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1

Habits and control of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.)  

E-print Network

OF TABLES Table Page Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn for control of the sugarcane borer based upon the infestation per 10 stalks. Experiment I. Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn for control of the sugarcane borer based upon... the number of borers per 10 stalks. Experi- ment II. Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn for control of the sugarcane borer based upon the percentage of infested stalks. Experi- ment II. 36 Effectiveness of insecticides applied to corn...

Teetes, George Lee

2012-06-07

2

Effect of silicon soil amendment on performance of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on rice.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a pest of graminaceous crops in the southern USA, including sugarcane, maize, and rice. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of silicon (Si) soil amendments on performance of sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis, on two rice cultivars, Cocodrie and XL723. There was a significant increase in the Si content of rice plants supplemented with calcium silicate as compared to non-treated plants. Soil Si amendment led to lower relative growth rates (RGRs) and reduced boring success of sugarcane borer larvae. Effects of soil Si amendments on borer success and RGR appeared to be more pronounced in 'Cocodrie', the cultivar relatively susceptible to borers, than in the moderately resistant cultivar, XL723. Soil Si amendment may contribute to the management of D. saccharalis through reduced feeding injury and increased exposure to adverse environmental conditions and natural enemies arising from reduced boring success. PMID:23830057

Sidhu, J K; Stout, M J; Blouin, D C; Datnoff, L E

2013-12-01

3

Tri-trophic Analyses of Rice, the Sugarcane Borer, and Putative Biological Control Agents  

E-print Network

and at panicle differentiation, respectively. A 2-year field cage experiment was conducted to determine the biological control potential of Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) against the sugarcane borer on rice. The effective search rate was 49 cm2 ground area (2...

Lv, Jiale

2010-01-14

4

Sampling for the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on sugarcane in Louisiana.  

PubMed

A 3-yr study was conducted in 0.6- to 2.0-ha sugarcane fields throughout south Louisiana under varying sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), density levels to determine the spatial dispersion of infestations and to develop a sequential sampling plan. Infestations of D. saccharalis were randomly dispersed. Infestation levels (percentage of stalks infested) ranged from 0.6 to 33.3%. Frequency distributions of the number of infested stalks indicated that the Poisson distribution best fit the data Tests of other distributions (negative binomial [aggregated], binomial [uniform], geometric, and hypergeometric) resulted in poorer fits. The sequential sampling plan devised, with lower and upper D. saccharalis infestation limits of 2 and 5% and 5 and 10%, required maximum average sample numbers of 7.1 and 5.5 (20-stalk samples), respectively, to make terminating management decisions. It is our assessment that implementation of these plans would decrease sampling effort by 50-60% when compared with sampling programs currently in use for D. saccharalis management decisions in Louisiana. PMID:11425035

Schexnayder, H P; Reagan, T E; Ring, D R

2001-06-01

5

Genetic Diversity of Sugarcane Grassy Shoot (SCGS)-Phytoplasmas Causing Grassy Shoot Disease in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane grassy shoot (SCGS) caused by SCGS-phytoplasmas is a serious disease of sugarcane. Since the diseased plants exhibit\\u000a various phenotypic symptoms under field conditions, diagnosis of the disease becomes difficult. A detailed study was conducted\\u000a on validating phytoplasma specific primers for the diagnosis of the disease and to identify the extent of variations in rDNA\\u000a genome of SCGS-phytoplasmas. A total

R. Viswanathan; C. Chinnaraja; R. Karuppaiah; V. Ganesh Kumar; J. Jenshi Rooba; P. Malathi

6

Evaluation of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrids against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

A Louisiana strain of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), was selected for resistance to the CrylAb protein of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) by using an F2 screening procedure. Survival of Bt-resistant, -susceptible, and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer was evaluated on vegetative and reproductive stages of five non-Bt and seven Bt field corn, Zea mays L., hybrids in a greenhouse study. Larval survival was recorded 21 d after infestation of neonates on potted plants. Larval survival across the three sugarcane borer genotypes and five non-Bt corn hybrids after 21 d ranged from 23.6 +/- 5.2% (mean +/- SEM) to 57.5 +/- 5.2%. Mean survival of Cry1Ab-resistant larvae on vegetative and reproductive plant stages was 12 and 21%, respectively. During the vegetative stages, all seven Bt corn hybrids were highly efficacious against Cry1Ab-susceptible and -heterozygous genotypes of sugarcane borer, with a larval survival rate of <2% for the Bt-susceptible genotype and < or =5% for the heterozygotes. However, 8-18% of the heterozygous genotype survived on reproductive stage plants for four of the seven Bt corn hybrids tested. The variation in performance of Bt corn cultivars at vegetative and reproductive growth stages against Cry1Ab resistant sugarcane borer suggests differential seasonal expression that may hasten resistance in the field. Bt corn hybrids expressing a "high dose" for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), may not produce a sufficient high dose for the sugarcane borer. PMID:18232406

Wu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Fangneng; Leonard, B Rogers; Moore, Steven H

2007-12-01

7

Reduced susceptibility to tebufenozide in populations of the sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana.  

PubMed

Susceptibility of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), to tebufenozide was measured using a feeding bioassay, and values obtained were compared with baselines generated before the use of this insecticide in Louisiana sugarcane, Saccharum spp. Results from our study suggest that susceptibility to tebufenozide is decreasing in field-collected sugarcane borers. Inflections in the log dosage-probit lines were detected for many of the field collections, indicating increased heterogeneity within these populations in response to tebufenozide. Where appropriate, probit transformation was used to estimate susceptibility, and significant differences (1.6 - 2.7-fold) were measured in LC50 values between some field-collected cohorts and the previously measured baseline. In addition, a discriminating concentration (0.5 ppm) was used to estimate resistance frequencies in cohorts for which probit transformation was not appropriate. Results from these tests suggest that frequencies of resistance were high (49% in one cohort) in populations from some locations. Lighter weight pupae of the survivors from one of the more resistant cohorts suggests that tebufenozide resistance mechanisms may have a biological cost in terms of ecological fitness at early stages of resistance development. As a result of continued resistance monitoring, alternation of management chemistry is expected to help preserve this valuable sugarcane integrated pest management tactic. PMID:16022328

Reay-Jones, F P F; Akbar, W; McAllister, C D; Reagan, T E; Ottea, J A

2005-06-01

8

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane  

PubMed Central

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

9

Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha(-1)) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha(-1)) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

Keeping, Malcolm G; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

2014-01-01

10

Critical electrolyte concentration of silk gland chromatin of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis, induced using agrochemicals.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis is widely known as the main pest of sugarcane crop, causing increased damage to the entire fields. Measures to control this pest involve the use of chemicals and biological control with Cotesia flavipes wasps. In this study, we evaluated the insecticides fipronil (Frontline; 0.0025%), malathion (Malatol Bio Carb; 0.4%), cipermetrina (Galgotrin; 10%), and neem oil (Natuneem; 100%) and the herbicide nicosulfuron (Sanson 40 SC; 100%) in the posterior region silk glands of 3rd- and 5th-instar D. saccharalis by studying the variation in the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC). Observations of 3rd-instar larvae indicated that malathion, cipermetrina, and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation that may consequently disable genes. Tests with fipronil showed no alteration in chromatin condensation. With the use of nicosulfuron, there was chromatin and probable gene decompaction. In the 5th-instar larvae, the larval CEC values indicated that malathion and neem oil induced increased chromatin condensation. The CEC values for 5th-instar larvae using cipermetrina, fipronil, and nicosulfuron indicated chromatin unpacking. These observations led us to conclude that the quantity of the pesticide does not affect the mortality of these pests, can change the conformation of complexes of DNA, RNA, and protein from the posterior region of silk gland cells of D. saccharalis, activating or repressing the expression of genes related to the defense mechanism of the insect and contributing to the selection and survival of resistant individuals. PMID:25299111

Santos, S A; Fermino, F; Moreira, B M T; Araujo, K F; Falco, J R P; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, M C C

2014-01-01

11

Selection and life history traits of tebufenozide-resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Varying susceptibility to tebufenozide was recorded in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), collected from Louisiana sugarcane locations with different selection pressures. Results from diet incorporation bioassays with tebufenozide indicated significant increases in LC50 (3.78-fold) and LC90 (7-fold) values for a colony from Duson (DU), an area with higher selection pressure, compared with a colony from Alexandria (ALEX), an area with no selection pressure. Differences were not detected in LC50 values among colonies from areas where use of tebufenozide was discontinued or rotated with other chemistries. Selections with tebufenozide of DU larvae over 12 generations resulted in a highly resistant colony (DU-R) with 27.1- and 83.3-fold increases in LC50 and LC90 values, respectively. Comparison of pupal weight, days to pupation, and emergence after exposure to an equitoxic (LC20) concentration of tebufenozide revealed a decrease in pupal weight (34 and 33% for males and females, respectively), and an increase in days to pupation (47 and 40% for males and females, respectively), and emergence (43 and 33% for males and females, respectively) for the DU-R colony compared with the parent DU colony. Fecundity of DU-R females decreased to 72 eggs per female compared with 180 (DU) and 261 (ALEX). Egg viability of the ALEX and DU colonies was 61 and 56%, respectively, whereas only 27% of eggs laid by females from the DU-R colony hatched. These results are discussed in terms of their practical implications for control of D. saccharalis in Louisiana sugarcane. PMID:19133473

Akbar, W; Ottea, J A; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Huang, F

2008-12-01

12

Purification of elastase-like chymotrypsin from cardamom shoot and Capsule borer [corrected].  

PubMed

An elastase-like chymotrypsin was purified by aprotinin-agarose affinity chromatography from the midgut extract of cardamom shoot and capsule borer, Conogethes punctiferalis. The purified enzyme had a Vmax of 687.6 +/- 22.1 nmole pNA released/min/mg protein, Km of 0.168 +/- 0.012 mM with SAAPLpNA as substrate and gave a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 72.1 kDa. Casein zymogram revealed one clear zone of proteolytic activity, which corresponded to the band obtained with SDS-PAGE indicating that this could be a single-polypeptide enzyme. PMID:18072546

Josephrajkumar, A; Chakrabarty, R; Thomas, G

2007-11-01

13

Gibberellins in apical shoot meristems of flowering and vegetative sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellins A1, A3, iso-A3, A4, A19, A20, and A36 were identified by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring in apices of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids). Flowering apices (i.e., 2–4 cm panicle) contained 8–9 times more (estimated by bioassay) endogenous gibberellins A? and iso-GA3 (ratio of 1:6:8, respectively; in total 51 ng g?1 fresh weight) than vegetative apices (6.4 ng g?1 fresh weight).

P. H. Moore; R. P. Pharis; M. Koshioka

1986-01-01

14

Geographic Population Structure of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the Southern United States  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

Joyce, Andrea L.; White, William H.; Nuessly, Gregg S.; Solis, M. Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J.; Lewis, Matthew L.; Medina, Raul F.

2014-01-01

15

Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

2013-01-01

16

Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (lepidoptera: crambidae) to transgenic bt corn.  

PubMed

Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement. PMID:24914780

Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

2014-08-01

17

Biocontrol of the Sugarcane Borer Eldana saccharina by Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac7 and Serratia marcescens chiA Genes in Sugarcane-Associated Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The cry1Ac7 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis strain 234, showing activity against the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina, was cloned under the control of the tac promoter. The fusion was introduced into the broad-host-range plasmid pKT240 and the integration vector pJFF350 and without the tac promoter into the broad-host-range plasmids pML122 and pKmM0. These plasmids were introduced into a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain isolated from the phylloplane of sugarcane and the endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae found in sugarcane. The ptac-cry1Ac7 construct was introduced into the chromosome of P. fluorescens using the integration vector pJFF350 carrying the artificial interposon Omegon-Km. Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of the integrated cry1Ac7 gene were much higher under the control of the tac promoter than under the control of its endogenous promoter. It was also determined that multicopy expression in P. fluorescens and H. seropedicae of ptac-cry1Ac7 carried on pKT240 caused plasmid instability with no detectable protein expression. In H. seropedicae, more Cry1Ac7 toxin was produced when the gene was cloned under the control of the Nmr promoter on pML122 than in the opposite orientation and bioassays showed that the former resulted in higher mortality of E. saccharina larvae than the latter. P. fluorescens 14::ptac-tox resulted in higher mortality of larvae than did P. fluorescens 14::tox. An increased toxic effect was observed when P. fluorescens 14::ptac-tox was combined with P. fluorescens carrying the Serratia marcescens chitinase gene chiA, under the control of the tac promoter, integrated into the chromosome. PMID:10877771

Downing, Katrina J.; Leslie, Graeme; Thomson, Jennifer A.

2000-01-01

18

Down regulation of a gene for cadherin, but not alkaline phosphatase, associated with Cry1Ab resistance in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, is a major target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins (i.e., Cry1Ab) in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of insecticide resistance in such target pests is a major threat to the durability of transgenic Bt crops. Understanding the pests' resistance mechanisms will facilitate development of effective strategies for delaying or countering resistance. Alterations in expression of cadherin- and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been associated with Bt resistance in several species of pest insects. In this study, neither the activity nor gene regulation of ALP was associated with Cry1Ab resistance in D. saccharalis. Total ALP enzymatic activity was similar between Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and -resistant (Cry1Ab-RR) strains of D. saccharalis. In addition, expression levels of three ALP genes were also similar between Cry1Ab-SS and -RR, and cDNA sequences did not differ between susceptible and resistant larvae. In contrast, altered expression of a midgut cadherin (DsCAD1) was associated with the Cry1Ab resistance. Whereas cDNA sequences of DsCAD1 were identical between the two strains, the transcript abundance of DsCAD1 was significantly lower in Cry1Ab-RR. To verify the involvement of DsCAD1 in susceptibility to Cry1Ab, RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to knock-down DsCAD1 expression in the susceptible larvae. Down-regulation of DsCAD1 expression by RNAi was functionally correlated with a decrease in Cry1Ab susceptibility. These results suggest that down-regulation of DsCAD1 is associated with resistance to Cry1Ab in D. saccharalis. PMID:21991350

Yang, Yunlong; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Ottea, James; Husseneder, Claudia; Leonard, B Rogers; Abel, Craig; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng

2011-01-01

19

Origin and Expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae): A Mixture of Historical Natural Expansion and Contemporary Human-Mediated Relocation  

PubMed Central

The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats. PMID:25372458

Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

2014-01-01

20

Diversity of soil fungi in North 24 Parganas and their antagonistic potential against Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. (Shoot and fruit borer of brinjal).  

PubMed

Soil samples were collected from agricultural fields and gardens in North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, and fungi species were isolated from them. Thirty-one fungal species were isolated with 19 found in agricultural soil and 28 in garden soil. Twenty-eight out of 31 were identified using cultural and microscopic characters, and three were unidentified. The diversity of isolated fungi was calculated by Simpson's diversity index. The garden soil possessed more fungal colonies (750) than agricultural soil (477). In agricultural soil, the dominant fungi were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, and Penicillium expansum, and the dominant fungi of garden soil were A. niger and Fusarium moniliforme. Simpson's diversity index indicated that garden soil had more fungal diversity (0.939) than agricultural soil (0.896). The entomopathogenic capacity of the isolated fungi was tested against the brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen) which is the major insect pest of brinjal. The isolated fungi were screened against larva of L. orbonalis for their entomopathogenic potential. Beauveria bassiana, A. niger, and P. expansum showed appreciable antagonism to L. orbonalis, and their lethal doses with 50 % mortality (LD50s) were 4.0?×?10(7), 9.06?×?10(7), and 1.50?×?10(8) spore/mL, respectively, and their times taken to reach 50 % mortality (LT50s) were 9.77, 10.56, and 10.60 days, respectively. This work suggests the restriction of chemical pesticide application in agricultural fields to increase fungal diversity. The entomopathogenic efficacy of B. bassiana could be used in agricultural fields to increase fugal diversity and protect the brinjal crop. PMID:25213561

Pal, Sujoy; Ghosh, Swapan Kumar

2014-12-01

21

Expression of soybean proteinase inhibitors in transgenic sugarcane plants: effects on natural defense against Diatraea saccharalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction and expression of proteinase inhibitor encoding genes into sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genome is an interesting strategy for conferring partial resistance to the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), the major insect pest of sugarcane in Brazil. To investigate the role of soybean (Glycine max L.) Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) and soybean Bowman–Birk inhibitor (SBBI) in the control

Maria Cristina Falco; Marcio C. Silva-Filho

2003-01-01

22

Effects of sugarcane waste-products on Cd and Zn fractionation and their uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.).  

PubMed

The effects of three sugarcane waste-products from an ethanol production plant on the fractionation of Cd and Zn in high Cd and Zn contaminated soil and metal accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) were studied, using the BCR sequential extraction and aqua regia extraction procedures. A pot experiment was performed for 4 months with four treatments: no-amendments (control), boiler ash (3% w/w), filter cake (3% w/w) and a combination of boiler ash and vinasse (1.5% + 1.5%, w/w). The results showed that all treatments reduced the most bioavailable concentrations of Cd and Zn (BCR1 + 2) in soils (4.0-9.6% and 5.5-6.3%, respectively) and metal uptake (?g) in the aboveground part of the sugarcane (up to 62% and 54% for Cd and Zn, respectively) as compared to the control. No visual symptoms of metal toxicity and no positive effect on the biomass production of sugarcane were observed. Both Cd and Zn were accumulated mainly in the underground parts of the sugarcane (root > shoot ? underground sett > leaf; and root > underground sett > shoot > leaf, respectively) and the translocation factors were below 1, indicating low metal uptake. The results suggested that even though sugarcane waste-products insignificantly promote sugarcane growth, they can be used in agriculture due to the low metal accumulation in sugarcane and the reduction in metal bioavailability in the soil. PMID:24217524

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2014-01-01

23

[Calling and mating behaviors of bamboo shoot borer Kumasia kumaso].  

PubMed

The calling and mating behaviors of Kumasia kumaso were studied in laboratory at (25 1) degrees C and (60 +/- 10) % RH under a cycle 14 L:10 D photo period, and the EAG response of male K. kumaso to female K. kumaso sex gland extracts was also tested. The calling and mating behaviors of K. kumaso could only be observed in scotophase. The females began calling at the first scotophase following emergence, and the peak of calling occurred during the second scotophase and decreased thereafter. The calling of the females commenced 0-4 h after dark, reached the maximum between the 5th and the 7th hour of the scotophase, and terminated during the last 1-2.5 h of the scotophase. Moth age had significant effects on the calling patterns. With increasing moth age, the onset time of calling advanced gradually, and the mean number of calling bouts as well as the calling length per bout had a gradual increase from calling day 1 to day 4 but decreased on day 5. The peak time and terminated time of calling advanced with increasing moth age. The mating of K. kumaso adults initiated during the first scotophase and terminated till the 5th scotophase following emergence, and the peak of mating was observed during the second scotophase. The peak of mating was observed 5.5-7.0 h after dark, and advanced with increasing moth age. Moth age affected the mean onset time of mating and the copulation duration significantly. With increasing moth age, the mean onset time of mating advanced, and the copulation duration decreased. Sex ratio had significant effects on the mating behavior as well. Treatment 2 female:1 male showed a significantly higher mating percentage, but an earlier onset time of mating and shorter copulation duration, as compared with treatment 1 female:1 male. The results of EAG test indicated that the male adults showed a significant EAG response to the sex gland extracts of 2-day-old virgin females. PMID:23479886

Shu, Jin-Ping; Teng, Ying; Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Deng, Shun; Wang, Hao-Jie

2012-12-01

24

Predicting economic losses from the continued spread of the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive species that originated from Mexico, and it is threatening to cause major economic losses to sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and rice, Oryza sativa L., industries in Louisiana. The insect is expected to reach sugarcane and rice production areas in Louisiana by 2008, and infest all of Louisiana sugarcane and rice industries by 2035. When all sugarcane in Louisiana becomes infested, annual yield losses of $220 million would be expected for a cultivar of comparable susceptibility to LCP 85-384 (assuming this cultivar is planted on 100% of the production area). This also assumes the use of the current practice of rainfed production and one application of insecticide, which is presently used by farmers in Louisiana. Irrigation with 30 cm of water is predicted to reduce estimated losses by 29%, whereas four applications of a biorational insecticide such as tebufenozide are expected to reduce the loss in revenue by 53%. The use of the resistant 'HoCP 85-845' would reduce the projected loss in revenue by 24%. Combining all three management tactics on sugarcane, anticipated net loss in revenue would decrease by 66%. The rice industry in Louisiana is projected to suffer from a loss in revenue of $45 million when the entire state is infested. A 77% reduction in loss in revenue is expected with one application of lambda-cyhalothrin. A quarantine on east Texas sugarcane is estimated to save the Louisiana industry between $1.1 billion and $3.2 billion (depending on management) during the time needed for the insect to fully invade the state's sugarcane and rice producing area by natural migration rather than by accidental introduction. The rapid deployment of appropriate management tactics will have a key role in reducing the anticipated economic impact of E. loftini once it becomes a pest in Louisiana sugarcane and rice. PMID:18459384

Reay-Jones, F P F; Wilson, L T; Reagan, T E; Legendre, B L; Way, M O

2008-04-01

25

The Cotton-Square Borer.  

E-print Network

it on this food plant. Hops, beans, and hawthorn, Crat~gus, have been recorded as the most common food plants of the insect in the Northeastern States. Additional pl~nts attacked by the cotton-square borer in this region include hound's tongue, Cynoglossum; St... it on this food plant. Hops, beans, and hawthorn, Crat~gus, have been recorded as the most common food plants of the insect in the Northeastern States. Additional pl~nts attacked by the cotton-square borer in this region include hound's tongue, Cynoglossum; St...

Reinhard, H. J. (Henry Jonathan)

1929-01-01

26

Shooting Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an opportunity for students to develop concepts and skills with fractions, decimals, and percentages in the context of shooting baskets. Students take turns tossing a ball into a wastebasket a number of times determined by a random card draw, while other students keep track of the number of shots made. The class processes the data by creating fractions and converting them into decimals and percentages, and then uses them to analyze and interpret the results.

Jewell, Laura

2011-01-01

27

Description Soybean stem borer is the  

E-print Network

Description Soybean stem borer is the common name of a small, long-horned beetle that attacks soybeans. The adult beetleis pale gray in color and is about 3/8 inch long with antennae that are longer The soybean stem borer overwinters as a larva in the base of hollowed-out, girdled stems. Larvae pupate

Mukhtar, Saqib

28

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)  

E-print Network

Oak pinhole borer Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) The oak pinhole borer, Platypus of a continuing supply of breeding material in the form of weakened oaks suffering from `oak dieback and decline'. P.cylindrus appears to establish only in trees that are severely stressed or already dead

29

Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer,  

E-print Network

Roundheaded apple-tree borer larva #12;control apple maggot, leafminers, and other pests. Backyard treesBorers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer, flatheaded apple-tree borer, dogwood borer (and the uncommon look

New Hampshire, University of

30

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers  

E-print Network

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-07-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology JAPANESE pine (Pinus sp.), spruce(Picea sp.), fir (Abies sp.), cedar (Cedrus sp.) and larch (Larix sp.). Trees. Pupation takes place in the wood and adults emerge by chewing a round exit hole. Adults feed on the tender

Ginzel, Matthew

31

Shoot Processing of Highland Bamboo: Fermented Salt Stock Bamboo Shoot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented bamboo shoot is a short shelf life product and a high market's demand. It could be produced from bamboo shoot grown in Thailand which may be fresh or intermediate shoot. Shoots of highland bamboo from Royal Agricultural Station Angkhang were to study as a salt stock bamboo shoot prior to a further processing. Bamboo shoots of 2 species, i.e.,

Montatip Yunchalad; Siriporn Sathonsaowapark

32

Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis is a devastating insect pest of ash Fraxinus species first discovered in the United States in 2002. Native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Mongolia, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea, it was accidentally imported into the U.S. through infested ash crating or pallets at least 10 years ago. It is capable of killing numerous ash

Joseph D. Scianna; Robert Logar; State Forester

33

Sexuality and School Shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional explanationslax gun control laws, media violence, single and working parentsdo not adequately explain the recent spate of school shootings, and neither does bullying by itself, an explanation recently gaining more traction. A certain type of bullying, however, is revealed as particularly culpable. Many of the recent shootings share a disturbing component: The perpetrators were repeatedly, even relentlessly, accused by

Jessie Klein

2006-01-01

34

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-04-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers BLACK SPRUCE BEETLE, TETROPIUM CASTANEUM (LINNAEUS) Jeffrey D. Holland, K. R. Raje, J.T. Shukle, and V. R living trees. The wood- boring larvae cause structural damage that may make the trees susceptible

Ginzel, Matthew

35

The sugarcane defense protein SUGARWIN2 causes cell death in Colletotrichum falcatum but not in non-pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN) have been characterized in sugarcane, SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins). Induction of SUGARWINs occurs in response to Diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. In addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activities toward Fusarium verticillioides, an opportunistic fungus that usually occurs after D. saccharalis borer attacks on sugarcane. In this study, we sought to evaluate the specificity of SUGARWIN2 to better understand its mechanism of action against phytopathogens and the associations between fungi and insects that affect plants. We used Colletotrichum falcatum, a fungus that causes red rot disease in sugarcane fields infested by D. saccharalis, and Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes pineapple disease in sugarcane. We also tested whether SUGARWIN2 is able to cause cell death in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that does not infect sugarcane, and in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is used for bioethanol production. Recombinant SUGARWIN2 altered C. falcatum morphology by increasing vacuolization, points of fractures and a leak of intracellular material, leading to germling apoptosis. In C. paradoxa, SUGARWIN2 showed increased vacuolization in hyphae but did not kill the fungi. Neither the non-pathogenic fungus A. nidulans nor the yeast S. cerevisiae was affected by recombinant SUGARWIN2, suggesting that the protein is specific to sugarcane opportunistic fungal pathogens. PMID:24608349

Franco, Flávia P; Santiago, Adelita C; Henrique-Silva, Flávio; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Goldman, Gustavo H; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

2014-01-01

36

The Sugarcane Defense Protein SUGARWIN2 Causes Cell Death in Colletotrichum falcatum but Not in Non-Pathogenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to pathogens and insect attacks by inducing and accumulating a large set of defense-related proteins. Two homologues of a barley wound-inducible protein (BARWIN) have been characterized in sugarcane, SUGARWIN1 and SUGARWIN2 (sugarcane wound-inducible proteins). Induction of SUGARWINs occurs in response to Diatraea saccharalis damage but not to pathogen infection. In addition, the protein itself does not show any effect on insect development; instead, it has antimicrobial activities toward Fusarium verticillioides, an opportunistic fungus that usually occurs after D. saccharalis borer attacks on sugarcane. In this study, we sought to evaluate the specificity of SUGARWIN2 to better understand its mechanism of action against phytopathogens and the associations between fungi and insects that affect plants. We used Colletotrichum falcatum, a fungus that causes red rot disease in sugarcane fields infested by D. saccharalis, and Ceratocystis paradoxa, which causes pineapple disease in sugarcane. We also tested whether SUGARWIN2 is able to cause cell death in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that does not infect sugarcane, and in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is used for bioethanol production. Recombinant SUGARWIN2 altered C. falcatum morphology by increasing vacuolization, points of fractures and a leak of intracellular material, leading to germling apoptosis. In C. paradoxa, SUGARWIN2 showed increased vacuolization in hyphae but did not kill the fungi. Neither the non-pathogenic fungus A. nidulans nor the yeast S. cerevisiae was affected by recombinant SUGARWIN2, suggesting that the protein is specific to sugarcane opportunistic fungal pathogens. PMID:24608349

Franco, Flavia P.; Santiago, Adelita C.; Henrique-Silva, Flavio; de Castro, Patricia Alves; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Moura, Daniel S.; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

2014-01-01

37

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State  

E-print Network

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

Agnello, Arthur M.

38

School Shootings Stun Reservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

2005-01-01

39

Shooting Method Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shooting Method model displays the solution to the time-independent Schrödinger equation determined via the shooting method. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ShootingMethod.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default potential energy function is a harmonic oscillator with V(x) = x*x/2. The model assumes that the eigenfunction is bound within a spatial region. The energy of the energy eigenfunction can be changed with the slider. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Shooting Method was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Open Source Physics programs for quantum mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-04

40

Point and Shoot Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of point and shoot digital cameras, when combined with open source firmware enhancements can operate as astrographs. This paper explores the research and astro-photographic opportunities and capabilities offered by this pairing of mass production optics and open source functional extensions that retail for as little as $200.

Hoot, John E.

2011-05-01

41

The Binomial Distribution in Shooting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

2009-01-01

42

Shooting Star Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

1997-01-01

43

Roots and Shoots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners discover that plants aren't just shoots (stem, branches, leaves, and flowers) growing above ground, but contain plenty of roots growing undergroundâmore than half the mass of a plant can be its roots. Learners dig up "mystery" plants to investigate their root structures, and match them to different types of root systems. Learners also learn about animals found near plant roots and how humans use roots.

Science, Lawrence H.

2008-01-01

44

Sugarcane as a renewable resource  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown, generally as a perennial crop, in tropical and subtropical areas; some 750 million tonnes are produced each year. Food, feed and energy are the major products of the sugarcane plant; sugarcane fiber, bagasse, fuels the cane processing plants and provides electricity to local grids through cogeneration. A range of chemicals and polymers is available from process streams and sugars. Microbial products are discussed in the comparison paper on sugarbeet. Chemical transformations reviewed herein include production of sucrose mono-, di- and poly-esters, polyurethanes, carboxylic acid derivatives, and thermally stable polymers. Processes and product will be reviewed.

Clarke, M.A.; Edye, L.A. [Sugar Processing Research Institute, Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)

1995-12-01

45

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30

M. J. Giamalva; S. Clarke; K. Bischoff

1981-01-01

46

Shooting Star Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the Sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space propulsion research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of SSE and its thermal vacuum test to simulate in-orbit conditions at the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflection of the engineering model under extreme condition, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the Sun, as well as vacuum.

1997-01-01

47

Laboratory rearing of the cottonwood twig borer on artificial diets  

E-print Network

LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis VICTOR CARL MASTRO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1973 Ma)or Sub)ect: Entomology LABORATORY REARING OF THE COTTONWOOD TWIG BORER ON ARTIFICIAL DIETS A Thesis by VICTOR CARL MASTRO Approved as to style and conte by (Cha rman of Committee) Head De artment) (He er) ( mber) mber) August 1973...

Mastro, Victory Carl

2012-06-07

48

The endodermis and shoot gravitropism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoots and roots of higher plants exhibit negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. A variety of gravitropic mutants have recently been isolated from Arabidopsis, the characterization of which demonstrates that the molecular mechanisms of the gravitropic responses in roots, hypocotyls and inflorescence stems are different. The cytological and molecular analysis of two mutants, shoot gravitropism 1 (sgr1), which is allelic to

Masao Tasaka; Takehide Kato; Hidehiro Fukaki

1999-01-01

49

Shooting and Hunting: Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The shooting and hunting manual, part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, explains shooting skills, hunting, and proper gun handling on the range and in the field. This manual should be supplemented and enriched by available references, facilities, and resources. It may be included in the community's educational and…

Smith, Julian W., Comp.

50

BOTETOURT COUNTY 4-H SHOOTING  

E-print Network

and national competition matches Participate in 4-H Shooting Education camps and special programs Build self-confidence orientation, or marital or family status. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Issued the opportunity to learn about and have fun in shooting by participating in a family oriented, outdoor program

Liskiewicz, Maciej

51

Propagation of banana through encapsulated shoot tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants were regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips of banana. Shoot tips (ca 4 mm) isolated from multiple shoot cultures of banana cv. Basrai were encapsulated in 3% sodium alginate containing different gel matrices. The encapsulated shoot tips regenerated in vitro on different substrates. Use of White's medium resulted in 100% conversion of encapsulated shoot tips into plantlets. The plantlets were

T. R. Ganapathi; P. Suprasanna; V. A. Bapat; P. S. Rao

1992-01-01

52

Does the Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Have Mutualistic Fungi?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays were performed to determine if a mutualistic association exists between three species of fungi and the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). The fungi Fusarium solani (Martius), Penicillium citrinum Thom and Candida fermentati (Saito) were evaluated on the reproduction and survivorship of H.hampei. The fungi were evaluated at three concentrations: 5 102 ;5 104 and 5 106 spores\\/ml

Jeanneth Pérez; Francisco Infante; Fernando E. Vega

2005-01-01

53

The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae),  

E-print Network

-conifer forests in San Diego County. GSOB prefers mature oak trees but occasionally attacks smaller oaksThe goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded at one site in Riverside County in 2012. It was likely brought into the state on oak firewood collected

Ishida, Yuko

54

Biological Control of Coffee Berry Borer in Organic Coffee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary All inspection reports of Naturland organic coffee growers in Latin America (Mexico, Guatemala, Ecua- dor, Peru and Bolivia) comprising 29,673 organic coffee farmers with 85,376 ha of land, were checked for control methods of coffee berry borer. 33 % use cultural control by picking up infested berries from the ground or from the plant during and after harvest. 24

Manfred Fürst; Stefan Bergleiter; Kleinhaderner Weg

55

Vacuum pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide background data on sugarcane bagasse vacuum pyrolysis. Product yields and properties were investigated. Vacuum pyrolysis tests were performed at bench and pilot plant scales. The bagasse finest particles with a diameter smaller than 450 ?m were removed in order to overcome difficulties caused by their low density and high ash content. In

Abdelkader Chaala; Christian Roy

2002-01-01

56

A Real Shooting Star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star

This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light.

The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years.

As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake.

Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence.

Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer

Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira and its 'whale of a tail' can be found in the tail of the whale constellation.

2007-01-01

57

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

SciTech Connect

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

1981-08-01

58

Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

2014-01-01

59

Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

2014-01-01

60

Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy  

SciTech Connect

Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

1982-12-01

61

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for

G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza

2010-01-01

62

Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND -: Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations

Flávia S Papini-Terzi; Flávia R Rocha; Ricardo ZN Vêncio; Juliana M Felix; Diana S Branco; Alessandro J Waclawovsky; Luiz EV Del Bem; Carolina G Lembke; Maximiller DL Costa; Milton Y Nishiyama; Renato Vicentini; Michel GA Vincentz; Eugênio C Ulian; Marcelo Menossi; Glaucia M Souza

2009-01-01

63

Sentinel: Intelligent Information Sharing for Controlling the Emerald Ash Borer Threat  

E-print Network

Service ­ Ontology ­ Invasive Species ­ EAB. 1 Introduction The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a shiny Medjahed1 , and William Grosky Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Michigan Borer (EAB) has killed or infested millions of ash trees in Michigan and is fast spreading

Medjahed, Brahim

64

Searching for New Sources of Pink Stem Borer Resistance in Maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main corn (Zea mays L.) pest in the Mediterranean area. Although, screening for resistance to this pest has been successful, the level of resistance shown by the most resistant varieties is not high. The objectives of the present work were: (i) the evaluation for pink stem borer resistance of the nontested

A. Butrón; G. Sandoya; R. Santiago; A. Ordás; A. Rial; R. A. Malvar

2006-01-01

65

Optimization of Sampling Methods for Within-Tree Populations of Red Oak Borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman)  

E-print Network

SAMPLING Optimization of Sampling Methods for Within-Tree Populations of Red Oak Borer, Enaphalodes) mortality. Twenty-four northern red oak trees, Quercus rubra L., infested with red oak borer, were felled of 480 examined trees, and Donley and Rast (1984) examined the entire bole of 144 oaks in Pennsylvania

Stephen, Frederick M.

66

A rapid estimation procedure for within-tree populations of red oak borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)  

E-print Network

A rapid estimation procedure for within-tree populations of red oak borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae rubra L., from 2001 to 2003 revealed exceptionally high red oak borer population levels with trees-hickory (USDA Forest Service, 1999) with red oaks, sub-genus Erythroba- lanus, being common tree species

Stephen, Frederick M.

67

School Shootings in Policy Spotlight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

Maxwell, Lesli A.

2006-01-01

68

Shooting methods and topological transversality  

E-print Network

of Bath, Bath BA27AY, U.K. bb1@maths.bath.ac.uk Abstract. We show that shooting methods for homoclinic by Kalies, Kwapisz and VanderVorst [KV,KKV]. In contrast with (1) where homoclinic solutions to 0 describe

Bath, University of

69

School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

Schiller, Juliet

2013-01-01

70

Why Not Shoot? Selmer Bringsjord  

E-print Network

and under escort, and so on. Now. I also know something else about you: I know you think that it's morally wrong for students to shoot other students. Well, let's suppose that you're absolutely, positively right what? Why should you be bound by morality? Why should you restrain yourself? This is a question I

Bringsjord, Selmer

71

Shoot or Don't Shoot? Why Police Officers Are More Inclined to Shoot When They Are Anxious  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of anxiety on police officers' shooting decisions. Thirty-six police officers participated and executed a low- and high-anxiety video-based test that required them to shoot or not shoot at rapidly appearing suspects that either had a gun and \\

Arne Nieuwenhuys; Geert J. P. Savelsbergh; Raôul R. D. Oudejans

2012-01-01

72

50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23...MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory...birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this...

2010-10-01

73

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) as aYoung Researcher Program grant to Janaina Braga do Carmo as part of the BIOEN/FAPESP Program (Process Number 08/55989-9).

Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

2012-04-01

74

Predominant nifH transcript phylotypes related to Rhizobium rosettiformans in field-grown sugarcane plants and in Norway spruce.  

PubMed

Although some sugarcane cultivars may benefit substantially from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the responsible bacteria have been not identified yet. Here, we examined the active diazotrophic bacterial community in sugarcane roots from Africa and America by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using broad-range nifH-specific primers. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles obtained from sugarcane showed a low diversity at all sample locations with one phylotype amounting up to 100% of the nifH transcripts. This major phylotype has 93.9-99.6% DNA identity to the partial nifH sequence from a strain affiliated with Rhizobium rosettiformans. In addition, nifH transcripts of this phylotype were also detected in spruce roots sampled in Germany, where they made up 91% of nifH transcripts detected. In contrast, in control soil or shoot samples two distinct nifH transcript sequences distantly related to nifH from Sulfurospirillum multivorans or Bradyrhizobium elkanii, respectively, were predominant. These results suggest that R. rosettiformans is involved in root-associated nitrogen fixation with sugarcane and spruce, plants that do not form root-nodule symbioses. PMID:23761284

Burbano, Claudia Sofía; Liu, Yuan; Rösner, Kim Leonie; Reis, Veronica Massena; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Hurek, Thomas

2011-06-01

75

Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

2008-05-01

76

Perspective of the Sugarcane Industry in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sugarcane industry in Brazil is experiencing a rapid shift towards creating the grounds for a green and sustainable biorefinary\\u000a industry. After 30 years of ProAlcool, the federal government program that boosted Brazil’s sugarcane industry by creating\\u000a a mandate to blend ethanol with gasoline, flex fuel engines now dominate Brazil’s automobile industry. Currently, bioethanol\\u000a replaces around 30% of the gasoline consumed

Paulo Arruda

2011-01-01

77

Carbon balance of sugarcane bioenergy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important criterion for bioenergy systems evaluation is their greenhouse gas mitigation potential. Sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to produce grid-bound surplus electricity but also have net CO2 emissions associated with the upstream fossil-fuel consumption for plantation management, transportation and processing of the fibrous biomass. However, when compared to coal-based power generation systems, sugarcane bioenergy systems are able to avoid

Revin Panray Beeharry

2001-01-01

78

Midgut proteases of the cardamom shoot and capsule borer Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their interaction with aprotinin.  

PubMed

Protease inhibitors cause mortality in a range of insects, and transgenic plants expressing protease inhibitors have been protected against pest attack, particularly internal feeders that are not amenable to control by conventional means. A study of luminal proteases in Conogethes punctiferalis Guenée was performed to identify potential targets for proteinaceous biopesticides, such as protease inhibitors. The midgut protease profile of the gut lumen from C. punctiferalis was studied to determine the conditions for optimal protein hydrolysis. Optimum conditions for peptidase activity were found to be in 50 mm Tris-HCl, pH 10 containing 20 mm CaCl2; incubation for 30 min at 40 degrees C. Four synthetic substrates, i.e. benzoyl-arg-p-nitroanilide, benzoyl-tyr-p-nitroanilide, succinyl-ala-ala-pro-leu-p-nitroanilide (SAAPLpNA) and leu-p-nitroanilide were hydrolysed by C. punctiferalis gut proteases in Tris-HCl buffer pH 10. Trypsin and elastase-like chymotrypsin were the prominent digestive proteases, and age-related modulation of midgut proteases existed for trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase-like chymotrypsin and leucine aminopeptidase. Serine protease inhibitors such as aprotinin, soybean trypsin inhibitor and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride inhibited peptidase activity. Some metal ions such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Pb(2+) and Co(2+) enhanced BApNA-ase activity whereas others like Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+) and Hg(2+) were inhibitory at 6 mm concentration. Trypsin and elastase-like chymotrypsin were significantly inhibited by 94% and 29%, respectively, by aprotinin (150 nm) under in vitro conditions. A possible incorporation of protease inhibitors into transgenic plants is discussed. PMID:16441909

Josephrajkumar, A; Chakrabarty, R; Thomas, G

2006-02-01

79

Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch  

PubMed Central

Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and ?-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

2013-01-01

80

PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING  

EPA Science Inventory

The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

81

Relationship between time to flowering and stalk and ear damage by second generation corn borers.  

PubMed

In the Mediterranean area, the main corn borer species are Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Mediterranean corn borer) and Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (European corn borer). In the overall context of integrated pest control, it is possible to reduce the effect of a pest without having a negative effect on the environment by varying the sowing date. Benefits are possible if the most susceptible stages of the crop no longer coincide with the peak of the pest. We used different cycles of selection (0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of two populations (Purdue A and Purdue B) of maize selected for early flowering to get a more precise estimation of the relationship between maturity of plant tissues and corn borer damage. We found a relationship between the damage produced by corn borers and the number of days from flowering to infestation. We conclude that, after flowering, a later stage of plant development at the moment of the infestation by corn borers reduces the damage caused by the larvae. Based on our results, we recommend to plant as early as possible so the tissues would be as mature as possible at the moment of insect attack. PMID:23865188

Ordas, B; Alvarez, A; Revilla, P; Butron, A; Malvar, R A

2013-06-01

82

Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.  

PubMed

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight. PMID:20021772

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-12-01

83

Genetically Enhanced Sorghum and Sugarcane: Engineering Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Storage together with Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency into the Saccharinae  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: UIUC is working to convert sugarcane and sorghum—already 2 of the most productive crops in the world—into dedicated bio-oil crop systems. Three components will be engineered to produce new crops that have a 50% higher yield, produce easily extractable oils, and have a wider growing range across the U.S. This will be achieved by modifying the crop canopy to better distribute sunlight and increase its cold tolerance. By directly producing oil in the shoots of these plants, these biofuels could be easily extracted with the conventional crushing techniques used today to extract sugar.

None

2012-02-15

84

Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).  

PubMed

We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees. PMID:18348816

Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

2008-02-01

85

Microbes - friends and foes of sugarcane.  

PubMed

Sugarcane is an important cash crop for many countries because it is a major source of several products including sugar and bioethanol. To obtain maximum yields there is a need to apply large quantities of chemical fertilizers.Worldwide yields are also severely affected by more than sixty diseases, mostly caused by fungi but viruses, phytoplasmas, nematodes and other pests can also damage this crop. For most of these diseases, chemical control is not available and breeders are struggling with the development of pest resistant varieties. Many members of the grass family Poaceae establish associations with beneficial microbes which promote their growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. They can be used as means to reduce the need for chemical fertilizer and to minimize the impacts of pathogen invasion. This review highlights the diversity of the microbes associated with sugarcane and the role of beneficial microbes for growth promotion and biocontrol. More extensive use of beneficial microbes will help the sugarcane grower not only to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers but also minimize the disease. In this paper, a brief description of both the non-pathogenic and pathogenic microbes associated with sugarcane is provided. Future prospects for the expanded use of beneficial microbes for sugarcane are also discussed and detailed herein. PMID:23322584

Mehnaz, Samina

2013-12-01

86

4-H Shooting Sports Advancement Guide 4-H Shooting Sports Advancement Program  

E-print Network

1 4-H 360R 4-H Shooting Sports Advancement Guide #12;2 4-H Shooting Sports Advancement Program members who wish to work with younger or less experienced members. The 4-H Shooting Sports Advancement or task Communicating Being responsible Developing self-esteem #12;3 About the advancement program

Tullos, Desiree

87

Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.  

PubMed

The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions. PMID:22217762

Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

2011-12-01

88

Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star: The Lockheed P-80A Shooting Star was America's first fully operation jet fighter. This all-yellow example arrived at Langley in November 1946. The P-80 was used for air speed calibration and development of a tuned vibration damper.

1946-01-01

89

A shooting approach to suboptimal control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shooting method is used to solve the suboptimal control problem where the control history is assumed to be piecewise linear. Suboptimal solutions can be obtained without difficulty and can lead to accurate approximate controls and good starting multipliers for the regular shooting method by increasing the number of nodes. Optimal planar launch trajectories are presented for the advanced launch system.

Hull, David G.; Sheen, Jyh-Jong

1991-01-01

90

The Columbine LegacyRampage Shootings as Political Acts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore how the Columbine shootings on April 20, 1999, influenced subsequent school rampage shootings. First, school rampage shootings are defined to distinguish them from other forms of school violence. Second, post-Columbine shootings and thwarted shootings are examined to determine how they were influenced by Columbine. Unlike prior rampage shooters, Harris and Klebold committed

Ralph W. Larkin

2009-01-01

91

Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

Schultz, Colin

2013-04-01

92

Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed. PMID:22506996

Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

2012-04-01

93

APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon scitula (Harris) N.Y.S. Agric. Expt. Station  

E-print Network

APPLE: Malus domestica Borkhauser D. P. Kain and A. Agnello Dogwood borer (DWB); Synanthedon@nysaes.cornell .edu APPLE, EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TRUNK SPRAYS TO CONTROL BORERS INFESTING BURRKNOTS, 2006 the untreated check. (Table 1) Table 1. Efficacy of insecticides against dogwood borer infesting apple, 2006

Agnello, Arthur M.

94

Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible. Participants drove under a large screen that initially blocked the basket. As soon as they saw the basket they shot. When training with the screen, shooting percentages increased. We conclude that visual control training is an effective method to improve wheelchair basketball shooting. The findings support the idea that perceptual-motor learning can be enhanced by manipulating relevant constraints in the training environment, even for expert athletes. PMID:22978196

Oudejans, Raôul R D; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-René J A C; Janssen, Thomas W J

2012-09-01

95

Molecular detection and identification of thirteen isolates of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus associated with sugarcane yellow leaf disease in nine sugarcane growing states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty sugarcane leaf samples exhibiting midrib yellowing symptoms from nine sugarcane growing states of India were collected.\\u000a The total RNA was isolated from infected samples and RT-PCR assays were performed using Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) specific primers. The infection of SCYLV was detected in 27 out of 30 samples, which showed the expected size (~610 bp)\\u000a amplicon during RT-PCR. The

Deepti Singh; Govind Pratap Rao; S. K. Snehi; S. K. Raj; R. Karuppaiah; R. Viswanathan

96

Amendments of sugarcane trash induce suppressiveness to plant-parasitic nematodes in a sugarcane soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field experiment at Bundaberg, Queensland, sugarcane trash was incorporated into soil with, or without, additional nitrogen\\u000a supplied as either soybean residue or ammonium nitrate. The carbon inputs from plant material (lOtC\\/ha) were the same in all\\u000a treatments, while both plus-nitrogen treatments received the same amount of nitrogen (210kgN\\/ha). Sugarcane was planted 23\\u000a weeks after amendments were incorporated, and

G. R. Stirling; E. J. Wilson; A. M. Stirling; C. E. Pankhurst; P. W. Moody; M. J. Bell; N. Halpin

2005-01-01

97

Value addition to bamboo shoots: a review.  

PubMed

Bamboo shoot forms a traditional delicacy in many countries. Being low in fat content and high in potassium, carbohydrate, dietary fibres, Vitamins and active materials, bamboo shoots are consumed in raw, canned, boiled, marinated, fermented, frozen, liquid and medicinal forms. Although the fresh bamboo shoots of species like Dendraocalamus giganteus are healthier and nutritionally rich, the young shoots, after fortification, can be consumed by processing into a wide range of food products with longer shelf-life and better organoleptic qualities. However, the consumption pattern of bamboo shoots in most of the countries is traditional, non-standardized, seasonal and region-specific with little value addition. Therefore, there exists a great opportunity, especially for the organized food processing sectors to take up the processing of bamboo shoot-based food products in an organized manner. The present article gives an insight into the global scenario of bamboo shoot-based food products and their consumption pattern, the quality attributes, and the opportunities for value addition along with future prospects in view of international food safety, security and nutrition. PMID:23904649

Choudhury, Debangana; Sahu, Jatindra K; Sharma, G D

2012-08-01

98

4-H Shooting Sports Club Risk Management Plan (SS04) Date____________ Club shooting sports discipline(s) Archery _________ Hunting _________  

E-print Network

4-H Shooting Sports Club Risk Management Plan (SS04) Date____________ Club shooting sports discipline(s) Archery _________ Hunting _________ Pistol ________ Rifle Shotgun Club name________________________________________ Primary 4-H Master Shooting Sports Leader: ___________________________________________ Assistant Leader

Tullos, Desiree

99

Duck shooting injuries in Southland, New Zealand.  

PubMed

Duck shooting is a common sport in New Zealand. The opening weekend is anticipated and celebrated, often with significant alcohol intake which is cause for concern, and potentially very dangerous. Hunters are annually warned about the dangers. There have been few duck shooting incidents which lead to injury or death. In the last decade two duck shooters in New Zealand have been killed, while 16 suffered non fatal gunshot injuries. We present a series of injuries identified during the 2012 duck shooting season in Southland Province. PMID:23799385

Watts, Martin; Densie, Ian

2013-05-10

100

Xylitol recovery from fermented sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, obtained by acid hydrolysis, was fermented by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 to produce xylitol. Assays were made in order to determine the best conditions to clarify the fermented broth using activated carbon. The clarified medium was treated with ion-exchange resins after which xylitol crystallization was attempted. The best clarifying treatment was found by adding 25 g

P. V. Gurgel; I. M. Mancilha; R. P. Peçanha; J. F. M. Siqueira

1995-01-01

101

Enhanced polyhydroxybutyrate production in transgenic sugarcane.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a bacterial polyester that has properties similar to some petrochemically produced plastics. Plant-based production has the potential to make this biorenewable plastic highly competitive with petrochemical-based plastics. We previously reported that transgenic sugarcane produced PHB at levels as high as 1.8% leaf dry weight without penalty to biomass accumulation, suggesting scope for improving PHB production in this species. In this study, we used different plant and viral promoters, in combination with multigene or single-gene constructs to increase PHB levels. Promoters tested included the maize and rice polyubiquitin promoters, the maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter and a Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter. At the seedling stage, the highest levels of polymer were produced in sugarcane plants when the Cavendish banana streak badnavirus promoter was used. However, in all cases, this promoter underwent silencing as the plants matured. The rice Ubi promoter enabled the production of PHB at levels similar to the maize Ubi promoter. The maize chlorophyll A/B-binding protein promoter enabled the production of PHB to levels as high as 4.8% of the leaf dry weight, which is approximately 2.5 times higher than previously reported levels in sugarcane. This is the first time that this promoter has been tested in sugarcane. The highest PHB-producing lines showed phenotypic differences to the wild-type parent, including reduced biomass and slight chlorosis. PMID:22369516

Petrasovits, Lars A; Zhao, Lihan; McQualter, Richard B; Snell, Kristi D; Somleva, Maria N; Patterson, Nii A; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

2012-06-01

102

Environmental stimuli promoting sucker initiation in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of suckers, late-formed tillers, in mature sugarcane crops reduces the sugar concentration of harvested material to the detriment of profitability. The amount of suckering varies with cultivar and season. However, the environmental stimuli promoting suckering, i.e. the number of suckers, are not understood. This paper describes the effects on suckering of increasing soil moisture, nitrogen, and the level

G. D. Bonnett; B. Salter; N. Berding; A. P. Hurney

2005-01-01

103

Understanding interception losses under sugarcane plantations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being planted around 20 million hectares in over 70 countries. The Brazil is a leader in terms of area harvested and production with 9.5 million hectares and 715 million tons in 2011, respectively. Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop which is planted and after the first harvesting, the re-growth is harvested several times (five to eight times) until replanting is needed mainly due to yield decline. The rainfall interception loss is an important process in the hydrological cycle which has a key role on climate change. Details on sugarcane canopy interception are still not well understood in particular within the tropics. In this study, rainfall interception was measured during the complete ratoon crop cycle of the sixth re-growth, observing their growth stage. Five through (each with an area of 2000 cm2) were installed randomly on the plantation. The gross rainfall for the study period of one year was 1413 mm, while the throughfall was 972 mm (69%). Thus, annual rainfall interception loss was 441 mm (31%). The interception losses started to occur in the third stage of plant development (between 110 and 240 days after the onset of re-growth period). During the formation of the stems, the interception was 25.5%. Furthermore, at stage when the plant reached maturity (240 to 385 days), interception loss was increased to 57.5%. Our results indicate that interception losses are an important component of water use in sugarcane crops and the annual values of interception losses from sugarcane may be similar to some results found in tropical and temperate forests.

Costa Silva, R. W.; Salemi, L.; Andrade, T. M.; Fernandes, R. P.; de Moraes, J. M.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L.

2012-12-01

104

USGS Shoots Video of Flooding Efforts  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS public affairs specialist, Jennifer LaVista prepares to shoot video of USGS efforts during historic flooding in Fargo, ND. The videos can be viewed at http://www.usgs.gov/homepage/science_features/flooding_march09.asp...

2009-04-03

105

A method to determine waterfowl shooting distances  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-range shooting at ducks and geese frequently results in a high crippling loss, unretrieved birds and frustrated hunters. A principal problem has been the general inability of hunters or observers to properly judge distance of birds. This paper describes a reasonably accurate method developed to determine shooting distances to geese. Two observers utilized transit-mounted 4X hunting scopes to determine angles and elevations to goose hunters and birds. These data were used to set up a series of triangles by which a distance between hunter and birds could be calculated. Known-distance tests indicated an average measurement error of approximately two percent. An average shooting distance of 71 yards was calculated from 175 sightings. The maximum range was 240 yards and the minimum was 24 yards. The relationship of shooting to clean kills and crippling loss is also discussed.

Davenport, D.A.; Sherwood, G.A.; Murdy, H.W.

1973-01-01

106

School Shooting: A Double Loss of Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A critical discussion of the controllability of school shootings on the basis of the thesis of double loss of control, composed\\u000a of elements of social disintegration theory (SDT), youth theory, and control theory. Using the research findings to date,\\u000a it is shown that school shootings are largely caused by negative recognition balances in the spheres of socialization of family,\\u000a school,

Nils Böckler; Thorsten Seeger; Wilhelm Heitmeyer

107

Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

Pickard, B. G.

1985-01-01

108

Axillary shoot proliferation of blue honeysuckle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting axillary shoot development of blue honeysuckle in vitro were studied with two genotypes, Lonicera caerulea\\u000a f. caerulea and L. caerulea f. edulis. There was a linear relationship between the concentration of N6-benzyladenine (1.1 to 17.8 ?mol l?1) and the number of axillary branches produced (3 to 13 new shoots), biomass production and callus formation of the form caerulea

Saila T. Karhu

1997-01-01

109

Root size and shoot\\/root ratio as influenced by light environment of the shoot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light environment of a plant shoot can affect its root size and the shoot\\/root biomass ratio. Photoperiodic influence on shoot\\/root ratios of first?year biennial sweetclover (Melilotus alba Desr.) plants was related to phytochrome measurement of day length and its regulation of photosynthate partitioning to favor successful completion of the life cycle. Short photoperiods alternated with long, uninterrupted nights resulted

M. J. Kasperbauer; P. G. Hunt

1992-01-01

110

Spiroacetals in the Colonization Behaviour of the Coffee Berry Borer: A ‘Push-Pull’ System  

PubMed Central

Coffee berries are known to release several volatile organic compounds, among which is the spiroacetal, conophthorin, an attractant for the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei. Elucidating the effects of other spiroacetals released by coffee berries is critical to understanding their chemo-ecological roles in the host discrimination and colonization process of the coffee berry borer, and also for their potential use in the management of this pest. Here, we show that the coffee berry spiroacetals frontalin and 1,6-dioxaspiro [4.5] decane (referred thereafter as brocain), are also used as semiochemicals by the coffee berry borer for host colonization. Bioassays and chemical analyses showed that crowding coffee berry borers from 2 to 6 females per berry, reduced borer fecundity, which appeared to correlate with a decrease in the emission rates of conophthorin and frontalin over time. In contrast, the level of brocain did not vary significantly between borer- uninfested and infested berries. Brocain was attractive at lower doses, but repellent at higher doses while frontalin alone or in a blend was critical for avoidance. Field assays with a commercial attractant comprising a mixture of ethanol and methanol (1?1), combined with frontalin, confirmed the repellent effect of this compound by disrupting capture rates of H. hampei females by 77% in a coffee plantation. Overall, our results suggest that the levels of frontalin and conophthorin released by coffee berries determine the host colonization behaviour of H. hampei, possibly through a ‘push-pull’ system, whereby frontalin acts as the ‘push’ (repellent) and conophthorin acting as the ‘pull’ (attractant). Furthermore, our results reveal the potential use of frontalin as a repellent for management of this coffee pest. PMID:25380135

Murungi, Lucy; Mwenda, Dickson; Orindi, Benedict; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Torto, Baldwyn

2014-01-01

111

Measuring the impact of biotic factors on populations of immature emerald ash borers (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Cohorts of emerald ash borer larvae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, were experimentally established in July of 2008 on healthy green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) trees in two wooded plots at each of three sites near Lansing, MI, by caging gravid emerald ash borer females or placing laboratory-reared eggs on trunks (0.5-2 m above the ground) of selected trees. One plot at each site was randomly chosen for release of two introduced larval parasitoids, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), whereas the other served as the control. Stage-specific mortality factors and rates were measured for all experimentally established cohorts and for associated wild (i.e., naturally occurring) emerald ash borer immature stages via destructive sampling of 2.5 m (above the ground) trunk sections of cohort-bearing trees in the spring and fall of 2009. Host tree defense was the most important mortality factor, causing 32.0 to 41.1% mortality in the experimental cohorts and 17.5 to 21.5% in wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009, and 16.1 to 29% for the remaining experimental cohorts, and 9.9 to 11.8% for wild immature emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Woodpecker predation was the second most important factor, inflicting no mortality in the experimental cohorts but causing 5.0 to 5.6% mortality to associated wild emerald ash borer stages by spring 2009 and 9.2 to 12.8% and 3.2 to 17.7%, respectively, for experimental cohorts and wild emerald ash borer stages by fall 2009. Mortality from disease in both the experimental and wild cohorts was low (<3%) in both the spring and fall sample periods. In the fall 2009 samples, ? 1.5% of experimental cohorts and 0.8% of the wild emerald ash borer stages were parasitized by T. planipennisi. While there were no significant differences in mortality rates because of parasitism between parasitoid-release and control plots, T. planipennisi was detected in each of the three release sites by the end of the study but was not detected in the experimental cohorts or associated wild larvae in any of the three control plots. PMID:22546447

Duan, Jian J; Ulyshen, Michael D; Bauer, Leah S; Gould, Juli; Van Driesche, Roy

2010-10-01

112

The social ecology of the Columbine High School shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 prompted school officials and policy-makers to create and implement programs and policies that would prevent violence in school and ensure school safety. Ten years have passed since the Columbine shooting; however, debates concerning risk factors for the shootings continue to ensue. The focus of this article is to examine the Columbine school shootings

Jun Sung Hong; Hyunkag Cho; Paula Allen-Meares; Dorothy L. Espelage

2011-01-01

113

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505

Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka

2007-09-01

114

Production of d -lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic

Buenaventurada P. Calabia; Yutaka Tokiwa

2007-01-01

115

Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.  

PubMed

Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood. PMID:20568603

Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

2010-06-01

116

In vitro Multiplication of Wild Nepalese Asparagus racemosus Through Shoots and Shoot Induced Callus Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the conservation of high value but neglected medicinal plant (Asparagus racemosus) of Nepal an effort has been made to multiply its number rapidly using tissue culture technique. The plant has been successfully multiplied. For the multiplication, all possible explants including callus have been used and the callus and shoot explants (shoot tips and nodes) played significant role. Mainly four

Krishna Kumar Pant; Sanu Devi Joshi

2009-01-01

117

Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

2002-01-01

118

Economic assessment of controlling stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with insecticides in Texas rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-year field study was conducted to evaluate insecticide applications on infestations of the stem borers Diatraea saccharalis (F.) and Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) in rice, Oryza sativa L. Except for rice yield in 2002, whiteheads per square meter and rice yield were significantly affected by insecticide treatments in each year of the study. Biorational insecticides (diflubenzuron, novaluron and tebufenozide) did

F. P. F. Reay-Jones; T. E. Reagan

2007-01-01

119

WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas  

E-print Network

WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas Acacia community diversity and composition. Wood-boring insects in particular can cause considerable damage. In an effort to better understand the wood-boring community on Acacia, Drs Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas (from

120

Selection for Resistance to Southwestern Corn Borer Using Marker-Assisted and Conventional Backcrossing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistant lines identified through this effort have been released and also used in QTL mapping studies to iden- Two maize (Zea mays L) lines, susceptible and resistant to first- tify regions of the genome responsible for resistance generation southwestern corn borer (SWCB), Diatraea grandiosella

M. C. Willcox; M. M. Khairallah; D. Bergvinson; J. Crossa; J. A. Deutsch; G. O. Edmeades; D. González-de-León; C. Jiang; D. C. Jewell; J. A. Mihm; W. P. Williams; D. Hoisington

2002-01-01

121

Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality. Declining trees first

Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

2008-01-01

122

Genetic Variation of the Lesser Peach Tree Borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Arkansas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lesser peach tree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (LPTB), belongs to the economically important Lepidopteran family Sesiidae. No studies on genetic variation or population structure on the genus Snyanthedon have been previously published. We examined DNA sequence variation in a 603 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI), tRNA-leu and cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII) from three LPTB

Jackie A. McKern; Allen L. Szalanski

123

Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY  

E-print Network

Borer problems and their control in dwarf apple trees David Kain, Entomology, NYSAES, Geneva, NY in western New York, were invading burrknots on dwarf apple trees. About the same time, Dick Straub seemed to be becoming more common in dwarf apple plantings, as well. Based on Deb's alert, we decided

Agnello, Arthur M.

124

Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders  

E-print Network

Title: Use of Physical Barriers to Prevent Borer Infestation of Apple Burrknots Project Leaders of burrknot tissue on apple dwarfing rootstocks is an increasing problem throughout the northeast. One into the winter. We also discuss economic considerations. Background and Justification: Apple growers

Agnello, Arthur M.

125

Genetic transformation and regeneration of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica; Oleaceae; Section Melioides), is a widely distributed native tree species, planted for timber production and popular for landscaping in North America. However, the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is attacking all North American ash spp. and it has become the most important pest of ash trees in North America. The objectives of this project were to develop

Ningxia Du

2008-01-01

126

Allozyme differentiation among nine populations of the corn borer (Ostrinia) in China.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis of the migration of the corn borer, the allozymes of nine populations of the corn borer (Ostrinia) in China were checked using vertical-slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eight loci of six allozymes were analyzed. The mean of the genetic identities among the nine populations calculated from the allele frequencies was 0.99068, much closer than that of other species and geographical populations. The mean (0.97955) of the genetic identities between the XJYN population (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, collected from Yining, Xinjiang Autonomous Region) and each of the other eight populations (O. furnacalis Guenée) was significantly smaller than that between the pairs of the eight populations (0.99386; t test, P < 0.01). Although the population XJYN clearly deviates from the other eight populations in the dendrogram, the relationship of the two species of corn borer was very close. It is possible that the speciation of corn borer may have resulted from single-gene substitutions. PMID:8825941

Wang, R; Yan, F; Li, S; Li, S

1995-12-01

127

Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus Planipennis Fairmaire  

E-print Network

Behavioral Evidence for a Contact Sex Pheromone Component of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus /Accepted: 18 December 2008 /Published online: 20 January 2009 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 EAB in the field for behavioral changes based on the application of a female- specific compound

128

Quantitative Analysis of Shoot Development and Branching Patterns in Actinidia  

PubMed Central

We developed a framework for the quantitative description of Actinidia vine architecture, classifying shoots into three types (short, medium and long) corresponding to the modes of node number distribution and the presence/absence of neoformed nodes. Short and medium shoots were self?terminated and had only preformed nodes. Based on the cut?off point between their two modes of node number distribution, short shoots were defined as having nine or less nodes, and medium shoots as having more than nine nodes. Long shoots were non?terminated and had a number of neoformed nodes; the total number of nodes per shoot was up to 90. Branching patterns for each parent shoot type were represented by a succession of branching zones. Probabilities of different types of axillary production (latent bud, short, medium or long shoot) and the distributions of length for each branching zone were estimated from experimental data using hidden semi?Markov chain stochastic models. Branching was acrotonic on short and medium parent shoots, with most axillary shoots being located near the shoot tip. For long parent shoots, branching was mesotonic, with most long axillary shoots being located in the transition zone between the preformed and neoformed part of the parent shoot. Although the shoot classification is based on node number distribution there was a marked difference in average (per shoot) internode length between the shoot types, with mean values of 9, 27 and 47 mm for short, medium and long shoots, respectively. Bud and shoot development is discussed in terms of environmental controls. PMID:12096808

SELEZNYOVA, ALLA N.; THORP, T. GRANT; BARNETT, ANDREW M.; COSTES, EVELYNE

2002-01-01

129

BOREAS TE-12 SSA Shoot Geometry Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected shoot geometry data in 1993 and 1994 from aspen, jack pine, and black spruce trees. Collections were made at the Southern Study Area Nipawin Fen Site (SSA FEN), Young Jack Pine (YJP), Old Jack Pine (OJP), Old Aspen (OA), Young Aspen (YA), Mixed Site (MIX), and Old Black Spruce (OBS) sites. A caliper was used to measure shoot and needle lengths and widths. A volume displacement procedure was used to measure the weight of the shoot or twig submerged in water. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Cheng, L.; Yang, Litao

2000-01-01

130

Is the basal area of maize internodes involved in borer resistance?  

PubMed Central

Background To elucidate the role of the length of the internode basal ring (LIBR) in resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), we carried out a divergent selection program to modify the LIBR using two maize synthetic varieties (EPS20 and EPS21), each with a different genetic background. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms underlying the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Selection to lengthen or shorten the LIBR was achieved for each synthetic variety. The resulting plants were analyzed to determine their LIBR response, growth, yield, and borer resistance. Results In the synthetic variety EPS20 (Reid germplasm), reduction of the LIBR improved resistance against the MCB. The LIBR selection was also effective in the synthetic variety EPS21 (non-Reid germplasm), although there was no relationship detected between the LIBR and MCB resistance. The LIBR did not show correlations with agronomic traits such as plant height and yield. Compared with upper sections, the internode basal ring area contained lower concentrations of cell wall components such as acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and diferulates. In addition, some residual 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one (DIMBOA), a natural antibiotic compound, was detected in the basal area at 30 days after silking. Conclusion We analyzed maize selections to determine whether the basal area of maize internodes is involved in borer resistance. The structural reinforcement of the cell walls was the most significant trait in the relationship between the LIBR and borer resistance. Lower contents of ADF and ADL in the rind of the basal section facilitated the entry of larvae in this area in both synthetic varieties, while lower concentrations of diferulates in the pith basal section of EPS20 facilitated larval feeding inside the stem. The higher concentrations of DIMBOA may have contributed to the lack of correlation between the LIBR and borer resistance in EPS21. This novel trait could be useful in maize breeding programs to improve borer resistance. PMID:21999882

2011-01-01

131

Biotechnological potential of agro-industrial residues. I: sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse, which is a complex material, is the major by-product of the sugar cane industry. It contains about 50% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose and 25% lignin. Due to its abundant availability, it can serve as an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the

Ashok Pandey; Carlos R Soccol; Poonam Nigam; Vanete T Soccol

2000-01-01

132

Parthenolide: from plant shoots to cancer roots.  

PubMed

Parthenolide (PTL), a sesquiterpene lactone (SL) originally purified from the shoots of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), has shown potent anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. It is currently being tested in cancer clinical trials. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of parthenolide revealed key chemical properties required for biological activities and epigenetic mechanisms, and led to the derivatization of an orally bioavailable analog, dimethylamino-parthenolide (DMAPT). Parthenolide is the first small molecule found to be selective against cancer stem cells (CSC), which it achieves by targeting specific signaling pathways and killing cancer from its roots. In this review, we highlight the exciting journey of parthenolide, from plant shoots to cancer roots. PMID:23688583

Ghantous, Akram; Sinjab, Ansam; Herceg, Zdenko; Darwiche, Nadine

2013-09-01

133

Shoot or don't shoot? Why police officers are more inclined to shoot when they are anxious.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of anxiety on police officers' shooting decisions. Thirty-six police officers participated and executed a low- and high-anxiety video-based test that required them to shoot or not shoot at rapidly appearing suspects that either had a gun and "shot," or had no gun and "surrendered." Anxiety was manipulated by turning on (high anxiety) or turning off (low anxiety) a so-called "shootback canon" that could fire small plastic bullets at the participants. When performing under anxiety, police officers showed a response bias toward shooting, implying that they accidentally shot more often at suspects that surrendered. Furthermore, shot accuracy was lower under anxiety and officers responded faster when suspects had a gun. Finally, because gaze behavior appeared to be unaffected by anxiety, it is concluded that when they were anxious, officers were more inclined to respond on the basis of threat-related inferences and expectations rather than objective, task-relevant visual information. PMID:22023363

Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

2012-08-01

134

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel borer design for application to single entry coal mine development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A health and safety analysis of a single entry coal tunnel borer system is given. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rule, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagen and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-01-01

135

a Study of Paddystem Borer (scirpophaga Incertulas) Population Dynamics and its Influence Factors Base on Stepwise Regress Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paddystem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) is a serious rice pest. The damaged plants wither into dead tassel or white tassel. Such damage leads to decreased in rice production. In order to control the damages of paddystem borer efficiency, it is very important to analyze and study the regulation of population dynamics and the related factors affecting the development. This investigated the population dynamics of paddystem borer by means of light trap in JianShui County in Yunnan of China during 2004 to 2006, and analyzed the meteorological conditions affecting the population dynamics. The research suggests that: there exists a significant relationship between the population dynamics of paddystem borer and meteorological factors, among it, The most influenced are the average minimum temperature per month and relative humidity (RH).

Yang, Linnan; Peng, Lin; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Yinsong

136

The profitability of maize–haricot bean intercropping techniques to control maize stem borers under low pest densities in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepidopteran stem borers are the main pests of cereals in Ethiopia. In recent years, habitat management techniques, which\\u000a aim at increasing plant biodiversity through mixed cropping, have gained increased attention in stem borer control. In the\\u000a present study, the profitability of mixed cropping of maize with haricot beans at different ratios and the effect on infestation\\u000a of maize by stem

D. Belay; F. Schulthess; C. Omwega

2009-01-01

137

Multiple Shoot Tip Cultures in Peas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an exercise used as a follow-up activity to a lecture presentation exploring the basic methodology and theory of shoot tip cultures. Utilizes a factorial experimental design which allows for the determination of the effects of each factor alone and in combination with each other. Other concepts emphasized include dependent and…

Smith, Robert A.; And Others

1997-01-01

138

Premeditated Mass Shootings in Schools: Threat Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Premeditated mass shootings by students in suburban and rural secondary schools have surprised and even terrified our coun- try. Although school violence overall has decreased measurably since 1993 (U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, 1999), multiple-victim homicides and woundings highlight an emerg- ing problem for schools previously thought to be safe from acts of extreme violence. In the past 5

STUART W. TWEMLOW; PETER FONAGY; FRANK C. SACCO; ERIC VERNBERG; Michael S. Jellinek

2002-01-01

139

School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

Angert, Betsy L.

2008-01-01

140

Group Socialization, the Internet and School Shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of group socialization, this article posits that the Internet probably provided several school shooters who have felt victimized over time with the support they needed to murder those they perceived to be their perpetrators. In using the salient literature on group socialization and newspaper accounts that examine the backgrounds of the shooters, the authors connect school shootings

Martha J. Markward; Stephanne Cline; Nathan J. Markward

2001-01-01

141

Predictive zoning of rice stem borer damage in southern India through spatial interpolation of weather-based models.  

PubMed

Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region. PMID:25204068

Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana

2014-09-01

142

Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization. PMID:22927013

Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

2013-01-01

143

Growth of cellulolytic bacteria on sugarcane bagasse  

SciTech Connect

The growth behavior of Cellulomonas has been examined in fermentation systems using alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse. During the batch operation diauxic growth was found which would not seem to be explained by catabolic repression. The relative variation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fermentation process suggests the initial utilization of easily degradable substrate, i.e., hemicellulose and amorphous cellulose, until their concentration becomes limiting, followed by utilization of the crystalline cellulose. The conversion of substrate was 70% with a yield of 0.355 g of biomass per gram of bagasse feed. (Refs. 13).

Enriquez, A.

1981-07-01

144

An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

Elkoury, J.M.

1980-12-01

145

Bamboo Shoots: A novel source of nutrition and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource.

Poonam Singhal; Santosh Satya; Lalit Mohan Bal; P. Sudhakar

2011-01-01

146

Shoot demography in new England populations of Maianthemum canadense desf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demography of shoots of eight populations of a herbaceous perennial exhibiting clonal growth, is presented. The study was done along an elevational gradient, from a more open secondary mixed forest to a denser, more mature stand. Most shoots lived one to three years on the average, but shoots as old as twelve years were found. Large variation in formation

Juan F. Silva; Todd M. Kana; Otto T. Solbrig

1982-01-01

147

NOISE REDUCTION IN SHOOTING-RANGES BY USING SOLAR PANELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for available areas for photovoltaic systems doesn't stop for shooting facilities. The advantage of them are large areas (about 10000 m 2 for each C- type shooting-range), an excluded public, excellent approach roads for maintenance services and minimized trouble with surveyors' offices. As a secondary effect, this structural change decreases the shooting noise in the neighbourhood. The paper

Edmund Buchta

148

Game Birds: The Ethics of Shooting Birds for Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide an ethical assessment of the shooting of animals for sport. In particular, it discusses the use of partridges and pheasants for shooting. While opposition to hunting and shooting large wild mammals is strong, game birds have often taken a back seat in everyday animal welfare concerns. However, the practice of raising game birds for sport

Rebekah Humphreys

2010-01-01

149

Analysis of surface growth in shoot apices.  

PubMed

A salient feature of shoot meristem growth is the maintenance of distinct anatomical and morphological features despite a continuous flux of cells. To investigate how meristem organization is self-perpetuated, we developed a protocol for the analysis of meristem growth in 3-D. Our protocol uses a non-destructive replica method to follow the pattern of cell expansion and cell divisions on the meristem surface over several days. Algorithms to reconstruct the meristem surface and compute its curvature and rate of extension were implemented. We applied this approach to the shoot apical meristem of Anagallis arvensis and showed that a subcellular resolution of extension rates can be achieved. This is the first detailed quantitative analysis of meristem geometry and surface expansion in 3-D. This new approach will be useful to connect cellular activities such as cell expansion, cell division, and differential gene expression with overall meristem morphogenesis. PMID:12121452

Dumais, Jacques; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

2002-07-01

150

Carbon partitioning in sugarcane (Saccharum species)  

PubMed Central

Focus has centered on C-partitioning in stems of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) due to their high-sucrose accumulation features, relevance to other grasses, and rising economic value. Here we review how sugarcane balances between sucrose storage, respiration, and cell wall biosynthesis. The specific topics involve (1) accumulation of exceptionally high sucrose levels (up to over 500 mM), (2) a potential, turgor-sensitive system for partitioning sucrose between storage inside (cytosol and vacuole) and outside cells, (3) mechanisms to prevent back-flow of extracellular sucrose to xylem or phloem, (4) apparent roles of sucrose-P-synthase in fructose retrieval and sucrose re-synthesis, (5) enhanced importance of invertases, and (6) control of C-flux at key points in cell wall biosynthesis (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) and respiration (ATP- and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinases). A combination of emerging technologies is rapidly enhancing our understanding of these points and our capacity to shift C-flux between sucrose, cell wall polymers, or other C-sinks. PMID:23785381

Wang, Jianping; Nayak, Spurthi; Koch, Karen; Ming, Ray

2013-01-01

151

ROOT AND SHOOT PRUNING IN ROOT-BALLED ACER PLATANOIDES L.: EFFECTS ON ESTABLISHMENT AND SHOOT ARCHITECTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various combinations of root and shoot pruning treatments were applied to semi-mature, root-balled trees of Acer platanoides L. prior to planting in an experimental plot at the Bush Estate, near Edinburgh. After 3 years observation and measurement, the treatments had little effect on survival or girth. However, performance as gauged by annual shoot increments, was significantly affected by shoot pruning,

Catherine Findlay; Fred Last; Peter Aspinall; Catharine Ward Thompson; Nigel Rudd

1997-01-01

152

Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.  

PubMed

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300

Razze, J M; Mason, C E

2012-08-01

153

Differential activity of non-fluorinated and fluorinated analogues of the European corn borer pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The differing antagonist activity of (Z)-13-hexadecen-2-one (Z11 – 14 :MK, 1) and its 1,1,1-trifluoro derivative (Z11 –14 :TFMK, 2), two closely related analogues of the European corn borer pheromone Ostrinia nubilalis (Z strain), and their rationale is reported. Both chemicals exhibited some electrophysiological activity, and topical application\\u000a of 10 pg of pheromone analogue on male antennae was sufficient to induce

Joan Solé; Albert Sans; Magí Riba; Gloria Rosell; Esmeralda Rosa; Lourdes Muñoz; Maria Pilar Bosch; Angel Guerrero

2008-01-01

154

Strategy for shoot meristem proliferation in plants  

PubMed Central

Shoot apical meristem (SAM) of plants harbors stem cells capable of generating the aerial tissues including reproductive organs. Therefore, it is very important for plants to control SAM proliferation and its density as a survival strategy. The SAM is regulated by the dynamics of a specific gene network, such as the WUS-CLV interaction of A. thaliana. By using a mathematical model, we previously proposed six possible SAM patterns in terms of the manner and frequency of stem cell proliferation. Two of these SAM patterns are predicted to generate either dichotomous or axillary shoot branch. Dichotomous shoot branches caused by this mechanism are characteristic of the earliest vascular plants, such as Cooksonia and Rhynia, but are observed in only a small minority of plant species of the present day. On the other hand, axillary branches are observed in the majority of plant species and are induced by a different dynamics of the feedback regulation between auxin and the asymmetric distribution of PIN auxin efflux carriers. During evolution, some plants may have adopted this auxin-PIN system to more strictly control SAM proliferation. PMID:22067107

Fujita, Hironori; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

2011-01-01

155

Timing of growth inhibition following shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shoot inversion in Pharbitis nil results in the enhancement of ethylene production and in the inhibition of elongation in the growth zone of the inverted shoot. The initial increase in ethylene production previously was detected within 2 to 2.75 hours after inversion. In the present study, the initial inhibition of shoot elongation was detected within 1.5 to 4 hours with a weighted mean of 2.4 hours. Ethylene treatment of upright shoots inhibited elongation in 1.5 hours. A cause and effect relationship between shoot inversion-enhanced ethylene production and inhibition of elongation cannot be excluded.

Abdel-Rahman, A. M.; Cline, M. G.

1989-01-01

156

Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

157

Relationship of roof rat population indices with damage to sugarcane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roof rats (Rattus rattus) cause substantial damage to sugarcane in South Florida (Samol 1972; Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985). Accurate estimates of roof rat populations in sugarcane fields would be useful for determining when to to treat a field to control roof rats and for assessing the efficacy of control. However, previous studies have indicated that roof rats exhibit trap shyness, which makes capture-recapture population estimates difficult (Lefebvre et al. 1978, 1985; Holler et al., 1981). Until trapping methods are sufficiently improved to allow accurate population estimates, indices of population size that relate to damage need to be developed. The objectives of our study were to examine the relationship of several indices of roof rat populations to the percentage of sugarcane stalks damaged at harvest; to determine which population index would be most useful for sugarcane growers; and to report on a test of several types of live traps for roof rats.

Lefebvre, Lynn W.; Engeman, Richard M.; Decker, David G.; Holler, Nicholas R.

1989-01-01

158

Giant Shoot Apical Meristems in Cacti Have Ordinary Leaf Primordia but Altered Phyllotaxy and Shoot Diameter  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) in most seed plants are quite uniform in size and zonation, and molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis and other model plants are revealing details of SAM morphogenesis. Some cacti have SAMs much larger than those of A. thaliana and other seed plants. This study examined how SAM size affects leaf primordium (LP) size, phyllotaxy and shoot diameter. • Methods. Apices from 183 species of cacti were fixed, microtomed and studied by light microscopy. • Key Results Cactus SAM diameter varies from 93 to 2565 µm, the latter being 36 times wider than SAMs of A. thaliana and having a volume 45 thousand times larger. Phyllotaxy ranges from distichous to having 56 rows of leaves and is not restricted to Fibonacci numbers. Leaf primordium diameter ranges from 44 to 402 µm, each encompassing many more cells than do LP of other plants. Species with high phyllotaxy have smaller LP, although the correlation is weak. There is almost no correlation between SAM diameter and LP size, but SAM diameter is strongly correlated with shoot diameter, with shoots being about 189·5 times wider than SAMs. • Conclusions Presumably, genes such as SHOOT?MERISTEMLESS, WUSCHEL and CLAVATA must control much larger volumes of SAM tissue in cacti than they do in A. thaliana, and genes such as PERIANTHIA might establish much more extensive fields of inhibition around LP. These giant SAMs should make it possible to more accurately map gene expression patterns relative to SAM zonation and LP sites. PMID:15145794

MAUSETH, JAMES D.

2004-01-01

159

UREA LEVELS AND SUPPLEMENTAL ENERGY SOURCES IN SUGARCANE DIETS I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments, each involving a digestion-N balance trial and a feedlot trial, determined the replacement value of urea-corn meal (UC) for cottonseed meal (CSM) and the value of mo- lasses in sugarcane diets. Steers fed 70% sugarcane-30% concentrate diets with O, 28 or 56% of the dietary N as urea had a slight reduction (P<.28) in dry matter (DM) intake

F. M. Pate; P. M. Fairhurst; J. T. K. Munthali

160

An automatic cutting height control system for a sugarcane harvester  

E-print Network

enough force to raise the crop lifters to its surface, they will enter the soil, possibly introducing trash into the harvested sugarcane. Also, as Figure 4 shows, because the two cylinders which control the height of each crop lifter are plumbed... enough force to raise the crop lifters to its surface, they will enter the soil, possibly introducing trash into the harvested sugarcane. Also, as Figure 4 shows, because the two cylinders which control the height of each crop lifter are plumbed...

Hale, Scott Andrew

2012-06-07

161

Pneumatic cleaning of sugarcane utilizing a high velocity air jet  

E-print Network

and nozzle size had the highest statistical signi- ficant value The interaction between them, defined as the air momentum flux, was determined as the main controlling factor in cleaning the sugarcane. There is a linear correlation between the amount... air jet nozzle assembly 18 5 ~ Two-stage conveyor 20 6, 8 ~ Hydraulic unit used to power the test apparatus Control console for the direction and volume of hydraulic fluid flow . ~ Coordinate axis for simulated sugarcane trajectory 22 22 32...

Fisher, John Ray

2012-06-07

162

Identification and evaluation of an isolate of sugarcane mosaic virus  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF AN ISOLATE OF SUGARCANE MOSAIC VIRUS A Thesis by LAURA MARIA GIORDA DE MESSINA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASt...ER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Plant Pathology IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF AN ISOLATE OF SUGARCANE MOSAIC VIRUS A Thesis by LAURA MARIA GIORDA DE MESSINA Approved as to style and content by: R. W. loler airman of Committee) ~F. ' R...

Giorda de Messina, Laura Maria

2012-06-07

163

Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of sugarcane legumain.  

PubMed

Plant legumains, also termed vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), are cysteine peptidases that play key roles in plant development, senescence, programmed cell death and defense against pathogens. Despite the increasing number of reports on plant cysteine peptidases, including VPEs, the characterization of sugarcane VPEs and their inhibition by endogenous cystatins have not yet been described. This is the first report of the biochemical characterization of a sugarcane cysteine peptidase. In this work, a recombinant sugarcane legumain was expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. Kinetic studies of the recombinant CaneLEG revealed that this enzyme has the main characteristics of VPEs, such as self-activation and activity under acidic pH. CaneLEG activity was strongly inhibited when incubated with sugarcane cystatin 3 (CaneCPI-3). Quantitative analysis of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 gene expression indicated a tissue-specific expression pattern for both genes throughout sugarcane growth, with the strong accumulation of CaneLEG transcripts throughout the internode development. Furthermore, the CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 genes exhibited up-regulation in plantlets treated with abscisic acid (ABA). These results suggest that CaneCPI-3 may be a potential endogenous inhibitor of CaneLEG and these genes may be involved in plant stress response mediated by ABA. Also, the expression analysis provides clues for the putative involvement of CaneLEG and CaneCPI-3 in sugarcane development and phytohormone response. PMID:22721948

Santos-Silva, Ludier K; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Gerald, Lee T S; Meneghin, Silvana P; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

2012-08-01

164

Response to stem bending in forest shrubs: stem or shoot reorientation and shoot release.  

PubMed

Shrubs in the forest understory may be bent by their own weight or by overstory debris. To maintain height growth they must respond to bending by vertical growth of new shoots, reorientation of older axes, or by releasing preventitious buds to form epicormic shoots. I tested for these responses in Ilex verticillata L., Cornus amomum Mill., Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch, Viburnum cassinoides L., Hamamelis virginiana L., and Kalmia latifolia L. For each species, I removed potentially supporting vegetation adjacent to 20 stems, left 10 stems untreated to test for bending by self weight, and bent the remaining 10 stems to 45 degrees to simulate effects of fallen debris. Stem angles and curvatures were measured from before leaf out until just before leaf fall to detect either sagging from self weight or upward bending from tension wood action. Control stems initially leaned out of vertical and five of six species sagged further into a cantilever form. Several control stems failed and bent to the ground. Stems of H. virginiana, I. verticillata, and C. amomum formed tension wood, but only the first two species bent upward. Viburnum cassinoides, G. baccata, and K. latifolia formed no tension wood and sagged further down after being bent. Epicormic shoots formed with varying frequencies in all species except K. latifolia. Epicormic shoots were the major response in C. amomum, V. cassinoides, and G. baccata. New terminal shoots on bent stems recovered toward vertical in I. verticillata and K. latifolia. Negative gravitropic response of shoots was the only recovery mechanism for K. latifolia. PMID:11540964

Wilson, B F

1997-10-01

165

Sugarcane residue management and grain legume crop effects on N dynamics, N losses and growth of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions farmers are being encouraged not to burn sugarcane residues. An experiment was set up in\\u000a NE Thailand, where sugarcane residues of the last ratoon crop were either burned, surface mulched or incorporated and subsequently\\u000a the field left fallow or planted to groundnut or soybean. The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the residual

S. Hemwong; B. Toomsan; G. Cadisch; V. Limpinuntana; P. Vityakon; A. Patanothai

2009-01-01

166

Bamboo shoots: a novel source of nutrition and medicine.  

PubMed

Bamboos, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae, are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource. Various edible species and exotic food products (fermented shoots, pickle, etc.) and recipes of bamboo shoots (bamboo beer, bamboo cookies) are consumed worldwide. Change in nutritional composition of different species of bamboo shoots with processing has also been reviewed. Bamboo shoots possess high protein, moderate fiber, and less fat content. They are also endowed for having essential amino acids, selenium, a potent antioxidant, and potassium, a healthy heart mineral. Occurrence of taxiphyllin, a cyanogenic glycoside in raw shoots, and its side effect on human health calls for the demand to innovate processing ways using scientific input to eliminate the toxic compound without disturbing the nutrient reserve. Lastly, the paper also reviews the utilization of medicinal properties acquired by bamboo shoot. Using the traditional knowledge, pharmaceutical preparations of bamboo shoots like bamboo salt, bamboo vinegar, bamboo extracts for diabetes and cholesterol control, etc. are now gaining importance. Further investigation is required by the researchers to make novel nutraceutical products and benefit the society. PMID:23391018

Singhal, Poonam; Bal, Lalit Mohan; Satya, Santosh; Sudhakar, P; Naik, S N

2013-01-01

167

Adsorption of heavy metal ion from aqueous single metal solution by chemically modified sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the preparation of new chelating materials derived from sugarcane bagasse for adsorption of heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. The first part of this report deals with the chemical modification of sugarcane bagasse with succinic anhydride. The carboxylic acid functions introduced into the material were used to anchor polyamines, which resulted in two yet unpublished modified sugarcane

Osvaldo Karnitz; Leandro Vinicius Alves Gurgel; Júlio César Perin de Melo; Vagner Roberto Botaro; Tânia Márcia Sacramento Melo; Rossimiriam Pereira de Freitas Gil; Laurent Frédéric Gil

2007-01-01

168

Effect of Intercropping and Organic Matter on the Subterranean Termites Population in Sugarcane Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intercropping and addition of organic matters on subterranean termites in a field of sugarcane was determined. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), oliseed (Brassica compestris L.) and Methi (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) were intercropped with sugarcane on ridges at the time of setts placement in the furrows. Organic matters (blood, sugarcane trash & fresh cattle dung)

SOHAIL AHMED; RASHAD RASOOL KHAN; GHULAM HUSSAIN; MUHAMMAD ASAM RIAZ; ABID HUSSAIN

169

Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term.

Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

2014-10-01

170

Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought  

PubMed Central

Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term. PMID:25351427

Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Perez-Trujillo, Miriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Penuelas, Josep

2014-01-01

171

Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought.  

PubMed

Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term. PMID:25351427

Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

2014-01-01

172

Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessment by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).  

PubMed

The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. T. planipennisi is known to prefer late-instar emerald ash borer, but the cues used to assess host size by this species and most other parasitoids of concealed hosts remain unknown. We sought to test whether vibrations produced by feeding emerald ash borer vary with larval size and whether there are any correlations between these cues and T. planipennisi progeny number (i.e., brood size) and sex ratio. The amplitudes and rates of 3-30-ms vibrational impulses produced by emerald ash borer larvae of various sizes were measured in the laboratory before presenting the larvae to T. planipennisi. Impulse-rate did not vary with emerald ash borer size, but vibration amplitude was significantly higher for large larvae than for small larvae. T. planipennisi produced a significantly higher proportion of female offspring from large hosts than small hosts and was shown in previous work to produce more offspring overall from large hosts. There were no significant correlations, however, between the T. planipennisi progeny data and the emerald ash borer sound data. Because vibration amplitude varied significantly with host size, however, we are unable to entirely reject the hypothesis that T. planipennisi and possibly other parasitoids of concealed hosts use vibrational cues to assess host quality, particularly given the low explanatory potential of other external cues. Internal chemical cues also may be important. PMID:21404843

Ulyshen, Michael D; Mankin, Richard W; Chen, Yigen; Duan, Jian J; Poland, Therese M; Bauer, Leah S

2011-02-01

173

Media and Control of Violence: Communication in School Shootings  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines school shootings to explore the role that communication processes play in the dynamics related to the\\u000a control of violence. We argue that much of what we observe in regard to school shootings is a mass-media phenomenon. Many\\u000a such acts of violence carry expressive, communicative connotations, and thus school shootings should be understood as discursive\\u000a processes. We present

Glenn W. Muschert; Massimo Ragnedda

174

Direct evidence of imbalanced seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica ) shoot population dynamics in the Spanish Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct census of shoots tagged in permanent plots was used to assess the present (2000–2002)Posidonia oceanica population dynamics in 25 meadows along the Spanish Mediterranean Coast. Shoot density ranged from 154±8 to 1,551±454 shoots\\u000a m?2, absolute shoot mortality from 5±0 to 249±53 shoots m?2 yr?1, and absolute shoot recruitment from ?2yr?1. Specific shoot mortality and recruitment rates, which are mathematically

Núria Marbà; Carlos M. Duarte; Elena Díaz-Almela; Jorge Terrados; Elvira Álvarez; Regino Martínez; Rocío Santiago; Esperança Gacia; Antoni M. Grau

2005-01-01

175

[(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].  

PubMed

In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death. PMID:25272106

da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

2014-10-01

176

Simulated hydroclimatic impacts of projected Brazilian sugarcane expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane area is currently expanding in Brazil, largely in response to domestic and international demand for sugar-based ethanol. To investigate the potential hydroclimatic impacts of future expansion, a regional climate model is used to simulate 5 years of a scenario in which cerrado and cropland areas (~1.1E6 km2) within south-central Brazil are converted to sugarcane. Results indicate a cooling of up to ~1.0°C during the peak of the growing season, mainly as a result of increased albedo of sugarcane relative to the previous landscape. After harvest, warming of similar magnitude occurs from a significant decline in evapotranspiration and a repartitioning toward greater sensible heating. Overall, annual temperature changes from large-scale conversion are expected to be small because of offsetting reductions in net radiation absorption and evapotranspiration. The decline in net water flux from land to the atmosphere implies a reduction in regional precipitation, which is consistent with progressively decreasing simulated average rainfall for the study period, upon conversion to sugarcane. However, rainfall changes were not robust across three ensemble members. The results suggest that sugarcane expansion will not drastically alter the regional energy or water balance, but could result in important local and seasonal effects.

Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

2013-03-01

177

Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

Koga-Vicente, A.

2011-12-01

178

Multiple shoot regeneration and effect of sugars on growth and nitidine accumulation in shoot cultures of Toddalia asiatica  

PubMed Central

Background: Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae) is an important medicinal plant in traditional medicinal system of India and China. Nitidine production from callus cultures of the plant had been investigated, but in vitro multiplication and secondary metabolite production from shoot cultures is not reported. Objective: The aim of the present work is to establish protocol for in vitro multiple shoot regeneration of T. asiatica and to investigate the secondary metabolite, nitidine production from the shoot cultures. Materials and Methods: Different explants were used for shoot regeneration on MS supplemented with benzyl adenine (BA) either alone or in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in different combinations. Effect of different sugars and different concentrations of sucrose on biomass accumulation in shoot cultures in liquid medium was investigated. For in vitro rooting, shoots culture were inoculated to half strength MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of indole butyric acid. Quantitative analysis of shoot culture extracts was done for estimation of nitidine by HPTLC. Results: Shoot cultures were successfully initiated and established from nodal and shoot tip explants on MS medium supplemented with benzyl adenine and sucrose (3% w/v). Sucrose at a concentration of 3 % w/v was found to be optimum for growth and biomass accumulation. In vitro rooting of shoots was achieved on half strength MS medium supplemented with indole butyric acid 3 mg/l. Investigation of secondary metabolite production ability of the in vitro regenerated shoot cultures revealed their ability to biosynthesize nitidine. Conclusion: Shoot cultures were established and nitidine production has been observed. PMID:25298663

Praveena, Chinthala; Veeresham, Ciddi

2014-01-01

179

Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap. PMID:22606813

Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

2012-04-01

180

Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.  

PubMed

Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ?2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ?1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations. PMID:24709345

Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-06-01

181

Health and safety evaluation of a modified tunnel-borer design for application to single-entry coal-mine development  

SciTech Connect

The health and safety analysis is part of an overall effort to identify and develop innovative underground coal extraction systems. The single-entry tunnel borer system was initially considered an innovative approach to underground mining because it exhibited a means of increasing the speed and efficiency of entry development by reducing the number of entries. However, to be considered a truly advanced system, the tunnel borer had to meet distinct safety criteria as well. The objective was to examine the tunnel borer design and determine whether it offset major health hazards, and satisfied the prescribed safety levels. As a baseline for comparison, the tunnel borer was compared against the continuous mining entry driving system. The results of the health analysis indicated that while the tunnel borer design offered improvements in dust control through the use of water sprays, a higher face ventilation rate, and the application of spalling rather than the conventional grinding process, it interjected an additional mutagenic is and toxic compound into the environment through the use of shotcrete. The tunnel borer system easily conformed with the prescribed fatality limit, but exceeded the required limits for disabling and overall injuries. It also exhibited projected disabling and overall injury rates considerably higher than existing continuous mining injury rates. Consequently, the tunnel borer system was not considered an advanced system.

Zimmerman, W. F.

1982-02-15

182

Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.  

PubMed

In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it was found that the tri-sequential sprayings (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) and/or (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Ascorbic acid) have lowered the rate of the stem borers infestation to 3.3 and 3.3 and 5.7 and 4.3 larvae/5 plants for the tri-applications in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates, respectively. Such reductions in the levels of infestation led to an increase in the grain yield up to 6.9 and 7.2 and 5.4 and 5.8 ton/fed, for the early and lately sown corn plants, in respect, and (e) All the foliar nutrients, with no exception, proved to be efficient in managing the stem borers infestation as compared with the insecticide treatment using Polytrin. Although the chemical application had lowered the level of infestation to 2.3 and 5.7 larvae/5 plants in the 1st and 2nd sowing dates as compared with 9.7 and 14.7 larvae/5 untreated plants for the same sowing dates, lesser grain yield of 5.6 and 4.4 ton/fed. was obtained in the first and second dates of planting, successively, in comparison to the grain yield resulted from the tri-applications of Potasin-F/Copper sulphate with either Polymex or Ascorbic acid. The abovementioned results assured the profitable effects of using foliar nutrients as well as the biofertilizers for attaining healthy corn plants, which would be capable of tolerating the injury inflicted by the studied stem borers and compensating for the harmful effects of insects infestation, so high grain yields could be obtained than those of the untreated and/or the insecticide treated plants. PMID:12696416

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

2002-01-01

183

Identification of transcripts associated with cell wall metabolism and development in the stem of sugarcane by Affymetrix GeneChip Sugarcane Genome Array expression profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane is an important crop in tropical regions of the world, producing a very large biomass and accumulating large amounts\\u000a of sucrose in the stem. In this study, we present the first report of transcript profiling using the GeneChip Sugarcane Genome\\u000a Array. We have identified transcripts that are differentially expressed in the sugarcane stem during development by expression\\u000a profiling using

Rosanne E. Casu; Janine M. Jarmey; Graham D. Bonnett; John M. Manners

2007-01-01

184

[Absenteeism due to occupational diseases among sugarcane workers].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of work-related sick leave in sugarcane workers. A total of 1,230 medical excuses for 400 sugarcane workers were analyzed according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). The following items were analyzed: diagnosis, sex, and length and season of sick leave. In all the seasons, musculoskeletal diseases showed the highest sick leave rate, following by respiratory diseases (p < 0.05). Sick leave due to musculoskeletal diseases was more frequent at the end of the sugarcane harvest than during the intercrop season (p < 0.05). Seventy-five percent of medical excuses were for one day. The longest sick leaves were for diseases of the genitourinary tract (p < 0.001). It is thus essential to have a multidisciplinary health team focused on the development of ergonomic activities, personal protective equipment, and health orientation specifically targeting this group's needs. PMID:25388319

Ceccato, Aline Duarte Ferreira; Carvalho Junior, Luiz Carlos Soares de; Cuissi, Rafaela Campos; Monteschi, Mariane; Oliveira, Nayara Galvão; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Ramos, Dionei

2014-10-01

185

Original article Photosynthesis and shoot water status of seedlings  

E-print Network

Original article Photosynthesis and shoot water status of seedlings from different oak species — Stress effects induced on shoot photosynthesis and leaf water status by root hypoxia due. Predawn leaf water potential remained high in all cases, in- dicating that reductions in photosynthesis

Boyer, Edmond

186

Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots.  

PubMed

Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with 2 mg/l of BAP: 24 axillary shoots per explant, 7 in the first inoculation and 17 in the second one. The maximum elongation of shoots was achieved with BAP at 0.2 mg/l, and higher concentrations of the hormone induced a decrease in their size. A range of BAP concentrations between 0.2-0.5 mg/l allowed the production of more shoots with a size suitable for rooting. Roots were induced in 30 d old shoots, transferred to MS medium individually supplemented with IBA or NAA (0-4 mg/l). Micropropagated plants were successfully transferred to soil. PMID:24178426

Tavares, A C; Pimenta, M C; Gonçalves, M T

1996-02-01

187

Improving competitive ability of chickpea with sowthistle: roots or shoots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An experiment was conducted to examine the extent of root and canopy interference of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). Sowthistle was surrounded with either two or eight chickpea plants. There were different types of competition: no competition, shoot competition, root competition and full competition (root and shoot). The performance of sowthistle grown in full competition

S-Zahra-Hosseini Cici; Paul Kristiansen; Brian M Sindel

188

Colliding dissipative pulses--the shooting manifold Arnd Scheel  

E-print Network

Colliding dissipative pulses--the shooting manifold Arnd Scheel School of Mathematics University of Minnesota 206 Church St. SE Minneapolis, MN 55455 scheel@math.umn.edu J. Douglas Wright School pulse is asymptotically stable, we show that there is a well-defined "shooting manifold", consisting

Scheel, Arnd

189

Advanced Hunter Education and Shooting Sports Responsibility. Bulletin 555A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed as a compendium from which instructors can select materials and instructional aids for use in hunter education and shooting sports programs. Presented in the manual are 43 lessons and 34 laboratory activities that have been organized into units on the following topics: shooting sports responsibility, the learning process…

Benson, Delwin E.; Richardson, Rodd E.

190

Police shooting and criminal homicide: The temporal relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the temporal relationship between the incidence of police shooting and the incidence of criminal homicide for New York City between 1971 and 1975. The research finds that there is no temporal relation between the incidence of police shooting and the incidence of criminal homicide and concludes that the very strong and widely supported cross-sectional correlation between police

Robert H. Langworthy

1986-01-01

191

Disquisition of Shooting Information Distribution System based on AJAX  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the bussiness requirement of Shooting Information Distribution Systems (IDS) based on sufficient investigation, the development status of similar system and relatived technology at home and abroad are analysed and studied in this paper. The bussiness workflow is analysed deeply based on the example of shooting results inquiry. Then a solution is proposed for Information Distribution System by remote

Chen Peng; Luan Yinxia

2010-01-01

192

Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

2010-01-01

193

Vindoline synthesis in in vitro shoot cultures of Catharanthus roseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vindoline, the major alkaloid in cultures of Catharanthus roseus shoots, reached 2 mg g-1 dry wt after 27 d in culture. Maximal vindoline accumulation coincided with maximum activities of deacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase, deacetylvindoline acetyl-CoA acetyl transferase and tryptophan decarboxylase. Shoot exposure to jasmonate shortened the time required for the maximal vindoline accumulation to 14 d.

Elizabeta Hernández-Domínguez; Freddy Campos-Tamayo; Felipe Vázquez-Flota

2004-01-01

194

Why does the bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata , attack long shoots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata, attacked longer shoot length classes on its host, Salix cinerea, more frequently than shorter shoots. Shoot length accounted for 76 to 93 percent of the variance in number of galls per 100 shoots in three habitats: forest, watermeadow, and lakeside. The reasons for this pattern were addressed with studies on shoot length in relation to:

P. W. Price; H. Roíninen; J. Tahvanainen

1987-01-01

195

Multitemporal Observations of Sugarcane by TerraSAR-X Images  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of TerraSAR-X (X-band) in monitoring sugarcane growth on Reunion Island (located in the Indian Ocean). Multi-temporal TerraSAR data acquired at various incidence angles (17°, 31°, 37°, 47°, 58°) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were analyzed in order to study the behaviour of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) signal as a function of sugarcane height and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The potential of TerraSAR for mapping the sugarcane harvest was also studied. Radar signal increased quickly with crop height until a threshold height, which depended on polarization and incidence angle. Beyond this threshold, the signal increased only slightly, remained constant, or even decreased. The threshold height is slightly higher with cross polarization and higher incidence angles (47° in comparison with 17° and 31°). Results also showed that the co-polarizations channels (HH and VV) were well correlated. High correlation between SAR signal and NDVI calculated from SPOT-4/5 images was observed. TerraSAR data showed that after strong rains the soil contribution to the backscattering of sugarcane fields can be important for canes with heights of terminal visible dewlap (htvd) less than 50 cm (total cane heights around 155 cm). This increase in radar signal after strong rains could involve an ambiguity between young and mature canes. Indeed, the radar signal on TerraSAR images acquired in wet soil conditions could be of the same order for fields recently harvested and mature sugarcane fields, making difficult the detection of cuts. Finally, TerraSAR data at high spatial resolution were shown to be useful for monitoring sugarcane harvest when the fields are of small size or when the cut is spread out in time. The comparison between incidence angles of 17°, 37° and 58° shows that 37° is more suitable to monitor the sugarcane harvest. The cut is easily detectable on TerraSAR images for data acquired less than two or three months after the cut. The radar signal decreases about 5dB for images acquired some days after the cut and 3 dB for data acquired two month after the cut (VV-37°). The difference in radar signal becomes negligible (<1 dB) between harvested fields and mature canes for sugarcane harvested since three months or more. PMID:22163387

Baghdadi, Nicolas; Cresson, Remi; Todoroff, Pierre; Moinet, Soizic

2010-01-01

196

EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN FIELD CORN Christian H. Krupke, Larry W. Bledsoe, and John L. Obermeyer, Extension Entomologists  

E-print Network

) for only 7-10 days. This is the window when insecticidal control can be achieved. If treatment is delayed Insecticide Treatments Economically important corn borer populations can usu- ally be controlled with an insecticide. Treatment with an insec- ticide is usually economical on seed corn fields. On field corn

Ginzel, Matthew

197

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister; Sean Rands

2009-01-01

198

Behavior and Activity Pattern of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) Attacking the Coffee Berry Borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe behavioral sequences and daily activities of pre-ovipositing and ovipositing females of Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), an ectoparasitoid of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Noticeable behavioral differences among preovipositing and ovipositing females include host examination, host stinging—probing, host feeding, and the oviposition per se. The female of C. stephanoderis feeds primarily on host eggs, but pupae

Isabelle Lauzière; Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud; Jacques Brodeur

2000-01-01

199

70 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL  

E-print Network

70 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER BIOLOGICAL CONTROL;2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 71 2005). T. planipennisi, a gregarious koinobiont, Newark DE 19713 4Michigan State University, Department of Entomology, East Lansing, MI 48824 ABSTRACT

200

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS  

E-print Network

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS, with individual species distributions dependent on geography, habitat, and land use history. Invasive plant and Michigan. In long-infested plots where 99.9 percent of ash trees have died, there are many established ash

201

The chemotaxonomy of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) isolates from the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary chemotaxonomic analysis was carried out on 16 isolates ofBeauveria bassiana from adults of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) from 10 countries in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Thirteen formed an homogeneous group with very similar electrophoretic and physiological profiles. Two isolates differed in esterase and acid phosphatase band patterns, one of which was also deficient in

P. D. Bridge; Y. J. Abraham; M. C. Cornish; C. Prior; D. Moore

1990-01-01

202

Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot and Symptomless Infection in Kernels of Maize Genetically Engineered for European Corn Borer Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Munkvold, G. P., Hellmich, R. L., and Showers, W. B. 1997. Reduced Fusarium ear rot and symptomless infection in kernels of maize geneti- cally engineered for European corn borer resistance. Phytopathology 87: 1071-1077. Field experiments were conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 to evaluate the incidence and severity of Fusarium ear rot and the incidence of symp- tomless Fusarium infection

G. P. Munkvold; R. L. Hellmich; W. B. Showers

1997-01-01

203

Site and stand variables influencing red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), population densities and tree mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three research areas in the Ozark National Forest, Arkansas, were chosen to investigate relationships of site and stand conditions to northern red oak, Quercus rubra L., mortality attributed to red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), a native wood-boring beetle. Fixed vegetation plots were installed in each area on five topographic positions: north, south, east, and west-facing benches and on ridges.

Melissa K. Fierke; M. Brent Kelley; Fred M. Stephen

2007-01-01

204

Epidemiology of the Hemp Borer, Grapholita delineanaWalker (Lepidoptera: Oleuthreutidae), a Pest of Cannabis sativa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemp borer, Grapholita delineana, is newly described from feral hemp in Vermont, USA. It may pose a serious pest should hemp cultivation resume in the USA. A similar situation occurred in the 1960s, when G. delineanasuddenly became a serious pest in southeastern Europe. Evidence suggests the pest was imported from its native range via infested hemp seed. Larvae of

John M. McPartland

2002-01-01

205

Microbial Diversity in the Midguts of Field and Lab-Reared Populations of the European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInsects are associated with microorganisms that contribute to the digestion and processing of nutrients. The European Corn Borer (ECB) is a moth present world-wide, causing severe economical damage as a pest on corn and other crops. In the present work, we give a detailed view of the complexity of the microorganisms forming the ECB midgut microbiota with the objective of

Eugeni Belda; Laia Pedrola; Juli Peretó; Juan F. Martínez-Blanch; Arnau Montagud; Emilio Navarro; Javier Urchueguía; Daniel Ramón; Andrés Moya; Manuel Porcar; Purification Lopez-Garcia

2011-01-01

206

The effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism on the coffee berry borer ( Hypothenemus hampei) in southern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indirect effect of an ant-hemipteran mutualism was investigated in the coffee agroecosystem of Southern Mexico. The ant, Azteca instabilis, forms a mutualistic relationship with the coccid, Coccus viridis, on coffee plants. Through field surveys and experimental studies, the indirect effect of this mutualism on the main coffee pest in the region, Hypothenemus hampei, the coffee berry borer (CBB), was

Ivette Perfecto; John Vandermeer

2006-01-01

207

Divergent Selection for Rind Penetrometer Resistance and Its Effects on European Corn Borer Damage and Stalk Traits in Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

important, especially if it also contributes to ECB resis- tance. Increased stalk strength could increase the resis- Corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield is affected by a number of factors, tance to ECB and provide farmers nontransgenic germ- including stalk lodging and pests such as the European corn borer plasm with greater resistance than is available to date. (Ostrinia nubilalis

Sheri A. Martin; Larry L. Darrah; Bruce E. Hibbard

2004-01-01

208

Biorational versus conventional insecticides e Comparative field study for managing red spider mite and fruit borer on tomato  

E-print Network

and fruit borer on tomato Gadi V.P. Reddy a, * , Ross H. Miller b a Western Triangle Agricultural Research Available online Keywords: Pest management Tetranychus marianae Helicoverpa armigera Tomato a b s t r a c t Tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum L. (Solanaceae), is an important crop worldwide that is grown both

Miller, Ross H.

209

Dendrochronological parameters of northern red oak ( Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae)) infested with red oak borer ( Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite of dendrochronological measurements from Q. rubra in affected forest stands.

L. J. Haavik; F. M. Stephen; M. K. Fierke; V. B. Salisbury; S. W. Leavitt; S. A. Billings

2008-01-01

210

Growth and survival of the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lep: Pyralidae) on alternative hosts in Guam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian corn borer larvae were reared individually on sweet maize and several other potential alternative hosts. Survival and growth rates were highest on sweet maize. On Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) survival was about half that on maize; the development time was longer and the resulting adults were smaller than those reared from maize. Several other hosts, including bell pepper fruits, wildcane

I. H. Schreiner; D. M. Nafus; N. Dumaliang

1990-01-01

211

Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely or partially, leading to bad union of the

Tol van R. W. H. M; Linden van der A; H. J. Swarts; J. H. Visser

2007-01-01

212

Development of stem borer resistant transgenic parental lines involved in the production of hybrid rice.  

PubMed

Stem borer resistant transgenic parental lines, involved in hybrid rice, were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer method. Two pSB111 super-binary vectors containing modified cry1Ab/cry1Ac genes driven by maize ubiquitin promoter, and herbicide resistance gene bar driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were, used in this study. Embryogenic calli after co-cultivation with Agrobacterium were selected on the medium containing phosphinothricin. Southern blot analyses of primary transformants revealed the stable integration of bar, cry1Ab and cry1Ac coding sequences into the genomes of three parental lines with a predominant single copy integration and without any rearrangement of T-DNA. T1 progeny plants disclosed a monogenic pattern (3:1) of transgene segregation as confirmed by molecular analyses. Furthermore, the co-segregation of bar and cry genes in T1 progenies suggested that the transgenes are integrated at a single site in the rice genome. In different primary transformants with alien inbuilt resistance, the levels of cry proteins varied between 0.03 and 0.13% of total soluble proteins. These transgenic lines expressing insecticidal proteins afforded substantial resistance against stem borers. This is the first report of its kind dealing with the introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry genes into the elite parental lines involved in the development of hybrid rice. PMID:15219400

Ramesh, S; Nagadhara, D; Pasalu, I C; Kumari, A Padma; Sarma, N P; Reddy, V D; Rao, K V

2004-07-15

213

Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered. PMID:22688691

Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

2012-01-01

214

The Biology and Ecology of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in China  

PubMed Central

The biology, ecology, and life cycle of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied using regular inspection in the forest and observations in the laboratory. Results indicated that A. planipennis are mostly univoltine in Tianjin, China. They overwintered individually as mature larvae in shallow chambers excavated in the outer sapwood. In late July, some full-grown larvae began to build overwintering chambers, and all larvae entered the sapwood for dormancy by early November. A. planipennis pupated in the overwintering chamber from early April to mid May the following year, and the average pupal duration was about 20 days. In late April, some newly eclosed adults could be found in the pupal cells, but they had not yet emerged from the tree. Adults began to emerge in early May, with peak flight occurring in mid May. The average longevity of adults was about 21 days and the adult stage lasted through early July. The adults fed on ash foliage as a source of nutrition. Mating was usually conducted and completed on the leaf or trunk surfaces of ash trees. Oviposition began in mid May and eggs hatched on average in 15.7 days. The first instar larvae appeared in early June. The larval stage lasted about 300 days to complete an entire generation. The emerald ash borer had four larval instars on velvet ash, Fraxinus velutina (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae). The major natural control factors of A. planipennis were also investigated, and preliminary suggestions for its integrated management are proposed. PMID:20879922

Wang, Xiao-Yi; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Gould, Juli R.; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Gui-Jun; Liu, EnShan

2010-01-01

215

Oregon 4-H Shooting Sports Leader Information Form (SS03-Revised and renumbered April, 2009)  

E-print Network

in Shooting Sports Club: Archery _________ Hunting _________ Pistol ________ Rifle Shotgun Additional 4-H: ______________________________________________ Number of youth enrolled in Shooting Sports Club: Archery _________ Hunting _________ PistolOregon 4-H Shooting Sports Leader Information Form (SS03-Revised and renumbered April, 2009

Tullos, Desiree

216

Genetic Transformation and Regeneration of Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for Resistance to the Emerald Ash Borer  

E-print Network

Genetic Transformation and Regeneration of Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) for Resistance) develop an efficient regeneration and genetic transformation system for green ash, (2) regenerate of transformed shoots will be determined. Based on this regeneration system, the genetic construct in which

217

Profiling of volatile compounds of Phyllostachys pubescens shoots in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of heating temperature and duration on volatile aromatic components of spring and winter Phyllostachys pubescens shoots using SPME. Results from GC-MS analyses revealed that the main constituents in both bamboo shoots at ambient temperature include methoxy-phenyl oxime, followed by n-hexanol and 3Z-hexenal, which gives a fresh green aroma. Comparing the different compounds, between spring and winter shoots, revealed that spring bamboo shoots at ambient temperature comprise 12.30% methyl salicylate, which provides protection against insect attack, and 9.71% epi-cedrol; while winter bamboo shoots comprise 17.00% 1-octen-3-ol, which produces a distinct mushroom aroma. After heating at 100 °C for 60 min, a marked increase in relative content of benzyl salicylate (43.30%) and a significant decrease in methyl salicylate content in spring bamboo shoots were observed; while the major compound in winter bamboo shoots was n-heneicosane (78.09%) and the content of specific 1-octen-3-ol significantly decreased. PMID:23442614

Chung, Min-Jay; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Shang-Tzen

2012-10-15

218

Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures  

SciTech Connect

Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

Grady, K.L.

1982-08-01

219

Repeatability Between Two Intermediate Sugarcane Genotype Selection Stages in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved yield and disease resistance on sand soils are priorities of the Canal Point (CP) sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding and selection program. Analyses of historical phenotypic data can provide helpful information in guiding selection strategies to meet these priorities. Correlation analysis was used to examine repeatability of phenotypic data used to advance genotypes from an unreplicated single location clonal crop

Neil C. Glynn; Robert A. Gilbert; Barry Glaz; Jack C. Comstock; Manjit S. Kang; Christopher W. Deren; Peter Y. P. Tai; Jimmy D. Miller

2009-01-01

220

Power is sweet: sugarcane in the global ethanol assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

New alliances between Brazil and the US for ethanol production, transport, and trade are revitalising and expanding the centuries-old sugarcane plantation system in the Americas. In this paper I adopt the concept of global assemblages, building on the work of Aihwa Ong, Stephen Collier, and Saskia Sassen, to draw the contours of an ‘ethanol assemblage’, which includes states, corporations, growers,

Gail Hollander

2010-01-01

221

Wildlife in Sugarcane Fields of the Everglades Agricultural Area  

E-print Network

year-round · Low input · Dense vegetation · Associated water features · Associated edge habitat · Limited access Sugarcane Edge Water Road #12;ARM Loxahatchee NWR Interior Water Edge Road · Managed for wildlife · Native plants encouraged · Water management wildlife friendly · Exotic species control

Mazzotti, Frank

222

Analysis of Resource Allocation in Final Stage Sugarcane Clonal Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

in 1990 in Stage I, passed successively through Stages II and III, and were first grown in Stage IV trials in Superior genotypes of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Sac- 1993. The current procedure for Stage IV, initiated in charum spp.) must continue to be developed with current resources as selection criteria evolve and expand. Developing future cultivars 1994, is to

J. Steven Brown; Barry Glaz

2001-01-01

223

Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse  

PubMed Central

Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB). Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases) and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases) cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol. PMID:22008461

2011-01-01

224

Structure-Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

MAUSETH, JAMES D.

2006-01-01

225

Identification of QTL underlying the resistance of soybean to pod borer, Leguminivora glycinivorella (Mats.) obraztsov, and correlations with plant, pod and seed traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) pod borer (Leguminivora glycinivorella (Mats.) Obraztsov) (SPB) results in severe loss in soybean yield and quality in certain regions of the world, especially\\u000a in Northeastern China, Japan and Russia. The aim here was to evaluate the inheritance of pod borer resistance and to identify\\u000a quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying SPB resistance for the acceleration of

Guiyun Zhao; Jian Wang; Yingpeng Han; Weili Teng; Genlou Sun; Wenbin Li

2008-01-01

226

Effects of shoot inversion on stem structure in Pharbitis nil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of shoot inversion on stem structure over 72 hr were investigated in Pharbitis nil by analyzing cell number, cell length, and the cross sectional areas of cells, tissues, and regions. An increase in stem diameter can be attributed to an increase in both cell number and cross sectional area of pith (primarily) and vascular tissue (secondarily). Qualitative observations of cell wall thickness in the light microscope did not reveal any significant effects of shoot inversion on this parameter. The inhibition of shoot elongation was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell length in the pith. The results are generally consistent with an ethylene effect on cell dimensions, especially in the pith.

Prasad, T. K.; Sack, F. D.; Cline, M. G.

1988-01-01

227

Mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana with altered shoot gravitropism  

SciTech Connect

A procedure has been developed and used to screen 40,000 m-2 seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana for strains with altered shoot gravitropism. Several strains have been identified for which shoot gravitropism is considerably more random than that of their wild-type parent (based on frequency distribution histograms of the gravitropic response to a 1 g stimulus). One such strain exhibits normal hypocotyl phototropism and normal root gravitropism. Thus, the gravitropism pathway in the shoot contains at least one mutable element which is not required for root gravitropism.

Bullen, B.L.; Poff, K.L.

1987-04-01

228

Recent non-chemical approaches to estimate the shooting distance.  

PubMed

Shooting distance estimation offers useful information for the reconstruction of firearm related incidents. The muzzle to target distance is usually estimated by examining the bullet entrance hole and the gunshot residue pattern. To visualize the pattern the forensic analyst usually uses presumptive tests based on color chemical reactions that are applied using long and tedious proceedings. Due to the drawbacks of the chemical tests recent developments for shooting distance estimation not based on color chemical tests were described in the literature. The present review covers the approaches for shooting distance estimation published in the last 10 years considering two types of target, clothing and skin. PMID:24747671

López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

2014-06-01

229

Electro-hydrodynamic shooting phenomenon of liquid metal stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reported an electro-hydrodynamic shooting phenomenon of liquid metal stream. A small voltage direct current electric field would induce ejection of liquid metal inside capillary tube and then shooting into sodium hydroxide solution to form discrete droplets. The shooting velocity has positive relationship with the applied voltage, while the droplet size is dominated by the aperture diameter of the capillary nozzle. Further, the motion of the liquid metal droplets can be flexibly manipulated by the electrodes. This effect suggests an easy going way to generate metal droplets in large quantity, which is important from both fundamental and practical aspects.

Fang, Wen-Qiang; He, Zhi-Zhu; Liu, Jing

2014-09-01

230

Recombinant cellulase accumulation in the leaves of mature, vegetatively propagated transgenic sugarcane.  

PubMed

The cost of enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars needs to be reduced to make cellulosic ethanol a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel. Sugarcane is a perennial crop and the successful integration of cellulase transgenes into the sugarcane production system requires that transgene expression is stable in the ratoon. Herein, we compared the accumulation of recombinant fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), fungal cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II), and bacterial endoglucanase (EG) in the leaves of mature, initial transgenic sugarcane plants and their mature ratoon. Mature ratoon events containing equivalent or elevated levels of active CBH I, CBH II, and EG in the leaves were identified. Further, we have demonstrated that recombinant fungal CBH I and CBH II can resist proteolysis during sugarcane leaf senescence, while bacterial EG cannot. These results demonstrate the stability of cellulase enzyme transgene expression in transgenic sugarcane and the utility of sugarcane as a biofactory crop for production of cellulases. PMID:24793894

Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, R Jason; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Palupe, Anthony; Sainz, Manuel B; Dale, James L

2014-09-01

231

Ray-tube integration in shooting and bouncing ray method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on three formulations of the Huygen's principle, explicit expressions is given for the far field contribution from a small ray tube. This expression is useful in shooting and bouncing rays for solving complex scattering problems.

Lee, S. W.; Ling, H.; Chou, R.

1988-01-01

232

Shooting device for free-surface impact studies  

E-print Network

The hydrodynamics of free-surface impacts are of great interest to scientists across many disciplines including ocean engineering, fluids mechanics, and biology. This thesis focuses on designing a mechanism to shoot small ...

Daigh, Sara L. (Sarah Louise), 1981-

2004-01-01

233

Engineering Advantages, Challenges and Status of Sugarcane and other Sugar-Based Biomass Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a highly productive tropical stem crop that has been cultivated for its high sugar content for hundreds of years.\\u000a In recent times, sugarcane has been the focus of several programs aiming at the production of fuel ethanol. Compared to starch-based\\u000a sources such as corn, production of ethanol from sugarcane has obvious advantages due to the amount

Ricardo A. Dante; Plinio T. Cristofoletti; Isabel R. Gerhardt

234

Optimization of the Preparation Conditions for Activated Carbons from Sugarcane Bagasse: An Agricultural Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cost activated carbon was prepared from sugarcane bagasse, an agricultural waste material, by chemical activation with different reagents. Orthogonal experimental design was applied to study the influence of activation temperature, activation time and chemical ratio of reagents to sugarcane bagasse on the chemical activation process of sugarcane bagasse. The optimal activated carbon was obtained using impregnation ratio of 0.39-0.78%

Zelong Xu; Yinian Zhu; Meina Liang; Hua Zhang; Huili Liu

2011-01-01

235

Production of microbial levan from sucrose, sugarcane juice and beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacillus polymyxa (NRRL-18475) produced a levan-type fructan (B, 2?6 fructofuranoside) when grown on sucrose, sugarcane juice, and sugarbeet molasses. The organism converted about 46% of the fructose moiety of sucrose to levan when grown on sucrose medium, however, the yields of levan from sugarcane juice and beet molasses were much less than sucrose solution. Such sugarcane juice and beet

Y. W. Han; M. A. Watson

1992-01-01

236

Factors influencing direct shoot regeneration from ovary explants of saffron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct adventitious shoot regeneration from ovary explants of Crocus sativus L. was influenced by media components, incubation conditions, and age of the explant. The best response towards caulogenesis\\u000a (28%) with highest shoot numbers per ovary was observed when full strength Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium was supplemented\\u000a with naphthaleneacetic acid and benzyladenine. Incubation in the dark at 20 °C was

N. Bhagyalakshmi

1999-01-01

237

Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of Gypsophila paniculata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adventitious shoots were successfully regenerated from leaf explants of Gypsophila paniculata L. The efficiency of shoot regeneration for cv. Arbel was tested on 18 media based on Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing\\u000a different concentrations of thidiazuron or 6-benzylaminopurine in combination with naphthaleneacetic acid. Both explant age\\u000a and that of the cuttings used as leaf donors affected the regeneration efficiency.

A. Zuker; A. Ahroni; H. Shejtman; A. Vainstein

1997-01-01

238

Shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Fragaria vesca L  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and reliable method for shoot regeneration from leaf disks of Fragaria vesca L. has been developed. This protocol has been successfully employed to obtain transformed plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens as gene vector. Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with benzyladenine (4 mg\\/l) and indole-3-butyric acid (0.25 mg\\/l) induced the maximum percentage of shoot regeneration (98%) and the highest

Iman Mansouri; José A. Mercado; Victoriano Valpuesta; José M. López-Aranda; Fernando Pliego-Alfaro; Miguel A. Quesada

1996-01-01

239

Adventitious shoot regeneration of scotch spearmint ( menthaxgracilis Sole)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of different cytokinins on in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from internodal explants of Menthaxgracilis Sole (scoth spearmint) was investigated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 100 mg l?1 myo-inositol, 0.4 mg l?1 thiamine-HCl, 2.0% (w\\/v) sucrose, 10% (v\\/v) coconut water and supplemented with 4.5 ?M thidiazuron (TDZ) was effective in inducing adventitious shoot formation from callus. The greatest

Charleson R. Poovaiah; Stephen C. Weller; Matthew A. Jenks

2006-01-01

240

Explaining and Preventing School Shootings: Chances and Difficulties of Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a School shootings have caused worldwide concern due to several severe incidents in the recent past. In the face of rising numbers\\u000a of offenses and deaths, two major questions have been raised: (1) what causes school shootings to occur? and (2) how are further\\u000a incidents to be prevented? In order to find answers to these questions, this chapter first reviews the

Rebecca Bondü; Herbert Scheithauer

241

Methodology for Assessing Rice Varieties for Resistance to the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica  

PubMed Central

Several physical and chemical attributes of rice were evaluated to determine which character would be best to use to assess multiple rice varieties for resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Laboratory tests were conducted on single varieties of long-, short-, and medium grain-rice to develop procedures and methodologies that could be used for large-scale screening studies. Progeny production of R. dominica was positively correlated with the percentage of broken hulls. Although kernel hardness, amylose content, neonate preference for brown rice, and adult emergence from neonates varied among the three rice varieties tested they did not appear to be valid indicators of eventual progeny production, and may not be useful predictors of resistance or susceptibility. Soundness and integrity seem to be the best characters to use for varietal screening studies with R. dominica. PMID:20337559

Chanbang, Y; Arthur, F. H; Wilde, G. E; Throne, J. E; Subramanyam, B. H

2008-01-01

242

Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.  

PubMed

Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation. PMID:23179712

Stajner, Nataša

2013-01-01

243

Response of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) neonates to root extracts from Vitaceae species and rootstocks.  

PubMed

Observations at regular intervals of the location of newly hatched grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris), larvae moving freely within circular petri dish bioassays were used to measure and compare their response to dry filter paper discs treated with ethanol- or hexane-based extracts of roots from known and potential Vitaceae hosts and a nonhost. Larvae responded most strongly to discs treated with ethanol extracts, suggesting the presence of behaviorally active, polar compounds associated with roots. In single extract bioassays comparing extract versus solvent treated discs, larvae responded positively to ethanol extracts from all Vitis species and rootstocks and Virginia creeper [Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.], but not to apple (Malus domestica Borkh). Paired extract bioassays, in which an extract from the commercially important 3309 rootstock was used as the standard and presented simultaneously with extracts from other root sources, revealed examples of equal, significantly weaker and significantly stronger responses to the 3309 extract. Extracts of the 420 A and V. riparia 'Gloire' rootstocks appeared to possess qualities that elicited a consistently greater response than to 3309 extract in these pair-wise comparisons. The active compounds were eluted in ethanol during a 30-min extraction; larvae responded equally to 30- and 60-min 3309 root extracts in paired extract bioassays. Larvae responded equally to extracts of 3309 roots from three spatially separate vineyards in northern Virginia. These results are discussed in relation to the subterranean, plant-insect interactions of grape root borer neonates with the numerous native and non-native Vitis species that may serve as hosts in the eastern United States. PMID:22251689

Bergh, J C; Zhang, A; Meyer, J R; Kim, D

2011-08-01

244

Shoot\\/root assimilate allocation and nodulation of Vigna unguiculata seedlings as influenced by shoot light environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral balance of light received by southern pea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] seedling shoots affected photoassimilate allocation among leaves, stems and roots. A higher ratio of far-red (FR) relative to red (R) light resulted in longer stems, higher shoot\\/root biomass ratio, less massive roots and fewer nodules. The same response pattern to FR\\/R ratio was obtained in a controlled environment

M. J. Kasperbauer; P. G. Hunt

1994-01-01

245

Shoot organization genes regulate shoot apical meristem organization and the pattern of leaf primordium initiation in rice.  

PubMed

The mechanism regulating the pattern of leaf initiation was analyzed by using shoot organization (sho) mutants derived from three loci (SHO1, SHO2, and SHO3). In the early vegetative phase, sho mutants show an increased rate of leaf production with random phyllotaxy. The resulting leaves are malformed, threadlike, or short and narrow. Their shoot apical meristems are relatively low and wide, that is, flat shaped, although their shape and size are highly variable among plants of the same genotype. Statistical analysis reveals that the shape of the shoot meristem rather than its size is closely correlated with the variations of plastochron and phyllotaxy. Rapid and random leaf production in sho mutants is correlated with the frequent and disorganized cell divisions in the shoot meristem and with a reduction of expression domain of a rice homeobox gene, OSH1. These changes in the organization and behavior of the shoot apical meristems suggest that sho mutants have fewer indeterminate cells and more determinate cells than wild type, with many cells acting as leaf founder cells. Thus, the SHO genes have an important role in maintaining the proper organization of the shoot apical meristem, which is essential for the normal initiation pattern of leaf primordia. PMID:11090216

Itoh, J I; Kitano, H; Matsuoka, M; Nagato, Y

2000-11-01

246

Genetic evidence that the endodermis is essential for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Shoots of higher plants exhibit negative gravitropism. However, little is known about the mechanism or site of gravity perception in shoots. We have identified two loci that are essential for normal shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the shoot gravitropism mutants sgr1 and sgr7 are allelic to the radial pattern mutants, scr and shr, respectively. Characterization

Hidehiro Fukaki; Joanna Wysocka-Diller; Takehide Kato; Hisao Fujisawa; Philip N. Benfey; Masao Tasaka

1998-01-01

247

A rapid and direct approach to find promoters for high-level gene expression in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)  

E-print Network

-expressed sugarcane genes on the sorghum genetic . . . . , 37 map, and their comparative locations in other grasses . . . . . . 41 Mapping of highly-expressed sugarcane genes on the sugarcane genetic map. The nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence... of the . . 42 SPRP1 cDNA. . . 45 10 The 5' end nucleotide sequence of SPRP2 and its deduced amino acid sequence . 49 11 Hydrophobicity plots of sugarcane proline-rich protein (SPRP). . . . . . . . . . . . 50 FIGURE 12 The 5' upstream and partial coding...

Yang, Meizhu

2012-06-07

248

Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.  

PubMed

The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level (?=?-0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas. PMID:25122089

Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

2014-01-01

249

Impacts of the emerald ash borer (EAB) eradication and tree mortality: potential for a secondary spread of invasive plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer in 2002, eradication efforts have been implemented in an attempt to eliminate\\u000a or contain the spread of this invasive beetle. The eradication protocol called for the removal of every ash tree within a\\u000a 0.8 km radius around an infested tree. In 2005 this study was established to identify environmental changes attributed to\\u000a the

Constance E. HausmanJohn; John F. Jaeger; Oscar J. Rocha

2010-01-01

250

Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance  

PubMed Central

The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h2?=?0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level (?=??0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to prevent rapid selection of high levels of resistance and the potential for its spread to new areas. PMID:25122089

Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitoria Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

2014-01-01

251

Could phenotypic plasticity limit an invasive species? Incomplete reversibility of mid-winter deacclimation in emerald ash borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a wood-boring invasive pest devastating North American ash (Fraxinus spp.). A. planipennis overwinters primarily as a freeze-avoiding prepupa within the outer xylem or inner bark of the host tree. The range of this\\u000a species is expanding outward from its presumed introduction point in southwestern Michigan. We hypothesized that loss of cold

Stephanie Sobek-SwantJill; Jill C. Crosthwaite; D. Barry Lyons; Brent J. Sinclair

252

Cadherin-like receptor from the European corn borer (Ostrinia Nubilalis) for Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins are lethal to the corn pest European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larvae. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac bind to a protein of ~205-kDa in the brush border membrane vesicles. In addition, Cry1Ab binds to proteins of ~ 150 and 170-kDa and Cry1Ac binds to proteins of ~ 120 kDa. A competition ligand blot using unlabeled Cry1Ab to

Salah A. Mostafa; W. S. A. Maaty; M. A. Madkour; L. A. Bulla

2003-01-01

253

?-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits ?-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest  

PubMed Central

Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an ?-amylase inhibitor gene (?-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the ?-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (?-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the ?-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against ?-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum ?-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the ?-AI1 protein against H. hampei ?-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee. PMID:20565807

2010-01-01

254

Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on grape root borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) infestations in commercial vineyards in virginia.  

PubMed

Larval grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), feed on roots of wild Vitis and commercially important Vitis species and rootstocks in portions of the eastern United States. Grape root borer pupal exuviae sampling in Virginia vineyards from 2008 to 2012 revealed that infestation levels varied substantially among 48 vineyard blocks. Data on horticultural (cultivar, rootstock, vine age, and planting area), cultural (insecticide use, ground cover, weed control, and irrigation), and environmental variables (proximity to forest, soil composition, soil moisture holding capacity, pH, organic matter, bulk density, and cation exchange capacity) from each block were subjected to optimal quantification using categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA). Variables with component loading values ?0.70 from the CATPCA were used as predictors and pupal exuviae density as the dependent variable in binary logistic regression. A prediction model was developed by including statistically significant variables in the logistic regression. CATPCA showed that seven vineyard factors (ground cover, soil texture, soil mass moisture, soil pH, clay/sand ratio, clay/silt ratio, and sand/silt ratio) based on three selected principal components were significant for subsequent regression analysis. Binary logistic regression showed that soil mass moisture and clay/sand ratio were statistically significant factors contributing to differences in infestation among vineyard blocks. Based on these two factors, a risk prediction model for calculating the probability of grape root borer infestation in vineyards was developed and validated using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results are discussed in relation to the practical implications of a predictive, risk assessment model for grape root borer management. PMID:25198500

Rijal, Jhalendra P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

2014-10-01

255

Electrophysiological Response and Attraction of Emerald Ash Borer to Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs) Emitted by Host Foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) function as host attractants, pheromone synergists, or sexual kairomones for a number of coleopteran\\u000a folivores. Hence, we focused on host GLVs to determine if they were attractive to adults of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), which feeds on ash (Fraxinus) foliage. Eight GLVs were identified by chromatography-electroantennogram (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry in foliar

Peter de Groot; Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Roger Scharbach; Linda Buchan; Reginald W. Nott; Linda Macdonald; Doug Pitt

2008-01-01

256

Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.  

PubMed

Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions. PMID:19568811

Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

2009-07-01

257

Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.  

PubMed

Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots. PMID:14965950

Castell, C; Terradas, J

1995-06-01

258

Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.  

PubMed

The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively. PMID:22299352

Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

2011-12-01

259

Efficacy of multifunnel traps for capturing emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): effect of color, glue, and other trap coatings.  

PubMed

Tens of thousands of adhesive-coated purple prism traps are deployed annually in the United States to survey for the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). A reusable, more user-friendly trap is desired by program managers, surveyors, and researchers. Field assays were conducted in southeastern Michigan to ascertain the feasibility of using nonsticky traps as survey and detection tools for emerald ash borer. Three nonsticky trap designs, including multifunnel (Lindgren), modified intercept panel, and drainpipe (all painted purple) were compared with the standard purple prism trap; no statistical differences in capture of emerald ash borer adults were detected between the multifunnel design and the prism. In subsequent color comparison assays, both green- and purple-painted multifunnel traps (and later, plastic versions of these colors) performed as well or better than the prism traps. Multifunnel traps coated with spray-on adhesive caught more beetles than untreated traps. The increased catch, however, occurred in the traps' collection cups and not on the trap surface. In a separate assay, there was no significant difference detected between glue-coated traps and Rain-X (normally a glass treatment)-coated traps, but both caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than untreated traps. PMID:21735910

Francese, Joseph A; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

2011-06-01

260

Field-Cage Methodology for Evaluating Climatic Suitability for Introduced Wood-Borer Parasitoids: Preliminary Results from the Emerald Ash Borer System  

PubMed Central

Field-cage methods were developed to evaluate the abilities of Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biocontrol agents of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), to parasitize, develop and overwinter following three late-season releases at both a northern (Michigan) and a southern (Maryland) location within the current North American range of A. planipennis. In August, September and October of 2009, five young green ash trees were selected at each location. Tetrastichus planipennisi and S. agrili were each randomly assigned to one of two cages attached to each tree, surrounding separate sections of trunk in which late-instar A. planipennis had been inserted. The following April, the caged trunk sections were dissected to determine the fate of each A. planipennis larva and the developmental stages of all recovered parasitoid progeny. At both locations, T. planipennisi and S. agrili were able to parasitize hosts and successfully overwinter (i.e., reach adulthood the following spring). For T. planipennisi, successful parasitism (i.e., parasitoid progeny reached adulthood) occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August and September releases in Michigan. At both locations, percent parasitism by T. planipennisi was higher in August and September than in October. For S. agrili, successful parasitism occurred for all caged releases in Maryland, but only for the August release in Michigan. In Maryland, percent parasitism by S. agrili in August and September was higher than in October. The caging method described here should be useful in determining the climatic suitability of other regions before proceeding with large-scale releases of either species and may have utility in other wood-borer parasitoid systems as well. PMID:22233133

Ulyshen, Michael D.; Duan, Jian J.; Bauer, Leah S.; Gould, Juli; Taylor, Phil; Bean, Dick; Holko, Carol; Driesche, Roy Van

2011-01-01

261

Sugarcane leaf-bagasse gasifiers for industrial heating applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the commercial-scale (1080 MJ h?1) development of a gasification system using low-density biomass, for thermal applications. The gasifier can handle fuels such as sugarcane leaves and bagasse, bajra stalks, sweet sorghum stalks and bagasse etc. The system was tested for > 700 h under laboratory conditions at 288–1080 MJ h?1 output levels. The HHV of the gas

Rajeev Jorapur; Anil K. Rajvanshi

1997-01-01

262

Fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on sugarcane bagasse pith  

SciTech Connect

A high biomass concentration (19.9 g/L) was obtained with the fed-batch cultivation of Cellulomonas on pretreated sugarcane bagasse pith. Similar results in biomass concentration, yield, and substrate consumption were obtained with the discontinuous feed of bagasse as with discontinuous feed supplemented with a partial continuous addition of salts. Two or more growth phases were detected, probably caused by the differential utilization of bagasse components. An acceptably low content of bagasse components remained in the biomass after separation.

Rodriguez, H.; Enriquez, A.

1985-02-01

263

Bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse with white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Four cultures of white rot fungi were screened for their ability to degrade lignin and carbohydrates of sugarcane bagasse and their effect on changes ininvitro digestibility.Polyporushirsutus534 degraded maximum lignin and carbohydrates accompanied with the highest increase in digestibility, but increase in nutrient availability was maximum withPleurotussajorcaju (Z-6) due to lower dry matter loss during the process of fungal treatment.

Neelam Kewalramani; D. N. Kamra; D. Lall; N. N. Pathak

1988-01-01

264

Isolation and characterization of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different procedures for isolation of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) were comparatively studied. Sequential extractions of dewaxed SCB with water with or without ultrasonic irradiation, various concentrations of alkali and alkaline peroxide yielded 44.7 and 45.9% cellulose preparations, which contained 6.0 and 7.2% associated hemicelluloses and 3.4 and 3.9% bound lignin, respectively. Delignification with acidic sodium chlorite followed by

J. X Sun; X. F Sun; H Zhao; R. C Sun

2004-01-01

265

Dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at varying conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct of the cane sugar industry, is an abundant source of hemicellulose that could be hydrolyzed\\u000a to yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol and chemicals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration,\\u000a temperature, time, and dry matter concentration on hemicellulose hydrolysis were studied with a 20-L batch hydrolysis reactor\\u000a using a statistical experimental design.

Markus Neureiter; Herbert Danner; Christiane Thomasser; Bamusi Saidi; Rudolf Braun

2002-01-01

266

Generation of Energy from Sugarcane Bagasse by Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide harvest of sugarcane for sucrose production represents a major agricultural industry, with approximately Mt\\u000a 1500 produced annually. The cane yields about 13.5% of its weight as sugar, together with an equal amount (dry weight) of\\u000a fibrous bagasse as waste. The bagasse, which is predominantly cellulose, is burned at the mills to generate steam for sugar\\u000a processing. The global

B. R. Stanmore

2010-01-01

267

Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and

J. M. Hernández-Salas; M. S. Villa-Ramírez; J. S. Veloz-Rendón; K. N. Rivera-Hernández; R. A. González-César; M. A. Plascencia-Espinosa; S. R. Trejo-Estrada

2009-01-01

268

Sugarcane and Ethanol Production and Carbon Dioxide Balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol fuel has been considered lately an efficient option for reducing greenhouse gases emissions. Brazil has now more than\\u000a 30 years of experience with large-scale ethanol production. With sugarcane as feedstock, Brazilian ethanol has some advantages\\u000a in terms of energy and CO2 balances. The use of bagasse for energy generation contributes to lower greenhouse gases emissions. Although, when compared\\u000a with

Marcelo Dias De Oliveira

269

Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Associated with Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sugarcane is an important cash crop for several countries and it is mainly used for sugar and ethanol (as biofuel) production.\\u000a This crop consumes heavy amount of nitrogen fertilizer and get affected by bacterial and fungal diseases for which chemical\\u000a treatments are not recommended. Most of the countries use approximately 200–400 kg N?ha?1 which is costly and hazardous for environment. For fungal

Samina Mehnaz

270

Brewer's yeast and sugarcane yeast as protein sources for dogs.  

PubMed

Brewer's yeast (BY), autolysed sugarcane yeast (ASCY) and integral sugar cane yeast (ISCY) were studied in two experiments as ingredients for dog diets. In the first experiment, 28 dogs were randomly assigned to four diets; one reference diet and three test diets containing 15% of BY, ASCY or ISCY and 85% of the reference diet (as-fed basis). The digestibilities of the yeasts were calculated by the substitution method. In the second experiment, 35 dogs were randomized to five diets with similar chemical composition but different levels of sugarcane yeast inclusion (0%, 7.5% ASCY, 15% ASCY, 7.5% ISCY and 15% ISCY). In both experiments, the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients was determined through total collection of faeces. During experiment, two additional analyses of food palatability, nitrogen balance and urea postprandial responses were performed. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, and the means were compared by orthogonal or polynomial contrasts or Tukey's test (p < 0.05). In experiment 1, CTTAD of protein was lower for both sugarcane yeasts than for BY (p = 0.012), as was metabolizable energy content (p = 0.025). In experiment 2, a linear reduction in energy digestibility with ASCY inclusion (p = 0.05) was verified. Furthermore, faecal score and DM content were reduced with ISCY inclusion (p < 0.003). No effect of yeast inclusion on nitrogen balance or postprandial urea response was found. Also, the inclusion of 7.5% of ASCY or ISCY increased diet palatability (p < 0.01). Yeasts present adequate digestibility by dogs, but its effect on faecal formation needs to be considered. No clear advantage for the use of ASCY over ISCY was found. In conclusion, we find that sugarcane yeast is suitable for inclusion in dog food and can enhance the overall palatability of the diet. PMID:24304448

Martins, M S; Sakomura, N K; Souza, D F; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Vasconcellos, R S; Carciofi, A C

2014-10-01

271

Role of antioxidative enzymes in red rot resistance in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidative enzymes viz. peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities have been investigated in the internodes\\u000a of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) following inoculation with conidia of red rot fungus (Colletotrichum falcatum Went). Two cultivars (cvs) with varying sensitivity to red rot, viz., CoJ 64 (susceptible) and CoS 8436 (resistant) were\\u000a used. The spread of infection i.e. the movement of fungal mycelium

Bavita Asthir; Kanwal Preet; Suresh K. Batta; Bipen Sharma

2009-01-01

272

Value of cane trash in nitrogen nutrition of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of trash containing 0.3 to 0.5% N in the N nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) was investigated in pot- and field experiments using15N-labelled trash. The data obtained from the pot study with 2 silty-clay loams (a Humic Nitosol and a Humic Acrisol) showed\\u000a that surface-applied trash (10 tonnes\\/ha), although ground to pass a 1-mm sieve, contributed less

K. F. NG Kee Kwong; J. Deville; P. C. Cavalot; V. Riviere

1987-01-01

273

[Surveillance experience in the sugarcane sector: challenges in disrupting the perilous "marathon" of the sugarcane plantations].  

PubMed

The sugar-alcohol sector is growing year by year, especially in the state of Sao Paulo where approximately 42.9% of the sugar-ethanol plants are concentrated. The production chain is a subject for concern to public agencies and to civil society by exposing migrant workers to risks arising from the work process. In Sao Paulo, from 2006-2009, Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) set up two initiatives to address problems related to the housing and working conditions of sugarcane workers. The objective of this article presented in the form of an essay is to analyze the experiences in their context. The methodology used combines document analysis with the perception of the authors who participated in the actions. The experience led to improvements in these conditions and fostered public debate on the conditions of such physically demanding work. The interventions resulted in a definition of sanitary norms and initiatives at the legislative and judicial level, but even the most successful measures failed to attain the organizational targets, especially a production remuneration structure that challenges the traditional action of surveillance and the impacts were weakened due to the fragility of worker representation for the sector. PMID:25388174

Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Santos, Simone Alves Dos; Silva, Alessandro José Nunes da; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de

2014-12-01

274

The effect of shoot-bending on the amount of diffusible indole-3-acetic acid and its transport in shoots of Japanese pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of diffusible indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in shoots ofJapanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) decreased when vertical shootswere bent at an angle of 45°. A significant decrease of diffusibleIAA was observed one day after shoot bending (DAB), and the degree ofthis decrease was larger in the apical region of the shoot than in thebasal region. The decrease caused by the shoot

A. Ito; H. Hayama; H. Yoshioka

2001-01-01

275

Cell wall proteomics of sugarcane cell suspension cultures.  

PubMed

The use of cell walls to produce cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse is a new challenge. A better knowledge of proteins involved in cell wall remodelling is essential to improve the saccharification processes. Cell suspension cultures were used for this first cell wall proteomics study of sugarcane. Proteins extracted from cell walls were identified using an adapted protocol. They were extracted using 0.2 M CaCl2 and 2 M LiCl after purification of cell walls. The proteins were then identified by the innovative nanoACQUITY UPLC MS/MS technology and bioinformatics using the translated SUCEST EST cluster database of sugarcane. The experiments were reproduced three times. Since Sorghum bicolor is the closest plant with a fully sequenced genome, homologous proteins were searched for to complete the annotation of proteins, that is, prediction of subcellular localization and functional domains. Altogether, 69 different proteins predicted to be secreted were identified among 377 proteins. The reproducibility of the experiments is discussed. These proteins were distributed into eight functional classes. Oxidoreductases such as peroxidases were well represented, whereas glycoside hydrolases were scarce. This work provides information about the proteins that could be manipulated through genetic transformation, to increase second-generation ethanol production. PMID:24436144

Calderan-Rodrigues, Maria Juliana; Jamet, Elisabeth; Bonassi, Maria Beatriz Calderan Rodrigues; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Begossi, Amanda Carmanhanis; Setem, Laís Vaz; Franceschini, Livia Maria; Fonseca, Juliana Guimarães; Labate, Carlos Alberto

2014-03-01

276

Integrated management of sugarcane whitegrubs in Australia: an evolving success.  

PubMed

Canegrubs, larvae of a complex of endemic melolonthine scarabs, are the key pests in Australian sugarcane. In the early 1990s, following the withdrawal of organochlorines, the Australian sugarcane industry faced a crisis with increasing canegrub damage. A comprehensive integrated pest management strategy was developed on the basis of research on a wide range of topics such as basic taxonomy, species identification, ecology and biology of the different species within the sugarcane system, development of new insecticides and new formulations of insecticides, potential development of genetically modified pest-resistant canes, and methods for predicting risk of infestations. The value of the research depended on a wide-ranging extension program that saw broadscale adoption of the new strategies. However, the cropping system is not static, and recent changes have the potential to alter plant architecture and phenology and therefore could affect canegrub biology, canegrub feeding, the impact of natural controls on canegrubs, and the accessibility to soil for sampling and insecticide application. Growers also demand cheaper, easier-to-use options. PMID:19961331

Allsopp, Peter G

2010-01-01

277

Expression Analysis of Sugarcane Aquaporin Genes under Water Deficit  

PubMed Central

The present work is a pioneer study specifically addressing the aquaporin transcripts in sugarcane transcriptomes. Representatives of the four aquaporin subfamilies (PIP, TIP, SIP, and NIP), already described for higher plants, were identified. Forty-two distinct aquaporin isoforms were expressed in four HT-SuperSAGE libraries from sugarcane roots of drought-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, respectively. At least 10 different potential aquaporin isoform targets and their respective unitags were considered to be promising for future studies and especially for the development of molecular markers for plant breeding. From those 10 isoforms, four (SoPIP2-4, SoPIP2-6, OsPIP2-4, and SsPIP1-1) showed distinct responses towards drought, with divergent expressions between the bulks from tolerant and sensitive genotypes, when they were compared under normal and stress conditions. Two targets (SsPIP1-1 and SoPIP1-3/PIP1-4) were selected for validation via RT-qPCR and their expression patterns as detected by HT-SuperSAGE were confirmed. The employed validation strategy revealed that different genotypes share the same tolerant or sensitive phenotype, respectively, but may use different routes for stress acclimation, indicating the aquaporin transcription in sugarcane to be potentially genotype-specific. PMID:24490055

da Silva, Manassés Daniel; Silva, Roberta Lane de Oliveira; Costa Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar; Guimarães, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Veiga, Daniela Truffi; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Burnquist, William Lee; Kahl, Günter; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

2013-01-01

278

Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by ?-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by C?C and C?O?C links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.

2013-03-01

279

Imaging spectroscopy for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopy can provide real-time high throughput information on growing crops. The spectroscopic data can be obtained from space-borne, air-borne and handheld sensors. Such data have been used for assessing the nutritional status of some field crops (maize, rice, barely, potato etc.). In this study a handheld FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer in the 350 - 2500 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum was evaluated for its use to estimate sugarcane leaf nitrogen concentrations. Sugarcane leaf samples from one variety viz., N19 of two age groups (4-5 and 6-7 months) were subjected to spectral and chemical measurements. Leaf reflectance data were collected under controlled conditions and leaf nitrogen concentration was obtained using an automated combustion technique (Leco TruSpec N). The potential of spectroscopic data for estimating sugarcane leaf nitrogen status was evaluated using univariate correlation and regression analyses methods with the first-order reflectance across the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm. The variables that presented high correlation with nitrogen concentration were used to develop simple indices combining reflectances of 2-wavelengths. Simple linear regression was then used to select a model that yielded the highest R2. These were the R744 / R2142 index for the 4-5 months old cane crop and the (R2200 - R2025) / (R2200 + R2025) index for the 6-7 months old cane crop, with R2 of 0.74 and 0.87, respectively.

Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M.; Ahmed, Fethi B.; van den Berg, Maurits

2008-10-01

280

Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of ?-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse. PMID:23334836

Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

2013-03-01

281

Irrepressible MONOPTEROS/ARF5 promotes de novo shoot formation.  

PubMed

In vitro regeneration of complete organisms from diverse cell types is a spectacular property of plant cells. Despite the great importance of plant regeneration for plant breeding and biotechnology, its molecular basis is still largely unclear and many important crop plants have remained recalcitrant to regeneration. Hormone-exposure protocols to trigger the de novo formation of either roots or shoots from callus tissue demonstrate the importance of auxin and cytokinin signaling pathways, and genetic differences in these pathways may contribute to the highly divergent responsiveness of plant species to regeneration protocols. In this study, we show that signaling through MONOPTEROS (MP)/AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 5 is necessary for the formation of shoots from Arabidopsis calli. Most strikingly, an irrepressible variant of MP, MP?, is sufficient for promoting de novo shoot formation through pathways involving the genetically downstream functions of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) and CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR2 (CRF2). We conclude that the MP? genotype can promote de novo shoot formation and can be used to probe corresponding signaling pathways. PMID:25274430

Ckurshumova, Wenzislava; Smirnova, Tatiana; Marcos, Danielle; Zayed, Yara; Berleth, Thomas

2014-11-01

282

Ontogeny of the Maize Shoot Apical Meristem[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The maize (Zea mays) shoot apical meristem (SAM) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. Laser microdissection of apical domains from developing maize embryos and seedlings was combined with RNA sequencing for transcriptomic analyses of SAM ontogeny. Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. Transcriptomic profiling before and after SAM initiation indicates that organogenesis precedes stem cell maintenance in maize; analyses of the first three lateral organs elaborated from maize embryos provides insight into their homology and to the identity of the single maize cotyledon. Compared with the newly initiated SAM, the mature SAM is enriched for transcripts that function in transcriptional regulation, hormonal signaling, and transport. Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific (SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. This study provides insight into the molecular genetics of SAM initiation and function in maize. PMID:22911570

Takacs, Elizabeth M.; Li, Jie; Du, Chuanlong; Ponnala, Lalit; Janick-Buckner, Diane; Yu, Jianming; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Schnable, Patrick S.; Timmermans, Marja C.P.; Sun, Qi; Nettleton, Dan; Scanlon, Michael J.

2012-01-01

283

Preformation and Neoformation in Shoots of Nothofagus antarctica (G. Forster) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) Shrubs from Northern Patagonia  

PubMed Central

The size (length and diameter) and number of leaf primordia of winter buds of Nothofagus antarctica (G. Forster) Oerst. shrubs were compared with the size and number of leaves of shoots derived from buds in equivalent positions. Buds developed in two successive years were compared in terms of size and number of leaf primordia. Bud size and the number of leaf primordia per bud were greater for distal than for proximally positioned buds. Shoots that developed in the five positions closest to the distal end of their parent shoots had significantly more leaves than more proximally positioned shoots of the same parent shoots. The positive relationship between the size of a shoot and that of its parent shoot was stronger for proximal than for distal positions on the parent shoots. For each bud position on the parent shoots there were differences in the number of leaf primordia per bud between consecutive years. The correlations between the number of leaf primordia per bud and bud size, bud position and parent shoot size varied between years. Only shoots produced close to the distal end of a parent shoot developed neoformed leaves; more proximal sibling shoots consisted entirely of preformed leaves. Leaf neoformation, a process usually linked with high shoot vigour in woody plants, seems to be widespread among the relatively small shoots developed in N. antarctica shrubs, which may relate to the species’ opportunistic response to disturbance. PMID:12102521

PUNTIERI, J. G.; STECCONI, M.; BARTHÉLÉMY, D.

2002-01-01

284

SOYBEAN STEM BORER IN KANSAS: A Research Update. M. Kaczmarek1, R.A. Higgins1, P.E. Sloderbeck1, L.L. Buschman1, D. Crook1, S.B. Ramaswamy1, W. Schapaugh2.  

E-print Network

SOYBEAN STEM BORER IN KANSAS: A Research Update. M. Kaczmarek1, R.A. Higgins1, P.E. Sloderbeck1, L. Annually, for at least 15 years, K-State specialists have received isolated reports of lodging in soybean fields as a result of the soybean stem borer Dectes texanus texanus. Often these problems were associated

Mukhtar, Saqib

285

Estimation of light interception properties of conifer shoots by an improved photographic method and a 3D model of shoot structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The spherical mean of the shoot silhouette-to-to- tal leaf area ratio (STAR) and the shoot transmission coeffi- cient (c) are two key structural parameters in radiative transfer models for calculating canopy photosynthesis and leaf area in- dex. The standard optical method for estimating these parame- ters might introduce errors in the estimates for species with flexible shoots and needles

MATHIEU THÉRÉZIEN; SARI PALMROTH; RACHAEL BRADY; RAM OREN

286

The role of some agricultural practices and fertilizer type on both the incidence of stem borers infestation and corn yield in Egypt.  

PubMed

Maize, Zea mays, L. is one of the most important field crops in Egypt. It is used mainly for human, animal and poultry feeding. Corn plants are usually attacked by several injourious insect pests at different stages of development. Out of them, the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon (Bles.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.); which cause great damage and yield losses. It is profitable to adopt an effective and sustainable strategy for controlling these insect-pests. In this concern, sowing dates, planting spaces, foliar fertilizers (macro and micro-nutrients), mineral and/or biofertilization, were investigated to evaluate their role as tools in the so-called Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program of corn pests. In general, the used planting spaces of 60 and 70 cm apart between furrows insignificantly affected the level of stem borers infestation. It was clearly observed that the sowing dates have a role in the incidence of stem borers infestation throughout the corn growing seasons of 1994 and 1995. Moreover, The biofertilized corn plants were more tolerant to the infestation by the stem borers than the minerally fertilized ones. Application of Polytrin significantly decreased the mean numbers of larvae. The tested nutrients preparations affected to less extent, the infestation levels. Concerning the interaction effect of applied nutrients preparations, used sowing dates and/or fertilizer type on the deduced means of larval numbers, it was revealed that: (i) the application of the nutrients preparations decreased to a great extent the effect of the studied sowing dates on the stem borers infestation; particularly in case of spraying ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex, coppersulphate & Potasin-F, (ii) the dressing of corn grains with the biofertilizers Phosphorin & Rhizobacterin before sowing, lowered to some extent the levels of infestation by Ch. agamemnon and O. nubilalis, in comparison to the minerally fertilized corn plants, especially in case of spraying Potasin-F, copper sulphate and scorbic acid followed by Polymex for Ch. agamemnon. Spraying Ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex; Potasin-F followed by Copper sulphate gave promising results for the control of O. nubilalis. In comparison to insecticide treatment, the used foliar nutrients & fertilizer type in both sowing dates gave positive interaction effects in decreasing levels of stem borers infestation and greatly improved the yield and yield characteristics of corn plants. Such agricultural practices enabled corn plants to tackle the going on infestation; thus crop loss due to the attack of the stem borers could be compensated. PMID:12696425

Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; Massoud, M A; Abd el-Aziz, A A

2002-01-01

287

The identification and characterisation of alleles of sucrose phosphate synthase gene family III in sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the extent of allelic diversity of genes in the complex polyploid, sugarcane. Using sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) Gene (SPS) Family III as an example, we have amplified and sequenced a 400 nt region from this gene from two sugarcane lines that are parents of a mapping population. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within the 400 nt

C. L. McIntyre; M. Jackson; G. M. Cordeiro; O. Amouyal; S. Hermann; K. S. Aitken; F. Eliott; R. J. Henry; R. E. Casu; G. D. Bonnett

2006-01-01

288

Sugarcane bagasse as alternative packing material for biofiltration of benzene polluted gaseous streams: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of benzene vapor from gaseous streams was studied in two identically sized lab-scale biofiltration columns: one filled with a mixture of raw sugarcane bagasse and glass beads, and the other one packed with a mixture of ground sugarcane bagasse and glass beads, in the same volume ratio, as filter materials. Separate series of continuous tests were performed, in parallel,

L. Sene; A. Converti; M. G. A. Felipe; M. Zilli

2002-01-01

289

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Sugarcane Bagasse Paper Bagasse Paper versus Wheat Straw Paper prepared by Omar Omari 54434105 Marcus Cheung 82207101 Robert Chen this project to investigate and compare the advantages and disadvantages between sugarcane bagasse paper

290

Co-pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse with petroleum residue. Part I: thermogravimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal decomposition under nitrogen of sugarcane bagasse, petroleum residue and their blends was studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at different heating rates (10, 20, 40 and 60°C\\/min). Thermal decomposition kinetic parameters were determined. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis was described as the sum of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin individual contributions. First order equations were used to determine the bagasse component thermal decomposition kinetics.

A Chaala; J Yang; C Roy

2001-01-01

291

Enhanced Lead Sorption by Biochar Derived from Anaerobically Digested Sugarcane Bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the ability of two sugarcane bagasse biochars to remove lead from water. The sorption of lead by biochars made from raw (BC) and anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse (DBC) was compared with a commercial activated carbon (AC) using batch sorption experiments. DBC was a more effective sorbent of lead from water than AC, and far more effective than

Mandu Inyang; Bin Gao; Wenchuan Ding; Pratap Pullammanappallil; Andrew R. Zimmerman; Xinde Cao

2011-01-01

292

The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

2012-01-01

293

Influence of Sugarcane Cropping on the Quality of an Oxisol and an Inceptisol in Mauritius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productive capacity of Mauritius soils could be declining with sugarcane monoculture. Effects of short- and long-term sugarcane cropping on quality of an Oxisol and an Inceptisol were assessed to a depth of 50 cm. In the short term (<25 years), cropping led to less organic matter and topsoil microbial biomass (0 to 15 cm), probably through increased microbial breakdown of

L. R. Ng Cheong; K. F. Ng Kee Kwong; P. D. Ah Koon; C. C. Du Preez

2010-01-01

294

Quantitative analysis of the effect of selection history on sugar yield adaptation of sugarcane clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objective of the CSR sugarcane breeding programme in Australia was to assess the scope for broadening the genetic base of the commercial sugarcane germ plasm through interspecific hybridization with Saccharum spontaneum clones. The contribution of both selection history and S. spontaneum to sugar yield and its components was investigated in the germ plasm pool assembled. The analysis was conducted

B. L. Srivastava; M. Cooper; R. T. Mullins

1994-01-01

295

Evaluation for potential Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) strains for control of the striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in the Greater Mekong Subregion.  

PubMed

Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0-24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. PMID:25026653

Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

2014-06-01

296

A Novel Method of Supplying Nutrients Permits Predictable Shoot Growth and Root : Shoot Ratios of Pre-transplant Bedding Plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Growth of bedding plants, in small peat plugs, relies on nutrients in the irrigation solution. The object of the study was to find a way of modifying the nutrient supply so that good-quality seedlings can be grown rapidly and yet have the high root : shoot ratios essential for efficient transplanting. Methods A new procedure was devised in which the concentrations of nutrients in the irrigation solution were modified during growth according to changing plant demand, instead of maintaining the same concentrations throughout growth. The new procedure depends on published algorithms for the dependence of growth rate and optimal plant nutrient concentrations on shoot dry weight Ws (g m?2), and on measuring evapotranspiration rates and shoot dry weights at weekly intervals. Pansy, Viola tricola ‘Universal plus yellow’ and petunia, Petunia hybrida ‘Multiflora light salmon vein’ were grown in four independent experiments with the expected optimum nutrient concentration and fractions of the optimum. Root and shoot weights were measured during growth. Key Results For each level of nutrient supply Ws increased with time (t) in days, according to the equation ?Ws/?t=K2Ws/(100+Ws) in which the growth rate coefficient (K2) remained approximately constant throughout growth. The value of K2 for the optimum treatment was defined by incoming radiation and temperature. The value of K2 for each sub-optimum treatment relative to that for the optimum treatment was logarithmically related to the sub-optimal nutrient supply. Provided the aerial environment was optimal, Rsb/Ro?Wo/Wsb where R is the root : shoot ratio, W is the shoot dry weight, and sb and o indicate sub-optimum and optimum nutrient supplies, respectively. Sub-optimal nutrient concentrations also depressed shoot growth without appreciably affecting root growth when the aerial environment was non-limiting. Conclusion The new procedure can predict the effects of nutrient supply, incoming radiation and temperature on the time course of shoot growth and the root : shoot ratio for a range of growing conditions. PMID:17210608

Greenwood, Duncan J.; Mckee, John M. T.; Fuller, Deborah P.; Burns, Ian G.; Mulholland, Barry J.

2007-01-01

297

Phenotype adaptability and stability of sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane belt of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.  

PubMed

We assessed the agroindustrial performance of 25 sugarcane genotypes adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, within the microregions Mata Norte, Mata Sul, Região Central, Litoral Norte, and Litoral Sul. The variables analyzed were POL tonnage per hectare, sugarcane tonnage per hectare, fiber and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare, using a randomized block design with four repetitions. Combined variance of experiments, genetic parameter estimates, decomposition of the genotype-environment interaction, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotype adaptability and stability were also analyzed. The various genotypes presented great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern to the microregions Centro and Mata Sul of the state of Pernambuco. Genotypes RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB953180, SP81-3250, RB75126, and RB942520 were better in productivity and phenotype adaptability and stability compared to genotypes RB892700, RB943365, SP79-1011, Q138, RB943538, SP78-4764, RB953281, RB943066, RB928064, RB93509, RB72454, RB952675, RB952991, RB943161, RB942898, RB872552, RB952900, and RB942849. These genotypes are recommended as cultivation options in the sugarcane belt in the state of Pernambuco, since they stand out in terms of phenotype adaptability and stability as evaluated using the method by Annicchiarico, Lin and Bins, and the method by Eberhart and Russel. PMID:25177966

Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

2014-01-01

298

Improved rooting of western white pine shoots from tissue cultures  

SciTech Connect

Adventitious shoots of Pinus monticola obtained from embryonic tissue were exposed to 4 combinations of growth regulators (6-benzylaminopurine/NAA/IAA/IBA), either continuously for 6 weeks or by pulse treatment for 7 days, followed by 5 weeks culture without growth regulators. After 6 weeks of continuous exposure, rooting of shoots varied between 0 and 20%. Pulse treatment resulted in 40-64% rooting. In paired comparisons pulse treatments always provided better rooting percentages than did constant exposure treatments. Pulse treatments also produced longer (less than 2 mm) roots and more multiple roots.

Amerson, H.V.; Mott, R.L.

1982-01-01

299

Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis  

PubMed Central

Background The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97?3 blend of Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1?99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female's blend. A closely related species, the Asian corn borer (ACB), O. furnacalis, uses a 3?2 blend of Z12- and E12-tetradecenyl acetate, and is believed to have evolved from an ECB-like ancestor. To further knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of pheromone detection and its evolution among closely related species we identified and characterized sex pheromone receptors from ECB(Z). Methodology Homology-dependent (degenerate PCR primers designed to conserved amino acid motifs) and homology-independent (pyrophosphate sequencing of antennal cDNA) approaches were used to identify candidate sex pheromone transcripts. Expression in male and female antennae was assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. Two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology was used to functionally characterize candidate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Conclusion We characterized five sex pheromone receptors, OnOrs1 and 3–6. Their transcripts were 14–100 times more abundant in male compared to female antennae. OnOr6 was highly selective for Z11-tetradecenyl acetate (EC50?=?0.86±0.27 µM) and was at least three orders of magnitude less responsive to E11-tetradecenyl acetate. Surprisingly, OnOr1, 3 and 5 responded to all four pheromones tested (Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, and Z12- and E12-tetradecenyl acetate) and to Z9-tetradecenyl acetate, a behavioral antagonist. OnOr1 was selective for E12-tetradecenyl acetate based on an efficacy that was at least 5-fold greater compared to the other four components. This combination of specifically- and broadly-responsive pheromone receptors corresponds to published results of sensory neuron activity in vivo. Receptors broadly-responsive to a class of pheromone components may provide a mechanism for variation in the male moth response that enables population level shifts in pheromone blend use. PMID:20084285

Wanner, Kevin W.; Nichols, Andrew S.; Allen, Jean E.; Bunger, Peggy L.; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Linn, Charles E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Luetje, Charles W.

2010-01-01

300

Towards the response of water balance to sugarcane expansion in the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the short-, medium- and long-term impacts of expansion of the sugarcane plantation on the water balance of the Rio Grande Basin, Brazil, as estimated by changes in evapotranspiration, soil moisture content and surface runoff calculated by a hydrological model. Twenty years of simulation are made using three different land use scenarios that include the basin area planted with sugarcane in 1993, 2000 and 2007 as estimated from satellite images. Complementary, it is used a scenario for sugarcane plantation defined by the Brazilian Institute for Agricultural Research (EMPRAPA) as all areas suitable for sugarcane cultivation within the Rio Grande Basin. In addition, parameters for sugarcane fields were specifically defined via calibration and validation of the hydrological model for all growth phases based on the annual cycle of sugarcane phenology in the Rio Grande Basin. According to results from the land use classification of satellite images, the expansion of sugarcane fields mostly replaced pasture lands. Modelling results for short-, medium- and long-term clarify that impacts of this expansion depended not only on the amount of areas planted with sugarcane, but also the type of land use replaced, location of the expansion within the basin and regional soil properties. Largest impacts on the water balance are observed if areas located close to headwaters with low soil water capacity are planted with sugarcane. In case all areas suitable for sugarcane plantation, as defined by EMBRAPA will actually be planted, simulations showed that the annual accumulated values of evapotranspiration increase up to 180% while surface runoff is reduced to 20% of the values calculated using a land use scenario from 1993.

Pereira, F. F.; Tursunov, M.; Uvo, C. B.

2013-05-01

301

Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.  

PubMed

Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil. PMID:23511210

Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

2013-05-01

302

Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).  

PubMed

Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United States. To aid in the development of laboratory rearing protocols, we assessed the influence of various emerald ash borer stages on critical fitness parameters of S. galinae. We exposed gravid S. galinae females to emerald ash borer host larvae of various ages (3.5, 5, 7, and 10 wk post egg oviposition) that were reared naturally in tropical (evergreen) ash (Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh) logs, or to field-collected, late-stage emerald ash borers (nonfeeding J-shaped larvae termed "J-larvae," prepupae, and pupae) that were artificially inserted into green ash logs. When exposed to larvae in tropical ash logs, S. galinae attacked 5 and 7 wk hosts more frequently (68-76%) than 3.5 wk (23%) and 10 wk (12%) hosts. Subsample dissections of the these logs revealed that 3.5, 5, 7 and 10 wk host logs contained mostly second, third, fourth, and J-larvae, respectively, that had already bored into the sapwood for diapause. No J-larvae were attacked by S. galinae when naturally reared in tropical ash logs. When parasitized by S. galinae, 7 and 10 wk hosts produced the largest broods (approximately 6.7 offspring per parasitized host), and the progenies that emerged from these logs had larger anatomical measurements and more female-biased sex ratios. When exposed to emerald ash borer J-larvae, prepupae, or pupae artificially inserted into green ash logs, S. galinae attacked 53% ofJ-larvae, but did not attack any prepupae or pupae. We conclude that large (fourth instar) emerald ash borer larvae should be used to rear S. galinae. PMID:25195418

Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J

2014-08-01

303

Transgenic plants from fragmented shoot tips of apple ( Malus baccata (L.) Borkhausen) via agrobacterium-mediated transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic apple (Malus baccata (L.) Borkhausen) plants were obtained via Agrobaterium-mediated transformation of fragmented shoot tips. Our results showed that without wounding treatment or with wounding treatment (II, cutting shoot tips vertically into two parts), shoots generally regenerated from meristem tissues directly and adventitious shoot regeneration was rarely observed. Otherwise, when shoot tips were cut vertically into four parts, a

Yongjie Wu; Yunhe Li; Yaqin Wu; Hehe Cheng; Yin Li; Yanhua Zhao; Yusheng Li

2011-01-01

304

Circulating Tumor Cell Assay Quality Control and Trouble Shooting Guide  

Cancer.gov

1.1 1.2 Version: July 2010 1.3 Circulating Tumor Cell Assay Quality Control and Trouble Shooting Guide LHTP003.8.1 ?H2AX IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE ASSAY FOR CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS USING THE CELLSEARCH SYSTEM LHTP003.8.1.1 ?H2AX IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

305

The Columbine Shootings and the Discourse of Fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tragic events on April 20, 1999, in Littleton, Colorado, provide an opportunity to reflect on the nature and consequences of not just the shootings but also the meanings that were ascribed to various facets of those events, including an emergent definition of the “Columbine Syndrome.” Based on a qualitative media analysis, this article examines part of the public presentations

David L. Altheide

2009-01-01

306

Propagation of potato by shoot tip culture in petri dishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A method is described for propagating potato shoot tips with liquid culture in petri dishes. With cv: Exton, Pontiac, Kennebec\\u000a and Sebago multiplication rates could exceed 8-fold every 8 weeks. The petri dishes can be packed so as to accommodate large\\u000a numbers of multiplying tips in a small space.

P. B. Goodwin; T. Adisarwanto

1980-01-01

307

Developmental anatomy of the reproductive shoot in Hydrobryum japonicum (Podostemaceae).  

PubMed

Podostemaceae are unusual aquatic angiosperms adapting to extreme habitats, i.e., rapids and waterfalls, and have unique morphologies. We investigated the developmental anatomy of reproductive shoots scattered on crustose roots of Hydrobryum japonicum by scanning electron microscopy and using semi-thin serial sections. Two developmental patterns were observed: bracts arise either continuously from an area of meristematic cells that has produced leaves, or within differentiated root ground tissue beneath, and internal to, leaf base scars after an interruption. In both patterns, the bract primordia arise endogenously at the base of youngest bracts in the absence of shoot apical meristem, involving vacuolated-cell detachment to each bract separately. The different transition patterns of reproductive shoot development may be caused by different stages of parental vegetative shoots. The floral meristem arises between the two youngest bracts, and is similarly accompanied by cell degeneration. In contrast, the floral organs, including the spathella, arise exogenously from the meristem. Bract development, like vegetative leaf development, is unique to this podostemad, while floral-organ development is conserved. PMID:18506393

Katayama, Natsu; Koi, Satoshi; Kato, Masahiro

2008-07-01

308

Application of lead isotope analysis in shooting incident investigations.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to examine the potential of the considerable variability of the lead isotope compositions in bullets (projectiles) and primers in shooting incident investigations. Multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP/MS) was used to analyze lead isotopic compositions in projectiles, cartridge cases, firearms discharge residues (FDR) in barrels of firearms and in the gunshot entries. .22 caliber plain lead and plated ammunition and 9 mm Luger full metal jacket (FMJ) ammunition were employed in shooting experiments using semiautomatic pistols. Cotton cloth served as the target material and two firing distances were tested; 1 cm (near contact) and 2 m distances. It was observed that various mechanical or chemical means of cleaning do not completely remove lead deposits ("lead memory") from barrels of firearms. Nonetheless, it was shown that analysis of lead isotopic composition may provide valuable evidence in investigating specific scenarios of shooting incidents. For instance in a shoot-out where several firearms and ammunition brands are involved, it may be feasible to point out which ammunition and/or firearm caused a particular gunshot entry if the ammunition brands involved (bullets and primers) differ considerably in their lead isotopic composition. PMID:15967612

Zeichner, Arie; Ehrlich, Sarah; Shoshani, Ezra; Halicz, Ludwik

2006-04-20

309

DYNAMIC EMBEDDED OPTIMIZATION AND SHOOTING METHODS FOR POWER  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 DYNAMIC EMBEDDED OPTIMIZATION AND SHOOTING METHODS FOR POWER SYSTEM PERFORMANCE@ieee.org Abstract Power system dynamic performance enhancement can often be formu- lated as a dynamic embedded optimization problem. The associated cost function quantifies performance and involves dynamically evolving

310

Witnessing an Accidental Shooting at the Police Training Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an accidental shooting at a police training academy, outcomes of the class involved (n = 45) were compared with those of several comparison classes (n = 154) immediately and one year later. Results revealed a modest impact, but an increase in PTSD symptomology was observed from academy training to the one-year follow-up. Recruits in the affected class demonstrated more

Kimberly A. Lonsway; Susan Welch

2005-01-01

311

Original article Biomass of root and shoot systems  

E-print Network

Original article Biomass of root and shoot systems of Quercus coccifera shrublands in Eastern Spain biomass of kermes oak shrublands (Quercus coccifera L.), an evergreen sclerophyllous species common- mass has been measured on 320 1-m2 plots. Total biomass varies with age and ranges between 0.4 (7

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

The function of dart shooting in helicid snails* Ronald Chase  

E-print Network

Gill University, 1205 Ave. Docteur Penfield, Montréal, Québec, H3A 1B1 Canada, ronald.chase@mcgill.ca Abstract that the dart increases the reproductive fitness of the successful shooter by promoting the survival dart shooting clearly benefits the shooter, there is little evidence to suggest either a cost

Chase, Ronald

313

The "Trouble Shooting" Checklist for School-Based Settings (Manual).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Trouble Shooting Checklist" (TSC) is a diagnostic and predictive instrument designed to aid educational change agents, faculty, and administrators in estimating the effects of particular variables on an institution's potential for successfully adopting innovations. The TSC consists of 100 descriptive statements that are broken down into seven…

Manning, Brad A.

314

Adventitious Shoot Regeneration and Micropropagation of Black Walnut  

E-print Network

) Plantation. B) Boards. C) Veneer. D) Fruit on the tree. E) Kernels for food consumption. F) Chair made out.005 M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) plus 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 13.2, or 17.6 M 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) (Scaltsoyiannes et al., 1997). The BA concentration shown to be most effective for shoot multiplication

315

EFFECTS OF CATTLE GRAZING ON SHOOT POPULATION DYNAMICS OF  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF CATTLE GRAZING ON SHOOT POPULATION DYNAMICS OF BEAKED SEDGE Douglas R. Allen Clayton B. Marlow ABSTRACT More information is needed on the grazing responses of wetland graminoids to improve protected and 40 plots were grazed by cattle in June and September each year. Altlwugh number ofshoots

316

PREDICTING CHEMICAL ACCUMULATION IN SHOOTS OF AQUATIC PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemical exchange dynamics expected for diffusive transfer of a chemical between aqueous solution and plant shoots, and expected bioconcentration based on partitioning properties of the chemical, are explored by using a three-compartment model. he model utilizes three dynamic com...

317

Original article Effects of needle clumping in shoots and crowns  

E-print Network

shape, shoot geometry and needle morphology. Various assumptions about canopy structure (homogeneous of a Norway spruce canopy Alessandro Cescatti Centro di Ecologia Alpina, 38040 Viote del Monte Bondone (TN of needle clumping on the canopy transmittance of a conifer stand are examined using a 3D radiative transfer

Boyer, Edmond

318

Auxins and Shoot Tropisms--A Tenuous Connection?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the Cholodny-Went hypothesis which explains geo- and phototropic curvature in shoots in terms of a perception phase at the apex with a response at some remote site. Hormonal messages, lateral transmission of a stimulus, auxin concentration gradients, and what should be taught concerning this hypothesis are discussed. (DS)

Hall, A. B.; And Others

1980-01-01

319

A Trainer System for Air Rifle\\/Pistol Shooting  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the immense competition in the current sports world, the technology has come in to the picture in a substantial way to outperform other competitors in the sport. But, in Sri Lanka, most of local sportsman could not gain a proper training which is backed by technology to reach international levels. This is common for the Air Rifle\\/Pistol shooting sport

H. L. K. Silva; S. D. Uthuranga; B. Shiyamala; W. C. M. Kumarasiri; H. B. Walisundara; G. T. I. Karunarathne

2009-01-01

320

Todd Strasser Takes Aim at School Shootings: An Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes an interview with Todd Strasser, the young adult book author of "Give a Boy a Gun", as well as an excerpt from one of his speeches. Addresses issues related to school shootings, the easy availability of guns, ridicule and bullying, peer pressure, and violence in media. (LRW)

Shoemaker, Joel

2001-01-01

321

Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas  

PubMed Central

The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

2010-01-01

322

Thermal constraints on the emerald ash borer invasion of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; EAB), a non-native invasive beetle, has caused substantial damage to green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), white (Fraxinus americana L.), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.), the major ash species of North America. In the absence of effective methods for controlling or eradicating the beetle, EAB continues to spread unimpeded across North America. Evidence indicates the mortality rate for EAB-infested trees near the epicenter of the infestation in southeast Michigan exceeds 99 percent for the major ash species. One possible climatic limitation on the spread of the infestation is suggested by recent work indicating that beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -35.3 degrees Celsius. We considered whether this thermal constraint will limit the spread and distribution of EAB in North America. Historical climatic data for the United States and Canada were employed along with thermal models of the conditions beneath likely winter snowpack and beneath tree bark to predict the potential geographic distribution of the invasion. Results suggested the thermal mortality constraint will not lead to the protection of ash stands across most of North America. However, recent work indicates the majority of beetles cannot survive exposure to temperatures below -30 degrees Celsius. Along with our results, this suggests thermal constraints near the northern and western edges of the ranges of ash might limit EAB survival to some extent, thereby reducing the EAB population, the likelihood of EAB infestation, and subsequent ash mortality.

DeSantis, R.; Moser, W. K.; Gormanson, D. D.; Bartlett, M. G.

2012-12-01

323

Lesser Grain Borers, Rhyzopertha dominica, Select Rough Rice Kernels with Cracked Hulls for Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Tests were conducted to determine whether the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), selects rough rice (Oryza sativa L. (Poales: Poaceae)) kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction when these kernels are mixed with intact kernels. Differing amounts of kernels with cracked hulls (0, 5, 10, and 20%) of the varieties Francis and Wells were mixed with intact kernels, and the number of adult progeny emerging from intact kernels and from kernels with cracked hulls was determined. The Wells variety had been previously classified as tolerant to R. dominica, while the Francis variety was classified as moderately susceptible. Few F 1 progeny were produced in Wells regardless of the percentage of kernels with cracked hulls, few of the kernels with cracked hulls had emergence holes, and little firass was produced from feeding damage. At 10 and 20% kernels with cracked hulls, the progeny production, number of emergence holes in kernels with cracked hulls, and the amount of firass was greater in Francis than in Wells. The proportion of progeny emerging from kernels with cracked hulls increased as the proportion of kernels with cracked hulls increased. The results indicate that R. dominica select kernels with cracked hulls for reproduction. PMID:22943499

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G.; Athanassiou, Christos G.; Arthur, Frank H.; Throne, James E.

2012-01-01

324

Consequences of reproductive barriers for genealogical discordance in the European corn borer  

PubMed Central

Speciation involves the origin of trait differences that limit or prevent gene exchange and ultimately results in daughter populations that form monophyletic or exclusive genetic groups. However, for recently diverged populations or species between which reproductive isolation is often incomplete, gene genealogies will be discordant, and most regions of the genome will display nonexclusive genealogical patterns. In these situations, genome regions for which one or both species are exclusive groups may mark the footprint of recent selective sweeps. Alternatively, such regions may include or be closely linked to “speciation genes,” genes involved in reproductive isolation. Therefore, comparisons of gene genealogies allow inferences about the genetic architectures of both reproductive isolation and adaptation. Contrasting genealogical relationships in sexually isolated pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis) demonstrate the relevance of this approach. Genealogies for five gene regions are discordant, and only one molecular marker, the sex-linked gene Tpi, has evidence for pheromone strain exclusivity. Tpi maps to a position on the sex chromosome that is indistinguishable from a major factor (Pdd) affecting differences in postdiapause development time. The major factor (Resp) determining male behavioral response to pheromone is also sex-linked, but maps 20-30 cM away. Exclusivity at Tpi may be a consequence of these linkage relationships because evidence from phenotypic variation in natural populations implicates both Pdd and Resp as candidates for genes involved in recent sweeps and/or reproductive isolation between strains. PMID:16204000

Dopman, Erik B.; Perez, Luisa; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.; Harrison, Richard G.

2005-01-01

325

Nutritional Performance of the Tomato Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on Different Tomato Cultivars  

PubMed Central

The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

326

Components of reproductive isolation between North American pheromone strains of the European corn borer.  

PubMed

Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z- and E-pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers resulted in nearly complete isolation (>99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as approximately 10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence. PMID:19895559

Dopman, Erik B; Robbins, Paul S; Seaman, Abby

2010-04-01

327

The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

2013-10-01

328

Sympatric host races of the European corn borer: adaptation to host plants and hybrid performance.  

PubMed

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, is a major pest of maize crops. In Europe, two sympatric host races are found: one feeds on maize (Zea mays) and the other mainly on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris). The two host races are genetically differentiated, seldom crossing in the laboratory or in the field, and females preferentially lay eggs on their native host species. We conducted two independent experiments, in field and greenhouse conditions, to determine whether the two host races are locally adapted to their host species. The effect of larval density and the performance of hybrids were also investigated. Despite some differences in overall larval feeding performance, both experiments revealed consistent patterns of local adaptation for survival and for larval weight in males. In females the same trend was observed but with weaker statistical support. F1 hybrids did not seem to be disadvantaged compared with the two parental races. Overall, our results showed that both host races are physiologically adapted to their native host. The fitness trade-off between the two host plants provides a potential driving force for ecological speciation in this species. PMID:17714289

Calcagno, V; Thomas, Y; Bourguet, D

2007-09-01

329

COMPONENTS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION BETWEEN NORTH AMERICAN PHEROMONE STRAINS OF THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER  

PubMed Central

Of 12 potential reproductive isolating barriers between closely related Z and E pheromone strains of the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis), seven significantly reduced gene flow but none were complete, suggesting that speciation in this lineage is a gradual process in which multiple barriers of intermediate strength accumulate. Estimation of the cumulative effect of all barriers was nearly complete isolation (> 99%), but geographic variation in seasonal isolation allowed as much as ~10% gene flow. With the strongest barriers arising from mate-selection behavior or ecologically relevant traits, sexual and natural selection are the most likely evolutionary processes driving population divergence. A recent multilocus genealogical study corroborates the roles of selection and gene flow (Dopman et al. 2005), because introgression is supported at all loci besides Tpi, a sex-linked gene. Tpi reveals strains as exclusive groups, possesses signatures of selection, and is tightly linked to a QTL that contributes to seasonal isolation. With more than 98% of total cumulative isolation consisting of prezygotic barriers, Z and E strains of ECB join a growing list of taxa in which species boundaries are primarily maintained by the prevention of hybridization, possibly because premating barriers evolve during early stages of population divergence. PMID:19895559

Dopman, Erik B.; Robbins, Paul S.; Seaman, Abby

2009-01-01

330

[Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)].  

PubMed

The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. PMID:20877987

Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor

2010-01-01

331

Salivary signals of European corn borer induce indirect defenses in tomato  

PubMed Central

Plants can recognize the insect elicitors and activate its defense mechanisms. European Corn Borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis) saliva, produced from the labial salivary glands and released through the spinneret, is responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Glucose oxidase (GOX) present in the ECB saliva induced direct defenses in tomato. By contrast, GOX activity in ECB saliva was insufficient to trigger defenses in maize, suggesting that host-specific salivary elicitors are responsible for inducing direct defenses in host plants. Our current study further examined whether ECB saliva can trigger indirect defenses in tomato. Relative expression levels of TERPENE SYNTHASE5 (TPS5) and HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE (HPL), marker for indirect defenses in host plants, were monitored. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ECB saliva can induce the expression of TPS5 and HPL, suggesting that salivary signals can induce indirect defenses in addition to the direct defenses. Further experiments are required to identify different ECB elicitors that are responsible for inducing direct and indirect defenses in host plants. PMID:24310003

Louis, Joe; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

2013-01-01

332

Nutritional performance of the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on different tomato cultivars.  

PubMed

The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25373228

Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

333

Nutritional performance of the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera, on different tomato cultivars.  

PubMed

The development and cultivation of tomato cultivars that are resistant to the tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are very limited in Iran and other parts of the world because of the lack of information about resistant tomato cultivars to minimize the use of insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to identify alternative methods to chemical control. Nutritional performance of the larval stages (fourth, fifth, and sixth instars) of H. armigera on fruit of eight tomato cultivars, including SUN 6108 f1, Rio grande UG, Korral, Super strain B, CH falat, Hed rio grande, Cal.JN3, and Super crystal, was studied under laboratory conditions. Fourth instars reared on CH falat and SUN 6108 f1 respectively showed the highest and lowest values of approximate digestibility. The highest values of efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food of fifth instars were on Super strain B. The relative consumption rate and relative growth rate values of the sixth instars were the highest on Korral. The highest and lowest values of consumption index of sixth instars were on Super strain B and Hed rio grande, respectively. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values of whole larval instars were the highest on Hed rio grande and lowest on Rio grande UG. The results of nutritional indices indicated that Rio grande UG is an unsuitable host for H. armigera. PMID:25204681

Kouhi, Davoud; Naseri, Bahram; Golizadeh, Ali

2014-01-01

334

Periods of Organogenesis in Shoots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oersted (Nothofagaceae)  

PubMed Central

The organogenetic cycle of main?branch shoots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Nothofagaceae) was studied. Twelve samples of 52–59 parent shoots were collected from a roadside population between September 1999 and October 2000. Variations over time in the number of nodes of terminal and axillary buds, and the length, diameter and number of leaves of shoots derived from these buds (sibling shoots) were analysed. The number of nodes of buds developed by parent shoots was compared with the number of nodes of buds developed, 1 year later, by sibling shoots. The length, diameter and number of leaves of sibling shoots increased from October 1999 to February 2000 in those shoots with a terminal bud. However, extension of most sibling shoots, including the first five most distal leaf primordia, ceased before February due to abscission of the shoot apex. Axillary buds located most distally on a shoot had more nodes than both terminal buds and more proximal axillary buds. The longest shoots included a preformed part and a neoformed part. The organogenetic event which initiated the neoformed organs continued until early autumn, giving rise to the following year’s preformation. The absence of cataphylls in terminal buds could indicate a low intensity of shoot rest. The naked terminal bud of Nothofagus spp. could be interpreted as a structure less specialized than the scaled bud found in genera of Fagaceae and Betulaceae. PMID:12096813

PUNTIERI, J. G.; BARTHÉLÉMY, D.; MAZZINI, C.; BRION, C.

2002-01-01

335

Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

336

Field performance of transgenic sugarcane expressing isomaltulose synthase.  

PubMed

Transgenic sugarcane plants expressing a vacuole-targeted isomaltulose (IM) synthase in seven recipient genotypes (elite cultivars) were evaluated over 3?years at a field site typical of commercial cane growing conditions in the Burdekin district of Australia. IM concentration typically increased with internode maturity and comprised up to 217?mm (33% of total sugars) in whole-cane juice. There was generally a comparable decrease in sucrose concentration, with no overall decrease in total sugars. Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated from stem cuttings known as setts. Culture-derived plants were slower to establish and generally gave shorter and thinner stalks at harvest than those grown from field-sourced setts in the initial field generations. However, after several cycles of field propagation, selections were obtained with cane yields similar to the recipient genotypes. There was no apparent adverse effect of IM accumulation on vigour assessed by stalk height and diameter or other visual indicators including germination of setts and establishment of stools. There was some inconsistency in IM levels in juice, between samplings of the vegetatively propagated transgenic lines. Until the causes are resolved, it is prudent to selectively propagate from stalks with higher IM levels in the initial vegetative field generations. Pol/Brix ratio allowed rapid identification of lines with high IM levels, using common sugar industry instruments. Sucrose isomerase activity was low in these transgenic lines, and the results indicate strong potential to develop sugarcane for commercial-scale production of IM if higher activity can be engineered in appropriate developmental patterns. PMID:21895946

Basnayake, Shiromani W V; Morgan, Terrance C; Wu, Luguang; Birch, Robert G

2012-02-01

337

The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.  

PubMed

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses. PMID:25391499

Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

2014-01-01

338

The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses. PMID:25391499

Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

2014-01-01

339

Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Sugarcane Responses to Sporisorium scitaminea Infection Using Solexa Sequencing Technology  

PubMed Central

To understand the molecular basis of sugarcane-smut interaction, it is important to identify sugarcane genes that respond to the pathogen attack. High-throughput tag-sequencing (tag-seq) analysis by Solexa technology was performed on sugarcane infected with Sporisorium scitaminea, which should have massively increased the amount of data available for transcriptome profile analysis. After mapping to sugarcane EST databases in NCBI, we obtained 2015 differentially expressed genes, of which 1125 were upregulated and 890 downregulated by infection. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes involve in many cellular processes. Pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways and ribosome function are significantly affected, where upregulation of expression dominates over downregulation. Differential expression of three candidate genes involved in MAP kinase signaling pathway, ScBAK1 (GenBank Accession number: KC857629), ScMapkk (GenBank Accession number: KC857627), and ScGloI (GenBank Accession number: KC857628), was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis concluded that the expression of these genes were all up-regulated after the infection of S. scitaminea and may play a role in pathogen response in sugarcane. The present study provides insights into the molecular mechanism of sugarcane defense to S. scitaminea infection, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of sugarcane-smut interaction. PMID:24288673

Xu, Liping; Guo, Jinlong; Su, Yachun

2013-01-01

340

Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

2013-07-01

341

Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).  

PubMed

Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems. PMID:19750241

Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

2009-01-01

342

A Global View of Transcriptome Dynamics during Sporisorium scitamineum Challenge in Sugarcane by RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a critical fungal disease in the sugarcane industry. However, molecular mechanistic studies of pathological response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum are scarce and preliminary. Here, transcriptome analysis of sugarcane disease induced by S. scitamineum at 24, 48 and 120 h was conducted, using an S. scitamineum-resistant and -susceptible genotype (Yacheng05-179 and “ROC”22). The reliability of Illumina data was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In total, transcriptome sequencing of eight samples revealed gene annotations of 65,852 unigenes. Correlation analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that after S. scitamineum infection, most differentially expressed genes and related metabolic pathways in both sugarcane genotypes were common, covering most biological activities. However, expression of resistance-associated genes in Yacheng05-179 (24–48 h) occurred earlier than those in “ROC”22 (48–120 h), and more transcript expressions were observed in the former, suggesting resistance specificity and early timing of these genes in non-affinity sugarcane and S. scitamineum interactions. Obtained unigenes were related to cellular components, molecular functions and biological processes. From these data, functional annotations associated with resistance were obtained, including signal transduction mechanisms, energy production and conversion, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and defense mechanisms. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes are involved in plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, cell wall fortification pathway and other resistance-associated metabolic pathways. Disease inoculation experiments and the validation of in vitro antibacterial activity of the chitinase gene ScChi show that this sugarcane chitinase gene identified through RNA-Seq analysis is relevant to plant-pathogen interactions. In conclusion, expression data here represent the most comprehensive dataset available for sugarcane smut induced by S. scitamineum and will serve as a resource for finally unraveling the molecular mechanisms of sugarcane responses to S. scitamineum. PMID:25171065

Que, Youxiong; Su, Yachun; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

343

50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the...

2011-10-01

344

50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the...

2012-10-01

345

50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the...

2010-10-01

346

50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107...Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the...

2013-10-01

347

Kinetics of shoot inversion-induced ethylene production in Pharbitis nil.  

PubMed

Shoot inversion promotes a significant increase in ethylene production in the inverted part of the Pharbitis nil main shoot. The latent period for shoot inversion-induced ethylene production is ca. 2.75 h. Our results indicate that the shoot-inversion ethylene response is not persistent and can be terminated and rapidly reinitiated by appropriate alteration of the orientation of the main shoot regardless of prolonged previous exposures of the shoot to various orientations. The time course of the production of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), the immediate precursor of ethylene, follows a pattern similar to that of ethylene during the various alterations of shoot orientation. Excised stem segments and intact stems are capable of induction, inhibition, and reinduction of ethylene evolution. Ethylene production reported here for shoot inversion does not result from segmenting (wounding) of the tissue. PMID:11539674

Prasad, T K; Cline, M G

1986-01-01

348

27 CFR 478.35 - Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. ...Provisions § 478.35 Skeet, trap, target, and similar shooting activities. ...alternate records, for skeet, trap, target, and similar organized activities...

2010-04-01

349

On Location: Shooting Environmental Portraits Requires Mastery of All Components of Photography Including Technique and Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers tips from 3 professional photographers on shooting environmental portraits that tell a story about the person through the photograph. Offers a brief case study regarding a particular photo shoot, including an exercise. (SR)

Junco, Victor; McLean, Mike; Reynolds, Beth

2000-01-01

350

50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. 20.106 Section 20.106 Wildlife...limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. This section provides for the annual hunting of sandhill cranes in designated portions of the 48...

2013-10-01

351

50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. 20.106 Section 20.106 Wildlife...limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. This section provides for the annual hunting of sandhill cranes in designated portions of the 48...

2010-10-01

352

50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. 20.106 Section 20.106 Wildlife...limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. This section provides for the annual hunting of sandhill cranes in designated portions of the 48...

2011-10-01

353

50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. 20.106 Section 20.106 Wildlife...limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. This section provides for the annual hunting of sandhill cranes in designated portions of the 48...

2012-10-01

354

Kinetics of shoot inversion-induced ethylene production in Pharbitis nil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shoot inversion promotes a significant increase in ethylene production in the inverted part of the Pharbitis nil main shoot. The latent period for shoot inversion-induced ethylene production is ca. 2.75 h. Our results indicate that the shoot-inversion ethylene response is not persistent and can be terminated and rapidly reinitiated by appropriate alteration of the orientation of the main shoot regardless of prolonged previous exposures of the shoot to various orientations. The time course of the production of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid), the immediate precursor of ethylene, follows a pattern similar to that of ethylene during the various alterations of shoot orientation. Excised stem segments and intact stems are capable of induction, inhibition, and reinduction of ethylene evolution. Ethylene production reported here for shoot inversion does not result from segmenting (wounding) of the tissue.

Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

1986-01-01

355

December 2012 Connecticut School Shooting Position Statement Interdisciplinary Group on Preventing School and Community Violence December 19, 2012  

E-print Network

December 2012 Connecticut School Shooting Position Statement Interdisciplinary Group on Preventing move forward in light of this tragic event. This document updates the School Shootings Position Statement that was disseminated nationally following the tragic school-related shootings of 2006

Farritor, Shane

356

77 FR 68813 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land...shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure...following public lands in eastern San Diego County to recreational shooting...

2012-11-16

357

75 FR 19422 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land...shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure...following public lands in eastern San Diego County to recreational shooting...

2010-04-14

358

78 FR 50443 - Notice of Temporary Closure to Target Shooting on Public Lands in Yakima County, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shooting from, that users are effectively shooting at each other. In addition, there is a considerable amount of debris left behind that is associated with shooting activity. Despite the efforts of BLM law enforcement officers to educate the...

2013-08-19

359

The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status  

E-print Network

The dependence of water potential in shoots of Picea abies on air and soil water status A. Sellin there is sucient water storage in the soil the water potential Wx in shoots of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L water potential W is above �0X62 MPa, the principal factor causing water de®ciency in shoots of P. abies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

Effects of anxiety on handgun shooting behavior of police officers: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current pilot study aimed at providing an initial assessment of how anxiety influences police officers’ shooting behavior. Seven police officers participated and completed an identical shooting exercise under two experimental conditions: low anxiety, against a non-threatening opponent, and high anxiety (HA), against a threatening opponent who occasionally shot back using colored soap cartridges. Measurements included shooting accuracy, movement times,

Arne Nieuwenhuys; Raôul R. D. Oudejans

2010-01-01

361

Shooting mechanics related to player classification and free throw success in wheelchair basketball  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine what factors are associated with suc- cessful free throw (FT) shooting in wheelchair basketball and to examine the relationship between shooting mechanics and player classification, a biomechanical analysis of clean shots was undertaken. Significant differences were observed between the player classes in FT shooting mechanics employed for a clean shot. Players from Classes 1 and 2 tended to

Laurie A. Malone; Pierre L. Gervais; Robert D. Steadward

362

Peroxidase activity, ethylene production, lignification and growth limitation in shoots of a nonrooting mutant of tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rooting recalcitrant rac Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi mutant has been multiplied in vitro under the form of shoots in parallel to wild-type. rac Shoots grew at a lower rate and did not root whatever the treatments when compared to those of wild-type shoots. They were characterized by a higher lignin level, a higher total specific peroxidase activity with higher

Odile Faivre-Rampant; Claire Kevers; Catherine Bellini; Thomas Gaspar

1998-01-01

363

Weathering of Lead Bullets and Their Environmental Effects at Outdoor Shooting Ranges  

E-print Network

that all of the metallic lead pellets and berm soils in the shooting ranges with alkaline soil p of organic Pb complexes at alkaline soil pH. found that soil Pb concentrations at an outdoor shooting of approximately 60 000 Mg per year (Craig et al., 1999).Lead contamination at shooting range soils is of great

Ma, Lena

364

Accumulation of raffinose and stachyose in shoot apices of Lonicera caerulea L. during cold acclimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes were examined in the freezing tolerance, water content and soluble sugar composition of shoot apices of Lonicera caerulea L. var. emphyllocaryx Nakai. Shoot apices were prepared from field-grown plants between April 1993 and August 1994. The LT50, the temperature at which 50% of frozen shoot tips survived, decreased from ?18 to ?40°C between October and December, it remained

Hiroyuki T Imanishi; Takashi Suzuki; Kiyoshi Masuda; Takashi Harada

1998-01-01

365

Shoot elongation, leaf demography and bud formation in relation to branch position on Larix laricina saplings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoot development was investigated on branches of Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch trees growing in their 8th year in two plantations and in a natural stand approximately 12 years old. Expansion of throughout-crown series of short and long shoots was measured weekly, and later colour change and natural fall of leaves were assessed. Similar shoots were collected at intervals

Graham R. Powell

1988-01-01

366

The role of gravity in apical dominance: effects of clinostating on shoot inversion-induced ethylene production, shoot elongation and lateral bud growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is inhibited by rotating the plant at 0.42 revolutions per minute in a vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of a horizontal clinostat. Clinostating prevented lateral bud outgrowth, apparently by negating the restriction of the shoot elongation via reduction of ethylene production in the inverted shoot. Radial stem expansion was also decreased. Data from experiments with intact tissue and isolated segments indicated that shoot-inversion stimulates ethylene production by increasing the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. The results support the hypothesis that shoot inversion-induced release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil is due to gravity stress and is mediated by ethylene-induced retardation of the elongation of the inverted shoot.

Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

1987-01-01

367

Candidates for Symbiotic Control of Sugarcane White Leaf Disease  

PubMed Central

The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) is the most important vector of a phytoplasma pathogen causing sugarcane white leaf (SCWL) disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate candidate bacterial symbionts for possible use as vehicles in the control of the disease. 16S rRNA bacterial genes were amplified from whole bodies of M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers and analyzed by cloning and sequencing. Two dominant groups were found: one belonged to the Betaproteobacteria that did not closely match any sequences in the database and was named bacterium associated with M. hiroglyphicus (BAMH). Another one found to be abundant in this leafhopper is “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” in the order Bacteroidetes, which was previously reported in the insect members of the Auchenorrhyncha. Most M. hiroglyphicus leafhoppers carry both BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri.” Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed that BAMH and “Ca. Sulcia muelleri” colocalized in the same bacteriomes. BAMH was present in the midgut and ovaries of the leafhopper and was found in all developmental stages, including eggs, nymphs, and adults. Because BAMH appears to be specific for the SCWL vector, we evaluated it as a candidate for symbiotic control of sugarcane white leaf disease. PMID:22798373

Wangkeeree, Jureemart; Miller, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

368

Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

2014-07-01

369

Secretome analysis of Ganoderma lucidum cultivated in sugarcane bagasse.  

PubMed

Harmful environmental issues of fossil-fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable alternative fuels such as biofuel. Agricultural crop residues represent an abundant renewable resource for future biofuel. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically feasible, and should also be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We used these criteria to evaluate the white rot basidiomycota-derived fungus Ganoderma lucidum that secretes substantial amounts of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes useful for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass that were not described hitherto. The current bottleneck of lignocellulosic biofuel production is the hydrolysis of biomass to sugar. To understand the enzymatic hydrolysis of complex biomasses, we cultured G. lucidum with sugarcane bagasse as substrate and qualitatively analyzed the entire secretome. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and diverse enzymes were found, of which several were novel lignocellulosic biomass hydrolyzing enzymes. We further explored G. lucidum-derived cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin degrading enzymes as valuable enzymes for the second generation of biofuel obtained from a lignocellulose substrate such as sugarcane bagasse. PMID:23000217

Manavalan, Tamilvendan; Manavalan, Arulmani; Thangavelu, Kalaichelvan P; Heese, Klaus

2012-12-21

370

Sugarcane production evaluated by the state-space approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of soil properties on crop growth and yield have traditionally been analyzed using classical statistics methodologies. These methodologies do, however, not consider sampling position coordinates and assume independence between samples. This study had the objective of using the state-space approach, which considers sampling position, to evaluate and to discuss a spatial process using variables related to the soil-plant system. For this, six data sets were collected in a sugarcane experiment carried out on a Dark Red Latosol (Rhodic Kandiudalf), at Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane was planted on a 0.21 ha field, comprising 15 rows, 100 m long, spaced 1.4 m apart, with three treatments (mulching, bare soil and straw burning before harvest) and four replicates, forming a transect of 84 points. In this way, the relationships between the number of canes per meter of row and available soil P, Ca and Mg, clay content and aggregate stability were studied using a first order state-space model. Results show that all of the used state-space equations described the spatial distribution of number of canes better than the equivalent multiple regression equations. It was also identified that the soil clay content spatial series has an effective contribution to describe the number of canes in this study, because it is related to the best performance in each different scenario.

Timm, L. C.; Reichardt, K.; Oliveira, J. C. M.; Cassaro, F. A. M.; Tominaga, T. T.; Bacchi, O. O. S.; Dourado-Neto, D.

2003-03-01

371

Yield estimation of sugarcane based on agrometeorological-spectral models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work has the objective to assess the performance of a yield estimation model for sugarcane (Succharum officinarum). The model uses orbital gathered spectral data along with yield estimated from an agrometeorological model. The test site includes the sugarcane plantations of the Barra Grande Plant located in Lencois Paulista municipality in Sao Paulo State. Production data of four crop years were analyzed. Yield data observed in the first crop year (1983/84) were regressed against spectral and agrometeorological data of that same year. This provided the model to predict the yield for the following crop year i.e., 1984/85. The model to predict the yield of subsequent years (up to 1987/88) were developed similarly, incorporating all previous years data. The yield estimations obtained from these models explained 69, 54, and 50 percent of the yield variation in the 1984/85, 1985/86, and 1986/87 crop years, respectively. The accuracy of yield estimations based on spectral data only (vegetation index model) and on agrometeorological data only (agrometeorological model) were also investigated.

Rudorff, Bernardo Friedrich Theodor; Batista, Getulio Teixeira

1990-01-01

372

Reuteran and levan as carbohydrate sinks in transgenic sugarcane.  

PubMed

The present study reports the effect of high molecular weight bacterial fructan (levan) and glucan (reuteran) on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in transgenic sugarcane plants. These biopolymers are products of bacterial glycosyltransferases, enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of glucose or fructose residues from sucrose. Constructs, targeted to different subcellular compartments (cell wall and cytosol) and driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S: maize-ubiquitin promoter, were introduced into sugarcane by biolistic transformation. Polysaccharide accumulation severely affected growth of callus suspension cultures. Regeneration of embryonic callus tissue into plants proved problematic for cell wall-targeted lines. When targeted to the cytosol, only plants with relative low levels of biopolymer accumulation survived. In internodal stalk tissue that accumulate reuteran (max 0.03 mg/g FW), sucrose content (ca 60 mg/g FW) was not affected, while starch content (<0.4 mg/g FW) was increased up to four times. Total carbohydrate content was not significantly altered. On the other hand, starch and sucrose levels were significantly reduced in plants accumulating levan (max 0.01 mg/g FW). Heterologous expression resulted in a reduction in total carbohydrate assimilation rather than a simple diversion by competition for substrate. PMID:22903192

Bauer, Rolene; Basson, Carin E; Bekker, Jan; Eduardo, Iban; Rohwer, Johann M; Uys, Lafras; van Wyk, Johannes H; Kossmann, Jens

2012-12-01

373

Root?:?Shoot Ratios, Optimization and Nitrogen Productivity  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to nitrogen availability by changing their root?:?shoot ratios. One hypothesis used to explain this allocation is that plants optimize their behaviour by maximizing their relative growth rate. The consequences of this hypothesis were investigated by formulating two models for root?:?shoot allocation, with and without explicit inclusion of maintenance respiration. The models also took into account that relative growth rate is a linear function of plant nitrogen concentration. The model without respiration gave qualitatively reasonable results when predictions were compared with observed results from growth experiments with birch and tomato. The explicit inclusion of maintenance respiration improved considerably the agreement between prediction and observation, and for birch was within the experimental accuracy. Further improvements will require additional details in the description of respiratory processes and the nitrogen uptake function. Plants growing under extreme nutrient stress may also optimize their behaviour with respect to other variables in addition to relative growth rate. PMID:14565938

ÅGREN, GÖRAN I.; FRANKLIN, OSKAR

2003-01-01

374

Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

2013-01-01

375

Susceptibility of Eggs and Adult Fecundity of the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominca, Exposed to Methoprene  

PubMed Central

A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of eggs and neonates of the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae = Bostrychidae), exposed to the insect growth regulator, methoprene, on filter paper and on rough rice. In the first test, the hatch rate of eggs exposed on filter paper treated with methoprene at the label rate of 0.003 mg [AI]/cm2 when used as a surface treatment in structures was 52.0 ± 7.3% compared to 93.0 ± 3.3% on untreated controls. In the second test, eggs were exposed to a dose-response series of 0.00003 to 0.03 mg[AI]/cm2. Egg hatch was directly proportional to concentration and ranged from 85.0 ± 2.0% on untreated controls to 26.7 ± 8.3% at the highest concentration tested. In the third test, 1 ppm of methoprene was sprayed on long grain rough rice (paddy) (Cocodrie variety), and then individual kernels were cracked and an egg of R. dominica was placed directly on the kernel. On untreated rice kernels, 67.5 ± 11.6% of the eggs hatched and were able to bore inside, and all of these larvae emerged as adults. In contrast, 40.0 ± 5.3% of the eggs placed on treated cracked kernels were able to develop to where the larvae were visible through X-ray detection, but none emerged as adults. In the final test, newly-emerged adults were exposed on rough rice treated with 1 ppm methoprene. The number of eggs from adults on untreated rice was 52.1 ± 4.3 eggs per female, and on treated rice the average egg production was 12.5 ± 1.1 eggs per female. Methoprene applied on a surface or on rough rice affected development of egg hatch also reduced fecundity of parent adults exposed on the treated rough rice. PMID:20233095

Arthur, F. H.; Wilde, G. E.; Throne, J. E.; Subramanyam, Bh.

2008-01-01

376

European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) Induced Responses Enhance Susceptibility in Maize  

PubMed Central

Herbivore-induced plant responses have been widely described following attack on leaves; however, less attention has been paid to analogous local processes that occur in stems. Early studies of maize (Zea mays) responses to stem boring by European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinianubilalis) larvae revealed the presence of inducible acidic diterpenoid phytoalexins, termed kauralexins, and increases in the benzoxazinoid 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one-glucose (HDMBOA-Glc) after 24 h of herbivory. Despite these rapidly activated defenses, larval growth was not altered in short-term feeding assays. Unexpectedly, ECB growth significantly improved in assays using stem tissue preconditioned by 48 h of larval tunneling. Correspondingly, measures of total soluble protein increased over 2.6-fold in these challenged tissues and were accompanied by elevated levels of sucrose and free linoleic acid. While microarray analyses revealed up-regulation of over 1100 transcripts, fewer individual protein increases were demonstrable. Consistent with induced endoreduplication, both wounding and ECB stem attack resulted in similar significant expansion of the nucleus, nucleolus and levels of extractable DNA from challenged tissues. While many of these responses are triggered by wounding alone, biochemical changes further enhanced in response to ECB may be due to larval secreted effectors. Unlike other Lepidoptera examined, ECB excrete exceedingly high levels of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in their frass which is likely to contact and contaminate the surrounding feeding tunnel. Stem exposure to a metabolically stable auxin, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), promoted significant protein accumulation above wounding alone. As a future testable hypothesis, we propose that ECB-associated IAA may function as a candidate herbivore effector promoting the increased nutritional content of maize stems. PMID:24023868

Dafoe, Nicole J.; Thomas, James D.; Shirk, Paul D.; Legaspi, Michelle E.; Vaughan, Martha M.; Huffaker, Alisa; Teal, Peter E.; Schmelz, Eric A.

2013-01-01

377

Reversed functional topology in the antennal lobe of the male European corn borer.  

PubMed

The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) is a model of evolution of sexual communication in insects. Two pheromone strains produce and respond to opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11 and E11-tetradecenylacetate. The Z-strain uses a ratio of 97:3 of Z11:E11 tetradecenylacetate, whereas the E-strain uses a ratio of 1:99. We studied how the difference in male preference correlates with differences in wiring of olfactory input and output neurons in the antennal lobe (AL). Activity-dependent anterograde staining, intracellular recording and immunocytochemistry were used to establish the structure and function of male olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and AL projection neurons (PNs). Physiologically characterized neurons were reconstructed using confocal microscopy of alpha-synapsin stained ALs. The ALs of males and females in both strains had approximately 64 glomeruli. In males the macroglomerular complex (MGC) was morphologically similar in the two strains and consisted of two major compartments, a large, medial compartment folded around a smaller, lateral one. Extensive physiological and morphological analysis revealed that in both strains the major pheromone component-specific ORNs and PNs arborize in the medial MGC glomerulus, whereas those sensitive to the minor pheromone component arborize in the lateral glomerulus. In other words, the two strains have an indistinguishable MGC morphology, but a reversed topology. Apparently, the single-gene-mediated shift that causes a radical change in behavior is located upstream of the antennal lobes, i.e. at the ORN level. PMID:18723543

Kárpáti, Zsolt; Dekker, Teun; Hansson, Bill S

2008-09-01

378

Evidence for obligate migratory flight behavior in young European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) females.  

PubMed

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. Adults were each tethered to 1 of 16 round-about flight mills in an environmental chamber, and the data were relayed to a computer. Parameters analyzed included duration, distance, and speed of the longest continuous flight and total flight time during an 8-h night. Comparisons were made between unmated and mated adults of both sexes at different ages up to 5 d after emergence. For unmated females, duration of the longest flight was highest the first night after emergence, declining significantly by 5 d of age. In contrast, duration of the longest flight for males was lowest at 1 d of age, increasing significantly by 3 d of age. Flight speed of females was roughly twice that of males at all ages. Mating did not affect flight behavior of either sex at any age tested, but mated adults could not be tested before 2 d of age because the first night was needed for mating. The pattern of age-specific flight behavior suggests that unmated females engage in obligate migratory flight the first full night after emergence. The median duration of this flight was approximately 2 h in our experiments, with some adults flying continuously for the full 8 h of darkness. Females of other ages and males of all ages tested were capable of long-duration flights, but they more likely represent foraging flight. These results help explain the high dispersal rate of newly emerged adults from release sites in field experiments. PMID:19036208

Dorhout, David L; Sappington, Thomas W; Rice, Marlin E

2008-10-01

379

Identification of Odor-Processing Genes in the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis  

PubMed Central

Background Insects rely on olfaction to locate food, mates, and suitable oviposition sites for successful completion of their life cycle. Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (emerald ash borer) is a serious invasive insect pest that has killed tens of millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp) trees and threatens the very existence of the genus Fraxinus. Adult A. planipennis are attracted to host volatiles and conspecifics; however, to date no molecular knowledge exists on olfaction in A. planipennis. Hence, we undertook an antennae-specific transcriptomic study to identify the repertoire of odor processing genes involved in A. planipennis olfaction. Methodology and Principal Findings We acquired 139,085 Roche/454 GS FLX transcriptomic reads that were assembled into 30,615 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,249 isotigs and 27,366 non-isotigs (contigs and singletons). Intriguingly, the majority of the A. planipennis antennal transcripts (59.72%) did not show similarity with sequences deposited in the non-redundant database of GenBank, potentially representing novel genes. Functional annotation and KEGG analysis revealed pathways associated with signaling and detoxification. Several odor processing genes (9 odorant binding proteins, 2 odorant receptors, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein and 134 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases; esterases, etc.) putatively involved in olfaction processes were identified. Quantitative PCR of candidate genes in male and female A. planipennis in different developmental stages revealed developmental- and sex-biased expression patterns. Conclusions and Significance The antennal ESTs derived from A. planipennis constitute a rich molecular resource for the identification of genes potentially involved in the olfaction process of A. planipennis. These findings should help in understanding the processing of antennally-active compounds (e.g. 7-epi-sesquithujene) previously identified in this serious invasive pest. PMID:23424668

Mamidala, Praveen; Wijeratne, Asela J.; Wijeratne, Saranga; Poland, Therese; Qazi, Sohail S.; Doucet, Daniel; Cusson, Michel; Beliveau, Catherine; Mittapalli, Omprakash

2013-01-01

380

Susceptibility of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to flubendiamide in China.  

PubMed

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is an important rice pest in China, and has evolved resistance to several classes of insecticides. Flubendiamide is a phthalic diamide insecticide that shows selective insecticidal activity against lepidopterous insects. The susceptibility of 40 field populations of C. suppressalis, collected in 2011 and 2012 in seven provinces of south-eastern China, to flubendiamide was determined through rice seedling dipping bioassay method. Of these 40 populations, seven populations that were seldom exposed to flubendiamide were used to set up the baseline sensitivity, and the LC50 value was 0.092 mg/L. Variation in susceptibility among the 40 field populations was high (34-fold). The range of mean lethal concentration (LC50) values in response to this chemical was between 0.032 mg/L (FS11) and 1.090 mg/L (JH12) across the populations. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to flubendiamide were detected among different geographic populations. There was no significant difference observed between years for most populations, except for populations from Jinhua and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 0.8 to 11.8, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. It was found that 16 of the 40 populations had some level of resistance. However, moderate level of resistance was discovered in only one population from JH12 from Zhejiang province (11.8-fold). Other 15 populations showed low level of resistance (5.1-9.3-fold) to flubendiamide. These data are useful in future monitoring programs for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of using flubendiamide. PMID:25026690

Wu, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shunfan; Su, Jianya; Gao, Congfen

2014-06-01

381

Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest. PMID:17972635

McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

2007-10-01

382

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

383

Distinguishing defensive characteristics in the phloem of ash species resistant and susceptible to emerald ash borer.  

PubMed

We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high soluble protein concentration, low trypsin inhibitor activities, and intermediate levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentration. The EAB-susceptible white ash (F. americana, cv. Autumn Purple) was characterized by a slow wound browning rate and low levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentrations. An EAB-susceptible green ash cultivar (F. pennsylvanica, cv. Patmore) and a wild accession were similar to each other on the basis of several chemical defense traits, and were characterized by high activities of peroxidase and trypsin inhibitor, a high total soluble phenolic concentration, and an intermediate rate of wound browning. Lignin concentration and polyphenol oxidase activities did not differentiate resistant and susceptible species. Of 33 phenolic compounds separated by HPLC and meeting a minimum criterion for analysis, nine were unique to Manchurian ash, five were shared among all species, and four were found in North American ashes and not in the Manchurian ash. Principal components analysis revealed clear separations between Manchurian, white, and green ashes on the basis of all phenolics, as well as clear separations on the basis of quantities of phenolics that all species shared. Variation in some of these constitutive chemical defense traits may contribute to variation in resistance to EAB in these species. PMID:21537902

Cipollini, Don; Wang, Qin; Whitehill, Justin G A; Powell, Jeff R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A

2011-05-01

384

Concerted evolution of male and female display traits in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual reproduction entails the encounter of the sexes and the multiplicity of rituals is parallel to the diversity of mating systems. Evolutionary mechanisms such as sexual selection and sexual conflict have led to the elaboration of traits to gain attention and favours from potential partners. A paradox exists about how coordinated systems can evolve and diverge when there would seem to be a stabilising selection acting. Moth display traits – pheromones – constitute an advantageous model with which to address questions about the evolution of mating systems in animals. Both males and females can possess pheromones that are involved either in close- or long-range communication. Female and male pheromones appear to have different origins and to be under different evolutionary constraints, thus they might be envisioned as independently evolving traits. We conducted laboratory experiments to explore the role of scents released during courtship by males of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Results Information provided by the male pheromone appears critical for female acceptance. The composition of this male pheromone varies in an age-dependent manner and females show mating preference towards older males in choice experiments. Furthermore, male signals may allow species discrimination and reinforce reproductive isolation. Finally, we found evidence for a genetic correlation between male and female signals, the evolution of which is best explained by the constraints and opportunities resulting from the sharing of gene products. Conclusion In this study we used an integrative approach to characterise the male sex pheromone in a moth. Interestingly, the male chemical signal is analogous to the female signal in that structurally similar compounds are being used by both sexes. Hence, in systems where both sexes possess display traits, the pleiotropy of genes generating the traits could influence the evolutionary trajectories of sexual signals and lead to their divergence, with speciation being the ultimate result. PMID:19257880

Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lofstedt, Christer

2009-01-01

385

The role of cytokinins in shoot organogenesis in apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective regeneration in vitro is a necessary precondition for the implementation of different biotechnological approaches\\u000a in plant breeding. Numerous studies have reported on regeneration from apple somatic tissues, and organogenesis has been proved\\u000a to be influenced by several factors including mother shoots (genotype, size, type, and age of explant), in vitro conditions\\u000a (dark period, light intensity, and quality), and others

Katalin Magyar-Tábori; Judit Dobránszki; Sean M. Bulley; Ildikó Hudák

2010-01-01

386

'Accretion' and chemistry along the trajectory of 'shooting stars'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trajectories of micrometeorites in the Earth's atmosphere include a 'hot' shooting star segment, then a complex gravitational settling in the 'E' layer and the stratosphere, and, for two-thirds of the micrometeorites, a 'terminal' fall into sea water. Both the tiny stratospheric Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) and the larger Antarctic micrometeorites (MMs) show evidence for the accretion of various components from the Earth's atmosphere. In collaboration with R. Harvey, J. Cragin, and S. Taylor, we have extracted cosmic spherules and MMs from a approximately equal 50-kg block of Antarctic ice. The observations support the important role of micrometeorites in scavenging a variety of atmospheric components. Concerning chemical reactions taking place along the tracks of 'shooting stars,' we can only report some 'structural' evidence, resulting from our analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observations of either micrometer-sized crushed grains or ultramicrotomed sections of MMs. Our observations indicate that they can be assimilated to 'catalyzing-aggregates.' We are engaged in various types of simulation experiments to assess the catalytic activity of micrometeorites, to check in particular whether they might have functioned as 'chondritic' chemical reactors on the early Earth to synthetize prebiotic molecules, either upon their own hydrolysis in early seas, or along their shooting-star trajectory in the atmosphere. In this last context, a difficult experiment consists of levitating MMs in reactive molecular gases, and detecting reaction products. If these difficult experiments do succeed they should open 'new horizons.' Indeed this 'astrochemistry of shooting stars' could also be effective in other types of atmospheres, and even in the strong approximately 100 km/hr 'blizzard' that ejects cometary micrometeorites from their parent nuclei of 'frozen mud.'

Maurette, M.; Brack, A.; Engrand, C.; Kurat, G.; Leach, S.; Perreau, M.

1994-07-01

387

Genetic analysis of the role of amyloplasts in shoot gravisensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant can change the growth direction after sensing the gravity orientation This response calls gravitropism and the initial step is the gravisensing We have isolated many Arabidopsis mutants shoot gravitropism sgr with reduced or no gravitropic response in inflorescence stems The analysis of sgr1 and sgr7 revealed that endoderm cells in the inflorescence stems were gravisensing sites zig zigzag sgr4 and sgr3 showed no or reduced gravitropism in shoot respectively and their amyloplasts thought to be statoliths did not sedimented to the orientation of gravity in the endoderm cells ZIG encoded a SNARE AtVTI11 and SGR3 encoded other SNARE AtVAM3 These two SNAREs made a complex in the shoot endoderm cells suggesting that the vesicle transport from trans-Golgi network TGN to prevacuolar compartment PVC and or vacuole was involved in the amyloplasts localization and movement The analysis to visualize amyloplasts and vacuolar membrane in living endoderm cells supported that the vacuole function was important for the amyloplasts movement Recently we have isolated many suppressor mutants of zig One of them named zig suppressor zip 1 had a point mutation in the gene encoded other SNARE of AtVTI12 This protein is a homologous to ZIG AtVTI11 and these two proteins have partially redundant functions Although wild type At VTI 12 could not rescued zig mutated AtVTI12 protein ZIP1 could almost completely play the part of ZIG In zigzip1 amyloplasts in endoderm cells sedimented normally and the shoots showed normal gravitropic response The other

Tasaka, M.; Morita, M.

388

Lockheed T-33B (TV-2) Shooting Star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lockheed T-33B (TV-2) Shooting Star: This Lockheed TV-2 flew with the NACA and NASA for nine years in the 1950s. The nose of this aircraft has been modified to that of an RT-33, the camera ports just visible as dark panels behind the nose, ahead of the intakes. Below the nose has been added a small fin for variable yaw damping experiments performed at Wallops Island.

1951-01-01

389

Identifying situational predictors of police shootings using multivariate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research on the police decision to use deadly force has tended to neglect multivariate relationships, particularly at the situational level. This paper makes use of data describing deadly force incidents in Philadelphia during two time periods (1970-1978 and 1987-1992) and employs multivariate analyses to identify situational predictors of police shootings involving gun-assaultive suspects. Findings from the multivariate analyses are

Michael D. White

2002-01-01

390

Signalling between the Shoot Apical Meristem and Developing Lateral Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A characteristic feature of plant development is the extensive role played by cell–cell signalling in regulating patterns\\u000a of growth and cell fate. This is particularly apparent in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) where signalling is involved in\\u000a the maintenance of a central undifferentiated stem cell population and the formation of a regular and predictable pattern\\u000a of leaves, from the meristem

John F. Golz

2006-01-01

391

Willingness to shoot: Public attitudes toward defensive gun use  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 539 residents of Cincinnati is used to examine the willingness to use guns in self-defense against crime. Support\\u000a for using deadly force against lawbreakers is largely contingent upon the threat of physical harm. In contrast to previous\\u000a research, firearm owners and non-owners do not differ in their willingness to shoot offenders or in their support for using

LIQUN CAOI; Francis T. Cullen; Shannon M. Barton; Kristie R. Blevins

2002-01-01

392

Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap  

PubMed Central

A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

2012-01-01

393

Differential Protein Expression in Sugarcane during Sugarcane-Sporisorium scitamineum Interaction Revealed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS  

PubMed Central

To understand the molecular basis of a specific plant-pathogen interaction, it is important to identify plant proteins that respond to the pathogen attack. Two sugarcane varieties, NCo376 and Ya71-374, were used in this study. By applying 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), the protein expression profile of sugarcane after inoculating with Sporisorium scitamineum was analyzed. In total, 23 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the functions of these 20 differential proteins were associated with such functions as photosynthesis, signal transduction, and disease resistance, while the function of the remaining three proteins was not determined. From above, we can assume that the protein regulatory network during the interaction between sugarcane and S. scitamineum is complicated. This represents the first proteomic investigation focused on highlighting the alterations of the protein expression profile in sugarcane exposed to S. scitamineum, and it provides reference information on sugarcane response to S. scitamineum stress at the protein level. PMID:21822403

Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping; Lin, Jianwei; Ruan, Miaohong; Zhang, Muqing; Chen, Rukai

2011-01-01

394

Where to sample? Ecological implications of sampling strata in determining abundance and impact of natural enemies of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several parasitoids of African origin have been introduced to coffee producing areas of the Americas and Asia as biological control agents of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). These parasitoids have become established in the field but their effect on the CBB has been limited. A two-year field study in Western Kenya has found Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera:

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Christian Borgemeister; Charles Kamonjo; Hans-Michael Poehling; Fernando E. Vega

2009-01-01

395

Sequences and transcriptional analysis of Coffea arabica var. Caturra and Coffea liberica plant responses to coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most prevalent pest of coffee plantations. Within the Coffea genus, C. arabica is susceptible to CBB and C. liberica shows a lower susceptibility. Two EST libraries were constructed from the total RNA of C. arabica and C. liberica fruits artificially infested with CBBs for 24 h. Using 6000 clones sequenced per library, a

Sandra M. Idárraga; Ana M. Castro; Eliana P. Macea; Alvaro L. Gaitán; Luis F. Rivera; Marco A. Cristancho; Carmenza E. Góngora

2012-01-01

396

Sequences and transcriptional analysis of Coffea arabica var. Caturra and Coffea liberica plant responses to coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most prevalent pest of coffee plantations. Within the Coffea genus, C. arabica is susceptible to CBB and C. liberica shows a lower susceptibility. Two EST libraries were constructed from the total RNA of C. arabica and C. liberica fruits artificially infested with CBBs for 24 h. Using 6000 clones sequenced per library, a

Sandra M. Idárraga; Ana M. Castro; Eliana P. Macea; Alvaro L. Gaitán; Luis F. Rivera; Marco A. Cristancho; Carmenza E. Góngora

2011-01-01

397

Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt  

EPA Science Inventory

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

398

Potential Effects of Large-Scale Elimination of Oaks by Red Oak Borers on Breeding Neotropical Migrants in the Ozarks1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arkansas Ozarks are currently experiencing an outbreak of the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), a native insect that has previously not been considered an important forest pest species. As many as 50 percent of the trees in the Ozarks, which has the highest density of oaks in the United States, may be dead by the year 2006. The Ozarks

Kimberly G. Smith; Frederick M. Stephen

399

66 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 EMERALD ASH BORER IN RUSSIA: 2009 SITUATION UPDATE  

E-print Network

, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Krasnoyarsk, Russia 2 Institute of Forest Management The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a beetle native to East Asia and the Russian of further EAB distribution in the Russian Federation. Agrilus planipennis in the Asian Part of Russia

400

Mapping of QTL for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer attack using the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population of maize.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few experiments have been carried out to detect QTL for corn borer resistance in the B73 x Mo17 population. The objective of this work was to locate QTL for resistance to stem tunneling and kernel damage by MCB in the IBM population. We detected a QTL for kernel damage at bin 8.05, although the effect was small and two QTL for stalk tunneling at bins 1.06 and 9.04 in which the additive effects were 4 cm, approximately. The two QTL detected for MCB resistance were close to other QTL consistently found for European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) resistance, indicating mechanisms of resistance common to both pests or gene clusters controlling resistance to different plagues. The precise mapping achieved with the IBM population will facilitate the QTL pyramiding and the positional cloning of the detected QTL. PMID:19756472

Ordas, Bernardo; Malvar, Rosa A; Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Romay, Maria C; Butron, Ana

2009-11-01

401

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator–prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world, causing losses estimated at US $500 million\\/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya. Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei

Juliana Jaramillo; Eric G. Chapman; Fernando E. Vega; James D. Harwood

2010-01-01

402

Micropropagation of chokeberry by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.  

PubMed

The black chokeberry-aronia (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) is a shrub native to North America although nowadays well known in Eastern Europe. The fruits are regarded as the richest source of antioxidant phytonutrients among fruit crops and vegetables. Chokeberries can be easily propagated by seeds but this method is not recommended. Micropropagation is far more efficient than other conventional cloning methods like layering or softwood cuttings. Aronia clones are propagated in vitro through four- or three-stage method based on subculturing of shoot explants. The double diluted MS or full strength MS medium with elevated 50% Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) content are used in the initiation and proliferation chokeberry in vitro cultures, respectively. They are supplemented with 0.5-1.0 mg LBA, and 0.05 mg LIBA. The double-phase medium is recommended in the last passage before shoot rooting. The regenerated shoots could be rooted both in vitro on double diluted MS with 0.05 mg L(-1) IBA or in vivo in peat and perlite substrate and subsequently grown in the greenhouse. PMID:23179698

Litwi?czuk, Wojciech

2013-01-01

403

Phytotoxic furanocoumarins from the shoots of Semenovia transiliensis.  

PubMed

Discovery of novel, natural herbicides has become important to manage increasing weed resistance to synthetic herbicides and environmental issues. The systematic bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the methylene chloride/methanol extract of the shoots of Semenovia transiliensis led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds. Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce, a dicot) and Agrostis stolonifera L. (bentgrass, a monocot) bioassays were used to identify and isolate the phytotoxic fractions. A number of furanocoumarin compounds isolated from S. transiliensis shoots were phytotoxic to both test species. These included psoralen, isopsoralen, heratomin, isopentenyloxyisobergapten, imperatorin, bergapten, xanthotoxin, heraclenin, and heraclenol. All the active secondary metabolites isolated from the shoots of S. transiliensis were furanocoumarins. Identification of these was accomplished using mass spectrometry and 1- and 2-dimensional NMR techniques. Phytotoxic activity o f isolated compounds w a s evaluated in a dose-response manner from 0.3 to 1000 microM. Ingeneral, all of the compounds were more active on A. stolonifera than L. sativa. Bergaptin and xanthotoxin were the most active of the compounds, with moderate activity at 100 microM. Imperatorin and xanthotoxin inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata Hegelm. by 50% at 29 and 60 microM, respectively. Our results show that S. transiliensis is rich in furanocoumarins, which are probably involved in various aspects of the chemical ecology of the species. Unfortunately, the general cytotoxicity of furanocoumarins makes them an unlikely candidate for pesticide discovery. PMID:23157001

Sondhia, Shobha; Duke, Stephen O; Green, Solomon; Gemejiyeva, Nadezhda G; Mamonov, Leonid K; Cantrell, Charles L

2012-10-01

404

Enzymic Dissociation of Zea Shoot Cell Wall Polysaccharides 1  

PubMed Central

The water-insoluble cell wall fraction obtained after successive treatments of an insoluble fraction of a buffer-homogenate of Zea shoots with 3 molar LiCl, hot water and ?-amylase, was subjected to dissociation by enzymes. Treatment of the water-insoluble fraction with the purified Bacillus subtilis (1 ? 3),(1 ? 4)-?-d-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase dissociated cell wall fragments (5.1% of the water-insoluble fraction) which were characterized in detail. Structural analyses of the fragment oligosaccharides revealed blocks of more than three contiguous (1 ? 4)-linkages and regions consisting of two or more contiguous (1 ? 3)-linkages. On the basis of these results, we propose that the Zea shoot ?-d-glucan may be represented as a folded structure. Furthermore, the presence of contiguous (1 ? 3)-linkages in the ?-d-glucan offers potential sites for enzyme attack and may account for the generation of specific products released by the endogenous endo-?-d-glucanase in autolysis and/or polymer modification process in Zea shoot cell walls. Images Fig. 7 PMID:16663698

Kato, Yoji; Nevins, Donald J.

1984-01-01

405

Nickel-induced changes in carbon metabolism in wheat shoots.  

PubMed

In this study, we analyzed the toxic effect of Ni during the development of wheat shoots. Typical developmental alterations in carbon metabolism-related parameters reflecting changes associated with the transition of the seedlings from heterotrophic to autotrophic metabolism were observed in the control shoots between the 1st and the 4th days. Adverse effects of 50 and 100 ?M Ni became evident starting from the 4th day of growth on the metal-containing media. We found that Ni-induced stimulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity coincided with decrease in the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) level and with declines in net photosynthetic rate (P(N)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)). Application of Ni resulted in increased activities of several dehydrogenases: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) and malate dehydrogenase (NADH-MDH). In contrast, the activities of malic enzymes (NADP-ME and NAD-ME) decreased due to Ni stress. Treatment with Ni led to accumulation of glucose and declined concentration of sucrose as well as considerable increases in concentrations of malic and citric acids. Our results indicate that Ni stress redirects the carbon metabolism of developing wheat shoots to provide carbon skeletons for synthesis of amino acids and organic acids as well as to supply reducing power to sustain normal metabolic processes and to support defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. PMID:23374731

Gajewska, Ewa; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Tokarz, Krzysztof; S?aba, Miros?awa; Sk?odowska, Maria

2013-03-01

406

A Transporter Regulating Silicon Distribution in Rice Shoots[W  

PubMed Central

Rice (Oryza sativa) accumulates very high concentrations of silicon (Si) in the shoots, and the deposition of Si as amorphous silica helps plants to overcome biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we describe a transporter, Lsi6, which is involved in the distribution of Si in the shoots. Lsi6 belongs to the nodulin-26 intrinsic protein III subgroup of aquaporins and is permeable to silicic acid. Lsi6 is expressed in the leaf sheath and leaf blades as well as in the root tips. Cellular localization studies revealed that Lsi6 is found in the xylem parenchyma cells of the leaf sheath and leaf blades. Moreover, Lsi6 showed polar localization at the side facing toward the vessel. Knockdown of Lsi6 did not affect the uptake of Si by the roots but resulted in disordered deposition of silica in the shoots and increased excretion of Si in the guttation fluid. These results indicate that Lsi6 is a transporter responsible for the transport of Si out of the xylem and subsequently affects the distribution of Si in the leaf. PMID:18515498

Yamaji, Naoki; Mitatni, Namiki; Ma, Jian Feng

2008-01-01

407

Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season  

PubMed Central

This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest) period. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics. PMID:21139704

Crowe, Jennifer; Moya-Bonilla, Jose Manuel; Roman-Solano, Bryan; Robles-Ramirez, Andres

2010-01-01

408

Polyphasic characterization of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates obtained from different sugarcane varieties  

PubMed Central

A polyphasic approach was applied to characterize 35 G. diazotrophicus isolates obtained from sugarcane varieties cultivated in Brazil. The isolates were analyzed by phenotypic (use of different carbon sources) and genotypic tests (ARDRA and RISA–RFLP techniques). Variability among the isolates was observed in relation to the carbon source use preference. Glucose and sucrose were used by all isolates in contrast to myo-inositol, galactose and ribose that were not metabolized. The results of the analysis showed the presence of two groups clustered at 68% of similarity. The genetic distance was higher when RISA-RFLP analysis was used. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from isolates showed that all of them belonged to the G. diazotrophicus species. Neither effect of the plant part nor sugarcane variety was observed during the cluster analysis. The observed metabolic and genetic variability will be helpful during the strain selection studies for sugarcane inoculation in association with sugarcane breeding programs. PMID:24031296

Guedes, Helma V.; dos Santos, Samuel T.; Perin, Liamara; Teixeira, Katia R. dos S.; Reis, Veronica M.; Baldani, Jose I.

2008-01-01

409

IDENTIFICATION OF DROUGHT-RELATED QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLs) IN SUGARCANE (Saccharum spp.) USING GENIC MARKERS  

E-print Network

contributing to a complex polygenic trait such as drought. In the current study, marker loci associated with drought related QTLs were identified in sugarcane (Saccharum spp), one of the most complex crop genomes, with its polyploid nature (>8), chromosome...

Sharma, Vivek

2011-08-08

410

Homology of olfactory receptor neuron response characteristics inferred from hybrids between Asian and European corn borer moths (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

First generation hybrid males from crosses between the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, and the "univoltine Z-strain" European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, were examined with respect to behavioral and physiological responses to ACB and ECB pheromones. The hybrid males often flew to the pheromone of ECB Z-strain, but very rarely to the ACB pheromone. We mapped the tuning profiles of each ORN of the F(1) hybrids with respect to the relevant pheromone components and a common behavioral antagonist by employing differential cross-adaptation and varying doses of the ligands. In the trichoid sensilla of F(1) hybrid males, the three co-compartmentalized ORNs produced spikes that were very difficult to distinguish by size, unlike the parental populations. Comparing the responses to ACB and ECB components at different doses reveals overlapping profiles similar to males of both parental types, but more responsiveness to the ECB pheromone components. We were unable to detect any differences in the ORN tuning profiles when comparing males with different behavioral phenotypes. While the two ECB pheromone races have similar ORN tuning properties that are different from those in ACB, the spike-amplitude patterns of ECB E-strain and ACB have greater homology when compared to ECB Z-strain. PMID:19778540

Domingue, Michael J; Musto, Callie J; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L; Baker, Thomas C

2010-01-01

411

Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.

Tetreault, G.E.

1985-01-01

412

Cuticle-degrading proteases produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in the presence of coffee berry borer cuticle  

PubMed Central

A Brazilian isolate of Beauveria bassiana (CG425) that shows high virulence against the coffee berry borer (CBB) was examined for the production of subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) cuticle-degrading proteases. Fungal growth was either in nitrate-medium or in CBB cuticle-containing medium under both buffered and unbuffered conditions. In unbuffered medium supplemented with cuticle, the pH of cultures dropped and Pr1 and Pr2 activities were detected in high amounts only at a pH of 5.5 or higher. In buffered cultures, Pr1 and Pr2 activities were higher in medium supplemented with cuticle compared to activities with nitrate-medium. The Pr1 and Pr2 activities detected were mostly in the culture supernatant. These data suggest that Pr1 and Pr2 proteases produced by strain CG425 are induced by components of CBB cuticle, and that the culture pH influences the expression of these proteases, indicating the occurrence of an efficient mechanism of protein secretion in this fungus. The results obtained in this study extend the knowledge about protease production in B. bassiana CG425, opening new avenues for studying the role of secreted proteases in virulence against the coffee berry borer during the infection process. PMID:24031220

Dias, B.A.; Neves, P.M.O.J.; Furlaneto-Maia, L.; Furlaneto, M.C.

2008-01-01

413

Generation of marker-free Bt transgenic indica rice and evaluation of its yellow stem borer resistance.  

PubMed

We report on generation of marker-free (‘clean DNA’) transgenic rice (Oryza sativa), carrying minimal gene-expression-cassettes of the genes of interest, and evaluation of its resistance to yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The transgenic indica rice harbours a translational fusion of 2 different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes, namely cry1B-1Aa, driven by the green-tissue-specific phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) promoter. Mature seed-derived calli of an elite indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati-1 were co-bombarded with gene-expression-cassettes (clean DNA fragments) of the Bt gene and the marker hpt gene, to generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. The clean DNA fragments for bombardment were obtained by restriction digestion and gel extraction. Through biolistic transformation, 67 independent transformants were generated. Transformation frequency reached 3.3%, and 81% of the transgenic plants were co-transformants. Stable integration of the Bt gene was confirmed, and the insert copy number was determined by Southern analysis. Western analysis and ELISA revealed a high level of Bt protein expression in transgenic plants. Progeny analysis confirmed stable inheritance of the Bt gene according to the Mendelian (3:1) ratio. Insect bioassays revealed complete protection of transgenic plants from yellow stem borer infestation. PCR analysis of T2 progeny plants resulted in the recovery of up to 4% marker-free transgenic rice plants. PMID:20720299

Kumar, S; Arul, L; Talwar, D

2010-01-01

414

Sex pheromone production and perception in European corn borer moths is determined by both autosomal and sex-linked genes  

PubMed Central

Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as on progeny from subsequent F2 and maternal and paternal backcrosses. The data show that the production of the female pheromone blend primarily is controlled by a single autosomal factor, that pheromone-responding olfactory cells are controlled by another autosomal factor, and that behavioral response to pheromone is controlled by a sex-linked gene. F1 males were found to possess olfactory receptor cells that give spike amplitudes to the two pheromone isomers that are intermediate to those of the high and low amplitude cells of the parent populations. Fifty-five percent of the F1 males tested responded fully to pheromone sources ranging from the hybrid (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate/(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E/Z) molar blend of 65:35 to the E/Z molar blend of 3:97 for the Z morph parents, but very few responded to the E/Z molar blend of 99:1 for the E morph parents. Data on the inheritance patterns support speculation that the Z morph is the ancestral and that the E morph is the derived European corn borer population. PMID:16593886

Roelofs, Wendell; Glover, Thomas; Tang, Xian-Han; Sreng, Isabelle; Robbins, Paul; Eckenrode, Charles; Lofstedt, Christer; Hansson, Bill S.; Bengtsson, Bengt O.

1987-01-01

415

Dispersal of adult European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) within and proximal to irrigated and non-irrigated corn.  

PubMed

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), causes economic damage to corn, Zea mays L., throughout the Corn Belt. Because this insect has become the primary target of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) transgenic corn, current efforts addressing the management of O. nubilalis resistance to Bt corn require information on adult European corn borer dispersal and factors affecting its dispersal. In 1998 we conducted mark-release-recapture, release-recapture, and caged-mating studies to directly measure and compare local dispersal patterns of O. nubilalis adults within and proximal to irrigated and non-irrigated cornfields. Releases of marked adults were made corresponding to the first and second flight of O. nubilalis in eastern Nebraska. Adult dispersal was significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated cornfields. Released adults tended to remain in and near irrigated cornfields, but dispersed out of and away from non-irrigated cornfields. When released at the edge of the cornfield, neither male nor unmated female O. nubilalis displayed an initial tendency to move out of irrigated corn and into the mixed smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) and broadleaf-weed field edge. Mating efficiency in a late-season cornfield was not significantly different than in dense foxtail (Setaria spp.). Generally, we found that adult O. nubilalis dispersal may vary depending on variables such as action-site availability and agronomic practices and their interaction with O. nubilalis life history. PMID:11777038

Hun, T E; Higley, L G; Witkowski, J F; Young, L J; Hellmich, R L

2001-12-01

416

Effect of planting dates and Bacillus thuringiensis corn on the population dynamics of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).  

PubMed

Field studies were conducted to determine how field corn, Zea mays L., phenologies in combination with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn and non-Bt (near isogenic) corn could affect egg laying by female European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), and subsequent larval injury. Transgenic Bt (events 176 and Bt11) and non-Bt corn was planted at three different times to assess the use of early- and late- planted Bt corn as a means for egg recruitment to these targeted planting dates. Plant growth stages, egg densities, and stalk tunneling was recorded at four locations in southwestern, central, and northern Iowa for three summers (1996-1998). No significant differences in egg densities were observed between Bt and non-Bt corn during the first and second generation for all three years. Significant differences did occur among planting dates. Between 50 and 100% of the eggs were laid in the early planting during the first generation. In addition, between 40 and 65% of the eggs were laid in the late planting for the second generation. Correlations between egg density and larval tunneling were inconsistent from year to year. Additional inconsistencies stemming from yearly phenological differences among sequential plantings and variable O. nubilalis populations increases the difficulty in recommending planting date adjustments as a practical management tool for European corn borer and Bt corn. PMID:11425031

Pilcher, C D; Rice, M E

2001-06-01

417

Diversity of lepidopteran stem borers on monocotyledonous plants in eastern Africa and the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar revisited.  

PubMed

Surveys were completed in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zanzibar to assess the lepidopteran stem borer species diversity on wild host plants. A total of 24,674 larvae belonging to 135 species were collected from 75 species of wild host plants belonging to the Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Typhaceae. Amongst them were 44 noctuid species belonging to at least nine genera, 33 crambids, 15 pyralids, 16 Pyraloidea species not yet identified, 25 tortricids and three cossids. The noctuid larvae represented 73.6% of the total number of larvae collected, with 66.3, 3.5 and 3.8% found on Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Typhaceae, respectively. The Crambidae, Pyralidae, Tortricidae and Cossidae represented 19.8, 1.9, 2.5 and 0.1% of the total larvae collected, respectively, with 90.4% of the Crambidae and Pyralidae collected from Poaceae, and 99.7% of the Tortricidae collected from Cyperaceae. The lepidopteran stem borer species diversity in the wild host plants was far more diverse than previously reported. PMID:17201973

Le Ru, B P; Ong'amo, G O; Moyal, P; Ngala, L; Musyoka, B; Abdullah, Z; Cugala, D; Defabachew, B; Haile, T A; Matama, T Kauma; Lada, V Y; Negassi, B; Pallangyo, K; Ravolonandrianina, J; Sidumo, A; Omwega, C O; Schulthess, F; Calatayud, P A; Silvain, J F

2006-12-01

418

Exploring the midgut transcriptome and brush border membrane vesicle proteome of the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker).  

PubMed

The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most detrimental pests affecting rice crops. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has been explored as a means to control this pest, but the potential for C. suppressalis to develop resistance to Bt toxins makes this approach problematic. Few C. suppressalis gene sequences are known, which makes in-depth study of gene function difficult. Herein, we sequenced the midgut transcriptome of the rice stem borer. In total, 37,040 contigs were obtained, with a mean size of 497 bp. As expected, the transcripts of C. suppressalis shared high similarity with arthropod genes. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were used to classify the gene functions in C. suppressalis. Using the midgut transcriptome data, we conducted a proteome analysis to identify proteins expressed abundantly in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Of the 100 top abundant proteins that were excised and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis, 74 share high similarity with known proteins. Among these proteins, Western blot analysis showed that Aminopeptidase N and EH domain-containing protein have the binding activities with Bt-toxin Cry1Ac. These data provide invaluable information about the gene sequences of C. suppressalis and the proteins that bind with Cry1Ac. PMID:22666467

Ma, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Peng, Chuanhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

2012-01-01

419

Effects of Temperature, Shoot Age, and Medium on Gall Induction by Subanguina picridis in Vitro  

PubMed Central

The influence of temperature, shoot age, and medium on gall induction by Subanguina picridis on Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) was examined in vitro. The optimal temperature for gall formation was 20 C. Gall induction was delayed as the temperature decreased, and decreased as shoot age increased. Bud primordia (0-day-old shoots and 5-day-old shoots) with an average length of 4.2 mm and 7.9 mm were the most suitable tissues for nematode development and gall formation. Gall formation was more effective on B5G medium than on MSG. Young shoots under slow growth were most suitable for mass rearing of S. picridis. PMID:19279749

Ou, X.; Watson, A. K.

1993-01-01

420

Effects of Temperature, Shoot Age, and Medium on Gall Induction by Subanguina picridis in Vitro.  

PubMed

The influence of temperature, shoot age, and medium on gall induction by Subanguina picridis on Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) was examined in vitro. The optimal temperature for gall formation was 20 C. Gall induction was delayed as the temperature decreased, and decreased as shoot age increased. Bud primordia (0-day-old shoots and 5-day-old shoots) with an average length of 4.2 mm and 7.9 mm were the most suitable tissues for nematode development and gall formation. Gall formation was more effective on B5G medium than on MSG. Young shoots under slow growth were most suitable for mass rearing of S. picridis. PMID:19279749

Ou, X; Watson, A K

1993-03-01

421

Xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by Candida tropicalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural isolate, Candida tropicalis was tested for xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates. Fermentation of corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate showed xylose uptake and xylitol production, though these were very low, even after hydrolysate neutralization and treatments with activated charcoal and ion exchange resins. Initial xylitol production was found to be 0.43g\\/g and 0.45g\\/g of

R. Sreenivas Rao; Ch. Pavana Jyothi; R. S. Prakasham; P. N. Sarma; L. Venkateswar Rao

2006-01-01

422

PERFORMANCE OF SUGARCANE WITH DIFFERENT PLANTING METHODS AND INTERCROPS IN OLD HIMALAYAN PIEDMONT PLAIN SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islam M. A., Miah M. N. A., Rahman M. A., Kader M. A. and Karim K. M. R. 2009. Performance of Sugarcane with Different Planting Methods and Intercrops in Old Himalayan Piedmont Plain Soils. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 4(1):55-57 A study was conducted at grower's field of Regional Sugarcane Research Station (BSRI), Madarganj, Thakurgaon during 2006-07 to study the

M. A. ISLAM; M. N. A. MIAH; M. A. RAHMAN; M. A. KADER; K. M. R. KARIM

423

High fructose formation from sugarcane syrup and molasses using Zymomonas mobilis mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fructose recovery yields were obtained using sugarcane syrup and C-molasses (equal to blackstrap molasses) and a fructokinase negative mutant ofZymomonas mobilis. The fructose recovery was 95.7% with sugarcane syrup and 99.4% with 300 g\\/L C-molasses or mixtures of both. High fructose corn syrup of a 48\\/52 mixture of glucose and fructose gave only a 65–70% fructose recovery due to

Monica B. Doelle; Horst W. Doelle

1991-01-01

424

Regression analysis for the sorption isotherms of basic dyes on sugarcane dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of three basic dyes, named basic violet 10, basic violet 1, and basic green 4, from aqueous solutions onto sugarcane dust was studied. The results revealed the potential of sugarcane dust, a waste material, to be a low-cost sorbent. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the three-parameter Redlich–Peterson isotherms. In order to determine the

Yuh-Shan Ho; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chung-Chi Wang

2005-01-01

425

Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse  

E-print Network

SUGARCANE JUICE EXTRACTION AND PRESERVATION, AND LONG-TERM LIME PRETREATMENT OF BAGASSE A Dissertation by CESAR BENIGNO GRANDA COTLEAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... RESERVED SUGARCANE JUICE EXTRACTION AND PRESERVATION, AND LONG-TERM LIME PRETREATMENT OF BAGASSE A Dissertation by CESAR BENIGNO GRANDA COTLEAR Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

2005-02-17

426

Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.  

PubMed

Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel production in developing countries such as Brazil. Finally, we support the inclusion of environmental values in the price of biofuels in order to discourage excessive replacement of natural ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, and pasture by bioenergy crops. PMID:18536250

Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

2008-06-01

427

Epicoccum nigrum P16, a Sugarcane Endophyte, Produces Antifungal Compounds and Induces Root Growth  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this ubiquitous endophyte with the host plant, and also to a better use of microbial endophytes in agriculture. PMID:22675473

Favaro, Leia Cecilia de Lima; Sebastianes, Fernanda Luiza de Souza; Araujo, Welington Luiz

2012-01-01

428

Prospecting the utility of a PMI\\/mannose selection system for the recovery of transgenic sugarcane ( Saccharum spp. hybrid) plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI, EC 5.3.1.8)\\/mannose-based “positive” selection system has been used\\u000a to obtain genetically engineered sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid var. CP72-2086) plants. Transgenic lines of sugarcane were obtained following biolistic transformation of embryogenic\\u000a callus with an untranslatable sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) strain E coat protein (CP) gene and the Escherichia coli PMI gene manA, as

Mukesh Jain; Kudithipudi Chengalrayan; Ahmed Abouzid; Maria Gallo

2007-01-01

429

Endophytic Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates from sugarcane obtained through different culture strategies.  

PubMed

Brazilian sugarcane has been shown to obtain part of its nitrogen via biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Recent reports, based on the culture independent sequencing of bacterial nifH complementary DNA (cDNA) from sugarcane tissues, have suggested that members of the Bradyrhizobium genus could play a role in sugarcane-associated BNF. Here we report on the isolation of Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates and a few other species from roots of sugarcane cultivar RB867515 by two cultivation strategies: direct isolation on culture media and capture of Bradyrhizobium spp. using the promiscuous legume Vigna unguiculata as trap-plant. Both strategies permitted the isolation of genetically diverse Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates, as concluded from enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting and 16S ribosomal RNA, nifH and nodC sequence analyses. Several isolates presented nifH phylotypes highly similar to nifH cDNA phylotypes detected in field-grown sugarcane by a culture-independent approach. Four isolates obtained by direct plate cultivation were unable to nodulate V.?unguiculata and, based on PCR analysis, lacked a nodC gene homologue. Acetylene reduction assay showed in vitro nitrogenase activity for some Bradyrhizobium spp. isolates, suggesting that these bacteria do not require a nodule environment for BNF. Therefore, this study brings further evidence that Bradyrhizobium spp. may play a role in sugarcane-associated BNF under field conditions. PMID:24992534

Rouws, Luc Felicianus Marie; Leite, Jakson; de Matos, Gustavo Feitosa; Zilli, Jerri Edson; Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Fischer, Doreen; Hartmann, Anton; Reis, Verônica Massena; Baldani, José Ivo

2014-08-01

430

Independent Control of Organogenesis and Shoot Tip Abortion are Key Factors to Developmental Plasticity in Kiwifruit (Actinidia)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In kiwifruit (Actinidia), the number of nodes per shoot is highly variable and is influenced by genotype and environmental conditions. To understand this developmental plasticity, three key processes were studied: organogenesis by the shoot apical meristem during shoot growth; expansion of phytomers; and shoot tip abortion. Methods Studies were made of organogenesis and shoot tip abortion using light and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of temperature on shoot growth cessation was investigated using temperature indices over the budbreak period, and patterns of shoot tip abortion were quantified using stochastic modelling. Key Results All growing buds began organogenesis before budbreak. During shoot development, the number of phytomers initiated by the shoot apical meristem is correlated with the number of expanding phytomers and the mean internode length. Shoot tip abortion is preceded by growth cessation and is not brought about by the death of the shoot apical meristem, but occurs by tissue necrosis in the sub-apical zone. For most genotypes studied, the probability of shoot tip abortion is higher during expansion of the preformed part of the shoot. Lower temperatures during early growth result in a higher probability of shoot tip abortion. Conclusions Organogenesis and shoot tip abortion are controlled independently. All buds have the potential to become long shoots. Conditions that increase early growth rate postpone shoot tip abortion. PMID:17650513

Foster, Toshi M.; Seleznyova, Alla N.; Barnett, Andrew M.

2007-01-01

431

Seasonal Variation of the Canopy Structure Parameters and Its Correlation with Yield-Related Traits in Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Population structure determines sugarcane yield, of which canopy structure is a key component. To fully understand the relations between sugarcane yield and parameters of the canopy structure, 17 sugarcane varieties were investigated at five growth stages. The results indicated that there were significant differences between characterized parameters among sugarcane populations at different growth stages. During sugarcane growth after planting, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf distribution (LD) increased, while transmission coefficient for diffuse radiation (TD), mean foliage inclination angle (MFIA), transmission coefficient for solar beam radiation penetration (TR), and extinction coefficient (K) decreased. Significant negative correlations were found between sugarcane yield and MFIA, TD, TR, and K at the early elongation stage, while a significant positive correlation between sugarcane yield and LD was found at the same stage. A regression for sugarcane yield, with relative error of yield fitting less than 10%, was successfully established: sugarcane yield = 2380.12 + 46.25 × LD ? 491.82 × LAI + 1.36 × MFIA + 614.91 × TD ? 1908.05 × TR ? 182.53 ×??K + 1281.75 × LD ? 1.35 × MFIA + 831.2 × TR ? 407.8 ×??K + 8.21 × MFIA ? 834.50 × TD ? 1695.49 ×??K??(R2 = 0.94**). PMID:24453909

Luo, Jun; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Liping

2013-01-01

432

Plant Growth-Promoting Nitrogen-Fixing Enterobacteria Are in Association with Sugarcane Plants Growing in Guangxi, China  

PubMed Central

The current nitrogen fertilization for sugarcane production in Guangxi, the major sugarcane-producing area in China, is very high. We aim to reduce nitrogen fertilization and improve sugarcane production in Guangxi with the help of indigenous sugarcane-associated nitrogen-fixing bacteria. We initially obtained 196 fast-growing bacterial isolates associated with the main sugarcane cultivar ROC22 plants in fields using a nitrogen-deficient minimal medium and screened out 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that 42 of the 43 nitrogen-fixing isolates were affiliated with the genera Enterobacter and Klebsiella. Most of the nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria possessed two other plant growth-promoting activities of IAA production, siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Two Enterobacter spp. strains of NN145S and NN143E isolated from rhizosphere soil and surface-sterilized roots, respectively, of the same ROC22 plant were used to inoculate micropropagated sugarcane plantlets. Both strains increased the biomass and nitrogen content of the sugarcane seedlings grown with nitrogen fertilization equivalent to 180 kg urea ha?1, the recommended nitrogen fertilization for ROC22 cane crops at the seedling stage. 15N isotope dilution assays demonstrated that biological nitrogen fixation contributed to plant growth promotion. These results suggested that indigenous nitrogen-fixing enterobacteria have the potential to fix N2 associated with sugarcane plants grown in fields in Guangxi and to improve sugarcane production. PMID:22510648

Lin, Li; Li, Zhengyi; Hu, Chunjin; Zhang, Xincheng; Chang, Siping; Yang, Litao; Li, Yangrui; An, Qianli

2012-01-01

433

Warm spring temperatures induce persistent season-long changes in shoot development in grapevines  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The influence of temperature on the timing of budbreak in woody perennials is well known, but its effect on subsequent shoot growth and architecture has received little attention because it is understood that growth is determined by current temperature. Seasonal shoot development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) was evaluated following differences in temperature near budbreak while minimizing the effects of other microclimatic variables. Methods Dormant buds and emerging shoots of field-grown grapevines were heated above or cooled below the temperature of ambient buds from before budbreak until individual flowers were visible on inflorescences, at which stage the shoots had four to eight unfolded leaves. Multiple treatments were imposed randomly on individual plants and replicated across plants. Shoot growth and development were monitored during two growing seasons. Key Results Higher bud temperatures advanced the date of budbreak and accelerated shoot growth and leaf area development. Differences were due to higher rates of shoot elongation, leaf appearance, leaf-area expansion and axillary-bud outgrowth. Although shoots arising from heated buds grew most vigorously, apical dominance in these shoots was reduced, as their axillary buds broke earlier and gave rise to more vigorous lateral shoots. In contrast, axillary-bud outgrowth was minimal on the slow-growing shoots emerging from buds cooled below ambient. Variation in shoot development persisted or increased during the growing season, well after temperature treatments were terminated and despite an imposed soil water deficit. Conclusions The data indicate that bud-level differences in budbreak temperature may lead to marked differences in shoot growth, shoot architecture and leaf-area development that are maintained or amplified during the growing season. Although growth rates commonly are understood to reflect current temperatures, these results demonstrate a persistent effect of early-season temperatures, which should be considered in future growth models. PMID:20513742

Keller, Markus; Tarara, Julie M.

2010-01-01

434

Biology of Azospirillum-Sugarcane Association: Enhancement of Nitrogenase Activity †  

PubMed Central

Azospirillum brasilense was reisolated from associations with callus tissue cultures of sugarcane and compared with stock cultures of the inoculated bacterium and related strains. Although the reisolate had a growth rate similar to stock cultures, it exhibited a severalfold increase in maximum specific activity of nitrogenase. The reisolate and the parent culture had similar ultrastructure. The general ultrastructure of Azospirillum is described. The bacterium was capsulated when grown on nitrogen-free nutrient agar plates and on callus, but was not capsulated when growing in a subsurface zone in N-free semisolid nutrient agar, except rarely in aging cultures. Capsulation may be a protective mechanism against unfavorable pO2 under dinitrogen-fixing conditions. Pleomorphism occurred in capsulated forms, and the ultrastructure of these forms is described. Images PMID:16345531

Berg, R. Howard; Tyler, Max E.; Novick, Norman J.; Vasil, Vimla; Vasil, Indra K.

1980-01-01

435

Limited Genetic Diversity in the Endophytic Sugarcane Bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus  

PubMed Central

Acetobacter diazotrophicus isolates that originated from different sugarcane cultivars growing in diverse geographic regions of Mexico and Brazil were shown to have limited genetic diversity. Measurements of polymorphism in the electrophoretic mobilities of metabolic enzymes revealed that the mean genetic diversity per enzyme locus (among the four electrophoretic types distinguished) was 0.064. The results of the genetic analysis indicate that the genetic structure of A. diazotrophicus is clonal, with one largely predominant clone. Plasmids were present in 20 of 24 isolates, and the molecular sizes of the plasmids ranged from 2.0 to 170 kb. Two plasmids (a 20- to 24-kb plasmid detected in all 20 plasmid-containing isolates and a 170-kb plasmid observed in 14 isolates) were highly conserved among the isolates examined. Regardless of the presence of plasmids, all of the isolates shared a common pattern of nif structural gene organization on the chromosome. Images PMID:16349254

Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

1994-01-01

436

Developing monitoring techniques for the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.  

PubMed

The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive species that has colonized oak woodlands in southern California. To better define its seasonal flight activity, assist with forest and integrated pest management activities, and define the current distribution in California, an effective monitoring technique for A. auroguttatus is necessary. We assessed the efficacy of two colors of flight-intercept prism traps, the placement of these traps at three heights, and several commercially available lures [Manuka oil, Phoebe oil, and a green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol] for monitoring the flight of adult A. auroguttatus. Landing rates and the densities of D-shaped emergence holes of A. auroguttatus adults were assessed on the lower stems of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, of varying size and crown health classes. Purple flight-intercept prism traps placed at heights of 3 m and 4.5 m caught significantly more female A. auroguttatus than green prism traps. In one experiment, males also responded at a significantly higher level to purple than to green prism traps placed at 3 m height. The addition of commercially available lures significantly enhanced male, but not female, A. auroguttatus trap catch when compared with unbaited control traps. There were no differences among male flight responses to the three lures. A. auroguttatus landing rates and emergence hole densities were significantly greater on the largest-diameter trees (>76.2 cm diameter at breast height) and on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. The annual increment in emergence hole densities was also significantly greater on trees with severe crown thinning or complete crown collapse. In three trapping studies over multiple years in southern California, the adult flight period began as early as mid-May, peaked in mid-June to early July, and ended in early- to mid-September. To demonstrate the efficacy of the detection method for A. auroguttatus (unbaited purple traps at 3 m height), a delimitation survey conducted from 2009 to 2012 confirmed that the species was only present in San Diego Co., but that the distribution was expanding northward. PMID:24755194

Coleman, Tom W; Chen, Yigen; Graves, Andrew D; Hishinuma, Stacy M; Grulke, Nancy E; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

2014-06-01

437

Assessing establishment success of Zostera marina transplants through measurements of shoot morphology and growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since significant seagrass declines have been reported worldwide, numerous seagrass restoration projects through transplantation have been attempted in recent decades. In this study, Zostera marina shoots were transplanted into Jindong Bay on the southern coast of Korea in November 2006 to assess establishment success of the transplants to a new transplant environment. Shoot density, individual shoot weight, productivity, and morphological characteristics of transplants and reference plants in the vicinity of the planting site were monitored monthly for 13 months. Although shoot size of transplants was smaller than that of reference plants at the start of transplantation, individual shoot weight, leaf width, shoot height, and rhizome diameter of transplants increased rapidly, reaching even higher values than those of reference plants 5 months after transplantation. These results suggest that eelgrass transplants established morphologically 5 months after transplantation. Shoot productivity of transplants was lower than that of reference population during the first 5-6 months following transplantation, but became higher than that of reference population 6 months after transplantation. The higher transplant productivity was likely due to the lower shoot density at the transplant site than that at the reference population. Rapid changes in shoot morphology and growth of transplants indicated that eelgrass transplants had great morphological plasticity and established successfully in the new environment within 5-6 months. In addition to survival rates of transplants, monitoring of shoot morphology and growth appeared to be an effective approach for accurate assessment of the establishment success of eelgrass transplant.

Li, Wen-Tao; Kim, Jong-Hyeob; Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop

2010-07-01

438

Shoot multiplication and adventitious regeneration in Sorbus aucuparia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro mother plants initiated from a mature tree of Sorbus aucuparia, produced numerous propagules on a medium containing 2 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.2 ?M 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).\\u000a These were rooted on a medium containing 0.25 ?M NAA and 0.25 ?M indole?3-butyric acid. Adventitious shoots were produced\\u000a on excised leaves and internodes on media containing 10 ?M thidiazuron and 0.3–1.0 ?M NAA. They formed by

S. Lall; Z. Mandegaran; A. V. Roberts

2006-01-01

439

Optimizing the utilization of biomass resources for power generation in Brazilian sugarcane industry through application of co-fired combined cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane trash are residues from sugar and alcohol production, an economic activity that is well established in Brazil. Bagasse is a residue from the industrial process, being widely used in CHP plants to fulfill thermal and power requirements of sugarcane mills. As the market for surplus bagasse is small and unstable, mills usually consume all this biomass

Mônica Souza; Arnaldo Walter

440

The Influence of Enterprise Diversification on Household Food Security among Small-Scale Sugarcane Farmers: A Case Study of Muhoroni Division, Nyando District, Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the levels of household food security and the influence of enterprise diversification on household food security among small-scale sugarcane farmers in Muhoroni division, Nyando District, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. The population consisted of small-scale sugarcane farmers who grow sugarcane

Muthoni Thuo, Caroline

2011-01-01

441

Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1  

PubMed Central

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, J. L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A. A.

2012-01-01

442

Sugarcane growth promotion by the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1.  

PubMed

The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1::pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1::pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that the presence of P. agglomerans 33.1 has no effect on these communities. In this study, different techniques were used to monitor 33.1::pNKGFP during sugarcane cross-colonization, and our results suggested that this plant growth promoter could be used with other crops. The interaction between sugarcane and P. agglomerans 33.1 has important benefits that promote the plant's growth and fitness. PMID:22865062

Quecine, M C; Araújo, W L; Rossetto, P B; Ferreira, A; Tsui, S; Lacava, P T; Mondin, M; Azevedo, J L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A A

2012-11-01

443

Gibberellin-enhanced elongation of inverted Pharbitis nil shoot prevents the release of apical dominance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ethylene evolution resulting from the gravity stress of shoot inversion appears to induce the release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil (L.) by inhibiting elongation of the inverted shoot. It has been previously demonstrated that this shoot inversion release of apical dominance can be prevented by promoting elongation in the inverted shoot via interference with ethylene synthesis or action. In the present study it was shown that apical dominance release can also be prevented by promoting elongation of the inverted shoot via treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3). A synergistic effect was observed when AgNO3, the ethylene action inhibitor, was applied with GA3. Both GA3 and AgNO3 increased ethylene production in the inverted shoot. These results are consistent with the view that it is ethylene-induced inhibition of elongation and not any direct effect of ethylene per se which is responsible for the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud.

Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

1987-01-01

444

The influence of growth regulators on shoot proliferation and rooting of in vitro propagated caper.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of TDZ and BAP on shoot proliferation and to develop a satisfactory rooting procedure for in vitro propagation of caper (Capparis spinosa L). TDZ was found to be more effective than BAP in shoot production. The highest shoot number per explant (45.7) was achieved on the media that contained 4.54 microM TDZ in the absence of IAA. TDZ at 4.54 microM alone or in combination with 0.57 microM IAA did not inhibit shoot elongation, although they produced the most shoots. Dipping the caper shoots in the solution of IBA at 24.6 microM for 10 minutes before planting on MS media, improved the rooting percentage up to 80.5% under a 16 hr photoperiod. PMID:16334286

Caglar, G; Caglar, S; Ergin, O; Yarim, M

2005-07-01

445

The effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on shoot-root nitrogen and water signaling.  

PubMed

Terrestrial higher plants are composed of roots and shoots, distinct organs that conduct complementary functions in dissimilar environments. For example, roots are responsible for acquiring water and nutrients such as inorganic nitrogen from the soil, yet shoots consume the majority of these resources. The success of such a relationship depends on excellent root-shoot communications. Increased net photosynthesis and decreased shoot nitrogen and water use at elevated CO2 fundamentally alter these source-sink relations. Lower than predicted productivity gains at elevated CO2 under nitrogen or water stress may indicate shoot-root signaling lacks plasticity to respond to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The following presents recent research results on shoot-root nitrogen and water signaling, emphasizing the influence that rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are having on these source-sink interactions. PMID:23983674

Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J

2013-01-01

446

The effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on shoot-root nitrogen and water signaling  

PubMed Central

Terrestrial higher plants are composed of roots and shoots, distinct organs that conduct complementary functions in dissimilar environments. For example, roots are responsible for acquiring water and nutrients such as inorganic nitrogen from the soil, yet shoots consume the majority of these resources. The success of such a relationship depends on excellent root–shoot communications. Increased net photosynthesis and decreased shoot nitrogen and water use at elevated CO2 fundamentally alter these source–sink relations. Lower than predicted productivity gains at elevated CO2 under nitrogen or water stress may indicate shoot–root signaling lacks plasticity to respond to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The following presents recent research results on shoot–root nitrogen and water signaling, emphasizing the influence that rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are having on these source–sink interactions. PMID:23983674

Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J.

2013-01-01

447

Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppr