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Sugarcane borer in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is one of the most important of the above-ground pests of sugarcane in Florida. This article presents information pertaining to the borer’s biology, damage to cane, scouting, biological control, cultural control and chemical control. ...


Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...


Keys to immatures of the Sugarcane Borer and Neotropical Cornstalk Borer from Mexico intercepted on corn in Southeastern Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diatraea larvae and pupae intercepted on corn from northeastern Mexico at south Texas ports of entry were reared to adults and identified as the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) and the neotropical cornstalk borer (Diatraea lineolata). Keys to aid in the identification of larvae and pupae of t...



Microsoft Academic Search

Trichogramma chilonis Ishii against sugarcane stem borer (Chilo infuscatellus Snellen) was evaluated in experimental plots of sugarcane in the field at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Among five treatments of T. chilonis, the treatment having 60,000 parasitized eggs per acre showed significant results causing 83% reduction in infestation of C. infuscatellus as compare to control having 30.67% infestation. Population of C. infuscatellus showed

Muhammad Rafiq Shahid; Anjum Suhail; Muhammad Dildar Gogi; Munir Ahmad Shahzad; Sabir Hussain



Detection of sugarcane grassy shoot phytoplasma infecting sugarcane in India and its phylogenetic relationships to closely related phytoplasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several sugarcane-growing areas of India, sugarcane plants showing typical symptoms of sugarcane grassy shoot (SCGS) disease\\u000a as well as non-symptomatic sugarcane plants and sugarcane with non-specific yellowing and stunting symptoms were examined\\u000a for phytoplasmal infections by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, using primers directed to phytoplasma\\u000a ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences. From all field-collected, symptomatic sugarcane plants and

G. P. Rao; S. Srivastava; P. S. Gupta; S. R. Sharma; A. Singh; S. Singh; M. Singh; C. Marcone



The influence of wild and cultivated Gramineae and Cyperaceae on populations of sugarcane borers and their parasites in North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane borers frequently inhabit wild and semi-cultivated grasses growing in the proximity of cane fields. In India, in\\u000a view of the year-round cultivation of sugarcane, wild grasses are not necessary for the perpetuation of borer species, but\\u000a observations indicate that certain borer species migrate from wild or other cultivated grasses to cane, thereby increasing\\u000a levels of infestation in cane during

Sudha Nagarkatti; K. Ramachandran Nair



Agrobacterium mediated transformation of sugarcane for borer resistance using Cry 1Aa 3 gene and one-step regeneration of transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane borers are the major biotic pest in sugarcane that accounts nearly 25–30% yield loses. Most of the present sugarcane\\u000a varieties are not resistant to borers. Development of borer resistance in sugarcane through transgenic technology could be\\u000a the best approach. Cry series of genes are known for development of insect pest resistance in plants in particular for the\\u000a most damaging

Raviraj M. Kalunke; Archana M. Kolge; K. Harinath Babu; D. Theertha Prasad



Evaluation of Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Corn Hybrids Against Cry1Ab-Susceptible and Resistant Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the Cry1Ab protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of Þve non-Bt and seven Bt Þeld corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in

Xiaoyi Wu; Fangneng Huang; B. Rogers Leonard; Steven H. Moore



Influence of Climatic Changes on the Abundance of Major Insect Pests of Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The abundance of major sugarcane insect pests like top shoot borer, stem borer and rootstock borer were investigated for the\\u000a last 28 years from 1980 to 2007 at Ishurdi, Pabna. The incidence of these major insect pests occurs in the months of March\\u000a to October. The abundance of top shoot borer, Scirpophaga excerptalis Walker, was positively correlated with rainfall (r


Impact of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as an augmentative biocontrol agent for sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an effort to find an appropriate biological control agent for release in rice, a 2-year field cage experiment was conducted in Beaumont, Texas to estimate parasitism of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron). The effective search rate was 0.0049 square meter gro...


Effect of varying co 2 and light levels on growth of hedyotis and sugarcane shoot cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Shoot cultures of Hedyotis corymbosa, a C3 species, and sugarcane, a C4 species, were used to examine the effects of various CO2 concentrations and two light intensities on growth and photosynthetic rates. The fresh and dry weights of new growth of Hedyotis shoots were higher when grown under the higher light intensity, while differences among shoots grown under different CO2

Boon-Sin Tay; Bee-Lian Ong; Prakash P. Kumar



Application of indoxacarb for managing shoot and fruit borer of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its decontamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indoxacarb was applied at 75 and 150 g a.i. ha for two years to an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crop grown in the field plots in order to evaluate its efficacy for management of the lepidopteron pest, shoot and fruit borer. The residues of the insecticide were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean initial deposits of indoxacarb on

Jayakrishnan Saimandir; Madhuban Gopal



Genetic similarity of eggplant shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis, populations.  


Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera), has become a production constraint in all eggplant (Solanum melongena Linn. [Solanaceae])-growing countries. In India, transgenic eggplants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins have been tested in fields by private- and public-sector agencies. Understanding population diversity is important in designing strategies for better pest management. In the present investigation, random-amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of L. orbonalis population collected from different field locations in the Tamilnadu State of India. Of 17 random-amplified polymorphic DNA primers screened, only 11 primers generated polymorphic bands (up to 14 bands). According to their level of similarities, only two major clusters with no variation among population were deduced. Our results indicated that there is a steady genetic flow among the present population of L. orbonalis alleviating genetic variation, which may be attributed to passive and active dispersal of the insect besides absence of host-induced variations among the population. As molecular variability of L. orbonalis population is an important consideration for shoot and fruit damage of the eggplant, constant monitoring is essential to study the possible development of Cry protein resistance in L. orbonalis. PMID:19715478

Marimuthu, Murugan; Perumal, Yasodha; Salim, Abida Puthenpeedikal; Sharma, Gautam



Estimating the economic injury level and the economic threshold for the use of 𝛂-cypermethrin against the sugarcane borer, Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five years of data from insecticide trials that assessed the value of using ?-cypermethrin (Fastac®) against the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were used to estimate the economic injury level (EIL) and the economic threshold (ET) for this pest. The analysis was based on estimates of borer damage (percentage of internodes bored) and larval numbers, and the effect

Graeme W. Leslie



Female sex pheromone of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis blend optimization.  


The brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is the major pest of eggplant in South Asia. Analysis of female pheromone gland extracts prepared from insects of Indian and Taiwanese origin confirmed (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (E11-16:Ac) as the major pheromone component with 0.8 to 2.8% of the related (E)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (E11-16:OH), as previously reported from Sri Lanka. The average quantity of E11-16:Ac extracted per female was estimated to be 33 ng, with a range of 18.9 to 46.4 ng when collected 2 to 3 hr into the scotophase. In field trials conducted in India, blends containing between 1 and 10% E11-16:OH caught more male L. orbonalis than E11-16:Ac alone. At the 1,000 microg dose, on white rubber septa, addition of 1% E11-16:OH to E11-16:Ac was found to be more attractive to male L. orbonalis than either 0.1 or 10% E11-16:OH. Trap catch was found to be positively correlated with pheromone release rate, with the highest dose tested, 3,000 microg, on white rubber septa catching more male moths than lower doses. Field and wind tunnel release rate studies confirmed that E11-16:OH released from white rubber septa and polyethylene vials at approximately twice the rate of E11-16:Ac and that the release rate of both compounds was doubled in polyethylene vials compared to white rubber septa. This difference in release rate was reflected in field trials conducted in Bangladesh where polyethylene vial dispensers caught more male moths than either black or white rubber septa, each loaded with the same 100:1 blend of E11-16:Ac and E11-16:OH in a 3,000 microg loading. PMID:11545376

Cork, A; Alam, S N; Das, A; Das, C S; Ghosh, G C; Farman, D I; Hall, D R; Maslen, N R; Vedham, K; Phythian, S J; Rouf, F M; Srinivasan, K



Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and gramineous weed white leaf disease and sugarcane grassy shoot disease by RFLP and sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing were used to elucidate the genetic relationship between phytoplasmas\\u000a that cause white lead disease and grassy shoot disease in sugarcane and white leaf disease in gramineous weeds found in the\\u000a cane-growing areas (Crowfoot grass, Bermuda grass and Brachiaria grass). A 1.35-kb DNA fragment encoding for the 16s rRNA was amplified by PCR using

P. Wongkaew; Y. Hanboonsong; P. Sirithorn; C. Choosai; S. Boonkrong; T. Tinnangwattana; R. Kitchareonpanya; S. Damak



Application of indoxacarb for managing shoot and fruit borer of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its decontamination.  


Indoxacarb was applied at 75 and 150 g a.i. ha(-1) for two years to an eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) crop grown in the field plots in order to evaluate its efficacy for management of the lepidopteron pest, shoot and fruit borer. The residues of the insecticide were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean initial deposits of indoxacarb on eggplant fruits were found to be 2.60-2.634 mg kg(-1) and 3.64-3.68 mg kg(-1) from the two rates of applications, respectively. They declined with time and reached to non-detectable (< 0.02 mg kg(-1)) after 15-20 d. Residues dissipated with a half-life of 3.0-3.8 d from both first and second-year application. A 3 d waiting period for harvest of fruits after insecticide application and processing resulted in the residue levels that were below the Codex maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 mg kg(-1) thereby achieving a maximum safety and minimum risk to consumers. The best combination of chemicals for decontamination of indoxacarb was found to be by washing with a mixture of alkali and potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) thereby resulting in the removal of 67.5% and 59.2 % residues for 5 and 10 microg g(-1) spiking doses, respectively. Major products formed on reaction of indoxacarb with alkali were identified by electron spray ionization chromatography/mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). The per cent reduction on the weight and number basis of treated eggplant plots were compared to those observed in control plots to demonstrate the effectiveness of indoxacarb treatment on shoot and fruit borer population. PMID:19280483

Saimandir, Jayakrishnan; Gopal, Madhuban



Density-dependent shoot-borer herbivory increases the age of first reproduction and mortality of neotropical tree saplings.  


Shoot herbivory by the sapling specialist shoot-borer Cromarcha stroudagnesia (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Chrysauginae) is shown to have large direct and indirect effects on the rates of height increment and mortality of saplings of its host tree, Tabebuia ochracea (Bignoniaceae), in the secondary successional tropical dry forests of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Experiments and field observations over 3-4 years show a substantial reduction in sapling height increments due to C. stroudagnesia herbivory, of equivalent magnitude to the difference in height increments between undamaged saplings in canopy gaps and full understorey shade. Extrapolating this data at average amounts of C. stroudagnesia herbivory increases the duration of the pre-reproductive sapling life stage by about 40% relative to undamaged plants. This is an underestimate, as top shoot herbivory by C. stroudagnesia also increased the probability of canopy gap saplings being overtopped and shaded by surrounding vegetation. Sapling mortality was increased by C. stroudagnesia herbivory, with 11.8% of the most heavily damaged young saplings dying in 3 years while no undamaged saplings died. Cromarcha stroudagnesia herbivory strongly increases with the number of conspecific T. ochracea saplings and the number of conspecific shoots within 50 m of focal saplings. It is therefore likely to disproportionately decrease the number of saplings and rate of recruitment to reproductive age in areas of high conspecific sapling density. These results suggest that sapling herbivory, especially herbivory of terminal meristems, has an important but largely unexplored influence on the population dynamics of tropical tree species. They further demonstrate that sapling herbivory by insects, in addition to the well-studied insect predation and herbivory of seedlings, is likely to influence tree species coexistence in tropical forests. PMID:12684860

Sullivan, Jon J



Ultrastructure of the excretory duct in the silk gland of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  


The excretory duct in the silk gland of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis consists of two morphologically distinct regions, recognized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The thin posterior region, adjacent to the glandular region, presents a regular surface. Secretory vesicles containing either electron-dense or fibrillar cuticular-like materials are observed in their apical cytoplasm; the same cuticular materials were detected as extracellular deposits among the microvilli. The short anterior region, near the common duct, exhibits surface protrusions; there are no secretory vesicles in their apical cytoplasm. These results show that only the duct cells at the posterior region are involved in the secretion of the cuticular intima elements. Desmosome-like structures were visualized linking together adjacent microvillar membranes only in the cells of anterior duct region, with unknown function. The transition between the duct and the glandular region is abrupt; the cells of the glandular and posterior duct regions present large amounts of microtubules. Nerve fibers can be observed between the duct cells in their two regions, suggesting that control of silk secretion may occur in the excretory duct via neurotransmitter liberation. PMID:18088967

Victoriano, Eliane; Gregório, Elisa A



Development of mass trapping technique for control of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  


Locally-produced clear plastic water traps (12 cm x 14 cm base and 21 cm height) were optimized for use in large-scale mass trapping trials for control of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée. Changing the shape (square and triangular) and number (two and four) of entry holes in the water trap had no significant effect on trap catch. Significantly more male moths were caught in traps treated with water containing powdered detergent than liquid detergent, light gear oil or insecticide. All water traps tested caught significantly higher numbers of moths than sticky delta traps with open sides under farmers' field conditions. Trap catches per 100 m2 were found to increase with increasing number of traps from 3 to 6 but the difference in catch between 4 and 6 traps per 100 m2 was not significant. Two small-scale replicated integrated pest management (IPM) trials were conducted consisting of the optimized water trap placed out with 10 m spacing (4 per 100 m2) and infested shoots pruned and destroyed. The first season trial had two treatments, IPM and farmers' practice in which farmers applied insecticide every two days in the peak harvest period. Overall, the percentage of healthy fruit and yields in both treatments were comparable at 53.8 and 49.6% and 20 and 19.4 tonnes per ha in the IPM and farmers' practice plots respectively. However, the initial infestations in the IPM plots (68%) were significantly higher than in farmers' practice plots (16%) due to the proximity of the nurseries used for the IPM plots to stacks of brinjal crop residues from the previous season that acted as a source of infestation. The second season's trials contained a third treatment in which IPM and farmers' practice were combined. The percent total healthy fruits harvested were 46.1, 58.6 and 69.1% respectively for the farmers' practice, farmers' practice plus IPM and IPM alone. Averaged total fruit yields were approximately 12 tonnes per ha for the farmers' practice plots and 30 tonnes per ha for each of the IPM-treated plots. The IPM plot had significantly fewer infested fruit than the IPM plus farmers practice plots and this was attributed to the activity of the larval parasitoid Trathala flavo-orbitalis (Cameron) that was suppressed in trial plots treated with insecticides. PMID:16336706

Cork, A; Alam, S N; Rouf, F M A; Talekar, N S



Biocontrol of the Sugarcane Borer Eldana saccharina by Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac7 and Serratia marcescens chiA Genes in Sugarcane-Associated Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The cry1Ac7 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 234, showing activity against the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina, was cloned under the control of the tac promoter. The fusion was introduced into the broad-host-range plasmid pKT240 and the integration vector pJFF350 and without the tac promoter into the broad-host-range plasmids pML122 and pKmM0. These plasmids were introduced into a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from the phylloplane of sugarcane and the endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae found in sugarcane. The ptac-cry1Ac7 construct was introduced into the chromosome of P. fluorescens using the integration vector pJFF350 carrying the artificial interposon Omegon-Km. Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of the integrated cry1Ac7 gene were much higher under the control of the tac promoter than under the control of its endogenous promoter. It was also determined that multicopy expression in P. fluorescens and H. seropedicae of ptac-cry1Ac7 carried on pKT240 caused plasmid instability with no detectable protein expression. In H. seropedicae, more Cry1Ac7 toxin was produced when the gene was cloned under the control of the Nmr promoter on pML122 than in the opposite orientation and bioassays showed that the former resulted in higher mortality of E. saccharina larvae than the latter. P. fluorescens 14::ptac-tox resulted in higher mortality of larvae than did P. fluorescens 14::tox. An increased toxic effect was observed when P. fluorescens 14::ptac-tox was combined with P. fluorescens carrying the Serratia marcescens chitinase gene chiA, under the control of the tac promoter, integrated into the chromosome.

Downing, Katrina J.; Leslie, Graeme; Thomson, Jennifer A.



Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing high levels of modified cry1Ac provide effective control against stem borers in field trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve transgene expression level, we synthesized a truncated insecticidal gene m-cry1Ac by increasing its GC content from 37.4 to 54.8%, based on the codon usage pattern of sugarcane genes, and transferred it\\u000a into two sugarcane cultivars (ROC16 and YT79-177) by microprojectile bombardment. The integration sites and expression pattern\\u000a of the transgene were determined, respectively, by Southern, northern and western

Li-Xing Weng; Hai-Hua Deng; Jin-Ling Xu; Qi Li; Yu-Qian Zhang; Zi-De Jiang; Qi-Wei Li; Jian-Wen Chen; Lian-Hui Zhang



Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) is a highly productive C\\u000a \\u000a 4\\u000a \\u000a grass used as the main source of sugar and more recently to produce ethanol, a renewable transportation fuel. There is increased\\u000a interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease the dependency on fossil fuels. This chapters discusses tissue\\u000a culture and transgenic approaches aiming at incorporation of herbicide

Fredy Altpeter; Hesham Oraby


Alternate crop and weed host plant oviposition preferences by the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum hybrids, in south Texas, having largely displaced the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and it is moving into rice- and sugarcane-growing areas of east Texas and Louisiana. While a number of alternativ...


Biological and ecological factors affecting populations of sugarcane moth-borer, Diatraea saccharalis [Lep.: Pyralidae ] Barbados, W. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction and establishment of 2 larval parasites of sugarcane mothborer,Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Barbados has led to substantial reductions in the level of joints bored and sugar loss. Concurrent with the introduction\\u000a of the parasites there have been changes in cultural practices, especially pre-harvest burning and the change in predominance\\u000a of certain cane varieties. The paper discusses the relative

M. M. Alam



Down Regulation of a Gene for Cadherin, but Not Alkaline Phosphatase, Associated with Cry1Ab Resistance in the Sugarcane Borer Diatraea saccharalis  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins (i.e., Cry1Ab) in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of transgenic Bt crops. Understanding the pests' resistance mechanisms will facilitate development of effective strategies for delaying or countering resistance. Alterations in expression of cadherin- and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been associated with Bt resistance in several species of pest insects. In this study, neither the activity nor gene regulation of ALP was associated with Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis. Total ALP enzymatic activity was similar between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains of D. saccharalis. In addition, expression levels of three ALP genes were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and -RR, and cDNA sequences did not differ between susceptible and resistant larvae. In contrast, altered expression of a midgut cadherin (DsCAD1) was associated with the Cry1Ab resistance. Whereas cDNA sequences of DsCAD1 were identical between the two strains, the transcript abundance of DsCAD1 was significantly lower in Cry1Ab-RR. To verify the involvement of DsCAD1 in susceptibility to Cry1Ab, RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to knock-down DsCAD1 expression in the susceptible larvae. Down-regulation of DsCAD1 expression by RNAi was functionally correlated with a decrease in Cry1Ab susceptibility. These results suggest that down-regulation of DsCAD1 is associated with resistance to Cry1Ab in D. saccharalis.

Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ottea, James; Husseneder, Claudia; Leonard, B. Rogers; Abel, Craig; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng



Female sex pheromone of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): trap optimization and application in IPM trials.  


Delta and wing traps baited with synthetic female sex pheromone of Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée were found to catch and retain ten times more moths than either Spodoptera or uni-trap designs. Locally-produced water and funnel traps were as effective as delta traps, although 'windows' cut in the side panels of delta traps significantly increased trap catch from 0.4 to 2.3 moths per trap per night. Trap catch was found to be proportional to the radius of sticky disc traps in the range 5-20 cm radius, discs with a 2.5 cm radius caught no moths. Wing traps placed at crop height caught significantly more moths than traps placed 0.5 m above or below the crop canopy. Replicated integrated pest management (IPM) trials (3 x 0.5 ha per treatment) were conducted in farmers fields with young and mature eggplant crops. Farmers applied insecticides at least three times a week in all check and IPM plots. In addition pheromone traps were placed out at a density of 100 per ha and infested shoots removed weekly in the 0.5 ha IPM plots. Pheromone trap catches were reduced significantly from 2.0 to 0.4 moths per trap per night respectively in check and IPM plots in a young crop and 1.1 to 0.3 moths per trap per night in check and IPM plots respectively in a mature crop. Fruit damage was significantly reduced from an average of 41.8% and 51.2% in check plots of young and mature crops respectively to 22% and 26.4 respectively in the associated IPM plots. Significant differences in pheromone trap catches and fruit damage were attained four and two weeks respectively after IPM treatments began in the mature crop whereas in the immature crop significant differences were not observed for the first eight to nine weeks respectively. The relative impact of removing infested shoots and mass trapping on L. orbonalis larval populations was not established in these trials but in both cases there was an estimated increase of approximately 50% in marketable fruit obtained by the combination of control techniques compared to insecticide treatment alone. PMID:12699531

Cork, A; Alam, S N; Rouf, F M A; Talekar, N S



Ecology and tactics of control for three sugarcane stalkboring species in the Western Hemisphere and Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter focuses on three species, the sugarcane borer, the Mexican rice borer, and the eldana borer, because they are economically important in their ranges and because among them are examples of interspecific competition, similarities between species of different continents and differences bet...


Emerald ash borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The emerald ash borer is an insect that was introduced to the United States on accident. The larvae of this insect feed on essential parts of the ash tree. This non-native species has killed several million trees already.

N/A N/A (USDA;Forest Service)



Identification of gibberellins from sugarcane plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five GAs, GA1, GA3, GA19, GA20, and GA29, were identified in extracts from mature leaf and shoot apical meristem of flowering and non-flowering sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) by combined GC\\/MS. The presence of ABA was also confirmed.

J. A. Kuhnle; P. H. Moore; W. F. Haddon; M. M. Fitch



Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and Cry1Ab-resistant strains of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis.  


Diatraea saccharalis is a major corn borer pest. Midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. Alteration of midgut proteinases is responsible for Bt resistance development in some species. To clone midgut trypsin and chymotrypsin cDNAs and to test if the Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis is associated with changes in midgut proteinases, total midgut tryptic and chymotryptic activities, cDNA sequences, and gene expressions of three trypsin and three chymotrypsin genes were comparatively examined between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and Cry1Ab-resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains. Full-length cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and three chymotrypsin-like proteinases were sequenced from Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR larvae. These cDNAs code for active forms of midgut serine proteinases with all functional motifs, including signal peptide, conserved His-Asp-Ser for the catalytic triad, three pairs of cysteines for disulfide bridge configurations, and conserved substrate specificity determination residues. In general, cDNA and putative protein sequences are highly similar between Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR strains, except for a few nucleotide and predicted amino acid substitutions, whose function need to be further clarified. Total trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR strains. Transcriptional levels of the trypsin and chymotrypsin genes had numerical difference between Cry1Ab-SS and Cry1Ab-RR strains, but the difference was not statistically significant. Data suggest that the development of Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis was not significantly associated with these trypsins and chymotrypsins. Results clarified the role of six midgut proteinases and provided a foundation for continuing examination of potential involvement of other midgut proteinases in Bt resistance development and other important biochemical processes. PMID:23955944

Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ottea, James; Husseneder, Claudia; Leonard, B Rogers; Abel, Craig; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng




Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade the age at which sugarcane is har­ vested has been reduced considerably, largely to control El­ dana saccharina Walker, a borer which thrives in older cane. It is necessary to consider how other factors may influence harvest age and season, and to consider how to adjust har­ vest schedules if new technology should lead to a




Apple Burrknot Borers in New York - Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

After reports of severe damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York State to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer was prevalent throughout the state, in general. However, in western NY apple orchards, American plum borer was sometimes



Sugarcane Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues. Sugarcane\\u000a bagasse is the major by-product of the sugar cane industry. It contains about 50% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose and 25% lignin.\\u000a Due to its abundant availability, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added\\u000a products such as protein enriched animal

Binod Parameswaran


Sugarcane pests and their management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pest management factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pest management ...


School shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract: As with any attack that occurs at an educational facility - to include grade schools, colleges, and universities - school shootings are a particular form of workplace violence. The relationships are fairly straightforward in this regard. Instructors, administrators, and support staff are employed and work on site, and students are the \\

Wayne Petherick; Brent E. Turvey



Shooting Essays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the use of film in the instruction of remedial writing. Suggests creating exemplification essays approaching but not producing a filmic screenplay by incorporating narrative and technical cinematic techniques (shooting script terms) and conventions of visualization to produce both a piece of "exposition" and an act of "exposure." (JK)|

Lang, Frederick K.



Shooting Shamans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shooting Shamans” is an extract from a long conversation between Michael Oppitz, the author of several anthropological books and director of the film Schamanen im Blinden Land, and Ahmed Alasti, who has filmed documentaries in Iran and is writing a thesis on Jean Rouch, drawn from a seminar on the theme “Words and Images in Anthropology” offered at the University

Michael Oppitz



Emerald ash borer life cycle  

Treesearch Government Made Easy ... Title: Emerald ash borer life cycle ... Morgantown, WV: U.S. Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this ...


Emerald ash borer biological control  


Description: Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive ... in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from China in the early 1990s ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors ...


Shipworms and Other Marine Borers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mollusks, crustaceans and other groups of invertebrates attack underwater structures causing great loss. This article describes shipworms (teredos) and other marine borers. Among the mollusks the most destructive are Teredo and Bankia (pelecypoda). Three ...

M. Castagna



Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs.

Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.



Shooting Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an opportunity for students to develop concepts and skills with fractions, decimals, and percentages in the context of shooting baskets. Students take turns tossing a ball into a wastebasket a number of times determined by a random card draw, while other students keep track of the number of shots made. The class processes the data by creating fractions and converting them into decimals and percentages, and then uses them to analyze and interpret the results.

Jewell, Laura



Temperature-dependent development of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane under laboratory conditions.  


Lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is an important sugarcane pest in southern Florida. Development of immature stages (eggs, larvae, prepupae, and pupae) of lesser cornstalk borer was observed on sugarcane at constant temperatures (13, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, and 36 degrees C), 65-70% RH, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Total development (from egg deposition to adult emergence) ranged from 22.8 +/- 0.3 d at 33 degrees C to 120.7 +/- 2.8 d at 13 degrees C. Lesser cornstalk borer required 543.48 DD to complete development. Developmental time decreased with increase in temperature from 13 to 33 degrees C and increased markedly at 36 degrees C in all immature stages. One linear and six nonlinear models used to model insect development (Briere-1, Briere-2, Logan-6, Lactin, Taylor, and polynomial models) were tested to describe the relationship between temperature and developmental rate (d(-1)). Criteria used to select the best model were the greatest r (2), lowest residual sum of squares (RSS), and Akaike information criterion values. The Briere-1 model fit the data best and provided the best estimates of developmental temperature thresholds for all immature stages on sugarcane. The estimated lower and upper developmental thresholds for total development were 9.3 +/- 1.8 and 37.9 +/- 0.7 degrees C, respectively. The optimal temperature estimated for the total development was 31.39 +/- 0.9 degrees C. Based on these results, we can forecast the different stages of lesser cornstalk borer at different times in sugarcane. This will enable us to choose the best time to control this pest with greater precision. PMID:20550817

Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.] has high forage production and high quality forage that can be used for pasture, hay, and ensilage. Two insects are known to infest the shoots of eastern gamagrass. These are the southern cornstalk borer [Diatraea crambidoides (Grote)] and the maiz...


Herbicide Effects on Sugarcane Growth, Pythium Root Rot, and Pythium arrhenomanes.  


ABSTRACT Six herbicides were evaluated for their effects on Pythium root rot and growth of sugarcane in greenhouse experiments and on in vitro mycelial growth rate of Pythium arrhenomanes. Pendimethalin and atrazine were most inhibitory to mycelial growth, but neither reduced root rot severity. Asulam, atrazine, and metribuzin were not phytotoxic to sugarcane and did not affect root rot symptom severity in clay loam or silt loam field soils. Atrazine and metribuzin increased shoot number, and atrazine increased total shoot weight for treated plants in silt loam soil. Glyphosate, pendimethalin, and terbacil were phytotoxic to sugarcane. These herbicides increased root rot severity, but the extent to which growth reductions resulted from increased disease severity or from direct herbicide injury was not clear. Adverse effects on plant growth and root rot severity were greater in clay loam than in silt loam soil. The results suggest that sugarcane injury from some herbicides is compounded by increased severity of root rot. PMID:18944905

Dissanayake, N; Hoy, J W; Griffin, J L



Development of transgenic sorghum for insect resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus).  


Transgenic sorghum plants expressing a synthetic cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) under the control of a wound-inducible promoter from the maize protease inhibitor gene (mpiC1) were produced via particle bombardment of shoot apices. Plants were regenerated from the transformed shoot apices via direct somatic embryogenesis with an intermittent three-step selection strategy using the herbicide Basta. Molecular characterisation based on polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis revealed multiple insertions of the cry1Ac gene in five plants from three independent transformation events. Inheritance and expression of the Bt gene was confirmed in T(1) plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay indicated that Cry1Ac protein accumulated at levels of 1-8 ng per gram of fresh tissue in leaves that were mechanically wounded. Transgenic sorghum plants were evaluated for resistance against the spotted stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) in insect bioassays, which indicated partial resistance to damage by the neonate larvae of the spotted stem borer. Reduction in leaf damage 5 days after infestation was up to 60%; larval mortality was 40%, with the surviving larvae showing a 36% reduction in weight over those fed on control plants. Despite the low levels of expression of Bt delta-endotoxin under the control of the wound-inducible promoter, the transgenic plants showed partial tolerance against first instar larvae of the spotted stem borer. PMID:16172896

Girijashankar, V; Sharma, H C; Sharma, Kiran K; Swathisree, V; Prasad, L Sivarama; Bhat, B V; Royer, Monique; Secundo, Blanca San; Narasu, M Lakshmi; Altosaar, I; Seetharama, N



Research in School Shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of school shootings have been conducted in a variety of disciplines, including sociology, psychology, and media studies. However, to date there is no unified body of knowledge about such events. In an effort to synthesize past studies, and to orient future studies in school shootings, this article (i) offers a typology for understanding the varieties of school shooting incidents,

Glenn W. Muschert



Sugarcane response to bermudagrass interference  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was conducted with the objectives of determining differences in the competitiveness of three phenotypically different sugarcane cultivars, ‘CP 70-321’, ‘HoCP 85-845’, and ‘LCP 85-384’, with bermudagrass, and the effects of bermudagrass interference on sugarcane. Sugarcane was planted at tw...


Control of Marine Borer Attack on Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application pertains to substances that are used in treating wood, which are normally subject to deterioration due to marine borers. These materials are preserved by applying to the substance certain 4-(3-phenylpropenylidene)-2,5-cyclohexadien...

J. D. Bultman L. Jurd R. D. Turner



Vegetative Shoot Meristems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is responsible for the indeterminate growth of the maize shoot. Formed during embryogenesis,\\u000a the SAM consists of a pool of stem cells that divide to give rise to daughter cells that either maintain stem cell fate or\\u000a are incorporated into leaf primordia, axillary shoot meristems or the growing stem tissues. Classical studies over the past

Dave Jackson


Shoot dieback in pecan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two shoot dieback maladies (SDM) of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] are of unknown cause and can adversely affect canopy health. They occur during either early spring (SpSDM) or early summer (SuSDM). Field evaluation found that both maladies predominately occur on shoots retaining p...


Drive-by shootings.  


Gang violence has reached epidemic proportions in Los Angeles and is occurring with increasing frequency in many other US cities. Gang members and innocent bystanders often suffer severe and sometimes fatal injuries in drive-by shootings. We present the case of one such innocent victim and discuss the personal and societal ramifications of drive-by shootings. PMID:7802359

Eckstein, M; Hutson, H R; Anglin, D



Sexuality and School Shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional explanationslax gun control laws, media violence, single and working parentsdo not adequately explain the recent spate of school shootings, and neither does bullying by itself, an explanation recently gaining more traction. A certain type of bullying, however, is revealed as particularly culpable. Many of the recent shootings share a disturbing component: The perpetrators were repeatedly, even relentlessly, accused by

Jessie Klein



Development of a system for rapid plant regeneration from in vitro sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) meristematic tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe a methodology for rapid sugarcane shoot regeneration using meristematic tissue from in vitro-grown plantlets. Shoot regeneration from previously induced meristematic tissue, in the presence of up to 22.62 ?M of 2,4-D was evaluated. The explants were transferred, after a week induction, to a propagation medium supplemented with activated charcoal and then transferred to a regeneration

Kenia Tiel; Gil A Enríquez; Yanaysi Ceballo; Natacha Soto; Alejandro D Fuentes; Aleines Ferreira; Yamilet Coll; Merardo Pujol


Integrated Management of Rice Stem Borers in the Yangtze Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker), the yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker), and the pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) are the most injurious insect pests of rice in the Yangtze Delta, one of the country's rice \\

Z. R. Zhu; J. Cheng; W. Zuo; X. W. Lin; Y. R. Guo; Y. P. Jiang; X. W. Wu; K. Teng; B. P. Zhai; J. Luo; X. H. Jiang; Z. H. Tang



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...


Sugarcane smut and its control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...


Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester



Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in greater than 2,500 square miles of southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario; more recent infestations were found in Ohio, Maryland, and Virginia in 2003. Federal and state agencies adopted a strategy of

Houping Liu; Toby R. Petrice; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao



Estimating Arundo donax shoot biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an equation for estimating Arundo donax shoot dry weight from shoot length. The equation, shoot dry weight (g)=14.254 (standard error=±0.275)×shoot height2 (m), was as effective at explaining a high proportion of total variation in shoot dry weight (R2=0.90) as more complicated equations containing additional morphometric parameters. Tested against two independent datasets, the equation provided accurate estimates of dry

David F. Spencer; Pui-Sze Liow; Wai Ki Chan; Gregory G. Ksander; Kurt D. Getsinger



Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Elicits a Sugarcane Defense Response Against a Pathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas albilineans  

PubMed Central

A new role for the plant growth-promoting nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been identified and characterized while it is involved in the sugarcane-Xanthomonas albilineans pathogenic interactions. Living G.diazotrophicus possess and/or produce elicitor molecules which activate the sugarcane defense response resulting in the plant resistance to X. albilineans, in this particular case controlling the pathogen transmission to emerging agamic shoots. A total of 47 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were identified by cDNA-AFLP. Transcripts showed significant homologies to genes of the ethylene signaling pathway (26%), proteins regulates by auxins (9%), ?-1,3 Glucanase proteins (6%) and ubiquitin genes (4%), all major signaling mechanisms. Results point toward a form of induction of systemic resistance in sugarcane-G. diazotrophicus interactions which protect the plant against X. albilineans attack.

Vinagre, Fabiano; Estevez, Yandi; Bernal, Aydiloide; Perez, Juana; Cavalcanti, Janaina; Santana, Ignacio; Hemerly, Adriana S



School shootings and guns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract: School shootings are a global phenomenon, as they occur in almost every country around the world. However, the United States ranks number one in terms of the total number of school shooters and total number of victims in a single incident. Despite the media attention such incidents receive, they are uncommon and as such are deviant both statistically and

Wayne Petherick; Brent E. Turvey; Jared Kreeger



Shooting Method Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shooting Method model displays the solution to the time-independent Schrödinger equation determined via the shooting method. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ShootingMethod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default potential energy function is a harmonic oscillator with V(x) = x*x/2. The model assumes that the eigenfunction is bound within a spatial region. The energy of the energy eigenfunction can be changed with the slider. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Shooting Method was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Open Source Physics programs for quantum mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang



Millet's Shooting Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

Beech, M.



School Shootings Stun Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School…

Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean



Agronomic performance and genetic characterization of sugarcane transformed for resistance to sugarcane yellow leaf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV, a Poleovirus of the Luteoviridae family) is already widespread in Florida, and resistance in the Canal Point (CP) sugarcane population is limited. Genetic transformation of sugarcane for disease resistance holds promise but tissue culture and transformation processes produce undesirable agronomic characteristics necessitating thorough field evaluation. A 3-year sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum species) field

R. A. Gilbert; N. C. Glynn; J. C. Comstock; M. J. Davis



Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...


School Shootings and Student Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can perform a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the

Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen



Behavior of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult males of the lesser grain borer,Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), produce a pheromone that attracts both sexes. The volatiles from males collected on filter paper or Porapak-Q were attractive in two laboratory bioassays. The mating behavior is described and the function of the phen infested with the borer.

A. Khorramshahi; W. E. Burkholder



Facultative Intraguild Predation of Red Oak Borer Larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Ozark National forests of Arkansas and Missouri, an outbreak of a native cerambycid beetle, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), seems responsible for widespread oak mortality. The underlying reasons for this outbreak are being studied. Historically, a small portion of within-tree red oak borer mortality has been attributed to natural enemies (wood- peckers and nitidulid larvae), but

V. L. Ware; F. M. Stephen



Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners discover that plants aren't just shoots (stem, branches, leaves, and flowers) growing above ground, but contain plenty of roots growing undergroundâmore than half the mass of a plant can be its roots. Learners dig up "mystery" plants to investigate their root structures, and match them to different types of root systems. Learners also learn about animals found near plant roots and how humans use roots.

Science, Lawrence H.



In vitro generation of somaclonal variant plants of sugarcane for tolerance to Fusarium sacchari.  


KEY MESSAGE : A combination of in vitro culture and mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) followed by culture filtrate-mediated selection produced variant sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to Fusarium sacchari. Eldana saccharina is a destructive pest of the sugarcane crop in South Africa. Fusarium sacchari PNG40 (a fungal strain harmful to E. saccharina) has the potential to be an endophytic biological control agent of the stalk borer. However, the fungus causes Fusarium stalk rot in sugarcane. In the current study, sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to F. sacchari PNG40 were produced by exposing embryogenic calli to the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), followed by in vitro selection during somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration on media containing F. sacchari culture filtrates (CF). The incorporation of 100 ppm CF in the culture media at the embryo maturation stage, at germination, or at both, resulted in callus necrosis and consequent reduced plantlet yield. Subsequent trimming of the roots of regenerated plants and their exposure to 1,500 ppm CF served as a further selection treatment. Plants produced from EMS-treated calli displayed improved root re-growth in the presence of CF pressure compared with those from non-treated calli. The tolerance of CF-selected plants was confirmed in greenhouse tests by inoculation with F. sacchari PNG40, re-isolation of Fusarium spp. from undamaged tissue of asymptomatic plants and establishment of the identity of fungal isolates as PNG40 using molecular analysis. The restriction of PNG40 presence to the inoculation lesion in some plants suggested their resistance to the fungus. Genotypes exhibiting symptomless endophytic colonization by PNG40 were identified and will be utilised for testing biological control strategies against E. saccharina. PMID:23090725

Mahlanza, Tendekai; Rutherford, R Stuart; Snyman, Sandy J; Watt, M Paula



USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.



Identification of the Sex Pheromone of the Currant Shoot Borer Lampronia capitella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under an artificial light:dark cycle, females of Lampronia capitella were observed calling, with extended terminal abdominal segments, during the first 2 hr of the photoperiod. Extracts of terminal abdominal segments from females elicited large electroantennographic responses from male antennae. Gas chromatography with electroantennographicDetection revealed three active peaks. Based on comparison of retention times and mass spectra of synthetic standards, these

Christer Löfstedt; Junwei Zhu; Mikhail V. Kozlov; Vincas Buda; Erling V. Jirle; Sven Hellqvist; Jan Löfqvist; Ernst Plass; Stephan Franke; Wittko Francke



Detection of genetic polymorphism in the populations of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee).  


In the present study six different populations of L. orbonalis were collected and subjected to analysis of genetic variability in terms of carboxylesterase isozyme pattern and DNA polymorphism using RAPD-PCR. Pattern of carboxylesterase revealed a similar isozyme cluster in the populations namely, sivaganga (population-3), dindigal (population-4), virudhunagar (population-5) and coimbatore (population-6). Similarly, the populations of L. orbonalis recorded 3 distinct randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers in all populations grouped above. This pattern of genetic variability in the populations was also supported by the analysis of the similarity indices and UPGMA dendrogram. PMID:15991581

Karthikeyan, K A M; Vijayakumar, I; Murali, P; Suresh, P; Janarthanan, S



Shooting the Monkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This EJS simulation allows the user to simulate the classical shoot the monkey demonstration. The user can change the initial velocity of the projectile, the positions and aim of the gun, and the position of the monkey. The simulation was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ntnu_fkh_projectileNfreefall.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or EJS.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun



Sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in tissue culture: long-term maintenance, transmission, and oxytetracycline remission.  


Sugarcane white leaf (SCWL)-diseased sugarcane plants collected from Udornthani Province, in north-eastern Thailand, were the source for tissue culture experiments. Explants from axillary buds, meristem tips, and leaves grew optimally in Murashige-Skoog medium containing 0.5 mg/l alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine, and 15% coconut water. Callus development and shoot/root proliferation were more rapid in cultures from diseased than from healthy plants. Disease symptoms continued for 6 years after culture initiation, and SCWL phytoplasma persisted, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using both 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rDNA primers. Phytoplasmas in the cultured plantlets were transmissible by grafting to sugarcane and periwinkle, and by feeding of the leafhopper vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus to sugarcane. Although 50% of the plantlets were killed by oxytetracycline at 500 mg/ml, 70-100% of plantlets grown with 200-500 mg/ml oxytetracycline showed symptom remission through 5-8 subcultures. Typical phytoplasma-like bodies, visible by electron microscopy in sieve tubes of untreated diseased plantlets, were absent in antibiotic-treated plantlets. Thus, tissue culture provides a convenient and reliable in vivo system for investigation of SCWL phytoplasma. PMID:15309500

Wongkaew, Porntip; Fletcher, Jacqueline



Emerald Ash Borer Microbial Control with the Entomopathogen ...  


Emerald ash borer research and development meeting; 2007 October 23-24; Pittsburgh ... wood-boring pest native to northeastern Asia, was found attacking ash trees ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors ...


Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), Biological Control Release Guidelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These New Pest Response Guidelines contain information to guide a management program for the emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The guidelines are intended to assist Plant Protection and Quarantine ...

J. Duan J. H. Buck J. S. Gould L. S. Bauer




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic transformation of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) holds promise for increasing yields and disease resistance. However, the tissue culture and transformation process may also produce undesirable field characteristics in transgenic sugarcane not readily identifiable in the laboratory. The primary...


Tissue and cell culture as AIDS to sugarcane breeding. I. Creation of genetic variation through callus culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four-hundred and seventeen plants from 8 sugarcane varieties were selected among the 4600 plants that had been generated from calluses of shoot-apices, rolled young leaves and young inflorescences of 58 varieties. They were planted in the field (Field Test-II stage) in December, 1971 and examined for morphology, sugar content and chromosome number in the summer of 1972 and thereafter. The

Ming-Chin Liu; Wen-Huei Chen



Recoil-reducing shooting rest  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A shooting rest supports a firearm and reduces recoil energy of the firearm. The shooting rest has a rear support and a front support for supporting the firearm and a frame connecting the rear support and the front support. The frame supports at least one weight to reduce the amount of recoil energy felt by a shooter.

Cauley; Dennis (Boonville, MO); Morrow; Tim (Jefferson City, MO)



A School Shooting Plot Foiled  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.



Shooting and Hunting: Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shooting and hunting manual, part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, explains shooting skills, hunting, and proper gun handling on the range and in the field. This manual should be supplemented and enriched by available references, facilities, and resources. It may be included in the community's educational and…

Smith, Julian W., Comp.


Modeling the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada [McCullough, D.G., Katovich, S.A., 2004. Pest Alert: Emerald Ash Borer. United States Forest Service, Northeastern Area. NA-PR-02-04]. Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly

Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett; Bruce Hannon



Macadamia pests in Malawi. IV. Control of bugs and borers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details of the field trials which led to the discovery of an insecticide efficacious against both bug (Nezara spp.) and borer (Cryptophlebia spp.) attacking the fruit of macadamia in Malawi are given. Cypermethrin as a 002% a.i. mist application has been shown to be the best all?round insecticide but in the absence of borer a 0.1% a.i. application of fenitrothion

E. A. S. La Croix; H. Z. Thindwa



Effect of biocompost application on sugarcane crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted during spring of 2006–07 at Sugarcane Research Institute, Shahjahanpur using sugarcane variety\\u000a CoS 97264 to work out the effect of biocompost ( prepared from biodegradation from pressmud) application on yield and quality\\u000a of sugarcane crop and status of organic carbon content in the soil before planting and after harvest of the crop. It is clear

Namita Chauhan; M. P. Singh; Aneg Singh; A. K. Singh; S. S. Chauhan; S. B. Singh



The Biotechnology Roadmap for Sugarcane Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the strategic importance of sugarcane to Brazil, FAPESP, the main São Paulo state research funding agency, launched\\u000a in 2008 the FAPESP Bioenergy Research Program (BIOEN, http:\\/\\/ BIOEN aims to generate new knowledge and human resources for the improvement of the sugarcane and ethanol industry. As\\u000a part of the BIOEN program, a Workshop on Sugarcane Improvement was held on

Carlos T. Hotta; Carolina G. Lembke; Douglas S. Domingues; Edgar A. Ochoa; Guilherme M. Q. Cruz; Danila M. Melotto-Passarin; Thiago G. Marconi; Melissa O. Santos; Marcelo Mollinari; Gabriel R. A. Margarido; Augusto César Crivellari; Wanderley D. dos Santos; Amanda P. de Souza; Andrea A. Hoshino; Helaine Carrer; Anete P. Souza; Antônio A. F. Garcia; Marcos S. Buckeridge; Marcelo Menossi; Marie-Anne Van Sluys; Glaucia M. Souza



Life history studies of Prorops nasuta , a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history studies were conducted in the laboratory on the African parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The female wasp enters an infested coffee berry, kills the adult borer and seals the entrance of the berry with the body of the borer, impeding the entry of other organisms

Francisco Infante; John Mumford; Peter BAKER



The impact of predators on maize stem borers in coastal Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage caused by Lepidopteran stem borers is one of the most important constraints to maize production in East and southern Africa. Of the stem borer complex, Chilo partellus Swinhoe is the most abundant species in lowland areas. Although control strategies exist, many are not effective or feasible for small-scale subsistence farmers to practice. Consequently, stem borers are rarely actively controlled.

M. J. Bonhof



Mechanisms of compensation of rice plants to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of stem borer injury on the physiology and yield response of irrigated rice. The compensation mechanisms investigated included increased tillering, increased percentage of productive tillers, and increased grain weight. Assimilates were translocated from stem borer-injured tillers to healthy tillers. The photosynthesis rate of green leaves in stem borer-injured tillers increased.

E. G. Rubia; K. L. Heong; M. Zalucki; B. Gonzales; G. A. Norton



A School Shooting Plot Foiled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005\\/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a Christian K-12 day




Axillary Shoot Branching in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The yield of many crop plants is influenced by the number of axillary shoot branches they produce. Plants possess several\\u000a mechanisms to control axillary branch growth and development. Recently, tremendous progress has been achieved towards gaining\\u000a a better understanding of these mechanisms, and several novel genes have been identified which are implicated in shoot branching.\\u000a This chapter highlights recent progress

M. W. F. Yaish; D. R. Guevara; A. El-Kereamy; S. J. Rothstein


School shootings: Making sense of the senseless  

Microsoft Academic Search

School shootings have altered the patina of seclusion and safety that once characterized public and higher education. Callous and brutal, school shootings seem to make no sense. However, case comparisons and anecdotal reports are beginning to show patterns that provide clues for understanding both the individual factors motivating shooting events and the characteristics of schools where shootings have occurred. We

Traci L. Wike; Mark W. Fraser



Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars is critical for growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this resear...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars is critical for growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this resear...


Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for

G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Eve...


Silicon nutrition and sugarcane production: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon (Si) is one of the most abundant elements found in the earth's crust, but is mostly inert and only slightly soluble. Agriculture activity tends to remove large quantities of Si from soil. Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other mineral nutrient, accumulating approximately 380 kg ha of Si, in a 12?month?old crop. Sugarcane (plant growth and

Narayan K. Savant; Gaspar H. Korndörfer; Lawrence E. Datnoff; George H. Snyderc




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the primary crop in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida where it is exposed to periodic floods. After sugarcane is planted, it is particularly susceptible to flooding until it sprouts. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on emergence of flood du...



Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Approximately 75% of the total sugarcane area harvested in Brazil is made manually and 25% is mechanized. Precision agriculture is a method of production systems management that considers the spacial variability presence, which promove practical and effective ways of obtaining yield maps to show that variability. The existent maps generation technologies dasent contemplate manually harvested sugarcane yet. By georreferencing




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing water storage in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida would improve conservation of the region's organic soils but reduce yields of the major crop, sugarcane. Growers in Florida normally apply a soil insecticide when planting sugarcane to limit wireworm damage to buds of planted st...


Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600°C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar

Mandu Inyang; Bin Gao; Pratap Pullammanappallil; Wenchuan Ding; Andrew R. Zimmerman



Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND -: Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations

Flávia S Papini-Terzi; Flávia R Rocha; Ricardo ZN Vêncio; Juliana M Felix; Diana S Branco; Alessandro J Waclawovsky; Luiz EV Del Bem; Carolina G Lembke; Maximiller DL Costa; Milton Y Nishiyama; Renato Vicentini; Michel GA Vincentz; Eugênio C Ulian; Marcelo Menossi; Glaucia M Souza



[Evaluation on control efficacy of Scleroderma guani against borer].  


Scleroderma guani is an ectoparasitic insect of some borer, especially the larvae or the pupae of longicorn. In Pingyi county of Shandong province, Scleroderma guani was found when it naturally parasitized Xylotrechus grayii in 1980. Passed more than ten years systematic studies, it has been found that this harpactophayeous insect has great boring ability and can be parasitize many hosts. In the fields to release Scleroderma guani for controlling Xylotrechus grayii, Phytoecia rufiventris, Anoplophora glabripennis etc. have achieved good results and kept steady effects. Therefore, spreading Scleroderma guani to control the borer is a new technology in sustaining plant protection. PMID:12858762

Cheng, Huizhen; Meng, Xianhua; Chen, Jun; Shi, Chenghua



Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.



School Shootings as Organizational Deviance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…

Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.



Shootings Revive Debates on Security  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

Shah, Nirvi



School Shootings in Policy Spotlight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

Maxwell, Lesli A.



Survival of emerald ash borer in wood chips  

Treesearch Government Made Easy ... Emerald ash borer research and technology development meeting; 2003 ... Quarantine regulations have been imposed which restrict movement of all life stages of the beetle in ash trees, limbs or ... Please contact Sharon Hobrla, if you notice any errors which make this ...


Chemical Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted,\\u000a based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical

Damon J. Crook; Victor C. Mastro



Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the

Robert K. Lawrence


Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...


Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.  


Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M



Tragedy and the meaning of school shootings.  


School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings might be seen as ceremonial rituals, (2) how schools come to be seen as appropriate places for shootings, and (3) how advice to educators relating to school shootings might change the practice of teaching. The authors present various ways of understanding school shootings that may eventually prove helpful, but they also highlight the problems, tensions, and contradictions associated with each position. In the end, the authors argue, the circumstances surrounding school shootings demonstrate the need for the "tragic sense" in education. This need for the tragic sense, while manifest in many different areas of schooling, is exemplified most clearly in targeted school shootings. PMID:20662173

Warnick, Bryan R; Johnson, Benjamin A; Rocha, Samuel




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips provide a model to study processes important for cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was accomplished using both vitrification and two-step cooling methods. With vitrification methods, shoot formation after liquid nitrogen exposure was 100% and 95%, respectively, f...


Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate,\\u000a dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen,\\u000a liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification,

Debangana Choudhury; Jatindra K. Sahu; G. D. Sharma


Carbon balance of sugarcane bioenergy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important criterion for bioenergy systems evaluation is their greenhouse gas mitigation potential. Sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to produce grid-bound surplus electricity but also have net CO2 emissions associated with the upstream fossil-fuel consumption for plantation management, transportation and processing of the fibrous biomass. However, when compared to coal-based power generation systems, sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to avoid

Revin Panray Beeharry



Sugarcane genes differentially expressed during water deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genes that are up and down-regulated by water deficit in sugarcane we used the macroarray methodology and the\\u000a expression level of 3 575 independent sugarcane cDNAs was measured by hybridization with RNA extracted from plants submitted\\u000a to mild, moderate and severe water deficit. We identified approximately 1 670 differentially expressed genes from which 62\\u000a % were up-regulated by

F. A. Rodrigues; J. P. Da Graça; M. L. De Laia; A. Nhani-Jr; J. A. Galbiati; M. I. T. Ferro; J. A. Ferro; S. M. Zingaretti



Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.



The effect of meditation on shooting performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study effects of meditation on the shooting performance. METHODS: 25 elite shooters were investigated in an independent groups design. The results in standardised test shootings indoors and in ordinary competitions outdoors were assessed before and after regular meditation training for the experimental group. The experience of tension during the test shootings was self recorded on a visual analogue

E E Solberg; K A Berglund; O Engen; O Ekeberg; M Loeb



Aggressive shooting behavior: How working memory and threat influence shoot decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on police officer shoot decisions has focused on the influence of situational factors that lead to shooting error. Focusing instead on the “shooter,” the present study examined whether WM capacity influenced participant shoot decisions in a simulated shooting task with varied threat level. Participants were 282 undergraduate students who completed a measure of operation span, viewed a police-relevant

Heather M. Kleider; Dominic J. Parrott



Sugarcane vinasse: Environmental implications of its use.  


The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia




EPA Science Inventory

The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...


Risk factors in school shootings.  


Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed. PMID:10660827

Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J



Transformation of plants via the shoot apex.  


The terms "meristem" and "shoot tip" culture have often been indiscriminately interchanged. According to Cutter 1), the apical meristem refers to only that portion of the shoot apex lying distal to the youngest leaf primordium. The shoot apex, or shoot tip, consists of the apical meristem and one to three subjacent leaf primordia. True apical meristem culture of higher plants was first demonstrated by Smith and Murashige 2). The isolated tissues of the apical domes develop directly into plants, demonstrating the developmental automony of the angiosperm shoot apical meristem. PMID:21390619

Smith, R H; Ulian, E; Gould, J H



Pheromone-based trapping of West Indian sugarcane weevil in a sugarcane plantation.  


Attraction of Metamasius hemipterus (Oliver) to gallon and bamboo traps baited with insecticide-treated sugarcane, the male-produced pheromone, 4-methyl-5-nonanol, and 2-methyl-4-heptanol is more efficient if ethyl acetate is added. The optimal traps are ground-level gallon traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane, pheromone, and ethyl acetate. Capture rates of ground-level gallon traps are doubled by placing an insecticide-laced pad under the trap, but significantly decreased by placing the trap on a stick above ground. The efficiency of ground-level gallon traps is the same as ground level ramp traps. Mass-trapping M. hemipterus in newly planted sugarcane using ground level bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone over six months revealed populations were low for the first two months, became maximum at five months, and declined thereafter. Capture rates of traps bordering newly planted and mature sugarcane were not significantly different from capture rates of traps in the interior of the plots. Capture rates of bamboo traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane and deployed at 30 traps/ha averaged 6 weevils/trap/week compared with 66 weevils/trap/week for traps additionally containing pheromone lures and deployed at 5 traps/ha. Capture rates for bamboo traps baited with insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone and deployed at 10 and 15 traps/ha were 43 and 38 weevils/trap/week, respectively. Total captures were higher in those plots with a higher density of insecticide-laden sugarcane and pheromone baited traps, and the differences were approximately proportional to trap density in the range of 5-15 traps/ha. Capture rates of traps containing insecticide-laced sugarcane and pheromone were always higher than of traps containing only insecticide-laced sugarcane, but in the first two months after planting the differences were much greater than in months 3-6 after planting. PMID:12371817

Oehlschlager, Allan C; Gonzalez, Lilliana; Gomez, Manuel; Rodriguez, Carlos; Andrade, Romano



Labour saving and cost reduction machinery for sugarcane cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural operations for sugarcane production are very arduous especially planting, interculture, plant protection and harvesting.\\u000a Modern sugarcane machinery and labour saving devices reduce the cost of sugarcane production, help in completion of operation\\u000a timely reduce human drudgery and enable efficient utilization of resources with better quality work output. It helps in increasing\\u000a overall production and productivity. Sugarcane planting requires about

R. N. S. Yadav; Sandeep Yadav; Raj Kumar Tejra



Physiological Responses of Sugarcane to Orange Rust Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is a relatively new disease in the United States that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane cultivars in Florida. The objective of this study was to determine physiological responses of sugarcane to orange rust infection by quantifyi...


Relationships between Burkholderia populations and plant parasitic nematodes in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that the bacterium Burkholderia tropica might be used to reduce nematode damage in sugarcane by promoting certain nematode species to create a less pathogenic nematode community. This suggestion arises from an investigation of the plant parasitic nematodes and their relationship with Burkholderia species along a sugarcane row. During the course of this analysis sugarcane root and soil

J. Omarjee; J. Balandreau; V. W. Spaull; P. Cadet



Constitutive expression of viral suppressors of PTGS in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In our experience, transgenes are silenced by sugarcane at a high frequency. In many cases the silencing is via posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). To understand more about PTGS in sugarcane we are studying the P0 protein of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) which acts to suppress PTGS. One...


Discrimination of sugarcane varieties using Landsat 7 ETM+ spectral data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the identification of sugarcane varieties using data from an orbital?borne sensor in an attempt to reduce evaluation time and field?checking efforts. It would help institutions that breed sugarcane varieties for royalties charges for the propagation of their genetic material. The approach of this work was to apply a methodology to discriminate sugarcane varieties through Landsat 7 Enhanced

C. Fortes; J. A. M. Demattê



Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

PubMed Central

Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants.

Papini-Terzi, Flavia S; Rocha, Flavia R; Vencio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugenio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M



Genetically Enhanced Sorghum and Sugarcane: Engineering Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Storage together with Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency into the Saccharinae  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: UIUC is working to convert sugarcane and sorghum—already 2 of the most productive crops in the world—into dedicated bio-oil crop systems. Three components will be engineered to produce new crops that have a 50% higher yield, produce easily extractable oils, and have a wider growing range across the U.S. This will be achieved by modifying the crop canopy to better distribute sunlight and increase its cold tolerance. By directly producing oil in the shoots of these plants, these biofuels could be easily extracted with the conventional crushing techniques used today to extract sugar.




Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is

Justin G. A. Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Kari B. Green-Church; Jennifer L. Koch; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Haibing Yang



Rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), overwintering in super rice and its control using cultivation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super rice has the potential to deliver very high yields but is also susceptible to attack by the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. In this study, surveys and field trials were performed to examine this problem and efficient ways were found to lower the borer’s population density. It was found that larger super rice plants provided more refuges for

Weihua Jiang; Xiaojing Jiang; Jianren Ye; Qiang Fu; Yongbin Feng; Ju Luo; Zhaojun Han




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2005 Billion Ton Study is in need of updating and a focus change from strategic assessment to a comprehensive resource assessment to address issues raised since the 2005 publication and assist the bioenergy and bioproducts industries as they project biomass supplies into the future. With yield ...


Bt Corn and the European Corn Borer: Evaluation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive predictive model uses years of past weather data and a model of the European corn borer's life cycle under different temperatures to calculate the net benefit of planting Bt corn versus non-Bt corn in a certain geographic area. Great data visualization. Requires Flash. This is an excellent tool incorporating a large volume of data. The tool should be quite useful for IPM classes.



Sugarcane and other crops as fuel feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

The use of sugarcane as a feedstock for fuel alcohol production in Brazil, and in Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Panama stimulated tremendous interest in the potential of agricultural crops for renewable energy sources. The cost of the feedstock is important. Corn, the current major agricultural feedstock in US fuel alcohol production, costs 60 to 80% of the selling price of the alcohol produced from it. Production costs for sugarcane and sugarbeets are higher than for corn. Sugarcane and sugarbeets, yield more fermentable carbohydrates per acre than any other crop. Sugarcane has the distinct advantage of containing a large amount of fiber in the harvested portion. The feedstock cost of sugarcane can be reduced by producing more cane per acre. Sweet sorghum has been discussed as a fuel crop. Cassana, the tapioca source, is thought to be a fuel crop of major potential. Feedstock cost can also be reduced through management decisions that reduce costly practices. Cultivation and fertilizer costs can be reduced. The operating cost of the processing plant is affected by the choice of crops grown for feedstock, both by their cost and by availability. (DP)

Irvine, J.E.



Rearing Procedures for the Sugarcane Aphid with Results from Antibiosis Studies and Initial Transmission Studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, was first reported in Louisiana in 1999 and is now found throughout the Louisiana sugarcane industry. Although at times, the sugarcane aphid can be found in high numbers in Louisiana sugarcane fields, its status as an economic pest of sugarcane remains uncle...


Classical Biological Control of Emerald Ash Borer and Asian Longhorned Beetle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), are both invasive plant pests recently introduced to North America from the Far East. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an oligophagous buprestid on Fraxinus spp., whereas the Asi...


Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009–2019  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of emerald ash borer (EAB) have been detected in nine additional states and Quebec. EAB is a highly invasive forest pest that has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees

Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold



Impact of Plant Resistance on Southwestern Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Biology and Plant Damage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm...


76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer...public of our decision to revise a heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer...schedule T314-a, which provides a heat treatment schedule for ash logs,...



Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...


Tolerance of Bt corn (MON 810) to maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic corn (MON 810), expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, Cry1Ab, was evaluated under greenhouse conditions for its tolerance to the maize stem borer, Chilo partellus. Bt corn (MON 810) provided effective protection against the stem borer even under a high level of larval infestation in the greenhouse. The observed tolerance is examined and discussed in the light of the

Ramkumar Singh; K. C. Ravi; Farah Deeba; J. N. Nandi; K. S. Mohan; T. M. Manjunath




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, is a major pest of corn, Zea mays, L., in the southern United States. In addition to the direct yield losses caused by southwestern corn borer, larval feeding on developing ears provides a site for fungi to enter the ear. Aspergillus flavus infe...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (CBB) causes great damage to coffee crops around the world. Borer eggs are laid in developing coffee berries, and the larvae feed on tissue of the berry. It has been hypothesized that fungal growth in insect galleries provides exogenous sterols needed for...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...


Prolific shoot regeneration of Astragalus cariensis Boiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolific shoot regeneration via organogenesis was induced from leaf and leaf petiole explants of the endemic Astragalus cariensis species on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA) within 8 week. The\\u000a highest number of shoots (23\\/explants) was obtained from leaf explants cultured on MS with 0.5 mg\\/l NAA and 4 mg\\/l BA. Elongated\\u000a shoots were successfully rooted in

Semiha Erisen; Mustafa Yorgancilar; Emine Atalay; Mehmet Babaoglu



Effects of Johnsongrass Density and Pre-Harvest Burning on Sugarcane Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Johnsongrass interference with sugarcane results in substantial yield losses. However, light infestations are sometimes overlooked due to the cost and difficulty of controlling rhizomatous johnsongrass in sugarcane. Studies were conducted to examine the effect of johnsongrass density and sugarcane h...


Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil\\u000a and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability\\u000a of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization\\u000a resulted

Lei Liang; Yuan-ping Zhang; Li Zhang; Ming-jun Zhu; Shi-zhong Liang; Yu-nan Huang



The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) project (http:\\/\\/ that corresponded to signal transduction components.

Glaucia Mendes Souza; Ana Carolina Quirino Simoes; Katia Cristina Oliveira; Humberto Miguel Garay; Leonardo Costa Fiorini; Felipe dos Santos Gomes; Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior; Aline Maria da Silva



The Columbine LegacyRampage Shootings as Political Acts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore how the Columbine shootings on April 20, 1999, influenced subsequent school rampage shootings. First, school rampage shootings are defined to distinguish them from other forms of school violence. Second, post-Columbine shootings and thwarted shootings are examined to determine how they were influenced by Columbine. Unlike prior rampage shooters, Harris and Klebold committed

Ralph W. Larkin



Network news coverage of school shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

School shootings have become a subject of intense national debate. The present study is a content analysis and interpretation of television evening newscast coverage of these crimes. The focus is on ABC, CBS, and NBC nightly newscasts. Findings from this research support two propositions: that the most violent school shootings receive the most media coverage, and that the reporting of

Brendan Maguire; Georgie Ann Weatherby; Richard A Mathers



Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school…

Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel



Cell signaling within the shoot meristem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot apical meristems are self-renewing stem cell populations that generate all of the above-ground organs (i.e. stems, leaves and flowers) of higher plants. Recent studies have identified new molecular components required for proper shoot meristem activity, and they have revealed that complex, intercellular communication pathways play important roles in coordinating meristem function.

Jennifer C Fletcher; Elliot M Meyerowitz



Embryogenic callus proliferation and regeneration conditions for genetic transformation of diverse sugarcane cultivars.  


Amenability to tissue culture stages required for gene transfer, selection and plant regeneration are the main determinants of genetic transformation efficiency via particle bombardment into sugarcane. The technique is moving from the experimental phase, where it is sufficient to work in a few amenable genotypes, to practical application in a diverse and changing set of elite cultivars. Therefore, we investigated the response to callus initiation, proliferation, regeneration and selection steps required for microprojectile-mediated transformation, in a diverse set of Australian sugarcane cultivars. 12 of 16 tested cultivars were sufficiently amenable to existing routine tissue-culture conditions for practical genetic transformation. Three cultivars required adjustments to 2,4-D levels during callus proliferation, geneticin concentration during selection, and/or light intensity during regeneration. One cultivar gave an extreme necrotic response in leaf spindle explants and produced no callus tissue under the tested culture conditions. It was helpful to obtain spindle explants for tissue culture from plants with good water supply for growth, especially for genotypes that were harder to culture. It was generally possible to obtain several independent transgenic plants per bombardment, with time in callus culture limited to 11-15 weeks. A caution with this efficient transformation system is that separate shoots arose from different primary transformed cells in more than half of tested calli after selection for geneticin resistance. The results across this diverse cultivar set are likely to be a useful guide to key variables for rapid optimisation of tissue culture conditions for efficient genetic transformation of other sugarcane cultivars. PMID:20978767

Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Moyle, Richard; Birch, Robert G



Possible involvement of some secondary metabolites in salt tolerance of sugarcane.  


Accumulation of toxic ions in plant tissues modulates the levels of primary and secondary metabolites, which may be related to salinity tolerance. In this study two sugarcane clones, CP-4333 (tolerant) and HSF-240 (sensitive), were exposed to salinity levels at the formative stage, and evaluated three times at 10-day intervals. Although net rate of photosynthesis (Pn), leaf area, length and dry weight of shoots were decreased in both clones, the CP-4333 showed less reduction compared to HSF-240. Both clones displayed a general tendency to accumulate Na+ and Cl- and little K+, though CP-4333 accumulated less Na+ and more K+ compared to HSF-240, and thus showed a higher K+:Na+ ratio. The carotenoid (CAR) content remained steady, while total chlorophyll (CHL) was slightly reduced in the tolerant clone and significantly reduced in HSF-240. In contrast, soluble phenolics (PHE), anthocyanins (ANT) and flavones (FLA) levels were 2.5, 2.8 and 3.0 times greater in CP-4333 in comparison with HSF-240. The decrease in Pn and most secondary metabolites demonstrated by the sensitive clone, but not evidenced in the tolerant clones, suggest that the presence of those metabolites is related to increased salt tolerance of sugarcane. The increased synthesis of PHE, ANT and FLA seems to protect sugarcane from ion-induced oxidative stress, probably due to a common structural skeleton, the phenyl group, of those metabolites. CAR, as components of the light harvesting center (LHC) and biosynthesized in chloroplasts, may confer resistance to this organelle. The PHE, ANT and FLA synthesized in the cytosol may protect cells from ion-induced oxidative damage by binding the ions and thereby showing reduced toxicity on cytoplasmic structures. PMID:16616583

Wahid, Abdul; Ghazanfar, Alia



Registration of ‘CP 04-1935’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

CP 04-1935 is sugarcane variety that was developed by a cooperative research involving the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. It was released to growers in Florida on 20 Sep. 2011. CP 04-1935 was selected from the cross between CP 94-2059 and CP 84-1322 made...


Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.  


Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M



Environmental stimuli promoting sucker initiation in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of suckers, late-formed tillers, in mature sugarcane crops reduces the sugar concentration of harvested material to the detriment of profitability. The amount of suckering varies with cultivar and season. However, the environmental stimuli promoting suckering, i.e. the number of suckers, are not understood. This paper describes the effects on suckering of increasing soil moisture, nitrogen, and the level

G. D. Bonnett; B. Salter; N. Berding; A. P. Hurney



Registration of ‘CP 05-1526’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘CP 05-1526’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and released to growers for organic and sand soils in Florida in October 2012. CP 05-1526 was selected...


Registration of ‘CP 88-1165’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. A cooperative program among the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. located at an ARS facility in Canal Poi...


Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as Câ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production

S. H. Elawad; G. J. Gascho; S. F. Shih




Microsoft Academic Search

There is need in the South African Sugar Industry for a clear understanding ofthe effects ofage and season ofharvest on cane yield and quality. One of the keys to this under­ standing is the knowledge of how sugarcane grown with ad­ equate water and fertilizer accumulates dry matter. Dry matter yields obtained from the literature and by sampling crops grown




Sugarcane for Beef and Pork Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical countries have a great comparative advantage due to th e intensity and regular availability of solar energy which may be exploited through plant photosynthesis. Sugarcane is a C4 plant which has a greater capacity to utilize high light intensities with reduced water requirement and hence produce as much as 3.8 times more biomass per hectare than cereals. Total biomass

Carlos Hernan; Carlos Hernando; Enrique Jose; Juan Pablo



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Louisiana’s sugarcane producers and millers have been under increased economic pressure for the past several years. If the industry is to survive in the long term, then new technologies that maximize productivity and profitability must be identified and adopted. Several tests were initiated in 200...


Registration of ‘CP 03-1912’ Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘CP 03-1912’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in Florida in April 2011. CP 03-1912 was selected fr...


Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes  

PubMed Central

Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus) with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6%) of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome.



Histochemical and ultrastructural evidence of lipid secretion by the silk gland of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  


The silk gland in Lepidoptera larvae is responsible for the silk production used for shelter or cocoon construction. The secretion of fibroin and sericin by the different silk gland regions are well established. There are few attempts to detect lipid components in the insect silk secretion, although the presence of such element may contribute to the resistance of the shelter to wet environment. This study characterizes the glandular region and detects the presence of lipid components in the secretion of the silk gland of Diatraea saccharalis(Fabricius). The silk gland was submitted to histochemical procedure for lipid detection or conventionally prepared for ultrastructural analyses. Lipid droplets were histochemically detected in both the apical cytoplasm of cell of the anterior region and in the lumen among the microvilli. Ultrastructural analyses of the anterior region showed lipid material, visualized as myelin-like structures within the vesicular Golgi complex and in the apical secretory globules, mixed up with the sericin; similar material was observed into the lumen, adjacent to the microvilli. Lipids were not detected in the cells neither in the lumen of the posterior region. Our results suggest that the silk produced by D. saccharalis has a minor lipid content that is secreted by the anterior region together with the sericin. PMID:18060296

Victoriano, Eliane; Pinheiro, Daniela O; Gregório, Elisa A


A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.  


Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides. PMID:23321083

Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A



Management of an incursion of sugarcane smut in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane smut is caused by the fungus Ustilago scitaminea, which is primarily spread by wind-borne spores and infected sugarcane cuttings. Itwas identified as a high-risk exotic disease\\u000a in a pest risk analysis conducted in 1997, and a contingency plan to deal with incursions was prepared in 1997. Sugarcane\\u000a smut was reported for the first time in Australia in the Ord

B. J. Croft; K. S. Braithwaite



Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and development of herbicide-resistant sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrids) using axillary buds.  


Direct regeneration from explants without an intervening callus phase has several advantages, including production of true type progenies. Axillary bud explants from 6-month-old sugarcane cultivars Co92061 and Co671 were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strains LBA4404 and EHA105 that harboured a binary vector pGA492 carrying neomycin phosphotransferase II, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) and an intron containing beta-glucuronidase (gus-intron) genes in the T-DNA region. A comparison of kanamycin, geneticin and phosphinothricin (PPT) selection showed that PPT (5.0 mg l(-1)) was the most effective selection agent for axillary bud transformation. Repeated proliferation of shoots in the selection medium eliminated chimeric transformants. Transgenic plants were generated in three different steps: (1) production of putative primary transgenic shoots in Murashige-Skoog (MS) liquid medium with 3.0 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 5.0 mg l(-1) PPT, (2) production of secondary transgenic shoots from the primary transgenic shoots by growing them in MS liquid medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) BA, 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kin), 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 5.0 mg l(-1) PPT for 3 weeks, followed by five more cycles of shoot proliferation and selection under same conditions, and (3) rooting of transgenic shoots on half-strength MS liquid medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA and 5.0 mg l(-1) PPT. About 90% of the regenerated shoots rooted and 80% of them survived during acclimatisation in greenhouse. Transformation was confirmed by a histochemical beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and PCR amplification of the bar gene. Southern blot analysis indicated integration of the bar gene in two genomic locations in the majority of transformants. Transformation efficiency was influenced by the co-cultivation period, addition of the phenolic compound acetosyringone and the Agrobacterium strain. A 3-day co-cultivation with 50 micro M acetosyringone considerably increased the transformation efficiency. Agrobacterium strain EHA105 was more effective, producing twice the number of transgenic shoots than strain LBA4404 in both Co92061 and Co671 cultivars. Depending on the variety, 50-60% of the transgenic plants sprayed with BASTA (60 g l(-1) glufosinate) grew without any herbicide damage under greenhouse conditions. These results show that, with this protocol, generation and multiplication of transgenic shoots can be achieved in about 5 months with transformation efficiencies as high as 50%. PMID:15133712

Manickavasagam, M; Ganapathi, A; Anbazhagan, V R; Sudhakar, B; Selvaraj, N; Vasudevan, A; Kasthurirengan, S



Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.  


Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko



Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch  

PubMed Central

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko



Production of d -lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic

Buenaventurada P. Calabia; Yutaka Tokiwa



Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  


Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505

Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka



Emerald Ash Borer Program Manual, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), Ver. 1.1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These New Pest Response Guidelines contain information to guide a management program for the emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire), (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The guidelines are intended to assist Plant Protection and Quarantine ...

J. H. Buck S. Frappier



Engineering Services in Connection with an Investigation of Marine Protective Elements Against Marine Borers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological and chemical evaluation of effectiveness against marine borers, particularly Limnoria tripunctata, of creosote and creosote preceded by waterborne copper compounds in wood coupons is made. Assays of outer 1/8 in. of exposed surfaces performed a...

B. R. Richards R. H. Baechler A. P. Richards H. G. Roth



Safety Analysis of the Blind Shaft Borer. Volume 1. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, sponsored by the Bureau of Mines, presents the results of an examination of the safety of the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) shaft sinking system and an alternative modified BSB design concept in comparison to conventional shaft sinking technology. ...

C. A. Geffen-Fowler J. M. Hobbs J. J. Jacobsen J. M. Oylear T. B. Powers



Safety Analysis of the Blind Shaft Borer. Volume 3. Supplementary Reports F through J.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, sponsored by the Bureau of Mines, presents the results of an examination of the safety of the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) shaft sinking system and an alternative modified BSB design concept in comparison to conventional shaft sinking technology. ...

C. A. Geffen-Fowler J. J. Jacobsen J. M. Hobbs J. M. Oylear T. B. Powers



Safety Analysis of the Blind Shaft Borer. Volume 2. Supplementary Reports A through E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, sponsored by the Bureau of Mines, presents the results of an examination of the safety of the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) shaft sinking system and an alternative modified BSB design concept in comparison to conventional shaft sinking technology. ...

C. A. Geffen-Fowler J. J. Jacobsen J. M. Hobbs J. M. Oylear T. B. Powers



Integrated Pest Management Plan for Control of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research program sponsored by California Department of Transportation on the Eucalyptus longhorned borer has produced a multi-faceted and integrated pest management program for control of the insect. Tree stress, particularly water stress, has been id...

T. D. Paine J. G. Millar



USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at



A method to determine waterfowl shooting distances  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-range shooting at ducks and geese frequently results in a high crippling loss, unretrieved birds and frustrated hunters. A principal problem has been the general inability of hunters or observers to properly judge distance of birds. This paper describes a reasonably accurate method developed to determine shooting distances to geese. Two observers utilized transit-mounted 4X hunting scopes to determine angles and elevations to goose hunters and birds. These data were used to set up a series of triangles by which a distance between hunter and birds could be calculated. Known-distance tests indicated an average measurement error of approximately two percent. An average shooting distance of 71 yards was calculated from 175 sightings. The maximum range was 240 yards and the minimum was 24 yards. The relationship of shooting to clean kills and crippling loss is also discussed.

Davenport, D. A.; Sherwood, G. A.; Murdy, H. W.



Upper body fatiguing exercise and shooting performance.  


This study assessed the effect of upper extremity muscle fatigue on shooting performance while in a standing, unsupported firing position. Nine male and three female soldiers fired at targets before and after performing upper extremity exercise to fatigue using both (1) an upper body ergometer and (2) a Military Operations in Urban Terrain obstacle course. Shooting accuracy, assessed by the number of hits, misses, and shot group size, was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) immediately following both types of exercise and recovered to pre-exercise values within 5 minutes for all measures except the number of misses, which returned to pre-exercise values by 10 minutes. There was no relationship between fitness measures and shooting performance, although muscle endurance was a factor in the duration of exercise prior to fatigue. We conclude that shooting accuracy recovers rapidly in fit soldiers following fatiguing lifting, climbing, and pulling activity. PMID:12834134

Evans, Rachel K; Scoville, Charles R; Ito, Max A; Mello, Robert P



Root size and shoot\\/root ratio as influenced by light environment of the shoot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light environment of a plant shoot can affect its root size and the shoot\\/root biomass ratio. Photoperiodic influence on shoot\\/root ratios of first?year biennial sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) plants was related to phytochrome measurement of day length and its regulation of photosynthate partitioning to favor successful completion of the life cycle. Short photoperiods alternated with long, uninterrupted nights resulted

M. J. Kasperbauer; P. G. Hunt



Mirroring Medusa: counterveillance in Shooting Back  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our society, apparati of electronic surveillance and satellite systems pervade almost every sector of our public and private lives. Information concerning individuals is controlled mostly by institutions, serving bureaucratic or corporate interest. The paper examines the possibilities of counter-surveillance in socio-cultural practices through Steve Mann's Shooting Back (S. Mann, 1997). In this `meta-documentary', Mann dares to shoot back at

Jieun Rhee



Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots.  


Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients. PMID:11540829

Pickard, B G



School Shooting: A Double Loss of Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A critical discussion of the controllability of school shootings on the basis of the thesis of double loss of control, composed\\u000a of elements of social disintegration theory (SDT), youth theory, and control theory. Using the research findings to date,\\u000a it is shown that school shootings are largely caused by negative recognition balances in the spheres of socialization of family,\\u000a school,

Nils Böckler; Thorsten Seeger; Wilhelm Heitmeyer



Microsoft Academic Search

Fusilade Super (fluazifop-butyl, 125 g ai Q-I) was compared with the standard sugarcane ripeners Ethrel (ethephon, 480 g ai Q-I) and Polado (glyphosate, 750g ai kg-') under both irrigated and rainfed conditions in three large-scale experiments and eight small-scale experiments. Fusilade Super produced con­ sistent improvements in sucrose percent cane fresh mass and juice purity in ten of the experiments,



Windrow composting of sugarcane and coffee byproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compost produced from lignocellulosic agricultural residues is found to be suitable for maintaining soil properties and health.\\u000a Results of experimental trials of large scale windrow composting of sugarcane press mud, cane bagasse and coffee pulp mixtures\\u000a are presented and discussed. Filter press mud and bagasse mixtures were transformed into composted products in 120 days, of\\u000a which 80 days were of

C. Rolz; R. de León; R. Cifuentes; C. Porres



Sugarcane molasses fermentation by Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different quality types of sugar-cane molasses containing a total sugar content of 48%–50% (w\\/v) and 35%–42% (w\\/v) were investigated for Zymomonas biothanol production. Molasses concentrations of up to 250 g\\/l (1:3 dilution) were successfully fermented within 24 h despite a higher salt concentration in the lower grade molasses. Higher molasses concentrations (300 g\\/l) led to fructose accumulation. The addition

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle



New insect pests of sugarcane in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five new insect pests were observed to infest sugarcane at Kannur in Kerala and at Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, India. The leaf\\u000a minerAphanisticus aeneus Kerremans, was found to feed on all the species ofSaccharum exceptS. sinense. The laminar pubescence and colour did not appear to play any role in antixenosis.Chrysonolomyia sp. was found parasitising its pupae gregariously. Beetles of the

N. Mukunthan; R. Nirmala



Performance evaluation of sugarcane chopper harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India sugarcane chopper harvesters arc being introduced in the state of Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Large - scale testing\\u000a of chopper harvester was done in Baramati (MH) and Erode (TN). The net cane out put of the harvester was 29.35 and 23.9 tones\\/h\\u000a with an operating speed of 4.45 and 4.07 km\\/h. Fuel consumption was observed 26 and 27

R. N. S. Yadav; M. P. Sharma; S. D. Kamthe; A. Tajuddin; Sandeep Yadav; Raj Kumar Tejra



Genes expressed in sugarcane maturing internodal tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore gene expression during sugarcane culm maturation, we performed a partial sequence analysis of random clones from maturing culm total and subtracted cDNA libraries. Database comparisons revealed that of the 337 cDNA sequences analysed, 167 showed sequence homology to gene products in the protein databases, while 111 matched uncharacterised plant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) only. The remaining cDNAs showed

D. L. Carson; F. C. Botha



Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.  


The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M



Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).  


We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees. PMID:18348816

Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R



The social ecology of the Columbine High School shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 prompted school officials and policy-makers to create and implement programs and policies that would prevent violence in school and ensure school safety. Ten years have passed since the Columbine shooting; however, debates concerning risk factors for the shootings continue to ensue. The focus of this article is to examine the Columbine school shootings

Jun Sung Hong; Hyunkag Cho; Paula Allen-Meares; Dorothy L. Espelage



Economics of Sugarcane Production in Pakistan: A Price Risk Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examined the economics of sugarcane production and its competitiveness in the up-and-coming open trade economy. The study also analyzed the extent of policy bend and agricultural safeguard. The data on cost of production series of sugar cane crop were collected from the Agricultural Prices Commission (APCom). Punjab and Sindh, the two major sugarcane producing provinces were the focus

Mohammad F. Hussain; Sofia Anwar; Zakir Hussain



Microsoft Academic Search

t, Summary An account is given of an outbreak, in Swaziland, of a leaf-sucking insect, Numicia viridis, Muir, on sugarcane of the variety N :Co.31O. A brief descrip­ tion of the insect is followed by a discussion on symp­ toms and effects on the sugarcane plant. Among control measures, burning and harvesting of millable cane and treatment of the remainder





Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high level of post-transcriptional gene silencing in sugarcane [1] is a major barrier to its development as a biofactory crop. More than 400 sugarcane lines, transformed by bombardment with human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) whole plasmid DNA, accumulated the recombinan...


Sugarcane water stress criteria for irrigation and drying off  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Australia about 60% of sugar produced from sugarcane depends to some extent on irrigation. Regional water supplies are often limited and the pressure on irrigators to defend or improve their farming practices can be quite severe. Compared to other crops, little is known about how far water can be stretched in sugarcane without affecting sugar yield. In particular, there

N. G Inman-Bamber



Part II: Dealing with Plant Stress in Louisiana Sugarcane Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane can encounter several grower-induced stresses during the later part of the growing season. The purpose of this article is to transfer research findings in the areas of cultivation, planting practices, and ripener usage in an effort to communicate how Louisiana sugarcane producers can more...


Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...


Registration of 'HoCP 91-552' sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘HoCP 91-552’ sugarcane was selected from progeny of the cross ‘LCP 81-10’ x ‘CP 72-356’ made at Canal Point, Florida. HoCP 91-552 was developed through cooperative research by the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Sugarcane Research Unit, the Louisiana A...


Variable Rate Lime Application in Louisiana Sugarcane Production Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision agriculture may offer sugarcane growers a management system that decreases costs and maximizes profits, while minimizing any potential negative environmental impact. The utility of variable-rate (VR) lime application in the initial production year (plant cane) of a 3-yr sugarcane crop cyc...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The occurrence of pathological races of sugarcane rust (Puccina melancephala H. Sydow. and P. Sydoe.) in Florida was first reported in 1984. Cultivars that were resistant to the disease in the variety development program displayed susceptibility to the disease once expanded commercially. A study w...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The occurrence of pathological races of sugarcane rust (Puccina melancephala H. Sydow. and P. Sydow.) in Florida was first reported in 1984. Cultivars that were resistant to the disease in the variety development program displayed susceptiblity to the disease once expanded commercially. A study wa...


Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.  


Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger



1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid concentrations in shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming tobacco callus cultures  

SciTech Connect

Shoot-forming tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Wisconsin 38) callus tissues contain significantly lower concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid compared to non-shoot-forming callus tissues. This difference is evident 1 day after subculture to shoot-forming or non-shoot-forming medium, and is maintained through the first week of growth. The lack of auxin in shoot-forming medium is the probable cause for this difference in ACC concentrations.

Grady, K.L.; Bassham, J.A.



Inhibition of shoot geotropism by neutral buffers.  


Submerged hypocotyl sections from Helianthus have been used to test the effect of neutral buffers on shoot geotropism. When hypocotyls have been abraded, it is found that increasing the molarity (0.25 to 20 mm) of pH 6.8 K-phosphate buffer, as well as other buffering systems, results in a strong inhibition of geotropic curvature. Buffer strength has no such effect on the curvature of nonabraded segments. One possible explanation for these data is that asymmetric shoot growth following geostimulation may require the establishment of a proton gradient across the cell walls of the shoot. When neutral buffers have access to the wall space (i.e. in abraded segments), they may prevent the establishment of such a gradient. PMID:16662175

Wright, L Z; Rayle, D L



Thermal behavior of the SHOOT gallery arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planned Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) experiment will show the feasibility of resupplying orbiting facilities with liquid helium. The SHOOT experiment, designed for transfer rates of 300 to 800 liters/hr, will use a thermomechanical pump and four screen covered flow channels for fluid acquisition. Cavitation and thermal behavior was examined in ground based tests of the pump and of a full sized channel. A model for estimating the temperature profile at the pump inlet is presented. Large temperature increases in this region can significantly degrade the performance of the fountain pump.

Nissen, J. A.; Vansciver, Steven W.



Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  


The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D



Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on sugarcane bagasse  

SciTech Connect

The growth behavior of Cellulomonas has been examined in fermentation systems using alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse. During the batch operation diauxic growth was found which would not seem to be explained by catabolic repression. The relative variation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fermentation process suggests the initial utilization of easily degradable substrate, i.e., hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose, until their concentration becomes limiting, followed by utilization of the crystalline cellulose. The conversion of substrate was 70% with a yield of 0.355 g of biomass per gram of bagasse feed. (Refs. 13).

Enriquez, A.



A variable region of the Sugarcane Bacilliform Virus (SCBV) genome can be used to generate promoters for transgene expression in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four promoters derived from sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV) were compared and characterised. Three were obtained by PCR amplification of purified virion DNA extracted from three sugarcane cultivars. The fourth promoter was obtained by subcloning from an almost genome-length clone of SCBV. All promoters were able to drive stable expression of ?-glucuronidase in sugarcane. The PCR-derived promoter sequences shared more DNA

K. S. Braithwaite; R. J. Geijskes; G. R. Smith



An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

Elkoury, J.M.



Impact of plant resistance on southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and plant damage.  


Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer and a susceptible single-cross hybrid were infested with southwestern corn borer larvae in a 2-yr field test conducted in Mississippi. The susceptible hybrid sustained significantly more leaf damage and stalk tunneling than either resistant hybrid. The number of tunnels and the length of tunneling were significantly lower on the resistant hybrids. In 2003, up to 15 times more tunneling was observed on the susceptible hybrid. Larvae feeding on the resistant hybrids were delayed in their movement from the whorl to the stalk and larval survival was 50% lower on the resistant hybrids than on the susceptible hybrid. Larvae recovered from the susceptible hybrid 7-14 d after infestation weighed twice as much as those recovered from the resistant hybrids. Similar differences in larval weight were observed in the laboratory when larvae were reared on diets prepared from lyophilized tissue from the three hybrids. These results provide a foundation for other investigations designed to identify and determine the roles of specific genes and gene families associated with southwestern corn borer resistance in corn. PMID:17598563

Daves, C A; Williams, W P; Davis, F M



Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*  

PubMed Central

The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an



Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?  


The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An



Physiological Disorders of Pear Shoot Cultures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physiological disorders are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation. Little is known of the causes of plant growth disorders which include callus formation, hyperhydricity, shoot tip necrosis, leaf lesions, epinasty, fasciation and hypertrophy. During our study of mineral nutritio...



Microsoft Academic Search

Basketball shooting is a dynamic, multi-segmental skill requiring considerable accuracy. The scientific and coaching literature advocate replication of movement patterns, although the extent to which this is achieved is not known. This also raises the question of whether inaccurate shots are characterised by greater variability than accurate shots. Finally, theoretical considerations suggest that long-range shots would be more variable than

Stuart Miller


Premeditated Mass Shootings in Schools: Threat Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Premeditated mass shootings by students in suburban and rural secondary schools have surprised and even terrified our coun- try. Although school violence overall has decreased measurably since 1993 (U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, 1999), multiple-victim homicides and woundings highlight an emerg- ing problem for schools previously thought to be safe from acts of extreme violence. In the past 5




Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known

Lionel Brooks; Josh Strable; Xiaolan Zhang; Kazuhiro Ohtsu; Ruilian Zhou; Ananda Sarkar; Sarah Hargreaves; Robert J. Elshire; Douglas Eudy; Teresa Pawlowska; Doreen Ware; Diane Janick-Buckner; Brent Buckner; Marja C. P. Timmermans; Patrick S. Schnable; Dan Nettleton; Michael J. Scanlon



Multiple Shoot Tip Cultures in Peas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an exercise used as a follow-up activity to a lecture presentation exploring the basic methodology and theory of shoot tip cultures. Utilizes a factorial experimental design which allows for the determination of the effects of each factor alone and in combination with each other. Other concepts emphasized include dependent and…

Smith, Robert A.; And Others



Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane  

SciTech Connect

The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. (Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI (USA))



Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.  


Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva E Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro



Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum  

SciTech Connect

The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.

Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.



Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV)], mean maximum August temperature, mean minimum February temperature, soil water surplus between April and September, and occurrence of autumn (fall) hurricanes, were built into a model to simulate adjusted yield values. The CCV model simulates the yield value with an rmse of 5.1 t ha-1. The mean of the adjusted yield data over the study period was 60.4 t ha-1, with values for the highest and lowest years being 73.1 and 50.6 t ha-1, respectively, and a standard deviation of 5.9 t ha-1. Presumably because of the almost constant high water table and soil water availability, higher precipitation totals, which are inversely related to radiation and temperature, tend to have a negative effect on the yields. Past trends in the values of critical climatic variables and general projections of future climate suggest that, with respect to the climatic environment and as long as land drainage is continued and maintained, future levels of sugarcane yield will rise in Louisiana.

Greenland, David



Shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from leaf and shoot explants of Ochna integerrima (Lour)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ochna integerrima is a medicinal and ornamental plant in Southeastern Asia. It has been listed as a rare and endangered species in China. Here\\u000a we studied the effects of plant growth regulators and their concentrations on the induction of somatic embryogenesis and shoot\\u000a organogenesis from leaf and shoot explants of O. integerrima for the first time. Cytokinins played a crucial

Guohua Ma; Jinfeng Lü; Xinhua Zhang; Jietang Zhao



The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).  


Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. PMID:21070784

Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J



7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...



7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...



Characterization of the sugarcane streak agent as a distinct geminivirus.  


The relationship between maize streak virus and the geminivirus causing streak in sugarcane was investigated. The DNA of sugarcane streak virus does not cross-hybridize detectably with that of maize streak virus and vice versa. Restriction mapping of native replicative form viral DNA (genome size 2.7 kb) and of cloned viral DNA, combined with limited sequencing and estimated DNA sequence divergence, showed that sugarcane streak virus is as unrelated to maize streak virus and digitaria streak virus as these are different from each other. The virus is only distantly related to wheat dwarf virus and chloris striate mosaic virus. Based on these results, we propose that the agent causing sugarcane streak is a distinct geminivirus. PMID:2016148

Hughes, F L; Rybicki, E P; Kirby, R; von Wechmar, M B



Plantwide Energy Assessment of a Sugarcane Farming and Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A plantwide energy assessment was performed at Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., an integrated sugarcane farming and processing facility. This investigation was performed using the internal resources of HC&S with research collaboration from the University ...



Plant Pot Production from the Leaves of Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aims to find the attributes of the Plant pot production from the leaves of sugarcane. The results show that the suitable weight of components to form the rectangular pot, 150mm. height, 100mm. bottom width and 150mm. diameter are about 1.36kg. The samples cannot be dried for 1 day because the cow dung which was mixed with the sugarcane

S. Phokha; K. Duangaupama; K. Ruangsan



Transcriptome Analysis of The Sugarcane Genome For Crop Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is being considered one the most important crops to meet the demand of the world bionergy needs. However the productivity\\u000a in commercial plantations around the world is far way from its potential of about 300 tons\\/ha. Sugarcane breeding did not\\u000a take advantage yet of the best plant breeding technologies, mainly because constrains imposed by the high polyploid nature\\u000a of

Paulo Arruda; Thaís Rezende Silva


Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Transketolase.  


Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) composed of two functionally-connected phases, the oxidative and non-oxidative phase. Both phases catalysed by a series of enzymes. Transketolase is one of key enzymes of non-oxidative phase in which transfer two carbon units from fructose-6-phosphate to erythrose-4-phosphate and convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to xylulose-5-phosphate. In plant, erythrose-4-phosphate enters the shikimate pathway which is produces many secondary metabolites such as aromatic amino acids, flavonoids, lignin. Although transketolase in plant system is important, study of this enzyme is still limited. Until to date, TKT genes had been isolated only from seven plants species, thus, the aim of present study to isolate, study the similarity and phylogeny of transketolase from sugarcane. Unlike bacteria, fungal and animal, PPP is complete in the cytosol and all enzymes are found cytosolic. However, in plant, the oxidative phase found localised in the cytosol but the sub localisation for non-oxidative phase might be restricted to plastid. Thus, this study was conducted to determine subcellular localization of sugarcane transketolase. The isolation of sugarcane TKT was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by cloning into pJET1.2 vector and sequencing. This study has isolated 2,327 bp length of sugarcane TKT. The molecular phylogenetic tree analysis found that transketolase from sugarcane and Zea mays in one group. Classification analysis found that both plants showed closer relationship due to both plants in the same taxon i.e. family Poaceae. Target P 1.1 and Chloro P predicted that the compartmentation of sugarcane transketolase is localised in the chloroplast which is 85 amino acids are plant plastid target sequence. This led to conclusion that the PPP is incomplete in the cytosol of sugarcane. This study also found that the similarity sequence of sugarcane TKT closely related with the taxonomy plants. PMID:24132392

Kalhori, Nahid; Nulit, R; Go, Rusea



Improved Agrobacterium -mediated genetic transformation of GNA transgenic sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six plasmids carrying a snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) and one of three selection markers were successfully transferred into two sugarcane cultivars (FN81–745\\u000a and Badila) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Agrobacterium strains LBA4404, EHA105 and A281 that harboured a super-binary vector were used for sugarcane transformation. The use of\\u000a the hygromycin (Hyg) resistance gene (hpt II), phosphinothrincin (PPT) resistance gene (bar)

Dongting Zhangsun; Sulan Luo; Rukai Chen; Kexuan Tang



Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  


The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies. PMID:19689904

Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C



Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  


The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood. PMID:20069830

Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C



Inhibition of shoot branching by new terpenoid plant hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot branching is a major determinant of plant architecture and is highly regulated by endogenous and environmental cues. Two classes of hormones, auxin and cytokinin, have long been known to have an important involvement in controlling shoot branching. Previous studies using a series of mutants with enhanced shoot branching suggested the existence of a third class of hormone(s) that is

Mikihisa Umehara; Atsushi Hanada; Satoko Yoshida; Kohki Akiyama; Tomotsugu Arite; Noriko Takeda-Kamiya; Hiroshi Magome; Yuji Kamiya; Ken Shirasu; Koichi Yoneyama; Junko Kyozuka; Shinjiro Yamaguchi



Callus formation and shoot regeneration in vanilla planifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high demand for natural vanilla flavor led to attempts to establish an in vitro cell culture of Vanilla planifolia for flavor production and for shoot regeneration from callus. Explants from Vanilla planifolia shoots were placed on supplement Murashige and Skoog salts and tested for callus formation. Callus formation could be achieved with various media. Shoots could be regenerated from

Gayle Davidonis; Dietrich Knorr



Evaluation of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Hibiscus Shoot Regeneration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration was achieved from shoot apices in two genotypes (red and green variants) of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern using the growth regulators thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N’-1,2,3-thidazol-5-ylurea, TDZ) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). Shoot apices were cultured for ...


Species specific shoot regeneration response of cotyledonary explants of Brassicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of shoot regeneration from cotyledons of three basic diploid species of Brassica, B. campestris (AA), B. nigra (BB), B. oleracea (CC) and their amphidiploids B. juncea (AABB), B. napus (AACC) and B. carinata (BBCC) showed species-specific responses for in vitro shoot regeneration. Analysis of the species mean shoot regeneration response over a range of growth regulator combinations revealed

S. B. Narasimhulu; V. L. Chopra



Game Birds: The Ethics of Shooting Birds for Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide an ethical assessment of the shooting of animals for sport. In particular, it discusses the use of partridges and pheasants for shooting. While opposition to hunting and shooting large wild mammals is strong, game birds have often taken a back seat in everyday animal welfare concerns. However, the practice of raising game birds for sport

Rebekah Humphreys



Long Shoots in the Crowns of Maturing Silver Birch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three dimensional digitizing was used to examine the influence of both neighbouring trees and the target tree structure on the number and length of current long shoots in silver birch growing with different neighbour species. Long shoot length was found to increase from crown bottom to its top, and from high to low branching orders. Number of long shoots was

Anna Vehanen; Pekka Kaitaniemi



Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of sugarcane legumain.  


Plant legumains, also termed vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), are cysteine peptidases that play key roles in plant development, senescence, programmed cell death and defense against pathogens. Despite the increasing number of reports on plant cysteine peptidases, including VPEs, the characterization of sugarcane VPEs and their inhibition by endogenous cystatins have not yet been described. This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of a sugarcane cysteine peptidase. In this work, a recombinant sugarcane legumain was expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. Kinetic studies of the recombinant CaneLEG revealed that this enzyme has the main characteristics of VPEs, such as self-activation and activity under acidic pH. CaneLEG activity was strongly inhibited when incubated with sugarcane cystatin 3 (CaneCPI-3). Quantitative analysis of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 gene expression indicated a tissue-specific expression pattern for both genes throughout sugarcane growth, with the strong accumulation of CaneLEG transcripts throughout the internode development. Furthermore, the CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 genes exhibited up-regulation in plantlets treated with abscisic acid (ABA). These results suggest that CaneCPI-3 may be a potential endogenous inhibitor of CaneLEG and these genes may be involved in plant stress response mediated by ABA. Also, the expression analysis provides clues for the putative involvement of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 in sugarcane development and phytohormone response. PMID:22721948

Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Gerald, Lee T S; Meneghin, Silvana P; Henrique-Silva, Flavio



Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.  


The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components. PMID:20108026

Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C



Monitoring the Blind Shaft Borer Project, Oak Grove, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, plans of the United States to obtain energy self-sufficiency included a significant increase in coal production, primarily from new underground mines in the Eastern states. The poor condition of coal shaft sinking companies was a major concern. The US Bureau of Mines perceived similarities between shaft sinking and tunnel boring and felt that a machine could be produced for faster, safer shaft sinking. In January 1975, the Robbins Co., a major producer of tunnel boring machines, submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Bureau of Mines to develop, design, build and demonstrate a Blind Shaft Borer (BSB). In June 1975, a contract was initiated to start work on a BSB. After the Department of Energy was formed, the project was transferred to their Department of Fossil Fuel. In late 1978, while the BSB was being assembled for the field trial near Oak Grove, Alabama, the DOE contracted with Williams Brothers Engineering Company to monitor the site activities and provide technical advice to the Technical Project Manager. This report reviews the BSB project prior to the field trial, describes field trial operations as observed by Williams Brothers Engineering Company personnel and provides a summary of daily activities. It also details project problems, interim efforts to resolve them, results obtained and recommendations to preclude their re-occurrence on future BSB projects.

Amstutz, R.; Danowski, T.



Economic evaluation of the blind-shaft borer (BSB)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to assess the economic feasibility of Blind Shaft Boring versus alternate methods of shaft sinking. In Section 1 a review is made of two previous economic analyses. Comparisons have been made between projected performance of a fully commercialized Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) and the actual results of the DOE sponsored field trial at Oak Grove, Alabama. Problems encountered with the prototype are fully discussed and considered. The purpose of this review is to determine if the methodology used in the previous reports is valid. For a better familiarization of the reader with the details of the Paul Weir Co. and TRW studies, a rather comprehensive review of these two studies is given in Appendix A. In Section 2, the operating costs for a commercialized BSB, including amortization of capital costs, are determined. Probable costs associated with shaft sinking using a second generation BSB are predicted in dollars per foot and include mobilization, capital, and operating costs. In Section 3, BSB costs derived in Section 2 are compared with costs of alternate methods including: (1) Conventional Shaft Sinking, (2) Large Diameter Drilling, (3) Multi-Pass Reaming Methods. In Section 4, a Sensitivity Analysis is performed to determine the relative influence of parameters such as shaft diameter, shaft depth, penetration rate, etc. The conclusions of the report and the main topics addressed in the study are summarized in Section 5.

Not Available



Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).  


This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A



Sugarcane residue management and grain legume crop effects on N dynamics, N losses and growth of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions farmers are being encouraged not to burn sugarcane residues. An experiment was set up in\\u000a NE Thailand, where sugarcane residues of the last ratoon crop were either burned, surface mulched or incorporated and subsequently\\u000a the field left fallow or planted to groundnut or soybean. The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the residual

S. Hemwong; B. Toomsan; G. Cadisch; V. Limpinuntana; P. Vityakon; A. Patanothai



In vitro induction of multiple shoots and plant regeneration from shoot tips of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for plant regeneration from excised shoot tips of Vigna radiata were studied. Complete plants were regenerated directly without an intervening callus phase from shoot tips on basal medium (MS salts+B5vitamins). Regeneration frequency varied with genotype, explant size and growth regulator combinations in the medium. Addition of cytokinins induced a variable amount of callus at the base of the shoot

Anju Gulati; Pawan K. Jaiwal



Ray Shooting in Polygons Using Geodesic Triangulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

LetP be a simple polygon withn vertices. We present a simple decomposition scheme that partitions the interior ofP intoO(n) so-called geodesic triangles, so that any line segment interior toP crosses at most 2 logn of these triangles. This decomposition can be used to preprocessP in a very simple manner, so that any ray-shooting query can be answered in timeO(logn). The

Bernard Chazelle; Herbert Edelsbrunner; Michelangelo Grigni; Leonidas J. Guibas; John Hershberger; Micha Sharir; Jack Snoeyink



School Shootings und Amok – Perspektiven der Gewaltforschung  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Am 11. März 2009 ereignete sich im schwäbischen Winnenden ein Fall von Amok, der dem bislang größten Vorfall dieser Art in\\u000a Deutschland, dem Amoklauf von Erfurt, in nichts nachsteht: Der ehemalige Schüler der Albertville-Realschule in Winnenden,\\u000a Tim K., tötete im Laufe eines Vormittags 15 Menschen und anschließend sich selbst. Immer wenn sich ein solcher als „School\\u000a Shooting“ bezeichneter Fall ereignet,

Birte Hewera


Analysis of surface growth in shoot apices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A salient feature of shoot meristem growth is the maintenance of distinct anatomical and morphological features despite a continuous flux of cells. To investigate how meristem organization is self-perpetuated, we developed a protocol for the analysis of meristem growth in 3-D. Our protocol uses a non-destructive replica method to follow the pattern of cell expansion and cell divisions on

Jacques Dumais; Dorota Kwiatkowska



Endogenous cytokinins in vegetative shoots of peas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In G2 peas senescence only takes place in long days. In order to determine the role of cytokinins in this process the endogenous cytokinins from vegetative shoots of G2 peas were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy following purification by HPLC. Cytokinins were extracted and purified with and without the addition of 15N labelled internal standards of several cytokinins to estimate

Peter J. Davies; Roger Horgan; James K. Heald; Brian A. McGaw



Strategy for shoot meristem proliferation in plants  

PubMed Central

Shoot apical meristem (SAM) of plants harbors stem cells capable of generating the aerial tissues including reproductive organs. Therefore, it is very important for plants to control SAM proliferation and its density as a survival strategy. The SAM is regulated by the dynamics of a specific gene network, such as the WUS-CLV interaction of A. thaliana. By using a mathematical model, we previously proposed six possible SAM patterns in terms of the manner and frequency of stem cell proliferation. Two of these SAM patterns are predicted to generate either dichotomous or axillary shoot branch. Dichotomous shoot branches caused by this mechanism are characteristic of the earliest vascular plants, such as Cooksonia and Rhynia, but are observed in only a small minority of plant species of the present day. On the other hand, axillary branches are observed in the majority of plant species and are induced by a different dynamics of the feedback regulation between auxin and the asymmetric distribution of PIN auxin efflux carriers. During evolution, some plants may have adopted this auxin-PIN system to more strictly control SAM proliferation.

Fujita, Hironori; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi



Discrimination of Sugarcane Varieties with Pigment Profiles and High Resolution, Hyperspectral Leaf Reflectance Data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports our evaluation of leaf reflectance and pigment measurements as a potential tool to aid in the identification and delineation of commercial sugarcane, noble cane and wild canes. Seven varieties of sugarcane were selected from the USDA-ARS-SRRC, Sugarcane Research Unit (SRU) breedi...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has been ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has bee...


Growth and Yield Performances of Two Sugarcane Genotypes on Sand Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 20% of sugarcane in Florida grows on sand soils. Water deficit during the sugarcane formative growth phase may limit growth and yield on the sand soils. Identification of useful physiological and growth traits may help scientists select sugarcane genotypes with stress tolerance and imp...


Sensitivity of random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to detect genetic change in sugarcane during tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using 10-mer oligonucleotide primers efficiently differentiated sugarcane cultivars and proved suitable for detecting gross genetic change such as that which can occur in sugarcane subjected to prolonged tissue culture, for example in protoplast-derived callus. However, RAPD analysis was not sufficiently sensitive to detect smaller genetic changes that occur during sugarcane genetic transformation. The length

P. W. J. Taylor; J. R. Geijskes; H.-L. Ko; T. A. Fraser; R. J. Henry; R. G. Birch



Recurrent selection for sucrose has altered assimilate partitioning between growth and storage in sugarcane internodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sucrose yield in sugarcane is a function of sucrose content of the cane and cane yield. Selection for sucrose content is a high priority in sugarcane breeding programs. Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used a modified recurrent selection program whereby genotypes with high sucrose content ...


Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species) and DNA methylation (24-nt-species), respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.



Enzymes of Glucose Metabolism in the Caecum of the Marine Borer Bankia Setacea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The caecum of the marine borer Bankia setacea was found to contain the enzymes for a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway, a pentose cycle, and a complete citric acid cycle. The pathways are linked to the digestion of cellulose by the enzyme cellobiase. Signi...

D. L. Liu C. C. Walden



Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was at least 8 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antenn...


Male Aggregation Pheromone of Date Palm Fruit Stalk Borer Oryctes elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at

Didier Rochat; Kazem Mohammadpoor; Christian Malosse; Arman Avand-Faghih; Martine Lettere; Josiane Beauhaire; Jean-Paul Morin; Adeline Pezier; Michel Renou; Gholam Abbas Abdollahi



European corn borer: Pheromonal catabolism and behavioral response to sex pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

When physiologically excessive amounts of the female sex pheromone of the European corn borer (ECB) or esters analogous to the pheromone were applied to the antennae of males, their behavioral responsiveness to pheromone in a flight tunnel was significantly impaired for 2 hr. Concurrent quantitative analyses of heptane extracts of the male antennae by gasliquid chromatography showed that the compounds

J. A. Klun; M. Schwarz; E. G. Uebel



Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...


Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan, U.S. and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Little information about A. planipennis is available from its native range and it was not known whether this invasive pest would exhibit a preference for a

Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; David L. Cappaert



Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis): Gene characterization and expression profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of

Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Praveen Mamidala; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Omprakash Mittapalli



Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis , in newly-colonized sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal, particularly in recently established satellite populations. 2 We assessed the dispersal of A. planipennis beetles

Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough



Preservative treatment of ash wood from emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) infested trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portions of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario have been infested by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an exotic pest believed to have been imported from Asia. The pest is reported to have killed 10 million to 15 million ash trees and continues to spread. Most of southern Michigan is under quarantine, and the movement of ash lumber, firewood, logs, and

Pascal Nzokou; Sedric M. Pankras; D. Pascal


The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of

Jill C. Crosthwaite; Stephanie Sobek; D. Barry Lyons; Mark A. Bernards; Brent J. Sinclair



Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du



Borate and imidacloprid treatment of ash logs infested with the emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

As of January 2006, portions of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario were infested with the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, a destructive exotic Asian beetle that feeds within the inner bark of ash (Fraxinus) trees. This project evaluated borate (dissodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and imidacloprid to sanitize EAB-infested logs, which would then facilitate log transport to mills outside the quarantine

Pascal Nzokou; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack; D. Pascal Kamdem



Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little

Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach



Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...


Hymenopteran Parasitoids Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Western and Central Pennsylvania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We conducted field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated larval parasitoids in western and central Pennsylvania (Cranberry and Granville Townships) in the spring and fall of 2009. The survey procedure involved destructively debarking sections of the m...


A Decision Support System for Emerald Ash Borer Eradication Using Spatial-Dynamic Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ( Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to Ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada (McCullough and Katovich 2004). Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly one billion native ash trees. This paper presents an argument for the

Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett


Assessing the Hazard of Emerald Ash Borer and Other Exotic Stressors to Community Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic stressors such as emerald ash borer are an increasing concern to many communities across North America. One means of assessing the hazard these stressors may represent to a community's publicly managed trees is through an inventory of their street trees. The South Dakota Division of Resource Conservation and Forestry conducted street tree inventories in selected communities across the state

John Ball; Sarah Mason; Aaron Kiesz; Dan McCormick; Craig Brown



Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a recently discovered (July 2002) exotic insect pest, which has caused the death of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in Detroit, MI, USA and has also spread into other areas of Michigan, isolated locations in Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and nearby Windsor, Ont., in Canada. Ash trees occur in many

David W. MacFarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer



An Assessment of the Relationship Between Emerald Ash Borer Presence and Landscape Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread occurs locally and is influenced by factors, such as

Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo


A Potential Plan of Action for Emerald Ash Borer in Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u0009Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB) is an invasive insect pest. It feeds on the cambium tissues of ash tree species. It was first discovered in the United States in 2002 in Detroit, Michigan. Their effects on ash trees are deadly, and it is quickly spreading across the Midwest. Nebraska has not yet been invaded, but confirmed findings continue getting

Lee Wheeler



Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has killed or infested millions of ash trees in Michigan and is fast spreading to neighboring states. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that if EAB went unchecked in the rest of the country, the loss to the nation could range from $20 billion to $60 billion. One key requirement for the success of

Brahim Medjahed; William Grosky



Microsoft Academic Search

We began research on natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis soon after its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. Regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada adopted a strategy of eradication for EAB in an effort to protect New World ash. Should eradication fail, however, conventional biological control will be needed to suppress populations of

Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Deborah L. Miller


Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study,

Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland



Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are diffi­ cult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennisto ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed from a 15 cm wide band around the tree (2003­ 2(05», vertical wounding (same

Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To clarify the genetic basis of resistance to leaf feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer a study was undertaken to compare quantitative trait loci involved in two related resistant maize lines, Mp704 and Mp708. Models containing four and seven QTL explaining southwestern corn ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, feces and the galleries of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee fa...


Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...


Biological control of emerald ash borers: the role of indigenous North American parasitoids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated parasitoids were conducted in Cranberry Township, PA; Granville, PA; and Cheltenham, MD. Several species of parasitic Hymenoptera were collected from EAB-infested green ash trees or reared from late-instar E...


Damage and Loss Caused by the Larger Grain Borer Prostephanus truncatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of information on damage caused by the larger grain borer is provided, including details of early studies examining commodities that might be attacked and the importance of LGB field infestations in relation to storage losses. In addition, examples are given from published information on the weight losses that can result from LGB infestation in maize and cassava, with

R. A. Boxall



Morphological characterization of the antennal sensilla of the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The external morphology of the dogwood borer antennae and their sensilla was investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy. Male and female antennaes were clavate before tapering to an apical point and consisted of three main segments; the scape, pedicel, and flagellum. Although, there...


Quantifying rice farmers’ pest management decisions: beliefs and subjective norms in stem borer control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces the pest belief model and Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to analyze farmers’ decisions in stem borer management. Farmers spent an average of $39\\/ha (median $18) on insecticides believing that if they had not controlled an average loss of 1004 kg\\/ha or $402 (median 592, $237) would occur. Farmers’ estimates of the worst attack averaged

K. L. Heong; M. M. Escalada



Sex pheromone dispenser type and trap design affect capture of dogwood borer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...


Economic assessment of controlling stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with insecticides in Texas rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-year field study was conducted to evaluate insecticide applications on infestations of the stem borers Diatraea saccharalis (F.) and Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) in rice, Oryza sativa L. Except for rice yield in 2002, whiteheads per square meter and rice yield were significantly affected by insecticide treatments in each year of the study. Biorational insecticides (diflubenzuron, novaluron and tebufenozide) did

F. P. F. Reay-Jones; T. E. Reagan



Review of the biology and control of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lep: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology and control of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée, is reviewed. This insect is distributed from China to Australia and the Solomon Islands. In northern parts of its range the moths have one or a few generations per year, but in the tropics, generations are continuous and overlapping. The caterpillars can cause severe yield losses in corn,

D. M. Nafus; I. H. Schreiner



Effect of emerald ash borer on structure and material properties of ash trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borer (EAB) currently occurs in fifteen states in the United States, as well as Ontario and Quebec in Canada. A decline in ash tree strength following EAB infestation is potentially hazardous to public safety, particularly when trees are left standing for several years after dying. Dead ...


Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto



Monitoring and First Discovery of the Mexican Rice Borer Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, has expanded its range from the Lower Rio Grande Valley to east Texas, and now into southwest Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Agricultural and Forestry and Louisiana State University AgCenter scientists forecast that natural and unintended movement will r...


Susceptibility of eggs and adult fecundity of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, exposed to methoprene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of tests was conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), the lesser grain borer, exposed to the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with met...


Maize defense response against the european corn borer (Ostrinia nubilaslis): a losing battle?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emerald ash borer (EAB) is considered native to northeast China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Mongolia, and eastern Russia. We are using genetic analyses to determine the origin of North America’s EAB infestations; however, acquiring samples from countries other than China has been difficult. To increase t...


Parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in western Pennsylvania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...


Explorations for Natural Enemies of Emerald Ash Borer in China, 2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was made in China during July-August, 2006. We visited 11 field plots in four provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina, then peel...


Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...


Use of Beauveria bassiana and imidacloprid for control of emerald ash borer in an ash nursery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We wish to determine the potential of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, alone or in combination with imidacloprid, for control and management of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. We have undertaken this work at a commercial tree nursery in southern Michigan within the EAB-infested area. App...


Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...


Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), is a major insect pest of all stored grains, including rough rice. Diatomaceous earth (DE), a natural inert dust, and methoprene, an insect growth regulator, are two insecticides registered for direct application for stored grains. However, methopre...


Ethylene inhibitors enhance shoot organogenesis of gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa).  


Shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration in Sinningia speciosa were improved using ethylene inhibitors. The leaf explants were cultured on initial shoot regeneration media (MS media with BAP at 2?mg/L?+?NAA at 0.1?mg/L) supplemented with different concentrations of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), cobalt chloride (CoCl?), and silver thiosulphate (STS). The addition of AVG, CoCl?, and STS significantly improved the regeneration frequency giving higher shoots per explant and longer shoot length. The highest shoot growth was found when STS at 5?mg/L was incorporated with generation medium, performing highest regeneration frequency with highest number of shoots. This treatment (STS at 5?mg/L) produced 40% more shoots per explant compared to control followed by STS at 10?mg/L with increasing 37% more shoots compared to control. In the cases of AVG and CoCl? the highest shoot number per explant was found at 1?mg/L. Treated with AVG and CoCl? at 1?mg/L increased shoot number by 16 and 12%, respectively, compared to control. Ethylene inhibitors could be used as a possible micropropagation and plant transformation protocol in S. speciosa for plant regenerations. PMID:23125558

Chae, Soo Cheon; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Park, Sang Un



Ethylene Inhibitors Enhance Shoot Organogenesis of Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa)  

PubMed Central

Shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration in Sinningia speciosa were improved using ethylene inhibitors. The leaf explants were cultured on initial shoot regeneration media (MS media with BAP at 2?mg/L?+?NAA at 0.1?mg/L) supplemented with different concentrations of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), and silver thiosulphate (STS). The addition of AVG, CoCl2, and STS significantly improved the regeneration frequency giving higher shoots per explant and longer shoot length. The highest shoot growth was found when STS at 5?mg/L was incorporated with generation medium, performing highest regeneration frequency with highest number of shoots. This treatment (STS at 5?mg/L) produced 40% more shoots per explant compared to control followed by STS at 10?mg/L with increasing 37% more shoots compared to control. In the cases of AVG and CoCl2 the highest shoot number per explant was found at 1?mg/L. Treated with AVG and CoCl2 at 1?mg/L increased shoot number by 16 and 12%, respectively, compared to control. Ethylene inhibitors could be used as a possible micropropagation and plant transformation protocol in S. speciosa for plant regenerations.

Chae, Soo Cheon; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Park, Sang Un



Expression of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS, WUSCHEL, and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 Homologs in the Shoots of Podostemaceae: Implications for the Evolution of Novel Shoot Organogenesis[W  

PubMed Central

Podostemaceae (the river weeds) are ecologically and morphologically unusual angiosperms. The subfamily Tristichoideae has typical shoot apical meristems (SAMs) that produce leaves, but Podostemoideae is devoid of SAMs and new leaves arise below the base of older leaves. To reveal the genetic basis for the evolution of novel shoot organogenesis in Podostemaceae, we examined the expression patterns of key regulatory genes for shoot development (i.e., SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM), WUSCHEL (WUS), and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1/ROUGH SHEATH2/PHANTASTICA (ARP) orthologs) in Tristichoideae and Podostemoideae. In the SAM-mediated shoots of Tristichoideae, like in model plants, STM and WUS orthologs were expressed in the SAM. In the SAM-less shoots of Podostemoideae, STM and WUS orthologs were expressed in the initiating leaf/bract primordium. In older leaf/bract primordia, WUS expression disappeared and STM expression became restricted to the basal part, whereas ARP was expressed in the distal part in a complementary pattern to STM expression. In the reproductive shoots of Podostemoideae with a normal mode of flower development, STM and WUS were expressed in the floral meristem, but not in the floral organs, similar to the pattern in model plants. These results suggest that the leaf/bract of Podostemoideae is initiated as a SAM and differentiates into a single apical leaf/bract, resulting in the evolution of novel shoot-leaf mixed organs in Podostemaceae.

Katayama, Natsu; Koi, Satoshi; Kato, Masahiro



Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.  


Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice. PMID:19811767

Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha


Evaluation of Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid as Seed Treatments to Control European Corn Borer and Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

EfÞcacy of thiamethoxam (Cruiser) and imidacloprid (Gaucho) were evaluated as seed treatments for controlling European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) and Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) larvae in stored grain. At 22Ð26C, all Þfth instar European corn borers died after two o r4do fexposure to corn treated with 250and 50 0ppm thiamethoxam, respectively, while mortality of larvae exposed for two

Bisong Yue; Gerald E. Wilde; Frank Arthur



Effects of plant densities and management of purple nutsedge on sugarcane yield and effect of growth stages and main way of herbicides contact and absorption on the control of tubers.  


Field experiments carried out with Cyperus rotundus L. at low (58-246), medium (318-773), and high (675-1198 shoots/m2) densities showed sugarcane yield reductions of 13.5, 29.3, and 45.2%, respectively in relation to the control. In the second field experiment, the integration of a mechanic method with two sequences of plowing and disking operations in the dry season, and complementary applications of trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and sulfentrazone (rainy season) was studied. Average of the chain connected to original shoot showed 92, 95, and 65% of reduction with trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametrine and surfactant, at the application stages "early," preflowering, and full flowering, respectively. PMID:15656168

Durigan, Julio Cezar




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The physiological state of leafe explants is important for high efficiency adventitious transformation and regeneration. The composition of shoot proliferation culture medium and other factors are known to influence micropropagation. This study investigated the effects of culture age, type and conce...


Adventitions shoot formation on excised leaves of in vitro grown shoots of apple cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves taken from micropropagated shoots of several apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars were cultured in vitro on Linsmaier & Skoog (LS) medium or the rice anther culture medium of Chu et al. (N6) containing various concentrations of either benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) plus naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Of the TDZ concentrations tested, 10 µM was most effective and it was

Francesca Fasolo; Richard H. Zimmerman; Ingrid Fordham



Transgenic apple (Malus x domestica) shoot showing low browning potential.  


Transgenic apple shoots were prepared from leaf disks by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the kanamycin (KM) resistance gene and antisense polyphenol oxidase (PPO) DNA. Four transgenic apple lines that grew on the medium containing 50 microgram/mL KM were obtained. They contained the KM resistance gene and grew stably on the medium for >3 years. Two transgenic shoot lines containing antisense PPO DNA in which PPO activity was repressed showed a lower browning potential than a control shoot. PMID:11087467

Murata, M; Haruta, M; Murai, N; Tanikawa, N; Nishimura, M; Homma, S; Itoh, Y



Micropropagation of Venus fly trap by shoot culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish and optimize an in vitro micropropagation protocol of Venus fly trap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis), a carnivorous plant, the effects of medium type, MS medium concentration, pH, and cytokinin and auxin types on shoot proliferation and root formation were investigated using 3-month-old shoots. The shoot proliferation was most effective in 2.3 µM kinetin-supplemented 1\\/3MS medium at pH

Gi-Won Jang; Kwang-Soo Kim; Ro-Dong Park



Establishment of the embryonic shoot apical meristem in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher plants, shoot organs such as leaves, branches, and flowers are generated from the shoot apical meristem (SAM), a\\u000a small group of undifferentiated cells located at the tip of the shoot. The SAM maintains its pluripotency and simultaneously\\u000a produces lateral organs at its periphery. The SAM arises during embryogenesis and its positioning requires axis-dependent\\u000a embryo patterning and compartmentalization of

Seiji Takeda; Mitsuhiro Aida



Micropropagation of Dendrobium nobile from shoot tip sections.  


Successful shoot regeneration of Dendrobium nobile was achieved using thin shoot tip sections and triacontanol (TRIA) for the first time. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) or proliferating shoot buds were observed when thin shoot tip sections were cultured on the basal medium of Mitra et at. (Indian J. Exp. Biol. 14 (1976) 350) supplemented with 4.0 microg L(-1) TRIA. The highest percentage of explants (93%) produced PLBs or proliferating shoot buds (21) at 4.0 microg L(-1) TRIA-supplemented basal medium. All the newly formed PLBs or proliferating shoot buds survived and ultimately produced healthy shoots with 2-3 leaves. Shoots produced roots when cultured on basal medium supplemented with 2.0 microg L(-1) TRIA. The well-rooted shoots were transferred to pots containing charcoal chips, coconut husk and broken tiles (2:2:1), and a 92% survival rate was achieved. This work reveals that TRIA can be used as an effective growth regulator in the micropropagation and conservation of D. nobile. PMID:15900890

Malabadi, Ravindra B; Mulgund, Gangadhar S; Kallappa, Nataraja



Response of eight sugarcane cultivars to glyphosine and glyphosate ripeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted on eight sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hydrid) cultivars during the 1982–83 (plant crop) and 1983–84 (ratoon crop) growing seasons to determine the effects\\u000a of glyphosine (Polaris) (N,N-bis (phosphonomethyl) glycine) and glyphosate (Polado) (sodium-N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on\\u000a stalk sucrose content and yield. Difference due to crops (plant vs. ratoon) for sugarcane quality, kilograms of sugar per\\u000a ton of cane (S\\/T),

J. A. Dusky; M. S. Kang; B. Glaz; J. D. Miller



Sink strength regulates photosynthesis in sugarcane.  


The relationship in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) between photosynthetic source tissue and sink material was examined through manipulation of the sink:source ratio of field-grown Saccharum spp. hybrid cv. N19 (N19). To enhance sink strength, all leaves, except for the third fully expanded leaf, were enclosed in 90% shade cloth for varying periods of time. Variations in sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were measured and the effects of shading on the leaf gas exchange and fluorescence characteristics recorded. Changes in carbon partitioning caused by shading were examined based on the uptake and translocation of fixed 14CO2. Following a decline in sucrose concentrations in young internodal tissue and shaded leaves, significant increases in the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate (Jmax), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and electron transport rate were observed in unshaded leaves after 8 d of shading treatment. It was concluded that up-regulation of source-leaf photosynthetic capacity is correlated with a decrease in assimilate availability to acropetal culm sink tissue. Furthermore, a significant relationship was revealed between source hexose concentration and photosynthetic activity. PMID:16918547

McCormick, A J; Cramer, M D; Watt, D A



In vitro propagation of two triploid hybrids of watermelon through adventitious shoot organogenesis and shoot tip culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro propagation protocol for two triploid hybrids of watermelon using cotyle- don explants and shoot tips was achieved. Five benzyladenine (BA) concentrations were tested using cotyledon and shoot tip explants. Cotyledon explants and shoot tips from 6 and 15-20 days aseptically germinated were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing test concentration of benzyladenine (2.22, 4.44, 10, 24.61

Tarek A. Shalaby; Soliman A. Omran; Yousry A. Baioumi


Shoot inversion-induced ethylene in Pharbitis nil induces the release of apical dominance by restricting shoot elongation.  


Shoot inversion induces outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) adjacent to the bend in the stem in Pharbitis nil. In order to determine whether or not ethylene produced by shoot inversion plays a direct role in promoting or inhibiting bud outgrowth, comparisons were made of endogenous levels of ethylene in the HLB and HLB node of plants with and without inverted shoots. That no changes were found suggests that the control of apical dominance does not involve the direction action of ethylene. This conclusion is further supported by evidence that the direct application of ethylene inhibitors or ethrel to inactive or induced lateral buds has no significant effect on bud outgrowth. The hypothesis that ethylene evolved during shoot inversion indirectly promotes the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) in restricting terminal bud (TB) growth is found to be supported by the following observations: (1) the restriction of TB growth appears to occur before the beginning of HLB outgrowth; (2) the treatment of the inverted portion of the shoot with AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action, dramatically eliminates both the restriction of TB growth and the promotion of HLB outgrowth which usually accompany shoot inversion; and (3) the treatment of the upper shoot of an upright plant with ethrel mimics shoot inversion by retarding upper shoot growth and inducing outgrowth of the lateral bud basipetal to the treated region. PMID:11539699

Prasad, T K; Cline, M G



The Design and Implementation of Shooting System Simulation Platform for Police College  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shooting training plays an important role in the education of the police college. However, the real shooting training will take more resources and have longer training periods. The simulated shooting system is emerging to improve the effect of the shooting training. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a shooting system simulation platform for the police college.

Shulong Li



Global analysis of the sugarcane microtranscriptome reveals a unique composition of small RNAs associated with axillary bud outgrowth.  


Axillary bud outgrowth determines shoot architecture and is under the control of endogenous hormones and a fine-tuned gene-expression network, which probably includes small RNAs (sRNAs). Although it is well known that sRNAs act broadly in plant development, our understanding about their roles in vegetative bud outgrowth remains limited. Moreover, the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets within axillary buds are largely unknown. Here, we employed sRNA next-generation sequencing as well as computational and gene-expression analysis to identify and quantify sRNAs and their targets in vegetative axillary buds of the biofuel crop sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Computational analysis allowed the identification of 26 conserved miRNA families and two putative novel miRNAs, as well as a number of trans-acting small interfering RNAs. sRNAs associated with transposable elements and protein-encoding genes were similarly represented in both inactive and developing bud libraries. Conversely, sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that specific miRNAs were differentially expressed in developing buds, and some correlated negatively with the expression of their targets at specific stages of axillary bud development. For instance, the expression patterns of miR159 and its target GAMYB suggested that they may play roles in regulating abscisic acid-signalling pathways during sugarcane bud outgrowth. Our work reveals, for the first time, differences in the composition and expression profiles of diverse sRNAs and targets between inactive and developing vegetative buds that, together with the endogenous balance of specific hormones, may be important in regulating axillary bud outgrowth. PMID:23564956

Ortiz-Morea, Fausto A; Vicentini, Renato; Silva, Geraldo F F; Silva, Eder M; Carrer, Helaine; Rodrigues, Ana P; Nogueira, Fabio T S



LAX and SPA: Major regulators of shoot branching in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerial architecture of plants is determined primarily by the pattern of shoot branching. Although shoot apical meristem initiation during embryogenesis has been extensively studied by molecular genetic approaches using Arabidopsis, little is known about the genetic mechanisms controlling axillary meristem initiation, mainly because of the insufficient number of mutants that specifically alter it. We identified the LAX PANICLE (LAX)

Keishi Komatsu; Masahiko Maekawa; Shin Ujiie; Yuzuki Satake; Ikuyo Furutani; Hironobu Okamoto; Ko Shimamoto; Junko Kyozuka



Analysis of Fire Blight Shoot Infection Epidemics on Apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biggs, A. R., Turechek, W. W., and Gottwald, T. R. 2008. Analysis of fire blight shoot infection epidemics on apple. Plant Dis. 92:1349-1356. Fire blight incidence and spread of the shoot blight phase of the disease was studied in four apple cultivars in replicated blocks over 4 years (1994 to 1997). Cv. York was highly susceptible, followed by 'Fuji' and

Alan R. Biggs; William W. Turechek; Tim R. Gottwald



Towards structurally adaptive multi-view shooting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a multi-view shooting camera simulator with parallel optical axes and decentred image sensors configuration is proposed. This simulator is based on the update of the structural parameters of the camera model according to the captured scene dynamics, and obeying the geometrical process of production of 3D images - shooting, projection and rendering steps. Then, the capturing conditions

M. Ali-Bey; S. Moughamir; N. Manamanni



Micropropagation of kiwifruit using non-axenic shoot tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) shoot tips were subjected to a standard surface sterilization procedure and cultured on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium in the presence of two surviving bacterial contaminants. The fresh weight increase of the cultures and the number of shoots produced were greater in liquid medium than in medium solidified with 0.4 or 0.8% agar. A greater

Paul L. Monette



Advanced Hunter Education and Shooting Sports Responsibility. Bulletin 555A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed as a compendium from which instructors can select materials and instructional aids for use in hunter education and shooting sports programs. Presented in the manual are 43 lessons and 34 laboratory activities that have been organized into units on the following topics: shooting sports responsibility, the learning process…

Benson, Delwin E.; Richardson, Rodd E.


Effect of ABA upon anthocyanin synthesis in regenerated torenia shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the mechanism of anthocyanin synthesis induction concomitant with chlorophyll degradation, we established a system in which anthocyanin synthesis and degradation of chlorophyll in regenerated torenia (Torenia fournieri) shoots was induced on medium containing 7% sucrose. Here, we studied the effect of several plant-growth regulators on anthocyanin synthesis and the degradation of chlorophyll in the torenia shoot regenerating system.

Yozo Nagira; Keiichi Ikegami; Tomokazu Koshiba; Yoshihiro Ozeki



Gene Expression patterns in cryogenically stored Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genes expressed in response to cryostress in plant shoot tips are not known. In this project we compared the gene expression patterns in untreated, cryoprotectant-treated, and recovering shoot tips using differential display methods. This project identified two genes that appeared to be differ...


Cell Differentiation in Shoot Meristem: A Molecular Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic body plan of higher plants is laid down during embryogenesis, however, the entire adult plant develops post-embryonically through the activity of two meristems (shoot and root apical meristems) established originally at the opposite ends of the embryo. This article focuses on the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is primarily responsible for the formation of leaves and stems in

Jitendra P. Khurana; Lokeshpati Tripathi; Dibyendu Kumar; Jitendra K. Thakur; Meghna R. Malik


Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain




Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of upper extremity fatigue on basketball shooting accuracy. Twenty-four elite male basketball players from 2 teams the top 3 Taiwan High Schools were chosen as subjects. After a warm-up and proper practice, they were asked to shoot from 3 varied distance positions before and after fatigue protocols. The protocols used

Wan-ehin Chen; Shin-Liang Lo; Yun-Kwan Lee; Jen-Sen Wang


Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.



Sugarcane Fertilizer Recommendations for the 2008 Crop Year  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Louisiana sugarcane producers continue to face challenges as they attempt to maximize profits and increase production efficiency. This year yet another challenge has been added through the significant increase in the cost of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers. Due to these i...


Freeze concentration of sugarcane juice in a jaggery making process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat pump based Freeze Concentration System (FCS) is proposed to concentrate sugarcane juice from 20 to 40 Brix in a jaggery making process. Further concentration of the juice is carried out in a boiling pan. Inclusion analysis is carried out to estimate sucrose loss in the ice formed in a layer freezing process. A mathematical model is developed taking

Milind V. Rane; Siddharth K. Jabade



Development of orange rust of sugarcane in Louisiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Orange rust of sugarcane was observed for the first time in the Americas in 2007 in Florida. Urediniospores of Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of orange rust, were collected in aerial traps located in Louisiana in 2010; however, the first observation of disease symptoms in the state was not made ...


Evaluation of fungicides for control of orange rust on sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, was initially reported in the Western Hemisphere in 2007, when it was first observed in Florida. Since that time, it has affected several commercially important cultivars, notably CP 80-1743, CP 72-2086, CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, and CP 78-1628. Durin...


A simulation model for capacity planning in sugarcane transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several mill regions within the Australian sugar industry are currently exploring long-term scenarios to reduce costs in the harvesting and rail transport of sugarcane. These efficiencies can be achieved through extending the time window of harvesting, reducing the number of harvesters, and investing in new or upgraded infrastructures. As part of a series of integrated models to conduct the analysis,

Andrew Higgins; Ian Davies



The application of precision agriculture technologies to sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The availability of global positioning systems (GPS) has made it possible to abandon traditional ways of managing sugarcane fields as whole units in favor of approaches that address within-field variability. A series of experiments was initiated to determine if soil electrical conductivity (EC) map...


Use of precision agriculture techniques for sugarcane pathology studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While resistance is the most effective and economical method of controlling diseases in sugarcane, in some situations, varieties must be grown that are susceptible. For example, following the introduction of a new disease, it may take several years before resistant varieties replace susceptible one...


Sugar partitioning between growth and storage in sugarcane internodes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) stores large amounts of sugar in internodes of the stalk, while wild species (e.g. S. spontaneum) store more insoluble cell wall material (fiber) and little sugar. The reason for this difference is not clear. To test the hypothesis that the activity of soluble acid...


Acoustic detection of Melolonthine larvae in Australian sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decision support systems have been developed for risk analysis and control of root-feeding white grub pests in Queensland sugarcane, based partly on manual inspection of cane soil samples. Acoustic technology was considered as a potential alternative to this laborious procedure. Field surveys were...



Microsoft Academic Search

In the Burdekin delta good soils, favourable climate and plentiful water combine to produce some of the highest yielding sugarcane in Australia. The freshwater aquifer system, which underlies the delta, is a major contributor to the prosperity of the region and its maintenance has been the responsibility of the Burdekin Water Boards since the mid-1960's. In the face of rising

Philip Charlesworth; Chris Chinn; Keith Bristow; Gary Ham



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some Florida sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) growers apply short-duration (less than 1-d) floods prior to harvest to prevent fires that form sporadically on their organic soils after preharvest burns. Extending these floods in duration may reduce yields but also provide options to manage on-farm floods ...


Dry matter partitioning of sugarcane in Australia and South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning of dry matter (DM) in sugarcane is of interest for two fundamental reasons. Firstly, sugar production depends directly on partitioning of crop biomass to the stalk and then to sucrose stored largely in stalk parenchyma. Secondly, various DM components of the stalk and particularly sucrose concentration are used to calculate the value of cane consignments delivered to the mill.

N. G Inman-Bamber; R. C Muchow; M. J Robertson



The fate of nitrogen applied to sugarcane by trickle irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertigation can be a more efficient means of applying crop nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N), so that nutrient application rates can be reduced in fertigated crops. However, there is little information on the extent of the possible reduction in N application rate for fertigated sugarcane, one of the major row crops grown under trickle irrigation, nor the fate of N in

Peter J. Thorburn; Ian K. Dart; Ian M. Biggs; Craig P. Baillie; Mike A. Smith; Brian A. Keating



Improving biomass production and partitioning in sugarcane: theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose yields in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) could be improved by increasing the efficiency of biomass production per unit of intercepted radiation and\\/or by increasing the fraction of total biomass partitioned to stalk sucrose, or both. In theory, this could be achieved by optimally matching the physiology of genotypes to the driving environmental conditions. Quantitative knowledge of the subtle effects of

A. Singels; R. A. Donaldson; M. A. Smit



Hysteretic properties of NADP-malic enzyme from sugarcane leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

NADP-malic enzyme highly purified from sugarcane leaves exhibited hysteretic properties. This behavior resulted in a lag phase during activity measurement of the enzyme preincubated in the absence of substrates. The lag was inversely proportional to the protein concentration during preincubation, which suggests that changes in the aggregational state of the enzyme are responsible for hysteresis. The pH conditions as well

Alberto A. Iglesias; Carlos S. Andreo



Resistance to yellow sugarcane aphid: Screening kikuyu and other grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kikuyu grass, Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov., is an important pasture species in many subtropical areas. Infestations of yellow sugarcane aphid (YSA), Sipha flava (Forbes) (Homoptera: Aphididae), have reduced kikuyu forage production in Hawaii. A novel method was developed to screen cultivars of kikuyu, and species of other forage and turf grasses for resistance to YSA. Kikuyu germplasm differed significantly

Susan C. Miyasaka; James D. Hansen; Glen K. Fukumoto



Developing a sugarcane molecular identity database for use in breeding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane geneticists routinely exchange and move a large number of clones by vegetative propagation across locations. They rely on morphological keys developed by the originating location to distinguish these clones. Since environments can influence these traits, genetically distinct clones, in p...


Characterization of Acetylcholinesterase Purified from the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC purified from the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica) was significantly inhibited by higher concentrations of the substrates acetylthiocholine (ATC), acetyl-(?-methyl) thiocholine (A?MTC) and propionylthiocholine (PTC). 2. The efficiency of AChE for hydrolyzing different substrates was ATC > A?MTC > PTC > S-butyrylthiocholine. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by 10?5 M eserine or BW284C51, but

R. N. C Guedes; K. Y Zhu; S Kambhampati; B. A Dover



Identification of a coffee berry borer-associated yeast: does it break down caffeine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers ( Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)) and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Candida fermentati (Saito) Bai, based on sequencing of the nuclear large subunit 26S rDNA variable D1\\/D2 domain. Liquid culture experiments using P. burtonii in media containing different caffeine

Fernando E. Vega; Michael B. Blackburn; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Patrick F. Dowd



Sex pheromone blend discrimination by male moths from E and Z strains of European corn borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex pheromone behavioral responses were analyzed in a flight tunnel with European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), males from three distinct populations. Males from a bivoltine and a univoltine biotype using a 97.8:2.2 blend (Z strains) of (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate were assayed with treatments containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 3% of theE isomer. Males from neither population oriented in the

T. J. Glover; X.-H. Tang; W. L. Roelofs



Distinguishing Defensive Characteristics in the Phloem of Ash Species Resistant and Susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis\\u000a of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high

Don Cipollini; Qin Wang; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Jeff R. Powell; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms



Modeling the invasive emerald ash borer risk of spread using a spatially explicit cellular model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is decimating native ashes (Fraxinus sp.) throughout midwestern North America, killing millions of trees over the years. With plenty of ash available throughout\\u000a the continent, the spread of this destructive insect is likely to continue. We estimate that the insect has been moving along\\u000a a “front” at about 20 km\\/year since about 1998, but

Anantha M. Prasad; Louis R. Iverson; Matthew P. Peters; Jonathan M. Bossenbroek; Stephen N. Matthews; T. Davis Sydnor; Mark W. Schwartz



Antennally Active Macrolide from the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis Emitted Predominantly by Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was ca. 10 times more abundant from females. It was\\u000a readily sensed by antennae of both males and females. Identification was confirmed by synthesis. The behavioral effects of\\u000a the lactone remain unstudied

Robert J. Bartelt; Allard A. Cossé; Bruce W. Zilkowski; Ivich Fraser



Genetic analysis of emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) populations in Asia and North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees first discovered outside of its native range of northeastern Asia in 2002. EAB spread from its initial zone of\\u000a discovery in the Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario metropolitan areas, in large part, from inadvertent human-assisted\\u000a movement of infested ash materials.

Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack; Anthony I. Cognato; James J. Smith


Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis, were examined to determine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male EAB\\u000a in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female-specific compound to dead, solvent-washed beetles.\\u000a Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation with dead,

Jonathan P. Lelito; Katalin Böröczky; Tappey H. Jones; Ivich Fraser; Victor C. Mastro; James H. Tumlinson; Thomas C. Baker



A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane\\u000a (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with (n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched

Peter J. Silk; Krista Ryall; D. Barry Lyons; Jon Sweeney; Junping Wu



Genetic Components of Resistance to Stalk Tunneling by the European Corn Borer in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,Cardinal et al., 2001). Identification of genetic compo- nents of resistance to tunneling,has been hindered,by Identification of the genes conferring resistance to European corn environmental variation, a laborious and lengthy screen- borer (ECB) [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hu ¨ bner)] is an important step in understanding how resistance is expressed and whether different ing process, and the polygenic nature of the trait;

M. D. Krakowsky; M. J. Brinkman; W. L. Woodman-Clikeman; M. Lee



Molecular cloning and expression analysis of ultraspiracle (USP) from the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA for ultraspiracle (USP) from the lepidopteran rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis was cloned using PCR techniques. The deduced amino acid sequence of C. suppressalis USP (CsUSP) was very similar to those of other lepidopteran USPs, especially to the Manduca sexta USP-2 isoform. Northern hybridization analysis detected a 6.5-kb message in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut of wandering larvae.

Chieka Minakuchi; Yoshiaki Nakagawa; Makoto Kiuchi; Atsushi Seino; Shuichiro Tomita; Manabu Kamimura



Mutation in acetylcholinesterase1 associated with triazophos resistance in rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two full-length genes encoding different acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), designated as Ch-ace1 and Ch-ace2, were cloned from strains of the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis) susceptible and resistant to the organophosphate insecticide triazophos. Sequence analysis found an amino acid mutation A314S in Ch-ace1 (corresponding to A201 in Torpedo californica AChE) that was consistently associated with the occurrence of resistance. This mutation removed

Xiaojing Jiang; Mingjing Qu; Ian Denholm; Jichao Fang; Weihua Jiang; Zhaojun Han



Triazophos resistance mechanisms in the rice stem borer ( Chilo suppressalis Walker)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field population of the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker) with 203.3-fold resistance to triazophos was collected. After 8-generation of continuous selection with triazophos in laboratory, resistance increased to 787.2-fold, and at the same time, the resistance to isocarbophos and methamidophos was also enhanced by 1.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively, implying some cross-resistance between triazophos and these two organophosphate insecticides.

Qu Mingjing; Han Zhaojun; Xu Xinjun; Yue lina



Diapause induction, maintenance and termination in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, enters facultative diapause as fully grown larvae in response to short-day conditions during the autumn. Our results showed that the critical night length for diapause induction in C. suppressalis was between 10h 22min and 10h 45min at 22, 25 and 28°C, 11h 18min at 31°C, and between 10h 5min and 10h 20min under field

Hai-Jun Xiao; Feng-Chen Mou; Xing-Fen Zhu; Fang-Sen Xue



Cold Hardiness of Diapausing Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the supercooling point (SCP), cold hardiness, and content of glycerol in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, larvae field-collected at different dates to understand the relationship between diapause and cold hardiness. Field-collected C. suppressalis larvae became cold-hardy from late autumn and higher level of survival was maintained from October to April. Lab-reared C.

Jum Rae Cho; Jeong Seok Lee; Jeong Jun Kim; Minho Lee; Hong Sun Kim; Kyung Saeng Boo



Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci for rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis W.).  


We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker). These loci were screened for 96 individuals from eight populations across China. The total number of alleles ranged from 3 to 33 and the expected heterozygosity at these loci ranged from 0.131 to 0.671. These molecular markers will be useful for fully investigating the population structure and host preference of C. suppressalis at fine spatial scales. PMID:21564596

Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin; Hao, Li-Xia



Managing the Risk of European Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

New pesticidal crops are taking advantage of advances in geneticengineering. For example, corn has been engineered to express\\u000a Bt proteinsthat are toxic to the European corn borer. These crops are effective pestmanagement tools for United States growers.\\u000a However, there is concern thatpests will develop resistance to these crops resulting in the increased useof more hazardous\\u000a pesticides. The purpose of this

Terrance M. Hurley; Silvia Secchi; Bruce A. Babcock; Richard L. Hellmich



Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.  


European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300

Razze, J M; Mason, C E



Inheritance of central neuroanatomy and physiology related to pheromone preference in the male European corn borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E) prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC) that

Zsolt Kárpáti; Shannon Olsson; Bill S Hansson; Teun Dekker



Reversed functional topology in the antennal lobe of the male European corn borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) is a model of evolution of sexual communication in insects. Two pheromone strains produce and respond to opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11 and E11-tetradecenylacetate. The Z-strain uses a ratio of 97:3 of Z11:E11 tetradecenylacetate, whereas the E-strain uses a ratio of 1:99. We studied how the difference in male

Z. Karpati; Teun Dekker; Bill S. Hansson



The influence of muscle tremor on shooting performance.  


Shooting ability is compromised by involuntary movement. Some of this movement is physiological tremor. Tremor size has a demonstrable inverse correlation with shooting performance. Consequently, factors which affect tremor size should affect shooting ability. Adrenaline and local muscle warming markedly increase tremor size, whereas local muscle cooling reduces it. The physiological mechanisms behind these changes are not well understood, but they have the potential to affect shooting performance in subjects who exercise heavily and/or are exposed to extreme environments. The Olympic biathlon is an event in which vigorous physical exercise alternates with rifle shooting and it often takes place in a cold environment. The possible impact of exercise, temperature and other factors on the Olympic biathlete is considered here. PMID:19923157

Lakie, Martin



Microcutting leaf area, weight and position on the stock shoot influence root vigour, shoot growth and incidence of shoot tip necrosis in grape plantlets in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological parameters of microcuttings, namely leaf area, weight (wt) and position on the stock shoot, had significant\\u000a effects on root vigour, microshoot growth and incidence of shoot tip necrosis (STN) in cultures of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) ‘Arka Neelamani’. Single-node leafy cuttings cultured in MS medium containing 1 ?M IAA and 0.1 ?M GA3 generally rooted first and subsequently

Pious Thomas



Differential fipronil susceptibility and metabolism in two rice stem borers from China.  


The susceptibilities of larvae of two rice stem borers, namely, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Nocutidae) to fipronil and its metabolites were investigated, and then the activities of microsomal O-demethylase, and glutathione transferase (GST) in two species were measured. The metabolism of fipronil in both stem borers was determined in vivo and in vitro. The LD50 value of fipronil to S. inferens was 118.5-fold higher than that of C. suppressalis. The bioassay results offipronil metabolites showed that the toxicities of sulfone and sulfide were higher than fipronil for both species, and the differential toxicity between sulfone and fipronil was remarkable. Alternatively, the activities of microsomal O-demethylase and GST of C. suppressalis were 1.35- and 2.06-fold higher than S. inferens, respectively. The in vivo and in vitro studies on metabolism of fipronil showed that all of fipronil, sulfone, and sulfide were detected and the content of sulfone was higher than sulfide in both stem borers. The residue of sulfone in C. suppressalis was significantly higher than that in S. inferens. These results suggest that the higher activity of mixed function oxidases may cause the higher capacity of C. suppressalis to produce fipronil-sulfone, which is more toxic than fipronil leading to the higher susceptibility of this species. PMID:18767755

Fang, Qi; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Ye, Gong-Yin; Yao, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Jia-An; Akhtar, Zunnu-Raen



Experimental assessment of the accuracy of genomic selection in sugarcane.  


Sugarcane cultivars are interspecific hybrids with an aneuploid, highly heterozygous polyploid genome. The complexity of the sugarcane genome is the main obstacle to the use of marker-assisted selection in sugarcane breeding. Given the promising results of recent studies of plant genomic selection, we explored the feasibility of genomic selection in this complex polyploid crop. Genetic values were predicted in two independent panels, each composed of 167 accessions representing sugarcane genetic diversity worldwide. Accessions were genotyped with 1,499 DArT markers. One panel was phenotyped in Reunion Island and the other in Guadeloupe. Ten traits concerning sugar and bagasse contents, digestibility and composition of the bagasse, plant morphology, and disease resistance were used. We used four statistical predictive models: bayesian LASSO, ridge regression, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, and partial least square regression. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed through the correlation between observed and predicted genetic values by cross validation within each panel and between the two panels. We observed equivalent accuracy among the four predictive models for a given trait, and marked differences were observed among traits. Depending on the trait concerned, within-panel cross validation yielded median correlations ranging from 0.29 to 0.62 in the Reunion Island panel and from 0.11 to 0.5 in the Guadeloupe panel. Cross validation between panels yielded correlations ranging from 0.13 for smut resistance to 0.55 for brix. This level of correlations is promising for future implementations. Our results provide the first validation of genomic selection in sugarcane. PMID:23907359

Gouy, M; Rousselle, Y; Bastianelli, D; Lecomte, P; Bonnal, L; Roques, D; Efile, J-C; Rocher, S; Daugrois, J; Toubi, L; Nabeneza, S; Hervouet, C; Telismart, H; Denis, M; Thong-Chane, A; Glaszmann, J C; Hoarau, J-Y; Nibouche, S; Costet, L



Knockdown, Mortality, and Progeny Production of Lesser Grain Borers (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Rice Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Exposed for Short Intervals on Wheat Treated with Cyfluthrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and adult rice weevils, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), were exposed at bimonthly intervals for 2, 4, 8, and 24 h on wheat treated with 0, 1, 2, and 4 ppm cyfluthrin EC, then removed and held for 2 wk on untreated wheat. The percentage of lesser grain borers that were knocked down after they




Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...


Monitoring and Modeling of Field Infestation and Damage by the Maize Ear Borer Mussidia nigrivenella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae ) in Benin, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many countries in West Africa, the pyralid ear borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot occasionally causes severe damage to pre- and postharvest maize. Between 1992 and 1995, the distribution of and damage caused by M. nigrivenella were studied in Benin using survey data and an on-station field experiment. The borer was distributed across the whole country, and at maturity an average

Mamoudou Sétamou; Fritz Schulthess; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister



Effective Social and Extension Factors Involved in adoption of Iintegrated Campaign in Control of Rice Stem Borer, (Chilo Suppressalis), A Case Study in Isfahan Province, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is an important part of the food diet in Iran. Rice stem borer, (Chilo suppressalis) is a dominant pest of rice crop in Mobarakeh and Lengan counties of Isfahan. The purpose of this study was to examine effective factors involved in adoption of integrated management of rice stem borer, in Isfahan province. The study utilized descriptive survey research. The

Gholamreza Pezeshki-Raad; Mohammad Masaeli; Jafar Yaghoubi


50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for...



50 CFR 20.105 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for waterfowl, coots, and gallinules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seasons, limits and shooting hours for waterfowl...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.105 Seasons, limits and shooting hours for...



50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for...



50 CFR 20.105 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for waterfowl, coots, and gallinules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seasons, limits and shooting hours for waterfowl...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.105 Seasons, limits and shooting hours for...



Etiolation of `Royal Gala' apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) shoots promotes high-frequency shoot organogenesis and enhanced ,-glucuronidase expression from stem internodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internodal explants from etiolated `Royal Gala' apple shoots were compared with those from non-etiolated shoots for frequency\\u000a of shoot organogenesis and for efficiency of ?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression after cocultivation of explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 (p35SGUSint). First (youngest) internodal explants from etiolated shoots produced 2-, 8- and 73-fold numbers\\u000a of shoots compared to second, third, and fourth internodal explants,

Q. Liu; S. Salih; F. Hammerschlag



RNAi Mediated Down-Regulation of PDS Gene Expression in Sugarcane ( Saccharum ), a Highly Polyploid Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is a crop with great potential for metabolic engineering, but progress has been limited by highly efficient transgene\\u000a silencing. The potential exists to utilize efficient gene silencing in molecular improvement through down-regulation of sugarcane\\u000a genes. However, sugarcane is highly polyploid and heterozygous, which might complicate efforts to employ transgene-mediated\\u000a silencing of endogenous genes. To explore this issue, we tested

Kenji Osabe; Stephen R. Mudge; Michael W. Graham; Robert G. Birch



Study on agroclimatic condition and productivity pattern of sugarcane in india  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agro-climatic condition and productivity distribution pattern of sugarcane in India was studied to delineate the reasons for\\u000a variation in sugarcane production, yield and distribution of area from place to place and year to year. It was found that\\u000a prominent sugarcane growing soils of the country are recent alluvium, red sandy, medium black, red loamy and deep black soils\\u000a but highest

Rajendra Gupta; Rajesh Kumar; S. K. Tripathi



Optimization of the Preparation Conditions for Activated Carbons from Sugarcane Bagasse: An Agricultural Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from sugarcane bagasse, an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with different reagents. Orthogonal experimental design was applied to study the influence of activation temperature, activation time and chemical ratio of reagents to sugarcane bagasse on the chemical activation process of sugarcane bagasse. The optimal activated carbon was obtained using impregnation ratio of 0.39-0.78%

Zelong Xu; Yinian Zhu; Meina Liang; Hua Zhang; Huili Liu



Sugarcane genetic engineering research in South Africa: From gene discovery to transgene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 15 years, recombinant DNA and in vitro culture technologies have been used in concert at the South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI) to genetically engineer\\u000a sugarcane. The purpose of such research has been two-fold, viz. to establish proof-of-principle regarding the delivery of novel input and resistance traits to sugarcane and to investigate\\u000a the genetic basis of sucrose

D. A. Watt; D. L. Sweby; B. A. M. Potier; S. J. Snyman



Production of microbial levan from sucrose, sugarcane juice and beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacillus polymyxa (NRRL-18475) produced a levan-type fructan (B, 2?6 fructofuranoside) when grown on sucrose, sugarcane juice, and sugarbeet molasses. The organism converted about 46% of the fructose moiety of sucrose to levan when grown on sucrose medium, however, the yields of levan from sugarcane juice and beet molasses were much less than sucrose solution. Such sugarcane juice and beet

Y. W. Han; M. A. Watson



Trehalose synthase gene transfer mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens enhances resistance to osmotic stress in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trehalose synthase gene (TSase) fromGrifola frondosa was transferred into sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) usingAgrobacterium-mediated method to improve sugarcane drought-tolerance. The results indicated that embryogenic callus of sugarcane was sensitive\\u000a toA. tumefaciens EHA105 strain in the transformation system employed. The high frequency of PPT-resistant plants were obtained from transformated\\u000a with 3 weeks callus after incubation, which reached 4.5% on average. The

Zi-Zhang Wang; Shu-Zhen Zhang; Ben-Peng Yang; Yang-Rui Li



Engineering Advantages, Challenges and Status of Sugarcane and other Sugar-Based Biomass Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a highly productive tropical stem crop that has been cultivated for its high sugar content for hundreds of years.\\u000a In recent times, sugarcane has been the focus of several programs aiming at the production of fuel ethanol. Compared to starch-based\\u000a sources such as corn, production of ethanol from sugarcane has obvious advantages due to the amount

Ricardo A. Dante; Plinio T. Cristofoletti; Isabel R. Gerhardt


Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures  

SciTech Connect

Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

Grady, K.L.



Carbon Isotope Discrimination, Gas Exchange, and Growth of Sugarcane Cultivars under Salinity.  


Physiological features associated with differential resistance to salinity were evaluated in two sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) cultivars over an 8-week period during which greenhouse-grown plants were drip-irrigated with water or with NaCI solutions of 2, 4, 8, or 12 decisiemens (dS) m-1 electrical conductivity (EC). The CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (g), and shoot growth rate (SGR) began to decline as EC of the irrigation solution increased above 2 dS m-1. A, g, and SGR of a salinity-resistant cultivar (H69-8235) were consistently higher than those of a salinity-susceptible cultivar (H65-7052) at all levels of salinity and declined less sharply with increasing salinity. Carbon isotope discrimination ([delta]) in tissue obtained from the uppermost fully expanded leaf increased with salinity and with time elapsed from the beginning of the experiment, but [delta] was consistently lower in the resistant than in the susceptible cultivar at all levels of salinity. Gas-exchange measurements suggested that variation in [delta] was attributable largely to variation in bundle sheath leakiness to CO2 ([phi]). Salinity-induced increases in [phi] appeared to be caused by a reduction in C3 pathway activity relative to C4 pathway activity rather than by physical changes in the permeability of the bundle sheath to CO2. A strong correlation between [delta] and A, g, and SGR permitted these to be predicted from [delta] regardless of the cultivar and salinity level. [delta] thus provided an integrated measure of several components of physiological performance and response. PMID:12232101

Meinzer, F. C.; Plaut, Z.; Saliendra, N. Z.



Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana with altered shoot gravitropism  

SciTech Connect

A procedure has been developed and used to screen 40,000 m-2 seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana for strains with altered shoot gravitropism. Several strains have been identified for which shoot gravitropism is considerably more random than that of their wild-type parent (based on frequency distribution histograms of the gravitropic response to a 1 g stimulus). One such strain exhibits normal hypocotyl phototropism and normal root gravitropism. Thus, the gravitropism pathway in the shoot contains at least one mutable element which is not required for root gravitropism.

Bullen, B.L.; Poff, K.L.



Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  


The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important. PMID:21404843

Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S



Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  


Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future. PMID:18330134

Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun



Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

PubMed Central

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

Whitehill, Justin G. A.; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B.; Koch, Jennifer L.; Herms, Daniel A.; Bonello, Pierluigi



Improved detection of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus using a real-time fluorescent (TaqMan) RT-PCR assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow leaf syndrome (YLS) of sugarcane has been associated with Sugarcaneyellowleafvirus (ScYLV) and has been reported from most sugarcane growing countries around the world. As sugarcane is vegetatively propagated, it is important to use effective and sensitive detection methods to screen new propagating material. Virus detection in symptomatic tissue is currently achieved using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tissue blot

J Korimbocus; D Coates; I Barker; N Boonham



Regulation of shoot meristem integrity during Arabidopsis vegetative development  

PubMed Central

Shoot growth and development is mediated by the activity of the shoot meristem, which initiates leaves and axillary meristems. Meristem maintenance is achieved by a poorly understood process that functions to sustain the balance of stem cell perpetuation in the central zone (CZ) and organogenesis in the peripheral zone (PZ). A recent study showed that two related homeodomain transcription factors, PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF), regulate meristem maintenance by controlling the integrity of the CZ. The non-flower producing phenotype displayed by pny pnf plants can be rescued by genetically increasing the size of the shoot meristem. In this addendum, we show that augmenting the size of the central region of pny pnf shoot meristems partially rescues the meristem termination phenotype that occurs during early stages of vegetative development. Thus, regulation of CZ integrity by PNY and PNF is crucial for vegetative and reproductive development.

Ung, Nolan



Predicting Chemical Accumulation in Shoots of Aquatic Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical exchange dynamics expected for diffusive transfer of a chemical between aqueous solution and plant shoots, and expected bioconcentration based on partitioning properties of the chemical, are explored by using a three-compartment model. The model ...

S. D. Wolf R. R. Lassiter S. E. Wooten



Occupational exposure to impulse noise associated with shooting.  


Shooting training is associated with exposure to a considerable amount of unique noise. We wanted to evaluate noise exposure during such training. Our observations especially apply to professional sport shooters, but they are also valid for shooting coaches/instructors. We collected acoustic signals in 10-, 25- and 50-m as well as open-air shooting ranges. The recorded material was analysed with orthogonal, adaptive parameterization by Shur. The mean duration of a single acoustic signal was 250-800 ms with the C-weighted sound peak pressure level of 138.2-165.2 dB. Shooters may be exposed to as many as 600-1350 acoustic impulses during a training unit. The actual load for the hearing organ of a professional shooter or a shooting coach is ~200 000 acoustic stimuli in a year-long training macrocycle. Orthogonal, adaptive parameterization by Shur makes safe scheduling of shooters' training possible. PMID:21375955

Lwow, Felicja; Jó?ków, Pawe?; M?dra?, Marek



Set shot shooting performance and visual acuity in basketball.  


Common sense suggests that decreasing visual acuity will have a negative effect on basketball shooting performance. To test the hypothesis that basketball shooting performance monotonically decreases with decreasing acuity, 19 subjects attempted 25 set shots from a fixed location at each of 5 different acuity levels: 6/6 or better and vision blurred (by optical defocus) to visual acuities of 6/12, 6/24, 6/48, and 6/75. Our results revealed a small but statistically nonsignificant decrease in shooting performance between the 6/6+ and 6/12 conditions. For visual acuities between 6/12 and 6/75, the number of baskets made remained constant. We conclude that decreases in visual acuity over the range of 6/6+ to 6/75 resulting from defocus do not significantly reduce set shot shooting performance. PMID:1436997

Applegate, R A; Applegate, R A



Physiological Research on Adventitious Shoot Development in Aspen Roots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews results of the author's research on the physiological mechanisms involved in the formation of adventitious shoots (suckers) in aspen roots. It describes origin and development of root suckers and presents the results of studies on the ...

G. A. Schier



Solution of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems v1a Parallel Shooting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inhomogenous boundary value problems for ordinary differential equations can be solved by numerical integration of corresponding initial value problems (shooting). Guesses for the unknown boundary values are iteratively adjusted until all prescribed bound...

E. L. Jansen



Optical Microscopy of Cell Organelles in Shooting Rice Callus Tissue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of successive generation culture and temperature on shoot differentiation of the rice callus were investigated. The results so obtained were used to establish the conditions for following the appearance and disappearance of starch granules dur...

E. Maeda H. Saka



Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.  


Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E



Power is sweet: sugarcane in the global ethanol assemblage.  


New alliances between Brazil and the US for ethanol production, transport, and trade are revitalising and expanding the centuries -old sugarcane plantation system in the Americas. In this paper I adopt the concept of global assemblages, building on the work of Aihwa Ong, Stephen Collier, and Saskia Sassen, to draw the contours of an "ethanol assemblage," which includes states, corporations, growers, technologies, urban consumers, and rural communities and landscapes. Though important to conceptualise agrofuels as a global phenomenon, it is also necessary to recognise the distinct regional patterns that cohere around various aspects of this polymorphous industry. Therefore, I focus on alliances around sugarcane ethanol, paying particular attention to the role of Miami as a global city serving as a gateway to information, investment, and commodities for the public/private and national/transnational entities that are engaged in the hemispheric project of ethanol promotion, production and distribution. PMID:20873028

Hollander, Gail



Direct regeneration of shoots from immature inflorescence cultures of turmeric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant regeneration from cultured immature inflorescence of Curcuma longa was obtained by direct shoot development on Murashige and Skoog's basal medium supplemented with BA (5 or 10 mg l?1) in combination with 2,4-D (0.2 mg l?1) or NAA (0.1 mg l?1) and TDZ (1 or 2 mg l?1) in combination with IAA (0.1 mg l?1). Regenerated shoots were grown on

Neeta D. Salvi; Leela George; Susan Eapen



Cryotherapy of shoot tips: novel pathogen eradication method.  


Cryotherapy is a novel application of plant cryopreservation techniques that allows pathogen eradication at a high frequency. It eliminates plant pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasmas and bacteria by briefly treating shoot tips in liquid nitrogen using cryopreservation protocols. Healthy plants are regenerated from the surviving pathogen-free meristematic tissue. The method facilitates treatment of large numbers of samples and is independent of shoot tip size. It has the potential to replace more traditional methods like meristem culture. PMID:19217342

Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T



Interdomain signaling in stem cell maintenance of plant shoot meristems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant shoot meristem maintains a group of stem cells that remain active throughout the plant life. They continuously generate\\u000a new cells that are then recruited for organ initiation in the peripheral zone. Stem cell proliferation and daughter cell differentiation\\u000a has to be integrated with overall growth and development of the diverse functional domains within the shoot apex. Several\\u000a studies

Andrea Bleckmann; Rüdiger Simon



Direct shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration in Fortunella crassifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient in vitro regeneration system in kumquats (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) was established. Explant types and orientations, concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators were\\u000a evaluated for their influences on efficiency of plant regeneration. It was found that the optimum explant and its orientation\\u000a was epicotyl planted vertically with upper part upward, and a shoot regeneration frequency of 1.48 shoots

L. Yang; C.-J. Xu; G.-B. Hu; K.-S. Chen




Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh tea shoots (one shoot and two or three young leaves) were extracted using microwave-assisted extraction method (MAE). Several factors such as ethanol concentrations (0-99.5 o (volume percentage)), material: solvent ratio (1:4 to 1:12), extraction time, oven power were studied to optimise conditions at laboratory scale. MAE archived good yield (82.46 %) after 6 minutes microwave radiation, that was higher

Truong Ngoc Tuyen



Direct shoot regeneration from nodal explants of Sida cordifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to initiate multiple shoots from mature nodal explants of Sida cordifolia Linn. High frequency of regeneration was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l?1 6-benzylaminopurine, 0.5 mg l?1 ?-naphthalene acidic acid, 1.0 mg l?1 adenine sulfate, and 10% (v\\/v) coconut milk. Multiple shoots were initiated within 21 d and the above media was capable of

I. Sivanesan; Byoung Ryong Jeong



Movement and metabolism of oligogalacturonide elicitors in tomato shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the movement and metabolism of oligogalacturonides through shoots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv Rutgers). Oligomers of polygalacturonic acid were prepared by enzyme digestion and gel filtration. These were end-reduced with [3H]NaBH4, using an improved reaction method, to yield oligoalditols. The radiolabelled oligomer of degree of polymerisation 6 was supplied to tomato shoots through their transpiration stream.

A. J. MacDougall; N. M. Rigby; P. W. Needs; R. R. Selvendran



Explaining and Preventing School Shootings: Chances and Difficulties of Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a School shootings have caused worldwide concern due to several severe incidents in the recent past. In the face of rising numbers\\u000a of offenses and deaths, two major questions have been raised: (1) what causes school shootings to occur? and (2) how are further\\u000a incidents to be prevented? In order to find answers to these questions, this chapter first reviews the

Rebecca Bondü; Herbert Scheithauer


Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil.\\u000a The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm3 engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of ethanol. The product system includes\\u000a agricultural and

Aldo Roberto Ometto; Michael Zwicky Hauschild; Woodrow Nelson Lopes Roma



Modelling Sugarcane Growth in Response to Age, Insolation and Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling sugarcane growth in response to age of cane, insolation and air temperature using first-order multiple regression analysis and a non-linear approach is investigated. Data are restricted to one variety from irrigated fields to eliminate the impact of varietal response and rainfall. Ten first-order models are investigated. The predictant is cane yield from 600 field tests. The predictors are cumulative

Karl Tiap Sen How; K. T. S



Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: present knowledge and future applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Brazil the long-term continuous cultivation of sugarcane with low N fertiliser inputs, without apparent depletion of soil-N reserves, led to the suggestion that N2-fixing bacteria associated with the plants may be the source of agronomically significant N inputs to this crop. From the 1950s to 1970s, considerable numbers of N2-fixing bacteria were found to be associated with the crop,

Robert M. Boddey; Segundo Urquiaga; Bruno J. R. Alves; Veronica Reis



?-Carotene production in sugarcane molasses by a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Several wild strains and mutants of Rhodotorula spp. were screened for growth, carotenoid production and the proportion of -carotene produced in sugarcane molasses. A better\\u000a producer, Rhodotorula glutinis mutant 32, was optimized for carotenoid production with respect to total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration and pH. In shake\\u000a flasks, when molasses was used as the sole nutrient medium with 40 g

P Bhosale; R V Gadre



Bayesian estimation of marker dosage in sugarcane and other autopolyploids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sugarcane or other autopolyploids, after generating the data, the first step in constructing molecular marker maps is to\\u000a determine marker dosage. Improved methods for correctly allocating marker dosage will result in more accurate maps and increased\\u000a efficiency of QTL linkage detection. When employing dominant markers like AFLPs, single-dose markers represent alleles present\\u000a as one copy in one parent and

Peter Baker; Phillip Jackson; Karen Aitken



Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.



Relationships of Australian sugarcane yields to various climatic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between the sugarcane yield anomalies in northeastern Australia and various atmospheric and oceanic variables is examined with the help of three different climatological data sets, the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS), the Southern Hemisphere Analyses data set (SHANAL) and the Tabulated Data Set (TDS). Correlation coefficients of 10 different climatological variables with the yields are presented for lags up to twelve months prior to the harvest. The results suggest that the sugarcane yields show the strongest positive (negative) response to anomalous sea surface temperature (SSTA) and mean sea level pressure (MSLPA) changes occurring in the central and eastern Pacific during the austral spring 7 to 10 months prior to the sugarcane harvest. These correlations are accompanied by an opposite pattern of anomalies located north of Australia. At the same time, anomalies in the strength of the zonal components of the surface winds can be found over the western tropical Pacific (positive correlations) and the eastern Indian Ocean (negative correlations). These patterns are characteristic of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and support the findings of a previous Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)-oriented study. However, the maximum correlations with the SSTA and MSLPA are substantially higher (around |0.8|) than those reached with the SOI (-0.65). Furthermore, it appears that the large-scale circulation indices are better indicators of sugarcane yields than the regional (Cairns) climatological variables. The maximum correlations between the yields and the climatological variables at Cairns are highly significant (values between |0.5| and |0.6|), but the signal is generally confined to the summer months only.

Kuhnel, I.



Search for optimum conditions of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process has been elaborated for one-step low lignin content sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose extraction using alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide. To maximize the hemicellulose yields several extraction conditions were examined applying the 24 factorial design: H2O2 concentration from 2 to 6% (w\\/v), reaction time from 4 to 16h, temperature from 20 to 60°C, and magnesium sulfate absence or presence (0.5%,

M. Brienzo; A. F. Siqueira; A. M. F. Milagres



Sugarcane and Ethanol Production and Carbon Dioxide Balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol fuel has been considered lately an efficient option for reducing greenhouse gases emissions. Brazil has now more than\\u000a 30 years of experience with large-scale ethanol production. With sugarcane as feedstock, Brazilian ethanol has some advantages\\u000a in terms of energy and CO2 balances. The use of bagasse for energy generation contributes to lower greenhouse gases emissions. Although, when compared\\u000a with

Marcelo Dias De Oliveira


Carbon metabolism in leaves of micropropagated sugarcane during acclimatization phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the main enzymes related to the sucrose metabolism, photosynthesis, and sucrose concentration were studied\\u000a in sugarcane (Saccharum spp hybrid) plantlets. Acclimatization was developed in two steps. (1) Light intensity of 1,000 ?mol m?2 s?1 and 90% relative humidity during the first 21 d; followed by 2,000 ?mol m?2 s?1 and approximately 80% of relative humidity. All measurements were carried out

Romelio Rodriguez; Carlos E. Aragon; Maritza Escalona; Justo L. Gonzalez-Olmedo; Yves Desjardins



Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane.  


Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54 percent of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes. PMID:17739663

Hopkinson, C S; Day, J W



Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.  


Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation. PMID:23179712

Stajner, Nataša



Imaging spectroscopy for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopy can provide real-time high throughput information on growing crops. The spectroscopic data can be obtained from space-borne, air-borne and handheld sensors. Such data have been used for assessing the nutritional status of some field crops (maize, rice, barely, potato etc.). In this study a handheld FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer in the 350 - 2500 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum was evaluated for its use to estimate sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentrations. Sugarcane leaf samples from one variety viz., N19 of two age groups (4-5 and 6-7 months) were subjected to spectral and chemical measurements. Leaf reflectance data were collected under controlled conditions and leaf nitrogen concentration was obtained using an automated combustion technique (Leco TruSpec N). The potential of spectroscopic data for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen status was evaluated using univariate correlation and regression analyses methods with the first-order reflectance across the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm. The variables that presented high correlation with nitrogen concentration were used to develop simple indices combining reflectances of 2-wavelengths. Simple linear regression was then used to select a model that yielded the highest R2. These were the R744 / R2142 index for the 4-5 months old cane crop and the (R2200 - R2025) / (R2200 + R2025) index for the 6-7 months old cane crop, with R2 of 0.74 and 0.87, respectively.

Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Ahmed, Fethi B.; van den Berg, Maurits



Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by C?C and C?O?C links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.



Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development  

SciTech Connect

The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.



Sugarcane Nutrient Content, Growth and Yield Responses to a Three-Month Summer Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to soil subsidence, pumping restrictions, or tropical storms. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables and periodic flooding, there is a lack of information on...


Viability of an Enzymatic Mannitol Method to Predict Sugarcane Deterioration at Factories  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...


A rapid biochemical test to assess postharvest deterioration of sugarcane and milled juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process units, and even lead to a factory shut-down. An enzymatic factory method was used to measure mannitol, a major degradation product of sugarcane Leuconostoc deterioration in the U.S., in pre...


Mannitol as a Sensitive Indicator of Sugarcane Deterioration and Bacterial Contamination in Fuel Alcohol Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a very sensitive indicator of sugarcane deterioration that can predict processing problems. A rapid (4 to 7 min) enzymatic method has been developed to measure mannitol in juice pressed from consignments of sugarcane delivered to the...


Application of RAD LongRead sequencing for SNP discovery in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane (hybrid Saccharum spp.) genome presents a difficult challenge for SNP discovery and analysis due to its complex polyploid nature. This is compounded further due to the absence of a reference genome sequence. We report the discovery of SNPs in sugarcane through reductive sequencing and ...


Mycolytic effect of extracellular enzymes of antagonistic microbes to Colletotrichum falcatum , red rot pathogen of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of selected bacteria and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere and endosphere regions were tested for the production of chitinolytic enzymes and their involvement in the suppression of Colletotrichum falcatum, red rot pathogen of sugarcane. Among several strains tested for chitinolytic activity, 12 strains showed a clearing zone on chitin-amended agar medium. Among these, bacterial strains AFG2, AFG 4,

R. Viswanathan; A. Ramesh Sundar; S. Merina Premkumari



Postharvest accumulation of resveratrol and piceatannol in sugarcane with enhanced antioxidant activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new plant source, sugarcane, was used to produce the stilbenes piceatannol and resveratrol. Both stilbenes were identified in sugarcane billet stalks (12 mm) after incubation at room temperature for 3 days. Low concentrations of piceatannol (30.6 ug/g) and resveratrol (12.3 ug/g) were detected a...


Sugarcane Genotype Response to Nitrogen on a Sand Soil in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) grows on sand soils in Florida. Nitrogen deficiency may limit sugarcane yields on these sand soils. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N fertilizer rate on growth and physiological characteristics of three ...


Determination of Yield and Soil Variability in Louisiana Sugarcane Using Selected Tools of Precision Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision agriculture is a production strategy that may help sugarcane producers decrease input costs, maximize profits, and minimize any negative environmental impact through better management of soil and crop variability. To determine the extent of variability present in commercial sugarcane fiel...


Quantitative analysis of the effect of selection history on sugar yield adaptation of sugarcane clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objective of the CSR sugarcane breeding programme in Australia was to assess the scope for broadening the genetic base of the commercial sugarcane germ plasm through interspecific hybridization with Saccharum spontaneum clones. The contribution of both selection history and S. spontaneum to sugar yield and its components was investigated in the germ plasm pool assembled. The analysis was conducted

B. L. Srivastava; M. Cooper; R. T. Mullins



Co-ordinated synthesis of gentiobiitol and sorbitol, evidence of sorbitol glycosylation in transgenic sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane (a Saccharum spp. interspecific hybrid) was previously engineered to synthesize sorbitol (designated as sorbitolcane). Motivated by the atypical development of the leaves in some sorbitolcane, the polar metabolite profiles in the leaves of those plants were compared against a group of control sugarcane plants. Eighty-six polar metabolites were detected in leaf extracts by GC–MS. Principal component analysis of the

Barrie Fong Chong; W. P. P. Abeydeera; Donna Glassop; Graham D. Bonnett; Michael G. O’Shea; Stevens M. Brumbley



Identification of parents for breeding sugarcane yellow leaf and ratoon stunt resistant cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infection and ratoon stunt reaction of Stage II CP-clones were evaluated as means to identify parents for the development of resistant cultivars in the Florida sugarcane breeding program. Over two seasons (2002 and 2003), natural SCYLV infection a...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A field experiment was conducted in the spring of 2002 to determine the effectiveness of high molecular weight anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) in stabilizing quarter drains(reducing soil erosion) on fields planted to sugarcane. Quarter drains are small surface ditches perpendicular to sugarcane furrow...


Diversity of cultivated endophytic bacteria from sugarcane: genetic and biochemical characterization of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and from inside the roots and stems of sugarcane plants grown in the field in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria were found in both the roots and the stems of sugarcane plants, with a significantly higher density in the roots. Many of the cultivated endophytic bacteria were shown to produce the plant growth hormone indoleacetic acid,

Rodrigo Mendes; Aline A. Pizzirani-Kleiner; Welington L. Araujo; Jos M. Raaijmakers



Seasonal Fiber Content of Three Sugarcane Cultivars in Three Crop Cycles on Sand and Muck Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate seasonal estimates of fiber are needed to maximize profits whether producing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for sucrose or ethanol. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample date and crop cycle on fiber content of three sugarcane cultivars growing on sand and organic...


Abstract: Seasonal Fiber Responses of Three Sugarcane Cultivars to Soil Type and Crop Cycle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technical Abstract: Fiber content is an important trait of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars. Sufficient fiber is needed to generate electricity for the sugarcane mill and refinery, but excessive fiber reduces sugar recovery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sample coll...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports results from our evaluations of the spatial variability in sugarcane yield and quality in relation to variation in soil chemical properties. Sugarcane cv 'LCP 85-384' was harvested in two un-treated producers' fields for three consecutive years in Schriever and Patoutville, LA. ...


Evaluation of crop and soil spatial variability in Louisiana sugarcane production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study reports results from our evaluations of the spatial variability of soil chemical properties in selected sugarcane soils of Southern Louisiana. Sugarcane variety LCP 85-384 was grown in two locations, Rebecca plantation in Schriever LA and Gralyn plantation in Patoutville LA. Each field w...


Optimization of sugarcane bagasse conversion by hydrothermal treatment for the recovery of xylose  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at the valorization of sugarcane bagasse by extracting xylose which is destined to the production of xylitol after purification and hydrogenation. Our approach consists in applying the principle of biorefinery to sugarcane bagasse because of its hemicellulose composition (particularly rich in xylan: (92%)). Optimizing of the thermal treatment was investigated. A treatment at 170°C for 2h was

Houda Boussarsar; Barbara Rogé; Mohamed Mathlouthi



Comparing biological and thermochemical processing of sugarcane bagasse: An energy balance perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical performance of lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation versus pyrolysis processes for sugarcane bagasse was evaluated, based on currently available technology. Process models were developed for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using three different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, liquid hot water and steam explosion, at various solid concentrations. Two pyrolysis processes, namely fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, were

N. H. Leibbrandt; J. H. Knoetze; J. F. Görgens




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the primary crop on the Histosols of the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), where undesirably high water tables are increasing in occurrence and duration. Improved understanding of sugarcane responses to these conditions could help develop cultivars and agronomic stra...


Sugarcane-based ethanol: production possibilities and trade implications for caribbean countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the feasibility of producing and exporting fuel grade ethanol from two Caribbean countries, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Ethanol is produced from sugarcane by replacing current sugar production and exports, or by substituting increased sugarcane production for other domestic crops. Impacts on regional agricultural production, resource use and foreign trade are examined using a regional linear programming





Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improving soil organic matter and soil fertility are important factors in the sustainability of sugarcane production on mineral soils. A trial was established in 2004 on a sandy Spodosol in Florida to compare the effect of organic and inorganic nutrient sources on soil fertility and sugarcane produ...


Enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentation of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse and rice straw for bioethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline wet oxidation was used as pretreatment method of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice straw (RS) prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At high enzyme loadings, the enzymatic hydrolysis of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse (SBWO) resulted in the highest degree of saccharification compared to wet oxidized rice straw (RSWO). However, at enzyme concentrations below 10 FPU\\/g-cellulose,


Identification of nutritional and environmental factors affecting sugarcane production in barbados  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane production in Barbados has declined since the 1950s. Plant nutrition and fertilization deficiencies are generally believed to negatively influence yields in Barbados. The objective of this study was to identify nutritional and environmental factors related to sugarcane yields. Leaf analyses, respective crop yields, and other data were collected from the Barbados Sugar Industry Ltd. during the period 1985–1990. The

D. L. Anderson; H. G. de Boer; K. M. Portier




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A search for molecular markers associated with resistance to sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) was initiated using microsatellite primers developed by a project funded by the International Consortium for Sugarcane Biotechnology. The goal was to develop rapid and precise methods to detect SCYLV res...


Microsatellite markers from sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) ESTs cross transferable to erianthus and sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of a sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) EST (expressed sequence tag) library of 8678 sequences revealed approximately 250 microsatellite or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) sequences. A diversity of dinucleotide and trinucleotide SSR repeat motifs were present although most were of the (CGG)n trinucleotide motif. Primer sets were designed for 35 sequences and tested on five sugarcane genotypes. Twenty-one primer pairs produced

Giovanni M Cordeiro; Rosanne E Casu; C Lynne McIntyre; John M Manners; Robert J Henry



Supercritical steam cycles and biomass integrated gasification combined cycles for sugarcane mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Back in 1970s and 1980s, cogeneration plants in sugarcane mills were primarily designed to consume all bagasse, and produce steam and electricity to the process. The plants used medium pressure steam boilers (21 bar and 300°C) and backpressure steam turbines. Some plants needed also an additional fuel, as the boilers were very inefficient. In those times, sugarcane bagasse did not

Luiz Felipe Pellegrini; Silvio de Oliveira Júnior; Juan Carlos Burbano



Feeding site of the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) on sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugarcane spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) is a pest of mechanically-harvested sugarcane in Brazil, when trash burning is not performed. To better understand the differences in feeding behavior of adults and nymphs of this pest and the subsequent disorders that arise, stylet penetration through fixation, staining and sectioning was investigated. Nymphs cause a \\

José Francisco Garcia; Eliane Grisoto; Paulo Sérgio Machado Botelho; José Roberto Postali Parra; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória



Characterisation of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family in sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) are encoded by a small multigenic family. In order to characterise this gene family in sugarcane, seven DNA fragments displaying a high homology with grass PEPC genes were isolated using polymerase chain reaction-based cloning. A phylogenetic study revealed the existence of four main PEPC gene lineages in grasses and particularly in sugarcane. Moreover, this analysis suggests that

G. Besnard; G. Pinçon; A. D'Hont; J.-Y. Hoarau; F. Cadet; B. Offmann



Flood Duration and Time of Flood Onset Effects on Recently Planted Sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Periodically flooding sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida improves soil conservation and reduces P discharge to the Everglades, but farmers are concerned that flooding recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane reduces yields. The purpose of this stud...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The allelopathic effect of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) post-harvest residue on oat (Avena nuda), rye (Secale cereale), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and sugarcane was investigated with water soluble extracts of the residue. Oat and rye germination was reduced by 17 and 1...


Modelling water uptake, growth and sucrose accumulation of sugarcane subjected to water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water stress affects the rate of water uptake, biomass accumulation and structural growth of sugarcane differently and, consequently, alters the partitioning of assimilate to sucrose storage. The CANEGRO sugarcane model is unable to accurately simulate the subtle rate changes in the source and sink processes during the progression of water stress during dry spells, with subsequent poor prediction of sucrose

A. Singels; M. van den Berg; M. A. Smit; M. R. Jones; R. van Antwerpen



Determination of Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis (delta)-Endotoxin Receptors to Rice Stem Borer Midguts  

PubMed Central

Insecticidal activity and receptor binding properties of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins to yellow and striped rice stem borers (Sciropophaga incertulas and Chilo suppresalis, respectively) were investigated. Yellow stem borer (YSB) was susceptible to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry2A, and Cry1C toxins with similar toxicities. To striped stem borer (SSB), Cry1Ac, Cry2A, and Cry1C were more toxic than Cry1Aa toxin. Binding assays were performed with (sup125)I-labeled toxins (Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry2A, and Cry1C) and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from YSB and SSB midguts. Both Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins showed saturable, high-affinity binding to YSB BBMV. Cry2A and Cry1C toxins bound to YSB BBMV with relatively low binding affinity but with high binding site concentration. To SSB, both Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac exhibited high binding affinity, although these toxins are less toxic than Cry1C and Cry2A. Cry1C and Cry2A toxins bound to SSB BBMV with relatively low binding affinity but with high binding site concentration. Heterologous competition binding assays were performed to investigate the binding site cross-reactivity. The results showed that Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac recognize the same binding site, which is different from the Cry2A or Cry1C binding site in YSB and SSB. These data suggest that development of multitoxin systems in transgenic rice with toxin combinations which recognize different binding sites may be useful in implementing deployment strategies that decrease the rate of pest adaptation to B. thuringiensis toxin-expressing rice varieties.

Lee, M. K.; Aguda, R. M.; Cohen, M. B.; Gould, F. L.; Dean, D. H.



Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  


Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C



Shoot\\/root assimilate allocation and nodulation of Vigna unguiculata seedlings as influenced by shoot light environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral balance of light received by southern pea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] seedling shoots affected photoassimilate allocation among leaves, stems and roots. A higher ratio of far-red (FR) relative to red (R) light resulted in longer stems, higher shoot\\/root biomass ratio, less massive roots and fewer nodules. The same response pattern to FR\\/R ratio was obtained in a controlled environment

M. J. Kasperbauer; P. G. Hunt



Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  


In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S



Evidence of improved shooting precision in biathlon after 10 weeks of combined relaxation and specific shooting training.  


The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a combined relaxation (applied tension release, ATR) and specific shooting training regimen may enhance shooting ability of biathlon athletes. Seven biathletes of high national level were randomized into an experimental group (age 20 ± 5 years; Vo2max 60 ± 8 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) and were asked to add this special training intervention to their regular training for 10 weeks, while five other biathletes served as controls (age 19 ± 2 years; Vo2max 57 ± 10 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). The shooting ability of the subjects was assessed before and after the intervention at rest and after roller skiing on a treadmill in a laboratory-based competition simulating assessment. After the intervention period, the experimental group demonstrated a significantly enhanced shooting performance compared to the control group. No changes in Vo2max or in heart rate and Vo2 responses were observed before and after the intervention in either group and there were no differences between the groups in these parameters. Thus, the preliminary conclusion is that a combination of ATR and specific shooting training seems to be instrumental in enhancing the shooting performance in biathlon. PMID:22017672

Laaksonen, Marko S; Ainegren, Mats; Lisspers, Jan



Temperature-Dependent Models for Predicting European Corn Borer Early Feeding on Corn in Missouri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is one of the most damaging insect pests to corn. Current yield losses attributed to the European corn borer are in the region of 400 million annually. Even though the European corn borer (ECB) has been extensively studied, few models exist that attempt to accurately predict its early infestation on corn. The basic problem encountered in formulating a first generation infestation prediction model is when to start calculating the temperature index. The exact conditions required to terminate diapause and the resumption of normal development are not well established. One of the old methods used in Missouri to predict the earliest date of ECB infestation involves the use of growing degree days, and by convention the heat units are arbitrarily calculated from January 1. This study was conducted to formulate prediction, and simulation-decision models for corn and first generation ECB infestation. The effects of variable maximum and minimum temperatures on the growth and development of the ECB were studied both in the laboratory and field designed experiments. Archival biological data from the IPM programs in three Missouri counties and weather data from weather stations were also used in corn phenology studies and to determine the dates of earliest ECB infestation on corn, for the period covering 1984 through 1989. Results from laboratory experiments suggest that the total growth and development period of ECB reared at variable temperatures is a constant value. However, the phenological development of the ECB stages does not follow a linear trend as earlier assumed during the introduction of the growing degree day model, but assumes a cubic curve. The starting point for the calculation of the temperature index in early spring occurs under conditions of longer than 13.0 hours of day length and a daily mean temperature of 60^ circF and above for at least five consecutive days. Three prediction models were developed. These are, the temperature departure model (R^2 = 0.36), and two time sequence models (R^2 = 0.68 and 0.90, respectively) using mean weekly temperatures for weeks 4, 5, and 6, coded from April 1. A single corn phenology model developed in this study can universally be applied to corn planted at any time during the growing season (R^2 = 0.79). Damage to corn by ECB can only occur when the first instar of the corn borer larvae coincides with the sixth stage of corn or greater.

Magai, Robert Nthipe


Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females.  


The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was ca. 10 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by antennae of both males and females. Identification was confirmed by synthesis. The behavioral effects of the lactone remain unstudied in A. planipennis, but a verified pheromonal function could lead to improved monitoring for this invasive pest. The lactone is part of the pheromone of Cryptolestes pusillus, an unrelated beetle species. PMID:18027429

Bartelt, Robert J; Cossé, Allard A; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Fraser, Ivich



Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.  


Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots. PMID:14965950

Castell, C; Terradas, J



Shoot multiplication kinetics and hyperhydric status of regenerated shoots of gladiolus in agar-solidified and matrix-supported liquid cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro shoot regeneration of gladiolus in three different culture systems, viz., semi-solid agar (AS), membrane raft (MR),\\u000a and duroplast foam liquid (DF) cultures was evaluated following the kinetics of shoot multiplication and hyperhydricity at\\u000a optimized growth regulator combinations. Compared to the AS system, matrix-supported liquid cultures enhanced shoot multiplication.\\u000a The peak of shoot multiplication rate was attained at 18 days

S. Dutta GuptaV; V. S. S. Prasad




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach that attacks the trunk and roots at, and just below, soil level. At present, a trunk-applied insecticide is the only control used against this pest throughout the southeastern US. We investigated the susc...



Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory survey for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and its natural enemies was conducted in China during October and November 2003. We examined 29 field plots in six provinces. We visually inspected living Fraxinus chinensis, F. mandshurica, F. pennsylvanica, F. rhynchophylla, and F. velutina then peeled off the bark in search of A. planipennis and associated natural enemies.

Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack


Ash decline assessment in emerald ash borer-infested regions: A test of tree-level, hyperspectral technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic insect pest currently threatening ash species in the Great Lakes region. Because of the potential impact on forests in this area, multiple government agencies are currently focusing their efforts on developing new technologies to detect, monitor and control this insect pest. Previous work has shown that hyperspectral remote sensing technologies can produce

Jennifer Pontius; Mary Martin; Lucie Plourde; Richard Hallett




Microsoft Academic Search

City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city foresters can avoid harm from falling trees by removing, replacing, or treating them with insecticides. Costs for these activities

Clifford S. Sadof



Interactive Influence of Leaf Age, Light Intensity, and Girdling on Green Ash Foliar Chemistry and Emerald Ash Borer Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance\\u000a to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected

Yigen Chen; Therese M. Poland



douBlE-dECKERs And ToWERs: EmERAld Ash BoRER TRAPs in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective and efficient methods to detect and monitor emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus plani- pennis Fairmaire, have been a high priority for scientists since this invasive pest was identified in 2002. In 2006, our objectives included development of a practical trap design suitable for operational programs and evaluation of lures. In 2007, we continued this work and assessed additional trap

Andrea C. Anulewicz


Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003–2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against A. planipennis adults in greenhouse studies. However, efficacy was improved in the field when B.

Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer



Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...


Host-seeking behavior and parasitism by Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a newly described and important idiobiont ectoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (EAB) that has excellent potential as a biological control agent against EAB populations in the USA. In order to understand the ecological factors involved in the search and discovery of concealed hosts by S. agrili, we investigated the behavioral responses of adult

Xiao-Yi Wang; Zhong-Qi Yang; Juli R. Gould; Hui Wu; Jian-Hai Ma



Developing rearing methods for Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tetrastichus planipennisi Yong, a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid, is one of three hymenopteran parasitoids being released in the U.S. for biological control of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmair, EAB), an invasive beetle from Asia causing mortality of the ash trees (Fraxinus s...


Population responses of hymenopteran parasitoids to the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in recently invaded areas in Michigan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Populations of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with immature stages of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were surveyed in 2009 and 2010 in the recently invaded areas in Michigan, where the two introduced EAB larval parasitoids, Tetrastic...


Effects of Chipping, Grinding, and Heat on Survival of Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect from Asia, was identiÞed in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus sp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and Essex County, Ontario. Most larvae overwinter as nonfeeding prepupae in the outer sapwood or thick bark of large trees. In a series of studies, we evaluated effects of grinding,

Deborah G. Mccullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert; Erin L. Clark; Ivich Fraser; Victor Mastro; Sarah Smith; Christopher Pell



Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...


Nontarget effects on aquatic decomposer organisms of imidacloprid as a systemic insecticide to control emerald ash borer in riparian trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imidacloprid is effective against emerald ash borer when applied as a systemic insecticide. Following stem or soil injections to trees in riparian areas, imidacloprid residues could be indirectly introduced to aquatic systems via leaf fall or leaching. Either route of exposure may affect non-target, aquatic decomposer organisms. Leaves from ash trees treated with imidacloprid at two field rates and an

David Kreutzweiser; Kevin Good; Derek Chartrand; Taylor Scarr; Dean Thompson



Relationships between the emergence and oviposition of ectoparasitoid Spathius agrili Yang and its host emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), (= A. marcopoli Obenberger), is an important bark beetle attacking ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). It is very difficult to detect and control because of its highly concealed life history. This pest mainly distributed\\u000a in partial Asian countries (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia) and Far East Russia, while in China it presented in

Xiaoyi Wang; Zhongqi Yang; Guijun Liu; Enshan Liu



Impact of Pesticides Borate and Imidacloprid on Insect Emergence from Logs Infested by the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was discovered on North American soil in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, Michigan, U.S., and has since spread to six states\\/provinces. To alleviate these costs, a method of sanitization is urgently needed. This study evaluated four different chemical sanitation methods in laboratory and field conditions. Treatments included two borate treatments, spray and dip, with

Pascal Nzokou; Samuel Tourtellot; D. Pascal



African marigold as a trap crop for the management of the fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera on tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using okra, field bean, pigeon pea, sunflower, maize and marigold as trap crops for the management of the fruit borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on tomato was evaluated. Initial experiments involved observational row trials with simultaneous planting\\/seeding of both tomato and trap crops in exploded blocks. One row of these crops was raised on either side and parallel

K. Srinivasan; P. N. Krishna Moorthy; T. N. Raviprasad