Sample records for sugarcane shoot borer

  1. Genetic transformation and pyramiding of aprotinin-expressing sugarcane with cry1Ab for shoot borer (Chilo infuscatellus) resistance.

    PubMed

    Arvinth, S; Arun, S; Selvakesavan, R K; Srikanth, J; Mukunthan, N; Ananda Kumar, P; Premachandran, M N; Subramonian, N

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated the insecticidal toxicity of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins against neonate larvae of sugarcane shoot borer Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in vitro on diet surface. With the lowest LC(50) value, Cry1Ab emerged as the most effective among the three toxins. Sugarcane cultivars Co 86032 and CoJ 64 were transformed with cry1Ab gene driven by maize ubiquitin promoter through particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation systems. Gene pyramiding was also attempted by retransforming sugarcane plants carrying bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin) gene, with cry1Ab. Southern analysis confirmed multiple integration of the transgene in case of particle bombardment and single site integration in Agrobacterium-mediated transformants. The expression of cry1Ab was demonstrated through Western analysis and the toxin was quantified using ELISA. The amount of Cry1Ab protein in different events varied from 0.007 to 1.73% of the total soluble leaf protein; the events transformed by Agrobacterium method showed significantly higher values. In in vivo bioassay with neonate larvae of shoot borer, transgenics produced considerably lower percentage of deadhearts despite suffering feeding damage by the borer compared with the untransformed control plants. Expressed Cry1Ab content was negatively related to deadheart damage. Aprotinin-expressing sugarcane pyramided with cry1Ab also showed reduction in damage. The potential of producing sugarcane transgenics with cry1Ab and aprotinin genes resistant to early shoot borer was discussed in the light of the results obtained. PMID:20179936

  2. Sugarcane borer resistance in sugarcane as affected by silicon applications in potting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is the most important insect pest of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum) in the Americas, and the key insect pest of sugarcane in Louisiana. Although the release of borer resistant varieties is sporadic in Louisiana, p...

  3. SUPPLEMENTING NATIVE SUGARCANE BORER INFESTATIONS BY ARTIFICIAL INFESTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When conducting assessments of the response of sugarcane varieties to feeding by the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), we routinely intercrop sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) rows with a row of corn (Zea mays) and infest these corn plants with laboratory reared, first-instar...

  4. ASSOCIATION OF SUGARCANE PITH, RIND HARDNESS, AND FIBER WITH RESISTANCE TO THE SUGARCANE BORER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting sugarcane varieties with natural resistance to the sugarcane borer is an attractive alternative to pesticides for controlling damaging infestations of this important insect pest. Unfortunately some of the plant traits (i.e. plant stalk fiber) that have been identified as conferring resistan...

  5. Registration of two sugarcane germplasm clones with antibiosis to the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 08-9001’ and ‘Ho 08-9003’ germplasm were selected as early-generation clones (Saccharum x S. spontaneum) for the combined traits of resistance to the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis), vigorous growth habit, biomass yield, and high sucrose levels for a wide cross. Ho 08-9001 expressed 13% b...

  6. Tri-trophic Analyses of Rice, the Sugarcane Borer, and Putative Biological Control Agents

    E-print Network

    Lv, Jiale

    2010-01-14

    A three-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the tolerance and compensatory response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to injury caused by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.). Two mechanisms of within-plant tolerance/compensation were...

  7. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  8. Influence of drought stress on Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) oviposition preference in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), has been spreading northward from Mexico and Texas sugarcane and rice, and invasion of Louisiana is projected. This study showed drought stress increases water potential in sugarcane plants and results in >3.4-fold more dry leaves than in well-watered...

  9. Utilizing Diapause in a Sugarcane Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Laboratory Colony as a Cost Saving Measure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to rear insects in the laboratory broadens the scope of research opportunities available to the scientist. We routinely rear the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), for our research in host plant resistance and biological control of this important sugarcane pest. Unfortunately, i...

  10. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed. PMID:20857726

  11. Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) management threshold assessment on four sugarcane cultivars.

    PubMed

    Posey, F R; White, W H; Reay-Jones, F P F; Gravois, K; Salassi, M E; Leonard, B R; Reagan, T E

    2006-06-01

    This research assesses the potential for using different economic injury thresholds in management of a key insect pest on susceptible and resistant commercially produced cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). In a 2-yr sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), study involving four commercially produced sugarcane cultivars and four insecticide treatment thresholds, 'LCP 85-384' and 'HoCP 91-555' were the most susceptible based on percentage of bored internodes compared with the more resistant 'HoCP 85-845' and 'CP 70-321'. In 2001, the 10% infested stalks threshold was not as effective as the 5% early season-10% late season and 5% full season for HoCP 91-555. Based on D. saccharalis injury under natural infestation conditions, susceptible cultivars seem to require a lower infestation threshold than the more resistant cultivars to achieve adequate injury reduction. Among yield components, only the theoretical recoverable sugar per stalk was significantly increased by applying insecticides. With the resistant HoCP 85-845, differences were not detected for percentage of bored internodes among treated versus untreated management regimes. The resistant HoCP 85-845 had higher levels of fiber in our study; however, no clear pattern on resistance mechanisms was established, because the resistant cultivar CP 70-321 had comparatively low levels of fiber. The development of cultivar-specific thresholds is expected to lower the amount of insecticide used for D. saccharalis management in the sugarcane industry, reduce selection pressure, and delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:16813338

  12. Management of sugarcane borer populations in Louisiana, a decade of change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Hensley

    1971-01-01

    The sugarcane borerDiatrea saccharalis (F.) is the most serious and destructive insect attacking sugarcane in Louisiana. Losses in sugar yields ascribed to damage\\u000a by this pest were estimated to have averaged 13% anally from 1937 to 1957. Biological and cultural control measures have been\\u000a of little benefit against economically damaging infestations ofD. saccharalis and insecticides have historically assumed a major

  13. Regeneration of sugarcane elite breeding lines and engineering of stem borer resistance.

    PubMed

    Weng, Li-Xing; Deng, Haihua; Xu, Jin-Ling; Li, Qi; Wang, Lian-Hui; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Hai Bao; Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2006-02-01

    Five elite sugarcane breeding lines were tested for efficiency in embryogenesis and plant regeneration. All of them produced regenerative embryogenic calli but with varied efficiencies. To engineer strongly insect-resistant sugarcanes, the GC content of a truncated cry1Ac gene, which encodes the active region of Cry1Ac insecticidal delta-endotoxin, was increased from the original 37.4 to 47.5% following the sugarcane codon usage pattern. The synthetic cry1Ac gene (s-cry1Ac) was placed under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter and introduced by microprojectile bombardment into the embryogenic calli of sugarcane lines YT79-177 and ROC16. Southern blotting analysis showed that multicopies of s-cry1Ac were integrated into the genomes of transgenic sugarcane lines. Immunoblotting analysis identified 18 transgenic lines expressing detectable levels of s-Cry1Ac, which were estimated in the range of 1.8-10.0 ng mg(-1) total soluble proteins. Four transgenic and two parental lines were assayed for sugarcane stem borer resistance in leaf tissue feeding trials and greenhouse plant assays. The results showed that, while the untransformed control lines were severely damaged in both leaves and stems, the transgenic sugarcane lines expressing high levels of s-Cry1Ac proteins were highly resistant to sugarcane stem borer attack, resulting in complete mortality of the inoculated insects within 1 week after inoculation. PMID:16408322

  14. Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae): A candidate biological control agent of the sugarcane borer in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...

  15. Study on Bt Susceptibility and Resistance Mechanisms in the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dose response and growth inhibition of Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, were evaluated with Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the Cry1Ab-resistant strain was estimated to be >80- and 45-fold greater than that of...

  16. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

  17. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  18. Microprojectile transformation of sugarcane meristems and regeneration of shoots expressing ?-Glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Gambley, R L; Ford, R; Smith, G R

    1993-04-01

    Microprojectile bombardment was used to introduce the GUS reporter gene into sugarcane axillary meristems. Chimeric expression of this gene was observed in 20-40% of shoots regenerated from sugarcane meristems one month after particle bombardment. The linear pattern of GUS expression observed is consistent with periclinal division from single transformed meristematic cells. Meristems have advantages over callus cells as targets for microprojectile transformation, and have potential for introducing agronomically important genes into current commercial sugarcane varieties. PMID:24197261

  19. Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), injury to corn greater than to sorghum and sugarcane under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in Texas; it can attack a number of grassy crop and noncrop host plants, and has spread into Louisiana. Through small plot, commercial field, and pheromone trap experiments, this study demonstrates that the...

  20. Impact of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as an augmentative biocontrol agent for sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to find an appropriate biological control agent for release in rice, a 2-year field cage experiment was conducted in Beaumont, Texas to estimate parasitism of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), by Cotesia flavipes (Cameron). The effective search rate was 0.0049 square meter gro...

  1. Transgenic Bt corn varietal resistance against the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Cramibidae) and implications to sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), attacks crops including corn, Zea mays L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; and sugarcane, Saccharum spp., but strongly resistant varieties of any kind, native or otherwise, have not been identified. A field plot corn varie...

  2. Sugarcane Giant Borer Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Genes Related to Digestion

    PubMed Central

    de Assis Fonseca, Fernando Campos; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect’s biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control. PMID:25706301

  3. Sugarcane giant borer transcriptome analysis and identification of genes related to digestion.

    PubMed

    de Assis Fonseca, Fernando Campos; Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; de Sousa Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; de Góis, Luiz Avelar Brandão; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is a widely cultivated plant that serves primarily as a source of sugar and ethanol. Its annual yield can be significantly reduced by the action of several insect pests including the sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus), a lepidopteran that presents a long life cycle and which efforts to control it using pesticides have been inefficient. Although its economical relevance, only a few DNA sequences are available for this species in the GenBank. Pyrosequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome of several developmental stages of the insect. To maximize transcript diversity, a pool of total RNA was extracted from whole body insects and used to construct a normalized cDNA database. Sequencing produced over 650,000 reads, which were de novo assembled to generate a reference library of 23,824 contigs. After quality score and annotation, 43% of the contigs had at least one BLAST hit against the NCBI non-redundant database, and 40% showed similarities with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori. In a further analysis, we conducted a comparison with Manduca sexta midgut sequences to identify transcripts of genes involved in digestion. Of these transcripts, many presented an expansion or depletion in gene number, compared to B. mori genome. From the sugarcane giant borer (SGB) transcriptome, a number of aminopeptidase N (APN) cDNAs were characterized based on homology to those reported as Cry toxin receptors. This is the first report that provides a large-scale EST database for the species. Transcriptome analysis will certainly be useful to identify novel developmental genes, to better understand the insect's biology and to guide the development of new strategies for insect-pest control. PMID:25706301

  4. Water stress augments silicon-mediated resistance of susceptible sugarcane cultivars to the stalk borer Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Kvedaras, O L; Keeping, M G; Goebel, F-R; Byrne, M J

    2007-04-01

    Silicon (Si) can improve resistance of plants to insect attack and may also enhance tolerance of water stress. This study tested if Si-mediated host plant resistance to insect attack was augmented by water stress. Four sugarcane cultivars, two resistant (N21, N33) and two susceptible (N26, N11) to Eldana saccharina Walker were grown in a pot trial in Si-deficient river sand, with (Si+) and without (Si-) calcium silicate. To induce water stress, irrigation to half the trial was reduced after 8.5 months. The trial was artificially infested with E. saccharina eggs after water reduction and harvested 66 days later. Silicon treated, stressed and non-stressed plants of the same cultivar did not differ appreciably in Si content. Decreases in numbers of borers recovered and stalk damage were not associated with comparable increases in rind hardness in Si+ cane, particularly in water-stressed susceptible cultivars. Overall, Si+ plants displayed increased resistance to E. saccharina attack compared with Si- plants. Borer recoveries were significantly lower in stressed Si+ cane compared with either stressed Si- or non-stressed Si- and Si+ cane. Generally, fewer borers were recovered from resistant cultivars than susceptible cultivars. Stalk damage was significantly lower in Si+ cane than in Si- cane, for N21, N11 and N26. Stalk damage was significantly less in Si+ combined susceptible cultivars than in Si- combined susceptible cultivars under non-stressed and especially stressed conditions. In general, the reduction in borer numbers and stalk damage in Si+ plants was greater for water-stressed cane than non-stressed cane, particularly for susceptible sugarcane cultivars. The hypothesis that Si affords greater protection against E. saccharina borer attack in water-stressed sugarcane than in non-stressed cane and that this benefit is greatly enhanced in susceptible cultivars is supported. A possible active role for soluble Si in defence against E. saccharina is proposed. PMID:17411480

  5. Bioinsecticidal activity of conidia and dry mycelium preparations of two isolates of Beauveria bassiana against the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge A Arcas; Beatriz M D??az; Roberto E Lecuona

    1999-01-01

    Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bb1 and Bb5 strains) were grown in solid-state and submerged cultures (SSC and SbC, respectively) in order to obtain conidia and dry mycelium preparations. The samples obtained at laboratory scale were tested as alternatives for their further use as mycoinsecticides to control the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis. The spore yields obtained in SSC indicated that

  6. Critical electrolyte concentration of silk gland chromatin of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis, induced using agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals. PMID:25299111

  7. Engineering sugarcane cultivars with bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin) gene for protection against top borer (Scirpophaga excerptalis Walker).

    PubMed

    Christy, Leela Amala; Arvinth, S; Saravanakumar, M; Kanchana, M; Mukunthan, N; Srikanth, J; Thomas, George; Subramonian, N

    2009-02-01

    The inhibitory activity of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (aprotinin), a natural polypeptide and a proteinase inhibitor, was demonstrated on gut proteinases of three lepidopteran borers of sugarcane using commercially available aprotinin. A synthetic gene coding for aprotinin, designed and codon optimized for better expression in plant system (Shantaram 1999), was transferred to two sugarcane cultivars namely CoC 92061 and Co 86032 through particle bombardment. Aprotinin gene expression was driven by maize ubiquitin promoter and the plant selection marker used was hygromycin resistance. The integration, expression and functionality of the transgene was confirmed by Southern, Western and insect bioassay, respectively. Southern analysis showed two to four integration sites of the transgene in the transformed plants. Independent transgenic events showed varied levels of transgene expression resulting in different levels (0.16-0.50%) of aprotinin. In in vivo bioassay studies, larvae of top borer Scirpophaga excerptalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) fed on transgenics showed significant reduction in larval weight which indicated impairment of their development. Results of this study show the possibility of deploying aprotinin gene for the development of transgenic sugarcane cultivars resistant to top borer. PMID:18985354

  8. Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing high levels of modified cry1Ac provide effective control against stem borers in field trials.

    PubMed

    Weng, Li-Xing; Deng, Hai-Hua; Xu, Jin-Ling; Li, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qian; Jiang, Zi-De; Li, Qi-Wei; Chen, Jian-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2011-08-01

    To improve transgene expression level, we synthesized a truncated insecticidal gene m-cry1Ac by increasing its GC content from 37.4 to 54.8%, based on the codon usage pattern of sugarcane genes, and transferred it into two sugarcane cultivars (ROC16 and YT79-177) by microprojectile bombardment. The integration sites and expression pattern of the transgene were determined, respectively, by Southern, northern and western blot analyses. The transgenic sugarcane lines produced up to 50 ng Cry1Ac protein per mg soluble proteins, which was about fivefold higher than that produced by the partially modified s-cry1Ac (GC% = 47.5%). In greenhouse plant assay, about 62% of the transgenic lines exhibited excellent resistance to heavy infestation by stem borers. In field trials, the m-cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane lines expressing high levels of Cry1Ac were immune from insect attack. In contrast, expression of s-cry1Ac in transgenic sugarcane plants resulted in moderately decreased damages in internodes (0.4-1.7%) and stalks (13.3-26.7%) in comparison with the untransformed sugarcane controls, which showed about 4 and 26-40% damaged internodes and stalks, respectively. Significantly, these transgenic sugarcane lines with high levels of insect resistance showed similar agronomic and industrial traits as untransformed control plants. Taken together, the findings from this study indicate a promising potential of engineering an insect-resistant gene to tailor its protein expression levels in transgenic sugarcane to combat insect infestations. PMID:21046242

  9. Resistance to the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) among Louisiana and Texas sugarcane cultivars.

    PubMed

    Reay-Jones, F P F; Way, M O; Sétamou, M; Legendre, B L; Reagan, T E

    2003-12-01

    A 2-yr study to evaluate Louisiana and Texas sugarcane, Saccharum spp., cultivars for resistance to the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) was conducted in two locations in Texas, chosen for having different infestation levels. Criteria for assessment of resistance included percentage of bored internodes and adult emergence holes, the latter used to determine the relative impact of each cultivar on the potential areawide buildup or reduction of adult E. loftini populations. A recently released cultivar, HoCP 85-845, seemed to lose a portion of its resistance under heavy E. loftini infestation pressure, suggesting its value only in moderate-to-low infestation conditions. Cultivar CP 70-321 was the most resistant. Results indicated that cultivar LCP 85-384 was significantly (P < 0.05) more susceptible than NCo 310, traditionally the most susceptible cultivar commercially produced in Texas. In 2001, LCP 85-384, which now represents 85% of the production area in Louisiana, had the greatest moth production per hectare (17,052 +/- 3,956) under the lower infestation pressure, significantly (P < 0.05) higher than HoCP 85-845 (3,038 +/- 2,353). In a portion of the test at the high-infestation location, high levels of sodium and magnesium salt stress (15-30-cm soil depth) were associated with higher E. loftini damage in all cultivars except HoCP 91-555 and CP 70-321. PMID:14977135

  10. Geographical susceptibility of Louisiana and Texas populations of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidopetera: Crambidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The susceptibility of 18 field populations of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) to two sources of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein was determined by laboratory bioassays. Fifteen of the 18 field populations were collected from seven locations across Louisiana and the other 3 popula...

  11. Characterization and transcriptional analyses of cDNAs encoding three trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases in Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major corn borer pest and a target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in South America and the U.S. mid-southern region. With a major role in dietary protein digestion, midgut serine proteinases are essential for insect growth and development. ...

  12. Geographic Population Structure of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Andrea L.; White, William H.; Nuessly, Gregg S.; Solis, M. Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J.; Lewis, Matthew L.; Medina, Raul F.

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

  13. Biocontrol of the Sugarcane Borer Eldana saccharina by Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac7 and Serratia marcescens chiA Genes in Sugarcane-Associated Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATRINA J. DOWNING; GRAEME LESLIE; JENNIFER A. THOMSON

    2000-01-01

    The cry1Ac7 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 234, showing activity against the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina, was cloned under the control of the tac promoter. The fusion was introduced into the broad-host- range plasmid pKT240 and the integration vector pJFF350 and without the tac promoter into the broad-host- range plasmids pML122 and pKmM0. These plasmids were introduced into a Pseudomonas

  14. Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

  15. Improved chemical control for the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera Crambidae) in sugarcane: larval exposure, a novel scouting method, and efficacy of a single aerial insecticide application.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B E; Showler, A T; Reagan, T E; Beuzelin, J M

    2012-12-01

    A three-treatment aerial application insecticide experiment was conducted in five commercial sugarcane, Saccharum spp., fields in south Texas to evaluate the use of pheromone traps for improving chemical control of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), in 2009 and 2010. A threshold of 20 moths/trap/wk was used to initiate monitoring for larval infestations. The percentage of stalks with larvae on plant surfaces was directly related to the number of moths trapped. Reductions in borer injury and adult emergence were detected when a threshold of >5% of stalks with larvae present on plant surfaces was used to trigger insecticide applications. Novaluron provided superior control compared with beta-cyfluthrin; novaluron treated plots were associated with a 14% increase in sugar production. A greenhouse experiment investigating establishment and behavior of E. loftini larvae on two phenological stages of stalkborer resistant, HoCP 85-845, and susceptible, HoCP 00-950, sugarcane cultivars determined that more than half of larvae on HoCP 00-950 and > 25% on HoCP 85-845 tunneled inside leaf mid-ribs within 1 d of eclosion, protected therein from biological and chemical control tactics. Exposure time of larvae averaged < 1 wk for all treatments and was shortest on immature HoCP 00-950 and longest on mature HoCP 85-845. This study shows a short window of vulnerability of E. loftini larvae to insecticide applications, and demonstrates the potential utility of pheromone traps for improving insecticide intervention timing such that a single properly timed application may be all that is required. PMID:23356064

  16. Molecular characterization of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I and their phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Shashank, P R; Ojha, Rakshit; Venkatesan, T; Jalali, S K; Bhanu, K R M

    2015-01-01

    Shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is an important insect pest infesting brinjal or eggplant in India. Molecular characterization of nine different populations belonging to various brinjal growing regions was done using Cytochorome C Oxidase I (COI) gene. Nucleotide analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of the COI indicate that the L. orbonalis from different geographical regions are homogenous. The results showed less nucleotide diversity (? = 0.007895) and overall mean distance (0.008 ± 0.003). Topologies of neighbour-joining (NJ) trees indicate all the populations belong to single major clade. Therefore, it is inferred that there was no significant molecular diversity within L. orbonalis of different geographical locations of India with respect to COI. PMID:25675712

  17. Biocontrol of the Sugarcane Borer Eldana saccharina by Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac7 and Serratia marcescens chiA Genes in Sugarcane-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Katrina J.; Leslie, Graeme; Thomson, Jennifer A.

    2000-01-01

    The cry1Ac7 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 234, showing activity against the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina, was cloned under the control of the tac promoter. The fusion was introduced into the broad-host-range plasmid pKT240 and the integration vector pJFF350 and without the tac promoter into the broad-host-range plasmids pML122 and pKmM0. These plasmids were introduced into a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from the phylloplane of sugarcane and the endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae found in sugarcane. The ptac-cry1Ac7 construct was introduced into the chromosome of P. fluorescens using the integration vector pJFF350 carrying the artificial interposon Omegon-Km. Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of the integrated cry1Ac7 gene were much higher under the control of the tac promoter than under the control of its endogenous promoter. It was also determined that multicopy expression in P. fluorescens and H. seropedicae of ptac-cry1Ac7 carried on pKT240 caused plasmid instability with no detectable protein expression. In H. seropedicae, more Cry1Ac7 toxin was produced when the gene was cloned under the control of the Nmr promoter on pML122 than in the opposite orientation and bioassays showed that the former resulted in higher mortality of E. saccharina larvae than the latter. P. fluorescens 14::ptac-tox resulted in higher mortality of larvae than did P. fluorescens 14::tox. An increased toxic effect was observed when P. fluorescens 14::ptac-tox was combined with P. fluorescens carrying the Serratia marcescens chitinase gene chiA, under the control of the tac promoter, integrated into the chromosome. PMID:10877771

  18. Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of the most important crops globally, providing most of the world’s sugar and bio-energy (ethanol and electricity). This contribution has been underpinned by the successful introgression of genes from wild germplasm, particularly from Saccharum spontaneum, by breeders in the early 1...

  19. Alternate crop and weed host plant oviposition preferences by the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is the key pest of sugarcane, Saccharum hybrids, in south Texas, having largely displaced the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and it is moving into rice- and sugarcane-growing areas of east Texas and Louisiana. While a number of alternativ...

  20. Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera, Crambidae] was first discovered in

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Mexican rice borer ... an introduction Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), Lepidoptera sugarcane, rice, corn, lemongrass, sorghum, and sudangrass causing millions of dollars in increased in Florida, pheromone traps that attract Mexican rice borer (MRB) male moths were initially placed around

  1. Down Regulation of a Gene for Cadherin, but Not Alkaline Phosphatase, Associated with Cry1Ab Resistance in the Sugarcane Borer Diatraea saccharalis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ottea, James; Husseneder, Claudia; Leonard, B. Rogers; Abel, Craig; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins (i.e., Cry1Ab) in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of transgenic Bt crops. Understanding the pests' resistance mechanisms will facilitate development of effective strategies for delaying or countering resistance. Alterations in expression of cadherin- and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been associated with Bt resistance in several species of pest insects. In this study, neither the activity nor gene regulation of ALP was associated with Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis. Total ALP enzymatic activity was similar between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains of D. saccharalis. In addition, expression levels of three ALP genes were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and -RR, and cDNA sequences did not differ between susceptible and resistant larvae. In contrast, altered expression of a midgut cadherin (DsCAD1) was associated with the Cry1Ab resistance. Whereas cDNA sequences of DsCAD1 were identical between the two strains, the transcript abundance of DsCAD1 was significantly lower in Cry1Ab-RR. To verify the involvement of DsCAD1 in susceptibility to Cry1Ab, RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to knock-down DsCAD1 expression in the susceptible larvae. Down-regulation of DsCAD1 expression by RNAi was functionally correlated with a decrease in Cry1Ab susceptibility. These results suggest that down-regulation of DsCAD1 is associated with resistance to Cry1Ab in D. saccharalis. PMID:21991350

  2. Origin and Expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae): A Mixture of Historical Natural Expansion and Contemporary Human-Mediated Relocation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

  3. Origin and expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (coleoptera: scolytinae): a mixture of historical natural expansion and contemporary human-mediated relocation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jun; Hu, Shao-ji; Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

  4. Diversity of soil fungi in North 24 Parganas and their antagonistic potential against Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. (Shoot and fruit borer of brinjal).

    PubMed

    Pal, Sujoy; Ghosh, Swapan Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Soil samples were collected from agricultural fields and gardens in North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, and fungi species were isolated from them. Thirty-one fungal species were isolated with 19 found in agricultural soil and 28 in garden soil. Twenty-eight out of 31 were identified using cultural and microscopic characters, and three were unidentified. The diversity of isolated fungi was calculated by Simpson's diversity index. The garden soil possessed more fungal colonies (750) than agricultural soil (477). In agricultural soil, the dominant fungi were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, and Penicillium expansum, and the dominant fungi of garden soil were A. niger and Fusarium moniliforme. Simpson's diversity index indicated that garden soil had more fungal diversity (0.939) than agricultural soil (0.896). The entomopathogenic capacity of the isolated fungi was tested against the brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen) which is the major insect pest of brinjal. The isolated fungi were screened against larva of L. orbonalis for their entomopathogenic potential. Beauveria bassiana, A. niger, and P. expansum showed appreciable antagonism to L. orbonalis, and their lethal doses with 50 % mortality (LD50s) were 4.0?×?10(7), 9.06?×?10(7), and 1.50?×?10(8) spore/mL, respectively, and their times taken to reach 50 % mortality (LT50s) were 9.77, 10.56, and 10.60 days, respectively. This work suggests the restriction of chemical pesticide application in agricultural fields to increase fungal diversity. The entomopathogenic efficacy of B. bassiana could be used in agricultural fields to increase fugal diversity and protect the brinjal crop. PMID:25213561

  5. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  6. REPORT ON THE 2006 BORER YIELD REDUCTION EVALUATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important that farmers and their crop consultants know how newly released varieties of sugarcane will respond to infestations of its key insect pest the sugarcane borer. In an effort to provide this information, varieties are routinely evaluated for their response to season-long infestations o...

  7. Ecology and tactics of control for three sugarcane stalkboring species in the Western Hemisphere and Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on three species, the sugarcane borer, the Mexican rice borer, and the eldana borer, because they are economically important in their ranges and because among them are examples of interspecific competition, similarities between species of different continents and differences bet...

  8. PEACHTREE BORER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Say) is a serious tree-infesting pest of Prunus species that is native to much of North America. It is a pest of peach, plums, nectarines, cherries and related plant species. Adults of this pest species exhibit sexual dimorphism with females being larger ...

  9. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids).

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation of sugarcane has a tremendous potential to complement traditional breeding in crop improvement and will likely transform sugarcane into a bio-factory for value-added products. We describe here Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of sugarcane. Embryogenic callus induced from immature leaf whorls was used as target for transformation with the hypervirulent Agrobacterium strain AGL1 carrying a constitutive nptII expression cassette in vector pPZP200. Selection with 30 mg/L geneticin during the callus phase and 30 mg/L paromomycin during regeneration of shoots and roots effectively suppressed the development of non-transgenic plants. This protocol was successful with a commercially important sugarcane cultivar, CP-88-1762, at a transformation efficiency of two independent transgenic plants per g of callus. PMID:25416267

  10. Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane: Isolation of the Causal Bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Davis; A. Graves Gillaspie; Russell W. Harris; Roger H. Lawson

    1980-01-01

    A small coryneform bacterium was consistently isolated from sugarcane with ratoon stunting disease and shown to be the causal agent. A similar bacterium was isolated from Bermuda grass. Both strains multiplied in sugarcane and Bermuda grass, but the Bermuda grass strain did not incite the symptoms of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane. Shoot growth in Bermuda grass was retarded by

  11. Life table studies of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Hardev S; Nuessly, Gregg S; Webb, Susan E; Cherry, Ronald H; Gilbert, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    The lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an important pest of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) in southern Florida. Reproductive and life table parameters for E. lignosellus were examined at nine constant temperatures from 13 to 36 °C with sugarcane as the larval food source. The pre- and postoviposition periods decreased with increasing temperatures and reached their minimums at 33 and 36 °C, respectively. The oviposition period was longest at 27 °C. The mean fecundity, stage-specific survival, stage-specific fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase were greatest at 30 °C and decreased with increasing or decreasing temperature. The net reproductive rate was greatest at 27 °C. The Logan-6 model best described the relationship between temperature and intrinsic rate of increase. The generation and population doubling times were longest at 13 and shortest at 33 and 30 °C, respectively. The most favorable temperatures for E. lignosellus population growth were between 27 and 33°C. Life table parameters for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane were greater than for the Mexican rice borer [Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on an artificial diet at 30 °C. The intrinsic rates of increase for the sugarcane borer [Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)] reared on sugarcane or corn were the same as for E. lignosellus reared on sugarcane at 27 °C, but the net reproductive rate was four times higher for the former than the latter borer species. PMID:22182570

  12. LESSER PEACHTREE BORER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) is a native insect that is an important pest of native and introduced Prunus species. Lesser peachtree borer is found in most peach growing areas east of the Rocky Mountains. Male and female moths of this species are very similar ...

  13. Management strategies for borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes) are native insects that cause serious damage to peach trees in the southeastern U.S. Damage by both species is exacted on trees through larvae feeding on the cambium. Management of the univoltine peachtree...

  14. Emerald ash borer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (USDA; Forest Service)

    2004-11-13

    The emerald ash borer is an insect that was introduced to the United States on accident. The larvae of this insect feed on essential parts of the ash tree. This non-native species has killed several million trees already.

  15. EAB or Native Borer? Insect Galleries Often Confused for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    EAB or Native Borer? Insect Galleries Often Confused for Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) PM 3065 May 2014 Emerald Ash Borer Native Borers EAB Bark Beetles have a main tunnel (arrows) with many perpendicular, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa. Emerald Ash Borer Native Borers EAB

  16. Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    PubMed

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (?g) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ? underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

  17. PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    PENNSYLVANIA EMERALD ASH BORER ACTION PLAN Prepared by: Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture............................................................................................................. 2 Impact of Emerald Ash Borer

  18. The Sweet Potato Borer.

    E-print Network

    Conradi, Albert F. (Albert Frederick)

    1907-01-01

    or otherwise, as much as possible. When this is impossible they might be poisoned in and about a potato field. Farmers should co-operate in controlIing the pest. THE SWEET POTATO WEEVIL. (Cylas formicarius, Fab. ) The Sweet Potato Borer, the worst of all... any insecticide discovered that will control the sweet potato beetle? They are doing very serious damage here." "By today's mail I am sending you some sweet potatoes that are full of some insects which have ruined the crop in this vicinity. As far...

  19. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I.; Mattos, Raphael S.; Ferreira, Thaís H.; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches. PMID:25755657

  20. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I; Mattos, Raphael S; Ferreira, Thaís H; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches. PMID:25755657

  1. Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    1 Ecology and Movement of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Wednesday, April 20, 2001 12:20 PM 160 Plant Biotech Building Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and its natural enemies in China. Great

  2. Sugarcane Functional Genomics: Gene Discovery for Agronomic Trait Development

    PubMed Central

    Menossi, M.; Silva-Filho, M. C.; Vincentz, M.; Van-Sluys, M.-A.; Souza, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly productive crop used for centuries as the main source of sugar and recently to produce ethanol, a renewable bio-fuel energy source. There is increased interest in this crop due to the impending need to decrease fossil fuel usage. Sugarcane has a highly polyploid genome. Expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing has significantly contributed to gene discovery and expression studies used to associate function with sugarcane genes. A significant amount of data exists on regulatory events controlling responses to herbivory, drought, and phosphate deficiency, which cause important constraints on yield and on endophytic bacteria, which are highly beneficial. The means to reduce drought, phosphate deficiency, and herbivory by the sugarcane borer have a negative impact on the environment. Improved tolerance for these constraints is being sought. Sugarcane's ability to accumulate sucrose up to 16% of its culm dry weight is a challenge for genetic manipulation. Genome-based technology such as cDNA microarray data indicates genes associated with sugar content that may be used to develop new varieties improved for sucrose content or for traits that restrict the expansion of the cultivated land. The genes can also be used as molecular markers of agronomic traits in traditional breeding programs. PMID:18273390

  3. Habits and control of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.)

    E-print Network

    Teetes, George Lee

    1965-01-01

    was inferior to endrin, and that only a granulated formulation of endosulfan was comparable to endrin treatments. Long et al. (1961) reported that granular formu- lations of EPN and Baccillus thurin iensis Berliner showed sufficient promise to justify... in large- plot tests in which aerial and ground methods of applications were utilized. They found that good control was obtained with both types of formulations. Sprays appeared to be less de- trimental than the granules to predaceous ants. They stated...

  4. Exploiting sugarcane for energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energycane can be described as sugarcane varieties with fiber content that is higher than the level seen in sugarcane varieties used for commercial sugar production. This fiber content is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Approximately 70 percent of the dry weight of sugarcane is cel...

  5. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  6. Herbicide Effects on Sugarcane Growth, Pythium Root Rot, and Pythium arrhenomanes.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, N; Hoy, J W; Griffin, J L

    1998-06-01

    ABSTRACT Six herbicides were evaluated for their effects on Pythium root rot and growth of sugarcane in greenhouse experiments and on in vitro mycelial growth rate of Pythium arrhenomanes. Pendimethalin and atrazine were most inhibitory to mycelial growth, but neither reduced root rot severity. Asulam, atrazine, and metribuzin were not phytotoxic to sugarcane and did not affect root rot symptom severity in clay loam or silt loam field soils. Atrazine and metribuzin increased shoot number, and atrazine increased total shoot weight for treated plants in silt loam soil. Glyphosate, pendimethalin, and terbacil were phytotoxic to sugarcane. These herbicides increased root rot severity, but the extent to which growth reductions resulted from increased disease severity or from direct herbicide injury was not clear. Adverse effects on plant growth and root rot severity were greater in clay loam than in silt loam soil. The results suggest that sugarcane injury from some herbicides is compounded by increased severity of root rot. PMID:18944905

  7. SHOOT performance testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Dipirro; P. J. Shirron; S. M. Volz; M. E. Schein

    1991-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) Flight Demonstration is a shuttle attached payload designed to demonstrate the technology necessary to resupply liquid helium dewars in space. Many SHOOT components will also have use in other aerospace cryogenic systems. The first of two SHOOT dewar systems has been fabricated. The ground performance testing of this dewar is described. The performance tests

  8. Hop Shoot Proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop shoot proliferation disease has been described in Poland., and is associated with phytoplasma infection. Hop shoot proliferation occurs rarely and seems to be of little economic concern in most regions of hop production. Hop shoot proliferation is thought to be caused by aster yellows phytoplas...

  9. 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 63 ADVENTITIOUS SHOOT REGENERATION

    E-print Network

    suffer, as would manufacturers of baseball bats, furniture, and cabinets. The emerald ash borer (EAB2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 63 ADVENTITIOUS SHOOT REGENERATION@purdue.edu. White ash (Fraxinus americana) trees provide both ecological and economic benefits. Loss of this North

  10. Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical ripening of sugarcane is an important component to profitable sugar production in the U.S. as well as other sugarcane industries throughout the world. Harvesting of sugarcane often begins before the sugarcane reaches a desirable level of maturity. This is especially true in the Louisiana ...

  11. Char from sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unused sugarcane bagasse represents an underutilized resource in sugarcane growing regions of the world. This is a renewable resource that can be used in a thermochemical process to create chars, which could be incorporated back into agricultural activities. The practice is likely to improve soil ...

  12. Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)

    E-print Network

    Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) The oak pinhole borer, Platypus and is not itself responsible for killing trees. Life cycle Adult Platypus cylindrus beetles are 6-8mm long, rather in cross- section Piles of fibrous frass mark entry points of Platypus cylindrus adults. #12;Tunnelling

  13. Response of sugarcane to increasing concentrations of copper and cadmium and expression of metallothionein genes.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Maria Lorena; Almeida, Raul S; Nishimura, Deborah S; Figueira, Antonio

    2007-11-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) offers the potential to be a phytoremediator species due to its outstanding biomass production, but its prospective metal accumulation and tolerance have not been fully characterized. Sugarcane plantlets were able to tolerate up to 100microM of copper in nutrient solution for 33 days, with no significant reduction in fresh weight, while accumulating 45mgCukg(-1) shoot dry weight. Higher levels of copper in solution (250 and 500microM) were lethal. Sugarcane displayed tolerance to 500microM Cd without symptoms of toxicity, accumulating 451mgCdkg(-1) shoot dry weight after 33 days, indicating its potential as Cd phytoremediator. DNA gel blot analyses detected 8 fragments using a metallothionein (MT) Type I probe, while 10 were revealed for the MT Type II and 8 for MT Type III. The number of genes for each type of MT in sugarcane might be similar to the ones identified in rice considering the interspecific origin of sugarcane cultivars. MT Type I gene appeared to present the highest level of constitutive expression, mainly in roots, followed by MT Type II, corroborating the expression pattern described based on large-scale expressed sequence tags sequencing. MT Type II and III genes were more expressed in shoots, where MT I was also importantly expressed. Increasing Cu concentration had little or no effect in modulating MT genes expression, while an apparent minor modulation of some of the MT genes could be detected in Cd treatments. However, the level of response was too small to explain the tolerance and/or accumulation of Cd in sugarcane tissues. Thus, cadmium tolerance and accumulation in sugarcane might derive from other mechanisms, although MT may be involved in oxidative responses to high levels of Cd. Sugarcane can be considered a potential candidate to be tested in Cd phytoremediation. PMID:17175063

  14. The Cotton-Square Borer.

    E-print Network

    Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

    1929-01-01

    -SQUARE BORER 17 silky hairs and scales. The legs, except the tarsal joints, are wholly clothed with white scales and concolorous long hairs on the ventral surface of the femora. On the upper side of the tarsal joints the scales are black basally and white... on the narrow distal ends. The abdomen is slender, compressed laterally, and strongly arched above along the longitudinal axis, which is more apparent in dried or preserved specimens. The dorsal surface is concolorous with the thorax, at least basally...

  15. Sexuality and School Shootings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessie Klein

    2006-01-01

    Conventional explanationslax gun control laws, media violence, single and working parentsdo not adequately explain the recent spate of school shootings, and neither does bullying by itself, an explanation recently gaining more traction. A certain type of bullying, however, is revealed as particularly culpable. Many of the recent shootings share a disturbing component: The perpetrators were repeatedly, even relentlessly, accused by

  16. Herbicides as ripeners for sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the start of the sugarcane harvest season in Louisiana, late-September or early-October, sucrose content in sugarcane is relatively low compared to late in the harvest season. In order for early-harvested sugarcane to be profitable, chemicals, primarily herbicides, have been evaluated for their e...

  17. Sugarcane response to bermudagrass interference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted with the objectives of determining differences in the competitiveness of three phenotypically different sugarcane cultivars, ‘CP 70-321’, ‘HoCP 85-845’, and ‘LCP 85-384’, with bermudagrass, and the effects of bermudagrass interference on sugarcane. Sugarcane was planted at tw...

  18. Determining seed transmission of sugarcane mosaic virus and sugarcane yellow leaf virus in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importation of sugarcane germplasm is essential to diversify sugarcane germplasm used in United States breeding programs. Foreign germplasm is received primarily as vegetative cuttings. Current permit requirements for importing sugarcane seed into the United States are impractical and limit the ...

  19. Nitrate Paradigm Does Not Hold Up for Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil. PMID:21552564

  20. Nitrate paradigm does not hold up for sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicole; Brackin, Richard; Vinall, Kerry; Soper, Fiona; Holst, Jirko; Gamage, Harshi; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Rennenberg, Heinz; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Schmidt, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Modern agriculture is based on the notion that nitrate is the main source of nitrogen (N) for crops, but nitrate is also the most mobile form of N and easily lost from soil. Efficient acquisition of nitrate by crops is therefore a prerequisite for avoiding off-site N pollution. Sugarcane is considered the most suitable tropical crop for biofuel production, but surprisingly high N fertilizer applications in main producer countries raise doubt about the sustainability of production and are at odds with a carbon-based crop. Examining reasons for the inefficient use of N fertilizer, we hypothesized that sugarcane resembles other giant tropical grasses which inhibit the production of nitrate in soil and differ from related grain crops with a confirmed ability to use nitrate. The results of our study support the hypothesis that N-replete sugarcane and ancestral species in the Andropogoneae supertribe strongly prefer ammonium over nitrate. Sugarcane differs from grain crops, sorghum and maize, which acquired both N sources equally well, while giant grass, Erianthus, displayed an intermediate ability to use nitrate. We conclude that discrimination against nitrate and a low capacity to store nitrate in shoots prevents commercial sugarcane varieties from taking advantage of the high nitrate concentrations in fertilized soils in the first three months of the growing season, leaving nitrate vulnerable to loss. Our study addresses a major caveat of sugarcane production and affords a strong basis for improvement through breeding cultivars with enhanced capacity to use nitrate as well as through agronomic measures that reduce nitrification in soil. PMID:21552564

  1. Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer?

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Do My Ash Trees Have Emerald Ash Borer? Purdue Plant & Pest Diagnostic Laboratory #12;Ash Tree splits S-shaped galleries Diagnostic Symptoms of Emerald Ash Borer #12;Diagnostic Symptoms of EAB information on recent emerald ash borer finds in Indiana, please contact the Indiana Department of Natural

  2. Herbicide effects on sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of all the areas of the world where sugarcane is grown, Louisiana lies furthest from the Equator. As such, its growing season is the shortest as it is affected by frost in the late–winter (February/March) at the start of the growing season and the fear of freezing temperatures during the harvest se...

  3. Improving Sugarcane Flood Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help co...

  4. Multiple Shoot Regeneration from Young Shoots of Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samanthi P. Herath; Takayuki Suzuki; Kazumi Hattori

    2004-01-01

    A method was developed to initiate multiple shoots from the young shoot of kenaf. Young shoots along with the cotyledons were\\u000a excised from ten-day old aseptically germinated seeds and pre-cultured for two weeks in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with benzyl adenine (BA) or a combination of BA and kinetin. After two weeks in culture, elongated shoots were excised

  5. Regulation of miR319 during cold stress in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Thiebaut, Flávia; Rojas, Cristian A; Almeida, Karla L; Grativol, Clícia; Domiciano, Giselli C; Lamb, Caren Regina C; Engler, Janice de Almeida; Hemerly, Adriana S; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2012-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are part of a novel mechanism of gene regulation that is active in plants under abiotic stress conditions. In the present study, 12 miRNAs were analysed to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in sugarcane subjected to cold stress (4?°C). The expression of miRNAs assayed by stem-loop RT-PCR showed that miR319 is up-regulated in sugarcane plantlets exposed to 4?°C for 24?h. The induction of miR319 expression during cold stress was observed in both roots and shoots. Sugarcane miR319 was also regulated by treatment with abscisic acid. Putative targets of this miRNA were identified and their expression levels were decreased in sugarcane plantlets exposed to cold. The cleavage sites of two targets were mapped using a 5' RACE PCR assay confirming the regulation of these genes by miR319. When sugarcane cultivars contrasting in cold tolerance were subjected to 4?°C, we observed up-regulation of miR319 and down-regulation of the targets in both varieties; however, the changes in expression were delayed in the cold-tolerant cultivar. These results suggest that differences in timing and levels of the expression of miR319 and its targets could be tested as markers for selection of cold-tolerant sugarcane cultivars. PMID:22017483

  6. Registration of ‘Ho 02-113’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 02-113’ sugarcane was released by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit working cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the American Sugarcane League of the U.S.A. This high-fiber sugarcane variety was released for use as a biofuel feedstock to fill the rising i...

  7. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  8. EXPLORATION FOR EMERALD ASH BORER IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Houping Liu; Toby R. Petrice; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao

    2003-01-01

    In June 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in greater than 2,500 square miles of southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario; more recent infestations were found in Ohio, Maryland, and Virginia in 2003. Federal and state agencies adopted a strategy of

  9. Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

    Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

  10. The Sugarcane Defense Protein SUGARWIN2 Causes Cell Death in Colletotrichum falcatum but Not in Non-Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Flávia P.; Santiago, Adelita C.; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Moura, Daniel S.; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN) have been characterized in sugarcane, SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins). Induction of SUGARWINs occurs in response to Diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. In addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activities toward Fusarium verticillioides, an opportunistic fungus that usually occurs after D. saccharalis borer attacks on sugarcane. In this study, we sought to evaluate the specificity of SUGARWIN2 to better understand its mechanism of action against phytopathogens and the associations between fungi and insects that affect plants. We used Colletotrichum falcatum, a fungus that causes red rot disease in sugarcane fields infested by D. saccharalis, and Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes pineapple disease in sugarcane. We also tested whether SUGARWIN2 is able to cause cell death in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that does not infect sugarcane, and in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is used for bioethanol production. Recombinant SUGARWIN2 altered C. falcatum morphology by increasing vacuolization, points of fractures and a leak of intracellular material, leading to germling apoptosis. In C. paradoxa, SUGARWIN2 showed increased vacuolization in hyphae but did not kill the fungi. Neither the non-pathogenic fungus A. nidulans nor the yeast S. cerevisiae was affected by recombinant SUGARWIN2, suggesting that the protein is specific to sugarcane opportunistic fungal pathogens. PMID:24608349

  11. Sugarcane smut and its control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisoriom scitamineum, is a major disease of sugarcane that is controlled by cultivar resistance. However the level of resistance must be higher in hot dry environments such as in Okinawa, Japan for adequate control. Since smut is favored by the hot dry weather, the br...

  12. Roots and Shoots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2008-01-01

    In this outdoor activity, learners discover that plants aren't just shoots (stem, branches, leaves, and flowers) growing above ground, but contain plenty of roots growing underground—more than half the mass of a plant can be its roots. Learners dig up "mystery" plants to investigate their root structures, and match them to different types of root systems. Learners also learn about animals found near plant roots and how humans use roots.

  13. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Elicits a Sugarcane Defense Response Against a Pathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas albilineans

    PubMed Central

    Vinagre, Fabiano; Estevez, Yandi; Bernal, Aydiloide; Perez, Juana; Cavalcanti, Janaina; Santana, Ignacio; Hemerly, Adriana S

    2006-01-01

    A new role for the plant growth-promoting nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been identified and characterized while it is involved in the sugarcane-Xanthomonas albilineans pathogenic interactions. Living G.diazotrophicus possess and/or produce elicitor molecules which activate the sugarcane defense response resulting in the plant resistance to X. albilineans, in this particular case controlling the pathogen transmission to emerging agamic shoots. A total of 47 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were identified by cDNA-AFLP. Transcripts showed significant homologies to genes of the ethylene signaling pathway (26%), proteins regulates by auxins (9%), ?-1,3 Glucanase proteins (6%) and ubiquitin genes (4%), all major signaling mechanisms. Results point toward a form of induction of systemic resistance in sugarcane-G. diazotrophicus interactions which protect the plant against X. albilineans attack. PMID:19516988

  14. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Daniela; de Godoy, Fabiana; Hamaji, Thais Alves; Blanco, Silvia Regina; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Rossi, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%–80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis. PMID:23055803

  15. Induced over-expression of AtDREB2A CA improves drought tolerance in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rafaela Ribeiro; da Cunha, Bárbara Andrade Dias Brito; Martins, Polyana Kelly; Martins, Maria Thereza Bazzo; Alekcevetch, Jean Carlos; Chalfun, Antônio; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Qin, Feng; Mizoi, Junya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Carvalho, Josirley de Fátima Corrêa; de Sousa, Carlos Antônio Ferreira; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Kobayashi, Adilson Kenji; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa

    2014-05-01

    Drought is one of the most challenging agricultural issues limiting sustainable sugarcane production and, in some cases, yield losses caused by drought are nearly 50%. DREB proteins play vital regulatory roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. The transcription factor DREB2A interacts with a cis-acting DRE sequence to activate the expression of downstream genes that are involved in drought-, salt- and heat-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of stress-inducible over-expression of AtDREB2A CA on gene expression, leaf water potential (?L), relative water content (RWC), sucrose content and gas exchanges of sugarcane plants submitted to a four-days water deficit treatment in a rhizotron-grown root system. The plants were also phenotyped by scanning the roots and measuring morphological parameters of the shoot. The stress-inducible expression of AtDREB2A CA in transgenic sugarcane led to the up-regulation of genes involved in plant response to drought stress. The transgenic plants maintained higher RWC and ?L over 4 days after withholding water and had higher photosynthetic rates until the 3rd day of water-deficit. Induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane increased sucrose levels and improved bud sprouting of the transgenic plants. Our results indicate that induced expression of AtDREB2A CA in sugarcane enhanced its drought tolerance without biomass penalty. PMID:24656336

  16. Microbial Control of Plum Curculio and Peachtree Borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruits. Stone fruits are also plagued by clear-winged moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), e.g., peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes). Microbial control agents have potential as a...

  17. Experiences with the sugarcane aphid as a pest of sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), has been a sporadic but sometimes serious problem on sugarcane in Louisiana since its first discovery in 1999. LSU AgCenter and USDA-ARS scientists have studied aspects of sugarcane aphid management on sugarcane, including pest status, varietal re...

  18. Host plants of the sugarcane root weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate adult sugarcane root weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) residence (location), feeding damage, and oviposition choice on four sugarcane varieties and five weed species found in Florida sugarcane. Sugarcane varieties were CP 89-2143, CP 88-1762, CP 80-1743, and...

  19. Shooting and Hunting: Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W., Comp.

    The shooting and hunting manual, part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, explains shooting skills, hunting, and proper gun handling on the range and in the field. This manual should be supplemented and enriched by available references, facilities, and resources. It may be included in the community's educational and…

  20. Character Association and Selection Indices in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane breeders often face significant genotype x environment interactions in their trials grown under multiple environments. Hence, genotypes need to be tested for their stability across different environments keeping in view the significant interactions. An experiment comprising 28 sugarcane ge...

  1. Registration of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of ‘CPCL 95-2287’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

  2. Managing damaging freeze events in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of sugarcane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugarcane producing countries of the world, but is most frequent on the mainland of the United States, especially in the state of Louisiana. The frequent winter freezes that occur in the sugarcane areas of Louisiana have fo...

  3. Registration of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of ‘CPCL 00-4111’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selection program which inc...

  4. Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of ‘CPCL 05-1791’ (Reg. No. ; PI ) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the latest in a series of commercial sugarcane cultivar releases originating from the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by the cooperative Canal Point sugarcane breeding and selec...

  5. USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

  6. Effect of feeding by larvae of Inopus rubriceps (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) on development and growth of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Samson, R I

    2001-10-01

    Pot experiments were used to investigate the effect of root-feeding larvae of the soldier fly Inopus rubriceps (Macquart) on shoot production from sugarcane planting pieces (setts) and on growth and ratooning of sugarcane plants. Shoot elongation was inhibited while setts were exposed to larvae, and it resumed when larvae were removed. Infested setts produced a greater weight of roots than uninfested setts. Similar symptoms were induced by mechanical root pruning, suggesting that the effect of soldier fly larvae on setts may be a redirection of growth from the shoot to roots due to root damage. Larvae had a greater effect on shoot production at lower temperature, particularly in cultivar 'Q151', which had a higher temperature threshold than 'CP44-101'. Temperature and cultivar may influence the harmful effect of soldier fly larvae on sett germination by changing the differential rates of plant growth and larval feeding. When growing plants were exposed to larvae, the infested plants were slightly smaller at harvest and subsequently produced many fewer ratoon shoots from underground buds than uninfested plants. Shoot elongation from buds was also inhibited in setts cut from the above-ground stalks of infested plants. Analysis of nutrient levels in plants did not indicate the mechanism for ratooning inhibition, because levels of time 10 elements analyzed were at least as high or higher in infested plants. Infestation was associated with an increased level of sucrose and a reduced level of fructose in stalks. The inhibitory effect of larval feeding on ratooning was not reversed when larvae were removed from pots 10 wk before harvest. However, new stubble produced from infested plants then ratooned normally after a second harvest, provided the new roots were not attacked. The symptoms of larval feeding in growing plants are unexplained, but may be caused by the prolonged withdrawal of sap from roots or the injection of some inhibitory substance by larvae. PMID:11681671

  7. Categorizing sugarcane cultivar resistance to the sugarcane aphid and yellow sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Akbar, W; Showler, A T; Reagan, T E; White, W H

    2010-08-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a casual agent of yellow leaf disease whose absence has been added to certification standards for micropropagated sugarcane in Louisiana. Greenhouse studies were conducted to categorize dominant commercial sugarcane cultivars for their ability to tolerate aphid injury and to express antixenotic or antibiotic effects on both aphid species. Antixenosis tests showed no preference among cultivars by either aphid species. Loss of chlorophyll content in tolerance tests also did not show differences among cultivars for both aphid species. However, antibiosis tests revealed that life history parameters such as the duration of the reproductive period and fecundity of both aphid species were negatively affected on 'HoCP 91-555' compared with 'L 97-128'. Estimation of demographic statistics indicated that both aphid species exhibited a significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (1.8-2.8-fold) and longer doubling time (1.7-3.1-fold) on HoCP 91-555 relative to L 97-128. From these tests, cultivars in the current study can be ranked from most to the least susceptible as L 97-128 > 'LCP 85-384' > 'HoCP 96-540' > 'Ho 95-988' > HoCP 91-555 for M. sacchari and L 97-128 > LCP 85-384 > HoCP 91-555 for S. flava. Therefore, antibiosis is an important category of resistance in sugarcane to both aphid species, and HoCP 91-555 might provide useful germplasm for developing aphid resistant cultivars. PMID:20857758

  8. Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer,

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees of the insects. Roundheaded apple-tree borer (RHATB) Saperda candida Fab. This is the most serious borer in New and mountain ash are all major hosts of this species. They can be sources of the beetles. 2. Paint the lower

  9. Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

  10. Male aggregation pheromone of date palm fruit stalk borer Oryctes elegans.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Didier; Mohammadpoor, Kazem; Malosse, Christian; Avand-Faghih, Arman; Lettere, Martine; Beauhaire, Josiane; Morin, Jean-Paul; Pezier, Adeline; Renou, Michel; Abdollahi, Gholam Abbas

    2004-02-01

    Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at the palm crown than at ground level. Odors from adults feeding on sugarcane were sampled and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Whereas females did not emit sex specific volatiles, males emitted a blend of 4-methyloctanoic acid (1: major component) and ethyl 4-methyloctanoate (2), occasionally mixed with minor components: 4-methyloctanyl acetate (3), methyl 4-methyloctanoate (4), 4-methyloctanol (5), and nonanyl acetate (6). Electroantennography and field trapping experiments demonstrated that compound 1 is an essential component of the male aggregation pheromone of O. elegans. It was barely attractive by itself but synergistic with fresh date palm odor. It attracted many more beetles than any of compounds 2-6. The addition of one or several of compounds 2-6 to 1 did not improve trap captures. During the course of 2 years, we captured 4000 beetles, with a weekly average of 6.3 beetles/trap, and were able to monitor the seasonal flight of O. elegans. Our results provide the basis for developing mass trapping for control of this pest. PMID:15112731

  11. Diversity of sequences and expression patterns among alleles of a sugarcane loading stem gene.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Richard L; Birch, Robert G

    2013-07-01

    Modern sugarcane cultivars are highly polyploid and aneuploid hybrids, which are propagated as clones. Their complex genome structure comprises 100-130 chromosomes and 10-13 hom(e)ologous copies of most loci. There is preliminary evidence of very high heterozygosity, with implications for genetic improvement approaches ranging from marker-assisted selection to transgenics. Here, we report that sugarcane cultivar Q200 has at least nine alleles at the Loading Stem Gene (ScLSG) locus. Exon-intron structure is identical and the predicted protein products show at least 92 % identity, across sugarcane alleles and the Sorghum homologue Sb07g027880. There is substantial variation in the 5' UTR and promoter regions including numerous allele-specific nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions. We developed an allele-specific qRT-PCR method to undertake the first compelling test of allele-specific expression in polyploid sugarcane. Seven alleles distinguished by this method all showed peak expression in the sucrose-loading zone of the stem, but there was apparent variability in expression patterns across other tissues. The ScLSG2 and ScLSG5 alleles appear promising for specificity of expression in stems, relative to leaf, meristem, emerging shoot and root tissues. Within the stem, there was activity in parenchyma, vascular and rind tissues. This expression pattern is of interest in basic research and biotechnology aimed at enhanced sucrose content, engineering value-added products, and manipulation of stem biomass composition. PMID:23546592

  12. A Real Shooting Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star

    This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light.

    The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years.

    As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake.

    Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence.

    Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

    Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira and its 'whale of a tail' can be found in the tail of the whale constellation.

  13. Modeling the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett; Bruce Hannon

    2006-01-01

    Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada [McCullough, D.G., Katovich, S.A., 2004. Pest Alert: Emerald Ash Borer. United States Forest Service, Northeastern Area. NA-PR-02-04]. Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly

  14. SUGARCANE VARIETY CENSUS FLORIDA 2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Cultivars originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by USDA-ARS, the Univ...

  15. Wanted4-H Wasp Watchers Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) invasive beetle introduced from

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Wanted4-H Wasp Watchers Situation: Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ­ invasive beetle introduced from to detect their presence. Sources of Additional Information: Emerald ash borer: http://nyis.info/insects/Emerald

  16. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  17. Potential effect of sugarcane yellow leaf virus infection on yield of leading sugarcane cultivars in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the potential effect of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV) infection on cane and sucrose yield of four sugarcane cultivars (LCP 85-384, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540 and L 97-128) that occupied a combined total of 93% of the sugarcane production area in Louisi...

  18. Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Paulo

    2012-06-01

    Sugarcane breeding has significantly progressed over the past 30 years, but attempts to further increase crop yield have been limited due to the complexity of the sugarcane genome. An alternative to boost the crop yield is the introduction of genes encoding desirable traits in the elite sugarcane cultivars. Genetically modified sugarcane with increased yield and pest and disease resistance has already proven its value not only by the increased sugar content but also for the improvement of the crop performance. However, transgene stability is still a challenge since transgene silencing seems to occur in a large proportion of genetically modified sugarcane plants. In addition, regulatory issues associated with the crop propagation model will also be a challenge to the commercial approval of genetically modified sugarcane. PMID:22093808

  19. Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    E-print Network

    Romero-Severson, Jeanne

    GENETICS Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n in the tropics. Unfortunately, a small scolytid, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari

  20. ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Role of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Larval

    E-print Network

    ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Role of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Larval Vibrations in Host (Hymenoptera: Eulophi- dae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size

  1. NHBugs: The Big Three Resources Emerald Ash Borer Management for Landowners

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    NHBugs: The Big Three Resources Emerald Ash Borer Management for Landowners Generally infested area Emerald ash borer is in this zone, though not necessarily in all ash trees. Potential expansion area Emerald ash borer isn't known to be in the area, but the area is within 10 miles of the outer limits

  2. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera

    E-print Network

    FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae); DOI: 10.1603/EC10197 ABSTRACT We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus, green prism traps, ash canopy, monitoring The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

  3. 32 2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH BORER

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    32 2009 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL EMERALD ASH BORER 48824 ABSTRACT Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a beetle native to Asia, was discovered in 10 states. Emerald ash borer (EAB) has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees (Fraxinus sp

  4. Life history studies of Prorops nasuta , a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Infante; John Mumford; Peter BAKER

    2005-01-01

    Life history studies were conducted in the laboratory on the African parasitoid Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), a parasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The female wasp enters an infested coffee berry, kills the adult borer and seals the entrance of the berry with the body of the borer, impeding the entry of other organisms

  5. 76 FR 3077 - Notice of Decision To Revise a Heat Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...Register Volume 76, Number 12 (Wednesday, January 19, 2011)] [Notices...Treatment Schedule for Emerald Ash Borer AGENCY: Animal and Plant...treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer in the Plant Protection...sufficient to treat emerald ash borer. DATES: Effective...

  6. Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

    1981-08-01

    Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

  7. Drought Tolerance Conferred to Sugarcane by Association with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: A Transcriptomic View of Hormone Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Lívia; Santa Brígida, Ailton B.; Mota Filho, José P.; de Carvalho, Thais G.; Rojas, Cristian A.; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van Bel, Michiel; Farrinelli, Laurent; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Vandepoele, Klaas; Hemerly, Adriana S.

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane interacts with particular types of beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria that provide fixed-nitrogen and plant growth hormones to host plants, promoting an increase in plant biomass. Other benefits, as enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses have been reported to some diazotrophs. Here we aim to study the effects of the association between the diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 and sugarcane cv. SP70-1143 during water depletion by characterizing differential transcriptome profiles of sugarcane. RNA-seq libraries were generated from roots and shoots of sugarcane plants free of endophytes that were inoculated with G. diazotrophicus and subjected to water depletion for 3 days. A sugarcane reference transcriptome was constructed and used for the identification of differentially expressed transcripts. The differential profile of non-inoculated SP70-1143 suggests that it responds to water deficit stress by the activation of drought-responsive markers and hormone pathways, as ABA and Ethylene. qRT-PCR revealed that root samples had higher levels of G. diazotrophicus 3 days after water deficit, compared to roots of inoculated plants watered normally. With prolonged drought only inoculated plants survived, indicating that SP70-1143 plants colonized with G. diazotrophicus become more tolerant to drought stress than non-inoculated plants. Strengthening this hypothesis, several gene expression responses to drought were inactivated or regulated in an opposite manner, especially in roots, when plants were colonized by the bacteria. The data suggests that colonized roots would not be suffering from stress in the same way as non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, shoots specifically activate ABA-dependent signaling genes, which could act as key elements in the drought resistance conferred by G. diazotrophicus to SP70-1143. This work reports for the first time the involvement of G. diazotrophicus in the promotion of drought-tolerance to sugarcane cv. SP70-1143, and it describes the initial molecular events that may trigger the increased drought tolerance in the host plant. PMID:25489849

  8. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 20092019 Kent F. Kovacs a,

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Analysis Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009­2019 Kent F. Kovacs a Emerald ash borer Cost of ash treatment, removal, and replacement Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, Ontario in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of emerald ash borer (EAB) have been detected

  9. Detection of sugarcane bacilliform virus in sugarcane germplasm.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, R; Alexander, K C; Garg, I D

    1996-02-01

    Sugarcane bacilliform virus (SCBV), a badnavirus was found in sugarcane genotypes of Saccharum officinarum L., S. barberi Jesw., S. sinense Roxb., S. robustum Brand and Jesw., and Saccharum hybrids. In most of the suspected genotypes the virus was found associated with clear foliar symptoms. However, certain symptom-free clones carried the virus too. The virus was detected by immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in suspected clones. The virions measured about 108-118 x 20-21 nm in size. The virus was serologically closely related to another badnavirus, banana streak virus (BSV). Virus titer was low in most of the genotypes. However, a close correlation between symptoms expression and virus titer existed in some genotypes. PMID:8886091

  10. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

  11. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

  12. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  13. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  14. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  15. A report on the transmissibility of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sugarcane yellow leaf virus through seed in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, exotic germplasm of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is mainly received as vegetative cuttings because the extensive actions required to meet existing APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) permit conditions make the importation of sugarcane seed impractical. While taking...

  16. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  17. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings

  18. The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Goldemberg; Suani Teixeira Coelho; Patricia Guardabassi

    2008-01-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil has raised a number of questions regarding its negative consequences and sustainability. Positive impacts are the elimination of lead compounds from gasoline and the reduction of noxious emissions. There is also the reduction of CO2 emissions, since sugarcane ethanol requires only a small amount of fossil fuels for its production,

  19. Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  20. Registration of ‘CPCL 97-2730’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  1. Herbicide options for suppressing bermudagrass in sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass is a problematic weed in Louisiana sugarcane. The most effective herbicide options are limited to the fallow period prior to planting. Frequently, efforts to eliminate bermudagrass from fields during the fallow season are unsuccessful. This subjects newly planted sugarcane to competitio...

  2. Genetic Diversity and Genome Complexity of Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as a C4 plant, is one of the most efficient crops in converting solar energy into chemical energy. Sugarcane cultivar improvement programs have not yet systematically utilized the most of the genetic sources of yield potential and resistance to stresses that may exist in t...

  3. Breeding sugarcane for temperate and cold environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana represents one of the world’s more temperate environments where sugarcane is commercially grown. Since its inception in the 1920s, The USDA-ARS breeding program at the Sugarcane Research Laboratory in Houma, Louisiana, U.S.A. has focused on breeding varieties adapted to this unique envir...

  4. Registration of ‘Ho 00-961’ sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ho 00-961’ (Reg. No., PI) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., S. barberi Jeswiet, and S. sinense Roxb. amend. Jeswiet) was selected by the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Unit, and evaluated cooperatively with the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, an...

  5. Registration of ‘CPCL 99-4455’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The objectives of this research were t...

  6. Registration of 'CP 94-1100' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  7. Registration of 'CP 98-1029' Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  8. Registration of ‘CP 01-1372’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purposes of this research were to ...

  9. INSECT AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

  10. SOME INSECT PESTS NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Eve...

  11. SUGARCANE GENOTYPE EMERGENCE RESPONSE TO FLOOD DURATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is the primary crop in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida where it is exposed to periodic floods. After sugarcane is planted, it is particularly susceptible to flooding until it sprouts. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on emergence of flood du...

  12. Silicon nutrition and sugarcane production: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayan K. Savant; Gaspar H. Korndörfer; Lawrence E. Datnoff; George H. Snyderc

    1999-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most abundant elements found in the earth's crust, but is mostly inert and only slightly soluble. Agriculture activity tends to remove large quantities of Si from soil. Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other mineral nutrient, accumulating approximately 380 kg ha of Si, in a 12?month?old crop. Sugarcane (plant growth and

  13. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Djoko; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Wiryadiputra, Soekadar; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2004-08-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of cocoa pod borer cause the pods of the cocoa tree to ripen prematurely. They are difficult to control with conventional measures. Preliminary assays identified five toxins that were more active than others. In two subsequent bioassays the activity of selected toxins was determined more accurately. Three Cryl proteins with relatively little homology were all found to be toxic, opening perspectives for controlling cocoa pod borer by expression of Cry proteins in transgenic plants. PMID:15307664

  14. Metabolites of lesser grain borer in grains.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Larry M; Ram, M S

    2004-02-25

    Many volatile alcohol and ester metabolites of the lesser grain borer (LGB, Rhyzopertha dominica) cultured on wheat grain were identified. Volatiles from infested samples at 80 degrees C were collected on Tenax absorbent, thermally desorbed, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) using infrared (IR) and mass (MS) detectors for component identification. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique was used to analyze selected samples with a GC-MS system set up for obtaining chemical ionization mass spectra. SPME was also used in a synthesis process required to identify ester metabolites. Predominant compounds in LGB-infested grains were 2-pentanol and its esters of 2-methyl-2-pentenoic (A) and 2,4-dimethyl-2-pentenoic (B) acids, which are known aggregation pheromones, dominicalures 1 and 2. 2-Pentanol esters of saturated A, beta-keto- and beta-hydroxy derivatives of A and B, homologues of A and B, and acid moieties lacking the 2-methyl substitution were found. Other straight- and branched-chain secondary alcohols and their esters were also observed. Reexamination of GC-MS-IR data acquired in previous investigations of LGB cultured on sorghum grain and commercial samples in a grain odor study showed the presence of many LGB metabolites in addition to the known dominicalures. PMID:14969548

  15. Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets

    E-print Network

    Mastro, Victory Carl

    1973-01-01

    LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis VICTOR CARL MASTRO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1973 Ma)or Sub)ect: Entomology LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis by VICTOR CARL MASTRO Approved as to style and conte by (Cha rman of Committee) Head De artment) (He er) ( mber) mber) August 1973...

  16. Control of the lesser cornstalk borer on peanuts

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, Walter Holland

    1958-01-01

    of this investigation was to develop control neasures for this insect on peanuts. REVIE'8 OP LITERATURE The lesser cornstalk borer was described by Roller in 1848. Luginbill and Ainslie (1917) reported that this in- sect was net known to be of econonic inportance...-eyed bean plantings of the southeastern desert valleys ef California. Kelsheimer et al. (1050) stated that no satisfactory control of the lesser cornstalk borer is known although ch). erdane sprays or dusts applied to the base of corn ylants nay reduce...

  17. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  18. 4-H Shooting Sports Club Risk Management Plan (SS04) Date____________ Club shooting sports discipline(s) Archery _________ Hunting _________

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    4-H Shooting Sports Club Risk Management Plan (SS04) Date____________ Club shooting sports________________________________________ Primary 4-H Master Shooting Sports Leader: ___________________________________________ Assistant Leader: Assistant Leader: The 4-H Shooting Sports Club Risk Management Plan Worksheet is based on procedures

  19. Predominant nifH transcript phylotypes related to Rhizobium rosettiformans in field-grown sugarcane plants and in Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Burbano, Claudia Sofía; Liu, Yuan; Rösner, Kim Leonie; Reis, Veronica Massena; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Hurek, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Although some sugarcane cultivars may benefit substantially from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the responsible bacteria have been not identified yet. Here, we examined the active diazotrophic bacterial community in sugarcane roots from Africa and America by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using broad-range nifH-specific primers. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles obtained from sugarcane showed a low diversity at all sample locations with one phylotype amounting up to 100% of the nifH transcripts. This major phylotype has 93.9-99.6% DNA identity to the partial nifH sequence from a strain affiliated with Rhizobium rosettiformans. In addition, nifH transcripts of this phylotype were also detected in spruce roots sampled in Germany, where they made up 91% of nifH transcripts detected. In contrast, in control soil or shoot samples two distinct nifH transcript sequences distantly related to nifH from Sulfurospirillum multivorans or Bradyrhizobium elkanii, respectively, were predominant. These results suggest that R. rosettiformans is involved in root-associated nitrogen fixation with sugarcane and spruce, plants that do not form root-nodule symbioses. PMID:23761284

  20. An-Overview on invertase in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Yadav, Ashok; Lal, Ramji

    2013-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum is one of the most cultivated hybrid varieties among the sugarcane varieties. In sugarcane plant sucrose is the major carbohydrate which can be stored and transported. Different physiological and biochemical studies on this crop report that invertase activity and sucrose concentration some how are key limiting step in the process of sucrose accumulation. Significant efforts have been made in relation to the sucrose cycle by altering the sucrose phosphate synthetase, sucrose synthetase and invertase. In sugarcane two types of invertase enzymes have been reported on the basis of pH and cellular localization. Invertase breaks the sucrose into hexoses as a source of energy and carbon. It has also been reported that this enzyme is involved in the process of cell differentiation and plant development. Progress has been made for the understanding of invertase activity and its role in sugarcane plant. With the help of biotechnology it is possible to target the desired gene with genetic engineering approach to increase sucrose content by careful manipulation of invertase (enzyme) gene to increase the sucrose yield in sugarcane. Purpose of this mini review is to high-light the role of invertase in sugarcane and how to overcome sucrose recovery in sugarcane. PMID:23847400

  1. An-Overview on invertase in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Israil; Yadav, Ashok; Lal, Ramji

    2013-01-01

    Saccharum officinarum is one of the most cultivated hybrid varieties among the sugarcane varieties. In sugarcane plant sucrose is the major carbohydrate which can be stored and transported. Different physiological and biochemical studies on this crop report that invertase activity and sucrose concentration some how are key limiting step in the process of sucrose accumulation. Significant efforts have been made in relation to the sucrose cycle by altering the sucrose phosphate synthetase, sucrose synthetase and invertase. In sugarcane two types of invertase enzymes have been reported on the basis of pH and cellular localization. Invertase breaks the sucrose into hexoses as a source of energy and carbon. It has also been reported that this enzyme is involved in the process of cell differentiation and plant development. Progress has been made for the understanding of invertase activity and its role in sugarcane plant. With the help of biotechnology it is possible to target the desired gene with genetic engineering approach to increase sucrose content by careful manipulation of invertase (enzyme) gene to increase the sucrose yield in sugarcane. Purpose of this mini review is to high-light the role of invertase in sugarcane and how to overcome sucrose recovery in sugarcane. PMID:23847400

  2. Wolbachia Infection in the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando E. Vega; Pablo Benavides; Jeffrey A. Stuart; Scott L. O’Neill

    2002-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction protocol yielded positive detection of the mater- nally inherited cytoplasmic proteobacterium Wolbachia in total genomic DNA from coffee berry borers collected in Benin, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uganda. Wolbachia was not detected in specimens from Cameroon, the Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Peru. AmpliÞed bands from India and

  3. Development of Harmonic Radar Systems for Tracking Emerald Ash Borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borers (EAB) have killed millions of ash trees since they were identified in North America in the summer of 2002. Data are needed on EAB behavior to aid development of treatment and management strategies and enable more effectively schedule and target control measures. Entomological ra...

  4. Coffee berry borer triple-action integrated pest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Pierre Dufour

    Summary In coffee plantations, some of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari) females emerging from residual fruits survive by taking refuge in dry fruits remaining on the branches. They can then colonize new fruits as soon as they become appetizing and continue their development. The control strategy is therefore to capture part of the populations from residual fruits on

  5. Biological Control of Coffee Berry Borer in Organic Coffee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Fürst; Stefan Bergleiter; Kleinhaderner Weg

    Summary All inspection reports of Naturland organic coffee growers in Latin America (Mexico, Guatemala, Ecua- dor, Peru and Bolivia) comprising 29,673 organic coffee farmers with 85,376 ha of land, were checked for control methods of coffee berry borer. 33 % use cultural control by picking up infested berries from the ground or from the plant during and after harvest. 24

  6. Does the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Have Mutualistic Fungi?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were performed to determine if a mutualistic association exists between three species of fungi and the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). The fungi Fusarium solani (Martius), Penicillium citrinum Thom and Candida fermentati (Saito) were evaluated on the reproduction and survivorship of H.hampei. The fungi were evaluated at three concentrations: 5 102 ;5 104 and 5 106 spores\\/ml

  7. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer. PMID:22420272

  8. Modeling Emerald Ash Borer Establishment and Spread Using GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Ayersman; Michael P. Strager; Jacquelyn M. Strager

    Within the last decade, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have emerged to the forefront in computer modeling of invasive species. The invasive Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has become a major research inquiry because of its drastic impact in such a short time. Spreading is primarily caused through human vectors (i.e. campgrounds, nurseries, and sawmills), although natural spread does occur through flight.

  9. Chemical Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer Agrilus planipennis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damon J. Crook; Victor C. Mastro

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted,\\u000a based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical

  10. Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. Lawrence

    The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the

  11. Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Colecptera: Curculiondae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. Eggs are deposited inside coffee berries, and insects feed on the coffee seed, severely reducing yields. Conventional chemical control is a very limited option, and there has been a concerted effort to develop biolo...

  12. REFINING THE PHEROMONE-BASED MONITORING SYSTEM FOR DOGWOOD BORER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris is an increasingly important pest of apple grown on size-controlling rootstocks in eastern North America. Many apple producers monitor populations of the key pests of apple using sex pheromone traps, and may base their management decisions on pher...

  13. Protein digestion in red aak borer larvae, Enaphalodes rufulus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, a recent outbreak of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), contributed to the death of tens of thousands of red oaks. To better understand nutrient digestion in E. rufulus larvae, biochemical analyses were used to characterize dige...

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

  15. [School shooting in statu nascendi].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, amok-like killings and especially so-called "school shootings" have received a great deal of public attention both in the Old and the New world. Meanwhile, criminal psychological research has gained a thorough insight into this dangerous development in young people. Thus, the possibility to assess the concrete threat of such a multiple killing before it is carried out has been considerably improved, as many prognostic criteria have been worked out in the meantime. The case report presented shows that it is possible to exercise a favourable influence on this critical negative trend. PMID:22448465

  16. Incidence and control of dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) and American plum borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks in New York.

    PubMed

    Kain, David P; Straub, Richard W; Agnello, Arthur M

    2004-04-01

    Surveys were conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York state to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), was generally prevalent throughout the state, but American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker), was limited to western New York apple orchards near infested stone fruit trees. Insecticides evaluated in the field for efficacy against both borers were chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, indoxacarb plus oil, methoxyfenozide, fenpropathrin, and kaolin clay. Also, white latex paint was tested alone and mixed with chlorpyrifos. One application of chlorpyrifos applied at the petal fall developmental stage was equivalent to chlorpyrifos applied at petal fall and again in mid-July, and it provided season-long control of dogwood borer and American plum borer. One application of chlorpyrifos applied any time between the half-inch green developmental stage and petal fall, or after harvest the previous season, controlled both overwintered and summer brood larvae of dogwood borer. Multiple applications of fenpropathrin, indoxacarb plus oil, and endosulfan applied during the dogwood borer flight period controlled the summer brood. PMID:15154480

  17. Prolific shoot regeneration of Astragalus cariensis Boiss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Semiha Erisen; Mustafa Yorgancilar; Emine Atalay; Mehmet Babaoglu

    2010-01-01

    Prolific shoot regeneration via organogenesis was induced from leaf and leaf petiole explants of the endemic Astragalus cariensis species on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA) within 8 week. The\\u000a highest number of shoots (23\\/explants) was obtained from leaf explants cultured on MS with 0.5 mg\\/l NAA and 4 mg\\/l BA. Elongated\\u000a shoots were successfully rooted in

  18. Good at Video Shooting? It's Simple!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carrie Wang

    2009-10-11

    This project is to help people to learn how to do video shooting and make their videos look better and professional. Besides practice, what else should we know? The following are the links that can help us to learn more about the important stuff which we need to follow and remember. GOAL: Finish video shooting and make our videos look good with the information provided in this lesson. NOTE: Shoot 20 - 30 minutes of footage. The footage should include the shooting techniques which are mentioned below: Rule of thirds Low/high angle Pan Tilt Zoom in/out ...

  19. Preparation of antioxidants from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yongguang; Tang, Qiang; Fu, Xiong; Yu, Shujuan; Wu, Shaowei; Chen, Mingshun

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction with piecewise distillation separation was used to obtain antioxidants from sugarcane molasses. Extraction pressure, time, temperature, flow rate of CO2 and ethanol content were selected as the independent variables. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extract. Results showed that conditions to obtain the highest total oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of sugarcane molasses extract were determined to be an extraction pressure of 33.3 MPa, temperature of 43.3 °C, time of 86.7 min, 90% ethanol content of sugarcane molasses and flow rate of CO2 of 20 L/h. Under the conditions stated above, the experimental value was 2584.9. This study indicated that supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction with piecewise distillation separation can effectively extract antioxidants from sugarcane molasses. PMID:24444974

  20. Perspective of the Sugarcane Industry in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Arruda

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane industry in Brazil is experiencing a rapid shift towards creating the grounds for a green and sustainable biorefinary\\u000a industry. After 30 years of ProAlcool, the federal government program that boosted Brazil’s sugarcane industry by creating\\u000a a mandate to blend ethanol with gasoline, flex fuel engines now dominate Brazil’s automobile industry. Currently, bioethanol\\u000a replaces around 30% of the gasoline consumed

  1. The Brazilian experience of sugarcane ethanol industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sizuo Matsuoka; Jesus Ferro; Paulo Arruda

    2009-01-01

    Biomass has gained prominence in the last few years as one of the most important renewable energy sources. In Brazil, a sugarcane\\u000a ethanol program called ProAlcohol was designed to supply the liquid gasoline substitution and has been running for the last\\u000a 30 yr. The federal government’s establishment of ProAlcohol in 1975 created the grounds for the development of a sugarcane\\u000a industry

  2. The Brazilian Experience of Sugarcane Ethanol Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sizuo Matsuoka; Jesus Ferro; Paulo Arruda

    \\u000a Biomass has gained prominence in the last few years as one of the most important renewable energy sources. In Brazil, a sugarcane\\u000a ethanol program called ProAlcohol was designed to supply the liquid gasoline substitution and has been running for the last\\u000a 30 yr. The federal government’s establishment of ProAlcohol in 1975 created the grounds for the development of a sugarcane

  3. Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.

    PubMed

    Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal. PMID:24084103

  4. Sugarcane improvement: how far can we go?

    PubMed

    Dal-Bianco, Maximiller; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Chapola, Roberto Giacomini; Hoffmann, Hermann Paulo; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, efforts to improve sugarcane have focused on the development of biotechnology for this crop. It has become clear that sugarcane lacks tools for the biotechnological route of improvement and that the initial efforts in sequencing ESTs had limited impact for breeding. Until recently, the models used by breeders in statistical genetics approaches have been developed for diploid organisms, which are not ideal for a polyploid genome such as that of sugarcane. Breeding programs are dealing with decreasing yield gains. The contribution of multiple alleles to complex traits such as yield is a basic question underlining the breeding efforts that could only be addressed by the development of specific tools for this grass. However, functional genomics has progressed and gene expression profiling is leading to the definition of gene networks. The sequencing of the sugarcane genome, which is underway, will greatly contribute to numerous aspects of research on grasses. We expect that both the transgenic and the marker-assisted route for sugarcane improvement will contribute to increased sugar, stress tolerance, and higher yield and that the industry for years to come will be able to rely on sugarcane as the most productive energy crop. PMID:21983270

  5. Seasonal timing of glyphosate ripener application affects sugarcane’s response in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is applied as a ripener to ratoon sugarcane in Louisiana to increase theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) in harvested sugarcane. While glyphosate is applied as a ripener throughout the harvest season, recommendations for these applications have been based primarily on the response of s...

  6. The effect of sugarcane yellow leaf virus infection on yield of Sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of field experiment were conducted to determine the effect of SCYLV infection on cane and sugar yield of four commercial sugarcane cultivars (LCP 85-384, Ho 95-988, HoCP 96-540 and L 97-128) that occupied 93% of the sugarcane production area in Louisiana in 2006. The experiments were harve...

  7. Effects of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infection on sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infection on sugarcane typically appear late in the growing season. In Louisiana, infected plants may be harvested before symptoms develop or late-season symptoms may be masked by the effects of chemical ripener or freezing temperatures. In a field exp...

  8. Florida's sugarcane industry and the role of the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida’s sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) industry of 420,000 acres produces 1.9 million tons of sugar annually, approximately 20 percent of the yearly sugar consumption in the United States. Canal Point sugarcane cultivars produced by the cooperative program of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, a...

  9. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  10. PCDD and PCDF Emissions from Simulated Sugarcane Field Burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass densit...

  11. Genetically Enhanced Sorghum and Sugarcane: Engineering Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Storage together with Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency into the Saccharinae

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-02-15

    PETRO Project: UIUC is working to convert sugarcane and sorghum—already 2 of the most productive crops in the world—into dedicated bio-oil crop systems. Three components will be engineered to produce new crops that have a 50% higher yield, produce easily extractable oils, and have a wider growing range across the U.S. This will be achieved by modifying the crop canopy to better distribute sunlight and increase its cold tolerance. By directly producing oil in the shoots of these plants, these biofuels could be easily extracted with the conventional crushing techniques used today to extract sugar.

  12. Cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter in Plant Cell Culture, Development and Biotechnology describes student laboratory exercises for cryopreservation of the growing shoot tips of plants in liquid nitrogen. It includes two exercises involving step by step protocols for use with shoot tips. Vitrification (fast freezing) an...

  13. Original article Root and shoot hydraulic conductance

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    @univ.trieste.it A low hydraulic conductance in xylem is expected to cause a low leaf water potential, because leaf waterOriginal article Root and shoot hydraulic conductance of seven Quercus species Andrea Nardini) and shoot (KS) hydraulic conductances of seven different Quercus species, as well as the leaf blade

  14. Multiple shoot regeneration of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) from a shoot apex culture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Srivatanakul; S. H. Park; J. R. Sanders; M. G. Salas; R. H. Smith

    2000-01-01

    In this research, a medium was developed that would stimulate multiple shoot initiation from shoot apex explants of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf). Adventitious shoot formation on a shoot induction media supplemented with combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic\\u000a acid (2,4-D) (0, 0.5, 2.3??mol·l–1) and thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N?-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea; TDZ) (0, 1, 5, 20??mol·l–1) was evaluated. Multiple shoot induction medium with 1??mol·TDZ l–1 resulted in the

  15. Short-term physiological changes in roots and leaves of sugarcane varieties exposed to H2O2 in root medium.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karina I; Sales, Cristina R G; Marchiori, Paulo E R; Silveira, Neidiquele M; Machado, Eduardo C; Ribeiro, Rafael V

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential sensitivity of sugarcane genotypes to H2O2 in root medium. As a hypothesis, the drought tolerant genotype would be able to minimize the oxidative damage and maintain the water transport from roots to shoots, reducing the negative effects on photosynthesis. The sugarcane genotypes IACSP94-2094 (drought tolerant) and IACSP94-2101 (drought sensitive) were grown in a growth chamber and exposed to three levels of H2O2 in nutrient solution: control; 3mmolL(-1) and 80mmolL(-1). Leaf gas exchange, photochemical activity, root hydraulic conductance (Lr) and antioxidant metabolism in both roots and leaves were evaluated after 15min of treatment with H2O2. Although, root hydraulic conductance, stomatal aperture, apparent electron transport rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency have been reduced by H2O2 in both genotypes, IACSP94-2094 presented higher values of those variables as compared to IACSP94-2101. There was a significant genotypic variation in relation to the physiological responses of sugarcane to increasing H2O2 in root tissues, being root changes associated with modifications in plant shoots. IACSP94-2094 presented a root antioxidant system more effective against H2O2 in root medium, regardless H2O2 concentration. Under low H2O2 concentration, water transport and leaf gas exchange of IACSP94-2094 were less affected as compared to IACSP94-2101. Under high H2O2 concentration, the lower sensitivity of IACSP94-2094 was associated with increases in superoxide dismutase activity in roots and leaves and increases in catalase activity in roots. In conclusion, we propose a general model of sugarcane reaction to H2O2, linking root and shoot physiological responses. PMID:25703773

  16. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Raôul R D; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-René J A C; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2012-09-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible. Participants drove under a large screen that initially blocked the basket. As soon as they saw the basket they shot. When training with the screen, shooting percentages increased. We conclude that visual control training is an effective method to improve wheelchair basketball shooting. The findings support the idea that perceptual-motor learning can be enhanced by manipulating relevant constraints in the training environment, even for expert athletes. PMID:22978196

  17. Virus Strains Causing Mosaic in Louisiana and Florida Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), respectively, affects sugarcane in Louisiana and Florida. Between 2004 and 2007, surveys were conducted in both states to determine which virus and virus strains were causing mosaic of sugarcane. In Louisiana, leaf sam...

  18. Sugarcane yield response to soybean double-cropping in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interruption of continuous sugarcane plantings with a soybean (Glycine max) crop during the spring/summer fallow period between sugarcane plantings represents an economical opportunity for sugarcane growers in Louisiana. The objective of the experiment was to determine if soybeans grown in the u...

  19. Physiological Responses of Sugarcane to Orange Rust Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, is a relatively new disease in the United States that substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane cultivars in Florida. The objective of this study was to determine physiological responses of sugarcane to orange rust infection by quantifyi...

  20. International Testing for Genetic Variability of Sugarcane Smut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cooperative project was conducted to determine the genetic variability among populations of the Ustilago scitaminea, the pathogen of sugarcane smut, from different sugarcane growing regions of the world. A common set of 11 sugarcane cultivars with different reported reactions to smut was distribu...

  1. Interspecific Proteomic Comparisons Reveal Ash Phloem Genes Potentially Involved in Constitutive Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin G. A. Whitehill; Alexandra Popova-Butler; Kari B. Green-Church; Jennifer L. Koch; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Haibing Yang

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is

  2. 120 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 DETECTION OF EMERALD ASH BORER,

    E-print Network

    120 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 DETECTION OF EMERALD ASH BORER Center, Houghton, MI 49931 ABSTRACT The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera. For the foreseeable future, trap tree and ground surveys will be important tools for detecting emerald ash borer

  3. Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col., Buprestidae)

    E-print Network

    Novel visual-cue-based sticky traps for monitoring of emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Col USDA APHIS PPQ, Brighton, MI, USA Introduction The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis emerald ash borers (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, using solely visual cues based on previous work

  4. 75 FR 45601 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Emerald Ash Borer; Host...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...spread of emerald ash borer in the United States...Title: Emerald Ash Borer; Host Material from...product, biological control organism, noxious...to prevent a plant pest or noxious weed from...importation of emerald ash borer host material from...that attacks ash trees, in the United...

  5. Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content

    PubMed Central

    Papini-Terzi, Flávia S; Rocha, Flávia R; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Felix, Juliana M; Branco, Diana S; Waclawovsky, Alessandro J; Del Bem, Luiz EV; Lembke, Carolina G; Costa, Maximiller DL; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel GA; Ulian, Eugênio C; Menossi, Marcelo; Souza, Glaucia M

    2009-01-01

    Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar) levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and transcriptional regulators to be used as molecular markers in breeding programs. Transgenic research is necessary to further clarify the role of the genes and define targets useful for sugarcane improvement programs based on transgenic plants. PMID:19302712

  6. Bt Corn and the European Corn Borer: Evaluation Tool

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Interactive predictive model uses years of past weather data and a model of the European corn borer's life cycle under different temperatures to calculate the net benefit of planting Bt corn versus non-Bt corn in a certain geographic area. Great data visualization. Requires Flash. This is an excellent tool incorporating a large volume of data. The tool should be quite useful for IPM classes.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Simultaneous Energy Cane and Sugarcane Genetic Improvement -- Results of a Survey of International Sugarcane Breeders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following Brazil's dramatic success in utilizing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) for large-scale ethanol production, and with a growing interest in energy crops worldwide, sugarcane breeders have been charged with genetically improving cane as an energy crop. We conducted a survey of sugarcane breeders i...

  8. Survey of lepidopterous stem borer pests of sorghum, maize and pearl millet in Eritrea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adugna Haile; Trond Hofsvang

    2001-01-01

    A survey of lepidopterous stem borers attacking sorghum, maize and pearl millet was done in Eritrea during the cropping seasons of 1996 and 1997. The survey area covered the highlands, western and eastern lowlands and the coastal region of the Red Sea, where sorghum, maize and millet are the major crops. Four lepidopterous stem borers species, namely Busseola fusca Fuller,

  9. A predator of the coffee berry borer: is it present in your country?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the predatory thrips Karnyothrips flavipes (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) was reported in Kenya as a predator of coffee berry borer eggs and larvae. The 1-2 mm long thrips enters the hole bored by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on the coffee berry,...

  10. Penicillium brocae, a new species associated with the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen W. Peterson; Jeanneth Perez; Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Infante

    2003-01-01

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatan, Chia- pas, and from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Implicatum, but because it does not conform to known species we have described it as new. ITS and

  11. THE BLACK TWIG BORER: A STUDY OF THE DAMAGE DONE TO UNPROTECTED HAWAIIAN COFFEE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARA DRIZD

    Also known as the coffee twig borer, ambrosia beetle, and Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff, the black twig borer has been found to not only attack coffee, but also over 100 other species of trees and shrubs including avocado, citrus, guava, macadamia, live oak, and several types of orchids. The female beetles bore holes in the branches of the plant and cause

  12. Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

  13. PENICILLIUM BROCAE A NEW SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, or from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Imp...

  14. Classical Biological Control of Emerald Ash Borer and Asian Longhorned Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), are both invasive plant pests recently introduced to North America from the Far East. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an oligophagous buprestid on Fraxinus spp., whereas the Asi...

  15. Cost of potential emerald ash borer damage in U.S. communities, 2009–2019

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent F. Kovacs; Robert G. Haight; Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2010-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered near Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario in 2002. As of March 2009, isolated populations of emerald ash borer (EAB) have been detected in nine additional states and Quebec. EAB is a highly invasive forest pest that has the potential to spread and kill native ash trees

  16. Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat

    E-print Network

    Medjahed, Brahim

    Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat Brahim - Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48120, USA {brahim,wgrosky}@umich.edu Abstract. The Emerald Ash Service ­ Ontology ­ Invasive Species ­ EAB. 1 Introduction The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a shiny

  17. Cell wall composition as a maize defense mechanism against corn borers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European and Mediterranean corn borers are two of the most economically important insect pests of maize in North America and southern Europe, respectively. Cell wall structure and composition were evaluated in pith and rind tissues of diverse inbred lines as possible corn borer resistance traits. Ce...

  18. Impact of Plant Resistance on Southwestern Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Biology and Plant Damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm...

  19. Induced defenses in maize following attack by the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of the past two decades, insect pests such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) annually resulted in losses to US maize production exceeding one billion dollars. Despite the global significance of O. nubilalis and other stem borers, relatively little is known about the nat...

  20. 76 FR 5679 - Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined Areas in Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, New York...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...Register Volume 76, Number 22 (Wednesday, February 2, 2011)] [Rules...Register / Vol. 76, No. 22 / Wednesday, February 2, 2011 / Rules...APHIS-2009-0098] Emerald Ash Borer; Addition of Quarantined...rule that amended the emerald ash borer regulations by...

  1. Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers Ambroise Dalecky1, aimed at delaying the evolution of pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins produced evolution to Bt crops: Predispersal mating of European corn borers. PLoS Biol 4(6): e181. DOI: 10

  2. DIVERSITY OF PENICILLIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (CBB) causes great damage to coffee crops around the world. Borer eggs are laid in developing coffee berries, and the larvae feed on tissue of the berry. It has been hypothesized that fungal growth in insect galleries provides exogenous sterols needed for...

  3. Using frozen sugarcane for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The three areas that produce sugarcane in the mainland US are subject to crop-damaging freezes. Florida has fewer freezes. Texas and Louisiana are hurt frequently. Hard freezes end processing for sugar production when dextrans form and prevent crystallization. Dextran is formed from sugar by bacteria. Work at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU, has shown that crystallization of sucrose can be achieved with juice from frozen sugarcane when enzymes are used to reduce the size of the dextran molecule. Frozen cane may also be processed for alcohol production. How long the cane would be suitable as feedstock was questioned; its use would depend on sugar content. Sugarcane has been tested for post-freeze deterioration at the US Sugarcane Field Laboratory for over 50 years, and the emphasis has been on the response of varieties selected for sugar production in post-freeze deterioration. The data indicated that juice from frozen sugarcane in any of the tests would be adequate for alcohol production; fermentation based on mash with a sugar content of 9 to 11% for rum, and 15% for industrial alcohol. Total fermentable carbohydrates in frozen cane would be even higher since the data did not include invert sugars or starch. 1 table. (DP)

  4. Sugarcane and other crops as fuel feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    The use of sugarcane as a feedstock for fuel alcohol production in Brazil, and in Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Panama stimulated tremendous interest in the potential of agricultural crops for renewable energy sources. The cost of the feedstock is important. Corn, the current major agricultural feedstock in US fuel alcohol production, costs 60 to 80% of the selling price of the alcohol produced from it. Production costs for sugarcane and sugarbeets are higher than for corn. Sugarcane and sugarbeets, yield more fermentable carbohydrates per acre than any other crop. Sugarcane has the distinct advantage of containing a large amount of fiber in the harvested portion. The feedstock cost of sugarcane can be reduced by producing more cane per acre. Sweet sorghum has been discussed as a fuel crop. Cassana, the tapioca source, is thought to be a fuel crop of major potential. Feedstock cost can also be reduced through management decisions that reduce costly practices. Cultivation and fertilizer costs can be reduced. The operating cost of the processing plant is affected by the choice of crops grown for feedstock, both by their cost and by availability. (DP)

  5. Effects of Tree Shade on Attacks by the Red Cedar Shoot Borer, Hypsipyla robusta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Watana Sakchoowong; Chumphot Chobtham; Sungwol Rattanachan

    2008-01-01

    The effects of shade on the attack by Hypsipyla robusta were investigated in red cedar seedlings (Toona ciliata) planted in the open (no shade) and under neem, Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae) shade. Seventy-two T. ciliata were planted in each plot. The trial was regularly monitored, assessing both the physical characteristics of the trees and damage by H. robusta at 12

  6. Penicillium brocae, a new species associated with the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Stephen W; Pérez, Jeanneth; Vega, Fernando E; Infante, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Penicillium brocae is a new monoverticillate species isolated from coffee berry borers collected at coffee plantations in Mexico near Cacahoatán, Chiapas, and from borers reared on artificial diets at ECOSUR laboratory facilities in Tapachula, Chiapas. Phenotypically, it is in Penicillium series Implicatum, but because it does not conform to known species we have described it as new. ITS and large subunit rDNA were sequenced and compared to determine the phylogenetic position of this species. It is most closely related to Penicillium adametzii. Penicillium brocae has only been found in association with the coffee berry borer and is one of several fungi that grow in coffee berry borer galleries. Penicillium brocae may provide the exogenous sterols necessary for the coffee berry borer's development and thus be mutualistically associated with the insect. PMID:21156600

  7. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  8. USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

  9. Trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, M.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a trouble shooting system for an electric vehicle. The electric vehicle contains a driving mechanism, a driving operation part and a control device. The driving mechanism includes a power source, an electric motor and a modality for controlling output level from the power supply to the electric motor in response to the driving operation part. The control device includes a microprocessor which receives commands from the driving operation part and supplies a control signal to the driving mechanism in response to a stored drive control program. The trouble shooting system consists of control device storage mechanisms for storing trouble shooting programs for various parts of the vehicle which are executed by the microprocessor. This system also includes a command generating modality responsive to manual operation for supplying a command to the microprocessor to initiate the execution and read out of a selected trouble shooting program and a method by which the microprocessor may display the program being processed.

  10. A method to determine waterfowl shooting distances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, D.A.; Sherwood, G.A.; Murdy, H.W.

    1973-01-01

    Long-range shooting at ducks and geese frequently results in a high crippling loss, unretrieved birds and frustrated hunters. A principal problem has been the general inability of hunters or observers to properly judge distance of birds. This paper describes a reasonably accurate method developed to determine shooting distances to geese. Two observers utilized transit-mounted 4X hunting scopes to determine angles and elevations to goose hunters and birds. These data were used to set up a series of triangles by which a distance between hunter and birds could be calculated. Known-distance tests indicated an average measurement error of approximately two percent. An average shooting distance of 71 yards was calculated from 175 sightings. The maximum range was 240 yards and the minimum was 24 yards. The relationship of shooting to clean kills and crippling loss is also discussed.

  11. Upper body fatiguing exercise and shooting performance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rachel K; Scoville, Charles R; Ito, Max A; Mello, Robert P

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of upper extremity muscle fatigue on shooting performance while in a standing, unsupported firing position. Nine male and three female soldiers fired at targets before and after performing upper extremity exercise to fatigue using both (1) an upper body ergometer and (2) a Military Operations in Urban Terrain obstacle course. Shooting accuracy, assessed by the number of hits, misses, and shot group size, was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) immediately following both types of exercise and recovered to pre-exercise values within 5 minutes for all measures except the number of misses, which returned to pre-exercise values by 10 minutes. There was no relationship between fitness measures and shooting performance, although muscle endurance was a factor in the duration of exercise prior to fatigue. We conclude that shooting accuracy recovers rapidly in fit soldiers following fatiguing lifting, climbing, and pulling activity. PMID:12834134

  12. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  13. School Shooting: A Double Loss of Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Böckler; Thorsten Seeger; Wilhelm Heitmeyer

    \\u000a A critical discussion of the controllability of school shootings on the basis of the thesis of double loss of control, composed\\u000a of elements of social disintegration theory (SDT), youth theory, and control theory. Using the research findings to date,\\u000a it is shown that school shootings are largely caused by negative recognition balances in the spheres of socialization of family,\\u000a school,

  14. VIRTUAL SUGARCANE BIOREFINERY: A TOOL TO COMPARE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF DIFFERENT

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    ;1G Ethanol, sugar and electricity producEon from sugarcane (annexed disVIRTUAL SUGARCANE BIOREFINERY: A TOOL TO COMPARE THE SUSTAINABILITY Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil ­ July 2011 #12;Concept Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery

  15. Study of sugarcane pieces as yeast supports for ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Liang; Yuan-ping Zhang; Li Zhang; Ming-jun Zhu; Shi-zhong Liang; Yu-nan Huang

    2008-01-01

    Due to the environmental concerns and the increasing price of oil, bioethanol was already produced in large amount in Brazil\\u000a and China from sugarcane juice and molasses. In order to make this process competitive, we have investigated the suitability\\u000a of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AS2.1190 on sugarcane pieces for production of ethanol. Electron microscopy clearly showed that cell immobilization\\u000a resulted

  16. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST) catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glaucia Mendes Souza; Ana Carolina Quirino Simoes; Katia Cristina Oliveira; Humberto Miguel Garay; Leonardo Costa Fiorini; Felipe dos Santos Gomes; Milton Yutaka Nishiyama-Junior; Aline Maria da Silva

    2001-01-01

    EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST) project (http:\\/\\/sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br) that corresponded to signal transduction components.

  17. Embryogenic callus proliferation and regeneration conditions for genetic transformation of diverse sugarcane cultivars.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Moyle, Richard; Birch, Robert G

    2011-03-01

    Amenability to tissue culture stages required for gene transfer, selection and plant regeneration are the main determinants of genetic transformation efficiency via particle bombardment into sugarcane. The technique is moving from the experimental phase, where it is sufficient to work in a few amenable genotypes, to practical application in a diverse and changing set of elite cultivars. Therefore, we investigated the response to callus initiation, proliferation, regeneration and selection steps required for microprojectile-mediated transformation, in a diverse set of Australian sugarcane cultivars. 12 of 16 tested cultivars were sufficiently amenable to existing routine tissue-culture conditions for practical genetic transformation. Three cultivars required adjustments to 2,4-D levels during callus proliferation, geneticin concentration during selection, and/or light intensity during regeneration. One cultivar gave an extreme necrotic response in leaf spindle explants and produced no callus tissue under the tested culture conditions. It was helpful to obtain spindle explants for tissue culture from plants with good water supply for growth, especially for genotypes that were harder to culture. It was generally possible to obtain several independent transgenic plants per bombardment, with time in callus culture limited to 11-15 weeks. A caution with this efficient transformation system is that separate shoots arose from different primary transformed cells in more than half of tested calli after selection for geneticin resistance. The results across this diverse cultivar set are likely to be a useful guide to key variables for rapid optimisation of tissue culture conditions for efficient genetic transformation of other sugarcane cultivars. PMID:20978767

  18. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between sugarcane BACs and corresponding sorghum sequences defied the notion that polyploidy species might have faster pace of gene loss due to the redundancy of multiple alleles at each locus. PMID:20416060

  19. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  20. A review of bronze birch borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) life history, ecology, and management.

    PubMed

    Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A

    2012-12-01

    Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides. PMID:23321083

  1. Biological nitrogen fixation in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is a major input for sugarcane with crops in Louisiana receiving between 90 and 180 kg/ha with the cost of N increasing 75% in the last decade. Biological N fixation (BNF) may be a viable alternative to fertilizer N. The process relies on endophytic bacteria (bacteria that live among th...

  2. Registration of ‘CPCL 02-6848’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of 'CPCL 02-6848' (Reg. No. 667596; PI), sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC) and completed by collaborative research of the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. The female paren...

  3. Registration of ‘CPCL 05-1102’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CPCL 05-1102’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the product of research initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 05-1102 was released to growers in Fl...

  4. Registration of ‘CP 06-2400’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: ‘CP 06-2400’ (Reg. No. ; PI 670018) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. and released to growers for organic (muck) soils in Fl...

  5. Breeding commercial sugarcane varieties for the industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent literature suggests that sugarcane breeding in the United States has reached a sugar yield plateau. If so, this could have huge implications for the future of the industry and breeding per se because yield improvement might have to be achieved through secondary, non-sugar-related traits, or t...

  6. SUGARCANE (SACCHARUM SPP.) RESPONSE TO FLUMIOXAZIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine response of the sugarcane cultivars HoCP 91-555, LCP 85-845, and LCP 85-384 to flumioxazin during the first (plant cane) and second (first ratoon) production years. In the plant cane crop, flumioxazin was applied in September or October [at planting preemerge...

  7. Registration of ‘CP 04-1935’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CP 04-1935 is sugarcane variety that was developed by a cooperative research involving the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. It was released to growers in Florida on 20 Sep. 2011. CP 04-1935 was selected from the cross between CP 94-2059 and CP 84-1322 made...

  8. Registration of ‘CPCL 02-1295’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research to develop ‘CPCL 02-1295’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) was initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 02-1295 was released to growers in Flori...

  9. Registration of ‘CPCL 02-0926’ Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘CPCL 02-0926’ sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) is the product of research initiated by the United States Sugar Corporation (USSC), and completed cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc. CPCL 02-0926 was released to growers in Fl...

  10. Sugarcane yield loss due to ratoon stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yield response of recently released CP-cultivars to ratoon stunt has not been determined. Cane and sugar yields of Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx)-infected and healthy sugarcane plants of cultivars that are currently major commercial cultivars that have not been in prior tests as well as former...

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and development of herbicide-resistant sugarcane (Saccharum species hybrids) using axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Manickavasagam, M; Ganapathi, A; Anbazhagan, V R; Sudhakar, B; Selvaraj, N; Vasudevan, A; Kasthurirengan, S

    2004-09-01

    Direct regeneration from explants without an intervening callus phase has several advantages, including production of true type progenies. Axillary bud explants from 6-month-old sugarcane cultivars Co92061 and Co671 were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strains LBA4404 and EHA105 that harboured a binary vector pGA492 carrying neomycin phosphotransferase II, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) and an intron containing beta-glucuronidase (gus-intron) genes in the T-DNA region. A comparison of kanamycin, geneticin and phosphinothricin (PPT) selection showed that PPT (5.0 mg l(-1)) was the most effective selection agent for axillary bud transformation. Repeated proliferation of shoots in the selection medium eliminated chimeric transformants. Transgenic plants were generated in three different steps: (1) production of putative primary transgenic shoots in Murashige-Skoog (MS) liquid medium with 3.0 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 5.0 mg l(-1) PPT, (2) production of secondary transgenic shoots from the primary transgenic shoots by growing them in MS liquid medium with 2.0 mg l(-1) BA, 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kin), 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 5.0 mg l(-1) PPT for 3 weeks, followed by five more cycles of shoot proliferation and selection under same conditions, and (3) rooting of transgenic shoots on half-strength MS liquid medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA and 5.0 mg l(-1) PPT. About 90% of the regenerated shoots rooted and 80% of them survived during acclimatisation in greenhouse. Transformation was confirmed by a histochemical beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assay and PCR amplification of the bar gene. Southern blot analysis indicated integration of the bar gene in two genomic locations in the majority of transformants. Transformation efficiency was influenced by the co-cultivation period, addition of the phenolic compound acetosyringone and the Agrobacterium strain. A 3-day co-cultivation with 50 micro M acetosyringone considerably increased the transformation efficiency. Agrobacterium strain EHA105 was more effective, producing twice the number of transgenic shoots than strain LBA4404 in both Co92061 and Co671 cultivars. Depending on the variety, 50-60% of the transgenic plants sprayed with BASTA (60 g l(-1) glufosinate) grew without any herbicide damage under greenhouse conditions. These results show that, with this protocol, generation and multiplication of transgenic shoots can be achieved in about 5 months with transformation efficiencies as high as 50%. PMID:15133712

  12. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus) with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6%) of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome. PMID:21083898

  13. Shoot Sr concentrations in relation to shoot Ca concentrations and to soil properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Veresoglou; N. Barbayiannis; T. Matsi; C. Anagnostopoulos; G. C. Zalidis

    1996-01-01

    This work was aimed to investigate whether shoot Sr concentrations of plant species are related to respective Ca concentrations and to soil properties and to compare the Sr-Ca observed ratios (OR), defined as the quotient of the ratios Sr\\/Ca in shoots and in the soil solution or in the extractable form, among species and soils. Ten pasture plant species were

  14. A transcranial Doppler sonography study of shoot/don't-shoot responding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Natasha B; Matthews, Gerald; Warm, Joel S; Washburn, David A

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between changes in cerebral blood-flow velocity and performance on a speeded shoot/don't-shoot task. Brain activity as indicated by cerebral blood-flow velocity (hemovelocity) was recorded using the transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. A shoot/don't-shoot decision-making task presented participants with threat/nonthreat stimuli in the form of bull's-eye images of various colors. Participants were required to shoot threat targets using a laser-modified handgun. Results support a vigilance decrement in both the performance measures and hemovelocity. Performance, as measured by reaction time, number of hits, and marksmanship, decreased across the length of the vigil. Hemovelocity slowed across the left and right hemispheres as the task progressed, and hemovelocity was slower in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. PMID:19587168

  15. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid concentrations in shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming tobacco callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, K.L.; Bassham, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    Shoot-forming tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Wisconsin 38) callus tissues contain significantly lower concentrations of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid compared to non-shoot-forming callus tissues. This difference is evident 1 day after subculture to shoot-forming or non-shoot-forming medium, and is maintained through the first week of growth. The lack of auxin in shoot-forming medium is the probable cause for this difference in ACC concentrations.

  16. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  17. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  18. BOREAS TE-12 SSA Shoot Geometry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Cheng, L.; Yang, Litao

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected shoot geometry data in 1993 and 1994 from aspen, jack pine, and black spruce trees. Collections were made at the Southern Study Area Nipawin Fen Site (SSA FEN), Young Jack Pine (YJP), Old Jack Pine (OJP), Old Aspen (OA), Young Aspen (YA), Mixed Site (MIX), and Old Black Spruce (OBS) sites. A caliper was used to measure shoot and needle lengths and widths. A volume displacement procedure was used to measure the weight of the shoot or twig submerged in water. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. Parthenolide: from plant shoots to cancer roots.

    PubMed

    Ghantous, Akram; Sinjab, Ansam; Herceg, Zdenko; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-09-01

    Parthenolide (PTL), a sesquiterpene lactone (SL) originally purified from the shoots of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), has shown potent anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. It is currently being tested in cancer clinical trials. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of parthenolide revealed key chemical properties required for biological activities and epigenetic mechanisms, and led to the derivatization of an orally bioavailable analog, dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT). Parthenolide is the first small molecule found to be selective against cancer stem cells (CSC), which it achieves by targeting specific signaling pathways and killing cancer from its roots. In this review, we highlight the exciting journey of parthenolide, from plant shoots to cancer roots. PMID:23688583

  20. Parasitism by the Endoparasitoid, Cotesia flavipes Induces Cellular Immunosuppression and Enhances Susceptibility of the Sugar Cane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis to Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, A.M.A.; De Luna-Santillana, E.J.; Rodríguez-Perez, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). The aim of this research was to analyze cellular immunosuppression of D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes in terms of encapsulation, melanization, and hemocyte nodule formation. The encapsulation assay was done 1 and 6 days after parasitoid oviposition. In addition, the susceptibility of parasitized and nonparasitzed larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis HD 73 strain was assessed. 3, 12, and 24 h after bead injection; the percentages of encapsulation were significantly higher in unparasitized larvae compared to larvae parasitized 1 and 6 days after oviposition. Interestingly, there was a significant reduction in numbers of beads encapsulated at 1 day after oviposition compared to 6 days, and unparasitized larvae. The percentage of melanized beads decreased significantly in parasitized larvae compared to control. There was a reduction in the number of nodules in parasitized larvae compared to unparasitized controls. Larvae that were injected with polyndavirus 24 h before beads were injected showed significantly reduced encapsulation responses relative to control larvae. The D. saccharalis parasitized by C. flavipes exhibited higher susceptibility to B. thuringiensis. These results suggest that parasitization induced host immunosuppression, and the immunosuppression factors could impair the defense capacity against microbial pathogens - causing an increase in pathogen susceptibility. PMID:22225507

  1. Susceptibility of the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes is an important pest of Prunus spp. We determined the susceptibility of S. pictipes to six entomopathogenic nematode species: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. indica, H. marelatus, Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. riobrave. Nematode viru...

  2. gorgon, a novel missense mutation in the SHOOT MERISTEMLESS gene, impairs shoot meristem homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Takano, Sho; Niihama, Mitsuru; Smith, Harley M S; Tasaka, Masao; Aida, Mitsuhiro

    2010-04-01

    The shoot meristem is a group of self-perpetuating cells that ultimately gives rise to the aerial parts of plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) gene, which encodes a knotted1-like homeobox transcription factor, is required for shoot meristem formation and maintenance, and loss-of-function mutations in the gene result in complete loss or premature termination of the shoot meristem. Here, we report a novel missense allele of STM, gorgon (gor), which displays striking differences in shoot meristem defects compared with known stm alleles. The gor phenotype results from substitution of the highly conserved arginine at position 53 of the homeodomain, which is important for DNA binding in other homeodomain proteins. In gor, the shoot meristem enlarges continuously during post-embryonic development and the floral meristems frequently develop additional whorls. These phenotypes, together with enlarged expression domains of meristem markers, indicate that the mutation affects shoot meristem activity in the opposite direction to other loss-of-function alleles. However, detailed genetic analyses and overexpression studies indicate that gor represents a novel type of hypomorphic alleles rather than the hypermorph that is suggested by the phenotype. Consistently, the gor allele strictly requires the functional PENNYWISE (PNY) gene, which encodes a known binding partner of the STM protein, to maintain shoot meristem activity, whereas the wild-type allele efficiently maintains the meristem even in the absence of PNY. Our results suggest a critical role for Arg53 of the homeodomain in STM function and that the gor mutation at this residue impairs shoot meristem homeostasis. PMID:20208065

  3. The biology and control of the lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.

    E-print Network

    Thomson, Valiavetil

    1966-01-01

    THE BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE LESSER GRAIN BORER RHIZOPERTHA DOMINICA (FAB. ) A Thesis By Valiavetil Thomson Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1966 Major Subjeot: Entomology THE BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE LESSER GRAIN BORER RHIKOPERTHA DOMINICA (FAB ~ ) A Thesis By Valiavetil Thomson Approved as to style and content by: ( airman of Committee) (Hea o Department) Mem r...

  4. Molecular markers for yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) resistance in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Selvi; P. Shanmugasundaram; S. Mohan Kumar; J. A. J. Raja

    2002-01-01

    Breeding for yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait and inherent difficulties\\u000a in screening. Identification of molecular markers linked to the trait would enhance phenotypic evaluation for the trait. An\\u000a F2 population was developed using parents contrasting in their reaction to yellow stem borer resistance. Random Amplified Polymorphic\\u000a DNA (RAPD) analysis,in

  5. New Record for the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Burbano, Elsie; Wright, Mark; Bright, Donald E.; Vega, Fernando E.

    2011-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is endemic to Africa and is the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide. The female bores a hole in the coffee berry and deposits her eggs inside. Upon hatching, larvae feed on the seeds, thus reducing both quality and yields of the marketable product. The coffee berry borer was found in the district of Kona on the island of Hawaii in August 2010 and appears to be restricted to that area. PMID:22225430

  6. New record for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Burbano, Elsie; Wright, Mark; Bright, Donald E; Vega, Fernando E

    2011-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is endemic to Africa and is the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide. The female bores a hole in the coffee berry and deposits her eggs inside. Upon hatching, larvae feed on the seeds, thus reducing both quality and yields of the marketable product. The coffee berry borer was found in the district of Kona on the island of Hawaii in August 2010 and appears to be restricted to that area. PMID:22225430

  7. Burbano et al. New record for the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Hawaii

    E-print Network

    Elsie Burbano A; Mark Wright B; Donald E. Bright C; O E. Vega D

    2010-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is endemic to Africa and is the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide. The female bores a hole in the coffee berry and deposits her eggs inside. Upon hatching, larvae feed on the seeds, thus reducing both quality and yields of the marketable product. The coffee berry borer was found in the district of Kona on the island of Hawaii in August 2010 and appears to be restricted to that area.

  8. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

  9. Potential management strategies for the linden borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in urban landscapes and nurseries.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T A; Williamson, R C

    2007-08-01

    The linden borer, Saperda vestita Say (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a native insect species that is common throughout north central and northeastern North America. Over the past decade, increasing occurrence of damage associated with the linden borer has been reported on Tilia spp. in city street trees and nurseries throughout Wisconsin, probably because of increased use of these trees. Our objective was to gain a better understanding of the seasonal biology and potential management strategies for this important pest. We evaluated the effectiveness of three systemic insecticides, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and disulfoton, and a mechanical control method of chipping linden borer-infested wood as a means of reducing S. vestita larval survival, subsequent emergence, and oviposition. Autumn and spring soil injections of imidacloprid to linden borer-infested Tilia cordata'Greenspire' nursery stock (< 11.4 cm in diameter at breast height [dbh]) provided >90% control. Autumn soil injections of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and a spring granular soil application treatment of disulfoton applied to larger (>22 cm dbh) Tilia spp. did not effectively control linden borer at the application rates tested. Chipping infested Tilia spp. effectively destroyed linden borer larvae, pupae, and adults. Arborists and landscape managers should consider chipping felled Tilia spp. trees infested with S. vestita to prevent adults from potentially attacking nearby susceptible trees. PMID:17849886

  10. Utility to test expert trouble shooting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stambler

    2009-01-01

    A field test scheduled to get underway at Jersey Central Power and Light's Gilbert Power Station in Milford, NJ, promises to provide an important milestone in the application of the new computer based discipline of artificial intelligence to gas turbine operations. Field tests, on the MS7001B combined-cycle installation, will show if computerized trouble shooting can be a better and faster

  11. Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes th...

  12. The embryonic shoot: a lifeline through winter.

    PubMed

    van der Schoot, Christiaan; Paul, Laju K; Rinne, Päivi L H

    2014-04-01

    The tiny vascular axis of the embryo emerges post-embryonically as an elaborate and critical infrastructure, pervading the entire plant system. Its expansive nature is especially impressive in trees, where growth and development continue for extended periods. While the shoot apical meristem (SAM) orchestrates primary morphogenesis, the vascular system is mapped out in its wake in the provascular cylinder, situated just below the emerging leaf primordia and surrounding the rib meristem. Formation of leaf primordia and provascular tissues is incompatible with the harsh conditions of winter. Deciduous trees of boreal and temperate climates therefore enter a survival mode at the end of the season. However, to be competitive, they need to maximize their growth period while avoiding cellular frost damage. Trees achieve this by monitoring photoperiod, and by timely implementation of a survival strategy that schedules downstream events, including growth cessation, terminal bud formation, dormancy assumption, acquisition of freezing tolerance, and shedding of leaves. Of central importance are buds, which contain an embryonic shoot that allows shoot development and elongation in spring. The genetic and molecular processes that drive the cycle in synchrony with the seasons are largely elusive. Here, we review what is known about the signals and signal conduits that are involved, the processes that are initiated, and the developmental transitions that ensue in a terminal bud. We propose that addressing dormancy as a property of the SAM and the bud as a unique shoot type will facilitate our understanding of winter dormancy. PMID:24368502

  13. Shoot the Moon Wang Sang Koon

    E-print Network

    Koon, Wang Sang

    1 AAS 00-166 Shoot the Moon Wang Sang Koon , Martin W. Lo* , Jerrold E. Marsden , Shane D. Ross at the Moon which required less V than a standard Hohmann transfer to the Moon. In this paper, we apply the same dynamical systems techniques used to produce the "Petit Grand Tour" of Jovian moons to reproduce

  14. SHOOT AND FLORAL MERISTEM MAINTENANCE IN ARABIDOPSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The shoot apical meristem of higher plants functions as a site of continuous organogenesis, within which a small pool of pluripotent stem cells replenishes the cells incorporated into lateral organs. This article summarizes recent results demonstrating that the fate of stem cells in Arabidopsis sho...

  15. Vitrification of Gladiolus shoot tips from cormels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gladiolus shoot tips, 1-2 mm, were excised from in vitro and greenhouse-grown cormels of cultivars ‘Peter Pears,’ in vitro-grown cormels of ‘Jenny Lee,’ field-grown cormels of the breeding lines 02-943A, 02-900, 02-926, and field-grown cormels of the cultivar ‘Double Delight.’ The highest frequency...

  16. Improving Sugarcane as a Bioenergy Crop in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane is one of the world’s most important crops. Large-scale sugarcane-based ethanol production in Brazil, together with an impressive energy balance reported therein, has helped to generate interest in sugarcane as a bioenergy crop in the U.S. An advantage of sugarcane is the production of f...

  17. Indicators of freeze-damaged sugarcane varieties which can predict processing problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian Eggleston; Benjamin Legendre; Tom Tew

    2004-01-01

    In raw sugar manufacture, the quality of the sugarcane supply to the factory plays the most important role in production costs. Sugarcane can be very susceptible to damage by freezes, and freeze-deteriorated sugarcane can cause problems in processing which sometimes leads to a factory shut-down. A reliable indicator of whether a certain shipment of sugarcane can be processed economically is

  18. Impact of Heavy Metals on Sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Yadav; Radha Jain; R. K. Rai

    Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops in the tropics and subtropics, where it is mainly used to manufacture crystal\\u000a sugar. It is cultivated between the latitudes of 35°N and 35°S. Theoretically, it has the potential to produce 805 t?ha?1 wet cane or 470 t?ha?1 dry matter. The highest harvestable sugar cane yield achieved so far is close

  19. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2014-11-20

    Abstract Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed. PMID:25411988

  20. 66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 SITUATION UPDATE

    E-print Network

    66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a beetle native to East Asia and the Russian

  1. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Flooding soon after Planting and Ratooning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown that rapidly growing sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) tolerates short-duration flooding well during the summer in Florida. However, little is known about the flood response of recently planted or recently ratooned sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to test the yields of two sugarc...

  2. DIVERSITY AMONG MAINLAND USA SUGARCANE CULTIVARS EXAMINED BY SSR GENOTYPING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSR’s have been effective in examining diversity to improve plant breeding strategies however, the identification of useful SSR’s is critical and can be difficult especially in the complex sugarcane genome. Diversity among the cultivars grown and used for the sugarcane breeding programs of Florida, ...

  3. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Lasco Crago; Madhu Khanna; Jason Barton; Eduardo Giuliani; Weber Amaral

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This

  4. Doveweed Control with Preemergence and Postemergence Herbicides in Fallowed Sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doveweed infestation of fallowed sugarcane is becoming a management concern for Louisiana’s sugarcane growers. Doveweed is poorly controlled with glyphosate and this allows it to establish dense infestations across formed rows which can impede planting practices. The objectives of this research were...

  5. Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delivery and Processing Quality of Trash by Different Sugarcane Varieties Currently, there is a shift world-wide from the harvesting of burnt to unburnt (green) sugarcane. With increased pressure from public and environmental agencies to further restrict or curtail burning in the U.S. and many ...

  6. Repeatability of Sugarcane Selection on Sand and Organic Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Canal Point (CP) Sugarcane Cultivar Development Program (a cooperative program between the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida and the Florida Sugarcane League) has been more successful at breeding for cultivars adapted to organic soils (muck) than for those adapted to sand soils. Currently, onl...

  7. RATOON STUNT AND YELLOW LEAF EFFECTS ON SUGARCANE YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separate trials were established to determine the effects of ratoon stunt, caused by Liefsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) and yellow leaf, caused by Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV), on sugarcane yields in plant and first-ratoon crops. In 1-m long plots, responses of eight cultivars were tested for r...

  8. Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. I: sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol

    2000-01-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse, which is a complex material, is the major by-product of the sugar cane industry. It contains about 50% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose and 25% lignin. Due to its abundant availability, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the

  9. Potential of diazotrophic bacteria associated with sugarcane for energycane production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crosses between sugarcane and wild species of Saccharum and other closely related genera are made to introgress new genes from the wild species into sugarcane. Characteristics of the progeny from these crosses may include increased biomass and the ability to be grown in a broader geographical range ...

  10. Genetic diversity of viruses causing mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosaic caused by Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) contributed to the near collapse of Louisiana’s sugarcane industry in the early 20th Century. By the 1950s, the cultivation of resistant cultivars eliminated mosaic as a major disease problem; however, new strains arose among previously resistant cultiv...

  11. Sugarcane yield and morphological responses to long-term flooding.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane in south Florida is often subjected to flooding in the summer months or following hurricanes. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adaptation and yield response to l...

  12. Potential to expand sustainable bioenergy from sugarcane in southern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen K. Watson

    2011-01-01

    The Cane Resources Network for Southern Africa evaluated how bioenergy from sugarcane can support sustainable development and improve global competitiveness in the region. The assessment of six countries with good contemporary potential for expanding sugarcane cultivation described in this paper was part of their analysis. Its principal objective was to identify land where such production will not have detrimental environmental

  13. Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

  14. Seeking Traits that Identify Productive Sugarcane Varieties for Sand Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objective of this study is to determine if there are easily measured traits of sugarcane that can help determine if a genotype will be productive on...

  15. HOW MUCH HAS RECURRENT SELECTION INCREASED SUCROSE YIELD IN SUGARCANE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial sugarcane cultivars are complex, polyploid, interspecific hybrids, primarily of S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. Most breeding programs need about twelve years to develop a new cultivar. Since the 1920's, Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used recurrent selection to improve sucr...

  16. Morphological responses of sugarcane to long-term flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in south Florida is often subjected to flooding due to intense summer rainfall or tropical storm events. While there has been considerable research on the response of sugarcane cultivars to high water tables, there is a lack of information on cultivar morphological adapta...

  17. LEAF WHORL INOCULATION METHOD FOR SCREENING SUGARCANE RUST RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms consistent with sugarcane orange rust were first observed in Florida in June 2007, these were subsequently confirmed morphologically and molecularly as being caused by Puccinia kuehnii, the causal agent of orange rust. This was the first documented occurrence of sugarcane orange rust in the...

  18. Part II: Dealing with Plant Stress in Louisiana Sugarcane Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane can encounter several grower-induced stresses during the later part of the growing season. The purpose of this article is to transfer research findings in the areas of cultivation, planting practices, and ripener usage in an effort to communicate how Louisiana sugarcane producers can more...

  19. Independently segregating simple sequence repeats (SSR) alleles in polyploid sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complex nuclear genomic and flower structures of sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum hybrids spp., 2n = 10x = 100 – 130) render sugarcane a difficult subject for genetics research. Using a capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-labeling-based SSR genotyping platform, the segregation of a multi-a...

  20. SOME INSECTS AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

  1. Sugarcane Response to Month and Duration of Preharvest Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Florida growers apply 1-day floods about 3 weeks prior to harvest to prevent fires that may ignite on organic soils during preharvest burning of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Extending these flood durations could improve sugarcane insect control, freeze protection, soil conservation, and reduce u...

  2. Abacá mosaic virus: A distinct strain of Sugarcane mosaic virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Gambley; J. E. Thomas; L. V. Magnaye; L. Herradura

    2004-01-01

    Abacá mosaic virus (AbaMV) is related to members of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. The ?2 kb 3? terminal region of the viral genome was sequenced and, in all areas analysed, found to be most similar to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and distinct from Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sorghum mosaic

  3. Identifying a new causal agent of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a pathogen of economic concern that infects maize, sorghum, and sugarcane worldwide. It is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and contains a linear, positive sense ssRNA genome 10 kb long. It is transmitted non-persistently via aphids and ...

  4. Inhibition of shoot branching by new terpenoid plant hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikihisa Umehara; Atsushi Hanada; Satoko Yoshida; Kohki Akiyama; Tomotsugu Arite; Noriko Takeda-Kamiya; Hiroshi Magome; Yuji Kamiya; Ken Shirasu; Koichi Yoneyama; Junko Kyozuka; Shinjiro Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    Shoot branching is a major determinant of plant architecture and is highly regulated by endogenous and environmental cues. Two classes of hormones, auxin and cytokinin, have long been known to have an important involvement in controlling shoot branching. Previous studies using a series of mutants with enhanced shoot branching suggested the existence of a third class of hormone(s) that is

  5. Bamboo Shoots: A novel source of nutrition and medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poonam Singhal; Santosh Satya; Lalit Mohan Bal; P. Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource.

  6. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration and Micropropagation of Black Walnut

    E-print Network

    Adventitious Shoot Regeneration and Micropropagation of Black Walnut Christian Roschke1 and Paula M: Micropropagation from juvenile seedlings Using shoots from the greenhouse, leaves were removed and the shoots for the micropropagation of black walnut, the optimal concentration of plant growth regulator and casein hydrolysate (CH

  7. Promotion of asparagus shoot and root growth by growth retardants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alisa Khunachak; Chee-Kok Chin; Trang Le; Tom Gianfagna

    1987-01-01

    Plantlets regenerated from shoot-tip culture of Asparagus officinalis L. possessed weak shoots and roots. Various combinations of auxins and cytokinins did not improve the plantlets. Incorporation of a number of growth retardants, viz. ancymidol, B-995, phosfon, Amo 1618, cycocel and paclobutrazol, promoted growth of stronger shoots and roots. The effectiveness of the growth retardants varied, with ancymidol being most effective

  8. Shoot demography in new England populations of Maianthemum canadense desf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan F. Silva; Todd M. Kana; Otto T. Solbrig

    1982-01-01

    The demography of shoots of eight populations of a herbaceous perennial exhibiting clonal growth, is presented. The study was done along an elevational gradient, from a more open secondary mixed forest to a denser, more mature stand. Most shoots lived one to three years on the average, but shoots as old as twelve years were found. Large variation in formation

  9. DNA profiling of sugarcane genotypes using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Tabasum, S; Khan, F A; Nawaz, S; Iqbal, M Z; Saeed, A

    2010-01-01

    DNA profiles of 40 sugarcane genotypes were constructed with 30 RAPD markers. Sugarcane genotypes of both Saccharum officinarum and S. barberi were included in this study. Multiple alleles were detected from each RAPD; there was a high level of polymorphism. On average, 7.93 alleles were produced per primer, giving a total of 238 alleles. The genetic distances between these genotypes were assessed with the POPGENE DNA sequence analysis software. A dendrogram was constructed from these data; cultivated species of sugarcane formed clusters with S. barberi genotypes. The 40 genotypes were clustered into two main groups; genetic distances ranged from 20.29 to 64.66%. These RAPD fingerprints will help sugarcane breeders to evaluate the efficiency of current conventional breeding methods and will help characterize the genetic pedigree of commercial sugarcane varieties. These data will also be valuable for conservation and utilization of the genetic resources in germplasm collections. PMID:20391332

  10. Effect of Post-Harvest Residue on Ratoon Crops of Sugarcane Infected with Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) is a luteovirus that causes yellow leaf of sugarcane. Previous studies in Louisiana focusing on the effect of post-harvest residue found that retention of the residue often reduces yield of subsequent ratoon crops. A field experiment to determine the potential in...

  11. A multi-disciplinary approach to sugarcane research at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit in Houma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mission of the Sugarcane Research Unit (SRU) is to provide research-based solutions that enhance the viability of domestic sugarcane industry. To accomplish this mission, SRU uses a multidisciplinary approach to develop improved varieties and environmentally friendly production strategies. Cons...

  12. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

  13. APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon scitula (Harris) N.Y.S. Agric. Expt. Station

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon@nysaes.cornell .edu APPLE, EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TRUNK SPRAYS TO CONTROL BORERS INFESTING BURRKNOTS, 2006 the untreated check. (Table 1) Table 1. Efficacy of insecticides against dogwood borer infesting apple, 2006

  14. Efficacy of plant essential oils against two major insect pests of coffee (Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and antestia bug, Antestiopsis intricata) and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esayas Mendesil; Mekuria Tadesse; Merid Negash

    2011-01-01

    Coffee berry borer, antestia bug and maize weevil are serious pest of coffee and maize, respectively. Bioassays of plant essential oils were conducted with coffee berry borer, antestia bug and the maize weevil. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Aloysia sp., Ruta chalepensis, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Cymbopogon nardus resulted in 80%–90% mortality of coffee berry borer, whereas essential oils of C.

  15. Efficacy of plant essential oils against two major insect pests of coffee (Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and antestia bug, Antestiopsis intricata) and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esayas Mendesil; Mekuria Tadesse; Merid Negash

    2012-01-01

    Coffee berry borer, antestia bug and maize weevil are serious pest of coffee and maize, respectively. Bioassays of plant essential oils were conducted with coffee berry borer, antestia bug and the maize weevil. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Aloysia sp., Ruta chalepensis, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Cymbopogon nardus resulted in 80%–90% mortality of coffee berry borer, whereas essential oils of C.

  16. ROOT AND SHOOT PRUNING IN ROOT-BALLED ACER PLATANOIDES L.: EFFECTS ON ESTABLISHMENT AND SHOOT ARCHITECTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Findlay; Fred Last; Peter Aspinall; Catharine Ward Thompson; Nigel Rudd

    1997-01-01

    Various combinations of root and shoot pruning treatments were applied to semi-mature, root-balled trees of Acer platanoides L. prior to planting in an experimental plot at the Bush Estate, near Edinburgh. After 3 years observation and measurement, the treatments had little effect on survival or girth. However, performance as gauged by annual shoot increments, was significantly affected by shoot pruning,

  17. Analysis of surface growth in shoot apices.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Jacques; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2002-07-01

    A salient feature of shoot meristem growth is the maintenance of distinct anatomical and morphological features despite a continuous flux of cells. To investigate how meristem organization is self-perpetuated, we developed a protocol for the analysis of meristem growth in 3-D. Our protocol uses a non-destructive replica method to follow the pattern of cell expansion and cell divisions on the meristem surface over several days. Algorithms to reconstruct the meristem surface and compute its curvature and rate of extension were implemented. We applied this approach to the shoot apical meristem of Anagallis arvensis and showed that a subcellular resolution of extension rates can be achieved. This is the first detailed quantitative analysis of meristem geometry and surface expansion in 3-D. This new approach will be useful to connect cellular activities such as cell expansion, cell division, and differential gene expression with overall meristem morphogenesis. PMID:12121452

  18. Characterization and genetic diversity of sugarcane streak mosaic virus causing mosaic in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, R; Balamuralikrishnan, M; Karuppaiah, R

    2008-06-01

    Sixty-three sugarcane leaf samples were collected from fifty-eight sugarcane varieties, evolved from eleven major sugarcane growing states in India, Australia, South Africa and USA. In RT-PCR, using gene specific primers for sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV)-CP, 58 of 63 sugarcane samples were found positive to the virus infection and rest of the five samples were negative. Partial CP gene sequences of 42 SCSMV isolates including an isolate from aphid colony (Melanaphis indosacchari) infested on sugarcane variety from this study were characterized after cloning and sequencing for selective isolates represented by at least one isolate from each location. The new sequences identified in the study were named as SCSMV-CB isolates. Fifty two sequences including the 10 database sequences (complete CP cds) deposited earlier from this institute were compared with each other as well as GenBank database sequences of Potyviridae members viz., Rymovirus, Potyvirus, Ipomovirus, Tritimovirus and eight sequences of SCSMV reported from elsewhere. Among the SCSMV-CB isolates sequenced in the study, 85.7-100% (nucleotide) and 89.9-100% (amino acid) sequence identities were observed and with the other data base sequences of SCSMV, the respective identities were 82.2-97.5 and 89.7-98.6%. Grouping of the isolates by the maximum likelihood with molecular clock model, distributed 60 SCSMV sequences including the eight database sequences deposited by other SCSMV working groups from India and USA in 16 different phylogenetic groups. Although the isolates of SCSMV were relatively close to Ipomovirus and Tritimovirus, they were sandwiched between Rymovirus and Ipomovirus. The sequence comparison and phylogenetic studies revealed that the relatedness of SCSMV with the potyviral related genera was comparatively low to consider it as a member of earlier described potyviral genera, hence the genus "Susmovirus" (sugarcane streak mosaic virus) has been proposed, with SCSMV as the sole species to be included. The 52 SCSMV-CB isolates from this institute were distributed in 14 phylogenetic groups and the grouping pattern revealed that the virus isolates could not be grouped based on geographical origin of the host varieties or longevity of the host variety. PMID:18427969

  19. Analysis of surface growth in shoot apices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Dumais; Dorota Kwiatkowska

    2001-01-01

    Summary A salient feature of shoot meristem growth is the maintenance of distinct anatomical and morphological features despite a continuous flux of cells. To investigate how meristem organization is self-perpetuated, we developed a protocol for the analysis of meristem growth in 3-D. Our protocol uses a non-destructive replica method to follow the pattern of cell expansion and cell divisions on

  20. Ray Shooting in Polygons Using Geodesic Triangulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Chazelle; Herbert Edelsbrunner; Michelangelo Grigni; Leonidas J. Guibas; John Hershberger; Micha Sharir; Jack Snoeyink

    1994-01-01

    LetP be a simple polygon withn vertices. We present a simple decomposition scheme that partitions the interior ofP intoO(n) so-called geodesic triangles, so that any line segment interior toP crosses at most 2 logn of these triangles. This decomposition can be used to preprocessP in a very simple manner, so that any ray-shooting query can be answered in timeO(logn). The

  1. Strategy for shoot meristem proliferation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hironori; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Shoot apical meristem (SAM) of plants harbors stem cells capable of generating the aerial tissues including reproductive organs. Therefore, it is very important for plants to control SAM proliferation and its density as a survival strategy. The SAM is regulated by the dynamics of a specific gene network, such as the WUS-CLV interaction of A. thaliana. By using a mathematical model, we previously proposed six possible SAM patterns in terms of the manner and frequency of stem cell proliferation. Two of these SAM patterns are predicted to generate either dichotomous or axillary shoot branch. Dichotomous shoot branches caused by this mechanism are characteristic of the earliest vascular plants, such as Cooksonia and Rhynia, but are observed in only a small minority of plant species of the present day. On the other hand, axillary branches are observed in the majority of plant species and are induced by a different dynamics of the feedback regulation between auxin and the asymmetric distribution of PIN auxin efflux carriers. During evolution, some plants may have adopted this auxin-PIN system to more strictly control SAM proliferation. PMID:22067107

  2. The distribution of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in Southern Mexico: A survey for a biocontrol project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Baker; J. F. Barrera; J. E. Valenzuela

    1989-01-01

    In surveys of coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico from 1983 to 1985 to assess the distribution and damage caused by the coffee berry borer, prior to parasite introduction levels of infestation were greatest near the Guatemalan border and varied with altitude, the borer was most numerous between 500–1000 m above sea level, corresponding to a mean annual temperature of 23

  3. Beauveria bassiana -A Potential Mycopesticide for the Efficient Control of Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Haraprasad; S. R. Niranjana; H. S. Prakash; H. S. Shetty; Seema Wahab

    2001-01-01

    The Coffee Berry Borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) has been a serious insect pest of coffee cultivars C. robusta and C. catimor in India since 1991, causing 40-80% coffee bean loss. To combat this important pest, an indigenous entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin was isolated from dead and moribund coffee berry borers from the wild. The fungus

  4. EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Corn Field corn producers may choose to manage this pest through the use of hybrids, genetically modified, that express a protein toxic to corn borers. Usually called Bt corn, this technoloEUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer

  5. Giant Shoot Apical Meristems in Cacti Have Ordinary Leaf Primordia but Altered Phyllotaxy and Shoot Diameter

    PubMed Central

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) in most seed plants are quite uniform in size and zonation, and molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis and other model plants are revealing details of SAM morphogenesis. Some cacti have SAMs much larger than those of A. thaliana and other seed plants. This study examined how SAM size affects leaf primordium (LP) size, phyllotaxy and shoot diameter. • Methods. Apices from 183 species of cacti were fixed, microtomed and studied by light microscopy. • Key Results Cactus SAM diameter varies from 93 to 2565 µm, the latter being 36 times wider than SAMs of A. thaliana and having a volume 45 thousand times larger. Phyllotaxy ranges from distichous to having 56 rows of leaves and is not restricted to Fibonacci numbers. Leaf primordium diameter ranges from 44 to 402 µm, each encompassing many more cells than do LP of other plants. Species with high phyllotaxy have smaller LP, although the correlation is weak. There is almost no correlation between SAM diameter and LP size, but SAM diameter is strongly correlated with shoot diameter, with shoots being about 189·5 times wider than SAMs. • Conclusions Presumably, genes such as SHOOT?MERISTEMLESS, WUSCHEL and CLAVATA must control much larger volumes of SAM tissue in cacti than they do in A. thaliana, and genes such as PERIANTHIA might establish much more extensive fields of inhibition around LP. These giant SAMs should make it possible to more accurately map gene expression patterns relative to SAM zonation and LP sites. PMID:15145794

  6. Aerial Insecticide Treatments for Management of Dectes Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Sloderbeck, P. E.; Buschman, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an increasingly important pest of soybean and sunflower in central North America. Nine large-scale field trials were conducted over a 3-year period to determine if Dectes stem borer could be managed with insecticide treatments. Aerial applications of lambda on July 6, 12 and 15 were successful in significantly reducing adults, but applications on July 1, 20 and 24 were less successful. These data suggest that for central Kansas two aerial applications may be required to control Dectes stem borers in soybean. Based on our experience the first application should be made at the peak of adult flight about July 5th and the second application 10 days later. The local treatment schedule should be developed to follow the local Dectes stem borer adult emergence pattern. Treated aerial strips 59 m (195 ft) wide were not large enough to prevent reinfestation, but treated half-circles (24 ha or 60 acres) were successful in reducing in Dectes stem borer infestation of soybean. Sweep net samples of adults were not successful in identifying a treatment threshold, so treatment decisions will need to be based on field history of infestation. Further studies are needed to identify better sampling methods that can be used to establish treatment thresholds and to refine the best timing for treatments. PMID:21861653

  7. Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

  8. Characterisation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in sugarcane ESTs.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Giovanni M; Eliott, Frances; McIntyre, C Lynne; Casu, Rosanne E; Henry, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    Commercial sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are both polyploid and aneuploid with chromosome numbers in excess of 100; these chromosomes can be assigned to 8 homology groups. To determine the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a means of improving our understanding of the complex sugarcane genome, we developed markers to a suite of SNPs identified in a list of sugarcane ESTs. Analysis of 69 EST contigs showed a median of 9 SNPs per EST and an average of 1 SNP per 50 bp of coding sequence. The quantitative presence of each base at 58 SNP loci within 19 contiguous sequence sets was accurately and reliably determined for 9 sugarcane genotypes, including both commercial cultivars and ancestral species, through the use of quantitative light emission technology in pyrophosphate sequencing. Across the 9 genotypes tested, 47 SNP loci were polymorphic and 11 monomorphic. Base frequency at individual SNP loci was found to vary approximately twofold between Australian sugarcane cultivars and more widely between cultivars and wild species. Base quantity was shown to segregate as expected in the IJ76-514 x Q165 sugarcane mapping population, indicating that SNPs that occur on one or two sugarcane chromosomes have the potential to be mapped. The use of SNP base frequencies from five of the developed markers was able to clearly distinguish all genotypes in the population. The use of SNP base frequencies from a further six markers within an EST contig was able to help establish the likely copy number of the locus in two genotypes tested. This is the first instance of a technology that has been able to provide an insight into the copy number of a specific gene locus in hybrid sugarcane. The identification of specific and numerous haplotypes/alleles present in a genotype by pyrophosphate sequencing or alternative techniques ultimately will provide the basis for identifying associations between specific alleles and phenotype and between allele dosage and phenotype in sugarcane. PMID:16791699

  9. Bamboo shoots: a novel source of nutrition and medicine.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Poonam; Bal, Lalit Mohan; Satya, Santosh; Sudhakar, P; Naik, S N

    2013-01-01

    Bamboos, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae, are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource. Various edible species and exotic food products (fermented shoots, pickle, etc.) and recipes of bamboo shoots (bamboo beer, bamboo cookies) are consumed worldwide. Change in nutritional composition of different species of bamboo shoots with processing has also been reviewed. Bamboo shoots possess high protein, moderate fiber, and less fat content. They are also endowed for having essential amino acids, selenium, a potent antioxidant, and potassium, a healthy heart mineral. Occurrence of taxiphyllin, a cyanogenic glycoside in raw shoots, and its side effect on human health calls for the demand to innovate processing ways using scientific input to eliminate the toxic compound without disturbing the nutrient reserve. Lastly, the paper also reviews the utilization of medicinal properties acquired by bamboo shoot. Using the traditional knowledge, pharmaceutical preparations of bamboo shoots like bamboo salt, bamboo vinegar, bamboo extracts for diabetes and cholesterol control, etc. are now gaining importance. Further investigation is required by the researchers to make novel nutraceutical products and benefit the society. PMID:23391018

  10. Ethylene Inhibitors Enhance Shoot Organogenesis of Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa)

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Soo Cheon; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Park, Sang Un

    2012-01-01

    Shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration in Sinningia speciosa were improved using ethylene inhibitors. The leaf explants were cultured on initial shoot regeneration media (MS media with BAP at 2?mg/L?+?NAA at 0.1?mg/L) supplemented with different concentrations of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), cobalt chloride (CoCl2), and silver thiosulphate (STS). The addition of AVG, CoCl2, and STS significantly improved the regeneration frequency giving higher shoots per explant and longer shoot length. The highest shoot growth was found when STS at 5?mg/L was incorporated with generation medium, performing highest regeneration frequency with highest number of shoots. This treatment (STS at 5?mg/L) produced 40% more shoots per explant compared to control followed by STS at 10?mg/L with increasing 37% more shoots compared to control. In the cases of AVG and CoCl2 the highest shoot number per explant was found at 1?mg/L. Treated with AVG and CoCl2 at 1?mg/L increased shoot number by 16 and 12%, respectively, compared to control. Ethylene inhibitors could be used as a possible micropropagation and plant transformation protocol in S. speciosa for plant regenerations. PMID:23125558

  11. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis fairmaire (coleoptera: buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crosthwaite, Jill C; Sobek, Stephanie; Lyons, D Barry; Bernards, Mark A; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of the emerald ash borer were investigated, and seasonal changes in these mechanisms monitored. The majority of emerald ash borers survive winter as freeze-intolerant prepupae. In winter, A. planipennis prepupae have low supercooling points (approximately -30°C), which they achieve by accumulating high concentrations of glycerol (approximately 4M) in their body fluids and by the synthesis of antifreeze agents. Cuticular waxes reduce inoculation from external ice. This is the first comprehensive study of seasonal changes in cold tolerance in a buprestid beetle. PMID:21070784

  12. Influence of trap placement and design on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Oliver, Jason B; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Youssef, Nadeer; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    The key to an effective pest management program for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera Buprestidae), is a survey program equipped with tools for detecting and delimiting populations. We studied the effects of trap design, color, and placement on the efficacy of sticky traps for capturing the emerald ash borer. There were significant differences in trap catch along a transect gradient from wooded to open field conditions, with most beetles being caught along the edge, or in open fields, 15-25 m outside an ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) (Oleaceae) woodlot. Greater emerald ash borer catch occurred on purple traps than on red or white traps. Traps placed in the mid-canopy of ash trees (13 m) caught significantly more beetles than those placed at ground level. We also describe a new trap design, a three-sided prism trap, which is relatively easy to assemble and deploy. PMID:19133464

  13. Energy potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Elawad, S.H.; Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of sugarcane and sweet sorghum as raw materials for the production of ethanol and petrochemical substitutes is discussed. Both crops belong to the grass family and are classified as C/sub 4/ malateformers which have the highest rate of photosynthesis among terrestrial plants. Large amounts of biomass are required to supply a significant fraction of US energy consumption. Biomass production could be substantially increased by including tops and leaves, adopting narrow row spacing and improving cultural practices. This presents challenges for cultivating, harvesting, and hauling the biomass to processing centers. Large plants and heavy capital investment are essential for energy production. Ethanol and ammonia are the most promising candidates of a biomass program. If sugarcane were to be used for biomass production, breeding programs should be directed for more fermentable sugars and fiber. Energy research on sweet sorghum should be done with syrup varieties. Sweet sorghum needs to be incorporated with other crops because of its short growing season. The disposal of stillage from an extensive ethanol industry may pose environmental problems.

  14. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  15. Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

  16. Spiroacetals in the colonization behaviour of the coffee berry borer: a 'push-pull' system.

    PubMed

    Njihia, Teresiah Nyambura; Jaramillo, Juliana; Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1 ? 1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a 'push-pull' system, whereby frontalin acts as the 'push' (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the 'pull' (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  17. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood. PMID:20069830

  18. Effectiveness of differing trap types for the detection of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Jordan M; Storer, Andrew J; Fraser, Ivich; Beachy, Jessica A; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-08-01

    The early detection of populations of a forest pest is important to begin initial control efforts, minimizing the risk of further spread and impact. Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an introduced pestiferous insect of ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) in North America. The effectiveness of trapping techniques, including girdled trap trees with sticky bands and purple prism traps, was tested in areas with low- and high-density populations of emerald ash borer. At both densities, large girdled trap trees (>30 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], 1.37 m in height) captured a higher rate of adult beetles per day than smaller trees. However, the odds of detecting emerald ash borer increased as the dbh of the tree increased by 1 cm for trap trees 15-25 cm dbh. Ash species used for the traps differed in the number of larvae per cubic centimeter of phloem. Emerald ash borer larvae were more likely to be detected below, compared with above, the crown base of the trap tree. While larval densities within a trap tree were related to the species of ash, adult capture rates were not. These results provide support for focusing state and regional detection programs on the detection of emerald ash borer adults. If bark peeling for larvae is incorporated into these programs, peeling efforts focused below the crown base may increase likelihood of identifying new infestations while reducing labor costs. Associating traps with larger trees ( approximately 25 cm dbh) may increase the odds of detecting low-density populations of emerald ash borer, possibly reducing the time between infestation establishment and implementing management strategies. PMID:19689904

  19. Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1?1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

  20. Chemical ecology of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Mastro, Victor C

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a serious invasive pest that has caused devastating mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus sp., Oleaceae) since it was first identified in North America in 2002. Shortly after its discovery, surveys were conducted, based on the visual inspection of trees. The shortcomings of visual surveys have led to a critical research need to find an efficient survey method for detecting A. planipennis infestations. Here, we present a review of research that has led to the development of effective trapping methods for A. planipennis. Studies on the insect's biology and behavior have led to the identification of several potential attractants as well as the design of a visually attractive trap. The ongoing challenge in developing an optimally efficient trapping methodology for A. planipennis will involve finding the best combination of variables, such as trap shape, trap color (or other visual properties), trap placement, lure components, as well as the ratios and release rates of those components. PMID:20108026

  1. The molecular path to in vitro shoot regeneration.

    PubMed

    Motte, Hans; Vereecke, Danny; Geelen, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration through de novo shoot organogenesis in tissue culture is a critical step in most plant transformation and micropropagation procedures. Establishing an efficient regeneration protocol is an empirical process and requires optimization of multiple factors that influence the regeneration capacity. Here, we review the molecular process of shoot induction in a two-step regeneration protocol and focus on the role of auxins and cytokinins. First, during incubation on an auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM), organogenic callus is produced that exhibits characteristics of a root meristem. Subsequent incubation on a cytokinin-rich shoot induction medium (SIM) induces root to shoot conversion. Through a detailed analysis of the different aspects of shoot regeneration, we try to reveal hinge points and novel candidate genes that may be targeted to increase shoot regeneration capacity in order to improve transformation protocols. PMID:24355763

  2. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-10-01

    Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term.

  3. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

    2010-10-01

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ? 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the three control plots. PMID:22546447

  4. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116...

  5. 7 CFR 457.116 - Sugarcane crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Sugarcane crop insurance provisions. 457.116 Section 457...Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.116...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.311 - Proportionate shares for sugarcane producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.311 Proportionate shares for sugarcane... (b) CCC will determine whether Louisiana sugar production, in the absence of...

  9. Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

    1989-01-01

    Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

  10. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  11. PRECONDITIONING EFFECT OF SHOOT PROLIFERATION MEDIUM ON ADVENTITIOUS SHOOT REGENERATION OF PEAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiological state of leafe explants is important for high efficiency adventitious transformation and regeneration. The composition of shoot proliferation culture medium and other factors are known to influence micropropagation. This study investigated the effects of culture age, type and conce...

  12. Lead Transformation, Contamination,Lead Transformation, Contamination, and Remediation at Shooting Rangeand Remediation at Shooting Range

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    and Water Science Department University of Florida OutlineOutline Background Information shooting ranges Sampled afterSampled after last TAG meetingmeeting #12;Age pH CEC OC Total P Total Al Total = Surface (0-10 cm) along the central transect line = Berm (top, middle, bottom) = Soil profiles (0-10, 10

  13. Adventitions shoot formation on excised leaves of in vitro grown shoots of apple cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Fasolo; Richard H. Zimmerman; Ingrid Fordham

    1989-01-01

    Leaves taken from micropropagated shoots of several apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars were cultured in vitro on Linsmaier & Skoog (LS) medium or the rice anther culture medium of Chu et al. (N6) containing various concentrations of either benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) plus naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Of the TDZ concentrations tested, 10 µM was most effective and it was

  14. Micropropagation of Venus fly trap by shoot culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gi-Won Jang; Kwang-Soo Kim; Ro-Dong Park

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish and optimize an in vitro micropropagation protocol of Venus fly trap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis), a carnivorous plant, the effects of medium type, MS medium concentration, pH, and cytokinin and auxin types on shoot proliferation and root formation were investigated using 3-month-old shoots. The shoot proliferation was most effective in 2.3 µM kinetin-supplemented 1\\/3MS medium at pH

  15. Beyond Account: The Personal Impact of Police Shootings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Van Maanen

    1980-01-01

    The aftermath of a police shooting is a messy matter. The consequences of a shooting are felt and acted upon at several levels within police organizations. Official, col legial, and individual versions of a particular shooting often contrast in both form—external\\/intemal\\/private—and con tent—representation\\/symbol\\/feeling. Based on one's commit ment to the police role and one's social position within a department, an

  16. Improved Agrobacterium -mediated genetic transformation of GNA transgenic sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongting Zhangsun; Sulan Luo; Rukai Chen; Kexuan Tang

    2007-01-01

    Six plasmids carrying a snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) and one of three selection markers were successfully transferred into two sugarcane cultivars (FN81–745\\u000a and Badila) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Agrobacterium strains LBA4404, EHA105 and A281 that harboured a super-binary vector were used for sugarcane transformation. The use of\\u000a the hygromycin (Hyg) resistance gene (hpt II), phosphinothrincin (PPT) resistance gene (bar)

  17. Microprocessor-based ultrasonic height controller for sugarcane harvesters

    E-print Network

    Coad, Craig Allan

    1980-01-01

    MICROPROCESSOR-BASED ULTRASONIC HEIGHT CONTROLLER FOR SUGARCANE HARVESTERS A Thesis by CRAIG ALLAN GOAD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1980 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering MICROPROCESSOR-BASED ULTRASONIC HEIGHT CONTROLLER FOR SUGARCANE HARVESTERS A Thesis by CRAIG ALLAN GOAD Approved as to style and content by: V. T. Rhyne (Chairman of Committee) Charlie G. Coble...

  18. An automatic cutting height control system for a sugarcane harvester

    E-print Network

    Hale, Scott Andrew

    1985-01-01

    AN AUTOMATIC CUTTING HEIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A SUGARCANE HARVESTER A Thesis by SCOTT ANDREW HALE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A!1M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1985 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering AN AUTOMATIC CUTTING HEIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A SUGARCANE HARVESTER A Thesis by SCOTT ANDREW HALE Approved as to style and content by: Dr tephen . Sear cy (Chairman of Committee Dr. Charlie G...

  19. Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions

    E-print Network

    Fu, Zhihong

    2009-05-15

    CONVERSION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE TO CARBOXYLIC ACIDS UNDER THERMOPHILIC CONDITIONS A Dissertation by ZHIHONG FU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2007 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CONVERSION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE TO CARBOXYLIC ACIDS UNDER THERMOPHILIC CONDITIONS A Dissertation by ZHIHONG FU Submitted to the Office...

  20. Pneumatic cleaning of sugarcane utilizing a high velocity air jet

    E-print Network

    Fisher, John Ray

    1977-01-01

    and nozzle size had the highest statistical signi- ficant value The interaction between them, defined as the air momentum flux, was determined as the main controlling factor in cleaning the sugarcane. There is a linear correlation between the amount...PNEUMATIC CLEANING OF SUGARCANE UTILIZING A HIGH VELOCITY AIR JET A Thesis by JOHN RAY FISHER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May l977...

  1. Micropropagation of Withania somnifera from germinating seeds and shoot tips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayanti Sen; A. K. Sharma

    1991-01-01

    Shoot multiplication was achieved in vitro from shoot tips of aseptically germinated seedlings of Withania somnifera L. using low concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA), viz. 2.2, 4.4 and 8.9 µM. Maximum number of shoots were obtained when 2.3 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 2.5 µM indolebutyric acid (IBA) was added to medium containing 4.4 µM BA during initiation of shoot multiplication,

  2. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    PubMed

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

  3. Multiple shoot regeneration and effect of sugars on growth and nitidine accumulation in shoot cultures of Toddalia asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Praveena, Chinthala; Veeresham, Ciddi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae) is an important medicinal plant in traditional medicinal system of India and China. Nitidine production from callus cultures of the plant had been investigated, but in vitro multiplication and secondary metabolite production from shoot cultures is not reported. Objective: The aim of the present work is to establish protocol for in vitro multiple shoot regeneration of T. asiatica and to investigate the secondary metabolite, nitidine production from the shoot cultures. Materials and Methods: Different explants were used for shoot regeneration on MS supplemented with benzyl adenine (BA) either alone or in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in different combinations. Effect of different sugars and different concentrations of sucrose on biomass accumulation in shoot cultures in liquid medium was investigated. For in vitro rooting, shoots culture were inoculated to half strength MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of indole butyric acid. Quantitative analysis of shoot culture extracts was done for estimation of nitidine by HPTLC. Results: Shoot cultures were successfully initiated and established from nodal and shoot tip explants on MS medium supplemented with benzyl adenine and sucrose (3% w/v). Sucrose at a concentration of 3 % w/v was found to be optimum for growth and biomass accumulation. In vitro rooting of shoots was achieved on half strength MS medium supplemented with indole butyric acid 3 mg/l. Investigation of secondary metabolite production ability of the in vitro regenerated shoot cultures revealed their ability to biosynthesize nitidine. Conclusion: Shoot cultures were established and nitidine production has been observed. PMID:25298663

  4. Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose at Varying Solids Concentration

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose of varying sugarcane bagasse concentrations on xylose monomer and oligomer yields was experimentally measured improvements to make the technology competitive for biologically manu- facturing ethanol6 and commodity

  5. Sugarcane Genotype Performance in Three Environments (Based on Crop Cycle) at Mardan, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane breeders often face significant genotype x environment interactions in their trials grown under multiple environments. Hence, genotypes need to be tested for their stability across different environments keeping in view the significant interactions. An experiment comprising 28 sugarcane ge...

  6. Effect of Recurrent Selection for Sucrose on Growth and Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane Internodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial sugarcane cultivars are complex, polyploid, interspecific hybrids, primarily of Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum. Most breeding programs need about twelve years to develop a new cultivar. Since the 1920’s, Louisiana sugarcane breeding programs have used modified recurrent selection...

  7. Simultaneous detection and identification of four sugarcane viruses by one-step RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujia; Wang, Mingqiang; Xu, Donglin; Li, Ruhui; Zhou, Guohui

    2009-12-01

    Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) caused by the Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) and sugarcane yellow leaf disease (SYLD) caused by the Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) are the two most prevalent and economically important viral diseases of sugarcane. In this study, a one-step quadruplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method that employed virus-specific primers was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of SCMV, SrMV, SCSMV and SCYLV. Several sets of primers for each target virus were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity by simplex and quadruplex RT-PCR. The optimum primer combinations and concentrations, RT temperature and time, and PCR annealing temperature and extension time were determined for the quadruplex RT-PCR. The assay was then validated using sugarcane samples affected with SMD and/or SYLD collected from sugarcane breeding fields and farmers' fields in southern China. PMID:19646484

  8. Shoot inversion-induced ethylene in Pharbitis nil induces the release of apical dominance by restricting shoot elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Shoot inversion induces outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) adjacent to the bend in the stem in Pharbitis nil. In order to determine whether or not ethylene produced by shoot inversion plays a direct role in promoting or inhibiting bud outgrowth, comparisons were made of endogenous levels of ethylene in the HLB and HLB node of plants with and without inverted shoots. That no changes were found suggests that the control of apical dominance does not involve the direction action of ethylene. This conclusion is further supported by evidence that the direct application of ethylene inhibitors or ethrel to inactive or induced lateral buds has no significant effect on bud outgrowth. The hypothesis that ethylene evolved during shoot inversion indirectly promotes the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) in restricting terminal bud (TB) growth is found to be supported by the following observations: (1) the restriction of TB growth appears to occur before the beginning of HLB outgrowth; (2) the treatment of the inverted portion of the shoot with AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action, dramatically eliminates both the restriction of TB growth and the promotion of HLB outgrowth which usually accompany shoot inversion; and (3) the treatment of the upper shoot of an upright plant with ethrel mimics shoot inversion by retarding upper shoot growth and inducing outgrowth of the lateral bud basipetal to the treated region.

  9. A method for estimating light interception by a conifer shoot.

    PubMed

    Smolander, S; Stenberg, P

    2001-08-01

    We present an operational method for estimating the amount of PAR intercepted by a coniferous shoot. Interception of PAR by a shoot is divided into three components: the amount of radiation coming from the sky, the transmission of radiation through the surrounding vegetation, and the shoot' s silhouette area facing the direction of the incoming radiation. All three components usually vary with direction. Radiation incident from the sky consists of direct and diffuse radiation. The well-known equation of motion for the sun and Beer' s Law for atmospheric transmittance are used to simulate the directional distribution of direct sunlight for any given period of time. The diffuse component is assumed to be uniform. Meteorological field measurements are used to calibrate the absolute amounts of the direct and diffuse components. The gap fraction (proportion of visible sky) in different directions around a shoot is measured by analyzing a hemispherical fish-eye photograph, taken at the location of the shoot, with an image processing program. Similarly, the shoot silhouette area (SSA) is measured by photographing the shoot from many different directions. The measurements of SSA are interpolated by a method called trigonometric interpolation to obtain the directional distribution of SSA over the entire hemisphere. This distribution is then rotated according to the shoot' s position in the canopy. Multiplying incoming PAR, canopy gap fraction and SSA in different directions, and summing over all directions, gives an estimate of PAR intercepted by the shoot during the chosen period of time. The method is described step by step, and applied, as an example, to a shoot from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in central Finland. Differences in radiation interception properties between sun and shade shoots and their relevance to canopy-scale models are discussed. PMID:11498327

  10. Sugarcane ( Saccharum X officinarum ): A Reference Study for the Regulation of Genetically Modified Cultivars in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Cheavegatti-Gianotto; Hellen Marília Couto de Abreu; Paulo Arruda; João Carlos Bespalhok Filho; William Lee Burnquist; Silvana Creste; Luciana di Ciero; Jesus Aparecido Ferro; Antônio Vargas de Oliveira Figueira; Tarciso de Sousa Filgueiras; Mária de Fátima Grossi-de-Sá; Elio Cesar Guzzo; Hermann Paulo Hoffmann; Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell; Newton Macedo; Sizuo Matsuoka; Fernando de Castro Reinach; Eduardo Romano; William José da Silva; Márcio de Castro Silva Filho; Eugenio César Ulian

    2011-01-01

    Global interest in sugarcane has increased significantly in recent years due to its economic impact on sustainable energy\\u000a production. Sugarcane breeding and better agronomic practices have contributed to a huge increase in sugarcane yield in the\\u000a last 30 years. Additional increases in sugarcane yield are expected to result from the use of biotechnology tools in the near\\u000a future. Genetically modified (GM)

  11. Viruses causing mosaic disease in sugarcane and their genetic diversity in southern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D.-L. Xu; J.-W. Park; T. E. Mirkov; G.-H. Zhou

    2008-01-01

    A survey of cultivated hybrid sugarcane (Saccharum inter-specific hybrid) and noble sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in southern China for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) was conducted by RT-PCR from the years 2003 to 2006. SCMV and SrMV, but not SCSMV, were found. A high incidence of\\u000a SCMV and SrMV

  12. Why does the bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata , attack long shoots?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Price; H. Roíninen; J. Tahvanainen

    1987-01-01

    The bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata, attacked longer shoot length classes on its host, Salix cinerea, more frequently than shorter shoots. Shoot length accounted for 76 to 93 percent of the variance in number of galls per 100 shoots in three habitats: forest, watermeadow, and lakeside. The reasons for this pattern were addressed with studies on shoot length in relation to:

  13. Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

    2012-12-01

    The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro-regions) from Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009); (ii) One index that indicates the degree of relative occurrence of vulnerable areas in relation to contamination risk of surface and groundwater by effluents from sugarcane agroindustry from a model made by Barbalho e Campos (2010); (iii) two indicators that evaluate the commitment degree of the available water to meet the demand of sugarcane potential expansion distinctly for dryland and irrigation system; (iv) two indicators that evaluate the attendance level of the sugarcane water demand considering the limits of available water from local water resource in terms of maximum area that the culture can expand in a sustainable way For the estimation of water supply was used a spatially distributed model of specific flow (FERRAZ, 2012). The results show that the indicators were able to characterize and distinguish the different territorial units of analysis and the spatial models used satisfactorily met, in terms of level of detail, the purposes explained. The Sudoeste de Goiás and Quirinópolis microregions exhibit higher favorability, from the point of view of water sustainability therefore have areas where culture can be grown in dry system and still rely on higher available water volumes to supply the demand of sugarcane cultivation in the areas of compulsory irrigation.

  14. Pest status of American plum borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and fruit tree borer control with synthetic insecticides and entomopathogenic nematodes in New York State.

    PubMed

    Kain, D P; Agnello, A M

    1999-02-01

    Surveys were conducted in 1994 and 1995 to determine the pest status of the American plum borer, Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker), in New York State stone fruit crops. These surveys indicate that American plum borer is the most important of the wood-boring insects infesting tart cherries and also is an important pest in peaches suffering from canker diseases. It is not prevalent in plums or in healthy peaches. Trials to control American plum borer were conducted in tart cherry and peach by using chlorpyrifos, esfenvalerate, and 2 commercially available formulations of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar). Two applications of chlorpyrifos, timed at petal fall and at the beginning of the 2nd flight, effectively controlled the pest. One application of chlorpyrifos applied at petal fall did not provide effective season-long control, except where numbers were very low. Programs using 1 (petal fall) or 3 applications of esfenvalerate were ineffective. Control by either nematode formulation was insignificant. PMID:10036985

  15. A kinetic study of sugarcane sucrose synthase.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Wolfgang E; Rohwer, Johann M; Botha, Frederik C

    2004-10-01

    The kinetic data on sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) sucrose synthase (SuSy, UDP-glucose: D-fructose 2-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.13) are limited. We characterized kinetically a SuSy activity partially purified from sugarcane variety N19 leaf roll tissue. Primary plot analysis and product inhibition studies showed that a compulsory order ternary complex mechanism is followed, with UDP binding first and UDP-glucose dissociating last from the enzyme. Product inhibition studies showed that UDP-glucose is a competitive inhibitor with respect to UDP and a mixed inhibitor with respect to sucrose. Fructose is a mixed inhibitor with regard to both sucrose and UDP. Kinetic constants are as follows: Km values (mm, +/- SE) were, for sucrose, 35.9 +/- 2.3; for UDP, 0.00191 +/- 0.00019; for UDP-glucose, 0.234 +/- 0.025 and for fructose, 6.49 +/- 0.61. values were, for sucrose, 227 mm; for UDP, 0.086 mm; for UDP-glucose, 0.104; and for fructose, 2.23 mm. Replacing estimated kinetic parameters of SuSy in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation with experimentally determined parameters of the partially purified isoform had significant effects on model outputs, with a 41% increase in sucrose concentration and 7.5-fold reduction in fructose the most notable. Of the metabolites included in the model, fructose concentration was most affected by changes in SuSy activity: doubling and halving of SuSy activity reduced and increased the steady-state fructose concentration by about 42 and 140%, respectively. It is concluded that different isoforms of SuSy could have significant differential effects on metabolite concentrations in vivo, therefore impacting on metabolic regulation. PMID:15479226

  16. Metaproteomic analysis of ratoon sugarcane rhizospheric soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of yield decline in ratoon sugarcane using soil metaproteomics combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis. Results The available stalk number, stalk diameter, single stalk weight and theoretical yield of ratoon cane (RS) were found to be significantly lower than those of plant cane (NS). The activities of several carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus processing enzymes, including invertase, peroxidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase were found to be significantly lower in RS soil than in NS soil. BIOLOG analysis indicated a significant decline in average well-color development (AWCD), Shannon’s diversity and evenness indices in RS soil as compared to NS soil. To profile the rhizospheric metaproteome, 109 soil protein spots with high resolution and repeatability were successfully identified. These proteins were found to be involved in carbohydrate/energy, amino acid, protein, nucleotide, auxin and secondary metabolisms, membrane transport, signal transduction and resistance, etc. Comparative metaproteomics analysis revealed that 38 proteins were differentially expressed in the RS soil as compared to the control soil or NS soil. Among these, most of the plant proteins related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and stress response were up-regulated in RS soil. Furthermore, several microbial proteins related to membrane transport and signal transduction were up-regulated in RS soil. These proteins were speculated to function in root colonization by microbes. Conclusions Our experiments revealed that sugarcane ratooning practice induced significant changes in the soil enzyme activities, the catabolic diversity of microbial community, and the expression level of soil proteins. They influenced the biochemical processes in the rhizosphere ecosystem and mediated the interactions between plants and soil microbes. PMID:23773576

  17. WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas

    E-print Network

    WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas Acacia the importance of Acacia, little is known of the insect community associated with these trees. Insects shape. In an effort to better understand the wood-boring community on Acacia, Drs Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas (from

  18. Maize defense response against the european corn borer (Ostrinia nubilaslis): a losing battle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to understand how maize stems respond to European corn borer (ECB) damage and how these defense tactics affect the invading ECB. We measured the levels of the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene, as well as the transcript levels of their key biosynthetic en...

  19. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  20. IMPACT OF PHYTOALEXINS AND LESSER CORNSTALK BORER DAMAGE ON RESISTANCE TO AFLATOXIN FORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut, the mechanism of resistance to Aspergillus flavus has been reported as the capacity to synthesize phytoalexins, the antibiotic secondary metabolites. The lesser cornstalk borer (LCB) is one of the most destructive insects in the peanut production area. Penetration of peanut pods by insec...

  1. Evidence for allelochemical attraction of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei , by coffee berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Giordanengo; Luc O. Brun; Brigitte Frerot

    1993-01-01

    Petri dish choice tests conducted on the coffee berry borer (CBB),Hypothenemus hampei, showed that females were able to discriminate between coffee berries at different ripening stages. A Y-shaped glass olfactometer was used to demonstrate that coffee berries emitted volatile chemicals that elicited upwind movement by female CBB. Olfactometer tests with three different solvent extracts of berries showed that at least

  2. THE PRESENCE OF THE COFFEE BERRY BORER (SCOLYTIDAE) IN PUERTO RICO: FACT OR FICTION?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A detailed examination of the coffee berry borer literature shows that reports indicating the presence of the insect in Puerto Rico in the early 1940's were based on an insect misidentification. One of these erroneous reports was used in a widely cited coffee book that includes a list of countries ...

  3. MYCOBIOTA ASSOCIATED WITH THE COFFEE BERRY BORER HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI (FERRARI) (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) IN CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, feces and the galleries of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee fa...

  4. Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

  5. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei: A short review with recent findings and future research directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. Adult females bore a hole in the coffee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the coffee seeds inside the berry, thus reducing yield and quality of the marketable product. The ins...

  6. Parasitoids for biocontrol of coffee berry borer: past, present and future.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed surveys for coffee berry borer parasitoids were initiated in October 2006 in two coffee growing areas of Kenya (Kisii and Embu). The most abundant parasitoid species are Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) and Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae). Our preliminary findings indica...

  7. Parasitism of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei by Trichogramma pretiosum in the Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lorezo Meza; Juan F. Barrera; Gabriela Pérez-lachaud; Trevor Williams

    2004-01-01

    Parasitism of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) by Trichogramma pretiosum Riley resulted in high mortality of developing parasitoids and a low prevalence of adult emergence. A laboratory colony of T. pretiosum reproducing in H. hampei failed after three generations. Adult female T. pretiosum that developed in H. hampei were smaller and produced fewer eggs than conspecifics that developed

  8. POSSIBLE DEGRADATIVE ROLES OF A COFFEE BERRY BORER-ASSOCIATED YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two yeasts isolated from laboratory reared adult coffee berry borers and from insects collected in the field in Colombia were identified as Pichia burtonii Boidin and Pichia guilliermondii based on 26s ribosomal gene sequences. Liquid culture experiments with media containing different caffeine lev...

  9. Increasing coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Curculionidae: Scolytinae) female density in artificial diet decreases fecundity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer females (1, 2, or 5) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae and adults. When data for the three different experiments were analyzed, decreased fecundity was observe...

  10. Evidence for Obligate Migratory Flight Behavior in Young European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. Adults were each tethered to one of 16 round-about flight mills in an environmental chamber, and the data relayed to a computer. Parameters analyzed included duration, distance, and speed of the longes...

  11. UPDATE ON EMERALD ASH BORER NATURAL ENEMY SURVEYS IN MICHIGAN AND CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Robert A. Haack; Ruitong Gao; Tonghai Zhao; Deborah L. Miller

    We began research on natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis soon after its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. Regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada adopted a strategy of eradication for EAB in an effort to protect New World ash. Should eradication fail, however, conventional biological control will be needed to suppress populations of

  12. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little

  13. Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was at least 8 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antenn...

  14. GENETIC BASIS OF RESISTANCE TO FALL ARMYWORM AND SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER LEAF FEEDING DAMAGE IN MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To clarify the genetic basis of resistance to leaf feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer a study was undertaken to compare quantitative trait loci involved in two related resistant maize lines, Mp704 and Mp708. Models containing four and seven QTL explaining southwestern corn ...

  15. Intraspecific sex-pheromone variability in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. (Lepidoptera, Pyrali-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Intraspecific sex-pheromone variability in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn of intraspecific pheromone variability in Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn (ECB) in Europe and North America (KLUN). In the palearctic region, the ECB populations exhibited pheromone polymorphism. The Z phenotype was the only one

  16. Evaluation of Pheromone-Based Strategies for the Dogwood Borer on Commercial Apple Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious wood-boring pest of apple in eastern North America. The recent identification of its sex pheromone and a potent behavioral antagonist affords the opportunity to develop pheromone based management strategies for th...

  17. Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

  18. Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders of burrknot tissue on apple dwarfing rootstocks is an increasing problem throughout the northeast. One into the winter. We also discuss economic considerations. Background and Justification: Apple growers

  19. Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY in western New York, were invading burrknots on dwarf apple trees. About the same time, Dick Straub seemed to be becoming more common in dwarf apple plantings, as well. Based on Deb's alert, we decided

  20. Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  1. Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cohorts of emerald ash borer (EAB) larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, Michigan by caging gravid EAB females or placing laboratory-reared eg...

  2. Elimination, metabolism and anticholinesterase properties of carbofuran in fruit stalk borer, oryctes elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed K. Salama; Ahmed A. Zaytoon

    1998-01-01

    Toxicity, anticholinesterase properties, elimination and metabolism of carbofuran applied to the larvae of fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans were investigated. Larvae given 10 or 20 ppm of carbofuran did not show any observable signs of acute toxicity. The LC50 values were 82, 62, and 48 ppm following 24, 48, and 72 hrs, respectively. The activity of brain cholinesterase of the

  3. 44 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species EMERALD ASH BORER: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

    E-print Network

    44 2008 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species EMERALD ASH BORER: CHEMICAL ECOLOGY AND VISUAL, University Park, PA 16802 2 USDAAPHIS, PPQ, 5936 Ford Ct., Ste. 200, Brighton, MI 48116 ABSTRACT The emerald the establishment of a more specific lure for this pest. We have also shown that it is possible to trap emerald ash

  4. Characteristics and distribution of potential ash tree hosts for emerald ash borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. MacFarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) is a recently discovered (July 2002) exotic insect pest, which has caused the death of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in Detroit, MI, USA and has also spread into other areas of Michigan, isolated locations in Indiana, Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and nearby Windsor, Ont., in Canada. Ash trees occur in many

  5. Evaluation of cowpea genotypes for field resistance to the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis, in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Oghiakhe; L. E. N. Jackai; W. A. Makanjuola

    1995-01-01

    Eighteen cowpea cultivars were screened for resistance to the legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis under field conditions at two locations (Mokwa and Ibadan) in Nigeria under unprotected and two types of insecticide protection levels. Unprotected plots gave zero yield due to their exposure to the entire cowpea pest complex. Plots that received a mixture of Cypermethrin and dimethoate (as Cymbush

  6. Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata — a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Sharma

    1998-01-01

    Legume pod borer, Maruca (testulalis) vitrata (Geyer) is one of the major constraints in increasing the production and productivity of grain legumes in the tropics. Screening for resistance has been carried out using natural infestation, and multi- and no-choice tests under greenhouse\\/laboratory conditions. Information is available on genotypic resistance to M. vitrata in cowpea, while such information on pigeonpea and

  7. Alternative Hosts for Bethylid Parasitoids of the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Ian C. W Hardy

    2001-01-01

    Three species of bethylid wasps, Prorops nasuta Waterston, Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem, and C. hyalinipennis Ashmead, attack the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), by both predation and parasitism. C. hyalinipennis has only recently been reported to attack H. hampei. Its previously recorded hosts belong to the coleopteran families Curculionidae, Anobiidae, and Scolytidae. We evaluated five further coleopteran species,

  8. Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Benavides; Fernando E. Vega; Jeanne Romero-Severson; Alex E. Bustillo; Jeffrey J. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    AmpliÞed fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) Þngerprinting was used to examine the genetic variability and biogeography of the most important insect pest of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n 101) from 17 countries on three continents were examined. Only 26 unique Þngerprints (haplotypes) were dis- covered among all samples. Genetic variability was

  9. A sampling plan for a control project against the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Baker

    1989-01-01

    From preliminary samples of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferr.) in Chiapas, Mexico, various methods of calculating the number of samples needed for assessing the success of a parasitoid introduction scheme were reviewed, including those based on binomial, distribution?free and Taylor's power law methods. The final choice of a method depends on the area to be sampled and time

  10. Genetic variability and global distribution of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Benavides

    2003-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most destructive insect pest of coffee throughout the world, and is seriously impacting the social and economic stability of many developing countries. This research was designed to provide a better understanding of the genetics of H. hampei. AFLP technique, which is used to genetically fingerprint organisms, was used to detect DNA polymorphisms

  11. Fungi associated with the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando E. Vega; Guy Mercadier; Patrick F. Dowd

    1999-01-01

    Insects have been shown to serve as vectors for a wide array of fungi. In some cases, insect-vectored fungi produce potent toxins in the host plant, which might create problems for the food industry. Recent findings indicate that the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) could be vectoring toxigenic fungi in coffee plantations.

  12. Photoprotection of Beauveria bassiana: testing simple formulations for control of the coffee berry borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN EDGINGTON; HECTOR SEGURA; WILLIAM DE LA ROSA; TREVOR WILLIAMS

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana is considered to be one of the few natural enemies available for use against the coffee berry borer. In an attempt to enhance the efficacy of this pathogen, a range of concentrations of 22 substances was tested in simple laboratory tests using natural sunlight or a UV light source. Unprotected B. bassiana spores were almost

  13. Mycobiota associated with the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Holguín; Jorge MacÍAs; Javier Valle; Guadalupe Nieto; Stephen W. Peterson; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Kerry O'donnell

    2003-01-01

    Field surveys were carried out in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico, to collect and identify fungi associated with the cuticle, gut, faeces and galleries of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei. Insects and coffee berries containing galleries were collected in three coffee farms at different altitudes : Rosario Izapa (425 m), La Alianza (700 m) and Monteperla (950 m). An

  14. Photoprotection of Beauveria bassiana: Testing simple formulations for control of the coffee berry borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Edgington; Hector Segura; William De la Rosa; Trevor Williams

    2000-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana is considered to be one of the few natural enemies available for use against the coffee berry borer. In an attempt to enhance the efficacy of this pathogen, a range of concentrations of 22 substances was tested in simple laboratory tests using natural sunlight or a UV light source. Unprotected B. bassiana spores were almost

  15. Semiochemicals used in Host Location by the Coffee berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esayas Mendesil; Toby J. A. Bruce; Christine M. Woodcock; John C. Caulfield; Emiru Seyoum; John A. Pickett

    2009-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei is a serious pest in many coffee growing countries. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of H. hampei to volatiles of different phenological stages of coffee, Coffea arabica, fruits were studied in order to identify volatile semiochemicals used in host location. Volatiles were collected from different\\u000a phenological stages of C. arabica fruit by air entrainment. Electrophysiological

  16. Distribution of the coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei) within Jamaica, following its discovery in 1978

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Reid

    1983-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferr.) was first detected in Jamaica in 1978 when beans from the 1977 crop were being prepared for export. An island?wide survey was carried out between June and December 1978 to establish the distribution of the beetle. Estimates of fruit damage in harvested cherry coffee ranged from zero to 85%, and a preliminary assessment

  17. On the Eyes of Male Coffee Berry Borers as Rudimentary Organs

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Fernando E.; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1±4.10) than in females (127.5±3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

  18. On the eyes of male coffee berry borers as rudimentary organs.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Simpkins, Ann; Bauchan, Gary; Infante, Francisco; Kramer, Matthew; Land, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Like males in other species in the genus, male coffee berry borers have a lower number of facets in the compound eyes than females. The rudimentary eyes in male coffee berry borers could be an evolutionary response to their cryptic life habit, whereby they are born inside a coffee berry and never leave the berry. The main objective of the study was to determine if the differences in the number of facets translates into differences in visual acuity. We used low-temperature scanning electron microscopy to visualize and quantify the number of facets in the compound eyes. There was a significantly lower (p<0.0001) number of facets in males (19.1 ± 4.10) than in females (127.5 ± 3.88). To assess visual acuity, we conducted optomotor response experiments, which indicate that females respond to movement, while males did not respond under the conditions tested. The coffee berry borer is an example of an insect whereby disuse of an organ has led to a rudimentary compound eye. This is the first study that has experimentally tested responses to movement in bark beetles. PMID:24465752

  19. Behavioral response of grape root borer (Lepidopetera: Sesiidae) neonates to grape root volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is an oligophagous and potentially destructive pest of grape in commercial vineyards throughout much of the eastern United States. Larvae feed on vine roots, although little is known about their belowground interactions with ...

  20. Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ningxia Du

    2008-01-01

    Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

  1. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Woodpeckers are an important source of mortality for EAB in their native range, and understanding their effect on the pop...

  2. Ostrinia revisited: Evidence for sex linkage in European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) pheromone reception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon B Olsson; Subaharan Kesevan; Astrid T Groot; Teun Dekker; David G Heckel; Bill S Hansson

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Corn Borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), is a keystone model for studies on the evolution of sex pheromone diversity and its role in establishing reproductive isolation. This species consists of two sympatric races, each utilizing opposite isomers of the same compound as their major pheromone component. Female production and male response are congruent in each race, and males

  3. Genetic transformation mediated by piggyBac in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is a serious pest of corn, sorghum and cotton in China and other Asian countries. The present study is the first attempt to establish the transgenic line in O. furnacalis using a piggyBac transposon, which will shed light on the future genetic control of O....

  4. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigen Chen; Justin G. A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study,

  5. Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahim Medjahed; William Grosky

    The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has killed or infested millions of ash trees in Michigan and is fast spreading to neighboring states. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that if EAB went unchecked in the rest of the country, the loss to the nation could range from $20 billion to $60 billion. One key requirement for the success of

  6. A Potential Plan of Action for Emerald Ash Borer in Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Wheeler

    2010-01-01

    \\u0009Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB) is an invasive insect pest. It feeds on the cambium tissues of ash tree species. It was first discovered in the United States in 2002 in Detroit, Michigan. Their effects on ash trees are deadly, and it is quickly spreading across the Midwest. Nebraska has not yet been invaded, but confirmed findings continue getting

  7. Biological control of emerald ash borers: the role of indigenous North American parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated parasitoids were conducted in Cranberry Township, PA; Granville, PA; and Cheltenham, MD. Several species of parasitic Hymenoptera were collected from EAB-infested green ash trees or reared from late-instar E...

  8. Dispersal of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis , in newly-colonized sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo J. Mercader; Nathan W. Siegert; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough

    2009-01-01

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive forest insect pest threatening more than 8 billion ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America. Development of effective survey methods and strategies to slow the spread of A. planipennis requires an understanding of dispersal, particularly in recently established satellite populations. 2 We assessed the dispersal of A. planipennis beetles

  9. Borate and imidacloprid treatment of ash logs infested with the emerald ash borer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Nzokou; Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack; D. Pascal Kamdem

    2006-01-01

    As of January 2006, portions of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario were infested with the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, a destructive exotic Asian beetle that feeds within the inner bark of ash (Fraxinus) trees. This project evaluated borate (dissodium octaborate tetrahydrate) and imidacloprid to sanitize EAB-infested logs, which would then facilitate log transport to mills outside the quarantine

  10. A Decision Support System for Emerald Ash Borer Eradication Using Spatial-Dynamic Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd K. BenDor; Sara S. Metcalf; Lauren E. Fontenot; Brandi Sangunett

    Recently, an invasive Asian beetle known as the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) ( Agrilus planipennis Coleoptera: Buprestidae) has emerged as a threat to Ash trees in the Midwestern United States and Canada (McCullough and Katovich 2004). Significant infestations in Michigan and nearby areas have all but doomed nearly one billion native ash trees. This paper presents an argument for the

  11. The overwintering physiology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill C. Crosthwaite; Stephanie Sobek; D. Barry Lyons; Mark A. Bernards; Brent J. Sinclair

    2011-01-01

    Ability to survive cold is an important factor in determining northern range limits of insects. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive beetle introduced from Asia that is causing extensive damage to ash trees in North America, but little is known about its cold tolerance. Herein, the cold tolerance strategy and mechanisms involved in the cold tolerance of

  12. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilusplanipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are diffi­ cult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennisto ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed from a 15 cm wide band around the tree (2003­ 2(05», vertical wounding (same

  13. An Assessment of the Relationship Between Emerald Ash Borer Presence and Landscape Pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread occurs locally and is influenced by factors, such as

  14. Antioxidant genes of the emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis): Gene characterization and expression profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Praveen Mamidala; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi Bonello; Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-01-01

    Phytophagous insects frequently encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) from exogenous and endogenous sources. To overcome the effect of ROS, insects have evolved a suite of antioxidant defense genes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive insect pest from Asia has killed millions of

  15. Preservative treatment of ash wood from emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) infested trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Nzokou; Sedric M. Pankras; D. Pascal

    Portions of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario have been infested by the emerald ash borer (EAB), an exotic pest believed to have been imported from Asia. The pest is reported to have killed 10 million to 15 million ash trees and continues to spread. Most of southern Michigan is under quarantine, and the movement of ash lumber, firewood, logs, and

  16. Assessing the Hazard of Emerald Ash Borer and Other Exotic Stressors to Community Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ball; Sarah Mason; Aaron Kiesz; Dan McCormick; Craig Brown

    2007-01-01

    Exotic stressors such as emerald ash borer are an increasing concern to many communities across North America. One means of assessing the hazard these stressors may represent to a community's publicly managed trees is through an inventory of their street trees. The South Dakota Division of Resource Conservation and Forestry conducted street tree inventories in selected communities across the state

  17. Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) Density and Canopy Dieback in Three North American Ash Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea C. Anulewicz; Deborah G. McCullough; David L. Cappaert

    2007-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding insect native to Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus) mortality in southeast Michigan, U.S. and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Little information about A. planipennis is available from its native range and it was not known whether this invasive pest would exhibit a preference for a

  18. Monitoring and First Discovery of the Mexican Rice Borer Eoreuma loftini (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini, has expanded its range from the Lower Rio Grande Valley to east Texas, and now into southwest Louisiana. Louisiana Department of Agricultural and Forestry and Louisiana State University AgCenter scientists forecast that natural and unintended movement will r...

  19. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  20. Lesser grain borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, select rough rice kernels with cracked hulls for infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) mixed with intact kernels affected progeny production of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, in two rough rice varieties, Francis and Wells. Wells had been previously classified as...

  1. Effect of seasonal variations on jackfruit trunk borer (Batocera rufomaculata De Geer) infestation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Alam, M Z; Hossain, M M; Miah, M G

    2013-04-01

    The study of seasonal influence on incidence of trunk borer infestation was undertaken during 2010 at Kapasia upazila under district of Gazipur, Bangladesh. The borer was found in orchard from June to September with a peak emergence in mid July. The larval population of Jackfruit trunk borer is the destructive pest stage, which evokes concern in jackfruit growing areas of Bangladesh. The highest percentage of infestation was in July (7.33%) followed by June and August (6.00%). The cumulative infestation over the year in the study area was 35.33% in October. The lowest infestation was observed in February (0.67%) whereas no activity was found during November to January. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer was influenced by temperature, rainfall and relative humidity due to seasonal variations and their contribution of the regression (R2) were 63, 65 and 31%, respectively. Five independent weather factors in stepwise regression equation pooled responsible for 67.4% of the total variance. Stepwise regression showed that maximum temperature was the most important to influence 35.3% and the influence was lowest (2.1%) in case of average rainfall. PMID:24498801

  2. Comparison of Resistance Levels in Four Population of the Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical control is a major strategy for suppressing the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. Due to their high toxicity and increasing resistance development in target insect, many insecticides will be phased out soon. Alternatives with relatively low toxicity are urgently needed to replace traditi...

  3. Natural enemies of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass in the forest zone of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndemah, R; Schulthess, F; Poehling, M; Borgemeister, C; Goergen, G

    2001-06-01

    The importance, geographical and temporal distributions of parasitoids of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum, were assessed during surveys in farmers' fields in six villages and two on-station trials in the forest zone of Cameroon between 1995 and 1996. The borer species encountered were Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson, Eldana saccharina Walker on both host plants, and Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot on maize only. Busseola fusca was the predominant host accounting for 44-57% and 96% on maize and elephant grass, respectively, followed by E. saccharina on maize with 27-39%. Fifteen hymenopterous, two dipterous and one fungal species were found on these stem and cob-borers. Among those were six pupal, six larval, four egg, one larval-pupal parasitoid and four hyperparasitoids. The scelionid parasitoids Telenomus busseolae Gahan and T. isis Polaszek were found on B. fusca eggs in all locations. During the first season, mean egg parasitism was low and ranged between 3.1% and 27% versus 54-87% during the second season. Species belonging to the Tetrastichus atriclavus Waterston complex were recovered from all four borer species. The majority and most common larval and pupal parasitoid species belonged to the ingress-and-sting guild. Larval and pupal parasitism were very erratic and on more than 50% of the sampling occasions no parasitoids were recovered. Parasitoid diversity was higher on elephant grass than maize. PMID:11415475

  4. On the eyes of the coffee berry borer as rudimentary organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most damaging insect pest of coffee worldwide. Females bore into the coffee berries and deposit eggs within galleries in the endosperm, with a 10:1 sex ratio favoring females. There is sibling mating followed by females exiting the berry, while mal...

  5. Acoustic detection of arthropod infestation of grape roots: scouting for grape root borer (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), is the key pest of grapes in Florida. Chlorpyrifos is the only chemical registered in Florida for control, but it is not an ideal control tool because it is highly toxic to birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and its recommended timing...

  6. Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire

    E-print Network

    Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus to deter- mine if there are differences in these compounds between the sexes. We also assessed feral male to dead, solvent-washed beetles. Males in the field spent significantly more time attempting copulation

  7. Parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in western Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

  8. Hymenopteran Parasitoids Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Western and Central Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated larval parasitoids in western and central Pennsylvania (Cranberry and Granville Townships) in the spring and fall of 2009. The survey procedure involved destructively debarking sections of the m...

  9. Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female...

  10. Putative pheromone for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was about 10 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by both male and female antennae...

  11. Parasitoids attacking emerald ash borers in western Pennsylvania and their potential use in biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current biological control programs against the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, have primarily focused on the introduction and releases of exotic parasitoids from China, home of the pest origin (USDA APHIS 2007; Liu et al. 2008). However, recent field surveys in Michigan indicate that...

  12. Sugarcane Genotype Response to Nitrogen on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 20% of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) grows on sand soils in Florida. Nitrogen deficiency may limit sugarcane yields on these sand soils. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N fertilizer rate on growth and physiological characteristics of three sugarcane genotypes. ...

  13. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

  14. ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has been ...

  15. EFFECT OF SOIL PROPERTIES ON SUGARCANE BROWN RUST INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY AND ASSOCIATED YIELD LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent of spatial and temporal variability of sugarcane rust (Puccinia melanocephala) infestation was related to variation in soil properties in five commercial fields of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp., cv ‘LCP 85-384’) in South Louisiana. Sugarcane fields were grid-soil sam...

  16. A Review of Sugarcane Deterioration in the United States and South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of sugarcane deterioration that detrimentally affects processing in the United States (US) and South Africa (SA) is presented. Postharvest sugarcane deterioration products are dependent on sugarcane injury, environmental conditions, variety, cut-to-crush delays, and extent of adventitious i...

  17. ANTIBODY TO A SHORT PEPTIDE SEQUENCE DETECTED SUGARCANE YELLOW LEAF VIRUS ISOLATES FROM SEVERAL SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) infects many sugarcane cultivars in sugarcane-growing areas around the world. Infected plants are often symptomless and diagnosis depends on PCR analysis or on one of several immunology techniques which require the use of a specific antibody. Although it has bee...

  18. Evaluation of Sugarcane Orange Rust for first clonal stage of the CP Cultivar Development Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consistent development of high-yielding sugarcane cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical to commercial sugarcane production in Florida. Currently, orange rust (caused by Puccinia kuehnii E.J. Butler) is a great challenge for the Florida sugarcane production...

  19. Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic dive...

  20. Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate 152 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers originally developed in India for their transferability to germplasm being used by sugarcane breeders in the U.S. The commercial sugarcane cultivar, LCP 85-384, was used for the initial screening of the SSR marker...

  1. Original article Photosynthesis and shoot water status of seedlings

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Photosynthesis and shoot water status of seedlings from different oak species — Stress effects induced on shoot photosynthesis and leaf water status by root hypoxia due. Predawn leaf water potential remained high in all cases, in- dicating that reductions in photosynthesis

  2. Bud emergence and shoot growth from mature citrus nodal segments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bud emergence and shoot growth from adult phase citrus nodal cultures were studied using Citrus mitis (calamondin), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). The effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and citrus type on shoot quality and growth fro...

  3. Gene expression in arabidopsis shoot tips after liquid nitrogen exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...

  4. MODELING SHOOT EMERGENCE OF CANADA THISTLE BASED ON DAY DEGREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most serious weeds in northern temperate agricultural environments is Canada thistle. The timing of shoot emergence of weeds represents important information that enables managers to implement control operations at critical times. Shoot emergence from adventitious root buds of Canada this...

  5. Advanced Hunter Education and Shooting Sports Responsibility. Bulletin 555A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Delwin E.; Richardson, Rodd E.

    This manual is designed as a compendium from which instructors can select materials and instructional aids for use in hunter education and shooting sports programs. Presented in the manual are 43 lessons and 34 laboratory activities that have been organized into units on the following topics: shooting sports responsibility, the learning process…

  6. Micropropagation of kiwifruit using non-axenic shoot tips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul L. Monette

    1986-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) shoot tips were subjected to a standard surface sterilization procedure and cultured on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium in the presence of two surviving bacterial contaminants. The fresh weight increase of the cultures and the number of shoots produced were greater in liquid medium than in medium solidified with 0.4 or 0.8% agar. A greater

  7. Novel interface for first person shooting games on PDAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Wei; Gary Marsden; James Gain

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores novel interfaces for First Person Shooting (FPS) games on Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) devices. We describe a new approach inspired by a study of the interaction patterns used in desktop FPS games. Intelligent gesture recognition, based on these patterns, is used to create an optimal implementation of basic game functions (i.e., jump, shoot, walk forward). This new

  8. Contesting Tradition: The Deep Play and Protest of Pigeon Shoots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon J. Bronner

    2005-01-01

    Pigeon shoots are examples of “contested traditions” that invite comparison with other controversial spectacles of killing animals, such as cockfights and dogfights. In the United States during the late twentieth century, mass protests of America’s largest public pigeon shoot occurred in Hegins, Pennsylvania. This article offers a folkloristic perspective on the contested tradition by analyzing how the protest rhetorically served

  9. Developmental anatomy of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Aurora’) shoot regeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The culture of Vaccinium corymbosum L. ’Aurora’ leaves on regeneration medium results in the regeneration of adventitious shoots. We present anatomical evidence that these new shoot apices are directly regenerated from the cultured blades. Mounds of densely staining cells, which formed from epidermi...

  10. Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

    2010-01-01

    School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

  11. Seasonal changes in shoot regrowth potential in Calamagrostis canadensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Hogg; V. J. Lieffers

    1991-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to examine seasonal change in shoot regrowth potential following disturbance in Calamagrostis canadensis. On several dates during the 1988 and 1989 growing seasons, soil cores were collected from field sites dominated by this grass. Shoot regrowth from cores after clipping at the soil surface was monitored under dark or light laboratory conditions at

  12. Vindoline synthesis in in vitro shoot cultures of Catharanthus roseus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeta Hernández-Domínguez; Freddy Campos-Tamayo; Felipe Vázquez-Flota

    2004-01-01

    Vindoline, the major alkaloid in cultures of Catharanthus roseus shoots, reached 2 mg g-1 dry wt after 27 d in culture. Maximal vindoline accumulation coincided with maximum activities of deacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase, deacetylvindoline acetyl-CoA acetyl transferase and tryptophan decarboxylase. Shoot exposure to jasmonate shortened the time required for the maximal vindoline accumulation to 14 d.

  13. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species) and DNA methylation (24-nt-species), respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome. PMID:22747909

  14. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  15. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of american firearms.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  16. Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel borer design for application to single entry coal mine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A health and safety analysis of a single entry coal tunnel borer system is given. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rule, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagen and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

  17. Genetic structure and gene flow among European corn borer populations from the Great Plains to the Appalachians of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earlier population genetic spatial analysis of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), indicated no genetic differentiation even between locations separated by 720 km. This result suggests either high dispersal resulting in high gene flow, or that populations are not in...

  18. Morphogenesis at the inflorescence shoot apex of Anagallis arvensis: surface geometry and growth in comparison with the vegetative shoot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorota Kwiatkowska; Anne-Lise Routier-Kierzkowska

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geometry and surface growth based on the sequential replica method is used to compare morphogenesis at the shoot apex of Anagallis arvensis in the reproductive and vegetative phases of development. Formation of three types of lateral organs takes place at the Anagallis shoot apical meristem (SAM): vegetative leaf primordia are formed during the vegetative phase and leaf-like

  19. 50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for...

  20. 50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for...

  1. 50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill...CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for...

  2. First record of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in Pará nut, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae).

    PubMed

    Gumier-Costa, Fabiano

    2009-01-01

    We report the occurrence of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) attacking Pará nuts stored in the southeast of Para state. The coffee berry borer successfully colonized and reproduced using Pará nuts as a food source. Based on this observation, the Pará nuts can be used as an alternative food source in rearing the coffee berry borer. Also, attention should be brought to need of proper storage of these nuts to avoid infestation by this pest. PMID:19618062

  3. Susceptibility of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, to Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrave in laboratory and field trials.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Ted E; Shapiro-Ilan, David I

    2006-06-01

    The nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (All) strain was significantly more effective against peachtree borer larvae (Synanthedon exitiosa [Lepidoptera: Sesiidae]) than Steinernema riobrave (7-12) strain in field and laboratory experiments. Eighty-eight percent control of peachtree borer larvae was obtained with S. carpocapsae in the field trial when applied at 3 x 10(5) infective juveniles per tree, and 92% mortality was obtained in the lab assay using 50 infective juveniles per larva. PMID:16707138

  4. [(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

    2014-10-01

    In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

  5. Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga-Vicente, A.

    2011-12-01

    The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

  6. Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

  7. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of contrasting sugarcane varieties.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Costa, Estela Araujo; Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species. PMID:24523899

  8. Supply and demand: sink regulation of sugar accumulation in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    McCormick, A J; Watt, D A; Cramer, M D

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) accumulates sucrose to high concentrations and, as a result, has been the focus of extensive research into the biochemistry and physiology of sucrose accumulation. Despite this, the relationship between source leaf photosynthetic activity and sucrose accumulation in the culm sink is not well understood. The observations that photosynthetic activity declines during culm maturation in commercial cultivars and that high-sucrose-accumulating noble ancestral genotypes (Saccharum officinarum L.) photosynthesize at rates two-thirds of those of low-sucrose ancestors (Saccharum spontaneum L.) indicate that source-sink communication may play a pivotal role in determining sucrose yield. Although maturation of the culm results in a decreased demand for sucrose, recent evidence from partial leaf shading, defoliation, and transgenic studies indicates that sugarcane cultivars are capable of further increases in sugar content. Furthermore, sugarcane leaves appear to retain the capacity to increase the supply of assimilate to culm tissues under conditions of increased assimilate demand. The relationship between source and sink tissues in sugarcane should be viewed within a supply-demand paradigm; an often neglected conceptual approach in the study of this crop. Uncoupling of the signalling pathways that mediate negative feedback between source and sink tissues may result in improved leaf assimilation rates and, consequently, lead to increased sugarcane sucrose yields. PMID:19050062

  9. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Contrasting Sugarcane Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Melina Cristina; Balsalobre, Thiago Willian Almeida; Canesin, Lucas Eduardo Costa; Pinto, Luciana Rossini; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Vicentini, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop and a major source of sugar and alcohol. In this study, we performed de novo assembly and transcriptome annotation for six sugarcane genotypes involved in bi-parental crosses. The de novo assembly of the sugarcane transcriptome was performed using short reads generated using the Illumina RNA-Seq platform. We produced more than 400 million reads, which were assembled into 72,269 unigenes. Based on a similarity search, the unigenes showed significant similarity to more than 28,788 sorghum proteins, including a set of 5,272 unigenes that are not present in the public sugarcane EST databases; many of these unigenes are likely putative undescribed sugarcane genes. From this collection of unigenes, a large number of molecular markers were identified, including 5,106 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 708,125 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This new dataset will be a useful resource for future genetic and genomic studies in this species. PMID:24523899

  10. Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.

    PubMed

    Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

    2014-09-01

    Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region. PMID:25204068

  11. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  12. Genetic analysis of diversity within a Chinese local sugarcane germplasm based on start codon targeted polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

  13. Genetic Analysis of Diversity within a Chinese Local Sugarcane Germplasm Based on Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Que, Youxiong; Pan, Yongbao; Lu, Yunhai; Yang, Cui; Yang, Yuting; Huang, Ning; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    In-depth information on sugarcane germplasm is the basis for its conservation and utilization. Data on sugarcane molecular markers are limited for the Chinese sugarcane germplasm collections. In the present study, 20 start codon targeted (SCoT) marker primers were designed to assess the genetic diversity among 107 sugarcane accessions within a local sugarcane germplasm collection. These primers amplified 176 DNA fragments, of which 163 were polymorphic (92.85%). Polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.907 with a mean of 0.861. Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the 107 sugarcane accessions into six clusters at 0.674 genetic similarity coefficient level. Relatively abundant genetic diversity was observed among ROC22, ROC16, and ROC10, which occupied about 80% of the total sugarcane acreage in China, indicating their potential breeding value on Mainland China. Principal component analysis (PCA) partitioned the 107 sugarcane accessions into two major groups, the Domestic Group and the Foreign Introduction Group. Each group was further divided based on institutions, where the sugarcane accessions were originally developed. The knowledge of genetic diversity among the local sugarcane germplasm provided foundation data for managing sugarcane germplasm, including construction of a core collection and regional variety distribution and subrogation. PMID:24779012

  14. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    PubMed Central

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  15. Spread of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus in initially disease-free sugarcane is linked to rainfall and host resistance in the humid tropical environment of Guadeloupe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Heinrich Daugrois; Carine Edon-Jock; Sandrine Bonoto; Jean Vaillant; Philippe Rott

    2011-01-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus, the causal agent of yellow leaf, is transmitted from plant to plant by aphids. Understanding and evaluating the epidemic\\u000a risks due to spread of yellow leaf by aphids is an important feature for sugarcane production. Four distinct sugarcane trials\\u000a were set up with disease-free plants to study the relationship between spread of yellow leaf, the vector

  16. Identification and validation of sugarcane streak mosaic virus-encoded microRNAs and their targets in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Chandran; Anburaj, Jeyaraj; Prabu, Gajjeraman

    2014-02-01

    Plants have developed several defense mechanisms to cope with various pathogens (bacteria, fungi, virus, and phytoplasma). Among these, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated defense against viral infection was found to be a major innate immune response. As a counter attack strategy against the host defense, viruses produce suppressors of host RNAi pathway. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of short (~18-22 nucleotide) non-coding single-stranded RNAs involved in RNAi pathway leading to post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) is a distinct strain of Potyviridae family which has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome causing mosaic disease in sugarcane. In this study, we computationally predicted and experimentally validated the miRNA encoded by the SCSMV genome with detection efficiency of 99.9 % in stem-loop RT-qPCR and predicted their potential gene targets in sugarcane. These sugarcane target genes considerably broaden future investigation of the SCSMV-encoded miRNA function during viral pathogenesis and might be applied as a new strategy for controlling mosaic disease in sugarcane. PMID:24145912

  17. Serinol phosphate as an intermediate in serinol formation in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Babczinski, P; Matern, U; Strobel, G A

    1978-01-01

    A novel compound, serinol phosphate, was identified in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) clone 51NG97. It was produced by an enzyme-mediated transamination of dihydroxyacetone phosphate with either alanine, glutamate, aspartate, or glutamine serving equally well as an amino donor. Some detectable phosphatase activity was present in crude leaf enzyme preparation that hydrolyzed serinol phosphate. A proposal for a pathway of the biosynthesis of serinol in sugarcane was formulated.Serinol can serve as an "activator" of toxin production in attenuated cultures of the sugarcane pathogen Helminthosporium sacchari and it is present in susceptible clone 51NG97. Resistant clone H50-7209 does not possess serinol and likewise no dihydroxyacetone phosphate transaminase activity could be demonstrated in enzyme preparations of this clone. The concept of toxin activation in attenuated fungus cultures is briefly discussed relative to disease resistance and susceptibility. PMID:16660234

  18. Recent non-chemical approaches to estimate the shooting distance.

    PubMed

    López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Shooting distance estimation offers useful information for the reconstruction of firearm related incidents. The muzzle to target distance is usually estimated by examining the bullet entrance hole and the gunshot residue pattern. To visualize the pattern the forensic analyst usually uses presumptive tests based on color chemical reactions that are applied using long and tedious proceedings. Due to the drawbacks of the chemical tests recent developments for shooting distance estimation not based on color chemical tests were described in the literature. The present review covers the approaches for shooting distance estimation published in the last 10 years considering two types of target, clothing and skin. PMID:24747671

  19. Effects of shoot inversion on stem structure in Pharbitis nil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Sack, F. D.; Cline, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of shoot inversion on stem structure over 72 hr were investigated in Pharbitis nil by analyzing cell number, cell length, and the cross sectional areas of cells, tissues, and regions. An increase in stem diameter can be attributed to an increase in both cell number and cross sectional area of pith (primarily) and vascular tissue (secondarily). Qualitative observations of cell wall thickness in the light microscope did not reveal any significant effects of shoot inversion on this parameter. The inhibition of shoot elongation was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell length in the pith. The results are generally consistent with an ethylene effect on cell dimensions, especially in the pith.

  20. Electro-hydrodynamic shooting phenomenon of liquid metal stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wen-Qiang; He, Zhi-Zhu; Liu, Jing

    2014-09-01

    We reported an electro-hydrodynamic shooting phenomenon of liquid metal stream. A small voltage direct current electric field would induce ejection of liquid metal inside capillary tube and then shooting into sodium hydroxide solution to form discrete droplets. The shooting velocity has positive relationship with the applied voltage, while the droplet size is dominated by the aperture diameter of the capillary nozzle. Further, the motion of the liquid metal droplets can be flexibly manipulated by the electrodes. This effect suggests an easy going way to generate metal droplets in large quantity, which is important from both fundamental and practical aspects.