shoot cut.  

PubMed

Bamboo shoot cut emitted weak light, which could be visualized with a two dimensional imaging system. A water extract of bamboo shoot contained tyrosine (a major component of total amino acids), bityrosine and peroxidase. Bamboo shoot peroxidase-H2O2-tyrosine system also emitted weak light with maxima at 490nm, 530nm and longer wavelength, identical to that in horseradish peroxidase-H2O2 system. Judging from these results, chemiluminescence from bamboo shoot cut might be originated from excited species generated by enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine and bityrosine. PMID:8394697

Totsune, H; Nakano, M; Inaba, H

1993-08-16

52

Shooting the Monkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EJS simulation allows the user to simulate the classical shoot the monkey demonstration. The user can change the initial velocity of the projectile, the positions and aim of the gun, and the position of the monkey. The simulation was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ntnu_fkh_projectileNfreefall.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or EJS.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2010-06-22

53

Propagation of banana through encapsulated shoot tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants were regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips of banana. Shoot tips (ca 4 mm) isolated from multiple shoot cultures of banana cv. Basrai were encapsulated in 3% sodium alginate containing different gel matrices. The encapsulated shoot tips regenerated in vitro on different substrates. Use of White's medium resulted in 100% conversion of encapsulated shoot tips into plantlets. The plantlets were

T. R. Ganapathi; P. Suprasanna; V. A. Bapat; P. S. Rao

1992-01-01

54

Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence that carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 shoot branching mutants of pea are strigolactone deficient and that strigolactone application restores

Victoria Gomez-Roldan; Soraya Fermas; Philip B. Brewer; Virginie Puech-Pagès; Elizabeth A. Dun; Jean-Paul Pillot; Fabien Letisse; Radoslava Matusova; Saida Danoun; Jean-Charles Portais; Harro Bouwmeester; Guillaume Bécard; Christine A. Beveridge; Catherine Rameau; Soizic F. Rochange

2008-01-01

55

Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the

Robert K. Lawrence

56

Incidence and control of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) and American plum borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks in New York.  

PubMed

Surveys were conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York state to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was generally prevalent throughout the state, but American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker), was limited to western New York apple orchards near infested stone fruit trees. Insecticides evaluated in the field for efficacy against both borers were chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, indoxacarb plus oil, methoxyfenozide, fenpropathrin, and kaolin clay. Also, white latex paint was tested alone and mixed with chlorpyrifos. One application of chlorpyrifos applied at the petal fall developmental stage was equivalent to chlorpyrifos applied at petal fall and again in mid-July, and it provided season-long control of dogwood borer and American plum borer. One application of chlorpyrifos applied any time between the half-inch green developmental stage and petal fall, or after harvest the previous season, controlled both overwintered and summer brood larvae of dogwood borer. Multiple applications of fenpropathrin, indoxacarb plus oil, and endosulfan applied during the dogwood borer flight period controlled the summer brood. PMID:15154480

Kain, David P; Straub, Richard W; Agnello, Arthur M

2004-04-01

57

Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestation of horned oak galls.  

PubMed

Pin oak, Quercus palustris Muenchhausen, is the primary host for the gall wasp Callirhytis cornigera (Osten Sacken). Woody stem galls formed by C. cornigera may be infested by the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), an important pest of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida L. Previous research has shown that S. scitula has a bimodal seasonal flight pattern, with peaks in late spring and midsummer. We tested the hypothesis that moths emerging from dogwoods largely account for the first flight pulse, whereas emergence from stem galls contributes disproportionately to the second pulse. Seasonal flight activity of S. scitula was monitored with pheromone traps baited with Z,Z-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate. Traps were hung near plantings of dogwoods in suburban landscapes or near heavily galled pin oaks. Borer emergence from dogwood was monitored by sampling infested trees for pupal exuviae, and from galls that were collected and held in outdoor rearing cages. The impact of S. scitula on C. cornigera larvae was assessed by weighing, measuring, and dissecting galls. Flight activity of S. scitula began on 5 May and ended on 13 October 1999, with peaks in late May and in late July to early August. The flight pattern was similar for the two types of trapping sites, and moths emerged from both hosts during both flight periods. Proportionately more moths emerged from dogwoods during the first flight pulse than during the second, but emergence from galls was nearly evenly divided between the two flight peaks. We therefore reject the hypothesis that emergence of borers from galls contributes disproportionately to the second flight period. Approximately 12-15% of stem galls (2-3 yr old) contained S. scitula larvae. Feeding and tunneling by borers contributed to gall desiccation and reduced horn development, but rarely killed C. cornigera larvae. This study has implications for management of S. scitula because borers emerging from horned oak galls may represent a threat to dogwood. PMID:10902327

Eliason, E A; Potter, D A

2000-06-01

58

Hormonal control of shoot branching.  

PubMed

Shoot branching is the process by which axillary buds, located on the axil of a leaf, develop and form new flowers or branches. The process by which a dormant bud activates and becomes an actively growing branch is complex and very finely tuned. Bud outgrowth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals and endogenous ones, such as plant hormones. Thus these interacting factors have a major effect on shoot system architecture. Hormones known to have a major influence are auxin, cytokinin, and a novel, as yet chemically undefined, hormone. Auxin is actively transported basipetally in the shoot and inhibits bud outgrowth. By contrast, cytokinins travel acropetally and promote bud outgrowth. The novel hormone also moves acropetally but it inhibits bud outgrowth. The aim of this review is to integrate what is known about the hormonal control of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, focusing on these three hormones and their interactions. PMID:17728300

Ongaro, Veronica; Leyser, Ottoline

2008-01-01

59

7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004...

2009-01-01

60

7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116 Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. The Sugarcane Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2004...

2010-01-01

61

7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435.311 Section 1435...1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a) Proportionate shares...through 1435.316 apply only to Louisiana sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will...

2009-01-01

62

7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. 1435.311 Section 1435...1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers. (a) Proportionate shares...through 1435.316 apply only to Louisiana sugarcane farms. (b) CCC will...

2010-01-01

63

A Real Shooting Star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star

This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light.

The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years.

As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake.

Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence.

Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira and its 'whale of a tail' can be found in the tail of the whale constellation.

2007-01-01

64

Vacuum pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide background data on sugarcane bagasse vacuum pyrolysis. Product yields and properties were investigated. Vacuum pyrolysis tests were performed at bench and pilot plant scales. The bagasse finest particles with a diameter smaller than 450 ?m were removed in order to overcome difficulties caused by their low density and high ash content. In

Abdelkader Chaala; Christian Roy

2002-01-01

65

Sugarcane Pests and Their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 100 species of insects, besides non-insect pests like mites, nematodes, jackals, rats, squirrels, and birds have been identified as damaging the sugarcane crop in India. Of these, about 25 species of insects are considered as major pests. These inclu...

A. N. Kalra

1982-01-01

66

Rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), overwintering in super rice and its control using cultivation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super rice has the potential to deliver very high yields but is also susceptible to attack by the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. In this study, surveys and field trials were performed to examine this problem and efficient ways were found to lower the borer’s population density. It was found that larger super rice plants provided more refuges for

Weihua Jiang; Xiaojing Jiang; Jianren Ye; Qiang Fu; Yongbin Feng; Ju Luo; Zhaojun Han

2011-01-01

67

Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation.  

PubMed

Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed over the past 30 years, but attempts to further increase crop yield have been limited due to the complexity of the sugarcane genome. An alternative to boost the crop yield is the introduction of genes encoding desirable traits in the elite sugarcane cultivars. Genetically modified sugarcane with increased yield and pest and disease resistance has already proven its value not only by the increased sugar content but also for the improvement of the crop performance. However, transgene stability is still a challenge since transgene silencing seems to occur in a large proportion of genetically modified sugarcane plants. In addition, regulatory issues associated with the crop propagation model will also be a challenge to the commercial approval of genetically modified sugarcane. PMID:22093808

Arruda, Paulo

2012-06-01

68

Bt Corn and the European Corn Borer: Evaluation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive predictive model uses years of past weather data and a model of the European corn borer's life cycle under different temperatures to calculate the net benefit of planting Bt corn versus non-Bt corn in a certain geographic area. Great data visualization. Requires Flash. This is an excellent tool incorporating a large volume of data. The tool should be quite useful for IPM classes.

0002-11-30

69

Effect of biocompost application on sugarcane crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted during spring of 2006–07 at Sugarcane Research Institute, Shahjahanpur using sugarcane variety\\u000a CoS 97264 to work out the effect of biocompost ( prepared from biodegradation from pressmud) application on yield and quality\\u000a of sugarcane crop and status of organic carbon content in the soil before planting and after harvest of the crop. It is clear

Namita Chauhan; M. P. Singh; Aneg Singh; A. K. Singh; S. S. Chauhan; S. B. Singh

2008-01-01

70

The Biotechnology Roadmap for Sugarcane Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the strategic importance of sugarcane to Brazil, FAPESP, the main São Paulo state research funding agency, launched\\u000a in 2008 the FAPESP Bioenergy Research Program (BIOEN, http:\\/\\/bioenfapesp.org). BIOEN aims to generate new knowledge and human resources for the improvement of the sugarcane and ethanol industry. As\\u000a part of the BIOEN program, a Workshop on Sugarcane Improvement was held on

Carlos T. Hotta; Carolina G. Lembke; Douglas S. Domingues; Edgar A. Ochoa; Guilherme M. Q. Cruz; Danila M. Melotto-Passarin; Thiago G. Marconi; Melissa O. Santos; Marcelo Mollinari; Gabriel R. A. Margarido; Augusto César Crivellari; Wanderley D. dos Santos; Amanda P. de Souza; Andrea A. Hoshino; Helaine Carrer; Anete P. Souza; Antônio A. F. Garcia; Marcos S. Buckeridge; Marcelo Menossi; Marie-Anne Van Sluys; Glaucia M. Souza

2010-01-01

71

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

SciTech Connect

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

1981-08-01

72

QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and

Bernardo Ordas; Rosa A Malvar; Rogelio Santiago; Ana Butron

2010-01-01

73

Street Tree Diversity in Eastern North America and Its Potential for Tree Loss to Exotic Borers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of catastrophic tree losses caused by Dutch elm disease, foresters recommended that the urban forest be diversified. The intent was to create a more sustainable urban forest that would not be decimated by a single pathogen or insect pest. However, recent introductions of deadly borers such as Asian longhorned beetle and emerald ash borer reveal that new introductions

Michael J. Raupp; Anne Buckelew Cumming; Erin C. Raupp

2006-01-01

74

Detection of sugarcane bacilliform virus in sugarcane germplasm.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV), a badnavirus was found in sugarcane genotypes of Saccharum officinarum L., S. barberi Jesw., S. sinense Roxb., S. robustum Brand and Jesw., and Saccharum hybrids. In most of the suspected genotypes the virus was found associated with clear foliar symptoms. However, certain symptom-free clones carried the virus too. The virus was detected by immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in suspected clones. The virions measured about 108-118 x 20-21 nm in size. The virus was serologically closely related to another badnavirus, banana streak virus (BSV). Virus titer was low in most of the genotypes. However, a close correlation between symptoms expression and virus titer existed in some genotypes. PMID:8886091

Viswanathan, R; Alexander, K C; Garg, I D

1996-02-01

75

Influence of maize/lablab intercropping on lepidopterous stem borer infestation in maize.  

PubMed

Lepidopterous stem borers seriously affect production of maize, Zea mays L., in sub-Saharan Africa. Intercropping maize with legumes such as lablab, Lablab purpurens (L.), is one of the effective systems to control stem borers. Sole culture maize and maize/lablab intercrop system of different lablab densities were planted at two locations to investigate the effects of intercrop system on incidence and severity of stem borers with particular reference to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Stem borer infestation was found to be more severe in sole culture maize than maize in maize/lablab intercrop. There was a significantly negative relationship between lablab densities and maize grain yields, suggesting a possible competition for resources between the two crops. It was concluded that density of lablab and date of planting of lablab in maize/lablab intercropping have significant affects on stem borer populations and maize grain yields. PMID:15889728

Maluleke, Mary H; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Ayisi, Kingsley K

2005-04-01

76

Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

2014-01-01

77

Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

2014-01-01

78

Hormonal control of shoot branching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot branching is the process by which axillary buds, located on the axil of a leaf, develop and form new flowers or branches. The process by which a dormant bud activates and becomes an actively growing branch is complex and very finely tuned. Bud out- growth is regulated by the interaction of environmental signals and endogenous ones, such as plant

Veronica Ongaro; Ottoline Leyser

2010-01-01

79

Shootings Revive Debates on Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

Shah, Nirvi

2013-01-01

80

School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

Schiller, Juliet

2013-01-01

81

Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy  

SciTech Connect

Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

1982-12-01

82

Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings

Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

2010-01-01

83

On Improving Kd Tree for Ray Shooting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient ray shooting algorithm is inherently required by many computer graphics algorithms, particularly in image synthesis. Practical ray shooting algorithms aiming at the average-case complexity use some underlying spatial data structure such as -tree. We show the new termi- nation criteria algorithm that improves the space and time complexity of the -tree construction. It provides efficient ray-shooting queries and does

Vlastimil Havran; Jirí Bittner

2002-01-01

84

Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.  

PubMed

In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack. PMID:23865188

Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

2013-06-01

85

Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.  

PubMed

The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

2013-12-01

86

Sugarcane improvement: how far can we go?  

PubMed

In recent years, efforts to improve sugarcane have focused on the development of biotechnology for this crop. It has become clear that sugarcane lacks tools for the biotechnological route of improvement and that the initial efforts in sequencing ESTs had limited impact for breeding. Until recently, the models used by breeders in statistical genetics approaches have been developed for diploid organisms, which are not ideal for a polyploid genome such as that of sugarcane. Breeding programs are dealing with decreasing yield gains. The contribution of multiple alleles to complex traits such as yield is a basic question underlining the breeding efforts that could only be addressed by the development of specific tools for this grass. However, functional genomics has progressed and gene expression profiling is leading to the definition of gene networks. The sequencing of the sugarcane genome, which is underway, will greatly contribute to numerous aspects of research on grasses. We expect that both the transgenic and the marker-assisted route for sugarcane improvement will contribute to increased sugar, stress tolerance, and higher yield and that the industry for years to come will be able to rely on sugarcane as the most productive energy crop. PMID:21983270

Dal-Bianco, Maximiller; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Chapola, Roberto Giacomini; Hoffmann, Hermann Paulo; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

2012-04-01

87

Activity of leucine aminopeptidase of Telchin licus licus: an important insect pest of sugarcane.  

PubMed

The enzymatic activity of leucine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1) from the intestinal tract of sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus) was assayed by using a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric assay that uses L-leucyl-2- naphthylamide as substrate. In this assay, L-leucyl-2-naphthylamide is hydrolyzed to produce 2-naphthylamine and Lleucine. The product 2-naphthylamine reacts with Fast Black K and can be monitored using a continuous spectrophotometric measurement at 590 nm. The data on the kinetic parameters indicates that the Km for the L-leucyl-2- naphthylamide at pH 7.0 was found to be lower than those found for other LAP substrates. The Km and Vmax for the LAP were determined to be 84.03 µM and 357.14 enzymatic units mg(-1), respectively. A noticeable difference of LAP activity between the two insect orders tested was observed. This method could be used to screen for natural LAP inhibitors. PMID:24410745

Valencia, Jorge W Arboleda; de Sá, Maria Fátima Grossi; Jiménez, Arnubio Valencia

2014-06-01

88

Colonization of sugarcane plantlets by mixed inoculations with diazotrophic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropropagated sugarcane plants have been used in Brazil for almost three decades. Besides the improvement in plant health, micropropagated sugarcane carries no endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria. The Brazilian inoculation technology to reintroduce diazotrophic bacteria in micropropagated sugarcane plantlets revealed a synergistic-like effect in PGP-bacteria mixed inoculations. The infection model of single diazotrophic bacteria species in sugarcane was studied in detail,

A. L. M. Oliveira; M. Stoffels; M. Schmid; V. M. Reis; J. I. Baldani; A. Hartmann

2009-01-01

89

EVALUATING LAND SUITABILITY FOR INDUSTRIAL SUGARCANE WITH GIS MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand sugarcane is considered as one of the most important crops. The importance of sugarcane is more than a subsistence crop. Thailand has developed a large and complex industrial system for processing and marketing of crop. To increase the productivity of sugarcane, the cultivation should be based on the suitability of land. The study was then aimed at identifying

90

Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at

Jianping Wang; Bruce Roe; Simone Macmil; Qingyi Yu; Jan E Murray; Haibao Tang; Cuixia Chen; Fares Najar; Graham Wiley; John Bowers; Marie-Anne Van Sluys; Daniel S Rokhsar; Matthew E Hudson; Stephen P Moose; Andrew H Paterson; Ray Ming

2010-01-01

91

Life cycles and shoot-feeding of the pine shoot beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Lhngstrom, B. 1983. Life cycles and shoot-feeding ofthepine shoot beetles. Studia Forestalia Suecia 163, 29 pp. ISSN 0039-3150, ISBN 91-576-1246-3. The life cycle and shoot-feeTomicuspiniperda (L.) and 7: minor (Hart.) (Col., Scolytidae)

BO LANGSTROM

1983-01-01

92

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

PubMed Central

Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.

Papini-Terzi, Flavia S; Rocha, Flavia R; Vencio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugenio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M

2009-01-01

93

Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On

Sikha Deka; Sharmistha Barthakur

2010-01-01

94

Impact of the black twig borer, an introduced insect pest, on Acacia koa in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff 1875) became naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands in the 1960s. It attacks economically important plants (e.g. coffee) as well as endan- gered endemic trees. This study examined the impact of the black twig borer on koa (Acacia koa), an economically important native tree that is harvested for its fine wood. The black

CURTIS C. DAEHLER; NICK DUDLEY

95

Simulation models for European corn borer postdiapause morphogenesis and early infestation of maize in Missouri, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European corn borer is one of the most damaging insect pests to maize in the United States. Different methods exist for the estimation of time of damage to corn by first generation European corn borer. The most commonly used method is the linear thermal constant concept of phenology which by convention calculates cumulative thermal units from January 1 or another arbitrary date. Linear and nonlinear models based on the thermal units concept developed were to predict and simulate postdiapause development of the European corn borer and subsequent infestation of the maize crop using early spring temperatures (May 1-15) in central Missouri. The developmental rates of European corn borer were obtained from growth chamber investigations that simulated those temperatures, the operational temperatures being selected from a compilation of archival meteorological data from 1948 to 1989. The linear and polynomial regression models were developed to predict phenological stages of the European corn borer using thermal units as developmental rates. The models were compared against each other to determine the better predictor of estimation values: each explained 94 and 98% of the variation in developmental stages, respectively. In addition, the models were tested against independent field data and both models gave good predictions of developmental stages, indicating that either model would be a good predictor.

Magai, Robert N.; Decker, W. L.; Keaster, Armon J.

96

Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review.  

PubMed

Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate, dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen, liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification, can be consumed by processing into a wide range of food products with longer shelf-life and better organoleptic qualities. However, the consumption pattern of bamboo shoots in most of the countries is traditional, non-standardized, seasonal and region-specific with little value addition. Therefore, there exists a great opportunity, especially for the organized food processing sectors to take up the processing of bamboo shoot-based food products in an organized manner. The present article gives an insight into the global scenario of bamboo shoot-based food products and their consumption pattern, the quality attributes, and the opportunities for value addition along with future prospects in view of international food safety, security and nutrition. PMID:23904649

Choudhury, Debangana; Sahu, Jatindra K; Sharma, G D

2012-08-01

97

Molecular detection and identification of thirteen isolates of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus associated with sugarcane yellow leaf disease in nine sugarcane growing states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty sugarcane leaf samples exhibiting midrib yellowing symptoms from nine sugarcane growing states of India were collected.\\u000a The total RNA was isolated from infected samples and RT-PCR assays were performed using Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) specific primers. The infection of SCYLV was detected in 27 out of 30 samples, which showed the expected size (~610 bp)\\u000a amplicon during RT-PCR. The

Deepti Singh; Govind Pratap Rao; S. K. Snehi; S. K. Raj; R. Karuppaiah; R. Viswanathan

98

Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies. PMID:19689904

Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

2009-08-01

99

Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).  

PubMed

This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

2007-04-01

100

Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses.  

PubMed

Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported-biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 89.73-77.13 g/l in average value), and ethanol productivities (about 59.53-62.79 g/l d in average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.34-3.60 g/l) with conversions ranging from 97.67-99.80%, showing efficiency (90.11-94.28%) and operational stability of the biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of this study concerning the use of sugarcane as yeast supports could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:18685877

Liang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-ping; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Ming-jun; Liang, Shi-zhong; Huang, Yu-nan

2008-12-01

101

Female sex pheromone of iris borer,Macronoctua onusta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

Chromatographic and mass spectrometry studies of heptane extracts of the ovipositors of the iris borer,Macronoctua onusta, showed that the females produce several compounds that are the same as those produced by females of the tobacco budworm,Heliothis virescens. In trapping experiments, a mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol, and (Z)-9-tetradecenal (94?4?2) proved to be the minimum set of compounds required to cause effective capture of iris borer males in the field. PMID:24272098

Klun, J A; Neal, J W; Leonhardt, B A

1989-05-01

102

Trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle. The electric vehicle contains a driving mechanism, a driving operation part and a control device. The driving mechanism includes a power source, an electric motor and a modality for controlling output level from the power supply to the electric motor in response to the driving operation part. The control device includes a microprocessor which receives commands from the driving operation part and supplies a control signal to the driving mechanism in response to a stored drive control program. The trouble shooting system consists of control device storage mechanisms for storing trouble shooting programs for various parts of the vehicle which are executed by the microprocessor. This system also includes a command generating modality responsive to manual operation for supplying a command to the microprocessor to initiate the execution and read out of a selected trouble shooting program and a method by which the microprocessor may display the program being processed.

Horiuchi, M.

1986-01-14

103

Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

Pickard, B. G.

1985-01-01

104

Transformation of plants via the shoot apex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have transformed petunia byAgrobacterium tumefaciens containing genes for kanamycin resistance and beta-glucuronidase using isolated shoot apices from seedling tissue. Regeneration\\u000a of transformed plants in this model system was rapid. The technique of shoot apex transformation is an alternative for use\\u000a inAgrobacterium-mediated transformation of dicotyledonous crop species for which a method of regeneration via protoplasts, leaf disks, or\\u000a epidermal strips

E. C. Ulian; R. H. Smith; J. H. Gould; T. D. McKnight

1988-01-01

105

Root size and shoot\\/root ratio as influenced by light environment of the shoot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light environment of a plant shoot can affect its root size and the shoot\\/root biomass ratio. Photoperiodic influence on shoot\\/root ratios of first?year biennial sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) plants was related to phytochrome measurement of day length and its regulation of photosynthate partitioning to favor successful completion of the life cycle. Short photoperiods alternated with long, uninterrupted nights resulted

M. J. Kasperbauer; P. G. Hunt

1992-01-01

106

Ethylene and shoot regeneration: hookless1 modulates de novo shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

We have investigated the role of ethylene in shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants of Arabidopsis thaliana. We examined the ethylene sensitivity of five ecotypes representing both poor and prolific shoot regenerators and identified Dijon-G, a poor regenerator, as an ecotype with dramatically enhanced ethylene sensitivity. However, inhibiting ethylene action with silver nitrate generally reduced shoot organogenesis in ecotypes capable of regeneration. In ecotype Col-0, we found that ethylene-insensitive mutants (etr1-1, ein2-1, ein4, ein7) exhibited reduced shoot regeneration rates, whereas constitutive ethylene response mutants (ctr1-1, ctr1-12) increased the proportion of explants producing shoots. Our experiments with ethylene over-production mutants (eto1, eto2 and eto3) indicate that the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor gene, ETO1, can act as an inhibitor of shoot regeneration. Pharmacological elevation of ethylene levels was also found to significantly increase the proportion of explants regenerating shoots. We determined that the hookless1 (hls1-1) mutant, a suppressor of the ethylene response phenotypes of ctr1 and eto1 mutants, is capable of dramatically enhancing shoot organogenesis. The effects of ACC and loss of HLS1 function on shoot organogenesis were found to be largely additive. PMID:18084766

Chatfield, Steven P; Raizada, Manish N

2008-04-01

107

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without causing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the isolation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using molecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cultivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for analysis. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was partially sequenced and used for molecular identification. Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and the API-20E system were used to characterize the isolates. The strains were divided into five groups, based on the 16S rRNA sequences. Group I comprised 14 representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae; group II was composed of Bacilli; group III contained one representative, Curtobacterium sp; group IV contained representatives of the Pseudomonadaceae family, and group V had one isolate with an uncultured bacterium. Four isolates were able to reduce acetylene to ethylene. Most of the bacteria isolated from the sugarcane stem and leaf tissues belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae, respectively, demonstrating niche specificity. Overall, we found the endophytic bacteria in sugarcane to be more diverse than previously reported. PMID:20198580

Magnani, G S; Didonet, C M; Cruz, L M; Picheth, C F; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

2010-01-01

108

Xylitol recovery from fermented sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, obtained by acid hydrolysis, was fermented by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 to produce xylitol. Assays were made in order to determine the best conditions to clarify the fermented broth using activated carbon. The clarified medium was treated with ion-exchange resins after which xylitol crystallization was attempted. The best clarifying treatment was found by adding 25 g

P. V. Gurgel; I. M. Mancilha; R. P. Peçanha; J. F. M. Siqueira

1995-01-01

109

Is it possible to control fumonisin contamination in maize kernels by using genotypes resistant to the Mediterranean corn borer?  

PubMed

Insect activity has long been associated with Fusarium infection. The objectives of the current study were 1) to estimate the impact of Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre, damage on fumonisin contamination in the maize kernel by comparing fumonisin contamination under infestation and protected conditions, and 2) to measure the potential use of genotypes resistant to this borer as controlling factors of fumonisin contamination. Genotypes with increased kernel damage by borers tended to increase fumonisin accumulation under infestation conditions. In particular environments, other factors influenced fumonisin contamination more than damage by borers. When ear damage by borers is significant, maize resistance to ear damage could contribute to the reduction of fumonisin contamination in the kernels. Genotype such as EP42 x EP77 that combines low ear damage by borers and low fumonisin level across environments is a good choice to control fumonisin contamination. The use of an applicable methodology to identify Mediterranean corn borer-resistant genotypes to ear attack under artificial infestations might be a promising approach. PMID:24224270

Santiago, Rogelio; Cao, Ana; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

2013-10-01

110

Understanding interception losses under sugarcane plantations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being planted around 20 million hectares in over 70 countries. The Brazil is a leader in terms of area harvested and production with 9.5 million hectares and 715 million tons in 2011, respectively. Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop which is planted and after the first harvesting, the re-growth is harvested several times (five to eight times) until replanting is needed mainly due to yield decline. The rainfall interception loss is an important process in the hydrological cycle which has a key role on climate change. Details on sugarcane canopy interception are still not well understood in particular within the tropics. In this study, rainfall interception was measured during the complete ratoon crop cycle of the sixth re-growth, observing their growth stage. Five through (each with an area of 2000 cm2) were installed randomly on the plantation. The gross rainfall for the study period of one year was 1413 mm, while the throughfall was 972 mm (69%). Thus, annual rainfall interception loss was 441 mm (31%). The interception losses started to occur in the third stage of plant development (between 110 and 240 days after the onset of re-growth period). During the formation of the stems, the interception was 25.5%. Furthermore, at stage when the plant reached maturity (240 to 385 days), interception loss was increased to 57.5%. Our results indicate that interception losses are an important component of water use in sugarcane crops and the annual values of interception losses from sugarcane may be similar to some results found in tropical and temperate forests.

Costa Silva, R. W.; Salemi, L.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; de Moraes, J. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

2012-12-01

111

Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg\\/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with

A. C. Tavares; M. C. Pimenta; M. T. Gonçalves

1996-01-01

112

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, AQUATIC RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS, RUSSIAN PEAT BORER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Russian Peat Borer designed and fabricated by Aquatic Research Instruments was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at sites in EPA Regions 1 and 5, respectively. In additio...

113

Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Transgenic Corn: An Assessment of Refuge Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in agriculture has been on the rise since 1995. Scientists have been working to develop a high-dose refuge management plan that can effectively delay European corn borer resistance to pesticidal GMO corn. This paper develops a stochastic agricultural production model to assess and provide insight into the reasons why refuge recommendations remain controversial.

Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock

1999-01-01

114

The Life Cycle of the Root Borer, Oryctes agamemnon , Under Laboratory Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant

Rasmi Soltani; Ikbel Chaieb; Med Habib Ben Hamouda

2008-01-01

115

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little

Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach

2010-01-01

116

Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.  

PubMed

The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801

Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

2013-04-01

117

Simulating rice stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk., damage for developing decision support tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

InfoCrop, a generic crop–pest simulation model, was used to validate yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas Wlk., damage mechanism on two rice cultivars, Pusa Basmati 1 and Ratna. Data sets consisted of three experiments, one under natural infestation of the pest and two involving artificial detillering. The simulated yields showed less than 10% variation from the observed yields, except in one

G. Reji; Subhash Chander; P. K. Aggarwal

2008-01-01

118

Male Aggregation Pheromone of Date Palm Fruit Stalk Borer Oryctes elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at

Didier Rochat; Kazem Mohammadpoor; Christian Malosse; Arman Avand-Faghih; Martine Lettere; Josiane Beauhaire; Jean-Paul Morin; Adeline Pezier; Michel Renou; Gholam Abbas Abdollahi

2004-01-01

119

Inbreeding variability and population structure in the invasive haplodiploid palm-seed borer ( Coccotrypes dactyliperda )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the mating system and population genetic structure of the invasive haplodiploid palm-seed borer Coccotrypes dactyliperda in California. We focused on whether these primarily inbreeding beetles have a 'mixed- breeding' system that includes occasional outbreeding, and whether local inbreeding coefficients (FIS) varied with dominant environmental factors. We also analysed the genetic structure of C. dactyliperda populations across local and

J. P. Holzman; A. J. Bohonak; L. R. Kirkendall; D. Gottlieb; A. R. Harari; S. T. Kelley

2009-01-01

120

Vitis Shoots Show reversible Change in Leaf Shape along the Shoot Axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapevine (Vitis) species typically bear entire leaves along the shoot axis once mature. A few species and selections are known to bear palmately compound leaves. Whether entire or compound, the shape of the leaf is essentially constant over the length of the shoot axis; the practices of ampelography and ampelometry, used to identify grapevine varieties, clones, and species, are based

Peter Cousins; Bernard Prins

121

Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in EPS21. This novel trait could be useful in maize breeding programs to improve borer resistance.

2011-01-01

122

Genetic structure and gene flow among European corn borer populations from the Great Plains to the Appalachians of North America  

EPA Science Inventory

Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...

123

Comparative Ultrastructure and Blood-Brain Barrier in Diapause and Nondiapause Larvae of the European Corn Borer 'Ostrinia nubilalis' (Hubner).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrastructural examination of diapause and nondiapause larval brains of the European corn borer disclosed anatomical differences that may be related to the insect's 'blood-brain barrier.' The perineurial type I cells are quite closely appressed in the di...

E. J. Houk S. D. Beck

1975-01-01

124

Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.  

PubMed

Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice. PMID:19811767

Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

2010-01-01

125

75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and spread...the importation of certain articles from Canada to prevent the introduction and...

2010-08-03

126

BOREAS TE-12 SSA Shoot Geometry Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected shoot geometry data in 1993 and 1994 from aspen, jack pine, and black spruce trees. Collections were made at the Southern Study Area Nipawin Fen Site (SSA FEN), Young Jack Pine (YJP), Old Jack Pine (OJP), Old Aspen (OA), Young Aspen (YA), Mixed Site (MIX), and Old Black Spruce (OBS) sites. A caliper was used to measure shoot and needle lengths and widths. A volume displacement procedure was used to measure the weight of the shoot or twig submerged in water. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Cheng, L.; Yang, Litao

2000-01-01

127

Thermal behavior of the SHOOT gallery arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planned Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment will show the feasibility of resupplying orbiting facilities with liquid helium. The SHOOT experiment, designed for transfer rates of 300 to 800 liters/hr, will use a thermomechanical pump and four screen covered flow channels for fluid acquisition. Cavitation and thermal behavior was examined in ground based tests of the pump and of a full sized channel. A model for estimating the temperature profile at the pump inlet is presented. Large temperature increases in this region can significantly degrade the performance of the fountain pump.

Nissen, J. A.; Vansciver, Steven W.

1990-12-01

128

Regulation of shoot branching by auxin.  

PubMed

The idea that apically derived auxin inhibits shoot branching by inhibiting the activity of axillary buds was first proposed 70 years ago, but it soon became clear that its mechanism of action was complex and indirect. Recent advances in the study of axillary bud development and of auxin signal transduction are allowing a better understanding of the role of auxin in controlling shoot branching. These studies have identified a new role for auxin early in bud development as well as some of the second messengers involved in mediating the branch-inhibiting effects of auxin. PMID:14607099

Leyser, Ottoline

2003-11-01

129

Parthenolide: from plant shoots to cancer roots.  

PubMed

Parthenolide (PTL), a sesquiterpene lactone (SL) originally purified from the shoots of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), has shown potent anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. It is currently being tested in cancer clinical trials. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of parthenolide revealed key chemical properties required for biological activities and epigenetic mechanisms, and led to the derivatization of an orally bioavailable analog, dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT). Parthenolide is the first small molecule found to be selective against cancer stem cells (CSC), which it achieves by targeting specific signaling pathways and killing cancer from its roots. In this review, we highlight the exciting journey of parthenolide, from plant shoots to cancer roots. PMID:23688583

Ghantous, Akram; Sinjab, Ansam; Herceg, Zdenko; Darwiche, Nadine

2013-09-01

130

Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

2010-11-01

131

Phylogenetic variation in the shoot mineral concentration of angiosperms.  

PubMed

The calcium (Ca) concentration of plant shoot tissues varies systematically between angiosperm orders. The phylogenetic variation in the shoot concentration of other mineral nutrients has not yet been described at an ordinal level. The aims of this study were (1) to quantify the shoot mineral concentration of different angiosperm orders, (2) to partition the phylogenetic variation in shoot mineral concentration between and within orders, (3) to determine if the shoot concentration of different minerals are correlated across angiosperm species, and (4) to compare experimental data with published ecological survey data on 81 species sampled from their natural habitats. Species, selected pro rata from different angiosperm orders, were grown in a hydroponic system under a constant external nutrient regime. Shoots of 117 species were sampled during vegetative growth. Significant variation in shoot carbon (C), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg) concentration occurred between angiosperm orders. There was no evidence for systematic differences in shoot phosphorus (P) or organic-nitrogen (N) concentration between orders. At a species level, there were strong positive correlations between shoot Ca and Mg concentration, between shoot P and organic-N concentration, and between shoot K concentration and shoot fresh weight:dry weight ratio. Shoot C and cation concentration correlated negatively at a species level. Species within the Poales and the Caryophyllales had distinct shoot mineralogies in both the designed experiment and in the ecological survey. PMID:14739259

Broadley, Martin R; Bowen, Helen C; Cotterill, Helen L; Hammond, John P; Meacham, Mark C; Mead, Andrew; White, Philip J

2004-02-01

132

Windrow composting of sugarcane and coffee byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compost produced from lignocellulosic agricultural residues is found to be suitable for maintaining soil properties and health.\\u000a Results of experimental trials of large scale windrow composting of sugarcane press mud, cane bagasse and coffee pulp mixtures\\u000a are presented and discussed. Filter press mud and bagasse mixtures were transformed into composted products in 120 days, of\\u000a which 80 days were of

C. Rolz; R. de León; R. Cifuentes; C. Porres

2010-01-01

133

Impact of Heavy Metals on Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops in the tropics and subtropics, where it is mainly used to manufacture crystal\\u000a sugar. It is cultivated between the latitudes of 35°N and 35°S. Theoretically, it has the potential to produce 805 t?ha?1 wet cane or 470 t?ha?1 dry matter. The highest harvestable sugar cane yield achieved so far is close

D. V. Yadav; Radha Jain; R. K. Rai

134

Biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus citrinopileatus.  

PubMed

The chemically as well as hot water treated agrowaste sugarcane bagasse was subjected to degradation by Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The fungus degraded lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and carbon content of both chemically as well as hot water treated waste and produced in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body. Biodegradation of the waste in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During mycelial growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the sugarcane bagasse decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated substrate supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrates. Degradation of the hot water treated sugarcane bagasse was better and faster than chemically treated substrates. PMID:23273185

Pandey, V K; Singh, M P; Srivastava, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Takshak, S

2012-01-01

135

Mass propagation of shoots of Stevia rebaudiana using a large scale bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the mass propagation of multiple shoots of Stevia rebaudiana is described. Isolated shoot primordia were used as the inoculum to obtain clusters of shoot primordia. Such clusters were grown in a 500 liter bioreactor to obtain shoots. A total of 64.6 Kg of shoots were propagated from 460 g of the inoculated shoot primordia. These shoots were

Motomu Akita; Takeo Shigeoka; Yoko Koizumi; Michio Kawamura

1994-01-01

136

The response of sugarcane canopy development to water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water stress is a common occurrence in dryland crop production, including sugarcane production. A good understanding of how crops respond to water stress is a prerequisite for choosing the best cultivar and management practices to optimally exploit natural resources. One aspect of sugarcane growth and development that has not been investigated thoroughly is how canopy development is affected by water

M. A. Smit; A. Singels

2006-01-01

137

The mechanism of sugar uptake by sugarcane suspension cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane cell suspensions took up sugar from the medium at rates comparable to or greater than sugarcane tissue slices or plants in the field. This system offers an opportunity for the study of kinetic and energetic mechanisms of sugar transport in storage parenchyma-like cells in the absence of heterogeneity introduced by tissues. The following results were obtained: (a) The sugar

E. Komor; M. Thorn; A. Maretzki

1981-01-01

138

Abacá mosaic virus: A distinct strain of Sugarcane mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abacá mosaic virus (AbaMV) is related to members of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. The ?2 kb 3? terminal region of the viral genome was sequenced and, in all areas analysed, found to be most similar to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and distinct from Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sorghum mosaic

C. F. Gambley; J. E. Thomas; L. V. Magnaye; L. Herradura

2004-01-01

139

Biomass production of sugarcane cultivars and early-generation hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane (Saccharum L. spp. hybrids) is a vegetatively-propagated, perennial crop cultivated primarily for sucrose production. The biomass production of interspecific and intergeneric hybrids is assumed to surpass that of cultivars, but there have been few statistical comparisons. The objectives of this study were to determine effects of plant-cane and ratoon crops on biomass yield components for two sugarcane cultivars and

B. L. Legendre; D. M. Burner

1995-01-01

140

Regulation of shoot branching by auxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that apically derived auxin inhibits shoot branching by inhibiting the activity of axillary buds was first proposed 70 years ago, but it soon became clear that its mechanism of action was complex and indirect. Recent advances in the study of axillary bud development and of auxin signal transduction are allowing a better understanding of the role of auxin

Ottoline Leyser

2003-01-01

141

Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains  

PubMed Central

The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1) or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1), a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize.

Zhang, Xiaolan; Ohtsu, Kazuhiro; Zhou, Ruilian; Sarkar, Ananda; Hargreaves, Sarah; Elshire, Robert J.; Eudy, Douglas; Pawlowska, Teresa; Ware, Doreen; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Buckner, Brent; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

2009-01-01

142

The embryonic shoot: a lifeline through winter.  

PubMed

The tiny vascular axis of the embryo emerges post-embryonically as an elaborate and critical infrastructure, pervading the entire plant system. Its expansive nature is especially impressive in trees, where growth and development continue for extended periods. While the shoot apical meristem (SAM) orchestrates primary morphogenesis, the vascular system is mapped out in its wake in the provascular cylinder, situated just below the emerging leaf primordia and surrounding the rib meristem. Formation of leaf primordia and provascular tissues is incompatible with the harsh conditions of winter. Deciduous trees of boreal and temperate climates therefore enter a survival mode at the end of the season. However, to be competitive, they need to maximize their growth period while avoiding cellular frost damage. Trees achieve this by monitoring photoperiod, and by timely implementation of a survival strategy that schedules downstream events, including growth cessation, terminal bud formation, dormancy assumption, acquisition of freezing tolerance, and shedding of leaves. Of central importance are buds, which contain an embryonic shoot that allows shoot development and elongation in spring. The genetic and molecular processes that drive the cycle in synchrony with the seasons are largely elusive. Here, we review what is known about the signals and signal conduits that are involved, the processes that are initiated, and the developmental transitions that ensue in a terminal bud. We propose that addressing dormancy as a property of the SAM and the bud as a unique shoot type will facilitate our understanding of winter dormancy. PMID:24368502

van der Schoot, Christiaan; Paul, Laju K; Rinne, Päivi L H

2014-04-01

143

Shooting Gallery Notes. Working Paper #22. Preliminary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contains ethnographic participant-observation field notes taken on a one-night visit to a "shooting gallery" in East Harlem (New York City) along with background information and commentary. East Harlem, also referred to as "El Barrio" or Spanish Harlem, is a 200-square block neighborhood on the upper East Side of Manhattan in New York…

Bourgois, Philippe

144

De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species.

Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

2014-01-01

145

Direct shoot induction of Paeonia lactiflora ‘Zhong Sheng Fen’ and rejuvenation of hyperhydric shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underground buds of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) ‘Zhong Sheng Fen’ were used to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on culture initiation, benzyladenine (BA) on axillary shoot induction, and three auxins (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid [IBA] and 1-naphthyleneacetic acid [NAA]) on axillary shoot proliferation. In addition, methods to rejuvenate hyperhydric microshoots were established. Our results showed that the

HongJuan Wu; XiaoNan Yu; Jaime A Teixeira da Silva; GuangPei Lu

2011-01-01

146

Improved shoot development and rooting from mature cotyledons of sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regeneration and development of shoots from sunflower cotyledons were improved by optimizing explant age, plant growth regulator\\u000a concentrations, and duration of exposure to plant growth regulators during shoot initiation, development and rooting. Shoot\\u000a initiation required only a brief exposure to auxin and cytokinin, and minimizing the duration of exposure to high levels of\\u000a plant growth regulators improved shoot development. Rooting

C. M. Baker; N. Muñoz-Fernandez; C. D. Carter

1999-01-01

147

European corn borer sex pheromone : Inhibition and elicitation of behavioral response by analogs.  

PubMed

The male sexual behavior-stimulating and inhibiting properties of a series of analogs of the European corn borer sex pheromone were determined in a flight tunnel. The structural requirements for inhibition of pheromonal response were far less restrictive than those for elicitation of that response. Analogs that by themselves elicited upwind flight response from males at a low dose were generally less inhibitory to male response than many of the analogs that had no pheromonal activity. These findings suggest that many pheromone analogs bind to pheromone receptors without provoking behavioral response and possibly undergo slower degradation on the antenna than pheromonally active compounds. The disparity of response to analogs by two pheromonal types of the European corn borer indicates that the pheromone receptor and pheromone catabolic systems are biochemically very different in the two types. PMID:24263829

Schwarz, M; Klun, J A; Uebel, E C

1990-05-01

148

Game Birds: The Ethics of Shooting Birds for Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide an ethical assessment of the shooting of animals for sport. In particular, it discusses the use of partridges and pheasants for shooting. While opposition to hunting and shooting large wild mammals is strong, game birds have often taken a back seat in everyday animal welfare concerns. However, the practice of raising game birds for sport

Rebekah Humphreys

2010-01-01

149

Apical Dominance and Shoot Branching. Divergent Opinions or Divergent Mechanisms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apical dominance is the term used to describe the control of the shoot tip over axillary bud outgrowth (e.g. Cline, 1997). It is best demonstrated via shoot tip removal (decapitation), which leads to apical domi- nance. Indeed, decapitation has been widely used to study bud outgrowth. In contrast, branching may also occur in the presence of a vigorous shoot tip

Elizabeth Ann Dun; Brett James Ferguson; Christine Anne Beveridge

2006-01-01

150

EMF, an Arabidopsis Gene Required for Vegetative Shoot Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher plants, the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state in the shoot meristem initiates flowering. To study this floral transition, a constitutively flowering mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype columbia, embryonic flower (emf), was characterized. No vegetative shoots were produced from emf embryos or calli; the shoot apical meristems (SAMs) in the emf embryos were altered compared to

Z. R. Sung; A. Belachew; Bai Shunong; R. Bertrand-Garcia

1992-01-01

151

Inhibition of shoot branching by new terpenoid plant hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot branching is a major determinant of plant architecture and is highly regulated by endogenous and environmental cues. Two classes of hormones, auxin and cytokinin, have long been known to have an important involvement in controlling shoot branching. Previous studies using a series of mutants with enhanced shoot branching suggested the existence of a third class of hormone(s) that is

Mikihisa Umehara; Atsushi Hanada; Satoko Yoshida; Kohki Akiyama; Tomotsugu Arite; Noriko Takeda-Kamiya; Hiroshi Magome; Yuji Kamiya; Ken Shirasu; Koichi Yoneyama; Junko Kyozuka; Shinjiro Yamaguchi

2008-01-01

152

Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.  

PubMed

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300

Razze, J M; Mason, C E

2012-08-01

153

Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2003 and June 2004, the insect borers and their spatial distribution within Pinus massoniana were investigated in Zhoushan City, in East China’s Zhejiang Province, where pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are typically found. The niche width, proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying\\u000a trees were computed. Results show that five insect species

Jiying Song; Youqing Luo; Juan Shi; Xiaosu Yan; Weiping Chen; Ping Jiang

2006-01-01

154

Field Efficacy of Some Bioinsecticides Against Maize and Jowar Stem Borer, Chilo Partellus (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field evaluation of Nimbokil (a neem derivative), Tracer and Abamectin alongwith Cyperemthrin was studied on infestation level of maize stem borer (Chilo partellus). In Tracer treated plots, the infestation was reduced from 10.72% before spray to 3.05% seven day after first spray and to 0.74% at seven day of second spray which was done one week after first spray.

SOHAIL AHMED; MUSHTAQ A. SALEEM; IMRAN RAUF

155

Transgenic rice plants expressing cry1Ia5 gene are resistant to stem borer (Chilo agamemnon).  

PubMed

The stem borer, Chilo agamemnon Bles., is the most serious insect pest in rice fields of the Egyptian Nile Delta. To induce rice plant resistance to Chilo agamemnon, the cry1Ia5 gene was introduced to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The integration of the cry1Ia5 gene into the plant genome was confirmed using PCR and Southern blot analyses. The obtained plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse until seeds were collected. Northern blot analysis of the T1 plants confirmed the expression of the cry1Ia5 gene. The insecticidal activity of the transgenic plants against the rice stem borer Chilo agamemnon were tested. The third larval instars were fed on stem cuts from three transgenic lines (L1, L2 and L3) as well as cuts from the control (gfp-transgenic) plants for one week and the mortality percentage was daily recorded. Transgenic line-3 showed the highest mortality percentage after one day (50%) followed by L2 (25%) then L1 (0%). Two days post treatment the mortality percentage increased to 70, 45 and 25% for transgenic lines 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Mortality of 100% was recorded four days post treatment, while those fed on the gfp-transgenic rice (control) showed 0% mortality. Thus, transgenic plants showed high resistance to stem borers and can serve as a novel genetic resource in breeding programs. Transgenic plants expressing BT protein were normal in phenotype with as good seed setting as the nontransgenic control plants. PMID:21844686

Moghaieb, Reda E A

2010-01-01

156

Burn disasters in shooting range areas.  

PubMed

Shooting range injuries are generally caused by ballistic accidents, and so far no burn disaster has been reported. In this article we reported a disaster caused by a gunpowder explosion in an indoor shooting range area in Istanbul, Turkey. Fourteen injured people were evacuated from the scene. Our burn center accepted 7 of them. Of the 7 injured people, 2 who were accepted by our burn center, and 3 people who were admitted by another center died. It is clearly identified how this mechanism of injury differs from that of usual burn injuries, due to both the high temperature generated, and the combination of hot and toxic gases produced by the explosion. We described the features of burn injury, and possible reasons of burn disasters. PMID:18555629

Uygur, Fatih; Oksüz, Sinan; Yüksel, Fuat

2008-08-01

157

Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

2013-01-01

158

In vitro induction of multiple shoots and plant regeneration from shoot tips of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for plant regeneration from excised shoot tips of Vigna radiata were studied. Complete plants were regenerated directly without an intervening callus phase from shoot tips on basal medium (MS salts+B5vitamins). Regeneration frequency varied with genotype, explant size and growth regulator combinations in the medium. Addition of cytokinins induced a variable amount of callus at the base of the shoot

Anju Gulati; Pawan K. Jaiwal

1992-01-01

159

Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on sugarcane bagasse  

SciTech Connect

The growth behavior of Cellulomonas has been examined in fermentation systems using alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse. During the batch operation diauxic growth was found which would not seem to be explained by catabolic repression. The relative variation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fermentation process suggests the initial utilization of easily degradable substrate, i.e., hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose, until their concentration becomes limiting, followed by utilization of the crystalline cellulose. The conversion of substrate was 70% with a yield of 0.355 g of biomass per gram of bagasse feed. (Refs. 13).

Enriquez, A.

1981-07-01

160

Xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was used for batch xylitol production in stirred tank reactor with Candida guilliermondii cells entrapped in Ca-alginate beads. Experiments were carried out using five-fold concentrated hydrolysate, agitation speed of 300rpm, air flowrate of 1.3lmin?1, initial cell concentration of 1.4gDMl?1, and starting pH 6.0. Xylitol production reached 47.5gl?1 within 120h of fermentation, resulting in a bioconversion yield of

W. Carvalho; J. C. Santos; L. Canilha; S. S. Silva; P. Perego; A. Converti

2005-01-01

161

Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

1989-01-01

162

Xanthan production by Xanthomonas albilineans infecting sugarcane stalks.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas albilineans is the causal organism of leaf scald, a bacterial vascular disease of sugarcane. Xanthomonas may invade the parenchyma between the bundles and cause reddened pockets of gum, identified as a xanthan-like polysaccharide. Since xanthan contains glucuronic acid, the ability of Xanthomonas to produce an active UDP glucose dehydrogenase is often seen as a virulence factor. X. albilineans axenically cultured did not secrete xanthans to Willbrink liquid media, but the use of inoculated sugarcane tissues for producing and characterizing xanthans has been required. A hypothesis about the role of sugarcane polysaccharides to assure the production of bacterial xanthan is discussed. PMID:17646030

Blanch, María; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

2008-03-13

163

An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

Elkoury, J.M.

1980-12-01

164

Evidence for Physiological Integration Between Shaded and Unshaded Short Shoots of Thalassia testudinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological integration of Thalassia testudinum short shoots enables clones to function at a higher level of physiological organization than that of the short shoots themselves. Shaded short shoots connected to non-shaded short shoots had blade growth rates and proximate organic constituent levels equal to non-shaded controls. Shaded short shoots physically isolated from neighboring short shoots had blade growth rates and

D. A. Tomasko; Clinton J. Dawes

1989-01-01

165

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species).  

PubMed

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

166

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)  

PubMed Central

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks.

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

167

Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane  

SciTech Connect

The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. (Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI (USA))

1990-05-01

168

Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  

PubMed

Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

2013-10-28

169

Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV)], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

Greenland, David

2005-11-01

170

Response to stem bending in forest shrubs: stem or shoot reorientation and shoot release.  

PubMed

Shrubs in the forest understory may be bent by their own weight or by overstory debris. To maintain height growth they must respond to bending by vertical growth of new shoots, reorientation of older axes, or by releasing preventitious buds to form epicormic shoots. I tested for these responses in Ilex verticillata L., Cornus amomum Mill., Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch, Viburnum cassinoides L., Hamamelis virginiana L., and Kalmia latifolia L. For each species, I removed potentially supporting vegetation adjacent to 20 stems, left 10 stems untreated to test for bending by self weight, and bent the remaining 10 stems to 45 degrees to simulate effects of fallen debris. Stem angles and curvatures were measured from before leaf out until just before leaf fall to detect either sagging from self weight or upward bending from tension wood action. Control stems initially leaned out of vertical and five of six species sagged further into a cantilever form. Several control stems failed and bent to the ground. Stems of H. virginiana, I. verticillata, and C. amomum formed tension wood, but only the first two species bent upward. Viburnum cassinoides, G. baccata, and K. latifolia formed no tension wood and sagged further down after being bent. Epicormic shoots formed with varying frequencies in all species except K. latifolia. Epicormic shoots were the major response in C. amomum, V. cassinoides, and G. baccata. New terminal shoots on bent stems recovered toward vertical in I. verticillata and K. latifolia. Negative gravitropic response of shoots was the only recovery mechanism for K. latifolia. PMID:11540964

Wilson, B F

1997-10-01

171

Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

172

Bamboo shoots: a novel source of nutrition and medicine.  

PubMed

Bamboos, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae, are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource. Various edible species and exotic food products (fermented shoots, pickle, etc.) and recipes of bamboo shoots (bamboo beer, bamboo cookies) are consumed worldwide. Change in nutritional composition of different species of bamboo shoots with processing has also been reviewed. Bamboo shoots possess high protein, moderate fiber, and less fat content. They are also endowed for having essential amino acids, selenium, a potent antioxidant, and potassium, a healthy heart mineral. Occurrence of taxiphyllin, a cyanogenic glycoside in raw shoots, and its side effect on human health calls for the demand to innovate processing ways using scientific input to eliminate the toxic compound without disturbing the nutrient reserve. Lastly, the paper also reviews the utilization of medicinal properties acquired by bamboo shoot. Using the traditional knowledge, pharmaceutical preparations of bamboo shoots like bamboo salt, bamboo vinegar, bamboo extracts for diabetes and cholesterol control, etc. are now gaining importance. Further investigation is required by the researchers to make novel nutraceutical products and benefit the society. PMID:23391018

Singhal, Poonam; Bal, Lalit Mohan; Satya, Santosh; Sudhakar, P; Naik, S N

2013-01-01

173

DETERMINATION OF DNA CONTENT AND GENOME SIZE IN SUGARCANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate determination of the progeny types in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crosses would facilitate genetic and genomic analyses. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on three sugarcane interspecific F1 families, obtained from S. officinarum cv. Green German x S. spontaneum cv. IND 81-146 (GI), S. spontaneum cv. Pin 84-1 x S. officinarum cv. Muntok Java (PM), and Pin 84-1 x CP

S. J. Edmé; J. C. Comstock; J. D. Miller; P. Y. P. Tai

174

Bacterial soil community in a Brazilian sugarcane field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of bacterial communities in soil gives insight into microbial behavior under prevailing environmental conditions.\\u000a In this context, we assessed the composition of soil bacterial communities in a Brazilian sugarcane experimental field. The\\u000a experimental design encompassed plots containing common sugarcane (variety SP80-1842) and its transgenic form (IMI-1 — imazapyr\\u000a herbicide resistant). Plants were grown in such field plots in

Francisco Dini-Andreote; Fernando Dini Andreote; Rodrigo Costa; Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani; Jan Dirk van Elsas; Welington Luiz Araújo

2010-01-01

175

White-rot fungal growth on sugarcane lignocellulosic residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve white-rot fungi were grown in solid state culture on sugarcane chips previously fermented by yeast employing the EX-FERM process. The lignocellulosic sugarcane residue had 12.5% permanganate lignin and 81.3% holocellulose. After 5 to 6 weeks at 20° C, all fungi produced a solid residue which had a lower in vitro dry matter enzymatic digestibility than the original bagasse, with

C. Rolz; R. de Leon; M. C. de Arriola; S. de Cabrera

1987-01-01

176

Relative profitability of intercropping vegetable crops in autumn planted sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted consecutively for three years at P.A.U. Sugarcane Research Station, Jalandhar to study the\\u000a relative performance of different vegetable crops viz. pea, radish, palak and turnip as double row intercroped in the autumn\\u000a planted sugarcane. The results revealed that intercropping of peas did not affect the cane yield over the pure cane. The intercropping\\u000a of radish,

L. K. Saini; Makhan Singh; M. L. Kapur

2003-01-01

177

Responses of the Mediterranean pine shoot beetle Tomicus destruens (Wollaston) to pine shoot and bark volatiles.  

PubMed

The pine shoot beetle Tomicus destruens has two dispersal phases per generation. In the first, mature adults move toward trunks of dying pines to lay eggs; in the second, callow adults move toward the shoots of healthy pines for maturation feeding. However, there is no information on the chemical stimuli that govern host selection by T. destruens adults. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify the volatiles released by shoots and bark of stone pine that are behaviorally and electrophysiologically active on T. destruens; (2) to verify which blends and concentrations of such volatiles are differently active on males and females, as well as on callow and mature adults, during the two host search phases (breeding and feeding). A four-arm olfactometer was used to test the behavior of walking T. destruens adults toward various sources of volatiles including fresh shoots and bark, their collected volatiles, and two synthetic blends. For each odor, the behavior of both callow and mature males and females was recorded individually. Shoot and bark extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and tested by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) on T. destruens males and females. Two blends of two (alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene; blend A) and three (alpha-pinene, beta- myrcene, and alpha-terpinolene; blend B) synthetic compounds, chosen among those that induce EAD responses and known to be attractive for other bark beetle species, were tested in the olfactometer at five concentrations. Insect behavior was affected by the degree of sexual maturation but not by sex. Callow insects were attracted by shoots and their extracts, while mature individuals by bark and its extracts. Six extracted compounds were active on T. destruens antennae: limonene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and alpha-terpinolene. alpha-Terpinolene, released only by bark, was active only on mature insects, whereas (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, released only by shoots, was active only on callows. Males and females showed similar EAD responses. Of the six extracted volatiles, two were attractive for callow adults (blend A) and three for matures (blend B). In both cases, responses were positively correlated with blend concentration, although a repellent effect was noted at the highest concentrations. PMID:18704589

Faccoli, Massimo; Anfora, Gianfranco; Tasin, Marco

2008-09-01

178

On winning the penalty shoot-out in soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penalty shoot-out is used to break tied games in the knock-out stages of soccer competition. The shoot-out, which consists of an alternating series of penalty kicks, is won by the team with the highest goal tally after n kicks per team (n = 5). In the event of a tie after five penalty kicks each, the shoot-out progresses to

Tim McGarry; Ian M. Franks

2000-01-01

179

Biodegradation of hardwood lignocellulosics by the western poplar clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards).  

PubMed

Lignin in plant cell wall is a source of useful chemicals and also the major barrier for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass for producing biofuel and bioproducts. Enzymatic lignin degradation/modification process could bypass the need for chemical pretreatment and thereby facilitate bioprocess consolidation. Herein, we reveal our new discovery in elucidating the process of hardwood lignin modification/degradation by clearwing borer, Paranthrene robiniae . The wood-boring clearwing borer, P. robiniae , effectively tunnels hardwood structures during the larval stage; its digestion products from wood components, however, has not yet been investigated. A series of analysis conducted in this study on tunnel walls and frass produced provided evidence of structural alterations and lignin degradation during such hardwood digestion process. The analysis included solid state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis; the results strongly suggest that the structural alteration of lignin primarily involved a preferential degradation of syringyl units accompanied by oxidation on the side chains of lignin guaiacyl moieties. This study also further indicated that unlike the wood-feeding termite the clearwing borer does not target cellulose as an energy source, and thus its lignin degradation ability should provide potential information on how to disassemble and utilize hardwood lignin. Overall, this biological model with an efficient lignin disruption system will provide the new insight into novel enzyme system required for effective plant cell wall disintegration for enhanced cellulose accessibility by enzymes and production of value-added lignin derived products. PMID:21405063

Ke, Jing; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti Dey; Chen, Shulin

2011-05-01

180

Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

2012-04-01

181

Spatial distribution of grape root borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) infestations in virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.  

PubMed

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345

Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-06-01

182

QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines  

PubMed Central

Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.

2010-01-01

183

Performance of dairy goats fed whole sugarcane.  

PubMed

Five lactating goats were used in a 5x5 Latin square experiment to determine the effects of feeding whole sugarcane (WSC) on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and milk composition. Goats were fed diets containing 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 g kg(-1) WSC and 400, 300, 200, 100, and 0 g kg(-1) tifton hay (TH). Intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Total tract nutrient digestibilities were not influenced by WSC inclusion except for the digestibility of NDF which decreased linearly (p<0.05) as the level of WSC in the diet increased. Inclusion of WSC linearly (p<0.05) decreased milk yield without affecting milk composition. It was concluded that WSC had a lower feeding values than TH for lactating goats. PMID:18663596

Cabral, A D; Batista, A M V; Mustafa, A; de Carvalho, F F R; Guim, A; Monteiro, P S; Lucena, R B

2009-03-01

184

Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  

PubMed

In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

2002-01-01

185

Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro-regions) from Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009); (ii) One index that indicates the degree of relative occurrence of vulnerable areas in relation to contamination risk of surface and groundwater by effluents from sugarcane agroindustry from a model made by Barbalho e Campos (2010); (iii) two indicators that evaluate the commitment degree of the available water to meet the demand of sugarcane potential expansion distinctly for dryland and irrigation system; (iv) two indicators that evaluate the attendance level of the sugarcane water demand considering the limits of available water from local water resource in terms of maximum area that the culture can expand in a sustainable way For the estimation of water supply was used a spatially distributed model of specific flow (FERRAZ, 2012). The results show that the indicators were able to characterize and distinguish the different territorial units of analysis and the spatial models used satisfactorily met, in terms of level of detail, the purposes explained. The Sudoeste de Goiás and Quirinópolis microregions exhibit higher favorability, from the point of view of water sustainability therefore have areas where culture can be grown in dry system and still rely on higher available water volumes to supply the demand of sugarcane cultivation in the areas of compulsory irrigation.

Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

2012-12-01

186

Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil  

PubMed Central

Background The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis. Results The available stalk number, stalk diameter, single stalk weight and theoretical yield of ratoon cane (RS) were found to be significantly lower than those of plant cane (NS). The activities of several carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus processing enzymes, including invertase, peroxidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase were found to be significantly lower in RS soil than in NS soil. BIOLOG analysis indicated a significant decline in average well-color development (AWCD), Shannon’s diversity and evenness indices in RS soil as compared to NS soil. To profile the rhizospheric metaproteome, 109 soil protein spots with high resolution and repeatability were successfully identified. These proteins were found to be involved in carbohydrate/energy, amino acid, protein, nucleotide, auxin and secondary metabolisms, membrane transport, signal transduction and resistance, etc. Comparative metaproteomics analysis revealed that 38 proteins were differentially expressed in the RS soil as compared to the control soil or NS soil. Among these, most of the plant proteins related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and stress response were up-regulated in RS soil. Furthermore, several microbial proteins related to membrane transport and signal transduction were up-regulated in RS soil. These proteins were speculated to function in root colonization by microbes. Conclusions Our experiments revealed that sugarcane ratooning practice induced significant changes in the soil enzyme activities, the catabolic diversity of microbial community, and the expression level of soil proteins. They influenced the biochemical processes in the rhizosphere ecosystem and mediated the interactions between plants and soil microbes.

2013-01-01

187

Temperature-Dependent Models for Predicting European Corn Borer Early Feeding on Corn in Missouri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is one of the most damaging insect pests to corn. Current yield losses attributed to the European corn borer are in the region of 400 million annually. Even though the European corn borer (ECB) has been extensively studied, few models exist that attempt to accurately predict its early infestation on corn. The basic problem encountered in formulating a first generation infestation prediction model is when to start calculating the temperature index. The exact conditions required to terminate diapause and the resumption of normal development are not well established. One of the old methods used in Missouri to predict the earliest date of ECB infestation involves the use of growing degree days, and by convention the heat units are arbitrarily calculated from January 1. This study was conducted to formulate prediction, and simulation-decision models for corn and first generation ECB infestation. The effects of variable maximum and minimum temperatures on the growth and development of the ECB were studied both in the laboratory and field designed experiments. Archival biological data from the IPM programs in three Missouri counties and weather data from weather stations were also used in corn phenology studies and to determine the dates of earliest ECB infestation on corn, for the period covering 1984 through 1989. Results from laboratory experiments suggest that the total growth and development period of ECB reared at variable temperatures is a constant value. However, the phenological development of the ECB stages does not follow a linear trend as earlier assumed during the introduction of the growing degree day model, but assumes a cubic curve. The starting point for the calculation of the temperature index in early spring occurs under conditions of longer than 13.0 hours of day length and a daily mean temperature of 60^ circF and above for at least five consecutive days. Three prediction models were developed. These are, the temperature departure model (R^2 = 0.36), and two time sequence models (R^2 = 0.68 and 0.90, respectively) using mean weekly temperatures for weeks 4, 5, and 6, coded from April 1. A single corn phenology model developed in this study can universally be applied to corn planted at any time during the growing season (R^2 = 0.79). Damage to corn by ECB can only occur when the first instar of the corn borer larvae coincides with the sixth stage of corn or greater.

Magai, Robert Nthipe

188

Behavioral response of the borer beetle Hoplocerambyx spinicornis to volatile compounds of the tree Shorea robusta.  

PubMed

Essential oils isolated from leaves (LO), bast (BO), heartwood (HO), and ethereal extract of resin (EER) of Shorea robusta were bioassayed with electroantennograph (EAG) and wind tunnel to study the behavioral response of male and female beetles, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newm., the most injurious heartwood borer of the tree. LO, BO, HO, and EER were shown to exhibit the electrophysiological activity in the female beetle, while LO and BO in the male beetle. In wind-tunnel studies, only BO elicited the attractant activity to both the sexes. A possible correlation of the constituents of the BO identified by GC/MS with the bioactivity is also presented. PMID:17192022

Varshney, Vinay K; Dayal, Rameshwar; Bhandari, Raghubir S; Jyoti, Karanam N; Prasuna, Attaluri L; Prasad, Attaluri R; Yadav, Jhillu S

2005-06-01

189

Simulation Analysis and Experimental Study on Rigidity Enhancement of Sugarcane Harvester Cutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rigidity of sugarcane cutter has notable influence on the quality of sugarcane cutting,the most concerned problem of sugarcane harvester developing currently,as it effects its vibration and the vibration in turn brings great damage to the cutting quality on which rare research has been done. This paper took altering a sensitive parameter of the cutter rigidity, the distance between the

Lai Xiao; Li Shangping; Liang Shi; Ma Fanglan; Zheng Guangping; Qin Zhiwen

2010-01-01

190

Effect of Intercropping and Organic Matter on the Subterranean Termites Population in Sugarcane Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intercropping and addition of organic matters on subterranean termites in a field of sugarcane was determined. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), oliseed (Brassica compestris L.) and Methi (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) were intercropped with sugarcane on ridges at the time of setts placement in the furrows. Organic matters (blood, sugarcane trash & fresh cattle dung)

SOHAIL AHMED; RASHAD RASOOL KHAN; GHULAM HUSSAIN; MUHAMMAD ASAM RIAZ; ABID HUSSAIN

191

Physiological demands and working efficiency of sugarcane cutters in harvesting burnt and unburnt cane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting burnt and unburnt sugarcane has various implications for the farmer and the cutters. The primary focus of this study was to investigate in situ the differences in energy expenditure and working efficiency of sugarcane cutters with regard to harvesting burnt and unburnt sugarcane. Heart rate was measured telemetrically by means of a Polar Pacer heart rate monitor. Metabolic measurements

Marié de L. Müller; Marius F. Coetsee

2008-01-01

192

In vitro propagation of two triploid hybrids of watermelon through adventitious shoot organogenesis and shoot tip culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro propagation protocol for two triploid hybrids of watermelon using cotyle- don explants and shoot tips was achieved. Five benzyladenine (BA) concentrations were tested using cotyledon and shoot tip explants. Cotyledon explants and shoot tips from 6 and 15-20 days aseptically germinated were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing test concentration of benzyladenine (2.22, 4.44, 10, 24.61

Tarek A. Shalaby; Soliman A. Omran; Yousry A. Baioumi

193

Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species) and DNA methylation (24-nt-species), respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

2012-01-01

194

Shoot inversion-induced ethylene in Pharbitis nil induces the release of apical dominance by restricting shoot elongation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shoot inversion induces outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) adjacent to the bend in the stem in Pharbitis nil. In order to determine whether or not ethylene produced by shoot inversion plays a direct role in promoting or inhibiting bud outgrowth, comparisons were made of endogenous levels of ethylene in the HLB and HLB node of plants with and without inverted shoots. That no changes were found suggests that the control of apical dominance does not involve the direction action of ethylene. This conclusion is further supported by evidence that the direct application of ethylene inhibitors or ethrel to inactive or induced lateral buds has no significant effect on bud outgrowth. The hypothesis that ethylene evolved during shoot inversion indirectly promotes the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) in restricting terminal bud (TB) growth is found to be supported by the following observations: (1) the restriction of TB growth appears to occur before the beginning of HLB outgrowth; (2) the treatment of the inverted portion of the shoot with AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action, dramatically eliminates both the restriction of TB growth and the promotion of HLB outgrowth which usually accompany shoot inversion; and (3) the treatment of the upper shoot of an upright plant with ethrel mimics shoot inversion by retarding upper shoot growth and inducing outgrowth of the lateral bud basipetal to the treated region.

Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

1985-01-01

195

Development of a Pheromone-based Monitoring System for the Macadamia Nut Borer, Cryptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower) (Tortricidae: Olethreutinae), in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pheromone of the macadamia nut borer, Cryptophlebia ombrodelta (Lower), was evaluated for its suitability as a monitoring tool. The first objective was to establish a correlation between the number of males recovered from pheromone traps and oviposition. When data on numbers of eggs recovered was adjusted using an empirical formula to predict when oviposition occurred, a reasonable correlation between

R. A. Vickers; D. A. Ironside; S. McLean; A. Coates; G. Campbell

1998-01-01

196

Impact of Pesticides Borate and Imidacloprid on Insect Emergence from Logs Infested by the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was discovered on North American soil in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, Michigan, U.S., and has since spread to six states\\/provinces. To alleviate these costs, a method of sanitization is urgently needed. This study evaluated four different chemical sanitation methods in laboratory and field conditions. Treatments included two borate treatments, spray and dip, with

Pascal Nzokou; Samuel Tourtellot; D. Pascal

2008-01-01

197

Biological Deterioration of Woods in Tropical Environments. Part 3. Chemical Wood Treatments for Long-Term Marine-Borer Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six chemical wood preservatives were selected for evaluation over long periods of exposure in extremely borer-active marine environments. Southern Yellow Pine and Douglas Fir were full-cell pressure-treated with these chemicals and exposed in tropical sea...

C. R. Southwell J. D. Bultman

1970-01-01

198

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister; Sean Rands

2009-01-01

199

ROTATION LENGTH BASED ON A TIME SERIES ANALySIS OF TIMBER DEGRADE CAUSED By OAK BORERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldeman) are causing unprecedented economic devaluation of red oak timber in many areas of the Ozarks in the Midwestern United States. Managers have few guidelines for coping with this problem in the long-term. Here we present a retrospective analysis of degrade in wood quality and value focused on cumulative degrade caused by

Richard P. Guyette; Rose-Marie Muzika; Aaron Stevenson

200

Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003–2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against A. planipennis adults in greenhouse studies. However, efficacy was improved in the field when B.

Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

2008-01-01

201

Biological Deterioration of Wood in Tropical Environments. Part 2. Marine Borer Resistance of Natural Woods over Long Periods of Immersion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One hundred and fifteen wood species have been exposed to marine borers in three different tropical waters for periods up to 90 months. Underwater sites were in the Panama Canal Zone and included two oceans and a brackish-water lake. Over 30 species of ma...

C. R. Southwell J. D. Bultman B. W. Forgeson C. W. Hummer

1970-01-01

202

Effects of a juvenile hormone mimetic, fenoxycarb, on post-embryonic development of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of a juvenile hormone mimetic, fenoxycarb, Ro 13-5223, was tested on the larval instars of the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis, by dipping or topical application. When larvae were treated in instars 2, 3 or 4, the duration of the fifth instar was modified. More permanent and fewer supernumerary larvae were obtained when treatment occurred in the early

C. Gadenne; S. Grenier; G. Plantevin; B. Mauchamp

1990-01-01

203

Quantitative Trait Loci for First and Second-Generation European Corn Borer Resistance Derived from the Maize Inbred Mo47  

Microsoft Academic Search

fied QTLs for resistance to 1ECB and 2ECB. Schone t al. (1991) identified four QTLs for resistance to 1ECB European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), family on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, and 9 in F3 families from the Crambidae, order Lepidoptera, is a serious insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in the USA. Understanding the genetic basis for

Chaba Jampatong; Michael D. McMullen; B. Dean Barry; Larry L. Darrah; Patrick F. Byrne; Heike Kross

2002-01-01

204

Sex Pheromone Production and Perception in European Corn Borer Moths is Determined by Both Autosomal and Sex-Linked Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as

Wendell Roelofs; Thomas Glover; Xian-Han Tang; Isabelle Sreng; Paul Robbins; Charles Eckenrode; Christer Lofstedt; Bill S. Hansson; Bengt O. Bengtsson

1987-01-01

205

Cloning and expression of an endo-1,4-?-xylanase from the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei  

PubMed Central

Background The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, reproduces and feeds exclusively on the mature endosperm of the coffee seed, which has a cell wall composed mainly of a heterogeneous mixture of hemicellulose polysaccharides, including arabinoxylans. Xylanases are digestive enzymes responsible for the degradation of xylan based polymers, hydrolyzing them into smaller molecules that are easier to assimilate by insects. We report the cloning, expression and enzymatic characterization of a xylanase gene that was identified in the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer. Methods The complete DNA sequence encoding a H. hampei xylanase (HhXyl) was obtained using a genome walking technique in a cDNA library derived from the borer digestive tract. The XIP-I gene was amplified from wheat (Triticum aestivum variety Soisson). A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of these enzymes. The xylanase activity and XIP-I inhibitory activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS). The biological effects of XIP-I on borer individuals were evaluated by providing an artificial diet enriched with the recombinant XIP-I protein to the insects. Results The borer xylanase sequence contains a 951 bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 317-amino acid protein, with an estimated molecular weight of 34.92 kDa and a pI of 4.84. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that HhXyl exhibits high sequence homology with endo-?-D-xylanases of Streptomyces bingchenggensis from glycosyl hydrolase 10 (GH10). The recombinant xylanase showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 37°C. XIP-I expressed as a recombinant protein inhibited HhXyl activity in vitro and caused individual H. hampei mortality in bioassays when included as a supplement in artificial diets. Conclusion A xylanase from the digestive tract of the coffee berry borer was identified and functionally characterized. A xylanase inhibitor protein, XIP-I, from wheat was shown to be a potent inhibitor of this xylanase, suggesting that its deployment has potential as a strategy to control coffee berry borer colonization of coffee plants.

2012-01-01

206

Silencing of Molt-Regulating Transcription Factor Gene, CiHR3, Affects Growth and Development of Sugarcane Stem Borer, Chilo infuscatellus  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus.

Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

2012-01-01

207

The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China  

PubMed Central

The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed.

Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

2010-01-01

208

Advanced Hunter Education and Shooting Sports Responsibility. Bulletin 555A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed as a compendium from which instructors can select materials and instructional aids for use in hunter education and shooting sports programs. Presented in the manual are 43 lessons and 34 laboratory activities that have been organized into units on the following topics: shooting sports responsibility, the learning process…

Benson, Delwin E.; Richardson, Rodd E.

209

Vindoline synthesis in in vitro shoot cultures of Catharanthus roseus.  

PubMed

Vindoline, the major alkaloid in cultures of Catharanthus roseus shoots, reached 2 mg g(-1) dry wt after 27 d in culture. Maximal vindoline accumulation coincided with maximum activities of deacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase, deacetylvindoline acetyl-CoA acetyl transferase and tryptophan decarboxylase. Shoot exposure to jasmonate shortened the time required for the maximal vindoline accumulation to 14 d. PMID:15200179

Hernández-Domínguez, Elizabeta; Campos-Tamayo, Freddy; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe

2004-04-01

210

Fuzzy rule extraction for shooting action controller of soccer robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for shooting action is proposed which is one of the fundamental actions for soccer robots. Shooting action is viewed as a posture control problem with such a constraint that the robot should not approach the ball so that the ball moves to the home team area. The FLC consists of two levels: one is the

M.-J. Jung; H.-S. Kim; H.-S. Shim; J.-H. Kim

1999-01-01

211

76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...301 [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0111] Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined...change, an interim rule that amended the pine shoot beetle (PSB) regulations by adding...to prevent the spread of PSB, a pest of pine trees, into noninfested areas of the...

2011-01-10

212

Strigolactones, a novel class of plant hormone controlling shoot branching  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several decades, auxin and cytokinin were the only two hormones known to be involved in the control of shoot branching through apical dominance, a process where the shoot apex producing auxin inhibits the outgrowth of axillary buds located below. Grafting studies with high branching mutants and cloning of the mutated genes demonstrated the existence of a novel long distance

Catherine Rameau

2010-01-01

213

Mutator System Derivatives Isolated from Sugarcane Genome Sequence.  

PubMed

Mutator-like transposase is the most represented transposon transcript in the sugarcane transcriptome. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from sequenced transcripts provided evidence that at least four distinct classes exist (I-IV) and that diversification among these classes occurred early in Angiosperms, prior to the divergence of Monocots/Eudicots. The four previously described classes served as probes to select and further sequence six BAC clones from a genomic library of cultivar R570. A total of 579,352 sugarcane base pairs were produced from these "Mutator system" BAC containing regions for further characterization. The analyzed genomic regions confirmed that the predicted structure and organization of the Mutator system in sugarcane is composed of two true transposon lineages, each containing a specific terminal inverted repeat and two transposase lineages considered to be domesticated. Each Mutator transposase class displayed a particular molecular structure supporting lineage specific evolution. MUSTANG, previously described domesticated genes, are located in syntenic regions across Sacharineae and, as expected for a host functional gene, posses the same gene structure as in other Poaceae. Two sequenced BACs correspond to hom(eo)logous locus with specific retrotransposon insertions that discriminate sugarcane haplotypes. The comparative studies presented, add information to the Mutator systems previously identified in the maize and rice genomes by describing lineage specific molecular structure and genomic distribution pattern in the sugarcane genome. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12042-012-9104-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22905278

Manetti, M E; Rossi, M; Cruz, G M Q; Saccaro, N L; Nakabashi, M; Altebarmakian, V; Rodier-Goud, M; Domingues, D; D'Hont, A; Van Sluys, M A

2012-09-01

214

Production of a His-tagged canecystatin in transgenic sugarcane.  

PubMed

Transgenic plants have been widely used as expression systems of recombinant proteins in recent years because it can be an efficient alternative for the large-scale production of proteins. This is an area with great potential but is still not much explored. Indeed, this system can bring a breakthrough in the expression of any protein. The model used here as a protein factory was sugarcane, a crop of great global importance. This chapter describes the system that has been adopted in the routine production of transgenic sugarcane coupled with protein purification protocol. In this chapter, we describe production of transgenic sugarcane expressing a His-tagged cystatin under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. A transformed sugarcane plant presented high levels of protein expression and was selected for the purification of this protein through affinity chromatography in a nickel column. These studies demonstrate that sugarcane can be a viable expression system for recombinant protein production and that the His-tag purification strategy used to isolate the purified protein was effective. PMID:22351027

Henrique-Silva, Flavio; Soares-Costa, Andrea

2012-01-01

215

Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

2013-03-01

216

De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of contrasting sugarcane varieties.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species. PMID:24523899

Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Costa, Estela Araujo; Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

2014-01-01

217

Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

Koga-Vicente, A.

2011-12-01

218

Effects of plant densities and management of purple nutsedge on sugarcane yield and effect of growth stages and main way of herbicides contact and absorption on the control of tubers.  

PubMed

Field experiments carried out with Cyperus rotundus L. at low (58-246), medium (318-773), and high (675-1198 shoots/m2) densities showed sugarcane yield reductions of 13.5, 29.3, and 45.2%, respectively in relation to the control. In the second field experiment, the integration of a mechanic method with two sequences of plowing and disking operations in the dry season, and complementary applications of trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and sulfentrazone (rainy season) was studied. Average of the chain connected to original shoot showed 92, 95, and 65% of reduction with trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and surfactant, at the application stages "early," preflowering, and full flowering, respectively. PMID:15656168

Durigan, Julio Cezar

2005-01-01

219

Effects of shoot pruning on carbon partitioning in poplar trees  

SciTech Connect

The effects of removal of all but the largest shoot on shoot growth, gas exchange (P/sub N/) and /sup 14/C- partitioning were determined on trees previously decapitated. Pruned trees had higher shoot and leaf relative growth rates, a higher rate of P/sub N/ but a lower turnover of carbohydrates, particularly sucrose. They also exported less carbohydrates but translocation was basipetal to the roots. Unpruned multi-stemmed plants showed a higher rate of turnover of carbohydrates which accumulated acropetally. The downward movement and accumulation of newly fixed carbon was correlated with the release of apical dominance on the lower stem of pruned trees resulting in a high specific activity in the new sprouts compared with the low translocation of carbon to the smaller shoots of multi-shoot trees. These results will be discussed in terms of carbon partitioning and source-sink relationships.

Tschaplinski, T.J.; Blake, T.J.

1986-04-01

220

Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation.

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

221

Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism.  

PubMed

In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

222

A sugarcane cystatin: recombinant expression, purification, and antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Plants possess several defense mechanisms against pathogenic attack. One of these defenses is the use of protease inhibitor proteins, which interfere in the development and growth of pathogens. Sugarcane productivity can be impacted by the plant's susceptibility to fungal diseases that result in production losses. A relevant line of investigation, therefore, is into the plant's natural defense mechanisms for the control of phytopathogens using cystatins-proteins that specifically inhibit cysteine proteases. In this paper, we discuss the expression, in Escherichia coli, of a sugarcane cystatin, its purification, antifungal activity, and circular dichroism to monitor correct folding. These studies revealed a secondary structure similar to that of the oryzacystatin I of rice. Moreover, the purified protein proved capable of inhibiting the growth of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, suggesting that it can also be employed to inhibit the growth of pathogenic sugarcane fungi. PMID:12207900

Soares-Costa, A; Beltramini, L M; Thiemann, O H; Henrique-Silva, F

2002-09-01

223

Mapping of QTL for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer attack using the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the\\u000a source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) population\\u000a is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few

Bernardo Ordas; Rosa A. Malvar; Rogelio Santiago; German Sandoya; Maria C. Romay; Ana Butron

2009-01-01

224

An annoted list of the parasites of graminaceous stem borers in East Africa, with a discussion of their potential in biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a survey of the parasites of the lepidopterous stem borers of graminaceous crops throughout East Africa\\u000a and on laboratory studies of the more abundant species. In the survey emphasis was placed on the borers of maize and sorghum,\\u000a but samples of other cultivated Graminae and wild grasses were also taken.\\u000a \\u000a Notes on the distribution and

A. I. Mohyuddin; D. J. Greathead

1970-01-01

225

Mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer in maize with the aid of RFLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) is an important pest in the global production of maize (Zea mays L.). In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) significantly affecting resistance against second-generation European corn borer (2ECB) and plant height with the aid of RFLP markers. A total of 300 F3 lines derived from cross B73 (susceptible)

Chris C Schön; Michael Lee; Albrecht E Melchinger; Wilbur D Guthrie; Wendy L Woodman

1993-01-01

226

Identification of QTL underlying the resistance of soybean to pod borer, Leguminivora glycinivorella (Mats.) obraztsov, and correlations with plant, pod and seed traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) pod borer (Leguminivora glycinivorella (Mats.) Obraztsov) (SPB) results in severe loss in soybean yield and quality in certain regions of the world, especially\\u000a in Northeastern China, Japan and Russia. The aim here was to evaluate the inheritance of pod borer resistance and to identify\\u000a quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying SPB resistance for the acceleration of

Guiyun Zhao; Jian Wang; Yingpeng Han; Weili Teng; Genlou Sun; Wenbin Li

2008-01-01

227

Response of eight sugarcane cultivars to glyphosine and glyphosate ripeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted on eight sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hydrid) cultivars during the 1982–83 (plant crop) and 1983–84 (ratoon crop) growing seasons to determine the effects\\u000a of glyphosine (Polaris) (N,N-bis (phosphonomethyl) glycine) and glyphosate (Polado) (sodium-N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on\\u000a stalk sucrose content and yield. Difference due to crops (plant vs. ratoon) for sugarcane quality, kilograms of sugar per\\u000a ton of cane (S\\/T),

J. A. Dusky; M. S. Kang; B. Glaz; J. D. Miller

1985-01-01

228

Antagonism of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (a sugarcane endosymbiont) against Xanthomonas albilineans (pathogen) studied in alginate-immobilized sugarcane stalk tissues.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas albilineans, a pathogenic bacterium that produces leaf scald disease of sugarcane, secretes a xanthan-like gum that invades both xylem and phloem of the host. Xanthan production has been verified after experimental infection of stalk segments of healthy plants. Moreover, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of sugarcane plants that antagonizes with X. albilineans by impeding the production of the bacterial gum. The physiological basis of this antagonism has been studied using tissues of sugarcane stalks previously inoculated with the endosymbiont, then immobilized in calcium alginate and maintained in a culture medium for Gluconacetobacter. Under these conditions, bacteria infecting immobilized tissues are able to secrete to the medium a lysozyme-like bacteriocin that inhibits the growth of X. albilineans. PMID:16233803

Blanco, Yolanda; Blanch, María; Piñón, Dolores; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

2005-04-01

229

Profiling of volatile compounds of Phyllostachys pubescens shoots in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of heating temperature and duration on volatile aromatic components of spring and winter Phyllostachys pubescens shoots using SPME. Results from GC-MS analyses revealed that the main constituents in both bamboo shoots at ambient temperature include methoxy-phenyl oxime, followed by n-hexanol and 3Z-hexenal, which gives a fresh green aroma. Comparing the different compounds, between spring and winter shoots, revealed that spring bamboo shoots at ambient temperature comprise 12.30% methyl salicylate, which provides protection against insect attack, and 9.71% epi-cedrol; while winter bamboo shoots comprise 17.00% 1-octen-3-ol, which produces a distinct mushroom aroma. After heating at 100 °C for 60 min, a marked increase in relative content of benzyl salicylate (43.30%) and a significant decrease in methyl salicylate content in spring bamboo shoots were observed; while the major compound in winter bamboo shoots was n-heneicosane (78.09%) and the content of specific 1-octen-3-ol significantly decreased. PMID:23442614

Chung, Min-Jay; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Shang-Tzen

2012-10-15

230

Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures  

SciTech Connect

Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

Grady, K.L.

1982-08-01

231

Auxin at the Shoot Apical Meristem  

PubMed Central

Plants continuously generate new tissues and organs through the activity of populations of undifferentiated stem cells, called meristems. Here, we discuss the so-called shoot apical meristem (SAM), which generates all the aerial parts of the plant. It has been known for many years that auxin plays a central role in the functioning of this meristem. Auxin is not homogeneously distributed at the SAM and it is thought that this distribution is interpreted in terms of differential gene expression and patterned growth. In this context, auxin transporters of the PIN and AUX families, creating auxin maxima and minima, are crucial regulators. However, auxin transport is not the only factor involved. Auxin biosynthesis genes also show specific, patterned activities, and local auxin synthesis appears to be essential for meristem function as well. In addition, auxin perception and signal transduction defining the competence of cells to react to auxin, add further complexity to the issue. To unravel this intricate signaling network at the SAM, systems biology approaches, involving not only molecular genetics but also live imaging and computational modeling, have become increasingly important.

Vernoux, Teva; Besnard, Fabrice; Traas, Jan

2010-01-01

232

Micropropagation of Paulownia fortuneii through in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.  

PubMed

Primary cultures were established with nodal segments from juvenile shoots of two- year-old Paulownia fortuneii trees from a clonal plantation in Andhra Pradesh. A medium containing half-strength MS salts + RAP (1 mg/L) + sucrose (2%) produced optimum bud break in nodal explants. The same basal medium with reduced hormone level (0.5 mg/L) supported maximum multiplication of secondary cultures of P. fortuneii (1:6 in 6 weeks). Specific treatments were tested to enhance this rate of multiplication. In one approach, five to six week old in vitro grown shoots were ratooned (cutting the main shoot at the bottom leaving one node). The stumps (ratooned basal node) produced 2 to 3 axillary shoots, which grew into 4 to 5 nodes by 3 weeks; thus, providing additional shoots from the same explant. This provided 30% additional shoots in 4 cycles. Secondly, reducing the light intensity to 1200 lux resulted in higher shoot elongation, i.e, formation of 8 nodes in 5 weeks with healthier shoots than the normal intensity of 3000 lux under which only 6 nodes were produced in 6 weeks. In vitro-grown shoots could be successfully rooted ex vitro in vermiculite + cocopeat mixture (1:1 v/v) under 90% humidity, transferred to soil in polybags for hardening in the green house for 2 weeks and shifted to shade net for further hardening. After one month, the plants could be successfully transplanted to field with 95% survival. Micropropagated plants showed an excellent growth in the field attaining a height of 1.5 m and a collar diameter of 2.8 cm in 3 months. PMID:12562025

Venkateswarlu, B; Mukhopadhyay, J; Sreenivasan, E; Kumar, V M

2001-06-01

233

Structure-Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

MAUSETH, JAMES D.

2006-01-01

234

Components of female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer moth,Conopomorpha cramerella.  

PubMed

The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40?60?4?6?10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393

Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D

1986-01-01

235

A review of the biology and control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari, is a serious problem for the majority of the world's coffee growers and has proved to be one of the most intractable of present day pests. Despite a great deal of research, control still depends largely on the application of the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan, which is damaging to the environment, or a series of cultural and biological control methods which give variable and unpredictable results. This review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology and ecology of H. hampei and its control and identifies weak points in the knowledge about this pest. Emphasis is placed upon an analysis of the non-chemical control methods available and suggestions are offered for novel ecological and environmental factors worthy of further research, in the search for viable and sustainable control methods. PMID:11107248

Damon, A

2000-12-01

236

Genetic transformation mediated by piggyBac in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is a serious pest of corn, sorghum, and cotton in China and other Asian countries. The present study is the first attempt to establish the transgenic line in O. furnacalis using a piggyBac transposon, which will shed light on the future genetic control of O. furnacalis. A piggyBac vector pBac[A3EGFP] was constructed to express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)under the control of Bombyx mori actin3 promoter. Transient EGFP expression was detected 48 h after preblastodermic microinjection of pBac[A3EGFP] and the excision assay showed the transgenic vector was precisely excised. In G1 animals, PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-based investigations revealed that the exogenous gene had been introduced into O. furnacalis genome and expressed at the transcriptional level. Western blot analysis showed EGFP expression at the protein level, indicating the heritability of the transgene. PMID:22696097

Liu, Dan; Yan, Shanchun; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang; Stanley, David W; Song, Qisheng

2012-08-01

237

Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.  

PubMed

Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. PMID:24112110

Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

2014-01-01

238

Characterization of a ?-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor from the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).  

PubMed

Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, plays a key role in regulation of many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. It modulates these functions through binding to specific octopamine receptors, which are typical rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors. A cDNA encoding a seven-transmembrane receptor was cloned from the nerve cord of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, viz. CsOA2B2, which shares high sequence similarity to CG6989, a Drosophila ?-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (DmOct?2R). We generated an HEK-293 cell line that stably expresses CsOA2B2 in order to examine the functional and pharmacological properties of this receptor. Activation of CsOA2B2 by octopamine increased the production of cAMP in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50)=2.33 nmol l(-1)), with a maximum response at 100 nmol l(-1). Tyramine also activated the receptor but with much less potency than octopamine. Dopamine and serotonin had marginal effects on cAMP production. Using a series of known agonists and antagonists for octopamine receptors, we observed a rather unique pharmacological profile for CsOA2B2 through measurements of cAMP. The rank order of potency of the agonists was naphazoline > clonidine. The activated effect of octopamine is abolished by co-incubation with phentolamine, mianserin or chlorpromazine. Using in vivo pharmacology, CsOA2B2 antagonists mianserin and phentolamine impaired the motor ability of individual rice stem borers. The results of the present study are important for a better functional understanding of this receptor as well as for practical applications in the development of environmentally sustainable pesticides. PMID:22786641

Wu, Shun-Fan; Yao, Yao; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

2012-08-01

239

Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.  

PubMed

Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun. PMID:23786069

Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

2013-04-01

240

Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2014-03-01

241

Effectiveness of Hunting, Shooting and Fishing Recruitment and Retention Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

According to an estimate provided by the Wildlife Management Institute, there are currently more than 400 national and statewide hunting, shooting, and fishing recruitment and retention programs targeting numerous demographic groups. Despite the abundance...

2011-01-01

242

Metabolic Changes Associated with Shoot Formation in Tobacco Callus Cultures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were perf...

K. L. Grady

1982-01-01

243

Comparison of Live and Simulated Fire Soldier Shooting Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of simulation is increasing as our capabilities of producing high-fidelity virtual environments expand. This is true for marksmanship and engagement shooting trainers as well. Many marksmanship studies have used simulated fire, but not many of the...

D. R. Scribner P. H. Wiley W. H. Harper

2007-01-01

244

PRELIMINARY LCA OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents the findings of a preliminary life-cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generated from the combustion of sugarcane bagasse in Queensland sugar mills. The aim of the study was to determine if bagasse-derived electricity provides any environmental benefits over the existing dominant source of electricity in Queensland (electricity derived from black coal), and to provide recommendations for an

Marguerite Renouf

245

Citric acid production by solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid state fermentation (SSF) method was used to produce citric acid by Aspergillus niger DS 1 using sugarcane bagasse as a carrier and sucrose or molasses based medium as a moistening agent. Initially bagasse and wheat bran were compared as carrier. Bagasse was the most suitable carrier, as it did not show agglomeration after moistening with medium, resulting in

D. Kumar; V. K. Jain; G. Shanker; A. Srivastava

2003-01-01

246

AZO DYE REMOVAL BY ADSORPTION USING WASTE BIOMASS: SUGARCANE BAGASSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes are usually present in trace quantities in the treated effluents of many industries. The effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewaters has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. This study investigates the potential use of sugarcane bagasse, pretreated with formaldehyde and sulphuric acid, for the removal of methyl red, an azo dye from simulated

A. G. Liew Abdullah; Mohd Salleh; Siti Mazlina; M. J. Megat; Mohd Noor; M. R. Osman

247

Production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: Status and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass is considered as the future feedstock for ethanol production because of its low cost and its huge availability. One of the major lignocellulosic materials found in great quantities to be considered, especially in tropical countries, is sugarcane bagasse (SCB). This work deals with its current and potential transformation to sugars and ethanol, considering pretreatment technologies, detoxification methods and

C. A. Cardona; J. A. Quintero; I. C. Paz

2010-01-01

248

Ultrastructure of and plasmodesmatal frequency in mature leaves of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular bundles and contiguous tissues of leaf blades of sugarcane (Saccharum interspecific hybrid L62–96) were examined with light and transmission electron microscopes to determine their cellular composition and the frequency of plasmodesmata between the various cell combinations. The large vascular bundles typically are surrounded by two bundle sheaths, an outer chlorenchymatous bundle sheath and an inner mestome sheath. In addition

Kay Robinson-Beers; Ray F. Evert

1991-01-01

249

Relationships between methods of variety adaptability and stability in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The identification and recommendation of superior genotypes is crucial for the growth of industrial crops, and sugarcane breeding performs a vital role by developing more productive cultivars. The study of genotype x environment interaction has been an essential tool in this process. Thereby, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between methods of adaptability and stability in sugarcane. Data were collected from trials using a randomized block design with three repetitions and 15 clones of sugarcane in nine environments in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methodologies based on analysis of variance, linear regression, multivariate analysis, nonparametric statistics, and mixed model were used. The methods of Lin and Binns, Annicchiarico, and harmonic mean of relative performance of genotypic values (MHPRVG) were similar in their classification of genotypes. The additive main effect and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) and Wricke methods tended to select the most stable genotypes; however, genotypes were less productive, coinciding with the stability parameter of Eberhart and Russell. The MHPRVG method is preferred over the methods of Lin and Binns and Annicchiarico because it includes the concepts of productivity, adaptability, and stability, and it provide direct genetic values of individuals. The use of the MHPRVG and Eberhart and Russell methods is recommended because the combination of these methods is complementary and leads to greater accuracy in the identification of genotypes of sugarcane for different environments. PMID:25036165

Mendes de Paula, T O; Marinho, C D; Souza, V; Barbosa, M H P; Peternelli, L A; Kimbeng, C A; Zhou, M M

2014-01-01

250

EFFECT OF MYCORRHIZA ON THE NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SUGARCANE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi commonly infect plant roots, forming beneficial symbiotic relationships. The primary benefits of VAM plants are the enhanced acquisition and recycling of nutrients, particularly P, as well as soil moisture. This study compared the relationship between soil and leaf chemical elements of sugarcane variety N12 with low and high % mycorrhization (%myc). Seventy-one soil and leaf

S F JAMAL; P CADET; R S RUTHERFORD; C J STRAKER

251

Multiple Robots Coordination and Shooting Strategy in Robotic Soccer Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we create a passing, obstacle avoiding and shooting strategy for robotic soccer coordination. Based on a predefined-scenario\\u000a in a robotic soccer game, we simulate a mini case study which involves two robots and a ball. We modify role, act and behavior\\u000a method to meet the game requirements. About 61% of the testing achieved the shooting of a

Awang Hendrianto Pratomo; Anton Satria Prabuwono; Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah; Mohamad Shanudin Zakaria

252

Photoautotrophic shoot and root development for triploid melon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to establish environmental factors which promote growth and photosynthesis of melon (Cucumis\\u000a melo L.) shoot buds, in vitro, and determine if photoautotrophic shoots had superior root forming ability in photoautotrophic\\u000a environments. Buds from the triploid melon clone ‘(L-14B)L-14’ were observed for 21 days after transfer from a multiplication\\u000a MS medium with 3% sucrose and

Jeffrey Adelberg; Kazuhiro Fujiwara; Chalermpol Kirdmanee; Toyoki Kozai

1999-01-01

253

Steroidal compounds from in vitro regenerated shoots of Datura metel.  

PubMed

Regeneration of adventitious shoots from young leaves of Datura metel is described. Shoot buds developed on MS medium with 2 mg/l and elongated on hormone-free solid basal medium. The microshoots failed to produce alkaloids, but a number of steroidal compounds were detected. The C(28) sterol 3beta,24xi-dihydroxy-ergosta-5,25-dienolide, regarded as the precursor of withanolides and related steroidal lactones, was identified. The withanolide 12-deoxywithastramonolide was also detected. PMID:12628388

De, Bratati

2003-02-01

254

Steroidal compounds from in vitro regenerated shoots of Datura metel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regeneration of adventitious shoots from young leaves of Datura metel is described. Shoot buds developed on MS medium with 2 mg\\/l and elongated on hormone-free solid basal medium. The microshoots failed to produce alkaloids, but a number of steroidal compounds were detected. The C28 sterol 3?,24?-dihydroxy-ergosta-5,25-dienolide, regarded as the precursor of withanolides and related steroidal lactones, was identified. The withanolide

Bratati De

2003-01-01

255

Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The increase of stem yield due to irrigation was observed in the ratoon sugarcane cycle and promoted significant effect in RTR in the last two ratoons sugarcane cycles. There were no negative effects in technological attributes by using irrigation. On the other hand in second ratoon the irrigation improved Brix, Pol and ATR in relation to non irrigated plants. The use of double planting spacing provided higher of stem yield when compared to simple spacings, with an average gain per cycle of 13.4 and 11.1 Mg ha-1 in relation to treatments S1 and S2 respectively. The double rows planting improved RTR in plant-sugarcane and also in second ratoon sugarcane cycles in relation to other spacings. There was no interaction between irrigation and spacing on production of stems. The stem production presented positive interaction between irrigation and spacing only in the second cycle of sugarcane ratoon. In this case higher RTR yield occurred in irrigated plots in double spacing cultivation (S3). The irrigation promoted higher yield when compared to rainfed cultivation, with average values of 141.3 and 132.4 Mg ha-1, respectively. The irrigated sugarcane plants provided higher RTR compared to non irrigated ones averaging 1.5 Mg ha-1, representing an increase of approximately 6 Mg ha-1 in four yields cycles. In general, results showed beneficial use of irrigation by SDI in sugarcane over the four years of production.

Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.

2012-04-01

256

Element concentrations in the air of an indoor shooting range.  

PubMed

Elemental emissions during firing in a shooting range were measured for different types of ammunition. When using Hirtenberger bullets, lead, barium, antimony and to a lesser extent copper and arsenic were the primary metal pollutants. Stationary sampling at three locations in the range did not reveal large concentration gradients. Large concentration variations were observed by sampling before, during and after shooting. Lead and antimony concentrations peak at 5060 and 119 micrograms m-3, respectively. Soil elements such as aluminium, sodium and calcium are enriched during shooting, probably due to soil resuspension by the shooters and the bullets hitting the sand backstop. After shooting has ceased the concentrations fall to within pre-shooting levels within a couple of hours. Measurement of the aerodynamic particle size shows low mass median diameters for the elements emitted during firing and larger diameters for the soil-associated elements. The peak airborne concentrations measured by stationary sampling, and human exposure measured by a personal sampler carried by an instructor were compared with threshold limit values. During the shooting the TLV is significantly exceeded for lead. PMID:3232073

Dams, R; Vandecasteele, C; Desmet, B; Helsen, M; Nagels, M; Vermeir, G; Yu, Z Q

1988-11-01

257

Genetic hitchhiking associated with life history divergence and colonization of North America in the European corn borer moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary goal for evolutionary biology is to reveal the genetic basis for adaptive evolution and reproductive isolation.\\u000a Using Z and E pheromone strains the European corn borer (ECB) moth, I address this problem through multilocus analyses of\\u000a DNA polymorphism. I find that the locus Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) is a statistically significant outlier in coalescent simulations of demographic histories

Erik B. Dopman

2011-01-01

258

Effects of selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition on corn borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Crambidae) damage.  

PubMed

In maize, Zea mays L., the timing of vegetative phase transition from juvenile to adult vegetative phases can be modified through selection. A reduction in the juvenile vegetative phase has been associated with resistance to diseases and pests. The major maize pest in temperate areas is Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and in Europe Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of divergent selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition in maize on resistance to corn borers. Three cycles of divergent selection for early and late phase transition in a field corn synthetic and in a sweet corn population were evaluated separately under S. nonagrioides and O. nubilalis artificial infestation. For the field corn experiment, yield and moisture improved with selection for phase transition in both directions, but improvement was due to artifacts of selection, rather than to the change in phase transition. There were no correlated responses for corn borer damage, yield, or grain moisture due to selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition. In the sweet corn experiment, selection for the timing of vegetative phase transition had no significant effects on corn borer damage in sweet corn harvested at the fresh stage. Our results do not support the use of phase transition as an indirect criterion for improving resistance to corn borers in maize. The relationship between phase transition and pest resistance reported by other studies could depend on the genotypes or could be too weak to be detected in a selection program with wild-type maize. PMID:16022330

Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa A; Velasco, Pablo; Butrón, Ana; Tracy, William F; Abedon, Bruce G; Ordás, Amando

2005-06-01

259

Efficacy of neem pesticides on whorl larva, stem-borer and panicle insect pests of sorghum in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field trials were conducted from 2003 to 2005 on the effects of neem pesticides on whorl larva, stem-borer and panicle pests of sorghum. In the first trial (2003–2004) the effect of neem seed granules (NSG) and carbofuran (furadan 3G®) inserted into the sorghum whorl at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (DAS) were tested on whorl larva, stem

Chinwe E. Anaso

2010-01-01

260

Changes in phenolic concentrations during recurrent selection for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.).  

PubMed

Recurrent selection has been reported as successful for improving maize resistance against corn borers. This study was conducted to determine if phenolics concentration in maize changes during recurrent selection to improve stalk resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer. Three cycles of selection [EPS12(S)C0, ESP12(S)C2, and EPS12(S)C3] from the maize synthetic population EPS12 and test crosses to inbred lines A639, B93, and EP42 were field grown and artificially infested with Mediterranean corn borer larvae, and the pith tissues were sampled for biochemical analyses. Two major simple phenolic acids [p-coumaric (p-CA) and trans-ferulic (E-FA) acids] were identified in free and cell-wall fractions, whereas four isomers of diferulic acid (DFA) (8-5'l, 5-5', 8-o-4', and 8-5' benzofuran form) were present in the cell-wall bound fraction. The selection cycles EPS12(S)C0 and EPS12(S)C3 showed less damage and higher cell wall phenolics concentrations than the cycle EPS12(S)C2. In addition, higher concentrations of total DFAs were associated with shorter tunnel length and lower numbers of larvae per stem. The current study shows new and concrete evidence that the cell-wall bound phenolics could have a determinative role in the resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer, although future development of recurrent and divergent selection cycles will clarify this point. PMID:18656924

Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Butrón, Ana; Barros, Jaime; Malvar, Rosa A

2008-09-10

261

Isolation and characterization of lipophorin from the hemolymph of diapausing larvae of the southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Lipophorin was isolated from the hemolymph of diapausing larvae of the southwestern corn borer,Diatraea grandiosella, and shown to have a density of 1:11 g\\/ml and a molecular weight of 520,000.2.The holoprotein was comprised of apolipoprotein-I (Mr=231,000) and apolipoprotein-II (Mr=74,000), and contained about 38% lipid (28% neutral lipids, 10% polar lipids), and 3% carbohydrate.3.The major neutral lipids present were diacylglycerol and

J. W. Dillwith; C. J. Lenz; G. M. Chippendale

1986-01-01

262

Impacts of the emerald ash borer (EAB) eradication and tree mortality: potential for a secondary spread of invasive plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer in 2002, eradication efforts have been implemented in an attempt to eliminate\\u000a or contain the spread of this invasive beetle. The eradication protocol called for the removal of every ash tree within a\\u000a 0.8 km radius around an infested tree. In 2005 this study was established to identify environmental changes attributed to\\u000a the

Constance E. HausmanJohn; John F. Jaeger; Oscar J. Rocha

2010-01-01

263

North American arthropods at risk due to widespread Fraxinus mortality caused by the Alien Emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB), an alien invasive wood-boring buprestid beetle, is causing large-scale decline and mortality of the most\\u000a widely distributed species of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees endemic to eastern North America. We determined which arthropod species that are associated with ash may become\\u000a threatened, endangered, and co-extinct with the demise of ash as a dominant tree

Kamal J. K. GandhiDaniel; Daniel A. Herms

2010-01-01

264

Progression of ash canopy thinning and dieback outward from the initial infestation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan.  

PubMed

Our objective was to characterize the rate at which ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees decline in areas adjacent to the leading edge of visible ash canopy thinning due to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Trees in southeastern Michigan were surveyed from 2003 to 2006 for canopy thinning and dieback by comparing survey trees with a set of 11 standard photographs. Freeways stemming from Detroit in all directions were used as survey transects. Between 750 and 1,100 trees were surveyed each year. A rapid method of sampling populations of emerald ash borer was developed by counting emerald ash borer emergence holes with binoculars and then felling trees to validate binocular counts. Approximately 25% of the trees surveyed for canopy thinning in 2005 and 2006 also were sampled for emerald ash borer emergence holes using binoculars. Regression analysis indicates that 41-53% of the variation in ash canopy thinning can be explained by the number of emerald ash borer emergence holes per tree. Emerald ash borer emergence holes were found at every site where ash canopy thinning averaged > 40%. In 2003, ash canopy thinning averaged 40% at a distance of 19.3 km from the epicenter of the emerald ash borer infestation in Canton. By 2006, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning had increased to a distance of 51.2 km away from Canton. Therefore, the point at which ash trees averaged 40% canopy thinning, a state of decline clearly visible to the average person, moved outward at a rate of 10.6 km/yr during this period. PMID:18950047

Smitley, David; Davis, Terrance; Rebek, Eric

2008-10-01

265

Cutting position, leaf removal and time of year affects Rosa axillary shoot development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the cutting position, leaf removal and the time of year on Rosa X hybrida L. cvs ‘Royalty’ and ‘Lovely Girl’ axillary shoot development was studied. The axillary shoot number per stem increased from 1.4 to 3.3 shoots as the cutting position increased from 1 to 13. The blind shoot number increased on ‘Royalty’ but not on the

John E. Erwin; Nina Glomsrud; Tom Vikor; R. Moe; Pat Etzel

1997-01-01

266

A new acid-tolerant nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

During surveys of bacteria possibly responsible for N2 fixation in sugarcane, root and stem samples were collected in four sugarcane-growing regions in Brazil. A new microaerobic\\u000a N2-fixing bacterium was isolated from most samples of washed roots and stems from all regions. Isolation procedures were based\\u000a on semisolid diluted sugarcane juice medium followed by replication to N-free 10% sugar medium acidified

Vladimir A. Cavalcante; J. Dobereiner

1988-01-01

267

Optimization of the Preparation Conditions for Activated Carbons from Sugarcane Bagasse: An Agricultural Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from sugarcane bagasse, an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with different reagents. Orthogonal experimental design was applied to study the influence of activation temperature, activation time and chemical ratio of reagents to sugarcane bagasse on the chemical activation process of sugarcane bagasse. The optimal activated carbon was obtained using impregnation ratio of 0.39-0.78%

Zelong Xu; Yinian Zhu; Meina Liang; Hua Zhang; Huili Liu

2011-01-01

268

Field-Cage Methodology for Evaluating Climatic Suitability for Introduced Wood-Borer Parasitoids: Preliminary Results from the Emerald Ash Borer System  

PubMed Central

Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well.

Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van

2011-01-01

269

Sugarcane (Saccharum X officinarum): A Reference Study for the Regulation of Genetically Modified Cultivars in Brazil.  

PubMed

Global interest in sugarcane has increased significantly in recent years due to its economic impact on sustainable energy production. Sugarcane breeding and better agronomic practices have contributed to a huge increase in sugarcane yield in the last 30 years. Additional increases in sugarcane yield are expected to result from the use of biotechnology tools in the near future. Genetically modified (GM) sugarcane that incorporates genes to increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses could play a major role in achieving this goal. However, to bring GM sugarcane to the market, it is necessary to follow a regulatory process that will evaluate the environmental and health impacts of this crop. The regulatory review process is usually accomplished through a comparison of the biology and composition of the GM cultivar and a non-GM counterpart. This review intends to provide information on non-GM sugarcane biology, genetics, breeding, agronomic management, processing, products and byproducts, as well as the current technologies used to develop GM sugarcane, with the aim of assisting regulators in the decision-making process regarding the commercial release of GM sugarcane cultivars. PMID:21614128

Cheavegatti-Gianotto, Adriana; de Abreu, Hellen Marília Couto; Arruda, Paulo; Bespalhok Filho, João Carlos; Burnquist, William Lee; Creste, Silvana; di Ciero, Luciana; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; de Oliveira Figueira, Antônio Vargas; de Sousa Filgueiras, Tarciso; Grossi-de-Sá, Mária de Fátima; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Hoffmann, Hermann Paulo; de Andrade Landell, Marcos Guimarães; Macedo, Newton; Matsuoka, Sizuo; de Castro Reinach, Fernando; Romano, Eduardo; da Silva, William José; de Castro Silva Filho, Márcio; César Ulian, Eugenio

2011-03-01

270

Ontogeny of the Maize Shoot Apical Meristem[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The maize (Zea mays) shoot apical meristem (SAM) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. Laser microdissection of apical domains from developing maize embryos and seedlings was combined with RNA sequencing for transcriptomic analyses of SAM ontogeny. Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. Transcriptomic profiling before and after SAM initiation indicates that organogenesis precedes stem cell maintenance in maize; analyses of the first three lateral organs elaborated from maize embryos provides insight into their homology and to the identity of the single maize cotyledon. Compared with the newly initiated SAM, the mature SAM is enriched for transcripts that function in transcriptional regulation, hormonal signaling, and transport. Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific (SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. This study provides insight into the molecular genetics of SAM initiation and function in maize.

Takacs, Elizabeth M.; Li, Jie; Du, Chuanlong; Ponnala, Lalit; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Yu, Jianming; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Timmermans, Marja C.P.; Sun, Qi; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

2012-01-01

271

Cold acclimation improves regrowth of cryopreserved apple shoot tips.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation is important for safeguarding the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study, conducted with five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation on shoot tip recovery following cryopreservation using two techniques. Apple shoot tips were cold acclimated (CA) for 0 to 6 weeks and cryopreserved using PVS2 vitrification and encapsulation dehydration (ED). Cold hardiness was indicated by the temperature at which 50 percent of the shoot tips were lethally injured (LT50). For non-acclimated shoots, LT50 ranged from -6.7 degree C to -9.3 degree C. These LT50 values resembled the natural cold hardiness of field grown plants and resulted in 10-12 percent regrowth after cryopreservation. Acclimated plantlets had LT50 values of -12 degree C to -15 degree C after 1 to 3 weeks CA, and after 3 weeks CA, cryopreservation resulted in 65 percent regrowth. There were no significant differences between the two techniques for regrowth of shoot tips after each cold acclimation period. Overall, 2 to 5 weeks CA produced high regrowth for each of the five cultivars tested. Three weeks of alternating temperature CA can be recommended as a standard protocol for Malus germplasm cryopreservation. These conditions resulted in moderate (60 percent) to high (80 percent) recovery for all five genotypes tested with both cryopreservation methods used. PMID:19274311

Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Romadanova, Natalia V; Reed, Barbara M

2009-01-01

272

PkMADS1 is a novel MADS box gene regulating adventitious shoot induction and vegetative shoot development in Paulownia kawakamii.  

PubMed

Direct regeneration of shoot buds in vitro is an important technique in plant genetic manipulation. We describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel MADS box cDNA (PkMADS1) from Paulownia kawakamii leaf explants undergoing adventitious shoot regeneration. mRNA gel blot analysis confirmed the expression of PkMADS1 in the shoot-forming cultures, but no signal was observed in the callus-forming cultures. PkMADS1 transcripts were also detected in shoot apices, but not in root apices, initial leaf explants or the flower. In situ hybridization revealed that its expression was restricted to developing shoot primordia in the excised leaf cultures, suggesting a role for this gene in adventitious shoot formation. Transgenic Paulownia plants over-expressing the PkMADS1 gene showed some changes in phenotype, such as axillary shoot formation. In the antisense transformants, shoots were stunted and had altered phyllotaxy, and, in some lines, the shoot apical meristem appeared to have been used up early during shoot development. Leaf explants from the antisense transgenic plants showed a tenfold decrease in shoot regeneration compared with explants from sense transformants or wild-type. Our results show that PkMADS1 is a regulator of shoot morphogenesis. PMID:11851917

Prakash, A Pavan; Kumar, Prakash P

2002-01-01

273

Influence of calcium oxide level and time of exposure to sugarcane on in vitro and in situ digestive kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

These experiments were carried out to evaluate, using in vitro and in situ techniques, the effects of three inclusion levels of calcium oxide (0, 5, and 10g\\/kg of sugarcane fresh matter) and four exposure times (0, 24, 48, and 72h) of sugarcane to calcium oxide on the chemical composition and digestive kinetic parameters of sugarcane. The treatments were arranged in

D. S. Pina; L. O. Tedeschi; S. C. Valadares Filho; J. A. G. Azevedo; E. Detmann; R. Anderson

2009-01-01

274

Power is sweet: sugarcane in the global ethanol assemblage.  

PubMed

New alliances between Brazil and the US for ethanol production, transport, and trade are revitalising and expanding the centuries -old sugarcane plantation system in the Americas. In this paper I adopt the concept of global assemblages, building on the work of Aihwa Ong, Stephen Collier, and Saskia Sassen, to draw the contours of an "ethanol assemblage," which includes states, corporations, growers, technologies, urban consumers, and rural communities and landscapes. Though important to conceptualise agrofuels as a global phenomenon, it is also necessary to recognise the distinct regional patterns that cohere around various aspects of this polymorphous industry. Therefore, I focus on alliances around sugarcane ethanol, paying particular attention to the role of Miami as a global city serving as a gateway to information, investment, and commodities for the public/private and national/transnational entities that are engaged in the hemispheric project of ethanol promotion, production and distribution. PMID:20873028

Hollander, Gail

2010-01-01

275

Sequence analysis of an Australian isolate of sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus.  

PubMed

The genome of an Australian isolate of Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV-IM) was cloned, sequenced and analysed. The genome consisted of 7687 nucleotides and contained three open reading frames which were similar in size and organisation to those of other badnaviruses. SCBV-IM was found to be most similar to the SCBV-Morocco isolate with amino acid sequence similarity of 91.4 %, 83.8 % and 85.3 % in the ORF I, II and III coding regions, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the SCBV-IM ORF III deduced amino acid sequence showed that SCBV isolates were more closely related to each other than to other badnaviruses. Amplification of SCBV sequences from three different sugarcane varieties revealed considerable variability in the viral populations, both within single infected plants as well as between infected plants, suggesting that the SCBV isolates sequenced to date may not be representative of the range of virus variability. PMID:12491105

Geijskes, R J; Braithwaite, K S; Dale, J L; Harding, R M; Smith, G R

2002-12-01

276

Micropropagation of Vaccinium sp. by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.  

PubMed

The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant. PMID:23179690

Litwi?czuk, Wojciech

2013-01-01

277

Simulation of sugarcane residue decomposition and aboveground growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the worldwide increase in demand for biofuels, the area cultivated with sugarcane is expected to increase. For environmental\\u000a and economic reasons, an increasing proportion of the areas are being harvested without burning, leaving the residues on the\\u000a soil surface. This periodical input of residues affects soil physical, chemical and biological properties, as well as plant\\u000a growth and nutrition.

M. V. Galdos; C. C. Cerri; C. E. P. Cerri; K. Paustian; R. Van Antwerpen

2010-01-01

278

Development of a sugarcane leaf gasifier for electricity generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the development of a gasifier running on sugarcane leaves. A 15 kVA diesel generator set was operated for over 200 h using this gasifier. The gas flow rate and calorific value were 3–4 Nm3 kWh?1 and 3.5-5.0 MJ Nm?3, respectively. The cold gas efficiency was 35–60% over the entire range of loads tested (3.5–11.3 kW). The diesel

Rajeev M. Jorapur; Anil K. Rajvanshi

1995-01-01

279

Sugarcane leaf-bagasse gasifiers for industrial heating applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the commercial-scale (1080 MJ h?1) development of a gasification system using low-density biomass, for thermal applications. The gasifier can handle fuels such as sugarcane leaves and bagasse, bajra stalks, sweet sorghum stalks and bagasse etc. The system was tested for > 700 h under laboratory conditions at 288–1080 MJ h?1 output levels. The HHV of the gas

Rajeev Jorapur; Anil K. Rajvanshi

1997-01-01

280

Isolation and characterization of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different procedures for isolation of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) were comparatively studied. Sequential extractions of dewaxed SCB with water with or without ultrasonic irradiation, various concentrations of alkali and alkaline peroxide yielded 44.7 and 45.9% cellulose preparations, which contained 6.0 and 7.2% associated hemicelluloses and 3.4 and 3.9% bound lignin, respectively. Delignification with acidic sodium chlorite followed by

J. X Sun; X. F Sun; H Zhao; R. C Sun

2004-01-01

281

Dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at varying conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct of the cane sugar industry, is an abundant source of hemicellulose that could be hydrolyzed\\u000a to yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol and chemicals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration,\\u000a temperature, time, and dry matter concentration on hemicellulose hydrolysis were studied with a 20-L batch hydrolysis reactor\\u000a using a statistical experimental design.

Markus Neureiter; Herbert Danner; Christiane Thomasser; Bamusi Saidi; Rudolf Braun

2002-01-01

282

Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

1985-02-01

283

Lime Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse for Bioethanol Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) is evaluated. The effect of lime pretreatment on digestibility\\u000a was studied through analyses using central composite design (response surface), considering pretreatment time, temperature,\\u000a and lime loading as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of glucose from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis.\\u000a Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes

Sarita C. Rabelo; Rubens Maciel Filho; Aline Carvalho Costa

2009-01-01

284

?-Carotene production in sugarcane molasses by a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Several wild strains and mutants of Rhodotorula spp. were screened for growth, carotenoid production and the proportion of -carotene produced in sugarcane molasses. A better\\u000a producer, Rhodotorula glutinis mutant 32, was optimized for carotenoid production with respect to total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration and pH. In shake\\u000a flasks, when molasses was used as the sole nutrient medium with 40 g

P Bhosale; R V Gadre

2001-01-01

285

Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil.\\u000a The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm3 engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes\\u000a agricultural and

Aldo Roberto Ometto; Michael Zwicky Hauschild; Woodrow Nelson Lopes Roma

2009-01-01

286

Value of cane trash in nitrogen nutrition of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of trash containing 0.3 to 0.5% N in the N nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) was investigated in pot- and field experiments using15N-labelled trash. The data obtained from the pot study with 2 silty-clay loams (a Humic Nitosol and a Humic Acrisol) showed\\u000a that surface-applied trash (10 tonnes\\/ha), although ground to pass a 1-mm sieve, contributed less

K. F. NG Kee Kwong; J. Deville; P. C. Cavalot; V. Riviere

1987-01-01

287

Generation of Energy from Sugarcane Bagasse by Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide harvest of sugarcane for sucrose production represents a major agricultural industry, with approximately Mt\\u000a 1500 produced annually. The cane yields about 13.5% of its weight as sugar, together with an equal amount (dry weight) of\\u000a fibrous bagasse as waste. The bagasse, which is predominantly cellulose, is burned at the mills to generate steam for sugar\\u000a processing. The global

B. R. Stanmore

2010-01-01

288

In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.  

PubMed

Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation. PMID:16585042

Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

2006-07-01

289

Efficacy of systemic insecticides for protection of loblolly pine against southern pine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  

PubMed

We evaluated the efficacy of the systemic insecticides dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, fipronil, and imidacloprid for preventing attacks and brood production of southern pine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on standing, stressed trees and bolt sections of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., in eastern Texas. Emamectin benzoate significantly reduced the colonization success of engraver beetles and associated wood borers in both stressed trees and pine bolt sections. Fipronil was nearly as effective as emamectin benzoate in reducing insect colonization of bolts 3 and 5 mo after injection but only moderately effective 1 mo after injection. Fipronil also significantly reduced bark beetle-caused mortality of stressed trees. Imidacloprid and dinotefuran were ineffective in preventing bark beetle and wood borer colonization of bolts or standing, stressed trees. The injected formulation of emamectin benzoate was found to cause long vertical lesions in the sapwood-phloem interface at each injection point. PMID:16573328

Grosman, Donald M; Upton, William W

2006-02-01

290

Plant growth inhibitors isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) straw.  

PubMed

Several compounds related with plant defense and pharmacological activities have been isolated from sugarcane. Straw phytotoxins and their possible mechanisms of growth inhibition are largely unknown. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the phytotoxic constituents leachated from a sugarcane straw led to the isolation of trans-ferulic (trans-FA), cis-ferulic (cis-FA), vanillic (VA) and syringic (SA) acids. The straw leachates and their identified constituents significantly inhibited root growth of lettuce and four weeds. VA was more phytotoxic to root elongation than FA and SA. The identified phenolic compounds significantly increased leakage of root cell constituents, inhibited dehydrogenase activity and reduced chlorophyll content in lettuce. VA and FA inhibited mitotic index while SA increased cell division. Additive (VA-FA and FA-SA) and synergistic (VA-SA) interactions on root growth were observed at the response level of EC(25). Although the isolated compounds differed in their relative phytotoxic activities, the observed physiological responses suggest that they have a common mode of action. HPLC analysis indicated that sugarcane straw can potentially release 1.43 (ratio 2:1, trans:cis), 1.14 and 0.14mmolkg(-1) (straw dry weight) of FA, VA and SA, respectively. As phenolic acids are often found spatially concentrated in the top soil layers under plant straws, further studies are needed to establish the impact of these compounds in natural settings. PMID:16777531

Sampietro, Diego Alejandro; Vattuone, Marta Amelia; Isla, María Ines

2006-07-01

291

Evaluation of monocot and eudicot divergence using the sugarcane transcriptome.  

PubMed

Over 40,000 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) consensus sequences assembled from 237,954 expressed sequence tags were compared with the protein and DNA sequences from other angiosperms, including the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). Approximately two-thirds of the sugarcane transcriptome have similar sequences in Arabidopsis. These sequences may represent a core set of proteins or protein domains that are conserved among monocots and eudicots and probably encode for essential angiosperm functions. The remaining sequences represent putative monocot-specific genetic material, one-half of which were found only in sugarcane. These monocot-specific cDNAs represent either novelties or, in many cases, fast-evolving sequences that diverged substantially from their eudicot homologs. The wide comparative genome analysis presented here provides information on the evolutionary changes that underlie the divergence of monocots and eudicots. Our comparative analysis also led to the identification of several not yet annotated putative genes and possible gene loss events in Arabidopsis. PMID:15020759

Vincentz, Michel; Cara, Frank A A; Okura, Vagner K; da Silva, Felipe R; Pedrosa, Guilherme L; Hemerly, Adriana S; Capella, Adriana N; Marins, Mozart; Ferreira, Paulo C; França, Suzelei C; Grivet, Laurent; Vettore, Andre L; Kemper, Edson L; Burnquist, Willian L; Targon, Maria L P; Siqueira, Walter J; Kuramae, Eiko E; Marino, Celso L; Camargo, Luis E A; Carrer, Helaine; Coutinho, Luis L; Furlan, Luiz R; Lemos, Manoel V F; Nunes, Luiz R; Gomes, Suely L; Santelli, Roberto V; Goldman, Maria H; Bacci, Maurício; Giglioti, Eder A; Thiemann, Otávio H; Silva, Flávio H; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Nobrega, Francisco G; Arruda, Paulo; Menck, Carlos F M

2004-03-01

292

Expression Analysis of Sugarcane Aquaporin Genes under Water Deficit.  

PubMed

The present work is a pioneer study specifically addressing the aquaporin transcripts in sugarcane transcriptomes. Representatives of the four aquaporin subfamilies (PIP, TIP, SIP, and NIP), already described for higher plants, were identified. Forty-two distinct aquaporin isoforms were expressed in four HT-SuperSAGE libraries from sugarcane roots of drought-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, respectively. At least 10 different potential aquaporin isoform targets and their respective unitags were considered to be promising for future studies and especially for the development of molecular markers for plant breeding. From those 10 isoforms, four (SoPIP2-4, SoPIP2-6, OsPIP2-4, and SsPIP1-1) showed distinct responses towards drought, with divergent expressions between the bulks from tolerant and sensitive genotypes, when they were compared under normal and stress conditions. Two targets (SsPIP1-1 and SoPIP1-3/PIP1-4) were selected for validation via RT-qPCR and their expression patterns as detected by HT-SuperSAGE were confirmed. The employed validation strategy revealed that different genotypes share the same tolerant or sensitive phenotype, respectively, but may use different routes for stress acclimation, indicating the aquaporin transcription in sugarcane to be potentially genotype-specific. PMID:24490055

da Silva, Manassés Daniel; Silva, Roberta Lane de Oliveira; Costa Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar; Guimarães, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Veiga, Daniela Truffi; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Burnquist, William Lee; Kahl, Günter; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

2013-01-01

293

Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by C?C and C?O?C links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.

2013-03-01

294

Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of ?-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

2013-03-01

295

Evaluating sugarcane diets for dairy cows using a digestion model.  

PubMed

To eliminate unnecessary feeding trials, a mechanistic model of sugarcane digestion was used in the search for suitable supplements to improve milk production. Milk production simulated by the model was compared with data observed in four feeding trials published in the tropical literature where crossbred dairy cows were fed sugarcane/urea diets with different types of supplements. The predicted effects of the supplements on the ruminal microbial population, concentrations of ammonia and volatile fatty acids were also compared with the published results in one experiment. The model indicated the nutrient most limiting milk production for the different feeding situations. The addtion of Leucaena to the basal sugarcane/urea improved the availability of amino acids and long-chain fatty acids, with energy becoming the limiting factor. Supplementation with rice bran increased the availability of energy and long-chain fatty acids, but amino acids then became the limiting factor. Supplementation with both Leucaena and rice bran further improved the milk yield, but availability of energy now limited milk production. Supplementation with Leucaena increased milk production more than supplementation with king grass. The main reason for this increase was increased amino acid absorption due to increased microbial outflow. In all feeding situations, the average difference between the predicted milk production and that observed experimentally was 0.57 kg/d (ranging from 0.08 to 1 kg/d). PMID:11254073

Kebreab, E; Assis, A G; Dijkstra, J; France, J

2001-04-01

296

Imaging spectroscopy for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopy can provide real-time high throughput information on growing crops. The spectroscopic data can be obtained from space-borne, air-borne and handheld sensors. Such data have been used for assessing the nutritional status of some field crops (maize, rice, barely, potato etc.). In this study a handheld FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer in the 350 - 2500 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum was evaluated for its use to estimate sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentrations. Sugarcane leaf samples from one variety viz., N19 of two age groups (4-5 and 6-7 months) were subjected to spectral and chemical measurements. Leaf reflectance data were collected under controlled conditions and leaf nitrogen concentration was obtained using an automated combustion technique (Leco TruSpec N). The potential of spectroscopic data for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen status was evaluated using univariate correlation and regression analyses methods with the first-order reflectance across the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm. The variables that presented high correlation with nitrogen concentration were used to develop simple indices combining reflectances of 2-wavelengths. Simple linear regression was then used to select a model that yielded the highest R2. These were the R744 / R2142 index for the 4-5 months old cane crop and the (R2200 - R2025) / (R2200 + R2025) index for the 6-7 months old cane crop, with R2 of 0.74 and 0.87, respectively.

Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Ahmed, Fethi B.; van den Berg, Maurits

2008-10-01

297

Cell wall proteomics of sugarcane cell suspension cultures.  

PubMed

The use of cell walls to produce cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse is a new challenge. A better knowledge of proteins involved in cell wall remodelling is essential to improve the saccharification processes. Cell suspension cultures were used for this first cell wall proteomics study of sugarcane. Proteins extracted from cell walls were identified using an adapted protocol. They were extracted using 0.2 M CaCl2 and 2 M LiCl after purification of cell walls. The proteins were then identified by the innovative nanoACQUITY UPLC MS/MS technology and bioinformatics using the translated SUCEST EST cluster database of sugarcane. The experiments were reproduced three times. Since Sorghum bicolor is the closest plant with a fully sequenced genome, homologous proteins were searched for to complete the annotation of proteins, that is, prediction of subcellular localization and functional domains. Altogether, 69 different proteins predicted to be secreted were identified among 377 proteins. The reproducibility of the experiments is discussed. These proteins were distributed into eight functional classes. Oxidoreductases such as peroxidases were well represented, whereas glycoside hydrolases were scarce. This work provides information about the proteins that could be manipulated through genetic transformation, to increase second-generation ethanol production. PMID:24436144

Calderan-Rodrigues, Maria Juliana; Jamet, Elisabeth; Bonassi, Maria Beatriz Calderan Rodrigues; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Begossi, Amanda Carmanhanis; Setem, Laís Vaz; Franceschini, Livia Maria; Fonseca, Juliana Guimarães; Labate, Carlos Alberto

2014-03-01

298

Signal integration in the control of shoot branching.  

PubMed

Shoot branching is a highly plastic developmental process in which axillary buds are formed in the axil of each leaf and may subsequently be activated to give branches. Three classes of plant hormones, auxins, cytokinins and strigolactones (or strigolactone derivatives) are central to the control of bud activation. These hormones move throughout the plant forming a network of systemic signals. The past decade brought great progress in understanding the mechanisms of shoot branching control. Biological and computational studies have led to the proposal of two models, the auxin transport canalization-based model and the second messenger model, which provide mechanistic explanations for apical dominance. PMID:21427763

Domagalska, Malgorzata A; Leyser, Ottoline

2011-04-01

299

Strigolactones, a novel class of plant hormone controlling shoot branching.  

PubMed

For several decades, auxin and cytokinin were the only two hormones known to be involved in the control of shoot branching through apical dominance, a process where the shoot apex producing auxin inhibits the outgrowth of axillary buds located below. Grafting studies with high branching mutants and cloning of the mutated genes demonstrated the existence of a novel long distance carotenoid derived signal which acted as a branching inhibitor. Recently, this branching inhibitor has been shown to belong to the strigolactones, a group of small molecules already known to be produced by roots, exuded in the rhizosphere and as having a role in both parasitic and symbiotic interactions. PMID:20371109

Rameau, Catherine

2010-04-01

300

Enhanced somatic embryogenesis in sorghum bicolor from shoot tip culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Shoot tip cultures from 2- to 3-d-old seedlings ofSorghum bicolor (L.) Moench cv. IS3620C develop highly embryogenic callus from which plants can be regenerated when transferred to plant\\u000a growth regulator-free medium. Isolated shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.5 mg\\/liter\\u000a 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and 0.05 mg\\/liter kinetin. Purple pigmentation characteristic of sorghum cultures on growth\\u000a regulator-free

Shyamala Bhaskaran; Roberta H. Smith

1988-01-01

301

Convergences and divergences in polar auxin transport and shoot development in land plant evolution  

PubMed Central

A shoot is a reiterated structure consisting of stems and leaves and is the prevailing body plan in most land plant lineages. Vascular plants form shoots in the diploid generation, whereas mosses do so in the haploid generation.1 However, whether these plants use similar molecular mechanisms in shoot development and how the genetic networks for shoot development evolved is not clear. In our recent paper,2 we examined polar auxin transport in several mosses, which is essential for shoot development in angiosperms. Surprisingly, we did not detect polar auxin transport in the gametophytic shoots of mosses, but did detect it in the sporophytes, which have no shoot structure, indicating that shoots in vascular plants and mosses are most likely regulated differently. Here we discuss the convergent evolution of shoots and diverged auxin regulation in land plants.

Fujita, Tomomichi

2009-01-01

302

Transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of Cry1Ab/Vip3H has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.  

PubMed

Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers. PMID:20857760

Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

2010-08-01

303

Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

2013-10-01

304

Role of sugarcane straw allelochemicals in the growth suppression of arrowleaf sida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that allelochemicals from sugarcane straw may suppress the growth of arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia L.). A study was conducted to establish: (1) the direct or indirect role of the organic molecules from sugarcane straw leachate on the growth suppression of arrowleaf sida and (2) if leachate phytotoxins induce proline accumulation in arrowleaf sida tissues as an adaptative

Diego A. Sampietro; Melina A. Sgariglia; José R. Soberón; Emma N. Quiroga; Marta A. Vattuone

2007-01-01

305

Co-pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse with petroleum residue. Part I: thermogravimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition under nitrogen of sugarcane bagasse, petroleum residue and their blends was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at different heating rates (10, 20, 40 and 60°C\\/min). Thermal decomposition kinetic parameters were determined. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis was described as the sum of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin individual contributions. First order equations were used to determine the bagasse component thermal decomposition kinetics.

A Chaala; J Yang; C Roy

2001-01-01

306

Sugarcane bagasse as alternative packing material for biofiltration of benzene polluted gaseous streams: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of benzene vapor from gaseous streams was studied in two identically sized lab-scale biofiltration columns: one filled with a mixture of raw sugarcane bagasse and glass beads, and the other one packed with a mixture of ground sugarcane bagasse and glass beads, in the same volume ratio, as filter materials. Separate series of continuous tests were performed, in parallel,

L. Sene; A. Converti; M. G. A. Felipe; M. Zilli

2002-01-01

307

Comparative study of sugarcane average unit yield prediction with genetic BP neural network algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because sugarcane average unit yield was affected by multiple factors in its growth and its inherent law was lack of external correlation data mining, the precise of the prediction method was low. Recently, the adaptive of modern intelligent genetic neural network algorithm for multi-factor effect has been strong, and the prediction accuracy has been high, but with which in sugarcane

Yong-Chun Xu; Shi-Quan Shen; Zhen Chen

2010-01-01

308

Microsatellite markers from sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) ESTs cross transferable to erianthus and sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of a sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) EST (expressed sequence tag) library of 8678 sequences revealed approximately 250 microsatellite or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) sequences. A diversity of dinucleotide and trinucleotide SSR repeat motifs were present although most were of the (CGG)n trinucleotide motif. Primer sets were designed for 35 sequences and tested on five sugarcane genotypes. Twenty-one primer pairs produced

Giovanni M Cordeiro; Rosanne E Casu; C Lynne McIntyre; John M Manners; Robert J Henry

2001-01-01

309

Microbial Biomass Turnover in Indian Subtropical Soils under Different Sugarcane Intercropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in soil organic C (Corg), total N (Nt), available nutrients, soil microbial biomass C (Cmic) and N (Nmic), and mineralizable C and N in the sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) rhizosphere were evaluated under intensive sugarcane cropping systems with intercrops including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek

Archna Suman; Menhi Lal; A. K. Singh; Asha Gaur

2006-01-01

310

Molecular Differentiation at Nuclear Loci in French Host Races of the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)  

PubMed Central

French populations of the European corn borer consist of two sympatric and genetically differentiated host races. As such, they are well suited to study processes that could be involved in sympatric speciation, but the initial conditions of host-race divergence need to be elucidated. Gene genealogies can provide insight into the processes involved in speciation. We used DNA sequences of four nuclear genes to (1) document the genetic structure of the two French host races previously delineated with allozyme markers, (2) find genes directly or indirectly involved in reproductive isolation between host races, and (3) estimate the time since divergence of the two taxa and see whether this estimate is compatible with this divergence being the result of a host shift onto maize after its introduction into Europe ?500 years ago. Gene genealogies revealed extensive shared polymorphism, but confirmed the previously observed genetic differentiation between the two host races. Significant departures from the predictions of neutral molecular evolution models were detected at three loci but were apparently unrelated to reproductive isolation between host races. Estimates of time since divergence between French host races varied from ?75,000 to ?150,000 years, suggesting that the two taxa diverged recently but probably long before the introduction of maize into Europe.

Malausa, Thibaut; Leniaud, Laurianne; Martin, Jean-Francois; Audiot, Philippe; Bourguet, Denis; Ponsard, Sergine; Lee, Siu-Fai; Harrison, Richard G.; Dopman, Erik

2007-01-01

311

Salivary signals of European corn borer induce indirect defenses in tomato  

PubMed Central

Plants can recognize the insect elicitors and activate its defense mechanisms. European Corn Borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) saliva, produced from the labial salivary glands and released through the spinneret, is responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Glucose oxidase (GOX) present in the ECB saliva induced direct defenses in tomato. By contrast, GOX activity in ECB saliva was insufficient to trigger defenses in maize, suggesting that host-specific salivary elicitors are responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Our current study further examined whether ECB saliva can trigger indirect defenses in tomato. Relative expression levels of TERPENE SYNTHASE5 (TPS5) and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), marker for indirect defenses in host plants, were monitored. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ECB saliva can induce the expression of TPS5 and HPL, suggesting that salivary signals can induce indirect defenses in addition to the direct defenses. Further experiments are required to identify different ECB elicitors that are responsible for inducing direct and indirect defenses in host plants.

Louis, Joe; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

2013-01-01

312

The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

2013-10-01

313

Does the wood-borer Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea) shape the distribution of the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata?  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted to evaluate the occurrence of the isopod borer Sphaeroma terebrans (Crustacea) in aerial roots (prop roots) of the red mangrove Rhizophora mucronata on several different spatial scales (m to 100 km) in East Africa. In 6 out of 17 sites studied in Kenya and on Zanzibar Island, Tanzania, no signs of the isopods were found. When the isopods were present the frequency of infestation was high. Trees in muddy substrates in the lower intertidal, in particular at fringing channels or the open sea, showed high prevalence and intensity of infestation, with large part of their roots damaged or dead. Trees at the upper range of Rhizophora, in sandy and muddy areas, showed no signs of isopod infestation. This pattern recurred in mangrove forests on large spatial scales and there was no indication that island forests differed from the mainland forests. This indicates that sediment characteristics, vertical height in the tidal zone, and direct exposure to incoming water are the major factors controlling the abundance of S. terebrans. The isopod may play an important role in determining the lower intertidal limits of R. mucronata. Trees with numerous dead or nongrowing roots, as result of Sphaeroma attack, are likely to tumble due to a lack of root support and this is most likely to occur along channels at the lower, muddy intertidal. Tumbled trees were frequently observed along channels in the lower, muddy intertidal, but rarely in the mid or high intertidal. Implications for management of mangrove forests are discussed. PMID:12572825

Svavarsson, Jörundur; Osore, Melckzedeck K W; Olafsson, Emil

2002-12-01

314

Type and Distribution of Sensilla in the Antennae of the Red Clover Root Borer, Hylastinus obscurus  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the type, distribution, and structures of sensilla, the antennae of the red clover root borer, Hylastinus obscurus Marsham (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), were examined by light and electron microscopy (both scanning and transmission). Four different types of sensilla were identified in the club, and one type of chaetica was found in the scape and funicle of both male and female individuals. Chaetica and basiconica were the most abundant sensilla types in the club. They were present in the three sensory bands described, totaling approximately 80% of sensilla in the antennal club of H. obscurus. Chaetica were predominantly mechanoreceptors, although gustatory function could not be excluded. Basiconica forms showed characteristics typical of olfactory sensilla. Trichoidea were not found in the proximal sensory band, and they exhibited abundant pores, suggesting olfactory function. Styloconica were the least abundant sensillum type, and their shape was similar to that reported as having hygro- and thermoreceptor functions. There was no difference in the relative abundance of antennal sensilla between males and females. Finally, the sensillar configuration and abundance of receptors in the H. obscurus antennae suggest that these sensilla have chemoreceptive and other functions.

Palma, Ruben; Mutis, Ana; Isaacs, Rufus; Quiroz, Andres

2013-01-01

315

Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas  

PubMed Central

The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America.

Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

2010-01-01

316

[Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)].  

PubMed

The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. PMID:20877987

Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor

2010-01-01

317

COMPONENTS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION BETWEEN NORTH AMERICAN PHEROMONE STRAINS OF THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER  

PubMed Central

Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z and E pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers was nearly complete isolation (> 99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as ~10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence.

Dopman, Erik B.; Robbins, Paul S.; Seaman, Abby

2009-01-01

318

Sexual Dimorphism of Pupae and Adults of the Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the main distinguishing characteristics of female and male pupae and adults of cocoa pod borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Two pairs of tubercles present on the sterna of segments IX and X of the female pupae are useful in differentiating female from male pupae. The female genital opening is located anterior to the first pair of tubercles and forms a plateau in which the center has a light brown longitudinal depression that indicates the female genital opening. The male genital opening is a conspicuous, brown, longitudinal slit located between the two pairs of tubercles. The sex of the adult moth can be determined by examining the ventrocaudal segments of the abdomen. The last segment of the female abdomen is white, compressed laterally and at the tip, and the hairy anal papillae can be seen. In the male, the ventrocaudal end of the abdomen is black and robust. This information will be useful for laboratory and field diagnosis and while working on sex ratios of this important pest of cocoa.

Posada, Francisco J.; Virdiana, Ike; Navies, Maisin; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Hebbar, Prakash

2011-01-01

319

Ultrasonic courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, Ostrinia furnacalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although sex pheromone communication in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been studied intensively, acoustic communication in this genus has not been explored. In this study, we report that male-produced ultrasound serves as a courtship song in the Asian corn borer moth, O. furnacalis. Upon landing close to a pheromone-releasing female, a male showed a series of courtship behaviors involving emission of ultrasound. The sounds were produced when the wings were vibrated quickly in an upright position. The male song was composed of chirps, i.e., groups of pulses (duration of a chirp = 58.9 ms, 8.8 pulses/chirp), with a broadband frequency of 25-100 kHz. In flight tunnel experiments, deaf and hearing females showed a significant difference in the incidence of three behavioral responses to courting males, i.e., immediate acceptance, acceptance after walking, and rejection. Deaf females showed more ‘rejection’ and less ‘acceptance after walking’ than hearing females, indicating that the detection of male-produced ultrasound plays an important role in the acceptance of a male. The findings are discussed in the context of exploitation of receiver bias and mate choice.

Nakano, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yukio; Tatsuki, Sadahiro; Surlykke, Annemarie; Skals, Niels; Takanashi, Takuma

2006-06-01

320

Analysis of Gene Expression in Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Using Quantitative Real Time-PCR  

PubMed Central

Emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is an exotic invasive pest, which has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp) in North America.EAB continues to spread rapidly and attacks ash trees of different ages, from saplings to mature trees. However, to date very little or no molecular knowledge exists for EAB. We are interested in deciphering the molecular-based physiological processes at the tissue level that aid EAB in successful colonization of ash trees. In this report we show the effective use of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to ascertain mRNA levels in different larval tissues (including midgut, fat bodies and cuticle) and different developmental stages (including 1st-, 2nd-, 3rd-, 4th-instars, prepupae and adults) of EAB. As an example, a peritrophin gene (herein named, AP-PERI1) is exemplified as the gene of interest and a ribosomal protein (AP-RP1) as the internal control. Peritrophins are important components of the peritrophic membrane/matrix (PM), which is the lining of the insect gut. The PM has diverse functions including digestion and mechanical protection to the midgut epithelium.

Bhandary, Binny; Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Rivera-Vega, Loren; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2010-01-01

321

New Artificial Diet for Continuous Rearing of the Bean Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata  

PubMed Central

The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero (1993), called the “D-OO diet.” However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15–25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata.

Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

2013-01-01

322

Toxicity and toxicokinetics of 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner)  

SciTech Connect

The maize-derived secondary chemical 6-methyoxybenzoxazolinone (MBOA) and a tritiated derivative were prepared synthetically for a detailed examination of their toxicity and toxicokinetics in the European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis. During feeding trials with MBOA incorporated into meridic diets, the mean time population and adult emergence was significantly lengthened at concentrations of 1.5 mg MBOA/g diet and above. Increased mortality occurred at concentrations at 1.5 mg/g and above. A decrease in the sex ratio (female/total) and fecundity was observed at concentrations of 0.5 mg/g and above. The latter observations represent new biological effects related to MBOA. In tracer studies, both uptake and excretions of MBOA administered in diets to larvae increased linearly with concentration. Body burden values indicated that the ECB larvae were capable of excreting enough compound to maintain total tissue levels at approximately 50% of the dietary concentration. Total amount of label increased with larval stage, but decreased in adults due to a large amount of label eliminated in the pupal case. In topical application studies, elimination of the label in the frass was rapid, reaching 60% by 6 hr and 82% of applied dose by 24 hr. Accumulation of label in tissues other than hemolymph was small. The results show that MBOA is toxic to ECB, but the insect has efficient methods for minimizing these effects.

Campos, F.; Atkinson, J.; Arnason, J.T.; Philogene, B.J.R.; Morand, P.; Werstiuk, N.H.; Timmins, G.

1988-03-01

323

A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

2009-05-01

324

A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.  

PubMed

In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial ?-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with ?-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial ?-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of ?-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail. PMID:25053042

Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

2015-01-01

325

Efficient shoot formation on internodal segments and alkaloid formation in the regenerates of Cephaelis ipecacuanha A. Richard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid shoot proliferation was established by adventitious shoot formation on internodal segments. Cross sections of the shoot initiation area were observed microscopically and adventitious shoots were studied under the scanning electron microscope. Shoots were directly formed on the epidermis of internodal segments in vitro without callusing, but not on that of nodal segments with axillary buds. The use of media

Kayo Yoshimatsu; Koichiro Shimomura

1991-01-01

326

Transgenic plants from fragmented shoot tips of apple ( Malus baccata (L.) Borkhausen) via agrobacterium-mediated transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic apple (Malus baccata (L.) Borkhausen) plants were obtained via Agrobaterium-mediated transformation of fragmented shoot tips. Our results showed that without wounding treatment or with wounding treatment (II, cutting shoot tips vertically into two parts), shoots generally regenerated from meristem tissues directly and adventitious shoot regeneration was rarely observed. Otherwise, when shoot tips were cut vertically into four parts, a

Yongjie Wu; Yunhe Li; Yaqin Wu; Hehe Cheng; Yin Li; Yanhua Zhao; Yusheng Li

2011-01-01

327

Monitoring Freeze Injury and Evaluating Losingto Sugar-Cane Using RS and GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From Jan 12th to Feb 12th 2008, the most severity cold chilling and freeze injury weather took place during the last 50 years in the southern of China.Sugar-cane was suffered injury severity. However, the losing of sugar-cane which it was aroused by thisweather disaster had not been exactitude evaluated till on Apr 1st, 2008. It was not only affected the sugar-cane ordinary harvesting and crushing, but also affected reserving sugar-cane seed for planting. Freeze injury is common disaster for sugar-cane in southern of China and monitoring freeze injury using RS and GIS are of great economic significance but little research work about it has been done in China Freeze injuring is not only related to crop growth stage and the cold air intension from northern to southern and weather types, but also consanguineous related to land form and physiognomy and geographical latitude and height above sea level etc and crop planting spatial distribution. The case study of Guangxi province which is the biggest region of sugar-cane planting in China in this paper, the values of sugar-cane NDVI among the freeze injury occur former and after in early 2008 and without freeze injury occur in the same term 2007 were analyzed and compared based on the sugar-cane planting spatial distribution information which were carried out by using multi-phase EOS/MODIS data. The result showed that it was not only commendably reflected the spatial distribution of freeze injury but also reflected the sugarcane suffered from degree using the values of sugar-cane NDVIof freeze injury occur former and after. The field sample investigation data of using GPS was integrated with the NDVI, the evaluation of region sugar-cane suffer from freeze injury losing could quickly and exactly realize.

Tan, Zongkun; Ding, Meihua; Wang, Longhe; Yang, Xin; Ou, Zhaorong

328

Population dynamics of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane cultivars and its effect on plant growth.  

PubMed

Different experiments have estimated that the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is largely variable among sugarcane cultivars. Which bacteria are the most important in sugarcane-associated BNF is unknown. However, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been suggested as a strong candidate responsible for the BNF observed. In the present study, bacteria-free micropropagated plantlets of five sugarcane cultivars were inoculated with three G. diazotrophicus strains belonging to different genotypes. Bacterial colonization was monitored under different nitrogen fertilization levels and at different stages of plant growth. Analysis of the population dynamics of G. diazotrophicus strains in the different sugarcane varieties showed that the bacterial populations decreased drastically in relation to plant age, regardless of the nitrogen fertilization level, bacterial genotype or sugarcane cultivars. However, the persistence of the three strains was significantly longer in some cultivars (e.g., MEX 57-473) than in others (e.g., MY 55-14). In addition, some strains (e.g., PAl 5(T)) persisted for longer periods in higher numbers than other strains (e.g., PAl 3) inside plants of all the cultivars tested. Indeed, the study showed that the inoculation of G. diazotrophicus may be beneficial for sugarcane plant growth, but this response is dependent both on the G. diazotrophicus genotype and the sugarcane variety. The most positive response to inoculation was observed with the combination of strain PAl 5(T) and the variety MEX 57-473. Although the positive effect on sugarcane growth apparently occurred by mechanisms other than nitrogen fixation, the results show the importance of the sugarcane variety for the persistence of the plant-bacteria interaction, and it could explain the different rates of BNF estimated among sugarcane cultivars. PMID:14722690

Muñoz-Rojas, J; Caballero-Mellado, J

2003-11-01

329

Report on Virginia Tech Shootings Urges Clarification of Privacy Laws  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators, mental-health officials, and law-enforcement officers often do not share information about troubled students because they are confused by what they can disclose under complex and overlapping privacy laws, according to a report on the Virginia Tech shootings. Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales and two other Bush cabinet secretaries…

Fischer, Karin

2007-01-01

330

Specification of epidermal cell fate in plant shoots.  

PubMed

Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots. PMID:24616724

Takada, Shinobu; Iida, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

331

PREDICTING CHEMICAL ACCUMULATION IN SHOOTS OF AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical exchange dynamics expected for diffusive transfer of a chemical between aqueous solution and plant shoots, and expected bioconcentration based on partitioning properties of the chemical, are explored by using a three-compartment model. he model utilizes three dynamic com...

332

Rifle Shooting Accuracy During Recovery from Fatiguing Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of aerobic exercise on rifle shooting accuracy was studied in a repeated measures design. Nine men (22.5 +/5.7 yrs.) and 3 women (21.0 +/4. 4 yrs.) active duty soldiers were tested. The volunteers were randomly subjected to 2 types of exercise ...

M. A. Ito M. A. Sharp R. F. Johnson D. J. Merullo R. P. Mello

1999-01-01

333

Radiocesium Distribution in Bamboo Shoots after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident  

PubMed Central

The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium 134Cs and 137Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight), respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

Higaki, Takumi; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

2014-01-01

334

Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³?Cs and ¹³?Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight), respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots. PMID:24831096

Higaki, Takumi; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

2014-01-01

335

Connecting the Dots: Lessons from the Virginia Tech Shootings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shootings that took place last spring on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, located in Blacksburg, Virginia, elicited a host of reactions, many deeply emotional. In groups of college and university presidents, the response was generally empathetic. Indeed, they were right to be put on alert by the random and…

Davies, Gordon K.

2008-01-01

336

Todd Strasser Takes Aim at School Shootings: An Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes an interview with Todd Strasser, the young adult book author of "Give a Boy a Gun", as well as an excerpt from one of his speeches. Addresses issues related to school shootings, the easy availability of guns, ridicule and bullying, peer pressure, and violence in media. (LRW)

Shoemaker, Joel

2001-01-01

337

Buds on Actinidia arguta shoots do contain axillary meristems  

Microsoft Academic Search

First?order axillary buds from Actinidia arguta (Siebold et Zucc.) Planch, ex Miq. shoots were shown to develop second?order axillary structures in the first growing season of their development. This is contrary to what has been reported earlier. More importantly, the now revised description of A. arguta bud development does not support the hypothesis that flower evocation in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa

E. F. Walton

1999-01-01

338

Specification of epidermal cell fate in plant shoots  

PubMed Central

Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots.

Takada, Shinobu; Iida, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

339

A Trainer System for Air Rifle\\/Pistol Shooting  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the immense competition in the current sports world, the technology has come in to the picture in a substantial way to outperform other competitors in the sport. But, in Sri Lanka, most of local sportsman could not gain a proper training which is backed by technology to reach international levels. This is common for the Air Rifle\\/Pistol shooting sport

H. L. K. Silva; S. D. Uthuranga; B. Shiyamala; W. C. M. Kumarasiri; H. B. Walisundara; G. T. I. Karunarathne

2009-01-01

340

Shoot biomass of turfgrass cultivars grown on composted waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various cultivars of four cool-season grass types (tall fescue, fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass) were seeded in 0.34-liter plastic pots containing either composted sewage sludge [Com-Til2 (CT), Soil Magic2 (SM)] or composted yard mulch (YM). Plants were grown in the greenhouse for four weeks prior to measuring shoot biomass. White most tall fescue cultivars showed more shoot growth on YM, perennial ryegrass cultivars generally grew better on SM. Cultivars of fine fescue and bluegrass grew about the same on YM or SM, and slightly less on CT. With very few exceptions, shoot biomass of individual cultivars was greater on either YM or SM than it was on CT. Within individual grass types, Pennlawn (fine fescue), Pennant (perennial ryegrass), and Victa (Kentucky bluegrass) averaged consistently better growth on all three composted media. For tall fescue, Aquara, Rebel II, and Monarch performed best on YM, SM, and CT, respectively. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals did not occur in selective samples of shoot tissues collected from the grass types used.

Roberts, Bruce R.; Kohorst, Sanford D.; Decker, Henry F.; Yaussy, Daniel

1995-09-01

341

Trouble-shooting bearing problems in large hydroturbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

If hydro plant operators are aware of the signals that can alert them to potential harm to generator bearings and act promptly to investigate and evaluate any problems, failures should be averted. This article reviews two aspects of trouble-shooting: discovering and defining potential problems that might cause bearing failure; and pinpointing the cause of failures to prevent similar ones in

Abramovitz

1991-01-01

342

Trouble-shooting bearing problems in large hydroturbine generators  

SciTech Connect

If hydro plant operators are aware of the signals that can alert them to potential harm to generator bearings and act promptly to investigate and evaluate any problems, failures should be averted. This article reviews two aspects of trouble-shooting: discovering and defining potential problems that might cause bearing failure; and pinpointing the cause of failures to prevent similar ones in the future.

Abramovitz, S. (Abramovitz Associates, Inc., Bronxville, NY (United States))

1991-10-01

343

Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.  

PubMed

Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2013-05-01

344

Nitrogen uptake by the shoots of smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora is the foundation species in intertidal salt marshes of the North American Atlantic coast. Depending on its elevation within the marsh, S. alterniflora may be submerged for several hours per day. Previous ecosystem-level studies have demonstrated that S. alterniflora marshes are a net sink for nitrogen (N), and that removal of N from flooding tidal water can provide enough N to support the aboveground biomass. However, studies have not specifically investigated whether S. alterniflora plants assimilate nutrients through their aboveground tissue. We determined in situ foliar and stem N uptake kinetics for 15NH4, 15NO3, and 15N-glycine by artificially flooding plants in a mid-Atlantic salt marsh. To determine the ecological importance of shoot uptake, a model was created to estimate the time of inundation of S. alterniflora in 20 cm height intervals during the growing season. Estimates of inundation time, shoot mass, N uptake rates, and N availability from long-term data sets were used to model seasonal shoot N uptake. Rates of aboveground N uptake rates (leaves + stems) were ranked as follows: NH4+ > glycine > NO3–. Our model suggests that shoot N uptake may satisfy up to 15% of the growing season N demand in mid-Atlantic salt marshes, with variation depending on plant elevation and water column N availability. However, in eutrophic estuaries, our model indicates the potential of the plant canopy as a nutrient filter, with shoot uptake contributing 66 to 100% of plant N demand.

Mozdzer, T. J.; Kirwan, M.; McGlathery, K. J.; Zieman, J. C.

2011-01-01

345

Nitrogen uptake by the shoots of smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora is the foundation species in intertidal salt marshes of the North American Atlantic coast. Depending on its elevation within the marsh, S. alterniflora may be submerged for several hours per day. Previous ecosystem-level studies have demonstrated that S. alterniflora marshes are a net sink for nitrogen (N), and that removal of N from flooding tidal water can provide enough N to support the aboveground biomass. However, studies have not specifically investigated whether S. alterniflora plants assimilate nutrients through their aboveground tissue. We determined in situ foliar and stem N uptake kinetics for 15NH4, 15NO3, and 15N-glycine by artificially flooding plants in a mid-Atlantic salt marsh. To determine the ecological importance of shoot uptake, a model was created to estimate the time of inundation of S. alterniflora in 20 cm height intervals during the growing season. Estimates of inundation time, shoot mass, N uptake rates, and N availability from long-term data sets were used to model seasonal shoot N uptake. Rates of aboveground N uptake rates (leaves + stems) were ranked as follows: NH4 + > glycine > NO3 -. Our model suggests that shoot N uptake may satisfy up to 15% of the growing season N demand in mid-Atlantic salt marshes, with variation depending on plant elevation and water column N availability. However, in eutrophic estuaries, our model indicates the potential of the plant canopy as a nutrient filter, with shoot uptake contributing 66 to 100% of plant N demand. ?? 2011 Inter-Research.

Mozdzer, T. J.; Kirwan, M.; McGlathery, K. J.; Zieman, J. C.

2011-01-01

346

Structure-activity relationship observations for European corn borer moth pheromone and fluoro analogs via computer molecular modeling.  

PubMed

Structure-activity relationship (SAR) observations were made for theZ-type European corn borer moth pheromone, (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, and a series of analogs with fluorination in the alcohol portion of the molecule. The attractiveness of these analogs and the pheromone was compared to the electrostatic potential map of the molecular mechanics (MM) minimized lowest energy conformation for each compound. A critical range of electrostatic potential on the protons of the double-bond appears to be essential for optimal acceptor fit and attractiveness. PMID:24233896

Warthen, J D; Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Wakabayashi, N

1995-12-01

347

[Effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and economic benefit of sugarcane intercropped with soybean].  

PubMed

A two-factor field experiment of randomized block design was conducted in Guangzhou to investigate the effects of reduced nitrogen application on the yield, quality, and total biomass dynamic of sugarcane as well as the economic benefit of the sugarcane population under different sugarcane/soybean intercropping patterns. Neither N application nor intercropping pattern had significant effects on the yield and quality of sugarcane, and no significant differences were observed in the yield and quality of sugarcane among all treatments. The land equivalent ratio (LER) of sugarcane/soybean intercropping at different N application levels was from 1.36 to 2.12, suggesting that sugarcane/soybean intercropping had higher LER than monoculture sugarcane. The total dry matter (except root) of sugarcane in all treatments increased with plant growth, and the growth pattern fitted sigmoid function. At lower nitrogen application level, the eigenvalues of the dynamic dry matter accumulation model were more coordinative, compared with those at higher nitrogen application level, which meant that in the later case, sugarcane had an advanced peak growth time and shortened fast-growth duration, and thereby, its yield decreased. Therefore, it was possible to reasonably adjust nitrogen application level to improve the eigenvalues of the sugarcane dynamic dry matter accumulation model, and accordingly, to achieve high yield. The population economic benefit under sugarcane/soybean intercropping was 3.2%-26.3% higher at lower than at higher nitrogen application level, suggesting the increase of the economic benefit of sugarcane population under reduced nitrogen application. Among the treatments, 1:2 sugarcane/soybean intercropping had the best economic benefit. PMID:21657029

Li, Zhi-xian; Wang, Jian-wu; Yang, Wen-ting; Shu, Ying-hua; Du, Qing; Liu, Li-ling; Shu, Lei

2011-03-01

348

Evaluation of bamboo shoot peptide preparation with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant abilities from byproducts of canned bamboo shoots.  

PubMed

In this paper, aqueous extract fractions from byproducts of the processing of canned bamboo shoots, including boiled water, filled liquid, and squeezed juice, were obtained by 5 kDa molecular cutoff membranes and marcoporous resin DA201-C treatment. The enriched bamboo shoot angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide preparation fraction (called BSP for short) was extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate fraction and n-butanol fraction exhibited higher antioxidant capacities than the leaving water fraction (BSML), which was attributed to the higher phenolic acid and flavonoid content of both fractions, while BSML exhibited the strongest ACE inhibitory activity. Sephadex G-15 gel filtration and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography were used for further purification of bamboo shoot ACE inhibitory peptide from BSML. Asp-Tyr was identified as the key active component by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A short-term antihypertensive assay stated that both Asp-Tyr [10 mg day(-1) (kg of body weight)(-1)] and BSP [50 mg day(-1) (kg of body weight)(-1)] could significantly reduce the systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (3-6 h). This study provides further examples of utilization of byproducts from the processing of canned bamboo shoots for the prevention of hypertension and attenuation of oxidative stress. PMID:23647018

Liu, Lianliang; Liu, Lingyi; Lu, Baiyi; Chen, Meiqin; Zhang, Ying

2013-06-12

349

27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...trap, target, and similar shooting activities. 478.35 Section 478.35 Alcohol...trap, target, and similar shooting activities. Licensing and recordkeeping requirements...trap, target, and similar organized activities shall be determined by the Director...

2011-04-01

350

The control of apical dominance: localization of the growth region of the Pharbitis nil shoot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growing region of the upright Pharbitis nil shoot extends over a distance 13 cm basipetal to the shoot apex. When the shoot is inverted, ethylene production in this region is greatly enhanced whereas stem elongation is significantly inhibited. This growth region is ethylene-sensitive and the restriction of its growth by shoot inversion-induced ethylene may mediate the release of apical dominance.

Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

1986-01-01

351

Synthesis and field evaluation of the sex pheromone analogues to soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella.  

PubMed

In order to develop efficient lures for soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) in China, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate (EE-8,10-12:Ac), the main component of the pheromone of L. glycinivorella, and 12 structurally-related compounds were synthesised in good overall yields, regiospecificities, and stereo-selectivities via coupling reactions catalysed by Li?CuCl?. The effect of different synthetic compounds, alone or in combination with EE-8,10-12:Ac, on numbers of captured L. glycinivorella males was evaluated. EE-8,10-12:Ac, (E)-10-dodecenyl acetate (E-10-12:Ac), (E)-8-dodecenol (E-8-12:OH), tetradecyl acetate (14:Ac), and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z-9-14:Ac) alone displayed different attractiveness to L. glycinivorella males. 14:Ac, E-8-12:OH, E-10-12:Ac, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienal (EE-8,10-12:Ald), (E)-8-dodecenal (E-8-12:Ald), (E)-10-dodecenal (E-10-12:Ald) and Z-9-14:Ac all showed a synergistic effect to EE-8,10-12:Ac at certain dosages. The binary mixtures of EE-8,10-12:Ac and E-10-12:Ald, Z-9-14:Ac,14:Ac, E-8-12:Ald, EE-8,10-12:Ald, E-8-12:OH, or E-10-12:Ac in suitable ratios give 17.00-, 10.98-, 10.67-, 6.73-, 5.54-, 4.30- and 4.50-fold increases in trap catch, respectively, over the standard pheromone lure, and as novel pheromone blends, demonstrated potential use in pheromone traps to monitor or control L. glycinivorella populations in China. PMID:23085661

Hu, Dai-Hua; He, Jun; Zhou, Yi-Wan; Feng, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Xing

2012-01-01

352

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

353

Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary trajectories of sexual signals and lead to their divergence, with speciation being the ultimate result.

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lofstedt, Christer

2009-01-01

354

European corn borer: Pheromonal catabolism and behavioral response to sex pheromone.  

PubMed

When physiologically excessive amounts of the female sex pheromone of the European corn borer (ECB) or esters analogous to the pheromone were applied to the antennae of males, their behavioral responsiveness to pheromone in a flight tunnel was significantly impaired for 2 hr. Concurrent quantitative analyses of heptane extracts of the male antennae by gasliquid chromatography showed that the compounds applied to antennae were hydrolyzed and, at 2 and 4 hr posttreatment, little or none of the compound applied or hydrolysis product was detectable in the antennal extracts. After 4 hr of in vivo incubation, male responsiveness to pheromone was restored among moths treated with the analogs but not among moths treated with pheromone. Esterase activity on the antennae was moderately inhibited in vivo by a pheromone analog that is a so-called transition-state esterase inhibitor, 1,1, 1-trifluoro-14-heptadecen-2-one. However, the analog did not inhibit male behavior when it was coevaporated with pheromone in a flight-tunnel assay. Therefore, in the presence of pheromone, the analog did not compete well for esterase or the pheromone receptor. Treating the antennae of intact males with tetrahydrofuran obliterated sex pheromone response capability in males, but the treatment did not significantly attenuate esterase and other catabolic activity of the antennae. Indications are that degradation of esters on the ECB antennae involves substrate-nonspecific esterase activity and other metabolic processes that in turn remove hydrolysis products from the antennae. Maintenance of a male's ability to respond to pheromone is linked to these processes. PMID:24258728

Klun, J A; Schwarz, M; Uebel, E G

1991-02-01

355

The Life Cycle of the Root Borer, Oryctes agamemnon, Under Laboratory Conditions  

PubMed Central

The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 ± 2'C and 55 ± 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 ± 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 ± 2.69, 63.88 ± 6.6 and 118.3 ± 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 ± 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 ± 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine.

Soltani, Rasmi; Chaieb, Ikbel; Hamouda, Med Habib Ben

2008-01-01

356

Glutathione-S-transferase profiles in the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is a recently discovered invasive insect pest of ash, Fraxinus spp. in North America. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are a multifunctional superfamily of enzymes which function in conjugating toxic compounds to less toxic and excretable forms. In this study, we report the molecular characterization and expression patterns of different classes of GST genes in different tissues and developmental stages plus their specific activity. Multiple sequence alignment of all six A. planipennis GSTs (ApGST-E1, ApGST-E2, ApGST-E3, ApGST-O1, ApGST-S1 and ApGST-?1) revealed conserved features of insect GSTs and a phylogenetic analysis grouped the GSTs within the epsilon, sigma, omega and microsomal classes of GSTs. Real time quantitative PCR was used to study field collected samples. In larval tissues high mRNA levels for ApGST-E1, ApGST-E3 and ApGST-O1 were obtained in the midgut and Malpighian tubules. On the other hand, ApGST-E2 and ApGST-S1 showed high mRNA levels in fat body and ApGST-?1 showed constitutive levels in all the tissues assayed. During development, mRNA levels for ApGST-E2 were observed to be the highest in feeding instars, ApGST-S1 in prepupal instars; while the others showed constitutive patterns in all the developmental stages examined. At the enzyme level, total GST activity was similar in all the tissues and developmental stages assayed. Results obtained suggest that A. planipennis is potentially primed with GST-driven detoxification to metabolize ash allelochemicals. To our knowledge this study represents the first report of GSTs in A. planipennis and also in the family of wood boring beetles. PMID:23499941

Rajarapu, Swapna Priya; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2013-05-01

357

Susceptibility of Eggs and Adult Fecundity of the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominca, Exposed to Methoprene  

PubMed Central

A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs and neonates of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae = Bostrychidae), exposed to the insect growth regulator, methoprene, on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with methoprene at the label rate of 0.003 mg [AI]/cm2 when used as a surface treatment in structures was 52.0 ± 7.3% compared to 93.0 ± 3.3% on untreated controls. In the second test, eggs were exposed to a dose-response series of 0.00003 to 0.03 mg[AI]/cm2. Egg hatch was directly proportional to concentration and ranged from 85.0 ± 2.0% on untreated controls to 26.7 ± 8.3% at the highest concentration tested. In the third test, 1 ppm of methoprene was sprayed on long grain rough rice (paddy) (Cocodrie variety), and then individual kernels were cracked and an egg of R. dominica was placed directly on the kernel. On untreated rice kernels, 67.5 ± 11.6% of the eggs hatched and were able to bore inside, and all of these larvae emerged as adults. In contrast, 40.0 ± 5.3% of the eggs placed on treated cracked kernels were able to develop to where the larvae were visible through X-ray detection, but none emerged as adults. In the final test, newly-emerged adults were exposed on rough rice treated with 1 ppm methoprene. The number of eggs from adults on untreated rice was 52.1 ± 4.3 eggs per female, and on treated rice the average egg production was 12.5 ± 1.1 eggs per female. Methoprene applied on a surface or on rough rice affected development of egg hatch also reduced fecundity of parent adults exposed on the treated rough rice.

Arthur, F. H.; Wilde, G. E.; Throne, J. E.; Subramanyam, Bh.

2008-01-01

358

Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

2013-01-01

359

European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) induced responses enhance susceptibility in maize.  

PubMed

Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868

Dafoe, Nicole J; Thomas, James D; Shirk, Paul D; Legaspi, Michelle E; Vaughan, Martha M; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E; Schmelz, Eric A

2013-01-01

360

In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia × candida Pers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia?×?candida 'Creamsickle'. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4 (+), NO3 (-), K(+), FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weight of shoot mass, and shoot number. The experiment to determine the levels of NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and K(+), was conducted as a 2-component NH4 (+): K(+) mixture crossed by [NO3 (-)] and resulted in an experimental design free of ion confounding and capable of separating the effects of proportion and concentration. The results of the NH4 (+)-K(+)-NO3 (-) experiment revealed a region in the design space where growth was significantly improved; the region generally had lower total nitrogen and lower NH4 (+):K(+) ratios than MS medium. The experiments to determine the appropriate levels of Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were conducted at six log levels ranging from 0 to 1 mM. Of the four metal salts tested, MnSO4 had the least effect on in vitro shoot growth and its concentration was reduced from 0.1 mM (MS level) to 0.001 mM. CuSO4 had large effects on in vitro shoot growth and was increased from 0.0001 mM to 0.001 mM. A 2-level factorial of NH4 (+)-K(+)-NO3 (-), FeSO4/EDTA, and ZnSO4 was conducted and several formulations identified for their improvements of quality and growth. In addition to the changes to MnSO4 and CuSO4, these formulations were characterized by lower levels of NH4 (+), K(+), NO3 (-) and Zn, and higher levels of FeSO4/EDTA. Overall, several nutrient formulations were identified as superior to MS medium for growth of in vitro shoot cultures of B. 'Creamsickle'. PMID:23573042

Niedz, Randall P; Evens, Terence J; Hyndman, Scott E; Adkins, Scott; Chellemi, Daniel O

2012-01-01

361

Effects of anxiety on handgun shooting behavior of police officers: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current pilot study aimed at providing an initial assessment of how anxiety influences police officers’ shooting behavior. Seven police officers participated and completed an identical shooting exercise under two experimental conditions: low anxiety, against a non-threatening opponent, and high anxiety (HA), against a threatening opponent who occasionally shot back using colored soap cartridges. Measurements included shooting accuracy, movement times,

Arne Nieuwenhuys; Raôul R. D. Oudejans

2010-01-01

362

Comparison of shoot induction ability of different explants in herbaceous peony ( Paeonia lactiflora Pall.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot induction ability of explants of herbaceous peony was investigated in semisolid MS medium containing BA, TDZ and GA3. Callus was readily induced from stem without node and petiole explants within 2 days of culture but failed to generate shoots. Adventitious shoots were successfully produced from meristematic regions only: bud eyes on nodal stem sections, and junctions of petioles and

Daike Tian; Ken M. Tilt; Fenny Dane; Floyd M. Woods; Jeff L. Sibley

2010-01-01

363

The chemical and mineralogical behaviour of Pb in shooting range soils from central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently investigations have shown that the annual flux of lead from shotgun pellets to shooting range soils is significant in some countries. This paper presents the data of chemical and mineralogical analyses of soils and Pb-pellet crusts from five shooting ranges in Sweden and, based on these results, evaluates the retention of lead in these shooting range soils. In the

Zhixun Lin; Blaise Comet; Ulf Qvarfort; Roger Herbert

1995-01-01

364

Where's the B. E. E. F.? Everyone Can Be a Shooter: Shooting Fundamentals and Activities Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shooting the basketball is the skill that is the most frequently practiced by those who play the game. Just like any other skill, shooting the basketball requires proper mechanics and adequate practice. This article provides physical educators and coaches with information to help students and athletes become more skilled in shooting a basketball.…

Barney, David; McGaha, Patrick

2006-01-01

365

Effects of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on lignification of postharvest bamboo shoot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and ethylene on quality and lignification of postharvest bamboo shoot (Phyllostachys praecox f. prevernalis.) were examined during storage at 20°C. Disease incidence and respiration rate of control bamboo shoot increased, while total sugar (TS) content decreased quickly. Reducing sugar (RS) content and ethylene production increased at first and then decreased quickly. Increased shoot firmness after

Zisheng Luo; Xiaoling Xu; Zhenzhen Cai; Bifang Yan

2007-01-01

366

The role of gravity in apical dominance: effects of clinostating on shoot inversion-induced ethylene production, shoot elongation and lateral bud growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is inhibited by rotating the plant at 0.42 revolutions per minute in a vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of a horizontal clinostat. Clinostating prevented lateral bud outgrowth, apparently by negating the restriction of the shoot elongation via reduction of ethylene production in the inverted shoot. Radial stem expansion was also decreased. Data from experiments with intact tissue and isolated segments indicated that shoot-inversion stimulates ethylene production by increasing the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. The results support the hypothesis that shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is due to gravity stress and is mediated by ethylene-induced retardation of the elongation of the inverted shoot.

Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

1987-01-01

367

Field evaluation of resistance of transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to two stem borers.  

PubMed

Two transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines, KMD1 and KMD2 at the R4 generation, transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, were first evaluated for stem borer resistance in the field during the rice growing season of 1998 in two areas of Zhejiang Province, China. Both KMD1 and KMD2 were highly resistant to the stem borers Chilo suppressalis (Walker) and Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker), and were completely undamaged during the whole rice growing season. In contrast, damage to the plants of the untransformed parental control (Xiushui 11) was in the form of deadhearts or whiteheads. Under natural infestation by the C. suppressalis, the damage to control plants reached a peak of 88.7% of plants and 20.1% of tillers encountered with deadhearts. Under artificial and natural infestation of neonate striped stem borers at the vegetative stage and booting stage, 100% of plants and 25.6% of tillers, 78.9% of plants and 15.6% of productive tillers among artificially infested control plants were observed with the symptom of deadhearts and whiteheads, respectively. Damage to the control plants from artificial infestation by the S. incertulas reached a peak of 97.0% of plants and 22.9% of tillers damaged. The field research indicated that both KMD1 and KMD2 show great potential for protecting rice from attack by these two stem borers. PMID:11233125

Ye, G Y; Shu, Q Y; Yao, H W; Cui, H R; Cheng, X Y; Hu, C; Xia, Y W; Gao, M W; Altosaar, I

2001-02-01

368

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly

1982-01-01

369

QTL Mapping of Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in RILs of Maize Population B73 × De811  

Microsoft Academic Search

terization of native resistance to stalk tunneling by the European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner)), indicative of the identification of the underlying genetic components has importance of this pest and the difficulty in obtaining conclusive been hindered by environmental variation, a laborious results. In this study, 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of B73 and lengthy screening process, and the

M. D. Krakowsky; M. Lee; W. L. Woodman-Clikeman; M. J. Long; N. Sharopova

2004-01-01

370

Evaluation of vacuum technology to kill larvae of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for using vacuum technology to kill larvae of the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bupres- tidae), in solid-wood packing materials (SWPM) and other wood products was assessed. Current regulations require that SWPM be heat treated or fumigated prior to export. Vacuum treatment may be a

Zhangjing Chen; Marshall S. White; Melody A. Keena; Therese M. Poland; Erin L. Clark

371

Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt  

EPA Science Inventory

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

372

ASOCIACIÓN ENTRE PUDRICIÓN TEXANA (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora) E INSECTOS BARRENADORES DEL NOGAL (Carya illinoensis)* ASSOCIATION BETWEEN COTTON ROOT ROT (Phymatotrichopsis omnivore) AND BORER INSECT OF PECAN TREE (Carya illinoensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euplatypus segnis (Chapuis) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) causes severe damage to pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees at Coahuila, Mexico. The present study was carried out during 1999-2001 in a 90 ha pecan orchard, divided in eight lots, during 1999-2001. The trees were counted and clasified in four categories: attacked by borer insects and with symptoms of cotton root rot (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora); only attacked

José Alfredo Samaniego-Gaxiola; Manuel Ramírez-Delgado; Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval; Urbano Nava-Camberos

373

Quantitative detection of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), a potential microbial control agent of the emerald ash borer, by use of real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate monitoring of an introduced, mass-released microbial control agent is essential in evaluating its persistence and in designing application strategies for insect pest control. As part of our multi-year study on the development and use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the emerald ash borer, a major invasive pest of ash trees, we are determining persistence of the fungus

Louela A. Castrillo; Michael H. Griggs; John D. Vandenberg

2008-01-01

374

Heat stress assessment among workers in a Nicaraguan sugarcane farm  

PubMed Central

Background Heat illness is a major cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. Workers exposed to intense heat can become unable to activate compensation mechanisms, putting their health at risk. Heat stress also has a direct impact on production by causing poor task performance and it increases the possibility of work-related morbidity and injuries. During the sugarcane harvest period, workers are exposed to excessive sunlight and heat from approximately 6 am to 3 pm. A first assessment of heat stress during the 2006/2007 harvesting season served to redesign the existing rehydration measures. In this project, sugarcane workers were provided with more rehydration solutions and water during their work schedule. Objective To assess heat stress preventive measures in order to improve existing rehydration strategies as a means of increasing productivity. Methods A small group of 22 workers were followed up for 15 days during working hours, from 6 am to 3 pm. Selection criteria were defined: to have worked more than 50% of the day's working schedule and to have worked for at least 10 days of the follow-up period. A simple data recollection sheet was used. Information regarding the amount of liquid intake was registered. Production output data was also registered. Temperature measurements were recorded by using a portable temperature monitoring device (‘EasyLog’, model EL-USB-2). Results The average temperature measurements were above the Nicaraguan Ministry of Labour thresholds. Seven workers drank 7–8 L of liquid, improving their production. Output production increased significantly (p=0.005) among those best hydrated, from 5.5 to 8 tons of cut sugarcane per worker per day. Conclusions Productivity improved with the new rehydration measures. Awareness among workers concerning heat stress prevention was increased.

Delgado Cortez, Orlando

2009-01-01

375

Fine structure of plasmodesmata in mature leaves of sugarcane.  

PubMed

The fine structure of plasmodesmata in vascular bundles and contiguous tissues of mature leaf blades of sugarcane (Saccharum interspecific hybrid L62-96) was studied with the transmission electron microscope. Tissues were fixed in glutaraldehyde, with and without the addition of tannic acid, and postfixed in OsO4. The results indicate that the fine structure of plasmodesmata in sugarcane differs among various cell combinations in a cell-specific manner, but that three basic structural variations can be recognized among plasmodesmata in the mature leaf: 1) Plasmodesmata between mesophyll cells. These plasmodesmata possess amorphous, electron-opaque structures, termed sphincters, that extend from plasma membrane to desmotubule near the orifices of the plasmodesmata. The cytoplasmic sleeve is filled by the sphincters where they occur; elsewhere it is open and entirely free of particulate or spokelike components. The desmotubule is tightly constricted and has no lumen within the sphincters, but between the sphincters it is a convoluted tubule with an open lumen. 2) Plasmodesmata that traverse the walls of chlorenchymatous bundle-sheath cells and mestome-sheath cells. In addition to the presence of sphincters, these plasmodesmata are modified by the presence of suberin lamellae in the walls. Although the plasmodesmata are quite narrow and the lumens of the desmotubules are constricted where they traverse the suberin lamellae, the cytoplasmic sleeves are still discernible and appear to contain substructural components there. 3) Plasmodesmata between parenchymatous cells of the vascular bundles. These plasmodesmata strongly resemble those found in the roots of Azolla, in that their desmotubules are closed for their entire length and their cytoplasmic sleeves appear to contain substructural components for their entire length. The structural variations exhibited by the plasmodesmata of the sugarcane leaf are compared with those proposed for a widely-adopted model of plasmodesmatal structure. PMID:24194147

Robinson-Beers, K; Evert, R F

1991-06-01

376

Evidence for a Plasmalemma Redox System in Sugarcane 1  

PubMed Central

A plasmalemma-bound NADH-dependent redox system has been identified in protoplasts isolated from cell suspensions of sugarcane. This system oxidized NADH as well as NADPH, increased O2 consumption 3-fold, and increased the pH of the external medium while the cytoplasmic pH was decreased. In the presence of NADH, ferricyanide was rapidly reduced and the external medium was acidified. The uptake rates of K+, 3-O-methylglucose, leucine, and arginine were all decreased in the presence of NADH.

Thom, Margaret; Maretzki, Andrew

1985-01-01

377

Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

2013-07-01

378

Novel sex pheromone desaturases in the genomes of corn borers generated through gene duplication and retroposon fusion  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of female moth sex pheromone blends is controlled by a number of different enzymes, many of which are encoded by members of multigene families. One such multigene family, the acyl-CoA desaturases, is composed of certain genes that function as key players in moth sex pheromone biosynthesis. Although much is known regarding the function of some of these genes, very little is known regarding how novel genes have evolved within this family and how this might impact the establishment of new sex pheromone blends within a species. We have discovered that several cryptic ?11 and ?14 desaturase genes exist in the genomes of the European and Asian corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis and Ostrinia furnacalis, respectively). Furthermore, an entirely novel class of desaturase gene has arisen in the Ostrinia lineage and is derived from duplication of the ?11 desaturase gene and subsequent fusion with a retroposon. Interestingly, the genes have been maintained over relatively long evolutionary time periods in corn borer genomes, and they have not been recognizably pseudogenized, suggesting that they maintain functional integrity. The existence of cryptic desaturase genes in moth genomes indicates that the evolution of moth sex pheromone desaturases in general is much more complex than previously recognized.

Xue, Bingye; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Kajikawa, Masaki; Okada, Norihiro; Roelofs, Wendell L.

2007-01-01

379

Insights into genome differentiation: pheromone-binding protein variation and population history in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis).  

PubMed Central

Examination of sequence variation at nuclear loci can give insights into population history and gene flow that cannot be derived from other commonly used molecular markers, such as allozymes. Here, we report on sequence variation at a single nuclear locus, the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) locus, in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). The European corn borer has been divided into three races in New York State on the basis of differences in pheromone communication and life history. Previous allozyme data have suggested that there is a small but significant amount of genetic differentiation between these races. The PBP does not appear to be involved in the pheromone differences between these races. Examination of variation at the PBP locus in the three races reveals no fixed differences between races despite high levels of polymorphism. There also appears to have been considerable recombination in the history of the pheromone-binding protein alleles. Observation of both recombination between alleles and lack of significant nucleotide or insertion/deletion divergence between races leads us to suggest that these populations are either recently diverged or have continued to exchange genetic material subsequent to divergence in pheromone communication and life history.

Willett, C S; Harrison, R G

1999-01-01

380

Exploring the Midgut Transcriptome and Brush Border Membrane Vesicle Proteome of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)  

PubMed Central

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac.

Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

2012-01-01

381

Cuticle-degrading proteases produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in the presence of coffee berry borer cuticle  

PubMed Central

A Brazilian isolate of Beauveria bassiana (CG425) that shows high virulence against the coffee berry borer (CBB) was examined for the production of subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) cuticle-degrading proteases. Fungal growth was either in nitrate-medium or in CBB cuticle-containing medium under both buffered and unbuffered conditions. In unbuffered medium supplemented with cuticle, the pH of cultures dropped and Pr1 and Pr2 activities were detected in high amounts only at a pH of 5.5 or higher. In buffered cultures, Pr1 and Pr2 activities were higher in medium supplemented with cuticle compared to activities with nitrate-medium. The Pr1 and Pr2 activities detected were mostly in the culture supernatant. These data suggest that Pr1 and Pr2 proteases produced by strain CG425 are induced by components of CBB cuticle, and that the culture pH influences the expression of these proteases, indicating the occurrence of an efficient mechanism of protein secretion in this fungus. The results obtained in this study extend the knowledge about protease production in B. bassiana CG425, opening new avenues for studying the role of secreted proteases in virulence against the coffee berry borer during the infection process.

Dias, B.A.; Neves, P.M.O.J.; Furlaneto-Maia, L.; Furlaneto, M.C.

2008-01-01

382

Enzymic Dissociation of Zea Shoot Cell Wall Polysaccharides 1  

PubMed Central

The water-insoluble fraction, obtained after successive treatment of an insoluble fraction of a buffer-homogenate of Zea mays L. hybrid B73 × Mo 17 shoots with 3 molar LiCl and hot water, was treated with ?-amylase to remove starch. This fraction has been subjected to sugar composition analysis and the major glycosidic linkages were determined. The results suggest that the water-insoluble fraction is mainly composed of arabinoxylan, (1 ? 3), (1 ? 4-)-?-d-glucan, xyloglucan, (1 ? 4)-galactan, polygalacturonic acid, and cellulose. The insoluble fraction also contained ferulic acid (about 440 micrograms per 50 milligrams dry weight), which was released from the fraction by treatment with aqueous NaOH. Novo Ban 120 from Bacillus subtilis was found to be an appropriate enzyme source for selective dissociation of Zea shoot wall polysaccharides.

Kato, Yoji; Nevins, Donald J.

1984-01-01

383

Adventitious shoot regeneration from ovaries of Hosta ‘Golden Scepter’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability ofHosta Golden Scepter (GS) ovary explants to generate adventitious shootsin vitro. Ovaries were transversely cut into halves and transferred to petri dishes containingHosta initiation medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 2.5 ?M and N6-benzyladenine (BA) at 10 ?M. GS produced adventitious shoots from the ovary base via organogenesis. The

D. J. Williams; K. H. Al-Juboory; R. M. Skirvin

1998-01-01

384

ANNOYANCE CAUSED BY NOISE FROM HEAVY WEAPON SHOOTING RANGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A social survey investigation was made in 20 areas around eight shooting ranges for heavy weapons to test the applicability of a non-linear dose–response relationship with a breakpoint for number of events. The noise exposure was expressed using the integrated valueLCDNas well as the number of events at different levels and the noise levels from the noisiest events. The extent

R. Rylander; B. Lundquist

1996-01-01

385

'Accretion' and chemistry along the trajectory of 'shooting stars'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trajectories of micrometeorites in the Earth's atmosphere include a 'hot' shooting star segment, then a complex gravitational settling in the 'E' layer and the stratosphere, and, for two-thirds of the micrometeorites, a 'terminal' fall into sea water. Both the tiny stratospheric Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) and the larger Antarctic micrometeorites (MMs) show evidence for the accretion of various components from the Earth's atmosphere. In collaboration with R. Harvey, J. Cragin, and S. Taylor, we have extracted cosmic spherules and MMs from a approximately equal 50-kg block of Antarctic ice. The observations support the important role of micrometeorites in scavenging a variety of atmospheric components. Concerning chemical reactions taking place along the tracks of 'shooting stars,' we can only report some 'structural' evidence, resulting from our analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations of either micrometer-sized crushed grains or ultramicrotomed sections of MMs. Our observations indicate that they can be assimilated to 'catalyzing-aggregates.' We are engaged in various types of simulation experiments to assess the catalytic activity of micrometeorites, to check in particular whether they might have functioned as 'chondritic' chemical reactors on the early Earth to synthetize prebiotic molecules, either upon their own hydrolysis in early seas, or along their shooting-star trajectory in the atmosphere. In this last context, a difficult experiment consists of levitating MMs in reactive molecular gases, and detecting reaction products. If these difficult experiments do succeed they should open 'new horizons.' Indeed this 'astrochemistry of shooting stars' could also be effective in other types of atmospheres, and even in the strong approximately 100 km/hr 'blizzard' that ejects cometary micrometeorites from their parent nuclei of 'frozen mud.'

Maurette, M.; Brack, A.; Engrand, C.; Kurat, G.; Leach, S.; Perreau, M.

1994-07-01

386

Cryopreservation of isolated mint shoot tips by vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot tips isolated from a mint clone, Mentha aquatica x M. spicata, were gradually exposed to a mixture containing 35% ethylene glycol, 1 M dimethylsulfoxide and 10% polyethylene glycol-8000 and then immersed into liquid nitrogen. Cooling and warming rates were approximately 4800°C\\/min and 9000°C\\/min respectively. Survival after liquid nitrogen treatment ranged from 31% to 75% among experiments. There was no

Leigh E. Towill

1990-01-01

387

Embryonic shoot apical meristem formation in higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is essential for organ formation in higher plants. How the SAM is formed during plant development\\u000a is poorly understood, however. In this review, we focus on several recent studies that provide new insights into the mechanism\\u000a of SAM formation during embryogenesis. Recently, positive and negative regulators of the class I KNOX genes, which are

Shinobu TakadaMasao Tasaka; Masao Tasaka

2002-01-01

388

Structure of a Pectic Polysaccharide Fraction from Zea Shoots 1  

PubMed Central

A pectic fraction, accounting for about 0.3% of the total cell wall polysaccharide, was derived from the hot water extract of an insoluble fraction of the buffer-homogenate of Zea shoots. The pectic polysaccharide fraction was characterized by fragmentation analysis after hydrolysis with acid and Erwinia carotovora pectate lyase. The results suggest that the fraction consists of mostly a linear homopolygalacturonan with neutral sugar components or a homogalacturonan and a rhamnogalacturonan with neutral sugar components.

Kato, Yoji; Nevins, Donald J.

1989-01-01

389

Genetic analysis of the role of amyloplasts in shoot gravisensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant can change the growth direction after sensing the gravity orientation This response calls gravitropism and the initial step is the gravisensing We have isolated many Arabidopsis mutants shoot gravitropism sgr with reduced or no gravitropic response in inflorescence stems The analysis of sgr1 and sgr7 revealed that endoderm cells in the inflorescence stems were gravisensing sites zig zigzag sgr4 and sgr3 showed no or reduced gravitropism in shoot respectively and their amyloplasts thought to be statoliths did not sedimented to the orientation of gravity in the endoderm cells ZIG encoded a SNARE AtVTI11 and SGR3 encoded other SNARE AtVAM3 These two SNAREs made a complex in the shoot endoderm cells suggesting that the vesicle transport from trans-Golgi network TGN to prevacuolar compartment PVC and or vacuole was involved in the amyloplasts localization and movement The analysis to visualize amyloplasts and vacuolar membrane in living endoderm cells supported that the vacuole function was important for the amyloplasts movement Recently we have isolated many suppressor mutants of zig One of them named zig suppressor zip 1 had a point mutation in the gene encoded other SNARE of AtVTI12 This protein is a homologous to ZIG AtVTI11 and these two proteins have partially redundant functions Although wild type At VTI 12 could not rescued zig mutated AtVTI12 protein ZIP1 could almost completely play the part of ZIG In zigzip1 amyloplasts in endoderm cells sedimented normally and the shoots showed normal gravitropic response The other

Tasaka, M.; Morita, M.

390

Auxin and strigolactones in shoot branching: intimately connected?  

PubMed

Axillary meristems form in the axils of leaves. After an initial phase of meristematic activity during which a small axillary bud is produced, they often enter a state of suspended growth from which they may be released to form a shoot branch. This post-embryonic growth plasticity is typical of plants and allows them to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The shoot architecture of genotypically identical plants may display completely contrasting phenotypes when grown in distinct environmental niches, with one having only a primary inflorescence and many arrested axillary meristems and the other displaying higher orders of branches. In order to cease and resume growth as required, the plant must co-ordinate its intrinsic developmental programme with the responses to environmental cues. It is thought that information from the environment is integrated throughout the plant using plant hormones as long-distance signals. In the present review, we focus primarily on how two of these hormones, auxin and strigolactones, may be acting to regulate shoot branching. PMID:20298249

Stirnberg, Petra; Ward, Sally; Leyser, Ottoline

2010-04-01

391

A maize thiamine auxotroph is defective in shoot meristem maintenance.  

PubMed

Plant shoots undergo organogenesis throughout their life cycle via the perpetuation of stem cell pools called shoot apical meristems (SAMs). SAM maintenance requires the coordinated equilibrium between stem cell division and differentiation and is regulated by integrated networks of gene expression, hormonal signaling, and metabolite sensing. Here, we show that the maize (Zea mays) mutant bladekiller1-R (blk1-R) is defective in leaf blade development and meristem maintenance and exhibits a progressive reduction in SAM size that results in premature shoot abortion. Molecular markers for stem cell maintenance and organ initiation reveal that both of these meristematic functions are progressively compromised in blk1-R mutants, especially in the inflorescence and floral meristems. Positional cloning of blk1-R identified a predicted missense mutation in a highly conserved amino acid encoded by thiamine biosynthesis2 (thi2). Consistent with chromosome dosage studies suggesting that blk1-R is a null mutation, biochemical analyses confirm that the wild-type THI2 enzyme copurifies with a thiazole precursor to thiamine, whereas the mutant enzyme does not. Heterologous expression studies confirm that THI2 is targeted to chloroplasts. All blk1-R mutant phenotypes are rescued by exogenous thiamine supplementation, suggesting that blk1-R is a thiamine auxotroph. These results provide insight into the role of metabolic cofactors, such as thiamine, during the proliferation of stem and initial cell populations. PMID:20971897

Woodward, John B; Abeydeera, N Dinuka; Paul, Debamita; Phillips, Kimberly; Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Freeling, Michael; Begley, Tadhg P; Ealick, Steven E; McSteen, Paula; Scanlon, Michael J

2010-10-01

392

Enzymic Dissociation of Zea Shoot Cell Wall Polysaccharides 1  

PubMed Central

The structure of a glucuronoarabinoxylan in Zea mays L. (hybrid B73 × Mo17) shoot cell walls has been studied. The water-insoluble fraction of Zea shoot cell walls, pretreated with purified Bacillus subtilis (1 ? 3), (1 ? 4)-?-d-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase, was treated with purified B. subtilis endo-(1 ? 4)-?-xylanase. Carbohydrates (2.6% of the waterinsoluble fraction of Zea shoot cells walls) derived from the enzyme treatment consisted of glucuronoarabinoxylan fragments with molecular weights which varied from a few hundred to over 2.0 × 105 daltons. Structural analyses of the fragments suggested that the glucuronoarabinoxylan had a xylan backbone which contained (1 ? 4)-?-d-xylopyranosyl residues, with about 60 to 70% substitution at the C-2 or C-3 position with arabinose, glucuronic acid, and other substituents. Furthermore, the glucuronoarabinoxylan contained a phenolic component which appeared to be primarily ferulic acid bonded to carbohydrate, probably by an ester linkage. The amount of ferulic acid was approximately 3 micrograms per 100 micrograms of carbohydrate.

Kato, Yoji; Nevins, Donald J.

1984-01-01

393

Micropropagation of chokeberry by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.  

PubMed

The black chokeberry-aronia (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) is a shrub native to North America although nowadays well known in Eastern Europe. The fruits are regarded as the richest source of antioxidant phytonutrients among fruit crops and vegetables. Chokeberries can be easily propagated by seeds but this method is not recommended. Micropropagation is far more efficient than other conventional cloning methods like layering or softwood cuttings. Aronia clones are propagated in vitro through four- or three-stage method based on subculturing of shoot explants. The double diluted MS or full strength MS medium with elevated 50% Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) content are used in the initiation and proliferation chokeberry in vitro cultures, respectively. They are supplemented with 0.5-1.0 mg LBA, and 0.05 mg LIBA. The double-phase medium is recommended in the last passage before shoot rooting. The regenerated shoots could be rooted both in vitro on double diluted MS with 0.05 mg L(-1) IBA or in vivo in peat and perlite substrate and subsequently grown in the greenhouse. PMID:23179698

Litwi?czuk, Wojciech

2013-01-01

394

Phytotoxic furanocoumarins from the shoots of Semenovia transiliensis.  

PubMed

Discovery of novel, natural herbicides has become important to manage increasing weed resistance to synthetic herbicides and environmental issues. The systematic bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the methylene chloride/methanol extract of the shoots of Semenovia transiliensis led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds. Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce, a dicot) and Agrostis stolonifera L. (bentgrass, a monocot) bioassays were used to identify and isolate the phytotoxic fractions. A number of furanocoumarin compounds isolated from S. transiliensis shoots were phytotoxic to both test species. These included psoralen, isopsoralen, heratomin, isopentenyloxyisobergapten, imperatorin, bergapten, xanthotoxin, heraclenin, and heraclenol. All the active secondary metabolites isolated from the shoots of S. transiliensis were furanocoumarins. Identification of these was accomplished using mass spectrometry and 1- and 2-dimensional NMR techniques. Phytotoxic activity o f isolated compounds w a s evaluated in a dose-response manner from 0.3 to 1000 microM. Ingeneral, all of the compounds were more active on A. stolonifera than L. sativa. Bergaptin and xanthotoxin were the most active of the compounds, with moderate activity at 100 microM. Imperatorin and xanthotoxin inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata Hegelm. by 50% at 29 and 60 microM, respectively. Our results show that S. transiliensis is rich in furanocoumarins, which are probably involved in various aspects of the chemical ecology of the species. Unfortunately, the general cytotoxicity of furanocoumarins makes them an unlikely candidate for pesticide discovery. PMID:23157001

Sondhia, Shobha; Duke, Stephen O; Green, Solomon; Gemejiyeva, Nadezhda G; Mamonov, Leonid K; Cantrell, Charles L

2012-10-01

395

Effects of Temperature on Growth and Constituents of New Shoots in Tea Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of air temperature on growth and constituents of new shoots in tea plants were examined. In the first crop season, new shoots of tea plants grown in a hothouse from September to April of the following year were compared with those of tea plants outdoors. The average temperature in the hothouse from September to April of the following year was about 16-19°C,and the average outdoor temperature was about 9-12°C. The results indicated that the coefficients of variation of the weights and numbers of immature leaves of new shoots grown in a hothouse were greater than those of new shoots grown outdoors. Therefore, the new shoots grown in a hothouse were more uneven than those grown outdoors. The catechin contents of new shoots grown in a hothouse were higher than those of new shoots grown outdoors, and total nitrogen contents of new shoots grown in a hothouse were lower than those of new shoots grown outdoors. In the next study, young tea plants were cultivated in a hothouse and outdoors over a period of one year. The average temperature in the hothouse was about 22-23°C, and that outdoors was about 16-17°C. The growth cycles in the hothouse were shorter than those outdoors, and the number of pluckings and the yield of new shoots grown in a hothouse were more than those of new shoots grown outdoors.

Anan, Toyomasa; Yamaguchi, Yuichi; Tamura, Yasuaki; Mizukami, Yuzo; Sawai, Yusuke

396

Yield estimation of sugarcane based on agrometeorological-spectral models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work has the objective to assess the performance of a yield estimation model for sugarcane (Succharum officinarum). The model uses orbital gathered spectral data along with yield estimated from an agrometeorological model. The test site includes the sugarcane plantations of the Barra Grande Plant located in Lencois Paulista municipality in Sao Paulo State. Production data of four crop years were analyzed. Yield data observed in the first crop year (1983/84) were regressed against spectral and agrometeorological data of that same year. This provided the model to predict the yield for the following crop year i.e., 1984/85. The model to predict the yield of subsequent years (up to 1987/88) were developed similarly, incorporating all previous years data. The yield estimations obtained from these models explained 69, 54, and 50 percent of the yield variation in the 1984/85, 1985/86, and 1986/87 crop years, respectively. The accuracy of yield estimations based on spectral data only (vegetation index model) and on agrometeorological data only (agrometeorological model) were also investigated.

Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; Batista, Getulio Teixeira

1990-01-01

397

Comparison of composition and absorption of sugarcane policosanols.  

PubMed

Policosanols (PC) exist as very-long-chain alcohols derived from sugarcane currently used in many countries as a cholesterol-lowering therapy. PC purity and relative percentage composition have been suggested as primary reasons why the original Cuban PC (OPC) supplements possess lipid-lowering efficacy. The purpose of the present study was, first, to compare the relative percentage purity and PC composition of both OPC and alternative sources of PC (APC). A second objective was to feed Syrian hamsters a diet containing 0.275 mg PC/g of either the OPC or an APC product (APC1) and compare subsequent tissue, plasma and faecal PC levels. Five animals from the APC1 dietary group received a diet containing ten times the original amount of PC. Results indicate that the APC formulations have a composition that is highly consistent with the OPC supplement, with octacosanol being present within the cited 60-70 % range. PC were undetectable in the small intestine, liver, adipose or plasma in animals fed either source. Hamsters fed OPC excreted octacosanol (C28) more rapidly (P < 0.05) than hamsters receiving APC1. If the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of PC mixtures is dependent on their purity and composition, then sugarcane-derived APC products should possess similar therapeutic properties as the OPC supplement. PMID:17298709

Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Kassis, Amira N; Jain, Deepak; Ebine, Naoyuki; Cunnane, Stephen C; Jones, Peter J H

2007-02-01

398

Separation and characterization of dextran extracted from deteriorated sugarcane.  

PubMed

In this research work, dextran was extracted from deteriorated sugarcane by alcohol precipitation and purified by gel filtration chromatography. Total acid hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation were utilized to confirm the purity of separated polysaccharide. Using the more recently available techniques such as ((1)H,(13)C) and two-dimensional (COSY and HMQC) NMR spectral analysis, methylation GC-MS and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the structure of sugarcane dextran (SC-Dex) was investigated. On the basis of all spectra, SC-Dex showed a branched polysaccharide that contained only d-glucose residues in consecutive ?-(1-6) linkages in the main chain with ?-(1-3) branches. Methylation analysis showed that, the degree of ?-(1-3) branching levels was 4.37%. Several structural fragments were identified from MALDI-TOF spectrum with peak-to-peak mass difference of 162gmol(-1), which confirmed that the repeat unit in SC-Dex was d-glucose. The surface morphology of SC-Dex, revealed the spherically shaped and porous structure. Using HPSEC-MALLS-RI system, the average molecular weight of SC-Dex was estimated to be 1.753×10(6)gmol(-1) with an index of polydispersity value of 1.069. PMID:23623926

Bashari, Mohanad; Lagnika, Camel; Ocen, Denis; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Jinpeng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

2013-08-01

399

Candidates for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease.  

PubMed

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and "Ca. Sulcia muelleri." Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and "Ca. Sulcia muelleri" colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A; Hanboonsong, Yupa

2012-10-01

400

Sugarcane production evaluated by the state-space approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of soil properties on crop growth and yield have traditionally been analyzed using classical statistics methodologies. These methodologies do, however, not consider sampling position coordinates and assume independence between samples. This study had the objective of using the state-space approach, which considers sampling position, to evaluate and to discuss a spatial process using variables related to the soil-plant system. For this, six data sets were collected in a sugarcane experiment carried out on a Dark Red Latosol (Rhodic Kandiudalf), at Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane was planted on a 0.21 ha field, comprising 15 rows, 100 m long, spaced 1.4 m apart, with three treatments (mulching, bare soil and straw burning before harvest) and four replicates, forming a transect of 84 points. In this way, the relationships between the number of canes per meter of row and available soil P, Ca and Mg, clay content and aggregate stability were studied using a first order state-space model. Results show that all of the used state-space equations described the spatial distribution of number of canes better than the equivalent multiple regression equations. It was also identified that the soil clay content spatial series has an effective contribution to describe the number of canes in this study, because it is related to the best performance in each different scenario.

Timm, L. C.; Reichardt, K.; Oliveira, J. C. M.; Cassaro, F. A. M.; Tominaga, T. T.; Bacchi, O. O. S.; Dourado-Neto, D.

2003-03-01

401

Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease  

PubMed Central

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease.

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

402

Quantitative trait loci associated with adventitious shoot formation in tissue culture and the program of shoot development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis ecotypes, Columbia (Col) and Landsberg erecta (Ler), differ in their capacity to regenerate shoots in culture, as do many other cultivars and varieties of the same plant species. Recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from a cross of Col x Ler were scored for shoot regeneration, and the Arabidopsis genome was scanned using composite interval mapping for loci associated with shoot regeneration. Three QTL were identified--a major one on chromosome 5 in which the Col parent contributed the superior allele and two minor QTL on chromosomes 1 and 4 in which the Ler parent contributed the superior alleles. The RI lines were binned into genotypic pools to isolate the effects of the major QTL on chromosome 5 while holding the minor QTL constant. To identify genes with expression levels that are associated with the allelic state of the major QTL on chromosome 5, oligonucleotide array expression patterns for genes in the LLC pool (Ler alleles at the minor QTL and a Col allele at the major QTL) were compared to those in the LLL pool (Ler alleles at all QTL). The genes that were significantly differentially expressed between the two pools included several encoding transcription factors and signaling or transposon-related proteins.

Lall, Sonia; Nettleton, Dan; DeCook, Rhonda; Che, Ping; Howell, Stephen H

2004-01-01

403

MAX1 and MAX2 control shoot lateral branching in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Plant shoots elaborate their adult form by selective control over the growth of both their primary shoot apical meristem and their axillary shoot meristems. We describe recessive mutations at two loci in Arabidopsis, MAX1 and MAX2, that affect the selective repression of axillary shoots. All the first order (but not higher order) axillary shoots initiated by mutant plants remain active, resulting in bushier shoots than those of wild type. In vegetative plants where axillary shoots develop in a basal to apical sequence, the mutations do not clearly alter node distance, from the shoot apex, at which axillary shoot meristems initiate but shorten the distance at which the first axillary leaf primordium is produced by the axillary shoot meristem. A small number of mutant axillary shoot meristems is enlarged and, later in development, a low proportion of mutant lateral shoots is fasciated. Together, this suggests that MAX1 and MAX2 do not control the timing of axillary meristem initiation but repress primordia formation by the axillary meristem. In addition to shoot branching, mutations at both loci affect leaf shape. The mutations at MAX2 cause increased hypocotyl and petiole elongation in light-grown seedlings. Positional cloning identifies MAX2 as a member of the F-box leucine-rich repeat family of proteins. MAX2 is identical to ORE9, a proposed regulator of leaf senescence ( Woo, H. R., Chung, K. M., Park, J.-H., Oh, S. A., Ahn, T., Hong, S. H., Jang, S. K. and Nam, H. G. (2001) Plant Cell 13, 1779-1790). Our results suggest that selective repression of axillary shoots involves ubiquitin-mediated degradation of as yet unidentified proteins that activate axillary growth. PMID:11874909

Stirnberg, Petra; van De Sande, Karin; Leyser, H M Ottoline

2002-03-01

404

Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap  

PubMed Central

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations.

Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-01-01

405

Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season  

PubMed Central

This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, Jose Manuel; Roman-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramirez, Andres

2010-01-01

406

Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season.  

PubMed

This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, José Manuel; Román-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramírez, Andrés

2010-01-01

407

Simple and Stereoselective Synthesis of Attractant of the Sugarcane Wireworm, Melanotus Tamsuyensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two components, (E)-9,11-dodeccadienyl butylate and (E)-9,11-dodecadienyl hexanoate, of the attractant of the sugarcane wireworm were synthesized via hydrozirconation to control the regioselective coupling reaction.

Yao-Pin Yen; Pao-Hsing Chen

1998-01-01

408

Polyphasic characterization of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates obtained from different sugarcane varieties.  

PubMed

A polyphasic approach was applied to characterize 35 G. diazotrophicus isolates obtained from sugarcane varieties cultivated in Brazil. The isolates were analyzed by phenotypic (use of different carbon sources) and genotypic tests (ARDRA and RISA-RFLP techniques). Variability among the isolates was observed in relation to the carbon source use preference. Glucose and sucrose were used by all isolates in contrast to myo-inositol, galactose and ribose that were not metabolized. The results of the analysis showed the presence of two groups clustered at 68% of similarity. The genetic distance was higher when RISA-RFLP analysis was used. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from isolates showed that all of them belonged to the G. diazotrophicus species. Neither effect of the plant part nor sugarcane variety was observed during the cluster analysis. The observed metabolic and genetic variability will be helpful during the strain selection studies for sugarcane inoculation in association with sugarcane breeding programs. PMID:24031296

Guedes, Helma V; Dos Santos, Samuel T; Perin, Liamara; Teixeira, Kátia R Dos S; Reis, Veronica M; Baldani, José I

2008-10-01

409

Present Situation Concerning Studies on Associative N-Fixation in Sugarcane, 'Saccharum Officinarum' L.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High nitrogenase activity in sugarcane has been confirmed, using exp 15 N procedure, which indicated rapid translocation of the fixed nitrogen to the plant tissue. It is observed that there are differences in variety concerning nitrogenase activity in the...

A. P. Ruschel P. B. Vose

1977-01-01

410

Water Requirements of Sugarcane Under Irrigation in Lajas Valley, Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field experiments were conducted in Puerto Rico at the Lajas Substation to determine optimum soil moisture conditions necessary to produce maximum sugarcane and sugar yields. Twenty irrigation regimes were tested. Some of the plots were irrigated frequent...

R. Vazquez

1970-01-01

411

Air Emissions and Health Benefits from Using Sugarcane Waste as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil, as the largest ethanol exporter in the world, faces rapid expansion of ethanol production due to the increase of global biofuels demand. Current production of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol causes significant air emissions mainly from the open burning phase of agriculture wastes (i.e. sugarcane straws and leaves) resulting in potential health impacts. One possible measure to avoid undesired burning practices is to increase the utilization of unburned sugarcane residues as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol. To explore the benefits of this substitution, here we first apply a bottom-up approach combining agronomic data and life-cycle models to investigate spatially and temporally explicit emissions from sugarcane waste burning. We further quantify the health benefits from preventing burning practices using the CMAQ regional air quality model and the BenMAP health benefit analysis tool adapted for Brazilian applications. Furthermore, the health impacts will be converted into monetary values which provide policymakers useful information for the development of cellulosic ethanol.

Tsao, C.; Campbell, E.; Chen, Y.; Carmichael, G.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S.

2010-12-01

412

Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the potential to detect the impact of climatic effects, such as frost, on crop growth, which is relevant information to evaluate the negative impact on sugarcane production. Thus, the objective of the present study is to detect the impact of the frost occurred on 28 June 2011 in the sugarcane production region of São Paulo state, using MODIS images acquired on board of Terra and Aqua satellites before and after the frost event. Also, Landsat type images were used to map the harvested sugarcane fields up to the frost event based on a sugarcane crop map for year 2011. The remaining sugarcane fields available for harvest in 2011 were monitored with the MODIS images acquired on 17, 19, 27, 28 June and 8 and 9 July, to detect frost damage. Field work was conducted shortly after frost occurrence to identify sugarcane fields with frost damage for training and validation purposes. MODIS images transformed to vegetation indices and morphometric variables extracted from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) data are being analyzed to detect and quantify the damage of the frost from 28 July 2011 on sugarcane crop.

Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

2011-12-01

413

Culture-independent analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with Brazilian sugarcane.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is an economically important culture in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria live inside plants, and can provide many benefits to the plant host. We analyzed the bacterial diversity of sugarcane cultivar RB-72454 by cultivation-independent techniques. Total DNA from sugarcane stems from a commercial plantation located in Paraná State was extracted. Partial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced for library construction. Of 152 sequences obtained, 52% were similar to 16S rRNA from Pseudomonas sp, and 35.5% to Enterobacter sp. The genera Pantoea, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Klebsiella were also represented. The endophytic communities in these sugarcane samples were dominated by the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae (class Gammaproteobacteria). PMID:24222230

Magnani, G S; Cruz, L M; Weber, H; Bespalhok, J C; Daros, E; Baura, V; Yates, M G; Monteiro, R A; Faoro, H; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

2013-01-01

414

Agricultural Yield Estimation of Sugarcane Based on Agrometeorological-Spectral Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work has the objective to assess the performance of a yield estimation model for sugarcane (Succharum officinarum). The model uses orbital gathered spectral data along with yield estimated from an agrometeorological model. The test site includes the ...

B. F. T. Rudorff G. T. Batista

1989-01-01

415

Evaluation of double-decker traps for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Improved detection tools are needed for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive forest insect from Asia that has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. We evaluated attraction of adult A. planipennis to artificial traps incorporating visual (e.g., height, color, silhouette) and olfactory cues (e.g., host volatiles) at field sites in Michigan. We developed a double-decker trap consisting of a 3-m-tall polyvinyl pipe with two purple prisms attached near the top. In 2006, we compared A. planipennis attraction to double-decker traps baited with various combinations of manuka oil (containing sesquiterpenes present in ash bark), a blend of four ash leaf volatiles (leaf blend), and a rough texture to simulate bark. Significantly more A. planipennis were captured per trap when traps without the rough texture were baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil lures than on traps with texture and manuka oil but no leaf blend. In 2007, we also tested single prism traps set 1.5 m above ground and tower traps, similar to double-decker traps but 6 m tall. Double-decker traps baited with the leaf blend and manuka oil, with or without the addition of ash leaf and bark extracts, captured significantly more A. planipennis than similarly baited single prism traps, tower traps, or unbaited double-decker traps. A baited double-decker trap captured A. planipennis at a field site that was not previously known to be infested, representing the first detection event using artificial traps and lures. In 2008, we compared purple or green double-decker traps, single prisms suspended 3-5 m above ground in the ash canopy (canopy traps), and large flat purple traps (billboard traps). Significantly more A. planipennis were captured in purple versus green traps, baited traps versus unbaited traps, and double-decker versus canopy traps, whereas billboard traps were intermediate. At sites with very low A. planipennis densities, more A. planipennis were captured on baited double-decker traps than on other traps and a higher percentage of the baited double-decker traps captured beetles than any other trap design. In all 3 yr, peak A. planipennis activity occurred during late June to mid-July, corresponding to 800-1200 growing degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD10). Nearly all (95%) beetles were captured by the end of July at approximately 1400 DD10. PMID:21510200

Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Anulewicz, Andrea C

2011-04-01

416

Developing monitoring techniques for the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.  

PubMed

The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A. auroguttatus (unbaited purple traps at 3 m height), a delimitation survey conducted from 2009 to 2012 confirmed that the species was only present in San Diego Co., but that the distribution was expanding northward. PMID:24755194

Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

2014-06-01

417

Assortative Mating between European Corn Borer Pheromone Races: Beyond Assortative Meeting  

PubMed Central

Background Sex pheromone communication systems may be a major force driving moth speciation by causing behavioral reproductive isolation via assortative meeting of conspecific individuals. The ‘E’ and ‘Z’ pheromone races of the European corn borer (ECB) are a textbook example in this respect. ‘Z’ females produce and ‘Z’ males preferentially respond to a ‘Z’ pheromone blend, while the ‘E’ race communicates via an ‘E’ blend. Both races do not freely hybridize in nature and their populations are genetically differentiated. A straightforward explanation would be that their reproductive isolation is a mere consequence of “assortative meeting” resulting from their different pheromones specifically attracting males towards same-race females at long range. However, previous laboratory experiments and those performed here show that even when moths are paired in a small box – i.e., when the meeting between sexual partners is forced – inter-race couples still have a lower mating success than intra-race ones. Hence, either the difference in attractivity of E vs. Z pheromones for males of either race still holds at short distance or the reproductive isolation between E and Z moths may not only be favoured by assortative meeting, but must also result from an additional mechanism ensuring significant assortative mating at close range. Here, we test whether this close-range mechanism is linked to the E/Z female sex pheromone communication system. Methodology/Principal Findings Using crosses and backcrosses of E and Z strains, we found no difference in mating success between full-sisters emitting different sex pheromones. Conversely, the mating success of females with identical pheromone types but different coefficients of relatedness to the two parental strains was significantly different, and was higher when their genetic background was closer to that of their male partner's pheromone race. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the close-range mechanism ensuring assortative mating between the E and Z ECB pheromone races is unrelated to the difference in female sex pheromone. Although the nature of this mechanism remains elusive, our results show that it is expressed in females, acts at close range, segregates independently of the autosome carrying Pher and of both sex chromosomes, and is widely distributed since it occurs both in France and in the USA.

Pelozuelo, Laurent; Meusnier, Serge; Audiot, Philippe; Bourguet, Denis; Ponsard, Sergine

2007-01-01

418

Molecular characterization and gene expression of juvenile hormone binding protein in the bamboo borer, Omphisa fuscidentalis.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in many physiological processes in insect development, diapause and reproduction. An appropriate JH titer in hemolymph is essential for normal development in insects. Information concerning its carrier partner protein, juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP), provides an alternative approach to understanding how JH regulates metamorphosis. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the Omphisa juvenile hormone binding protein (OfJHBP). The full-length OfJHBP cDNA sequence is comprised of 849 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 726bp encoding 242 amino acids. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated to be 26.94kDa. The deduced protein sequence of OfJHBP showed moderate homology with the lepidopteran, Heliothis virescens JHBP (52% amino acid identity) and lower homology with the Bombyx mori JHBP (45%) and the Manduca sexta JHBP (44%). The OfJHBP was expressed mainly in the fat body. OfJHBP transcripts in the fat body was moderately high during 3rd, 4th and 5th instars, then rapidly increased, reaching a peak during early diapause. The expression remained high in mid-diapause, then decreased in late-diapause until the pupal stage. Both juvenile hormone analog (JHA), methoprene, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exhibited a similar stimulatory pattern in OfJHBP expression of diapausing larvae. OfJHBP mRNA levels gradually increased and showed a peak of gene expression on the penultimate, then declined to low levels in the pupal stage. For in vitro gene expression, both of JHA and 20E induced OfJHBP mRNA expression in fat body. Fat body maintenance in vitro in the presence of 0.1?g/50?l JHA induced OfJHBP mRNA expression to high levels within the first 30min whereas 0.1?g/50?l 20E induced gene expression at 120min. To study the synergistic effect of these two hormones, fat body was incubated in vitro with 0.1?g/50?l JHA or 0.1?g/50?l 20E or a combination of both hormone for 30min. Induction of OfJHBP expression by JHA and 20E was significantly greater than that of either hormone alone. These results should contribute to our understanding of how JHBP and JH regulate the termination of larval diapause in the bamboo borer. PMID:23000738

Ritdachyeng, Eakartit; Manaboon, Manaporn; Tobe, Stephen S; Singtripop, Tippawan

2012-11-01

419

Interpretation of genotype × environment interactions of sugarcane: Identifying significant environmental factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the causes of genotype×environment (G×E) interactions is essential for the implementation of efficient selection and evaluation networks. Currently, studies involving the interpretation of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) G×E interactions are limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the relative influence of environmental factors on the G×E interactions of sugarcane under rainfed conditions in South Africa through

S. Ramburan; M. Zhou; M. Labuschagne

2011-01-01

420

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of sugarcane crushers towards hand injury prevention strategies in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction—Injuries of the hand have an enormous impact on hand function and on quality of life. Occupational injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India and their incidence has been steadily increasing. Sugarcane crushers produce juice using dangerous procedures.Objective—The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices among sugarcane crushers in India and

S S David; K Goel

2001-01-01

421

Nature of the Interference Mechanism of Sugarcane( Saccharum officinarum L.) Straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) straw left in the field after harvest interferes with the growth of winter and summer weeds. In the last years, there\\u000a was a progressive move away from burning sugarcane straw to retaining it on the soil surface after harvest to prevent soil\\u000a degradation and environmental pollution. Water-soluble phenolics leachated from straw into soil may suppress weed

Diego A. Sampietro; Marta A. Vattuone

2006-01-01

422

PERFORMANCE OF SUGARCANE WITH DIFFERENT PLANTING METHODS AND INTERCROPS IN OLD HIMALAYAN PIEDMONT PLAIN SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islam M. A., Miah M. N. A., Rahman M. A., Kader M. A. and Karim K. M. R. 2009. Performance of Sugarcane with Different Planting Methods and Intercrops in Old Himalayan Piedmont Plain Soils. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 4(1):55-57 A study was conducted at grower's field of Regional Sugarcane Research Station (BSRI), Madarganj, Thakurgaon during 2006-07 to study the

M. A. ISLAM; M. N. A. MIAH; M. A. RAHMAN; M. A. KADER; K. M. R. KARIM

423

Regression analysis for the sorption isotherms of basic dyes on sugarcane dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of three basic dyes, named basic violet 10, basic violet 1, and basic green 4, from aqueous solutions onto sugarcane dust was studied. The results revealed the potential of sugarcane dust, a waste material, to be a low-cost sorbent. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the three-parameter Redlich–Peterson isotherms. In order to determine the

Yuh-Shan Ho; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chung-Chi Wang

2005-01-01

424

Construction of a composite sorghum genome map and comparison with sugarcane, a related complex polyploid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sorghum composite linkage map was constructed with two recombinant inbred line populations using heterologous probes already\\u000a mapped on maize and sugarcane. This map includes 199 loci revealed by 188 probes and distributed on 13 linkage groups. A comparison\\u000a based on 84 common probes was performed between the sorghum composite map and a map of a sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar

P. Dufour; M. Deu; L. Grivet; A. D’Hont; F. Paulet; A. Bouet; C. Lanaud; J. C. Glaszmann; P. Hamon

1997-01-01

425

Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.  

PubMed

Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel production in developing countries such as Brazil. Finally, we support the inclusion of environmental values in the price of biofuels in order to discourage excessive replacement of natural ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, and pasture by bioenergy crops. PMID:18536250

Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

2008-06-01

426

Soil temperature in a sugar-cane crop as a function of the management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air and soil temperatures are, by far, the most important state variables of agroecosystems. In the case of sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) they affect plant development, maturation and a series of biological and physical-chemical soil processes. This paper presents a comparative study of three management practices, applied to the first ratoon of a sugar-cane crop established on a Rhodic Kandiudox

J. C. M. Oliveira; L. C. Timm; T. T. Tominaga; F. A. M. Cássaro; K. Reichardt; O. O. S. Bacchi; D. Dourado-Neto; G. M. de S. Câmara

2001-01-01

427

Synthetic versions of firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Background Down-regulation or silencing of transgene expression can be a major hurdle to both molecular studies and biotechnology applications in many plant species. Sugarcane is particularly effective at silencing introduced transgenes, including reporter genes such as the firefly luciferase gene. Synthesizing transgene coding sequences optimized for usage in the host plant is one method of enhancing transgene expression and stability. Using specified design rules we have synthesised new coding sequences for both the firefly luciferase and Renilla luciferase reporter genes. We have tested these optimized versions for enhanced levels of luciferase activity and for increased steady state luciferase mRNA levels in sugarcane. Results The synthetic firefly luciferase (luc*) and Renilla luciferase (Renluc*) coding sequences have elevated G?+?C contents in line with sugarcane codon usage, but maintain 75% identity to the native firefly or Renilla luciferase nucleotide sequences and 100% identity to the protein coding sequences. Under the control of the maize pUbi promoter, the synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes yielded 60x and 15x higher luciferase activity respectively, over the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes in transient assays on sugarcane suspension cell cultures. Using a novel transient assay in sugarcane suspension cells combining co-bombardment and qRT-PCR, we showed that synthetic luc* and Renluc* genes generate increased transcript levels compared to the native firefly and Renilla luciferase genes. In stable transgenic lines, the luc* transgene generated significantly higher levels of expression than the native firefly luciferase transgene. The fold difference in expression was highest in the youngest tissues. Conclusions We developed synthetic versions of both the firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes that resist transgene silencing in sugarcane. These transgenes will be particularly useful for evaluating the expression patterns conferred by existing and newly isolated promoters in sugarcane tissues. The strategies used to design the synthetic luciferase transgenes could be applied to other transgenes that are aggressively silenced in sugarcane.

2014-01-01

428

Sonication Boost the Total Reducing Sugar (TRS) Extraction from Sugarcane Bagasse After Dilute Acid Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to explore the non-conventional as well as renewable energy resources to meet the growing energy demand in\\u000a developing countries, like India. Sugarcane is the second largest agricultural product, which can provide the ample source\\u000a of bagasse as a waste-biomass for the extraction of fermentable sugar. Sugarcane bagasse is an abandoned source of total reducing\\u000a sugar (TRS) for

Saurav Bhattacharyya; Siddhartha Datta; Chiranjib Bhattacharjee

429

Production of biologically active GM-CSF in sugarcane: a secure biofactory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 300 transgenic sugarcane plants representing approx. 200 independent lines producing the human cytokine granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were analyzed for recombinant protein accumulation and activity levels. Expression constructs differed in use of the maize polyubiquitin 1, Mubi-1, or the sugarcane polyubiquitin 9, SCubi9, promoters; presence or absence of a C-terminal HDEL tag for ER retention; and presence

Ming-Li Wang; Cindy Goldstein; Winston Su; Paul H. Moore; Henrik H. Albert

2005-01-01

430

Xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by Candida tropicalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural isolate, Candida tropicalis was tested for xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates. Fermentation of corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate showed xylose uptake and xylitol production, though these were very low, even after hydrolysate neutralization and treatments with activated charcoal and ion exchange resins. Initial xylitol production was found to be 0.43g\\/g and 0.45g\\/g of

R. Sreenivas Rao; Ch. Pavana Jyothi; R. S. Prakasham; P. N. Sarma; L. Venkateswar Rao

2006-01-01

431

Cloning and biochemical characterization of an endo-1,4-?-mannanase from the coffee berry borer hypothenemus hampei  

PubMed Central

Background The study of coffee polysaccharides-degrading enzymes from the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei, has become an important alternative in the identification for enzymatic inhibitors that can be used as an alternative control of this dangerous insect. We report the cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a mannanase gene that was identified in the midgut of the coffee berry borer and is responsible for the degradation of the most abundant polysaccharide in the coffee bean. Methods The amino acid sequence of HhMan was analyzed by multiple sequence alignment comparisons with BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) and CLUSTALW. A Pichia pastoris expression system was used to express the recombinant form of the enzyme. The mannanase activity was quantified by the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic (DNS) and the hydrolitic properties were detected by TLC. Results An endo-1,4-?-mannanase from the digestive tract of the insect Hypothenemus hampei was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein in the Pichia pastoris system. This enzyme is 56% identical to the sequence of an endo-?-mannanase from Bacillus circulans that belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 5 (GH5) family. The purified recombinant protein (rHhMan) exhibited a single band (35.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE, and its activity was confirmed by zymography. rHhMan displays optimal activity levels at pH 5.5 and 30°C and can hydrolyze galactomannans of varying mannose:galactose ratios, suggesting that the enzymatic activity is independent of the presence of side chains such as galactose residues. The enzyme cannot hydrolyze manno-oligosaccharides such as mannobiose and mannotriose; however, it can degrade mannotetraose, likely through a transglycosylation reaction. The Km and kcat values of this enzyme on guar gum were 2.074 mg ml-1 and 50.87 s-1, respectively, which is similar to other mannanases. Conclusion This work is the first study of an endo-1,4-?-mannanase from an insect using this expression system. Due to this enzyme’s importance in the digestive processes of the coffee berry borer, this study may enable the design of inhibitors against endo-1,4-?-mannanase to decrease the economic losses stemming from this insect.

2013-01-01

432

Endophytic Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates from sugarcane obtained through different culture strategies.  

PubMed

Brazilian sugarcane has been shown to obtain part of its nitrogen via biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Recent reports, based on the culture independent sequencing of bacterial nifH complementary DNA (cDNA) from sugarcane tissues, have suggested that members of the Bradyrhizobium genus could play a role in sugarcane-associated BNF. Here we report on the isolation of Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates and a few other species from roots of sugarcane cultivar RB867515 by two cultivation strategies: direct isolation on culture media and capture of Bradyrhizobium spp. using the promiscuous legume Vigna unguiculata as trap-plant. Both strategies permitted the isolation of genetically diverse Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates, as concluded from enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting and 16S ribosomal RNA, nifH and nodC sequence analyses. Several isolates presented nifH phylotypes highly similar to nifH cDNA phylotypes detected in field-grown sugarcane by a culture-independent approach. Four isolates obtained by direct plate cultivation were unable to nodulate V.?unguiculata and, based on PCR analysis, lacked a nodC gene homologue. Acetylene reduction assay showed in vitro nitrogenase activity for some Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates, suggesting that these bacteria do not require a nodule environment for BNF. Therefore, this study brings further evidence that Bradyrhizobium spp. may play a role in sugarcane-associated BNF under field conditions. PMID:24992534

Rouws, Luc Felicianus Marie; Leite, Jakson; de Matos, Gustavo Feitosa; Zilli, Jerri Edson; Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Fischer, Doreen; Hartmann, Anton; Reis, Verônica Massena; Baldani, José Ivo

2014-08-01

433

Effects of drought on the microtranscriptome of field-grown sugarcane plants.  

PubMed

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the most promising crop for renewable energy. Among the diverse stresses that affect plant productivity, drought stress frequently causes losses in sugarcane fields. Although several studies have addressed plant responses to drought using controlled environments, plant responses under field conditions are largely unknown. Recently, microRNA (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation has been described as an important and decisive component in vegetal development and stress resistance modulation. The role of miRNAs in sugarcane responses to drought under field conditions is currently not known. Two sugarcane cultivars differing in drought tolerance were grown in the field with and without irrigation (rainfed) for 7 months. By using small RNA deep sequencing, we were able to identify 18 miRNA families comprising 30 mature miRNA sequences. Among these families, we found 13 mature miRNAs that were differentially expressed in drought-stressed plants. Seven miRNAs were differentially expressed in both cultivars. The target genes for many of the differentially expressed mature miRNAs were predicted, and some of them were validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Among the targets, we found transcription factors, transporters, proteins associated with senescence, and proteins involved with flower development. All of these data increase our understanding of the role of miRNAs in the complex regulation of drought stress in field-grown sugarcane, providing valuable tools to develop new sugarcane cultivars tolerant to drought stress. PMID:23129215

Gentile, Agustina; Ferreira, Thaís H; Mattos, Raphael S; Dias, Lara I; Hoshino, Andrea A; Carneiro, Monalisa S; Souza, Glaucia M; Calsa, Tercílio; Nogueira, Rejane M; Endres, Laurício; Menossi, Marcelo

2013-03-01

434

Identification of sense and antisense transcripts regulated by drought in sugarcane.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is an important sugar and energy crop that can be used efficiently for biofuels production. The development of sugarcane cultivars tolerant to drought could allow for the expansion of plantations to sub-prime regions. Knowledge on the mechanisms underlying drought responses and its relationship with carbon partition would greatly help to define routes to increase yield. In this work we studied sugarcane responses to drought using a custom designed oligonucleotide array with 21,901 different probes. The oligoarrays were designed to contain probes that detect transcription in both sense and antisense orientation. We validated the results obtained using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). A total of 987 genes were differentially expressed in at least one sample of sugarcane plants submitted to drought for 24, 72 and 120 h. Among them, 928 were sense transcripts and 59 were antisense transcripts. Genes related to Carbohydrate Metabolism, RNA Metabolism and Signal Transduction were selected for gene expression validation by qPCR that indicated a validation percentage of 90%. From the probes presented on the array, 75% of the sense probes and 11.9% of the antisense probes have signal above background and can be classified as expressed sequences. Our custom sugarcane oligonucleotide array provides sensitivity and good coverage of sugarcane transcripts for the identification of a representative proportion of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) and sense-antisense transcript pairs (SATs). The antisense transcriptome showed, in most cases, co-expression with respective sense transcripts. PMID:22610347

Lembke, Carolina Gimiliani; Nishiyama, Milton Yutaka; Sato, Paloma Mieko; de Andrade, Rodrigo Fandiño; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

2012-07-01

435

Plant Growth-Promoting Nitrogen-Fixing Enterobacteria Are in Association with Sugarcane Plants Growing in Guangxi, China  

PubMed Central

The current nitrogen fertilization for sugarcane production in Guangxi, the major sugarcane-producing area in China, is very high. We aim to reduce nitrogen fertilization and improve sugarcane production in Guangxi with the help of indigenous sugarcane-associated nitrogen-fixing bacteria. We initially obtained 196 fast-growing bacterial isolates associated with the main sugarcane cultivar ROC22 plants in fields using a nitrogen-deficient minimal medium and screened out 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that 42 of the 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates were affiliated with the genera Enterobacter and Klebsiella. Most of the nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria possessed two other plant growth-promoting activities of IAA production, siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Two Enterobacter spp. strains of NN145S and NN143E isolated from rhizosphere soil and surface-sterilized roots, respectively, of the same ROC22 plant were used to inoculate micropropagated sugarcane plantlets. Both strains increased the biomass and nitrogen content of the sugarcane seedlings grown with nitrogen fertilization equivalent to 180 kg urea ha?1, the recommended nitrogen fertilization for ROC22 cane crops at the seedling stage. 15N isotope dilution assays demonstrated that biological nitrogen fixation contributed to plant growth promotion. These results suggested that indigenous nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria have the potential to fix N2 associated with sugarcane plants grown in fields in Guangxi and to improve sugarcane production.

Lin, Li; Li, Zhengyi; Hu, Chunjin; Zhang, Xincheng; Chang, Siping; Yang, Litao; Li, Yangrui; An, Qianli

2012-01-01

436

Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established restricting the Amazon and the Pantanal basin to sugarcane expansion. These eco-regions were, therefore, not considered by ZAECANA, which defined pasture lands as preferential for sugarcane crop expansion, since their majority is considered as degraded lands. ZAECANA results show that approximately 64 million ha, currently under pasture and agriculture, are suitable for sugarcane cropping in Brazil, located mainly at the Midwest and Southeast regions (35% of the national territory).Our results indicate that, if the ZAECANA instrument is implemented to drive investments for sugarcane expansion in Brazil, the projected demands for bioethanol could be met without significant impacts to food production, and environmental sustainability could be attained by the adoption of good crop, soil and water management practices.

Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

2012-12-01