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Sample records for suggests central susceptibility

  1. Social suggestibility to central and peripheral misinformation.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Andrea L; Daneman, Meredyth

    2006-05-01

    This study used a laboratory-based paradigm to investigate social influences on participants' susceptibility to misleading suggestions. Participants viewed a video clip of an action sequence with one or more peers, and then were required to discuss the event with the co-witness or with the group of co-witnesses. During the discussion a confederate, posing as a peer, presented misinformation about central and peripheral features of the co-witnessed event. Results indicated that participants were more susceptible to misleading suggestions during one-on-one discussions than during group discussions. In addition, participants were susceptible to misleading suggestions about central features of the witnessed event, although to a lesser extent than they were susceptible to misleading suggestions about peripheral features. PMID:16766450

  2. Association Analysis Suggests SOD2 as a Newly Identified Candidate Gene Associated With Leprosy Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Geovana Brotto; Salomão, Heloisa; Francio, Angela Schneider; Fava, Vinícius Medeiros; Werneck, Renata Iani; Mira, Marcelo Távora

    2016-08-01

    Genetic studies have identified several genes and genomic regions contributing to the control of host susceptibility to leprosy. Here, we test variants of the positional and functional candidate gene SOD2 for association with leprosy in 2 independent population samples. Family-based analysis revealed an association between leprosy and allele G of marker rs295340 (P = .042) and borderline evidence of an association between leprosy and alleles C and A of markers rs4880 (P = .077) and rs5746136 (P = .071), respectively. Findings were validated in an independent case-control sample for markers rs295340 (P = .049) and rs4880 (P = .038). These results suggest SOD2 as a newly identified gene conferring susceptibility to leprosy. PMID:27132285

  3. The impact of outcome valence on the susceptibility to suggestion for post-event causal misinformation.

    PubMed

    Chrobak, Quin M; Groves, Chris L; Otradovec, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that people are especially susceptible to false memory development for suggested misinformation that fills a causal role (i.e., explains some known outcome) (Chrobak & Zaragoza, 2013). However, little is known about how factors associated with the witnessed outcome impact the likelihood of false memory development. In the present study, outcome valence (negative, positive, or neutral) was manipulated. Participants heard several short stories that contained an outcome (e.g., a counselor getting promoted) that lacked a causal explanation. Participants were subsequently exposed to suggested causal misinformation that explained that outcome (e.g., the counselor performed an impressive act the previous day) and then were tested on their memory for the original event. Results indicated that participants incorrectly reported the suggested causal information more when it explained either a positive or negative outcome as opposed to a neutral outcome. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26786731

  4. Contrasting Patterns of Coral Bleaching Susceptibility in 2010 Suggest an Adaptive Response to Thermal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guest, James R.; Baird, Andrew H.; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Muttaqin, Efin; Edwards, Alasdair J.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Yewdall, Katie; Affendi, Yang Amri; Chou, Loke Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral bleaching events vary in severity, however, to date, the hierarchy of susceptibility to bleaching among coral taxa has been consistent over a broad geographic range and among bleaching episodes. Here we examine the extent of spatial and temporal variation in thermal tolerance among scleractinian coral taxa and between locations during the 2010 thermally induced, large-scale bleaching event in South East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys to estimate the bleaching and mortality indices of coral genera were carried out at three locations with contrasting thermal and bleaching histories. Despite the magnitude of thermal stress being similar among locations in 2010, there was a remarkable contrast in the patterns of bleaching susceptibility. Comparisons of bleaching susceptibility within coral taxa and among locations revealed no significant differences between locations with similar thermal histories, but significant differences between locations with contrasting thermal histories (Friedman = 34.97; p<0.001). Bleaching was much less severe at locations that bleached during 1998, that had greater historical temperature variability and lower rates of warming. Remarkably, Acropora and Pocillopora, taxa that are typically highly susceptible, although among the most susceptible in Pulau Weh (Sumatra, Indonesia) where respectively, 94% and 87% of colonies died, were among the least susceptible in Singapore, where only 5% and 12% of colonies died. Conclusions/Significance The pattern of susceptibility among coral genera documented here is unprecedented. A parsimonious explanation for these results is that coral populations that bleached during the last major warming event in 1998 have adapted and/or acclimatised to thermal stress. These data also lend support to the hypothesis that corals in regions subject to more variable temperature regimes are more resistant to thermal stress than those in less variable environments. PMID:22428027

  5. Magnetic susceptibility and relation to initial 87Sr/86Sr for granitoids of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, P.C.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kistler, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of more than 6000 samples of granitic rock from the Mariposa 1?? by 2?? quadrangle, which crosses the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith between 37?? and 38??N latitude, shows that magnetic susceptibility values are above 10-2 SI units in the east and central parts of the batholith and drop abruptly to less than 10-3 SI units in the western foothills. In a narrow transitional zone, intermediate values (10-3 to 10-2) prevail. Magnetic susceptibility appears to decrease slightly westward within the zones of both high and low values. Magnetic susceptibility in plutonic rocks is chiefly a function of the abundance of magnetite, which depends, in turn, on the total iron content of the rocks and their oxidation ratio. Correlations of magnetic susceptibility with initial 87Sr/86Sr suggest that oxidation ratios have been inherited from the source regions for the magmas from which the rocks crystallized. Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ by organic carbon or other reducing substances may also have affected magnetic susceptibility. -from Authors

  6. A Two-Stage Association Study Suggests BRAP as a Susceptibility Gene for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Guoyang; Yuan, Guozhen; Cheng, Zaohuo; Wang, Jidong; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Zhenhe; Zhao, Xingfu; Tian, Lin; Jin, Chunhui; Yuan, Janmin; Zhang, Guofu; Chen, Yaguang; Wang, Lifang; Lu, Tianlan; Yan, Hao; Ruan, Yanyan; Yue, Weihua; Zhang, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which altered immune function typically plays an important role in mediating the effect of environmental insults and regulation of inflammation. The breast cancer suppressor protein associated protein (BRAP) is suggested to exert vital effects in neurodevelopment by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and inflammation signaling. To explore the possible role of BRAP in SZ, we conducted a two-stage study to examine the association of BRAP polymorphisms with SZ in the Han Chinese population. In stage one, we screened SNPs in BRAP from our GWAS data, which detected three associated SNPs, with rs3782886 being the most significant one (P  =  2.31E-6, OR  =  0.67). In stage two, we validated these three SNPs in an independently collected population including 1957 patients and 1509 controls, supporting the association of rs3782886 with SZ (P  =  1.43E-6, OR  =  0.73). Furthermore, cis-eQTL analysis indicates that rs3782886 genotypes are associated with mRNA levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (ALDH2) (P  =  0.0039) and myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MYL2) (P < 1.0E-4). Our data suggest that the BRAP gene may confer vulnerability for SZ in Han Chinese population, adding further evidence for the involvement of developmental and/or neuroinflammatory cascades in the illness. PMID:24454952

  7. Study of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility on Central Chimei Fault, Coastal Range of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Chimei fault is the only major reverse fault across the entire Coastal Range and is also a typical lithology-contrast fault thrusting the volcanic Tuluanshan Formation of Miocene over the sedimentary Paliwan Formation of Pleistocene. To investigate the deformation pattern across the Chimei fault more precisely, we analyzed oriented coring samples of mudstone across the fault zone, damage zone, fold zone and wall rocks along the Hsiukuluan River via anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Prolate (cigar-shaped) and oblate (disc-shaped) ellipsoids appear together at fault zone, damage zone and fold zone, suggesting that strong variation of deformation and lithology in each zone of the Chimei fault. Previous study pointed out that oblate ellipsoid usually appears in the footwall, further indicating that the Chimei fault behaves differently from regular detachment faults. It strongly speculates although the central Chimei fault displays N-S shortening, the deformation is not strong enough to develop penetrative oblate fabric, even in the main fault zone of the Chimei fault. Further studies will be rnrformation is not sobear theequired to identify the magnetic carriers and grain size to improve current concept. Keywords : Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Coastal Range, Chimei Fault, Taiwan

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Belard, Sabine; Toepfner, Nicole; Capan-Melser, Mesküre; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Groger, Mirjam; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Selidji T; Adegnika, Ayôla A; González, Raquel; Kremsner, Peter G; Menendez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael; Berner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective antibiotics. This is the first report on serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae in pregnant women from a Central African region. Serotypes V, III, and Ib accounted for 88/109 (81%) serotypes and all isolates were susceptible to penicillin and clindamycin while 13% showed intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin. PMID:26603208

  9. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Belard, Sabine; Toepfner, Nicole; Capan-Melser, Mesküre; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Groger, Mirjam; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Adegnika, Ayôla A.; González, Raquel; Kremsner, Peter G.; Menendez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael; Berner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective antibiotics. This is the first report on serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae in pregnant women from a Central African region. Serotypes V, III, and Ib accounted for 88/109 (81%) serotypes and all isolates were susceptible to penicillin and clindamycin while 13% showed intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin. PMID:26603208

  10. Susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to organophosphates and a pyrethroid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Debin; Indelicato, Nick; Petersen, Jack; Williges, Eric; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Chemical insecticides are the primary means to control mosquitoes, and mosquito control programs must regularly monitor for resistance of mosquito vectors to commonly used insecticides to ensure the efficacy and sustainability of active ingredients. We performed insecticide resistance bioassays to test the susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to 1 larvicide (temephos) and 2 adulticides (malathion and sumithrin). Larval susceptibility of Culex pipiens pipiens to temephos provided median concentration (LC50) and 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values of 1.108 microg/l and 2.02 microg/l, respectively. Bottle bioassays of adult Aedes albopictus showed that 100% mortality was achieved at 35-min exposure to sumithrin and at 40-min to malathion. Baseline values were obtained using both temephos and sumithrin. Our bioassays indicate satisfactory susceptibility to temephos and sumithrin in Ae. albopictus and Cx. p. pipiens field populations in central New Jersey. Despite constant field use, both products are still effective and can be used adequately for control of the test species. However, the susceptibility of target insects to various formulations should be closely monitored periodically to ensure continual efficacy. PMID:25102600

  11. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  12. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K; Münzel, Susanne C; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  13. Lengthened Cutaneous Silent Period in Fibromyalgia Suggesting Central Sensitization as a Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Yong Seo; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of fibromyalgia (FM) has not been clearly elucidated, but central sensitization, which plays an important role in the development of neuropathic pain, is considered to be the main mechanism. The cutaneous silent period (CSP), which is a spinal reflex mediated by A-delta cutaneous afferents, is useful for the evaluation of sensorimotor integration at the spinal and supraspinal levels. To understand the pathophysiology of FM, we compared CSP patterns between patients with FM and normal healthy subjects. Twenty-four patients with FM diagnosed in accordance with the 1990 American College of Rheumatology classification system and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. The CSP was measured from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. Demographic data, number of tender points, and visual analog scale and FM impact questionnaire scores were collected. The measured CSP and clinical parameters of the patient and control groups were compared. In addition, possible correlations between the CSP parameters and the other clinical characteristics were analyzed. Mean CSP latencies did not differ between patients (55.50 ± 10.97 ms) and healthy controls (60.23 ± 11.87 ms; p = 0.158), although the mean CSP duration was significantly longer in patients (73.75 ± 15.67 ms) than in controls (63.50 ± 14.05 ms; p = 0.021). CSP variables did not correlate with any clinical variables. The significantly longer CSP duration in FM patients suggests central dysregulation at the spinal and supraspinal levels, rather than peripheral small fiber dysfunction. PMID:26871583

  14. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (-786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles -786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2-5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  15. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (−786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles −786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2–5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  16. An active loudness model suggesting tinnitus as increased central noise and hyperacusis as increased nonlinear gain

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The present study uses a systems engineering approach to delineate the relationship between tinnitus and hyperacusis as a result of either hearing loss in the ear or an imbalanced state in the brain. Specifically examined is the input–output function, or loudness growth as a function of intensity in both normal and pathological conditions. Tinnitus reduces the output dynamic range by raising the floor, while hyperacusis reduces the input dynamic range by lowering the ceiling or sound tolerance level. Tinnitus does not necessarily steepen the loudness growth function but hyperacusis always does. An active loudness model that consists of an expansion stage following a compression stage can account for these key properties in tinnitus and hyperacusis loudness functions. The active loudness model suggests that tinnitus is a result of increased central noise, while hyperacusis is due to increased nonlinear gain. The active loudness model also generates specific predictions on loudness growth in tinnitus, hyperacusis, hearing loss or any combinations of the three conditions. These predictions need to be verified by experimental data and have explicit implications for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis. PMID:22641191

  17. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu M; Gomes, Alberto; Ismael, Ana Paula K; Koller, Wilson W

    2002-09-01

    From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 micro g/cm2, and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6). Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides) represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations. PMID:12386720

  18. A genome-wide association study follow-up suggests a possible role for PPARG in systemic sclerosis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) comprising a French cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) reported several non-HLA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a nominal association in the discovery phase. We aimed to identify previously overlooked susceptibility variants by using a follow-up strategy. Methods Sixty-six non-HLA SNPs showing a P value <10-4 in the discovery phase of the French SSc GWAS were analyzed in the first step of this study, performing a meta-analysis that combined data from the two published SSc GWASs. A total of 2,921 SSc patients and 6,963 healthy controls were included in this first phase. Two SNPs, PPARG rs310746 and CHRNA9 rs6832151, were selected for genotyping in the replication cohort (1,068 SSc patients and 6,762 healthy controls) based on the results of the first step. Genotyping was performed by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results We observed nominal associations for both PPARG rs310746 (PMH = 1.90 × 10-6, OR, 1.28) and CHRNA9 rs6832151 (PMH = 4.30 × 10-6, OR, 1.17) genetic variants with SSc in the first step of our study. In the replication phase, we observed a trend of association for PPARG rs310746 (P value = 0.066; OR, 1.17). The combined overall Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study revealed that PPARG rs310746 remained associated with SSc with a nominal non-genome-wide significant P value (PMH = 5.00 × 10-7; OR, 1.25). No evidence of association was observed for CHRNA9 rs6832151 either in the replication phase or in the overall pooled analysis. Conclusion Our results suggest a role of PPARG gene in the development of SSc. PMID:24401602

  19. An innovative tool for landslide susceptibility mapping in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, Annamaria; Pilz, Marco; Wieland, Marc; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Kyrgyzstan is among the most exposed countries in the world to landslide susceptibility. The high seismicity of the area, the presence of high mountain ridges and topographic relieves, the geology of the local materials and the occurrence of heavy precipitations represent the main factors responsible for slope failures. In particular, the large variability of material properties and slope conditions as well as the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitations locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking call for harmonized procedures for reducing the negative impact of these factors. Several studies have recently been carried out aiming at preparing landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; however, some of them - qualitative-based - suffer from the application of subjective decision rules from experts in the classification of parameters that influence the occurrence of a landslide. On the other hand, statistical methods provide objectivity over qualitative ones since they allow a numerical evaluation of landslide spatial distribution with landslide potential factors. For this reason, we will make use of a bivariate technique known as Weight-Of-Evidence method to evaluate the influence of landslide predictive factors. The aim of this study is to identify areas in Kyrgyzstan being more prone to earthquake-triggered landslides. An innovative approach which exploits the new advances of GIS technology together with statistical concepts is presented. A range of conditioning factors and their potential impact on landslide activation is quantitatively assessed on the basis of landslide spatial distribution and seismic zonation. Results show areas which are more susceptible to landslides induced by earthquakes. Our approach can be used to fill the gap of subjectivity that typically affects already performed qualitative analysis. The resulting landslide susceptibility map represents a potentially supportive tool for disaster management and planning activities

  20. Regional Mapping of Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central Puget Sound Region, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, S. P.; Perkins, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    In the late 1980's we began development of a series of regional liquefaction susceptibility maps covering the urban areas of the central Puget Sound region, including the cities of Seattle and Tacoma. In producing these maps we used a standardized approach that utilizes 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping and analyses of geotechnical boring data and allows direct comparison of the liquefaction susceptibility assessments depicted on each map. The geologic units in a study area were grouped based on their geological and engineering characteristics, and a suite of geotechnical borings was compiled for each geologic grouping. A standard engineering analysis was used to calculate factors-of-safety from standard penetration test N-values, sample descriptions, grain-size analyses, and ground-water depths obtained from the compiled geotechnical borings. Liquefaction factors-of-safety were calculated for two magnitude 7.3 earthquake scenarios, one having a 0.15 g peak ground acceleration (PGA), and the other a 0.30 g PGA. The choice of earthquake scenarios is consistent with an intraplate earthquake similar to the 1949 Olympia and 2001 Nisqually events in the Puget Sound region. Using these factor-of-safety calculations we determined the aggregated total thicknesses of liquefiable material for each boring in a geologic grouping, and normalized these data by expressing the aggregated thicknesses as a percentage of the total penetrated thickness. A series of histograms, one for each earthquake scenario, were used to present the distribution of aggregate liquefiable thicknesses and to assign a liquefaction susceptibility to each geologic grouping. We have calibrated our analyses of liquefaction susceptibility using the liquefaction response observed during the Nisqually earthquake. We developed histograms for each geologic grouping using measured PGA's from this event and the geotechnical boring datasets compiled in the production of the previously published liquefaction

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Zaire: high level plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance in central Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, E; Rossau, R; Duhamel, M; Behets, F; Laga, M; Nzila, M; Bygdeman, S; Van Heuverswijn, H; Piot, P

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of gonococcal strains isolated in 1988 among female prostitutes in Kinshasa, Zaire and to characterise strains with high level tetracycline resistance. METHODS--Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8 antimicrobials were measured by agar dilution technique. Plasmid-profiles and serovars were determined. RESULTS--Two hundred and thirteen strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were tested of which 59% were beta-lactamase producers and an additional 21% showed intermediate or chromosomal resistance to penicillin (MIC = 0.5-8 mg/l). Eleven percent of the strains were resistant to the combination sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (MIC greater than 8 mg/l) and 57% of the isolates showed decreased susceptibility to thiamphenicol (MIC = 1-4 mg/l). All strains were sensitive to spectinomycin, norfloxacin and ceftriaxone and moderately sensitive to kanamycin. Chromosomal resistance to tetracycline was observed in 45% of strains (MIC = 2-8 mg/l). Ten percent were highly resistant to tetracycline (TRNG, MIC = 16-128 mg/l) and were shown to carry a plasmid borne Tet M determinant; such strains were not found in Kinshasa in 1985. TRNG belonged to 4 different serovars, which were also the dominant serovars in non-TRNG. CONCLUSION--These findings illustrate the high frequency of multiresistant gonococci in Zaire and suggest that high level tetracycline resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae have become endemic in Central Africa. Images PMID:1582653

  2. Susceptibility of central Red Sea corals during a major bleaching event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furby, K. A.; Bouwmeester, J.; Berumen, M. L.

    2013-06-01

    A major coral bleaching event occurred in the central Red Sea near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, in the summer of 2010, when the region experienced up to 10-11 degree heating weeks. We documented the susceptibility of various coral taxa to bleaching at eight reefs during the peak of this thermal stress. Oculinids and agaricids were most susceptible to bleaching, with up to 100 and 80 % of colonies of these families, respectively, bleaching at some reefs. In contrast, some families, such as mussids, pocilloporids, and pectinids showed low levels of bleaching (<20 % on average). We resurveyed the reefs 7 months later to estimate subsequent mortality. Mortality was highly variable among taxa, with some taxa showing evidence of full recovery and some (e.g., acroporids) apparently suffering nearly complete mortality. The unequal mortality among families resulted in significant change in community composition following the bleaching. Significant factors in the likelihood of coral bleaching during this event were depth of the reef and distance of the reef from shore. Shallow reefs and inshore reefs had a higher prevalence of bleaching. This bleaching event shows that Red Sea reefs are subject to the same increasing pressures that reefs face worldwide. This study provides a quantitative, genus-level assessment of the vulnerability of various coral groups from within the Red Sea to bleaching and estimates subsequent mortality. As such, it can provide valuable insights into the future for reef communities in the Red Sea.

  3. B cell VLA-4-deficiency reduces leukocyte recruitment and susceptibility to central nervous system autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Sagan, Sharon A.; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Zamvil, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    Natalizumab, which binds very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), is a potent therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies have focused primarily upon its capacity to interfere with T cell-migration into the central nervous system (CNS). B cells are important in MS pathogenesis and express high levels of VLA-4. Here, we report that the selective inhibition of VLA-4-expression on B cells impedes CNS accumulation of B cells, recruitment of Th17 cells and macrophages, and reduces susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These results underscore the importance of B cell VLA-4-expression in pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity and provide insight regarding mechanisms that may contribute to the benefit of natalizumab in MS, as well as candidate therapeutics that selectively target B cells. PMID:25712734

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively. PMID:19090221

  5. GIS-analysis of gully erosion susceptibility: a key study in north-central Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnesi, Valerio; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Maerker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    Erosion by water is responsible for severe geo-environmental problems in semi-humid to arid Mediterranean areas. Large sectors of Sicily are affected by intense soil erosion phenomena leading to severe damages in agriculture lands that, in some cases, experience high soil loss rates. An important contribution to sediment yield from these areas is given by gully erosion phenomena; the latter, in the last decades, attracted attention of many researches that developed and applied methods to quantify soil loss volumes and to evaluate proneness of territory to this process. The present research aims to assess gully erosion susceptibility in the basin of the San Giorgio torrent, a mountain stream flowing in north-central Sicily and draining an area of about 9.5 km2; the watershed, which is mainly covered by arable lands, has highly erodible slopes characterized by the outcropping of clays and marls. In order to predict gully erosion susceptibility, a multivariate geostatistical approach is adopted here. In particular, the method is based on the definition of spatial relationships between the geographical variability of a set of controlling factors and the occurrence of gullies on slopes; the linear density of gullies computed on homogeneous domains is selected as the probabilistic function expressing how proneness to gully erosion spatially changes in the studied area. Available thematic maps, which were integrated by field and remote surveys, and a high quality DEM, were used to derive eight layers of terrain variables, selected according to geomorphological criteria and expressing both soil erodibility (bedrock lithology, land use) and erosivity of flowing waters (slope angle, Stream Power Index, SL-factor, Topographic Wetness Index, plan and profile curvature). All the parameters were computed for homogeneous spatial domains, created by intersecting a grid of 50m square polygons and a layer of slope units automatically derived from DEM; therefore, the eight layers

  6. Pathway-based evaluation of 380 candidate genes and lung cancer susceptibility suggests the importance of the cell cycle pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H.Dean; Menashe, Idan; Shen, Min; Yeager, Meredith; Yuenger, Jeff; Rajaraman, Preetha; He, Xingzhou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Caporaso, Neil E.; Zhu, Yong; Chanock, Stephen J.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Lan, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Common genetic variation may play an important role in altering lung cancer risk. We conducted a pathway-based candidate gene evaluation to identify genetic variations that may be associated with lung cancer in a population-based case–control study in Xuan Wei, China (122 cases and 111 controls). A total of 1260 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 380 candidate genes for lung cancer were successfully genotyped and assigned to one of 10 pathways based on gene ontology. Logistic regression was used to assess the marginal effect of each SNP on lung cancer susceptibility. The minP test was used to identify statistically significant associations at the gene level. Important pathways were identified using a test of proportions and the rank truncated product methods. The cell cycle pathway was found as the most important pathway (P = 0.044) with four genes significantly associated with lung cancer (PLA2G6 minP = 0.001, CCNA2 minP = 0.006, GSK3β minP = 0.007 and EGF minP = 0.013), after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Interestingly, most cell cycle genes that were associated with lung cancer in this analysis were concentrated in the AKT signaling pathway, which is essential for regulation of cell cycle progression and cellular survival, and may be important in lung cancer etiology in Xuan Wei. These results should be viewed as exploratory until they are replicated in a larger study. PMID:18676680

  7. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap; Lanteri, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  8. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L.; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T.; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D.; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  9. Identification of potential mitochondrial CLPXP protease interactors and substrates suggests its central role in energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Fabian; Langer, Julian D.; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of mitochondria is achieved by several mechanisms, including the regulation of mitochondrial proteostasis. The matrix protease CLPXP, involved in protein quality control, has been implicated in ageing and disease. However, particularly due to the lack of knowledge of CLPXP’s substrate spectrum, only little is known about the pathways and mechanisms controlled by this protease. Here we report the first comprehensive identification of potential mitochondrial CLPXP in vivo interaction partners and substrates using a combination of tandem affinity purification and differential proteomics. This analysis reveals that CLPXP in the fungal ageing model Podospora anserina is mainly associated with metabolic pathways in mitochondria, e.g. components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as subunits of electron transport chain complex I. These data suggest a possible function of mitochondrial CLPXP in the control and/or maintenance of energy metabolism. Since bioenergetic alterations are a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and ageing, our data comprise an important resource for specific studies addressing the role of CLPXP in these adverse processes. PMID:26679294

  10. Crystallographic Studies of Prion Protein (PrP) Segments Suggest How Structural Changes Encoded by Polymorphism at Residue 129 Modulate Susceptibility to Human Prion Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Apostol, Marcin I.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David

    2010-09-23

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 129 of the human prion gene, leading to a change from methionine to valine at residue 129 of prion protein (PrP), has been shown to be a determinant in the susceptibility to prion disease. However, the molecular basis of this effect remains unexplained. In the current study, we determined crystal structures of prion segments having either Met or Val at residue 129. These 6-residue segments of PrP centered on residue 129 are 'steric zippers,' pairs of interacting {beta}-sheets. Both structures of these 'homozygous steric zippers' reveal direct intermolecular interactions between Met or Val in one sheet and the identical residue in the mating sheet. These two structures, plus a structure-based model of the heterozygous Met-Val steric zipper, suggest an explanation for the previously observed effects of this locus on prion disease susceptibility and progression.

  11. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  12. Genome-wide association study in East Asians suggests UHMK1 as a novel bone mineral density susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Park, Hyojung; Zhang, Lei; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Ye An; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Pei, Yu-Fang; Tian, Qing; Shen, Hui; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Deng, Hong-Wen; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Soo

    2016-10-01

    To identify genetic variants that influence bone mineral density (BMD) in East Asians, we performed a quantitative trait analysis of lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck BMD in a Korean population-based cohort (N=2729) and follow-up replication analysis in a Chinese Han population and two Caucasian populations (N=1547, 2250 and 987, respectively). From the meta-analysis of the stage 1 discovery analysis and stage 2 replication analysis, we identified four BMD loci that reached near-genome-wide significance level (P<5×10(-7)). One locus on 1q23 (UHMK1, rs16863247, P=4.1×10(-7) for femoral neck BMD and P=3.2×10(-6) for total hip BMD) was a novel BMD signal. Interestingly, rs16863247 was very rare in Caucasians (minor allele frequency<0.01), indicating that this association could be specific to East Asians. In gender specific analysis, rs1160574 on 1q32 (KCNH1) was associated with femoral neck BMD (P=2.1×10(-7)) in female subjects. rs9371538 in the known BMD region on 6q25 ESR1 was associated with lumbar spine BMD (P=5.6×10(-9)). rs7776725 in the known BMD region on 7q31 WTN16 was associated with total hip BMD (P=8.6×10(-9)). In osteoblasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was increased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown decreased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression increased its differentiation. In osteoclasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was decreased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown increased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression decreased its differentiation. In conclusion, our genome-wide association study identified the UHMK1 gene as a novel BMD locus specific to East Asians. Functional studies suggest a role of UHMK1 on regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:27424934

  13. Genetic, epidemiological and biological analysis of interleukin-10 promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms suggests a definitive role for -819C/T in leprosy susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A C; Brito-de-Souza, V N; Cardoso, C C; Dias-Baptista, I M F; Parelli, F P C; Venturini, J; Villani-Moreno, F R; Pacheco, A G; Moraes, M O

    2009-03-01

    Leprosy is a complex infectious disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The genetic contributing factors are considered heterogeneous and several genes have been consistently associated with susceptibility like PARK2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) and vitamin-D receptor (VDR). Here, we combined a case-control study (374 patients and 380 controls), with meta-analysis (5 studies; 2702 individuals) and biological study to test the epidemiological and physiological relevance of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) genetic markers in leprosy. We observed that the -819T allele is associated with leprosy susceptibility either in the case-control or in the meta-analysis studies. Haplotypes combining promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms also implicated a haplotype carrying the -819T allele in leprosy susceptibility (odds ratio (OR)=1.40; P=0.01). Finally, we tested IL-10 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Mycobacterium leprae antigens and found that -819T carriers produced lower levels of IL-10 when compared with non-carriers. Taken together, these data suggest that low levels of IL-10 during the disease outcome can drive patients to a chronic and unprotective response that culminates with leprosy. PMID:19110537

  14. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Mirabello, Lisa; Vineis, Joseph H; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Scarpassa, Vera M; Póvoa, Marinete M; Padilla, Norma; Achee, Nicole L; Conn, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742), and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457). The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P < 0.05). Both the DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1) and

  15. Microsatellite genotyping of medieval cattle from central Italy suggests an old origin of Chianina and Romagnola cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gargani, Maria; Pariset, Lorraine; Lenstra, Johannes A.; De Minicis, Elisabetta; Valentini, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA from archeological remains is a valuable tool to interpret the history of ancient animal populations. So far most studies of ancient DNA target mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which reveals maternal lineages, but only partially the relationships of current breeds and ancient populations. In this study we explore the feasibility of nuclear DNA analysis. DNA was extracted from 1000-years old cattle bone collected from Ferento, an archeological site in central Italy. Amplification of 15 microsatellite FAO-recommended markers with PCR products yielded genotypes for four markers. Expected heterozygosity was comparable with values of modern breeds, but observed heterozygosity was underestimated due to allelic loss. Genetic distances suggested a position intermediate between (1) Anatolian, Balkan, Sicilian and South-Italian cattle and (2) the Iberian, North-European and Central-European cattle, but also a clear relationship with two central-Italian breeds, Chianina and Romagnola. This suggests that these breeds are derived from medieval cattle living in the same area. Our results illustrate the potential of ancient DNA for reconstructing the history of local cattle husbandry. PMID:25788902

  16. Female rats are more susceptible to central nervous system oxygen toxicity than male rats

    PubMed Central

    Held, Heather E.; Pilla, Raffaele; Ciarlone, Geoffrey E.; Landon, Carol S.; Dean, Jay B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tonic–clonic seizures typify central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS‐OT) in humans and animals exposed to high levels of oxygen, as are encountered during scuba diving. We previously demonstrated that high doses of pseudoephedrine (PSE) decrease the latency to seizure (LS) for CNS‐OT in young male rats. This study investigated whether female rats respond similarly to PSE and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). We implanted 60 virgin stock (VS) and 54 former breeder (FB) female rats with radio‐telemetry devices that measured brain electrical activity. One week later, rats were gavaged with saline or PSE in saline (40, 80, 120, 160, or 320 mg/kg) before diving to five atmospheres absolute in 100% oxygen. The time between reaching maximum pressure and exhibiting seizure was LS. Vaginal smears identified estrus cycle phase. PSE did not decrease LS for VS or FB, primarily because they exhibited low LS for all conditions tested. VS had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (−42, −49, and −57%, respectively). FB also had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (−60, −86, and −73%, respectively). FB were older than VS (286 ± 10 days vs. 128 ± 5 days) and weighed more than VS (299 ± 2.7 g vs. 272 ± 2.1 g). Males tested were younger (88 ± 2 days), heavier (340 ± 4.5 g), and gained more weight postoperatively (7.2 ± 1.6 g) than either VS (−0.4 ± 1.5 g) or FB (−1.6 ± 1.5 g); however, LS correlated poorly with age, body mass, change in body mass, and estrus cycle phase. We hypothesize that differences in sex hormones underlie females' higher susceptibility to CNS‐OT than males. PMID:24771690

  17. Female rats are more susceptible to central nervous system oxygen toxicity than male rats.

    PubMed

    Held, Heather E; Pilla, Raffaele; Ciarlone, Geoffrey E; Landon, Carol S; Dean, Jay B

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tonic-clonic seizures typify central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT) in humans and animals exposed to high levels of oxygen, as are encountered during scuba diving. We previously demonstrated that high doses of pseudoephedrine (PSE) decrease the latency to seizure (LS) for CNS-OT in young male rats. This study investigated whether female rats respond similarly to PSE and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). We implanted 60 virgin stock (VS) and 54 former breeder (FB) female rats with radio-telemetry devices that measured brain electrical activity. One week later, rats were gavaged with saline or PSE in saline (40, 80, 120, 160, or 320 mg/kg) before diving to five atmospheres absolute in 100% oxygen. The time between reaching maximum pressure and exhibiting seizure was LS. Vaginal smears identified estrus cycle phase. PSE did not decrease LS for VS or FB, primarily because they exhibited low LS for all conditions tested. VS had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (-42, -49, and -57%, respectively). FB also had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (-60, -86, and -73%, respectively). FB were older than VS (286 ± 10 days vs. 128 ± 5 days) and weighed more than VS (299 ± 2.7 g vs. 272 ± 2.1 g). Males tested were younger (88 ± 2 days), heavier (340 ± 4.5 g), and gained more weight postoperatively (7.2 ± 1.6 g) than either VS (-0.4 ± 1.5 g) or FB (-1.6 ± 1.5 g); however, LS correlated poorly with age, body mass, change in body mass, and estrus cycle phase. We hypothesize that differences in sex hormones underlie females' higher susceptibility to CNS-OT than males. PMID:24771690

  18. Cretaceous stratigraphic sequences of north-central California suggest a discontinuity in the Late Cretaceous forearc basin

    SciTech Connect

    Haggart, J.W.

    1986-10-01

    The Cretaceous sedimentary succession preserved east of Redding, at the northern end of California's Great Valley, indicates that marine deposition was widespread in the region for only two periods during the Late Cretaceous. If it is assumed that there was minimal Cenozoic offset between the northern Sierra Nevada and eastern Klamath Mountains terranes, Cretaceous sedimentation in this region was most likely restricted to a narrow trough and was not a continuation of the wide, Cretaceous forearc basin of central California. The dissimilar depositional histories of the Redding basin and the Hornbrook basin of north-central California suggest that the basins were not linked continuously during the Late Cretaceous. A thick section of Cretaceous strata beneath the southwestern Modoc Plateau is considered unlikely.

  19. Antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates in Jabalpur, a city of Madhya Pradesh in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Ruchi Sethi; Nawange, Shesh Rao; Singh, Shankar Mohan; Yadu, Ruchika; Tiwari, Aditi; Gumasta, Richa; Kavishwar, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present antifungal susceptibility data of clinical and environmental isolates of Central Indian Cryptococcus neoformans (Serotype A, n = 8 and n = 50 respectively) and Cryptococcus gattii (Serotype B, n = 01 and n = 04 respectively). Susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined by using NCCLS broth micro-dilution methodology. The total number of resistant strains for fluconazole in case of C. neoformans and C. gattii showed a significant difference by using chi-square test (p < 0.05*), while considering fisher's exact p value was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). However, the total number of resistant strains for itraconazole and ketoconazole was not found statistically significant. A comparison of geometric means of clinical and environmental strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans was not found statistically significant using student ‘t’ test (p value > 0.05 NS). Though less, the antifungal data obtained in this study suggests that primary resistance among environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii against tested antifungal was present and C. gattii comparatively was less susceptible than C. neoformans var. grubii isolates to fluconazole than to itraconazole and ketoconazole. A continuous surveillance of antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii is desirable to monitor the emergence of any resistant strains for better management of cryptococcosis patients. PMID:26691471

  20. Modern and long-term evaporation of central Andes surface waters suggests paleo archives underestimate Neogene elevations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorella, Richard P.; Poulsen, Christopher J.; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro S.; Jeffery, M. Louise; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2015-12-01

    Central Andean paleoelevations reconstructed from stable isotope and paleofloral data imply a large magnitude (>2 km) Miocene-to-modern surface uplift. However, the isotopic relationships between precipitation, surface waters, and soil waters upon which these reconstructions are based remain poorly constrained for both past, and in many cases, modern conditions. We quantify the relationships between central Andean precipitation and surface waters by measuring the isotopic composition of 249 stream water samples (δ18O and δD) collected between April 2009 and October 2012. The isotopic compositions of stream waters match precipitation along the eastern flank. In contrast, Altiplano surface waters possess a lower δD-δ18O slope (4.59 vs ∼8 for meteoric waters) not observed in precipitation, which signals heavy isotope evaporative enrichment in surface waters. Paleoclimate models indicate that highly evaporative conditions have persisted on the plateau throughout Andean uplift, and that conditions may have been more evaporative when the Andes were lower. Thus, more ancient proxy materials may have a greater evaporative bias than previously recognized and paleoelevation reconstructions from stable isotope based central Andean plateau proxy materials likely overstate Miocene-to-present surface uplift. We propose Altiplano paleoelevations of 1-2 km at 24.5 Ma, 1.5-2.9 km by 11.45 Ma, and modern elevations by ∼6 Ma based on the lightest isotopic compositions observed in Altiplano proxy materials, which are least likely to be influenced by evaporation. These constraints limit total late-Miocene-to-modern uplift to <2.2 km, are more consistent with crustal shortening records, and suggest that plateau uplift may have been more spatially uniform than suggested by previous interpretations of stable isotope proxies.

  1. Seedling stage low temperature response in tolerant and susceptible rice genotypes suggests role of relative water content and members of OsSNAC gene family.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Tapu; Rai, Mayank; Tyagi, Wricha; Challam, Clarissa

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature (LT) severely affects rice growth and grain yield. Recently, we reported contrasting genotypes including ARR 09 and Takyer for seedling stage long duration low temperature response. Here we show that susceptible rice genotypes show an increase in lipid peroxide levels and decrease in relative water content (RWC) to a higher extent in comparison to tolerant genotypes in response to 3 h LT. Stress induced NAC family members (OsNAC1, OsNAC2, OsNAC3, and OsNAC5) showed a higher transcript accumulation in tolerant genotypes than in sensitive genotypes after LT treatment suggesting stress tolerance might be due to higher expression of stress-responsive transcription factors. Furthermore, ARR 09 can be used as an important genetic resource to better understand LT tolerance mechanism. PMID:26829663

  2. Extreme mitogenomic divergence between two syntopic specimens of Arremon aurantiirostris (Aves: Emberizidae) in central Panama suggests possible cryptic species.

    PubMed

    López, Krisangel; Angeli, Cody; Aguilar, Celestino; Loaiza, Jose R; De León, Luis Fernando; McMillan, W Owen; Miller, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome of two specimens of Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris from Colón Province, in central Panama. The two specimens were collected on the same day, and at the same locality; however, they showed substantial divergence (6.3% average pairwise divergence among coding genes). A survey of ND2 sequence variation across Panama suggests that this divergence is the result of geographic differentiation and secondary contact. This high level of mitochondrial divergence among co-occurring individuals raises the possibility of multiple biological species in Orange-billed Sparrows. Our results are yet another demonstration that much remains to be discovered regarding avian biodiversity in Panama and throughout the Neotropics. PMID:26367084

  3. Segregation among test-cross progeny suggests that two complementary dominant genes explain the difference between ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible broiler lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Cahaner, A

    2007-11-01

    Ascites syndrome (AS) is a major cause of economic losses to the broiler industry. The tendency of broilers to develop AS was found to be heritable, suggesting that selective breeding could provide a solution to this problem. To further elucidate the genetic control of AS, AS-susceptible (AS-S) and AS-resistant (AS-R) lines were established by 3 cycles of divergent selection on pedigree data of AS mortality under AS-inducing conditions. The rapid divergence between the lines suggested the involvement of a major gene with dominance for AS resistance. It was hypothesized that the difference between the lines is controlled by a single dominant gene, denoted A, with AA (and some Aa) individuals in the AS-R line, and aa individuals in the AS-S line. The current study was designed to test this hypothesis by test-crossing heterozygous (Aa) sires from the AS-R line and F(1) from the AS-R x AS-S cross, with recessive homozygous (aa) dams from the AS-S line. A ratio of 1:1 was expected between progeny with AS vs. healthy progeny when reared under AS-inducing conditions. Test-cross progeny of 5 sires from the AS-R line segregated 1:1, indicating that these sires were heterozygous (Aa) in the suggested major gene and thus supporting the hypothesis of a single major gene with dominance of AS resistance. There was segregation among test-cross progeny of 8 F(1) sires, but with a 3:1 ratio of AS progeny to healthy progeny. The 3:1 ratio is expected if the F(1) sires are heterozygous (AaBb) with complementary interaction between the dominant alleles in 2 unlinked major genes. The segregation among test-cross progeny of the 9 heterozygous AS-R sires could also be explained by the same model. These results suggested that 2 major genes are responsible for the difference between the AS-R and AS-S lines. Resource populations derived from these lines will facilitate an efficient genomic search for these 2 genes. Once the alleles of these genes are identified and genotyping tests are

  4. Intrinsic Functional Hypoconnectivity in Core Neurocognitive Networks Suggests Central Nervous System Pathology in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Marcie L; Zinn, Mark A; Jason, Leonard A

    2016-09-01

    Exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) was recorded from nineteen EEG channels in nine patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and 9 healthy controls to assess current source density and functional connectivity, a physiological measure of similarity between pairs of distributed regions of interest, between groups. Current source density and functional connectivity were measured using eLORETA software. We found significantly decreased eLORETA source analysis oscillations in the occipital, parietal, posterior cingulate, and posterior temporal lobes in Alpha and Alpha-2. For connectivity analysis, we assessed functional connectivity within Menon triple network model of neuropathology. We found support for all three networks of the triple network model, namely the central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN), and the default mode network (DMN) indicating hypo-connectivity in the Delta, Alpha, and Alpha-2 frequency bands in patients with ME compared to controls. In addition to the current source density resting state dysfunction in the occipital, parietal, posterior temporal and posterior cingulate, the disrupted connectivity of the CEN, SN, and DMN appears to be involved in cognitive impairment for patients with ME. This research suggests that disruptions in these regions and networks could be a neurobiological feature of the disorder, representing underlying neural dysfunction. PMID:26869373

  5. Susceptibility assessment to different types of landslides in the coastal cliffs of Lourinhã (Central Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifânio, Bruno; Zêzere, José Luís; Neves, Mário

    2014-10-01

    The coastal zone of Lourinhã (located in Central Portugal) is characterized by beach-cliff systems, where beaches are narrow and cliffs have notorious slope instability. These cliffs evolve by different types of landslides, which are one of the main sources of natural hazard and risk in this coastal region. In this work, aerial photo interpretation and a systematic field survey were performed in order to obtain an inventory of landslides of the following types: rotational slides, translational slides and debris flows. The entire coast was then split into 261 terrain mapping units. For each unit, landslide predisposing factors were derived and classified: cliff elevation, slope angle (maximum, mean and standard deviation), potential solar radiation, slope curvature (profile and plan), lithological units and geologic structure. The predictive susceptibility models were computed for each type of landslide using a bi-variate statistical method - the Information Value Method. The degree of fit and the predictive capacity of the models were assessed using the Effectiveness Ratio, the standard Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and the respective Area Under Curve. Results show that each landslide typology occurs in particular terrain conditions. Individual susceptibility models evidence better predictive capacity than susceptibility model for total landslides.

  6. Predictive landslide susceptibility analysis along the mountain highway in central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Keh-Jian; Lin, Zora

    2016-04-01

    Climate change caused by global warming affects Taiwan significantly for the past decade. The increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, in which concentrated and intensive rainfalls generally cause geohazards including landslides and debris flows. The extraordinary Typhoon Morakot hit Southern Taiwan, on August 8, 2009, and induced serious flooding and landslides. Considering the existence of various types of large scale landslides (shallow and deep-seated) and the importance of protection targets (the landslide might affect a residential area, cut a road, isolate a village, etc.), this study aims to analyze the landslide susceptibility along the Nantou County Road # 89 of Taiwan, in the upstream of Wu River. This study employs rainfall frequency analysis together with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) downscaling estimation to understand the temporal rainfall trends, distributions, and intensities in the Wu River watershed. Based on the data of Li-DAR and the information from boreholes, the temporal behavior and the complex mechanism of large scale landslides were analyzed. To assess the spatial hazard of the landslides, landslide susceptibility analysis was also implemented. The results of this study can be applied for risk prevention and management in the study area.

  7. Determination of hot-spot susceptibility of multistring photovoltaic modules in a central-station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Weaver, R. W.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Spencer, R.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA) includes a program to improve module and array reliability. A collaborative activity with industry dealing with the problem of hot-spot heating due to the shadowing of photovoltaic cells in modules and arrays containing several paralleled cell strings is described. The use of multiparallel strings in large central-station arrays introduces the likelihood of unequal current sharing and increased heating levels. Test results that relate power dissipated, current imbalance, cross-strapping frequency, and shadow configuration to hot-spot heating levels are presented. Recommendations for circuit design configurations appropriate to central-station applications that reduce the risk of hot-spot problems are offered. Guidelines are provided for developing hot-spot tests for arrays when current imbalance is a threat.

  8. Relationships between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoils in the arid region of Isfahan, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Rezvan; Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Jalalian, Ahmad; Sheikh-Hosseini, Ahmad Reza; Afyuni, Majid

    2011-05-01

    Recently methods dealing with magnetometry have been proposed as a proper proxy for assessing the heavy metal pollution of soils. A total of 113 topsoil samples were collected from public parks and green strips along the rim of roads with high-density traffic within the city of Isfahan, central Iran. The magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the collected soil samples was measured at both low and high frequency (χlf and χhf) using the Bartington MS2 dual frequency sensor. As, Cd, Cr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Sr and V concentrations were measured in the all collected soil samples. Significant correlations were found between Zn and Cu (0.85) and between Zn and Pb (0.84). The χfd value of urban topsoil varied from 0.45% to 7.7%. Low mean value of χfd indicated that the magnetic properties of the samples are predominately contributed by multi-domain grains, rather than by super-paramagnetic particles. Lead, Cu, Zn, and Ba showed positive significant correlations with magnetic susceptibility, but As, Sr, Cd, Mn, Cr and V, had no significant correlation with the magnetic susceptibility. There was a significant correlation between pollution load index (PLI) and χlf. PLI was computed to evaluate the soil environmental quality of selected heavy metals. Moreover, the results of multiple regression analysis between χlf and heavy metal concentrations indicated the LnPb, V and LnCu could explain approximately 54% of the total variability of χlf in the study area. These results indicate the potential of the magnetometric methods to evaluate the heavy metal pollution of soils.

  9. The pathogenic role of virus-specific antibody-secreting cells in the central nervous system of rats with different susceptibility to coronavirus-induced demyelinating encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, S; Imrich, H; Dörries, R

    1991-01-01

    The humoral immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) of susceptible Lewis (LE) rats and resistant Brown Norway (BN) rats was analysed after intracerebral infection with the murine coronavirus JHM (MHV4). The subclinical course of the infection in BN rats was characterized by an early rise of neutralizing antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 7 days post-infection. At this time in LE rats, neutralizing antibodies were not detectable in the CSF and the animals developed neurological signs of infection. Subsequently, LE rats recovered from disease. This process was accompanied by increasing titres of virus-neutralizing antibodies. Within the CNS parenchyma of both rat strains, equivalent numbers of IgM-secreting cells were detected. However, in BN rats, virus-specific IgG secreting cells appeared earlier and in higher numbers. Moreover, based on the size of zones of antibody secreted by single cells in the Spot-ELISA assay, it appeared that cells from BN rats secreted IgG antibody of higher affinity. These data suggest that early maturation of antiviral antibody responses in the resistant BN rat probably restricts the spread of viral infection to small foci within the CNS, resulting in a subclinical level of primary demyelination. In contrast, the absence of neutralizing antibodies in the susceptible LE rats favours spread of the virus throughout the CNS, resulting finally in severe neurological disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1663078

  10. Differences in the susceptibility of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to modified heparin compounds suggest serotype differences in viral entry.

    PubMed Central

    Herold, B C; Gerber, S I; Belval, B J; Siston, A M; Shulman, N

    1996-01-01

    Although heparan sulfate (HS) serves as an initial receptor for the binding of both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 to cell surfaces, the two serotypes differ in epidemiology, cell tropism, and ability to compete for viral receptors in vitro. These observations are not necessarily contradictory and can be explained if the two serotypes recognize different structural features of HS. To compare the specific features of HS important for the binding and infection of HSV-1 and HSV-2, we took advantage of structural similarities between heparin and cell surface HS and compared the abilities of chemically modified heparin compounds to inhibit plaque formation. We found that the antiviral activity of heparin for both serotypes was independent of anticoagulant activity. Moreover, specific negatively charged regions of the polysaccharide, including N sulfations and the carboxyl groups, are key structural features for interactions of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 with cell surfaces since N desulfation or carboxyl reduction abolished heparin's antiviral activity. In contrast, 6-O sulfations and 2-,3-O sulfations are important determinants primarily for HSV- 1 infection. The O-desulfated heparins had little or no inhibitory effect on HSV-1 infection but inhibited HSV-2 infection. Using a series of intertypic recombinant mutant viruses, we found that susceptibility to O-desulfated heparins can be transferred to HSV-1 by the gene for glycoprotein C of HSV-2 (gC-2). This supports the notion that the envelope glycoproteins of HSV-1 and HSV-2 interact with different affinities for different structural features of heparin. To determine if the modified heparin compounds inhibited plaque formation by competing with cell surface HS for viral attachment, binding studies were also performed. As anticipated, most compounds inhibited binding and plaque formation in parallel. However, several compounds inhibited the binding of HSV-1 to cells during the initial attachment period at 4

  11. SNP screening of central MHC-identified HLA-DMB as a candidate susceptibility gene for HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Aissani, B; Boehme, A K; Wiener, H W; Shrestha, S; Jacobson, L P; Kaslow, R A

    2014-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21.3 is suspected to host susceptibility loci for HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV-KS). A nested case-control study in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study was designed to conduct fine genetic association mapping across central MHC. Individuals co-infected with HIV-1 and human herpes virus-8 who later developed KS were defined as cases (n=354) and were matched 1:1 with co-infected KS-free controls. We report data for new independent MHC class II and III susceptibility loci. In particular, class II HLA-DMB emerged as a strong candidate, with the intronic variant rs6902982 A>G associated with a fourfold increase of risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90-8.80; P=0.0003). A striking multiplicative effect on the estimated risk was associated with further carriage of two non-synonymous variants, rs1800453 A>G (Asp697Gly) and rs4148880 A>G (Ile393Val), in the linked TAP1 gene (OR=10.5; 95% CI=2.54-43.6; P=0.0012). The class III susceptibility variant is moderately associated with HIV-KS and lies within a 120-kb-long haplotype (OR=1.52; 95% CI=1.01-2.28; P=0.047) formed by rs7029 A>G (GPANK1 3' untranslated region), rs1065356 G>A (LY6G6C), rs3749953 A>G (MSH5-SAPCD1 read through) and rs707926 G>A (VARS). Our data suggest that antigen processing by MHC class II molecules is a target pathway in the pathogenesis of HIV-KS. PMID:25008864

  12. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Guido; Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Haak, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  13. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment in the Central Part of Republic of Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercanoglu, Murat; Boboc, Nicolae; Sirodoev, Igor; Ahmet Temiz, F.; Sirodoev, Ghenadi

    2010-05-01

    There has been an increasing interest in natural hazard assessments within the scientific community, particularly in the last two decades. In other respect, there is also a dramatically rising trend in the number of natural hazards. Growing population and expansion of settlements and lifelines over hazardous areas have largely increased the impact of natural disasters both in industrialized and developing countries. Furthermore, natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, floods have dramatic effects on human life, infrastructures, environment, and so on. Landslides, one of the most destructive natural hazards, constitute a major geological hazard throughout the world, like in Turkey and Moldova. There are a lot of regions affected by landslides in Turkey (particularly the West, Middle and East Black Sea Region) and Moldova (e.g.: area between Nisporeni, Calarasi, Balti, Western Rezina District, Codri Hills in Central Moldova etc.), and consequences of landslides are of great importance in the two countries. In the last 50 years' period, only the economic loss due to landslides in Turkey is estimated about 5 billion , and 12.5 % of the whole settlement areas, including big and populated cities, are facing landslide threat. Similar to Turkey, there are about 16000 areas affected by landslides in Moldova. In February-March, 1998 the intensity of landslides in the central part of Moldova, including Chisinau, considerably increased. In total, 357 private households involving 1400 people were affected, 214 houses were destroyed, and 137 were damaged. The total national damage accounted for 44.3 million Lei. At present on Moldavian territory, there are more than 17000 landslides of various types. These landslides are mostly located within Central Moldavian heights, one of the most complicated geomorphologic structure and territory's fragmentation. Among major landslide triggering factors, in addition to natural ones, one should also consider the anthropogenic

  14. Central histamine H3 receptor signaling negatively regulates susceptibility to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Teuscher, Cory; Subramanian, Meena; Noubade, Rajkumar; Gao, Jian Feng; Offner, Halina; Zachary, James F.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.

    2007-01-01

    Histamine (HA), a biogenic amine with a broad spectrum of activities in both physiological and pathological settings, plays a key regulatory role in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the autoimmune model of multiple sclerosis. HA exerts its effect through four G protein-coupled receptors designated HA receptor H1, H2, H3, and H4. We report here that, compared with wild-type animals, mice with a disrupted HA H3 receptor (H3RKO), the expression of which is normally confined to cells of the nervous system, develop more severe disease and neuroinflammation. We show that this effect is associated with dysregulation of blood–brain barrier permeability and increased expression of MIP-2, IP-10, and CXCR3 by peripheral T cells. Our data suggest that pharmacological targeting of the H3R may be useful in preventing the development and formation of new lesions in multiple sclerosis, thereby significantly limiting the progression of the disease. PMID:17548817

  15. Magnetic Susceptibility and Mineral Zonations Controlled by Provenance in Loess along the Illinois and Central Mississippi River Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Follmer, L.R.; McKay, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) patterns have proven useful for regional stratigraphic correlations of zones within thick, oxidized Peoria and Roxana Silts along the Illinois and Central Mississippi River valleys for more than 350 km. Variations in MS of C horizon loess are controlled by silt-sized magnetite content and are interpreted to reflect changes in sediment provenance due to fluctuations of the Superior and Lake Michigan glacier lobes and the diversion of the Mississippi River to its present course. Grain size distributions and scanning electron microscopic observations indicate that stratigraphic changes in MS are not significantly influenced by eolian sorting or diagenetic dissolution, respectively. Three compositional zones (lower, middle, and upper) are delineated within Peoria Silt which usually can be traced in the field by MS, the occurrence of clay beds, interstadial soils, and/or subtle color changes. These zones can be correlated with, but are generally of more practical use than, previously studied dolomite zones (McKay, 1977) or clay mineral zones (Frye et al., 1968). However, mineralogical analyses can help to substantiate zone boundaries when in question. MS and compositional zones may indirectly record a climatic signal, primarily through the effect that global cooling has had on ice lobe fluctuations in the Upper Mississippi drainage basin. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  16. High adenylyl cyclase activity and in vivo cAMP fluctuations in corals suggest central physiological role.

    PubMed

    Barott, K L; Helman, Y; Haramaty, L; Barron, M E; Hess, K C; Buck, J; Levin, L R; Tresguerres, M

    2013-01-01

    Corals are an ecologically and evolutionarily significant group, providing the framework for coral reef biodiversity while representing one of the most basal of metazoan phyla. However, little is known about fundamental signaling pathways in corals. Here we investigate the dynamics of cAMP, a conserved signaling molecule that can regulate virtually every physiological process. Bioinformatics revealed corals have both transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclases (AC). Endogenous cAMP levels in live corals followed a potential diel cycle, as they were higher during the day compared to the middle of the night. Coral homogenates exhibited some of the highest cAMP production rates ever to be recorded in any organism; this activity was inhibited by calcium ions and stimulated by bicarbonate. In contrast, zooxanthellae or mucus had >1000-fold lower AC activity. These results suggest that cAMP is an important regulator of coral physiology, especially in response to light, acid/base disturbances and inorganic carbon levels. PMID:23459251

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of the hippocampus from six inbred strains of mice suggests a basis for sex-specific susceptibility and severity of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Vied, Cynthia; Ray, Surjyendu; Badger, Crystal-Dawn; Bundy, Joseph L; Arbeitman, Michelle N; Nowakowski, Richard S

    2016-09-01

    Identifying sex differences in gene expression within the brain is critical for determining why multiple neurological and behavioral disorders differentially affect males and females. Several disorders are more common or severe in males (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) or in females (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and depression). We analyzed transcriptomic data from the mouse hippocampus of six inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, DBA/1J, DBA/2J, and PWD/Ph) to provide a perspective on differences between male and female gene expression. Our data show that 1) gene expression differences in males vs. females varies substantially across the strains, 2) only a few genes are differentially expressed across all of the strains (termed core genes), and 3) >2,600 genes differ in the individual strain comparisons (termed noncore genes). We found that DBA/2J uniquely has a substantial majority (89%) of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that are more highly expressed in females than in males (female-biased); 129/SvImJ has a majority (69%) of DEGs that are more highly expressed in males. To gain insight into the function of the DEGs, we examined gene ontology and pathway and phenotype enrichment and found significant enrichment in phenotypes related to abnormal nervous system morphology and physiology, among others. In addition, several pathways are enriched significantly, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), with 32 genes implicated in AD, eight of which are male-biased. Three of the male-biased genes have been implicated in a neuroprotective role in AD. Our transcriptomic data provide new insight into the possible genetic bases for sex-specific susceptibility and severity of brain disorders. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2696-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26917114

  18. Susceptibility of field populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to a selection of insecticides in Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Mao, Kaikai; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a globally distributed and important economic pest. Chemical control is the primary approach to regulate populations of this pest. However, resistance to insecticides evolves following heavy and frequent use. Therefore, the insecticide resistance in field populations of P. xylostella collected from Central China from 2013 to 2014 was determined with a leaf-dipping method. Based on the results of the monitoring, P. xylostella has developed high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio=69.76-335.76-fold), Bt (WG-001) (RR=35.43-167.36), and chlorfluazuron (RR=13.60-104.95) and medium levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR=1.19-14.26), chlorfenapyr (RR=4.22-13.44), spinosad (RR=5.89-21.45), indoxacarb (RR=4.01-34.45), and abamectin (RR=23.88-95.15). By contrast, the field populations of P. xylostella remained susceptible to or developed low levels of resistance to diafenthiuron (RR=1.61-8.05), spinetoram (RR=0.88-2.35), and cyantraniliprole (RR=0.4-2.15). Moreover, the LC50 values of field populations of P. xylostella were highly positively correlated between chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (r=0.88, P=0.045), chlorantraniliprole and spinosad (r=0.66, P=0.039), spinosad and diafenthiuron (r=0.57, P=0.0060), and chlorfenapyr and diafenthiuron (r=0.51, P=0.016). Additionally, the activities of detoxification enzymes in field populations of P. xylostella were significantly positively correlated with the log LC50 values of chlorantraniliprole and spinosad. The results of this study provide an important base for developing effective and successful strategies to manage insecticide resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:27521911

  19. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data bearing on the transport direction of mid-tertiary regional ignimbrites, Candelaria Hills area, West-Central Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronis, Michael S.; Geissman, John W.

    2009-03-01

    In west-central Nevada, the Oligocene Candelaria pyroclastic sequence reaches a local thickness of up to 1.3 km, in what has been referred to as the Candelaria trough, but more generally the accumulation of ash-flow tuffs and related volcanic rocks is less than 300 m thick. Complete to near complete outcrops are scattered over about 3200 km2 in the Candelaria Hills and surrounding ranges of the Southern Walker Lane structural zone. Three regionally extensive compound cooling units within the overall sequence (25.8 Ma Metallic City, 24.1 Ma Belleville, and 23.7 Ma Candelaria Junction Tuffs) have distinguishing characteristics and are the focus of study. At 106 sites, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data provide an estimate of transport direction of each tuff. Inferred transport directions based on the AMS data are corrected for a modest clockwise, yet variable magnitude, vertical axis rotation that affected these rocks in late Miocene to Pliocene time, as revealed by paleomagnetic studies. The AMS data show a somewhat orderly pattern of magnetic fabrics that we interpret to define unique transport directions for the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs. The low susceptibility and degree of anisotropy of the Belleville Tuff limits our interpretation from this pyroclastic deposit. The Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs typically show gentle, south-southeast and southeast dipping magnetic fabric imbrication, respectively, and very gently plunging magnetic lineations. These AMS fabric elements indicate the tuffs were transported to the north-northwest and northwest, respectively. The AMS fabric data from the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs suggest relatively unrestricted flow during emplacement. Evidence across the 3,200 km2 area to support more regionally controlled channelized flow into and/or flow along the east northeast-west southwest axis of the Candelaria trough is lacking. The ignimbrites clearly filled a topographic

  20. The "window of susceptibility" for inflammation in the immature central nervous system is characterized by a leaky blood-brain barrier and the local expression of inflammatory chemokines.

    PubMed

    Schoderboeck, Lucia; Adzemovic, Milena; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Crupinschi, Claudia; Hochmeister, Sonja; Fischer, Marie-Therese; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2009-09-01

    Early in postnatal development, the immature central nervous system (CNS) is more susceptible to inflammation than its adult counterpart. We show here that this "window of susceptibility" is characterized by the presence of leaky vessels in the CNS, and by a global chemokine expression profile which is clearly distinct from the one observed in the adult CNS and has three important characteristics. First, it contains chemokines with known roles in the differentiation and maturation of glia and neurons. Secondly, these chemokines have been described before in inflammatory lesions of the CNS, where they are important for the recruitment of monocytes and T cells. Lastly, the chemokine profile is shaped by pathological changes like oligodendrocyte stress and attempts of myelin repair. Changes in the chemokine expression profile along with a leaky blood-brain barrier pave the ground for an accelerated development of CNS inflammation. PMID:19520164

  1. Susceptibility to acidic precipitation contributes to the decline of the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-04-01

    The effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (Phi2) was shown to be reduced in the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica by short-term exposure to aqueous SO2 at pH values occurring in the precipitation of areas with high SO2 pollution. Significant reduction of Phi2 was found at pHsuggests that sensitivity to SO2 (primarily associated with epiphytic lichens in the past) has contributed to the decline of both species in central Europe. In C. islandica, but not in C. aculeata, thalli with the natural content of lichen substances were more tolerant to SO2 than thalli where the extracellular lichen substances were extracted before the experiment. This supports published results that the depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid, a major lichen substance of C. islandica, increases the pollution tolerance in lichens. PMID:18053625

  2. Resequencing and association analysis of coding regions at twenty candidate genes suggest a role for rare risk variation at AKAP9 and protective variation at NRXN1 in schizophrenia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Rama, José Javier; Arrojo, Manuel; Sobrino, Beatriz; Amigo, Jorge; Brenlla, Julio; Agra, Santiago; Paz, Eduardo; Brión, María; Carracedo, Ángel; Páramo, Mario; Costas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of genetic risk to develop schizophrenia may be due to low-frequency variants. This multistep study attempted to find low-frequency variants of high effect at coding regions of eleven schizophrenia susceptibility genes supported by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and nine genes for the DISC1 interactome, a susceptibility gene-set. During the discovery step, a total of 125 kb per sample were resequenced in 153 schizophrenia patients and 153 controls from Galicia (NW Spain), and the cumulative role of low-frequency variants at a gene or at the DISC1 gene-set were analyzed by burden and variance-based tests. Relevant results were meta-analyzed when appropriate data were available. In addition, case-only putative damaging variants were genotyped in a further 419 cases and 398 controls. The discovery step revealed a protective effect of rare missense variants at NRXN1, a result supported by meta-analysis (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47-0.94, P = 0.021, based on 3848 patients and 3896 controls from six studies). The follow-up step based on case-only putative damaging variants revealed a promising risk variant at AKAP9. This variant, K873R, reached nominal significance after inclusion of 240 additional Spanish controls from databases. The variant, located in an ADCY2 binding region, is absent from large public databases. Interestingly, GWAS revealed an association between common ADCY2 variants and bipolar disorder, a disorder with considerable genetic overlap with schizophrenia. These data suggest a role of rare missense variants at NRXN1 and AKAP9 in schizophrenia susceptibility, probably related to alteration of the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance, deserving further investigation. PMID:25943950

  3. A comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of autophagy-related genes identified in tobacco suggests a central role of autophagy in plant response to various environmental cues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-mei; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Wei; Zou, Jie; Cheng, Tian-he; Peng, Xiong-bo; Sun, Meng-xiang

    2015-08-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in both animals and plants, which has been shown to be involved in various essential developmental processes in plants. Nicotiana tabacum is considered to be an ideal model plant and has been widely used for the study of the roles of autophagy in the processes of plant development and in the response to various stresses. However, only a few autophagy-related genes (ATGs) have been identified in tobacco up to now. Here, we identified 30 ATGs belonging to 16 different groups in tobacco through a genome-wide survey. Comprehensive expression profile analysis reveals an abroad expression pattern of these ATGs, which could be detected in all tissues tested under normal growth conditions. Our series tests further reveal that majority of ATGs are sensitive and responsive to different stresses including nutrient starvation, plant hormones, heavy metal and other abiotic stresses, suggesting a central role of autophagy, likely as an effector, in plant response to various environmental cues. This work offers a detailed survey of all ATGs in tobacco and also suggests manifold functions of autophagy in both normal plant growth and plant response to environmental stresses. PMID:26205094

  4. A comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of autophagy-related genes identified in tobacco suggests a central role of autophagy in plant response to various environmental cues

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue-mei; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Wei; Zou, Jie; Cheng, Tian-he; Peng, Xiong-bo; Sun, Meng-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in both animals and plants, which has been shown to be involved in various essential developmental processes in plants. Nicotiana tabacum is considered to be an ideal model plant and has been widely used for the study of the roles of autophagy in the processes of plant development and in the response to various stresses. However, only a few autophagy-related genes (ATGs) have been identified in tobacco up to now. Here, we identified 30 ATGs belonging to 16 different groups in tobacco through a genome-wide survey. Comprehensive expression profile analysis reveals an abroad expression pattern of these ATGs, which could be detected in all tissues tested under normal growth conditions. Our series tests further reveal that majority of ATGs are sensitive and responsive to different stresses including nutrient starvation, plant hormones, heavy metal and other abiotic stresses, suggesting a central role of autophagy, likely as an effector, in plant response to various environmental cues. This work offers a detailed survey of all ATGs in tobacco and also suggests manifold functions of autophagy in both normal plant growth and plant response to environmental stresses. PMID:26205094

  5. Does a central MHC gene in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1*0401 affect susceptibility to type 1 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Windsor, L; Puschendorf, M; Allcock, R; Scott, A; Sayer, D; Kucharzak, R; Gut, I; McCann, V; Davis, E; Witt, C; Christiansen, F; Price, P

    2005-06-01

    Subtypes of HLA-DR4 are associated with susceptibility or protection against type 1 diabetes (T1DM). We addressed whether this reflects linkage disequilibrium with the true susceptibility locus by studying broader MHC haplotypes marked by alleles of HLA-B, IKBL (adjacent to TNFA) and complement C4. The study used a largely Caucasian cohort from Western Australia. HLA-DRB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0405 marked susceptibility to T1DM. In Caucasians, DRB1*0401 occurs predominantly in the 44.1 ancestral haplotype (AH; HLA-A2,B44, DRB1*0401,DQB1*0301) and the 62.1AH (HLA-A2,B15(62),DRB1*0401,DQB1*0302). HLA-B15 marked susceptibility and HLA-B44 marked with resistance to T1DM in patients and controls preselected for HLA-DRB1*0401. A gene between TNFA and HLA-B on the 8.1AH (HLA-A1,B8,;DR3,DQ2) modifies the effects of the class II alleles. Here, alleles characteristic of the 62.1AH (C4B3, IKBL+446*T and HLA-A2,B15) were screened in donors preselected for HLA-DRB1*0401. C4B3 was associated with diabetes, consistent with a diabetes gene telomeric of MHC class II. However, increases in carriage of IKBL+446*T and HLA-A2,B15 were marginal, as too few control subjects were available with the diabetogenic alleles. However, with these tools, selection of HLA-DRB1*0401, DQB1*0302 donors who are positive and negative for C4B3 will allow bidirectional mapping of diabetes genes in the central MHC. PMID:15858601

  6. Inference of the Arabidopsis Lateral Root Gene Regulatory Network Suggests a Bifurcation Mechanism That Defines Primordia Flanking and Central Zones[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lavenus, Julien; Goh, Tatsuaki; Guyomarc’h, Soazig; Hill, Kristine; Lucas, Mikael; Voß, Ute; Kenobi, Kim; Wilson, Michael H.; Farcot, Etienne; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of genes involved in lateral root (LR) organogenesis have been identified over the last decade using forward and reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nevertheless, how these genes interact to form a LR regulatory network largely remains to be elucidated. In this study, we developed a time-delay correlation algorithm (TDCor) to infer the gene regulatory network (GRN) controlling LR primordium initiation and patterning in Arabidopsis from a time-series transcriptomic data set. The predicted network topology links the very early-activated genes involved in LR initiation to later expressed cell identity markers through a multistep genetic cascade exhibiting both positive and negative feedback loops. The predictions were tested for the key transcriptional regulator AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 node, and over 70% of its targets were validated experimentally. Intriguingly, the predicted GRN revealed a mutual inhibition between the ARF7 and ARF5 modules that would control an early bifurcation between two cell fates. Analyses of the expression pattern of ARF7 and ARF5 targets suggest that this patterning mechanism controls flanking and central zone specification in Arabidopsis LR primordia. PMID:25944102

  7. Suggestion and psychoanalytic technique.

    PubMed

    Levy, S T; Inderbitzin, L B

    2000-01-01

    The role of the analyst's suggestive influence on the course and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment is explored, and traditional and newer perspectives on analytic technique are contrasted. The intersubjective critique of the neutral, objective analyst in relation to suggestion is examined. The inevitable presence and need for suggestive factors in analysis, and the relationship of suggestion to transference susceptibility, are emphasized. The manner in which the analysis of suggestive factors is subsumed in transference analysis as part of traditional technique is highlighted. PMID:11059395

  8. Landslide susceptibility-certainty mapping by a multi-method approach: A case study in the Tertiary basin of Puy-en-Velay (Massif central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiraud, Alexandre

    2014-07-01

    The present study discusses the use of integrated variables along with a combination of multi-method forecasts for landslide susceptibility mapping. The study area is located in the south-eastern French Massif central, a volcanic region containing Tertiary sedimentary materials that are prone to landslides. The flowage-type landslides within the study area are very slow-moving phenomena which affect the infrastructures and human settlements. The modelling process is based on a training set of landslides (70% of total landslides) and a set of controlling factor (slope, lithology, surficial formation, the topographic wetness index, the topographic position index, distance to thalweg, and aspect). We create a composite variable (or integrated variable), corresponding to the union of geology and surficial formation, in order to avoid the conditional dependence between these two variables and to build a geotechnical variable. We use five classical modelling methods (index, weight-of-evidence, logistic regression, decision tree, and unique condition unit) with the same training set but with different architectures of input data made up of controlling factors. All the models are tested with a validation group (30% of total landslides), using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) to quantify their predictive performance. We finally select a single “best” model for each method. However, these five models are all equivalent in quality, despite their differences in detail, so no single model stands out against another. Finally, we combine the five models into a unique susceptibility map with a calculation of median susceptibility class. The final AUC value of this combined map is better than that for a single model (except for Unique Condition Unit), and we can evaluate the certainty of the susceptibility class pixel by pixel. In agreement with the sparse literature on this topic, we conclude that i) integrated variables increase the performance

  9. Oroclinal bending of the Juan Fernández Ridge suggested by geohistory analysis of the Bahía Inglesa Formation, north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Achurra, Luciano; Henríquez, Álvaro; Carreño, Catalina; Rivera, Huber; Suárez, Mario E.; Ishman, Scott E.; Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2016-03-01

    The stratigraphy of the Bahía Inglesa Formation in the Caldera Basin west of Copiapó, (north-central Chile) is revised, based on hitherto unpublished stratigraphic sections and 87Sr/86Sr dating. The depositional environment varied from a rocky shoreline to the upper continental slope, with sea-level oscillations and tectonic movements causing numerous local unconformities as well as lateral and vertical facies changes. Geohistory and sedimentological analyses show that the area was close to the concurrent sea level at about 15.3 Ma, but at the same time being elevated about 100 m above the present sea level. Although the basin then subsided at least 350 m until around 6 Ma, marine deposition was only recorded after 10.4 Ma. This suggests that the sea level initially dropped faster than the rate of subsidence so that subaerial erosion occurred. The period of subaerial exposure before 10.4 Ma can be attributed to the presence of a NE-trending branch of the Juan Fernández Ridge below the continental crust at this time, whereas the ensuing subsidence was due to subduction erosion and crustal accommodation in its wake as it migrated south along the South American coastline. The subsequent uplift of at least 250 m can be explained by an acceleration in plate expansion and isostatic rebound of the continental crust after being partially submerged in the upper mantle. The uplift-subsidence-uplift pattern mirrors those recorded around the Nazca Ridge in Peru, as well as in similar basins to the south of Caldera. However, a higher southward migration rate of the Juan Fernández Ridge against the edge of the South American Plate and less intense uplift-subsidence-uplift cycles are recorded in the latter basins. This can possibly be attributed to oroclinal bending of the ridge due to friction with the overlying continental plate, which diminished the angle of incidence and the intensity of the stress field, but increased the migration velocity of the ridge relative to the

  10. Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Central and South America revealed highly diverse populations and suggested possible different origins of the three archetypal lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most T. gondii strains in North America and Europe belong to three archetypal clonal lineages including the Type I, II and III but, isolates from Brazil are highly diverse. Here, we analyzed 164 T. gondii isolates from three countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), from one c...

  11. Landslide susceptibility analysis in central Vietnam based on an incomplete landslide inventory: Comparison of a new method to calculate weighting factors by means of bivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, Markus; Fink, Manfred; Tünschel, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Vietnam is regarded as a country strongly impacted by climate change. Population and economic growth result in additional pressures on the ecosystems in the region. In particular, changes in landuse and precipitation extremes lead to a higher landslide susceptibility in the study area (approx. 12,400 km2), located in central Vietnam and impacted by a tropical monsoon climate. Hence, this natural hazard is a serious problem in the study area. A probability assessment of landslides is therefore undertaken through the use of bivariate statistics. However, the landslide inventory based only on field campaigns does not cover the whole area. To avoid a systematic bias due to the limited mapping area, the investigated regions are depicted as the viewshed in the calculations. On this basis, the distribution of the landslides is evaluated in relation to the maps of 13 parameters, showing the strongest correlation to distance to roads and precipitation increase. An additional weighting of the input parameters leads to better results, since some parameters contribute more to landslides than others. The method developed in this work is based on the validation of different parameter sets used within the statistical index method. It is called "omit error" because always omitting another parameter leads to the weightings, which describe how strong every single parameter improves or reduces the objective function. Furthermore, this approach is used to find a better input parameter set by excluding some parameters. After this optimization, nine input parameters are left, and they are weighted by the omit error method, providing the best susceptibility map with a success rate of 92.9% and a prediction rate of 92.3%. This is an improvement of 4.4% and 4.2%, respectively, compared to the basic statistical index method with the 13 input parameters.

  12. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru’s Central Coast during the Middle Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650–1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region’s demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500–700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800–1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000–1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  13. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  14. Estimates of flow direction for calc-alkaline welded tuffs and paleomagnetic data reliability from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements: Central San Juan Mountains, southwest Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Brooks B.

    1982-07-01

    Flow directions are estimated from the measurement of the magnetic fabric of 106 samples, collected at 18 sites in four welded tuff units in the central San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado. The estimates assume that the tuffs generally flowed directly away from the extrusive vents and that the lineations of magnetic grains within the tuffs represent the flow direction at individual sites. Errors in the estimation may arise from topographic variation, rheomorphism (post-emplacement mass flow) within the tuff, and other factors. Magnetic lineation is defined as the site mean anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility maximum azimuth. A test on the flow directions for individual units is based on the projection of lineation azimuths and their intersection within or near the known source caldera for the tuff. This test is positive for the four units examined. Paleomagnetic results for these tuffs are probably reliable indicators of the geomagnetic field direction in southwest Colorado, during the time (28.2-26.5 Ma) of emplacement.

  15. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from bovine subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in the central region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Raspanti, Claudia G; Bonetto, Cesar C; Vissio, Claudina; Pellegrino, Matías S; Reinoso, Elina B; Dieser, Silvana A; Bogni, Cristina I; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of CNS species causing SCM identified by genotyping varies among countries. Overall, the antimicrobial resistance in this group of organisms is increasing worldwide; however, little information exists about a CNS species resistant to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize CNS at species level and to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of CNS species isolated from bovine SCM in 51 dairy herds located in the central region of the province of Cordoba, Argentina. In this study, we identified 219 CNS isolates at species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the groEL gene. Staphylococcus chromogenes (46.6%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (32%) were the most prevalent species. A minimum of three different CNS species were present in 41.2% of the herds. S. chromogenes was isolated from most of the herds (86.3%), whereas S. haemolyticus was isolated from 66.7% of them. The broth microdilution method was used to test in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to a single compound or two related compounds was expressed in 43.8% of the isolates. S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus showed a very high proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin. Resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials was found in 30.6% of all CNS. S. haemolyticus exhibited a higher frequency of resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials than S. chromogenes. PMID:26935912

  16. Comparative geochemical, magnetic susceptibility, and fluid inclusion studies on the Paleoproterozoic Malanjkhand and Dongargarh granitoids, Central India and implications to metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Dinesh; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.; Moriyama, Takeru; Ishihara, Shunso

    2014-10-01

    The Malanjkhand granodiorite (MG) hosting economic copper mineralization and the hitherto barren Dongargarh granitoids (DG) have subtle differences in their petrographic and bulk geochemical features. The two plutons are contiguous and occur in the northern part of the Bhandara Craton in Central India with intervening volcanosedimentary sequence of the Dongargarh Supergroup amidst older gneisses. The Dongargarh granitoids studied in two smaller units have higher bulk magnetic susceptibility than the Cu-bearing MG; the majority of samples studied from the latter being ilmenite-series rocks. DG crystallized at higher pressures compared to MG. Plagioclase composition ranges from albite to high bytownite in MG, whereas its compositional range is restricted to high andesine in DG. However, both intrusions give identical temperature ranges estimated by binary feldspar thermometry. Biotite in MG shows higher Fe/Mg ratios, as well as a greater range of compositional variation, than that in DG. MG has a moderately fractionated rare earth element distribution pattern without any significant Eu anomaly, showing depletion in mid-range rare earth elements (REE) and no depletion in heavy REE. DG is characterized by a prominent negative Eu anomaly. Geochemical features indicate subtle differences in the nature of source rocks and/or melting processes responsible for the generation of the two granitoids. MG displays more consistent bulk chemical features and is possibly a result of crystallization from a homogeneous granodioritic melt. DG displays a greater diversity and possibly incorporated a significant felsic crustal component that contributed to the parent melt. A fluid inclusion study of quartz grains from the granitoids and barren quartz veins occurring in MG indicates identical low-temperature nature of the fluid in both cases. They differ from the fluid in the mineralized zone in MG in the absence of a high-temperature component and CO2 in the fluid. Late-stage fluids in

  17. Mice with different susceptibility to tick-borne encephalitis virus infection show selective neutralizing antibody response and inflammatory reaction in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical course of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a disease caused by TBE virus, ranges from asymptomatic or mild influenza-like infection to severe debilitating encephalitis or encephalomyelitis. Despite the medical importance of this disease, some crucial steps in the development of encephalitis remain poorly understood. In particular, the basis of the disease severity is largely unknown. Methods TBE virus growth, neutralizing antibody response, key cytokine and chemokine mRNA production and changes in mRNA levels of cell surface markers of immunocompetent cells in brain were measured in mice with different susceptibilities to TBE virus infection. Results An animal model of TBE based on BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem) recombinant congenic mouse strains showing different severities of the infection in relation to the host genetic background was developed. After subcutaneous inoculation of TBE virus, BALB/c mice showed medium susceptibility to the infection, STS mice were resistant, and CcS-11 mice were highly susceptible. The resistant STS mice showed lower and delayed viremia, lower virus production in the brain and low cytokine/chemokine mRNA production, but had a strong neutralizing antibody response. The most sensitive strain (CcS-11) failed in production of neutralizing antibodies, but exhibited strong cytokine/chemokine mRNA production in the brain. After intracerebral inoculation, all mouse strains were sensitive to the infection and had similar virus production in the brain, but STS mice survived significantly longer than CcS-11 mice. These two strains also differed in the expression of key cytokines/chemokines, particularly interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) in the brain. Conclusions Our data indicate that the genetic control is an important factor influencing the clinical course of TBE. High neutralizing antibody response might be crucial for preventing host fatality, but high

  18. Using the statistical analysis method to assess the landslide susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hsun-Chuan; Chen, Bo-An; Wen, Yo-Ting

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the landslide susceptibility in Jing-Shan River upstream watershed, central Taiwan. The landslide inventories during typhoons Toraji in 2001, Mindulle in 2004, Kalmaegi and Sinlaku in 2008, Morakot in 2009, and the 0719 rainfall event in 2011, which were established by Taiwan Central Geological Survey, were used as landslide data. This study aims to assess the landslide susceptibility by using different statistical methods including logistic regression, instability index method and support vector machine (SVM). After the evaluations, the elevation, slope, slope aspect, lithology, terrain roughness, slope roughness, plan curvature, profile curvature, total curvature, average of rainfall were chosen as the landslide factors. The validity of the three established models was further examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. The result of logistic regression showed that the factor of terrain roughness and slope roughness had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Instability index method showed that the factor of terrain roughness and lithology had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Due to the fact that the use of instability index method may lead to possible underestimation around the river side. In addition, landslide susceptibility indicated that the use of instability index method laid a potential issue about the number of factor classification. An increase of the number of factor classification may cause excessive variation coefficient of the factor. An decrease of the number of factor classification may make a large range of nearby cells classified into the same susceptibility level. Finally, using the receiver operating characteristic curve discriminate the three models. SVM is a preferred method than the others in assessment of landslide susceptibility. Moreover, SVM is further suggested to be nearly logistic regression in terms of recognizing the medium-high and high susceptibility.

  19. Late-stage magma flow in a shallow felsic reservoir: Merging the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility record with numerical simulations in La Gloria Pluton, central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GutiéRrez, F.; PayacáN, I.; Gelman, S. E.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    La Gloria Pluton is a 10 Myr old epizonal intrusion located in the southern Andes. We present anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate a magnetic fabric that is mainly oblate. We find that lineations are weak and have a N-NW trend with a nearly horizontal dip, while foliations are more pronounced, have NW trends, and have dips that vary from vertical at the walls of the intrusion to horizontal at the center and under the roof of the chamber. To interpret these magmatic fabrics, we developed a time-dependent 2-D magmatic fluid dynamic numerical simulation. Our model is calibrated with MELTS and accounts for the coupled processes of cooling, crystallization, and degassing of a magma chamber. Simulations indicate that the resulting convective flow pattern in the crystallizing reservoir is consistent with the magnetic fabric, which is largely produced in the shear zone between the convecting liquid-dominated core and the growing solidification fronts adjacent to the walls. The magnetic fabric records the last increment of strain induced by convective magmatic flow in the cooling reservoir during crystallization at the rheological magma locking point along solidification fronts. Despite the small size of the pluton, the core of the chamber remains thermally insulated from the colder host rocks, surviving up to 20 kyr above the solidus, which allows enough time for the extraction of residual leucogranitic melt and partial late magmatic reactive recrystallization. The results of the simulations are also consistent with the previously determined compositional and mineralogical zonation patterns in the pluton.

  20. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis. PMID:25928681

  1. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  2. Subsidence and drowning of a carbonate platform in south-central Mongolia (Gobi Altai region) during the late Eifelian to early Givetian: A synthesis of conodont data, magnetic susceptibility, and paleoecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Nicholas B.; Jeffrey Over, D.; Chuluun, Minjin; Myrow, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    New and published stratigraphic data are integrated herein to resolve the age and depositional setting of Middle Devonian strata in the Gobi-Altai Terrane of south-central Mongolia (Bayanhongar Province). The Tsagaankhaalga Formation (Emsian?-Eifelian) is composed primarily of tabular sandy carbonates; it is sharply overlain by dark, fine-grained volcanoclastic marine sedimentary rock of the Govialtai Formation (Givetian), which is comparatively unfossiliferous, except for sporadic, fossiliferous carbonate interbeds. The latter unit contains abundant tentaculites as well as a newly recovered collection of conodonts assigned to the lower Givetian varcus Zone (timorensis, rhenana, or ansatus). A positive shift in bulk magnetic susceptibility coincides with the Tsagaankhaalga/Govialtai contact, and elevated values within the Govialtai correspond to tuffaceous and rhyolitic strata. The transition from carbonate facies of the Tsagaankhaalga Formation to the volcanoclastic shales of the Govialtai Formation is interpreted as the result of local tectonic activity. This may be qualitatively described as a transition from a shallow marine carbonate shoal with an epibenthic fauna (Tsagaankhaalga), to a deeper, clastic dominated environment with a nektic fauna (Govialtai). The pulse of tectonism must predate the lower Givetian, and it echoes the "Tsakhir Event", which is recorded by the transition from Ordovician-Silurian carbonates to Lochkovian conglomerate. These findings provide useful biostratigraphic control and insight into the complex tectonic evolution of the Gobi-Altai Terrane and adjacent blocks on the Eurasian Craton.

  3. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•ΔELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ΔELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•ΔELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ΔT=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ΔT=0.78°C. The differences are

  4. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  5. [Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, F

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated. PMID:23399415

  6. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:3555209

  7. Attention control and susceptibility to hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Iani, Cristina; Ricci, Federico; Baroni, Giulia; Rubichi, Sandro

    2009-12-01

    The present work aimed at assessing whether the interference exerted by task-irrelevant spatial information is comparable in high- and low-susceptible individuals and whether it may be eliminated by means of a specific posthypnotic suggestion. To this purpose high- and low-susceptible participants were tested using a Simon-like interference task after the administration of a suggestion aimed at preventing the processing of the irrelevant spatial information conveyed by the stimuli. The suggestion could be administered either in the absence or following a standard hypnotic induction. We showed that, outside from the hypnotic context, the Simon effect was similar in high and low-susceptible participants and it was significantly reduced following the posthypnotic suggestion in high-susceptible participants only. These results show that a specific posthypnotic suggestion can alter information processing in high-susceptible individuals and reduce the interfering effect exerted by arrow stimuli. PMID:19648030

  8. Reactivation of Memory by Hypnosis and Suggestion. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Perry; Cooper, Leslie M.

    This study tested the hypothesis that the memory of meaningful material can be reactivated without relearning by means of hypnotic suggestion. Very susceptible (T) and non-susceptible (UT) subjects were sought from among those who volunteered for the experiment. Two forms of a memory test for connected meaningful material were developed. Each form…

  9. Unprecedented Degree of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Group M Genetic Diversity in the Democratic Republic of Congo Suggests that the HIV-1 Pandemic Originated in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Nicole; Peeters, Martine; Mulanga-Kabeya, Claire; Nzilambi, Nzila; Robertson, David; Ilunga, Wantabala; Sema, Hurogo; Tshimanga, Kazadi; Bongo, Beni; Delaporte, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; formerly Zaire). A total of 247 HIV-1-positive samples, collected during an epidemiologic survey conducted in 1997 in three regions (Kinshasa [the capital], Bwamanda [in the north], and Mbuyi-Maya [in the south]), were genetically characterized in the env V3-V5 region. All known subtypes were found to cocirculate, and for 6% of the samples the subtype could not be identified. Subtype A is predominant, with prevalences decreasing from north to south (69% in the north, 53% in the capital city, and 46% in the south). Subtype C, D, G, and H prevalences range from 7 to 9%, whereas subtype F, J, K, and CRF01-AE strains represent 2 to 4% of the samples; only one subtype B strain was identified. The highest prevalence (25%) of subtype C was in the south, and CRF01-AE was seen mainly in the north. The high intersubtype variability among the V3-V5 sequences is the most probable reason for the low (45%) efficiency of subtype A-specific PCR and HMA (heteroduplex mobility assay). Eighteen (29%) of 62 samples had discordant subtype designations between env and gag. Sequence analysis of the entire envelope from 13 samples confirmed the high degree of diversity and complexity of HIV-1 strains in the DRC; 9 had a complex recombinant structure in gp160, involving fragments of known and unknown subtypes. Interestingly, the unknown fragments from the different strains did not cluster together. Overall, the high number of HIV-1 subtypes cocirculating, the high intrasubtype diversity, and the high numbers of possible recombinant viruses as well as different unclassified strains are all in agreement with an old and mature epidemic in the DRC, suggesting that this region is the epicenter of HIV-1 group M. PMID:11044094

  10. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  11. Alate susceptibility in ants.

    PubMed

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  12. Alate susceptibility in ants

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  13. Individual personality characteristics related to suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Cheryl W; Steele, Connie

    2002-12-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between suggestibility of memory, personality characteristics identified by the Millon Index of Personality Traits, and tolerance for ambiguity measured by MacDonald's Ambiguity Tolerance-20. 85 female and 16 male college students were assigned to either an experimental group receiving the suggestive information or a control group. Suggestibility was assessed using Lindberg's suggestibility measure consisting of a short video, followed by a questionnaire used to assess memory, and a second administration one week later. Logistical regression analyses were used to construct a model of the personality characteristics predictive of suggestibility and indicated that susceptibility to suggestive information may differ across personalities for variables such as sensing, innovating, agreeing, and low tolerance of ambiguity. PMID:12530759

  14. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    PubMed

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). PMID:27404406

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Ruano, Delia; Roberts, David M; Gonzalez-Del-Rio, Ruben; Álvarez, Daniel; Rebollo, Ma José; Pérez-Herrán, Esther; Mendoza, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The concept of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is an essential part of clinical microbiology. Antimicrobial testing has played a central role in the identification of new antibiotics and defining their clinical uses. Here we describe different approaches to determine the activity of compounds in medium- or high-throughput format. PMID:25779321

  16. Fungal Susceptibility of Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Richard T.; Kaplan, Arthur M.

    1968-01-01

    One hundred laboratory-synthesized polyurethanes were tested by a mixed-culture petri dish method for susceptibility to fungus attack. Polyether polyurethanes were moderately to highly resistant to fungal attack, whereas all polyester polyurethanes tested were highly susceptible. The susceptibility of the polyethers was related to the number of adjacent methylene groups in the polymer chain. At least two such groups were required for appreciable attack to occur. The presence of side chains on the diol moiety of the polyurethane reduced susceptibility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16349806

  17. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Angela R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2007-09-01

    Deleterious mutations in two breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are candidates for additional risk reduction measures such as intensive screening, prophylactic surgery or chemoprevention. Additional susceptibility genes have been identified, including PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, CASP8, PBRL and BRIP1. Yet, many women with a personal or family history suggestive of a hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer undergo genetic testing and no significant genetic alteration is found. Thus, there are other susceptibility genes that have not been identified, and it is likely that the remaining familial contribution to breast cancer will be explained by the presence of multiple low penetrance alleles that coexist to confer high penetrance risks (a polygenic model). The American Cancer Society has identified cancer prevention as a key component of cancer management and there is interest in developing individualized cancer prevention focused on identifying high risk individuals who are most likely to benefit from more aggressive risk reduction measures. Breast cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling are currently provided by genetic counselors, oncology nurse specialist, geneticists, medical and surgical oncologists, gynecologists and other health care professionals, often working within a multidisciplinary clinical setting. Current methods for risk assessment and predictive genetic testing have limitations and improvements in molecular testing and risk assessment tools is necessary to maximize individual breast cancer risk assessment and to fulfill the promise of cancer prevention. PMID:17508290

  18. Asymmetric otolith function and increased susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to variations in gravitoinertial acceleration level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; Graybiel, Ashton; Johnson, Walter H.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Von Baumgarten and coworkers (1979, 1981) have suggested that asymmetries in otolith function between the left and right labyrinths may result from differences in otoconial mass and could play a role in space motion sickness. Such asymmetries would be centrally compensated for under terrestrial conditions, but on exposure to weightlessness the persisting central compensation would produce a central imbalance that could lead to motion sickness. In this work ocular counterrolling was used as a way of measuring the relative 'efficiency' of the left and right otoliths; the ocular counterrolling scores of individuals were compared with their susceptibility to motion sickness during passive exposure to variations in Gz in parabolic flight maneuvers. The experimental findings indicate that large asymmetries in counterrolling for leftward and rightward body tilts are associated with greater susceptibility to motion sickness in parabolic flight.

  19. Genetic Susceptibility to Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Skibola, Christine F.; Curry, John D.; Nieters, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic susceptibility studies of lymphoma may serve to identify at risk populations and to elucidate important disease mechanisms. METHODS This review considered all studies published through October 2006 on the contribution of genetic polymorphisms in the risk of lymphoma. RESULTS Numerous studies implicate the role of genetic variants that promote B-cell survival and growth with increased risk of lymphoma. Several reports including a large pooled study by InterLymph, an international consortium of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) case-control studies, found positive associations between variant alleles in TNF -308G>A and IL10 -3575T>A genes and risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Four studies reported positive associations between a GSTT1 deletion and risk of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genetic studies of folate-metabolizing genes implicate folate in NHL risk, but further studies that include folate and alcohol assessments are needed. Links between NHL and genes involved in energy regulation and hormone production and metabolism may provide insights into novel mechanisms implicating neuro- and endocrine-immune cross-talk with lymphomagenesis, but will need replication in larger populations. CONCLUSIONS Numerous studies suggest that common genetic variants with low penetrance influence lymphoma risk, though replication studies will be needed to eliminate false positive associations. PMID:17606447

  20. MR susceptibility imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyn, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    This work reviews recent developments in the use of magnetic susceptibility contrast for human MRI, with a focus on the study of brain anatomy. The increase in susceptibility contrast with modern high field scanners has led to novel applications and insights into the sources and mechanism contributing to this contrast in brain tissues. Dedicated experiments have demonstrated that in most of healthy brain, iron and myelin dominate tissue susceptibility variations, although their relative contribution varies substantially. Local variations in these compounds can affect both amplitude and frequency of the MRI signal. In white matter, the myelin sheath introduces an anisotropic susceptibility that has distinct effects on the water compartments inside the axons, between the myelin sheath, and the axonal space, and renders their signals dependent on the angle between the axon and the magnetic field. This offers opportunities to derive tissue properties specific to these cellular compartments.

  1. Retrieval enhances eyewitness suggestibility to misinformation in free and cued recall.

    PubMed

    Wilford, Miko M; Chan, Jason C K; Tuhn, Sam J

    2014-03-01

    Immediately recalling a witnessed event can increase people's susceptibility to later postevent misinformation. But this retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) effect has been shown only when the initial recall test included specific questions that reappeared on the final test. Moreover, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is affected by the centrality of event details. These limitations make it difficult to generalize RES to criminal investigations, which often begin with free recall prior to more specific queries from legal officials and attorneys. In 3 experiments, we examined the influence of test formats (free recall vs. cued recall) and centrality of event details (central vs. peripheral) on RES. In Experiment 1, both the initial and final tests were cued recall. In Experiment 2, the initial test was free recall and the final test was cued recall. In Experiment 3, both the initial and final tests were free recall. Initial testing increased misinformation reporting on the final test for peripheral details in all experiments, but the effect was significant for central details only after aggregating the data from all 3 experiments. These results show that initial free recall can produce RES, and more broadly, that free recall can potentiate subsequent learning of complex prose materials. PMID:24000960

  2. Magnetic Susceptibility as a Biosignature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryshyn, V.; Corsetti, F. A.; Lund, S.; Berelson, W.

    2011-12-01

    Stromatolites, laminated sedimentary structures generally thought to have been produced by the activity of microorganisms, have long been studied in the geobiologic community. However, abiotic processes such as mineral growth can mimic stromatolite morphology and diagenesis commonly obscures other potentially diagnostic features (microstructure, isotopes, etc.). Here, we report a new biosignature based on the detrital magnetic mineral component present in nearly all sedimentary rocks. Magnetic grains in an abiotic structure should obey the laws of gravity/angle of repose and be swept off peaks/concentrated in lows, whereas magnetic grains should adhere to a biofilm and be more evenly distributed around the structure, even at steep angles, versus the abiotic scenario. Laboratory experiments were preformed in which small (2 μm) particles of magnetite were introduced into a tank that contained glass slides on which carbonate had abiotically precipitated. The slides were inclined at a variety of angles, ranging from 0 (horizontal) to 90 degrees (vertical). Samples were taken from the slides, dried, and their magnetic susceptibility was measured. In these experiments, no magnetic signature was found on the slides inclined at angles higher than 45 degrees, even though carbonate had precipitated onto the slides. A parallel biotic laboratory experiment was performed using cyanobacterial mats inclined at a variety of angles. In this experiment, all mats had over an order of magnitude more magnetic susceptibility than their abiotic counterparts, and even mats inclined at 90 degrees (vertical) held significant amounts of magnetic particles. Lastly, using the results of the laboratory experiments as a framework, several stromatolites of both known and strongly suspected biogenicity (biotic and abiotic) were tested by microdrilling and measuring the magnetic susceptibility at different depositional angles along individual lamina. The results of these experiments suggest that

  3. Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160079.html Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest Researchers found it boosted cellular aging by ... it, can speed aging in women, two new studies suggest. "For decades, scientists have disagreed over whether ...

  4. Resisting Suggestive Questions: Can Theory of Mind Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lisa; Okamoto, Yukari

    2006-01-01

    Children's credibility as witnesses in court cases has become an important issue in recent years. When testifying, younger children are considered to be more susceptible to suggestion than are older children. The present study examined the possibility that knowledge of an interviewer's mental states (intention and false belief, in this study)…

  5. Rubella susceptibility predicts measles susceptibility: implications for postpartum immunization.

    PubMed

    Libman, M D; Behr, M A; Martel, N; Ward, B J

    2000-12-01

    Measles and mumps antibody titers were measured in 262 pregnant women who were either positive (n=128) or negative (n=134) for rubella antibodies. Susceptibility to measles and mumps was detected in 4.6% (12/262) and 7.6% (14/184) of the women, respectively. Of the rubella-susceptible group, 8.2% were also measles susceptible, whereas only 0.8% of the rubella-immune women were measles susceptible. Susceptibility to mumps was evenly divided between rubella-susceptible (7.8%) and rubella-immune (7.4%) groups. PMID:11096023

  6. The genetics of susceptibility to cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Newton Bishop, Julia A; Bishop, D Timothy

    2005-03-01

    The most common genetic determinants of skin cancer are the genes that control skin color so that the genes expressed as black skin are protective. Within the white population variants at the MC1R locus are shown to increase susceptibility, and recent evidence suggests that polymorphisms in the OCA2 gene interact to modify risk. Other as-yet-unidentified pigment genes may also play a role in susceptibility to melanoma. Thus MC1R variants are the most common low-penetrance melanoma-susceptibility genes so far identified. Other putative low-penetrance susceptibility genes have been explored using candidate gene approaches. Good candidates such as the DNA repair gene XRCC3 and polymorphisms of EGF have been studied but excluded. Other candidates such as BRAF polymorphisms and variants at the CDKN2A locus remain to be fully investigated. More progress has been made in identifying high-penetrance genes, however. The most common (and probably the most penetrant) susceptibility locus is the CDKN2A locus coding for two tumor suppressor proteins, p16 and p14ARF. Mutations at this locus that impact p16, p14ARF or both proteins all increase susceptibility to melanoma. Families inheriting such mutants are at increased risk of cutaneous melanoma, and the penetrance is increased by residence in sunny climates and co-inheritance of MC1R variants. Some families also appear to be at increased risk of pancreatic cancer, but the determinants of susceptibility to pancreatic cancer are not yet understood. Very rare families have germline mutations in the CDK4 gene which impact on the p16 binding site. There are other high-penetrance susceptibility genes, however, which remain undiscovered. There is evidence of one at 1p22. The Melanoma Genetics Consortium (www.genomel.org) continues to explore this and the genetic epidemiology of the CDKN2A locus. PMID:15883616

  7. The ontology of genetic susceptibility factors (OGSF) and its application in modeling genetic susceptibility to vaccine adverse events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    the susceptibility genes in Case Study 2. These results validated the proper OGSF structure identified different ontology aspects with SNA methods. Conclusions OGSF provides a verified and robust framework for representing various genetic susceptibility types and genetic susceptibility factors annotated from experimental VAE genetic association studies. The RDF/OWL formulated ontology data can be queried using SPARQL and analyzed using centrality-based network analysis methods. PMID:24963371

  8. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  9. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  10. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2) Lectures must be…

  11. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  12. Revision of Suggested State Regulations.

    PubMed

    Winston, John P

    2016-02-01

    It is the mission of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) to promote radiological health in all aspects and phases of implementation and to create a seamless and coherent regulatory structure across the United States. CRCPD currently has 25 committees charged with the development of Suggested State Regulations (SSRs) for everything from transportation and waste disposal to tanning and medical therapy. The SR-F Committee is responsible for the suggested regulations of the equipment and processes used in medical diagnostic and interventional x-ray procedures. Several states are required by law to adopt the SSR verbatim, making it vital that they are kept current. The current revision of SR-F brought together representatives from the state radiation control programs, the Food and Drug Administration, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American College of Radiology, and industry. Through the course of two meetings and multiple conference calls, the Committee finalized an updated draft. The CRCPD process for the development of SSR is well established and includes internal and external peer review, review by the state Director Members, approval by the Board of Directors, and concurrence from relevant federal agencies. Once final, an SSR allows a state radiation control program to proceed through the state's own regulatory process with a vetted set of regulations, making this difficult process more efficient and effective. PMID:26717174

  13. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing. PMID:24340808

  14. Cognitive interviewing procedures and suggestibility in children's recall.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B K; Delamothe, K

    1997-08-01

    In this study the authors examine the effects of procedures adapted from the cognitive interview of R. E. Geiselman, R.P. Fisher, D.P. MacKinnon, and H.L. Holland (1985) on children's recall following exposure to misleading suggestions. Children aged 5-7 years and 9-11 years saw a videotaped story and were presented with misleading or neutral information concerning story details. All were later given free- and cued-recall tests preceded by standard interview instructions or instructions that reinstated the encoding context and encouraged exhaustive reporting. Increased recall accuracy was found following cognitive interview instructions. Both age groups were susceptible to misleading suggestions, but susceptibility was unaffected by interview type. The authors discuss the implications for interviewing child witnesses. PMID:9378684

  15. Building false memories without suggestions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

  16. Labyrinthine lesions and motion sickness susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) has a fast pathway, which mediates compensatory eye movements, and a slow (velocity storage) pathway, which determines its low frequency characteristics and orients eye velocity toward gravity. We have proposed that motion sickness is generated through velocity storage, when its orientation vector, which lies close to the gravitational vertical, is misaligned with eye velocity during head motion. The duration of the misalignment, determined by the dominant time constant of velocity storage, causes the buildup of motion sickness. To test this hypothesis, we studied bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects with short vestibular time constants but normal aVOR gains for their motion sickness susceptibility. Time constants and gains were taken from rotational responses. Motion sickness was generated by rolling the head while rotating, and susceptibility was assessed by the number of head movements made before reaching intolerable levels of nausea. More head movements signified lower motion sickness susceptibility. Labyrinthine-defective subjects made more head movements on their first exposure to roll while rotating than normals (39.8 ± 7.2 vs 13.7 ± 5.5; P < 0.0001). Normals were tested eight times, which habituated their time constants and reduced their motion sickness susceptibility. Combining data from all subjects, there was a strong inverse relationship between time constants and number of head movements (r = 0.94), but none between motion sickness susceptibility and aVOR gains. This provides further evidence that motion sickness is generated through velocity storage, not the direct pathway, and suggests that motion sickness susceptibility can be reduced by reducing the aVOR time constant. PMID:17256169

  17. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  18. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  19. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  20. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  1. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  2. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  3. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  4. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  5. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  6. 32 CFR 1909.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ACCESS... 12958 General § 1909.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with... consideration. The Agency will respond to all substantive communications and take such actions as...

  7. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  8. 32 CFR 1909.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ACCESS... 12958 General § 1909.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with... consideration. The Agency will respond to all substantive communications and take such actions as...

  9. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  10. Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mattner, Jochen

    2011-01-27

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are considered as putative autoimmune diseases of the liver. Whereas strong evidence that bacterial infection may trigger PBC exists, the etiologies for PSC and AIH remain unknown. Although there have been significant discoveries of genetic polymorphisms that may underlie the susceptibility to these liver diseases, their associations with environmental triggers and the subsequent implications have been difficult to elucidate. While single nucleotide polymorphisms within the negative costimulatory molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) have been suggested as genetic susceptibility factors for all three disorders, we discuss the implications of CTLA-4 susceptibility alleles mainly in the context of PBC, where Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, an ubiquitous alphaproteobacterium, has recently been specifically associated with the pathogenesis of this devastating liver disease. Ultimately, the discovery of infectious triggers of PBC may expand the concept of genetic susceptibility in immune-mediated liver diseases from the concept of aberrant immune responses against self-antigens to insufficient and/or inappropriate immunological defense mechanisms allowing microbes to cross natural barriers, establish infection and damage respective target organs. PMID:21307981

  11. Source monitoring reduces the suggestibility of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Giles, Jessica W; Gopnik, Alison; Heyman, Gail D

    2002-05-01

    The relation between source monitoring and suggestibility was examined among preschool children. Thirty-two 3- to 5-year-olds were simultaneously presented with a brief story in two different modalities, as a silent video vignette and a spoken narrative. Each modality presented unique information about the story, but the information in the two versions was mutually compatible. The children were then asked a series of questions, including questions about the source (modality) of story details, and leading questions about story details (to assess suggestibility). Performance on the source-monitoring questions was highly correlated with the ability to resist suggestion. In addition, children who were asked source-monitoring questions prior to leading questioning were less susceptible to suggestion than were those who were asked the leading questions first. This study provides evidence that source monitoring can play a causal role in reducing the suggestibility of preschool children. PMID:12009053

  12. Progress on low susceptibility mechanisms of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    QING, Li-Li; ZHAO, Hui; LIU, Lin-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases detected in a wide range of mammalian species. The “protein-only” hypothesis of TSE suggests that prions are transmissible particles devoid of nucleic acid and the primary pathogenic event is thought to be the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc). According to susceptibility to TSEs, animals can be classified into susceptible species and low susceptibility species. In this review we focus on several species with low susceptibility to TSEs: dogs, rabbits, horses and buffaloes. We summarize recent studies into the characteristics of low susceptibility regarding protein structure, and biochemical and genetic properties. PMID:25297084

  13. Susceptibility to gingivitis: a way to predict periodontal disease?

    PubMed

    Trombelli, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that gingival inflammatory response to plaque accumulation may vary between individuals. Evidence seems to indicate that there is an association between susceptibility to gingivitis and susceptibility to periodontitis. Recently, among participants in a large scale experimental gingivitis trial, we were able to identify and characterize subjects that differ significantly in their gingival inflammatory response to plaque accumulation. Research efforts are being focused on the effect of genetic, anatomic and environmental host-related factors which may be implicated in the pathogenesis of the gingival inflammatory process, and whether susceptibility to periodontitis and susceptibility to gingivitis may partly share common risk factors. In this respect, it is possible that identification of factors related to increased susceptibility to gingivitis may help identify, at an early age, subjects at risk of periodontitis. PMID:15646584

  14. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Landslide susceptibility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, H. B.; Torgoev, A.; Schlögel, R.; Braun, A.; Torgoev, I.; Ischuk, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is the second part of a new geohazards analysis applied to a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia, focused on landslide susceptibility computations that are based on recently compiled geographic, geological and geomorphological data. The core data are a digital elevation model, an updated earthquake catalogue, an active fault map as well as a new landslide inventory. The most recently added digital data are a new simplified geological map, an annual precipitation map, as well as river and road network maps that were produced for the Kyrgyz and Tajik parts of the Tien Shan. On the basis of these records we determine landslide densities with respect to morphological (M), geological (G), river distance (R), precipitation (P), earthquake (E) and fault (F) distance factors. Correlations were also established between scarp locations and the slope angle, distance to rivers, curvature. These correlations show that scarps tend to be located on steeper slopes, farther from rivers and on more convex terrain than the entire landslides. On the basis of the landslide density values computed for each class of the aforementioned factors, two landslide susceptibility maps are created according to the Landslide Factor analysis: the first one considers correlations between the landslide occurrences and the first four factors (MGRP); the second one is based on the first map (MGRP) combined with the seismo-tectonic influence (+ E + F) on landslide distributions. From the comparison of these two maps with actual landslide distributions we infer that the distances to rivers as well as to faults and past earthquakes most strongly constrain the susceptibility of slopes to landslides. We highlight several zones where the landslide susceptibilities computed for the MGRP + E + F factors fit better the observed concentration of landslides than those computed for the MGRP factors alone. For a few zones, both maps produce high landslide susceptibilities that do not well reflect

  15. A survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in endangered and highly susceptible Vietnamese salamanders (Tylototriton spp.).

    PubMed

    Thien, Tao Nguyen; Martel, An; Brutyn, Melanie; Bogaerts, Sergé; Sparreboom, Max; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Fisher, Matthew C; Beukema, Wouter; Van, Tang Duong; Chiers, Koen; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Until now, Asian amphibians appear to have largely escaped declines driven by chytridiomycosis. Vietnamese salamanders that belong to the genus Tylototriton are rare and have a patchy distribution in mountainous areas, falling within the proposed environmental envelope of chytrid infections, surrounded by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infected regions. If these salamanders are susceptible to chytridiomycosis, then their populations could be highly vulnerable after the introduction of B. dendrobatidis. Examination for the presence of the chytrid fungus in skin swabs from 19 Tylototriton asperrimus and 104 Tylototriton vietnamensis by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. Susceptibility of T. asperrimus to experimental infection by using the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) strain of B. dendrobatidis was examined. The fungus was absent in all samples from all wild salamanders examined. Inoculation with the BdGPL strain resulted in mortality of all five inoculated salamanders within 3 weeks after inoculation with infected animals that manifested severe orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and spongiosis. Although infection by B. dendrobatidis currently appears absent in Vietnamese Tylototriton populations, the rarity of these animals, their pronounced susceptibility to chytridiomycosis, an apparently suitable environmental context and increasing likelihood of the pathogen being introduced, together suggest the need of urgent measures to avoid future scenarios of extinction as witnessed in Central America and Australia. PMID:24063090

  16. Spatial Resolution Effects of Digital Terrain Models on Landslide Susceptibility Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. T.; Dou, J.; Chang, Y.; Kuo, C. P.; Xu, K. M.; Liu, J. K.

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to identify the maximum number of correlated factors for landslide susceptibility mapping and to evaluate landslide susceptibility at Sihjhong river catchment in the southern Taiwan, integrating two techniques, namely certainty factor (CF) and artificial neural network (ANN). The landslide inventory data of the Central Geological Survey (CGS, MOEA) in 2004-2014 and two digital elevation model (DEM) datasets including a 5-meter LiDAR DEM and a 30-meter Aster DEM were prepared. We collected thirteen possible landslide-conditioning factors. Considering the multi-collinearity and factor redundancy, we applied the CF approach to optimize these thirteen conditioning factors. We hypothesize that if the CF values of the thematic factor layers are positive, it implies that these conditioning factors have a positive relationship with the landslide occurrence. Therefore, based on this assumption and positive CF values, seven conditioning factors including slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, terrain roughness index (TRI), terrain position index (TPI), total curvature, and lithology have been selected for further analysis. The results showed that the optimized-factors model provides a better accuracy for predicting landslide susceptibility in the study area. In conclusion, the optimized-factors model is suggested for selecting relative factors of landslide occurrence.

  17. The multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes TAGAP and IL2RA are regulated by vitamin D in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Berge, T; Leikfoss, I S; Brorson, I S; Bos, S D; Page, C M; Gustavsen, M W; Bjølgerud, A; Holmøy, T; Celius, E G; Damoiseaux, J; Smolders, J; Harbo, H F; Spurkland, A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that develops in genetically susceptible individuals. The majority of the MS-associated gene variants are located in genetic regions with importance for T-cell differentiation. Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator, and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to be associated with increased MS disease susceptibility and activity. In CD4+ T cells, we have analyzed in vitro vitamin D responsiveness of genes that contain an MS-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and with one or more vitamin D response elements in their regulatory regions. We identify IL2RA and TAGAP as novel vitamin D target genes. The vitamin D response is observed in samples from both MS patients and controls, and is not dependent on the genotype of MS-associated SNPs in the respective genes. PMID:26765264

  18. The multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes TAGAP and IL2RA are regulated by vitamin D in CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Berge, T; Leikfoss, I S; Brorson, I S; Bos, S D; Page, C M; Gustavsen, M W; Bjølgerud, A; Holmøy, T; Celius, E G; Damoiseaux, J; Smolders, J; Harbo, H F; Spurkland, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that develops in genetically susceptible individuals. The majority of the MS-associated gene variants are located in genetic regions with importance for T-cell differentiation. Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator, and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to be associated with increased MS disease susceptibility and activity. In CD4+ T cells, we have analyzed in vitro vitamin D responsiveness of genes that contain an MS-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and with one or more vitamin D response elements in their regulatory regions. We identify IL2RA and TAGAP as novel vitamin D target genes. The vitamin D response is observed in samples from both MS patients and controls, and is not dependent on the genotype of MS-associated SNPs in the respective genes. PMID:26765264

  19. Return of research results from pharmacogenomic versus disease susceptibility studies: what’s drugs got to do with it?

    PubMed Central

    Dressler, Lynn G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most controversial ethical issues in genomics research is the return of individual research results to research subjects. As new technologies, including whole-genome sequencing, provide an increased opportunity for researchers to find clinically relevant research results, the questions related to if, when and how individual research results should be returned become more central to the ethical conduct of genomic research. In the absence of federal guidance on this issue, many groups and individuals have developed recommendations and suggestions to address these questions. Most of these recommendations have focused on the return of individual results from disease susceptibility studies. However, in addition to predicting the development of disease, genomic research also includes predicting an individual’s response to drugs, especially the risk of developing adverse events. This article evaluates and compares the return of individual research results from disease susceptibility studies versus pharmacogenomic studies. PMID:22676197

  20. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  1. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P < 0.0001), suggesting that resistance to fungal reproduction is associated with MLR aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption. PMID:25198847

  2. An investigation into the association between HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Nabiallah; Adib, Minoo; Alsahebfosoul, Fereshteh; Kazemi, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-01-15

    Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) gene polymorphism and expression rate have recently been suggested to have a potential role in susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of HLA-G gene 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and its plasma level with MS susceptibility. In this study, the HLA-G gene from 212 patients and 210 healthy individuals was amplified using real time PCR and screened for the 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism. In addition, HLA-G plasma levels of the patients were measured and compared to normal controls by ELISA method. Our results revealed that 14 bp insertion in HLA-G could result in lower plasma HLA-G level of the subjects, regardless of their health status and vice versa. Additionally, significant correlation of HLA-G genotype and its plasma level with MS susceptibility was observed. In conclusion, not only HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism could be associated with expression rate of the HLA-G gene and its plasma level, but also could be considered as a risk factor for susceptibility to MS in our study population. PMID:26711580

  3. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum reservoir fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Oleksandr P.; Potter, David K.

    A knowledge of the magnetic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids may provide new techniques for improved reservoir characterisation, petroleum exploration and production. However, magnetic information is currently scarce for the vast majority of reservoir fluids. For instance, there is little in the literature concerning basic magnetic susceptibility values of crude oils or formation waters. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility ( χm) of several crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters from local and world-wide sites. All the fluids measured were diamagnetic, however there were distinct differences in magnitude between the different fluid types. In particular, χm for the crude oils was more negative than for the formation waters of the same locality. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties. The results correlated with the density, residue content, API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity, viscosity, sulphur content and metal concentration of the fluids. Light fractions of crude oil were the most diamagnetic. The magnetic measurements potentially allow physical and chemical differences between the fluids to be rapidly characterised. The results suggest other possible applications, such as passive in situ magnetic susceptibility sensors for fluid monitoring (for example, the onset of water breakthrough, or the detection of migrating fines) in reservoirs, which would provide an environmentally friendly alternative to radioactive tracers. The mass magnetic susceptibilities of the fluids in relation to typical reservoir minerals may also play a role in fluid-rock interactions, such as studies of wettability. The χm of crude oil from the various world-wide oil provinces that were tested also showed some differences, possibly reflecting broad physical and chemical features of the geological history of each province.

  4. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, José L

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. PMID:27216048

  5. Susceptibility to COPD: Differential Proteomic Profiling after Acute Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Franciosi, Lorenza; Postma, Dirkje S.; van den Berge, Maarten; Govorukhina, Natalia; Horvatovich, Peter L.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Poolman, Bert; Lodewijk, Monique E.; Timens, Wim; Bischoff, Rainer; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), yet only a subset of smokers develops COPD. Family members of patients with severe early-onset COPD have an increased risk to develop COPD and are therefore defined as “susceptible individuals”. Here we perform unbiased analyses of proteomic profiles to assess how “susceptible individuals” differ from age-matched “non-susceptible individuals” in response to cigarette smoking. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) was collected at baseline and 24 hours after smoking 3 cigarettes in young individuals susceptible or non-susceptible to develop COPD and older subjects with established COPD. Controls at baseline were older healthy smoking and non-smoking individuals. Five samples per group were pooled and analysed by stable isotope labelling (iTRAQ) in duplicate. Six proteins were selected and validated by ELISA or immunohistochemistry. After smoking, 23 proteins increased or decreased in young susceptible individuals, 7 in young non-susceptible individuals, and 13 in COPD in the first experiment; 23 proteins increased or decreased in young susceptible individuals, 32 in young non-susceptible individuals, and 11 in COPD in the second experiment. SerpinB3 and Uteroglobin decreased after acute smoke exposure in young non-susceptible individuals exclusively, whereas Peroxiredoxin I, S100A9, S100A8, ALDH3A1 (Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1) decreased both in young susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, changes being significantly different between groups for Uteroglobin with iTRAQ and for Serpin B3 with iTRAQ and ELISA measures. Peroxiredoxin I, SerpinB3 and ALDH3A1 increased in COPD patients after smoking. We conclude that smoking induces a differential protein response in ELF of susceptible and non-susceptible young individuals, which differs from patients with established COPD. This is the first study applying unbiased proteomic profiling to unravel the underlying mechanisms

  6. Cognitive Factors in Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert D.; Field, Peter B.

    1971-01-01

    This research explored the influence of cognitive variables on susceptibility to hypnosis. The three variables of concern in the present study are automatization, attention, and body experience. The results are summarized. (Author)

  7. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1907.04 Section 1907.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER...

  8. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1907.04 Section 1907.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER...

  9. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1907.04 Section 1907.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER...

  10. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  11. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  12. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  13. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  14. Growth Conditions and Rifampin Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Arthur L.; Gross, Gayle H.

    1979-01-01

    The susceptibility of Escherichia coli to rifampin was measured during unlimited growth in rich and poor media and during chemostat growth limited by the carbon source. During batch growth at low turbidities, the susceptibility of the bacteria increased as the growth rate decreased, consistent with the longer time available for drug penetration in the poorer media. During chemostat culture, the bacteria remained highly susceptible or became genetically resistant, dependent on the manner in which the bacteria were exposed to the antibiotic. If the concentration of rifampin was abruptly raised, susceptible cells were replaced by genetically resistant cells. However, if the concentration of antibiotic was raised slowly, the genetically susceptible cells continued to grow. This difference in response of chemostat cultures according to mode of drug administration was attributed to an inducible detoxification of the drug by the bacteria, because the susceptible genotype is maintained only when the concentration of rifampin is increased gradually and when a high population of cells is maintained. Direct evidence for the inactivation of the rifampin from the bioassay of culture supernatants is presented. PMID:371543

  15. CHARACTERIZING AND PROVIDING ADEQUATE PROTECTION FOR SUSCEPTIBLE SUBPOPULATIONS: SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS: SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE AGED

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: An important Agency mandate is to identify subpopulations particularly susceptible to adverse effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants. For example, a critical public health question is the extent to which exposure to environmental contaminants cont...

  16. Measuring multipartite entanglement through dynamic susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Heyl, Markus; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Zoller, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Entanglement is considered an essential resource in quantum technologies, and central to the understanding of quantum many-body physics. Developing protocols to detect and quantify the entanglement of many-particle quantum states is thus a key challenge for present experiments. Here, we show that the quantum Fisher information, a witness for genuinely multipartite entanglement, becomes measurable for thermal ensembles by means of the dynamic susceptibility--that is, with resources readily available in present cold atomic-gas and condensed-matter experiments. This establishes a connection between multipartite entanglement and many-body correlations contained in response functions, with immediate implications close to quantum phase transitions, where the quantum Fisher information becomes universal, allowing us to identify strongly entangled phase transitions with a divergent multipartite entanglement. We illustrate our framework using paradigmatic quantum Ising models, and point out potential signatures in optical-lattice experiments and strongly correlated materials.

  17. Xylazine emesis, yohimbine and motion sickness susceptibility in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible role of the alpha-2 adrenoceptors in xylazine-induced vomiting and in motion sickness was investigated. Cats were divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility and were observed after s.c. injections of xylazine. The incidence of vomiting increased with the dose, and at each dose the high susceptibility group had a greater emetic incidence than the low susceptibility group. In another experiment with cats divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility, s.c. administration of yohimbine effectively antagonized the xylazine-induced emesis in both susceptibility groups. The cats in the latter experiment were then challenged with a motion sickness stimulus after s.c. pretreatment with yohimbine. Yohimbine failed to prevent motion sickness but did occasion an unexplained variability in the incidence of vomiting. These findings suggest that the emetic effect of xylazine results from stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors but that these receptors are not fundamental to feline motion sickness. The fact that susceptibilities to xylazine-induced emesis and to motion sickness are correlated suggests a point of interaction other than the area postrema, which is known to be essential for xylazine-induced vomiting but not for motion sickness in the cat.

  18. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality. PMID:26905891

  19. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality. PMID:26905891

  20. Transmission disequilibrium suggests a role for the sulfotransferase-4A1 gene in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Mark D; Condra, Jodi

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies suggest a role for chromosome 22q13 in schizophrenia. This segment of chromosome 22 contains the sulfotransferase-4A1 (Sult4A1) gene, which encodes an enzyme thought to be involved in neurotransmitter metabolism in the central nervous system. To evaluate this candidate, we developed a microsatellite marker targeting a polymorphism in its 5' nontranslated region (D22s1749E). Using samples obtained from the National Institutes of Mental Health Schizophrenia Genetics Initiative, we evaluated 27 families having multiple siblings with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders for transmission disequilibrium (TDT) of this marker along with three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 37 kb segment containing the Sult4A1 gene. TDT for D22s1749E was significant (P < 0.05), with a tendency for the 213 nt allele to be preferentially transferred to affected children (P = 0.0079). Global chi-square values for haplotypes involving the SNPs (ss146366, ss146407, and ss146420) and D22s1749E, also showed significant TDT values (P = 0.0006-0.0016). Consequently, we proposed that Sult4A merited more careful scrutiny as a candidate gene for schizophrenia susceptibility. PMID:16152568

  1. Linking landslide susceptibility to sediment yield in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Bǎlteanu, Dan; Chendeş, Viorel; Sima, Mihaela; Enciu, Petru; Poesen, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies revealed the importance of seismic activity in explaining regional patterns of catchment sediment yield (SY). This relation is often explained by the fact that seismic activity induces landslides that contribute to SY. Nevertheless, only a few studies focused on the effects of landslides on SY and even fewer studies have explored the potential of landslide susceptibility as a predictor for SY. The objective of this study is therefore to explore the potential of landslide susceptibility maps to explain the spatial variation of SY in the Romanian Carpathians, a region with moderate to high seismicity. 133 catchments, covering 63% of Romania, for which SY was measured during a period of at least 10 years and for which SY was not significantly affected by upstream reservoirs, were compiled and selected. 78 of these catchments were 'less disturbed', being covered for at least 50% by forest and semi-natural areas and confined to the Carpathian mountains. Landslide susceptibility in each catchment was assessed, using an earlier published state of the art landslide susceptibility map of Romania. Mean landslide susceptibility for each catchment shows a highly significant correlation with SY (r² = 0.44). This indicates that landslides are an important contributor to SY in Romania and suggests that regional and national landslide susceptibility maps can indeed be a useful tool to predict SY. Nevertheless, the susceptibility map did not explain much more of the observed variance in SY than some other individual catchment characteristics such as seismicity (r² = 0.40) and lithology (r² = 0.33). Also taking into account the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility within the catchment did not significantly improve the observed correlations. Surprisingly, topography showed a nonsignificant correlation with SY, which can be attributed to the overwhelming effect of seismicity and lithology. Overall, our results suggest that seismicity is indeed a highly

  2. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tomer, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine) is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4) and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg). Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity. PMID:15712599

  3. Genetic susceptibility to radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. J.; Brenner, D. J.; Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.

    In the context of space radiation, it is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. One possibility is that haploinsufficiency for ATM confers radiosensitivity, and this defect involves 1-3% of the population. Using knock-out mice we chose to study cataractogenesis in the lens and oncogenic transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts to assay for effects of ATM deficiency. Radiation induced cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals following exposure to either gamma rays or 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. In addition, it was found that embryo fibroblasts of Atm heterozygotes showed an increased incidence of oncogenic transformation compared with their normal litter-matched counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally-significant radiosensitive subpopulation.

  4. Genetic susceptibility to radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. J.; Brenner, D. J.; Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.

    In the context of space radiation, it is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. One possibility is that haploinsufficiency for ATM confers radiosensitivity, and this defect involves 1 3% of the population. Using knock-out mice we chose to study cataractogenesis in the lens and oncogenic transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts to assay for effects of ATM deficiency. Radiation induced cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals following exposure to either gamma rays or 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. In addition, it was found that embryo fibroblasts of Atm heterozygotes showed an increased incidence of oncogenic transformation compared with their normal litter-matched counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally significant radiosensitive subpopulation. Knock-out mice are now available for other genes including BRCA1 and 2, and Mrad9. An exciting possibility is the creation of double heterozygotes for pairs of mutated genes that function in the same signal transduction pathway, and consequently confer even greater radiosensitivity.

  5. Genetic Susceptibility to Non-Necrotizing Erysipelas/Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Massinen, Satu; Siljander, Tuula; Mäkelä, Siru; Kivinen, Katja; Leinonen, Rasko; Jiao, Hong; Aitos, Päivi; Karppelin, Matti; Vuopio, Jaana; Syrjänen, Jaana; Kere, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial non-necrotizing erysipelas and cellulitis are often recurring, diffusely spreading infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused most commonly by streptococci. Host genetic factors influence infection susceptibility but no extensive studies on the genetic determinants of human erysipelas exist. Methods We performed genome-wide linkage with the 10,000 variant Human Mapping Array (HMA10K) array on 52 Finnish families with multiple erysipelas cases followed by microsatellite fine mapping of suggestive linkage peaks. A scan with the HMA250K array was subsequently performed with a subset of cases and controls. Results Significant linkage was found at 9q34 (nonparametric multipoint linkage score (NPLall) 3.84, p = 0.026), which is syntenic to a quantitative trait locus for susceptibility to group A streptococci infections on chromosome 2 in mouse. Sequencing of candidate genes in the 9q34 region did not conclusively associate any to erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility. Suggestive linkage (NPLall>3.0) was found at three loci: 3q22-24, 21q22, and 22q13. A subsequent denser genome scan with the HMA250K array supported the 3q22 locus, in which several SNPs in the promoter of AGTR1 (Angiotensin II receptor type I) suggestively associated with erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility. Conclusions Specific host genetic factors may cause erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility in humans. PMID:23437094

  6. Serum susceptibility of bovine pasteurellas.

    PubMed Central

    Blau, K A; Ward, A C; Prieur, D J; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the serum sensitivity of 23 P. haemolytica isolates and 18 P. multocida isolates was determined by incubating dilutions of bacteria with equal volumes of fresh or heat-inactivated bovine serum for one, two, or three hours. Clinical isolates of both Pasteurella species were resistant to serum, whereas isolates from asymptomatic cattle varied in serum susceptibility. The classical pathway of complement appeared to be the principal means of complement mediated killing as detected by incubation in the presence or absence of EGTA-MgCl2. Lyzozyme and iron saturation of serum did not greatly affect serum susceptibility with either of the Pasteurella species. PMID:3300919

  7. Behavioural phenotypes predict disease susceptibility and infectiousness.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Alessandra; Kirschman, Lucas; Warne, Robin W

    2016-08-01

    Behavioural phenotypes may provide a means for identifying individuals that disproportionally contribute to disease spread and epizootic outbreaks. For example, bolder phenotypes may experience greater exposure and susceptibility to pathogenic infection because of distinct interactions with conspecifics and their environment. We tested the value of behavioural phenotypes in larval amphibians for predicting ranavirus transmission in experimental trials. We found that behavioural phenotypes characterized by latency-to-food and swimming profiles were predictive of disease susceptibility and infectiousness defined as the capacity of an infected host to transmit an infection by contacts. While viral shedding rates were positively associated with transmission, we also found an inverse relationship between contacts and infections. Together these results suggest intrinsic traits that influence behaviour and the quantity of pathogens shed during conspecific interactions may be an important contributor to ranavirus transmission. These results suggest that behavioural phenotypes provide a means to identify individuals more likely to spread disease and thus give insights into disease outbreaks that threaten wildlife and humans. PMID:27555652

  8. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on...

  9. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Tao

    2016-03-01

    We propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select a limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Simulation results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored. By comparing with two statistical null models, we show that the distribution pattern of weights, rather than the topological structure, mainly contributes to the observations. Further analysis suggests that the weight-weight correlation strongly affects the results: high-weight edges are more significant in keeping high epidemic prevalence when the weight-weight correlation is positive.

  10. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. PMID:25594911

  11. Antibacterial susceptibility of plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Hulem, C; Colgate, J; Anselmo, C

    1979-07-01

    Selected anaerobic, capnophilic and facultative bacteria isolated from patients with various forms of periodontal health and disease were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Specific bactericidal and minimum inhibitory concentrations were compared to disc zone diameters, thereby generating new standards for the potential selection of antimicrobial agents. PMID:286720

  12. Genetics and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Lu, Fang; Zeng, Sha; Sun, Suqing; Lu, Li; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer has high morbidity and mortality in China. It is ranked first in malignant tumors of the digestive system. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, but they may be associated with a variety of factors. Genetic susceptibility genes have become a research hotspot in China. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of gastric cancer can facilitate achieving individualized prevention and developing more effective methods to reduce clinical adverse consequences, which has important clinical significance. Genetic susceptibility results from the influence of genetic factors or specific genetic defects that endow an individual’s offspring with certain physiological and metabolic features that are prone to certain diseases. Currently, studies on the genetic susceptibility genes of gastric cancer have become a hotspot. The purpose is to screen for the etiology of gastric cancer, search for gene therapy methods, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of gastric cancer. This article reviews the current progress of studies on genetic susceptibility genes for gastric cancer. PMID:26309491

  13. The European landslide susceptibility map ELSUS 1000 Version 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Reichenbach, Paola; Hervás, Javier

    2013-04-01

    With the increase in availability of environmental data sets at global and continental scale and the adoption of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in 2006, small scale risk assessments of soil threats received increasing attention in Europe. We focus on landslides and present an approach for landslide susceptibility evaluation at the continental scale (1 km resolution) over the European territory covered by the EU member states and adjacent countries. Different to previous continental and global scale landslide susceptibility studies, we start with collecting more than 102,000 landslides in 22 European countries. These landslides are heterogeneously distributed over Europe, but are indispensable for the evaluation and classification of Pan-European datasets that can be used as spatial predictors for landslide susceptibility, and the validation of respective assessments. We further attempted a subdivision of the European territory into seven different climato-physiographic zones by combining morphometric and climatic data sets for terrain differentiation, and additionally defining coastal areas as a 1km inland from the coastline. Landslide susceptibility modelling was performed for the individual zones involving heuristic spatial multicriteria evaluations, and validated with the inventory data using receiver operating characteristics. The reliability of the resulting susceptibility map ELSUS 1000 Version 1 was examined on an administrative terrain unit level in areas with landslide information. ELSUS 1000 was further evaluated through comparisons with available national and regional landslide susceptibility maps. These evaluations suggest that although the first version of ELSUS 1000 is capable for a correct synoptic assessment of landslide susceptibility in the majority of the area, it needs further improvement in terms of data used. These should also consider differentiated susceptibility evaluations with respect to different landslide types. ELSUS 1000

  14. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy of human brain in vivo and its molecular underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Avram, Alexandru V; Liu, Chunlei

    2012-02-01

    Frequency shift of gradient-echo MRI provides valuable information for assessing brain tissues. Recent studies suggest that the frequency and susceptibility contrast depend on white matter fiber orientation. However, the molecular underpinning of the orientation dependence is unclear. In this study, we investigated the orientation dependence of susceptibility of human brain in vivo and mouse brains ex vivo. The source of susceptibility anisotropy in white matter is likely to be myelin as evidenced by the loss of anisotropy in the dysmyelinating shiverer mouse brain. A biophysical model is developed to investigate the effect of the molecular susceptibility anisotropy of myelin components, especially myelin lipids, on the bulk anisotropy observed by MRI. This model provides a consistent interpretation of the orientation dependence of macroscopic magnetic susceptibility in normal mouse brain ex vivo and human brain in vivo and the microscopic origin of anisotropic susceptibility. It is predicted by the theoretical model and illustrated by the experimental data that the magnetic susceptibility of the white matter is least diamagnetic along the fiber direction. This relationship allows an efficient extraction of fiber orientation using susceptibility tensor imaging. These results suggest that anisotropy on the molecular level can be observed on the macroscopic level when the molecules are aligned in a highly ordered manner. Similar to the utilization of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in elucidating molecular structures, imaging magnetic susceptibility anisotropy may also provide a useful tool for elucidating the microstructure of ordered biological tissues. PMID:22036681

  15. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  16. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. PMID:22286663

  17. Career Education: Suggested School-Industry Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Donald, Ed.

    The document, produced to aid Ohio communities in linking their schools' kindergarten through secondary career education (CE) programs with the needs and interests of local General Motors (GM) plants, defines some central concepts of career education and discusses successful, cooperative interaction between industry and career education. The focus…

  18. Indianapolis Plan Suggests Blueprint for Other Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    An Indianapolis-based nonprofit organization has crafted a sweeping plan for reworking the 33,000-student Indianapolis school system that would place the district under the control of the city's mayor, pare down the money spent in central administration, and give principals broad authority to hire and fire teachers. The reform plan created by the…

  19. Some Suggestions for Teaching Introductory Urban Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, C. Murray

    1977-01-01

    Describes objectives, content, and teaching procedures of an introductory college-level urban geography course. Lectures, student papers, and role playing are designed to help students learn about central place theory, space economy, land use, and social geography. (Author/AV)

  20. Variants of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes and susceptibility to tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Malik, S; Greenwood, C M T; Eguale, T; Kifle, A; Beyene, J; Habte, A; Tadesse, A; Gebrexabher, H; Britton, S; Schurr, E

    2006-02-01

    Lungs are the central organ affected and targeted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and immune processes in the lung are of critical importance in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. A major lung defense against invading pathogens is provided by surfactant protein A, a multi-chain protein encoded by the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes. Here, we investigated polymorphisms in the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes for association with tuberculosis in 181 Ethiopian families comprising 226 tuberculosis cases. Four polymorphisms, SFTPA1 307A, SFTPA1 776T, SFTPA2 355C, and SFTPA2 751C, were associated with tuberculosis (P=0.00008; P=0.019, P=0.029 and P=0.042, respectively). Additional subgroup analysis in male, female and more severely affected patients provided evidence for SFTPA1/2-covariate interaction. Finally, out of five intragenic haplotypes identified in the SFTPA1 gene and nine identified in the SFTPA2 gene, 1A(3) was most significantly associated with tuberculosis susceptibility (P=0.026). These findings suggest that SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 modify the risk of tuberculosis susceptibility and that this risk is influenced by additional covariates. PMID:16292672

  1. Spatially and temporally distributed modeling of landslide susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Pece V.; Gessler, Paul E.; Boll, Jan; Elliot, William J.; Foltz, Randy B.

    2006-10-01

    Mapping of landslide susceptibility in forested watersheds is important for management decisions. In forested watersheds, especially in mountainous areas, the spatial distribution of relevant parameters for landslide prediction is often unavailable. This paper presents a GIS-based modeling approach that includes representation of the uncertainty and variability inherent in parameters. In this approach, grid-based tools are used to integrate the Soil Moisture Routing (SMR) model and infinite slope model with probabilistic analysis. The SMR model is a daily water balance model that simulates the hydrology of forested watersheds by combining climate data, a digital elevation model, soil, and land use data. The infinite slope model is used for slope stability analysis and determining the factor of safety for a slope. Monte Carlo simulation is used to incorporate the variability of input parameters and account for uncertainties associated with the evaluation of landslide susceptibility. This integrated approach of dynamic slope stability analysis was applied to the 72-km 2 Pete King watershed located in the Clearwater National Forest in north-central Idaho, USA, where landslides have occurred. A 30-year simulation was performed beginning with the existing vegetation covers that represented the watershed during the landslide year. Comparison of the GIS-based approach with existing models (FSmet and SHALSTAB) showed better precision of landslides based on the ratio of correctly identified landslides to susceptible areas. Analysis of landslide susceptibility showed that (1) the proportion of susceptible and non-susceptible cells changes spatially and temporally, (2) changed cells were a function of effective precipitation and soil storage amount, and (3) cell stability increased over time especially for clear-cut areas as root strength increased and vegetation transitioned to regenerated forest. Our modeling results showed that landslide susceptibility is strongly

  2. Maternal immune activation increases seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xin-Ting; Li, Jun; Yu, Lin; Wang, Ji-Wen; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng; Li, Bao-Min

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a relationship between maternal infection and a high incidence of childhood epilepsy in offspring. However, there is little experimental evidence that links maternal infection with later seizure susceptibility in juvenile offspring. Here, we asked whether maternal immune challenge during pregnancy can alter seizure susceptibility and seizure-associated brain damage in adolescence. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline (NS) on gestational days 15 and 16. At postnatal day 21, seizure susceptibility to kainic acid (KA) was evaluated in male offspring. Four groups were studied, including normal control (NS-NS), prenatal infection (LPS-NS), juvenile seizure (NS-KA), and "two-hit" (LPS-KA) groups. Our results demonstrated that maternal LPS exposure caused long-term reactive astrogliosis and increased seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring. Compared to the juvenile seizure group, animals in the "two-hit" group showed exaggerated astrogliosis, followed by worsened spatial learning ability in adulthood. In addition, prenatal immune challenge alone led to spatial learning impairment in offspring but had no effect on anxiety. These data suggest that prenatal immune challenge causes a long-term increase in juvenile seizure susceptibility and exacerbates seizure-induced brain injury, possibly by priming astroglia. PMID:25982885

  3. Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Harp, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    We examine rockfall susceptibility of folded strata in the Sevier fold-thrust belt exposed in American Fork Canyon in north-central Utah. Large-scale geologic mapping, talus production data, rock-mass-quality measurements, and historical rockfall data indicate that rockfall susceptibility is correlated with limb dip and curvature of the folded, cliff-forming Mississippian limestones. On fold limbs, rockfall susceptibility increases as dip increases. This relation is controlled by several factors, including an increase in adverse dip conditions and apertures of discontinuities, and shearing by flexural slip during folding that has reduced the friction angles of discontinuities by smoothing surface asperities. Susceptibility is greater in fold hinge zones than on adjacent limbs primarily because there are greater numbers of discontinuities in hinge zones. We speculate that susceptibility increases in hinge zones as fold curvature becomes tighter.

  4. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say inflammation or cigarette ... a significant risk to kidney health for black Americans, new research suggests. The study included more than ...

  5. Beyond Diathesis Stress: Differential Susceptibility to Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary-biological reasoning suggests that individuals should be differentially susceptible to environmental influences, with some people being not just more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, as the prevailing diathesis-stress view of psychopathology (and of many environmental influences) maintains, but also…

  6. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  7. Parenting and Preschoolers' Executive Functioning: A Case of Differential Susceptibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical work has been attempting to answer the questions of how and how much of the effects of children's early experience may depend on their inner characteristics. Theory and evidence suggest that some children, notably those with difficult temperaments, are more susceptible to both negative and positive…

  8. Magnetic susceptibility of strongly interacting matter across the deconfinement transition.

    PubMed

    Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mariti, Marco; Negro, Francesco; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    We propose a method to determine the total magnetic susceptibility of strongly interacting matter by lattice QCD simulations and present numerical results for the theory with two light flavors, which suggest a weak magnetic activity in the confined phase and the emergence of strong paramagnetism in the deconfined, quark-gluon plasma phase. PMID:24237508

  9. Are Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Susceptible to Contour Illusions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Elizabeth; Scope, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism have been shown to be less susceptible to Kanisza type contour illusions than children without autism (Happe, 1996). Other authors have suggested that this finding could be explained by the fact that participants with autism were required to make a potentially ambiguous verbal response which may have masked whether or not they…

  10. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  11. Cell-type-specific enrichment of risk-associated regulatory elements at ovarian cancer susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Simon G.; Shen, Howard C.; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Lawrenson, Kate; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Tyrer, Jonathan; Rhie, Suhn K.; Levanon, Keren; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Ramus, Susan J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Antoniou, Antonis; Freedman, Matthew; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Noushmehr, Houtan; Gayther, Simon A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory landscape of the human genome is a central question in complex trait genetics. Most single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer risk lie in non-protein-coding regions, implicating regulatory DNA elements as functional targets of susceptibility variants. Here, we describe genome-wide annotation of regions of open chromatin and histone modification in fallopian tube and ovarian surface epithelial cells (FTSECs, OSECs), the debated cellular origins of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and in endometriosis epithelial cells (EECs), the likely precursor of clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCOCs). The regulatory architecture of these cell types was compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We observed similar positional patterns of global enhancer signatures across the three different ovarian cancer precursor cell types, and evidence of tissue-specific regulatory signatures compared to non-gynecological cell types. We found significant enrichment for risk-associated SNPs intersecting regulatory biofeatures at 17 known HGSOC susceptibility loci in FTSECs (P = 3.8 × 10−30), OSECs (P = 2.4 × 10−23) and HMECs (P = 6.7 × 10−15) but not for EECs (P = 0.45) or LNCaP cells (P = 0.88). Hierarchical clustering of risk SNPs conditioned on the six different cell types indicates FTSECs and OSECs are highly related (96% of samples using multi-scale bootstrapping) suggesting both cell types may be precursors of HGSOC. These data represent the first description of regulatory catalogues of normal precursor cells for different ovarian cancer subtypes, and provide unique insights into the tissue specific regulatory variation with respect to the likely functional targets of germline genetic susceptibility variants for ovarian cancer. PMID:25804953

  12. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyorhinis.

    PubMed

    Wu, C C; Shryock, T R; Lin, T L; Faderan, M; Veenhuizen, M F

    2000-09-15

    A broth microdilution technique was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 15 field isolates of Mycoplasma hyorhinis to 10 antimicrobial agents, representative of different classes, and contrasting newer agents to existing ones. For the macrolides, the MIC(90) for tylosin and tilmicosin was 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively, but was > or = 16 microg/ml for erythromycin. Tetracycline, lincomycin and enrofloxacin each had an MIC(90) of 2 microg/ml. The mycoplasma had similar levels of susceptibility to the aminoglycoside and aminocyclictol classes exhibiting an MIC(90) of 4 microg/ml for gentamicin and 2 microg/ml for spectinomycin. The isolates exhibited high MICs to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with an MIC(90) > or = 16/304 microg/ml. In summary, M. hyorhinis isolates from the US had low MICs against a variety of antimicrobials tested, with the exception of erythromycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. PMID:10925038

  14. Anthelmintic resistance: markers for resistance, or susceptibility?

    PubMed Central

    BEECH, R. N.; SKUCE, P.; BARTLEY, D. J.; MARTIN, R. J.; PRICHARD, R. K.; GILLEARD, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) brings together researchers worldwide, with a focus of advancing knowledge of resistance and providing information on detection methods and treatment strategies. Advances in this field suggest mechanisms and features of resistance that are shared among different classes of anthelmintic. Benzimidazole resistance is characterized by specific amino acid substitutions in beta-tubulin. If present, these substitutions increase in frequency upon drug treatment and lead to treatment failure. In the laboratory, sequence substitutions in ion-channels can contribute to macrocyclic lactone resistance, but there is little evidence that they are significant in the field. Changes in gene expression are associated with resistance to several different classes of anthelmintic. Increased P-glycoprotein expression may prevent drug access to its site of action. Decreased expression of ion-channel subunits and the loss of specific receptors may remove the drug target. Tools for the identification and genetic analysis of parasitic nematodes and a new online database will help to coordinate research efforts in this area. Resistance may result from a loss of sensitivity as well as the appearance of resistance. A focus on the presence of anthelmintic susceptibility may be as important as the detection of resistance. PMID:20825689

  15. Hyperglycemia Increases Susceptibility to Ischemic Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lévigne, D.; Tobalem, M.; Modarressi, A.; Pittet-Cuénod, B.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.). In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia. PMID:23509730

  16. Temporal percolation of a susceptible adaptive network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, L. D.; Macri, P. A.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    In the past decades, many authors have used the susceptible-infected-recovered model to study the impact of the disease spreading on the evolution of the infected individuals. However, few authors focused on the temporal unfolding of the susceptible individuals. In this paper, we study the dynamic of the susceptible-infected-recovered model in an adaptive network that mimics the transitory deactivation of permanent social contacts, such as friendship and work-ship ties. Using an edge-based compartmental model and percolation theory, we obtain the evolution equations for the fraction susceptible individuals in the susceptible biggest component. In particular, we focus on how the individual’s behavior impacts on the dilution of the susceptible network. We show that, as a consequence, the spreading of the disease slows down, protecting the biggest susceptible cluster by increasing the critical time at which the giant susceptible component is destroyed. Our theoretical results are fully supported by extensive simulations.

  17. Family Process Effects on Adolescent Males' Susceptibility to Antisocial Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining relationship between adolescents' susceptibility to antisocial peer pressure and parenting style and frequency of behavior monitoring. Suggests adolescents most susceptible to antisocial peer pressure perceived infrequent monitoring by fathers, inappropriate discipline practice by fathers, and had mothers who…

  18. Effect of soybean leaf and plant age on susceptibility to initiation of infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although previous studies have been conducted to determine the relationship of plant and leaf age to susceptibility to soybean rust, this relationship still is unresolved. Some studies suggest that as plants reach the flowering stage they become more susceptible to initiation of infection. However, ...

  19. Theory of Orbital Susceptibility on Excitonic Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Masao

    2016-09-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the orbital susceptibility of an excitonic insulator on the basis of a two-band model. It is shown that a drastic change (an anomalous enhancement) in susceptibility as a function of temperature occurs owing to the occurrence of additional orbital susceptibility due to the excitonic gap. We calculate explicitly the temperature dependence of orbital susceptibility for a model of Ta2NiSe5, and show that the result is consistent with experimental results.

  20. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    PubMed

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions. PMID:18662974

  1. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

  2. Retiring the central executive.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement. PMID:26821744

  3. Motion sickness susceptibility and aerobic fitness: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B S; Money, K E; Jacobs, I

    1990-03-01

    A longitudinal study evaluated the susceptibility to motion sickness in initially unfit subjects before and after an endurance training program. Motion stimulation was provided by the Precision Angular Mover, in which the subject was tumbled head over heels about an Earth-horizontal axis at 20 cycles per minute in darkness. Maximal aerobic power and the blood lactate response to submaximal exercise were evaluated with cycle ergometry. The training program caused significant improvements in VO2max and endurance capacity, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. There was a significant (p less than 0.0125) increase in motion sickness susceptibility after the physical training, suggesting that increased physical fitness caused increased susceptibility to motion sickness in some individuals. PMID:2156490

  4. Susceptibility of bifidobacteria of animal origin to selected antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Sigrid; Mair, Christiane; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2011-01-01

    Strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are frequently used as probiotics, for which the absence of acquired antimicrobial resistance has become an important safety criterion. This clarifies the need for antibiotic susceptibility data for bifidobacteria. Based on a recently published standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bifidobacteria with broth microdilution method, the range of susceptibility to selected antibiotics in 117 animal bifidobacterial strains was examined. Narrow unimodal MIC distributions either situated at the low-end (chloramphenicol, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin) or high-end (kanamycin, neomycin) concentration range could be detected. In contrast, the MIC distribution of trimethoprim was multimodal. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing or verifying present microbiological breakpoints suggested by regulatory agencies to assess the safety of these micro-organisms intended for the use in probiotics. PMID:22312561

  5. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  6. Suggested Learnings: Consumer and Homemaking Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Dorothy Jean; Swanson, Bettye B.

    The guide presents suggested learning concepts, experiences, and references for home economics educators in the planning and organization of secondary level consumer and homemaking programs. The suggestions are based on questionnaires and interviews with teachers and administrators involved in this program. The guide's main focus is on the process…

  7. Optimal landslide susceptibility zonation based on multiple forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola; Mondini, Alessandro Cesare; Peruccacci, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Environmental and multi-temporal landslide information for an area in Umbria, Italy, was exploited to produce four single and two combined landslide susceptibility zonations. The 78.9 km 2 study area was partitioned in 894 slope units, and the single susceptibility zonations were obtained through linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), logistic regression (LR), and by training a neural network (NN). The presence or absence of landslides in the slope units in the period from pre-1941 to 1996 (training set) was used as the dependent variable for the terrain classification. Next, adopting a regression approach, two "optimal" combinations of the four single zonations were prepared. The single and the combined zonations were tested against landslides in the 9-year period from 1997 to 2005 (validation set). Different metrics were used to evaluate the quality of the susceptibility zonations, including degree of model fit, uncertainty in the probability estimates, and model prediction skills. These metrics showed that the degree of model fit was not a good indicator of the model forecasting skills. Zonations obtained through classical multivariate classification techniques (LDA, QDA and LR) produced superior predictions when compared to the NN model, that over fitted the landslide information in the training set. LDA and LR produced less uncertain zonations than QDA and NN. The combined models resulted in a reduced number of errors and in less uncertain predictions; an important result that suggests that the combination of landslide susceptibility zonations can provide "optimal" susceptibility assessments.

  8. In vitro drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium other than tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    Imwidthaya, P; Komolpis, P; Suthiravitayavaniz, K; Rienthong, S

    1990-08-01

    MOTT were isolated from clinical specimens from the Division of Mycobacteriology, Department of Microbiology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, and also from natural sources, namely water and soil in the Bangkok area from January to December, 1987. The strains isolated were as follows: 30 M. fortuitum fortuitum, 5 M. fortuitum peregrinum 3 M. fortuitum 3 rd. biovariant complex, 3 M. chelonae chelonae, 7 M. chelonae abscessus. Of these, 5 strains were isolated from clinical specimens and the other 43 were from the environment. The pattern of drug susceptibility to antituberculous and antimicrobial agents revealed that they were resistant to antituberculous agents but susceptible to aminoglycosides (which contain a central ring of 2-deoxystreptamine) such as amikacin (83% of cultures), netilmicin (83%), gentamicin (77%) and kanamycin (75%). Some strains were sensitive to tetracyclines (35%), but all were resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. PMID:2262746

  9. Orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Koudai; Ohta, Yukinori

    2016-08-01

    We study the orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase using the mean-field approximation for a two-band model defined on a square lattice. We find that, in semiconductors, the excitonic condensation acquires a finite diamagnetic susceptibility due to spontaneous hybridization between the valence and the conduction bands, whereas in semimetals, the diamagnetic susceptibility in the normal phase is suppressed by the excitonic condensation. We also study the orbital diamagnetic and Pauli paramagnetic susceptibilities of Ta2NiSe5 using a two-dimensional three-band model and find that the calculated temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  10. Induction Technique: Beyond Simple Response to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    The hypnotic induction is intended to induce hypnosis. This implies that what is sought is intended to go beyond what might be wrought by mere suggestion, expectancy, and social influence. The experimentally controlled research showing that the induction makes a difference and how small changes in wording of suggestions can produce orthogonal responses is briefly reviewed. This article explains the principles of induction and three critical phases of hypnotic induction in detail. An arm levitation scripted protocol demonstrating how to respond to the patient using the three phases to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions is presented. PMID:27586048

  11. Suggested Minimum Cataloging Standards for Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sharon

    1979-01-01

    Notes problems with cataloging library materials in the small and medium sized public library and suggests interpretations of the Anglo-American cataloging rules, with recommendations for their adaptation to smaller libraries. (CWM)

  12. No Statins Before Heart Surgery, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... harm, a new study suggests. In that setting, Crestor (rosuvastatin) did not prevent either the abnormal heart rhythm ... who were having elective heart surgery to take Crestor or a placebo before surgery. The researchers found ...

  13. Electronic Reference Services: Some Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Bernie

    1998-01-01

    Suggests guidelines to help libraries formalize their electronic reference services. Covers the following issues: administration/management (library division/department, library administration, campus administration, academic departments); services; primary clientele; personnel; infrastructure/facilities; finances; and evaluation. (AEF)

  14. Perceived Susceptibility to AIDS Predicts Subsequent HIV Risk: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Jail Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Leah M.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Tangney, June P.; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of health behavior change suggest that perceived susceptibility to illness precedes health-protective behavior. We used a cross-lagged panel design to explore the relationship between perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and HIV risk behavior pre-incarceration and post-release in a sample of 499 jail inmates, a group at high risk for HIV. We also explored moderators of this relationship. HIV risk was calculated with a Bernoulli mathematical process model. Controlling for pre-incarceration HIV risk, perceived susceptibility to AIDS predicted less post-release HIV risk; the reverse relationship was not supported. Consistent with health behavior change theories, perceived susceptibility seemed to partially guide behavior. However, this relationship was not true for everyone. African-Americans and individuals high in borderline personality features exhibited no relationship between perceived susceptibility and changes in HIV risk. This suggests that targeted interventions are needed to use information about risk level to prevent HIV contraction. PMID:23591920

  15. Perceived susceptibility to AIDS predicts subsequent HIV risk: a longitudinal evaluation of jail inmates.

    PubMed

    Adams, Leah M; Stuewig, Jeffrey B; Tangney, June P; Kashdan, Todd B

    2014-06-01

    Theories of health behavior change suggest that perceived susceptibility to illness precedes health-protective behavior. We used a cross-lagged panel design to explore the relationship between perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and HIV risk behavior pre-incarceration and post-release in a sample of 499 jail inmates, a group at high risk for HIV. We also explored moderators of this relationship. HIV risk was calculated with a Bernoulli mathematical process model. Controlling for pre-incarceration HIV risk, perceived susceptibility to AIDS predicted less post-release HIV risk; the reverse relationship was not supported. Consistent with health behavior change theories, perceived susceptibility seemed to partially guide behavior. However, this relationship was not true for everyone. African-Americans and individuals high in borderline personality features exhibited no relationship between perceived susceptibility and changes in HIV risk. This suggests that targeted interventions are needed to use information about risk level to prevent HIV contraction. PMID:23591920

  16. Credible suggestions affect false autobiographical beliefs.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Wysman, Lauren; Otgaar, Henry

    2012-07-01

    False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences how individuals come to believe that false events occurred. Two studies used a variant of implantation methods to vary the proportion of events attributed to parents and the presence of true events within the suggestion. In Study 1 participants received six false events, and were told that all or some events came from parents. Participants told that all of the events came from parents formed more and stronger false beliefs. In Study 2 participants also received two true events, and a third group was told that half of the events came from their parents. Participants given the specific ratio ("half") endorsed more false beliefs, and beliefs between the other groups no longer differed. Across both studies participants told that some events came from parents reported stronger memory phenomenology. The effect of suggestions on false beliefs in implantation studies depends partly on the credibility of suggestions derived from providing information about the source of suggested events. PMID:22537029

  17. Grain-size Distributions from Deconvolved Broadband Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, K.

    2014-12-01

    A magnetic susceptibility meter with several-decade frequency band has recently made it possible to obtain superparamagnetic grain-size distributions only by room-temperature measurement. A rigorous deconvolution scheme of frequency dependence of susceptibility is already available. I have made some corrections on the deconvolution scheme and present its applications to broadband susceptibility data on loess and volcanic rocks. Deconvolution of frequency dependence of susceptibility was originally developed by Shchervakov and Fabian [2005]. Suppose an ensemble of grains distributed for two independent variables of volume (grain-size) and energy barrier. Applying alternating magnetic field with varying frequency results in differentiating grains by energy barrier - not directly by volume. Since the response function for frequency is known, deconvolution of frequency dependence of susceptibility provide a rigorous solution for the second moment of volume on the volume-energy barrier distribution. Based on a common assumption of a linear relation between volume and energy barrier, we can obtain analytical volume or grain-size distributions of superparamagnetic grains. A ZH broadband susceptibility meter comprises of two separated devices for lower (SM-100, 65 - 16kHz) and higher (SM-105, 16k - 512kHz) frequency ranges. At every frequency susceptibility calibration was conducted using three kinds of paramagnetic rare earth oxides [Fukuma and Torii, 2011]. Almost all samples exhibited seemingly linear dependences of in-phase susceptibility on logarithmic frequency. This indicates that the measured data do not suffer serious noise, and that the second moment of volume is relatively constant against energy barrier. Nonetheless, third-order polynomial fittings revealed slight deflections from the quasi-linear susceptibility - logarithmic frequency relations. Deconvolving the polynomials showed that such slight defections come from peaks or troughs in varying second moment

  18. Optimal control in a model of malaria with differential susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2014-06-01

    A malaria model with differential susceptibility is analyzed using the optimal control technique. In the model the human population is classified as susceptible, infected and recovered. Susceptibility is assumed dependent on genetic, physiological, or social characteristics that vary between individuals. The model is described by a system of differential equations that relate the human and vector populations, so that the infection is transmitted to humans by vectors, and the infection is transmitted to vectors by humans. The model considered is analyzed using the optimal control method when the control consists in using of insecticide-treated nets and educational campaigns; and the optimality criterion is to minimize the number of infected humans, while keeping the cost as low as is possible. One first goal is to determine the effects of differential susceptibility in the proposed control mechanism; and the second goal is to determine the algebraic form of the basic reproductive number of the model. All computations are performed using computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is claimed that the analytical results obtained are important for the design and implementation of control measures for malaria. It is suggested some future investigations such as the application of the method to other vector-borne diseases such as dengue or yellow fever; and also it is suggested the possible application of free software of computer algebra like Maxima.

  19. Spacecraft materials HCl susceptibility assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C.-T.; Liu, De-Ling; Kim, Hyun; Alaan, Diana R.

    2014-09-01

    The susceptibility of spacecraft materials to HCl exposure was investigated in light of concerns to potential contamination during evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) overflight scenarios. Overflight refers to the circumstance where one spacecraft, resident on a launch pad, may be exposed to HCl generated from an earlier solid rocket launch at an adjacent pad. One aspect of the overflight risk assessments involves spacecraft materials susceptibility to HCl exposure. This study examined a wide range of spacecraft materials after being exposed to HCl vapor in a well-characterized facility. Sample thermal/optical and electrostatic dissipation properties, as well as surface chemical and morphological features, were characterized before and after the HCl exposure. All materials tested, except for indium tin oxide (ITO) coated Kapton film, showed no significant degradation after HCl exposure of up to 4800 ppb-hr. The ITO coated Kapton sample showed slight signs of degradation after being exposed to 500 ppb-hr HCl, as the surface resistance was increased by a factor of 5. However, the potential HCl dose inside the payload fairing (PLF) was estimated to be far below 500 ppb-hr in an EELV overflight event. These results, along with other relevant laboratory test data on the HCl removal efficiency of the filtration media used on the launch sites, provide the technical rationale that properly filtered air as the PLF purge should pose little risk in terms of HCl contamination under EELV overflight scenarios.

  20. Antifungal susceptibilities of Paecilomyces species.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, C; Pujol, I; Sala, J; Guarro, J

    1998-07-01

    The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 52 isolates of Paecilomyces species were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, largely based on the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (document M27-A). The fungal isolates tested included 16 P. variotii, 11 P. lilacinus, 9 P. marquandii, 6 P. fumosoroseus, 4 P. javanicus, and 2 P. viridis isolates and 1 isolate of each of the following species: P. carneus, P. farinosus, P. fulvus, and P. niveus. The MFCs and the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) for the six antifungal agents were remarkably high; the MIC50s indicated that amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole had good activities, while fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated poor efficacy. The ranges of the MICs were generally wider and lower than those of the MFCs. There were significant susceptibility differences among the species. All species with the exception of P. variotii were highly resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine; P. variotii was susceptible to flucytosine. Amphotericin B and the rest of the azoles showed good activity against P. variotii, while all the antifungal agents assayed showed low efficacy against P. lilacinus. PMID:9660991

  1. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Paecilomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, C.; Pujol, I.; Sala, J.; Guarro, J.

    1998-01-01

    The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 52 isolates of Paecilomyces species were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, largely based on the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (document M27-A). The fungal isolates tested included 16 P. variotii, 11 P. lilacinus, 9 P. marquandii, 6 P. fumosoroseus, 4 P. javanicus, and 2 P. viridis isolates and 1 isolate of each of the following species: P. carneus, P. farinosus, P. fulvus, and P. niveus. The MFCs and the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) for the six antifungal agents were remarkably high; the MIC50s indicated that amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole had good activities, while fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated poor efficacy. The ranges of the MICs were generally wider and lower than those of the MFCs. There were significant susceptibility differences among the species. All species with the exception of P. variotii were highly resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine; P. variotii was susceptible to flucytosine. Amphotericin B and the rest of the azoles showed good activity against P. variotii, while all the antifungal agents assayed showed low efficacy against P. lilacinus. PMID:9660991

  2. COMPARATIVE MICROARRAY EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CANCER RELEVANT GENES IN HYPERTENSIVE RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RODENT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypertension and cancer are prevalent diseases. Epidemiological studies suggest that hypertension may increase the long term risk of cancer. Identification of resistance and/or susceptibility genes using rodent models could provide important insights into the management and treat...

  3. Toxicity and transcriptomic analysis in Hyalella azteca suggests increased exposure and susceptibility of epibenthic organisms to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to make their way into the aquatic environment where sedimentation of particles will likely occur, putting benthic organisms at particular risk. Therefore, organisms such as Hyalella azteca, an epibenthic crustacean which forages at the sediment ...

  4. [Central manifestations of dystrophinopathies].

    PubMed

    Cuisset, J-M; Rivier, F

    2015-12-01

    The dystrophin gene involved in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy is expressed in three main tissues resulting in clinical manifestations: skeletal muscle, heart and central nervous system. The 6 different existing dystrophins in the brain may play a role in the maturation and plasticity of neuronal synapses in particular by their functions in clustering and stabilization of different receptors at the post synaptic membrane. The possibility of an intellectual deficiency in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known from the original description by Duchenne himself. Current data are in line with a constant cognitive impairment with a Gaussian curve shifted intellectual quotient (IQ) at -1 standard deviation from the standard population with an average IQ around 80. Clinical manifestations suggestive of a central nervous system involvement can affect all dystrophinopathies, including isolated central presentations without myopathic sign. The phenotypic spectrum appears broader and more subtle than non specific intellectual deficiency. The isolated or shared involvement of specific cognitive functions is possible (memory functions, executive functions, attention) with or without intellectual deficiency. Autism spectrum disorders are also among the encountered events. In clinical practice, it seems worth to ask for a measurement of serum creatine kinase (CK) in these different situations, keeping in mind that pure forms of central dystrophinopathies with a normal CK level have been recently reported. PMID:26773588

  5. Polymorphic Variation in Susceptibility and Metabolism of Triclosan-Resistant Mutants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains Obtained after Exposure to Biocides and Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Curiao, Tânia; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco R.; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to biocides may result in cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. Changes in biocide and antibiotic susceptibilities, metabolism, and fitness costs were studied here in biocide-selected Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants. E. coli and K. pneumoniae mutants with various degrees of triclosan susceptibility were obtained after exposure to triclosan (TRI), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), chlorhexidine (CHX) or sodium hypochlorite (SHC), and ampicillin or ciprofloxacin. Alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility and metabolism in mutants were tested using Phenotype MicroArrays. The expression of AcrAB pump and global regulators (SoxR, MarA, and RamA) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the central part of the fabI gene was sequenced. The fitness costs of resistance were assessed by a comparison of relative growth rates. Triclosan-resistant (TRIr) and triclosan-hypersusceptible (TRIhs) mutants of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were obtained after selection with biocides and/or antibiotics. E. coli TRIr mutants, including those with mutations in the fabI gene or in the expression of acrB, acrF, and marA, exhibited changes in susceptibility to TRI, CHX, and antibiotics. TRIr mutants for which the TRI MIC was high presented improved metabolism of carboxylic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. In TRIr mutants, resistance to one antimicrobial provoked hypersusceptibility to another one(s). TRIr mutants had fitness costs, particularly marA-overexpressing (E. coli) or ramA-overexpressing (K. pneumoniae) mutants. TRI, BKC, and CIP exposure frequently yielded TRIr mutants exhibiting alterations in AraC-like global regulators (MarA, SoxR, and RamA), AcrAB-TolC, and/or FabI, and influencing antimicrobial susceptibility, fitness, and metabolism. These various phenotypes suggest a trade-off of different selective processes shaping the evolution toward antibiotic/biocide resistance and influencing other adaptive traits. PMID

  6. Polyamine Effects on Antibiotic Susceptibility in Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dong-Hyeon; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2007-01-01

    OprD. In E. coli, the MICs of carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline were decreased in two acrA mutants devoid of a major efflux pump, AcrAB. However, retention of the spermine effect on antibiotic susceptibility in two acrA mutants of E. coli suggested that the AcrAB efflux pump was not the target for a synergistic effect by spermine and antibiotics and ruled out the hypothesis of spermine serving as an efflux pump inhibitor in this organism. In summary, this interesting finding of the effect of spermine on antibiotic susceptibility provides the basis for a new potential approach against drug-resistant pathogens by use of existing β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:17438056

  7. Paleoclimatic forcing of magnetic susceptibility variations in Alaskan loess during the late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Beget, J.E.; Stone, D.B.; Hawkins, D.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Visual matches and statistical tests suggest correlations between marine isotope curves, retrodictive solar insolation at lat 65{degree}N, and magnetic susceptibility profiles through late Quaternary age Alaskan loess sections. The susceptibility changes largely appear to reflect variability in magnetite content due to climatically controlled changes in wind intensity and competence. Magnetic susceptibility profiles through massive loess can provide stratigraphic context for intercalated paleosols and tephras. A prominent paleosol correlated with marine isotope stage 5 occurs several metres above the Old Crow ash in loess sections, indicating that this important tephra is older than suggested by thermoluminescence dates, and may have been deposited ca. 215 {plus minus}25 ka.

  8. Assessing the antibiotic susceptibility of freshwater Cyanobacteria spp.

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Elsa; Oliveira, Micaela; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Ferreira, Eugénia; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater is a vehicle for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in freshwater, where they are exposed to antibiotics and resistant organisms, but their role on water resistome was never evaluated. Data concerning the effects of antibiotics on cyanobacteria, obtained by distinct methodologies, is often contradictory. This emphasizes the importance of developing procedures to understand the trends of antibiotic susceptibility in cyanobacteria. In this study we aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of four cyanobacterial isolates from different genera (Microcystis aeruginosa, Aphanizomenon gracile, Chrisosporum bergii, Planktothix agradhii), and among them nine isolates from the same specie (M. aeruginosa) to distinct antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, kanamycine, gentamicine, tetracycline, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin). We used a method adapted from the bacteria standard broth microdilution. Cyanobacteria were exposed to serial dilution of each antibiotic (0.0015–1.6 mg/L) in Z8 medium (20 ± 1°C; 14/10 h L/D cycle; light intensity 16 ± 4 μEm−2s−1). Cell growth was followed overtime (OD450nm/microscopic examination) and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were calculated for each antibiotic/isolate. We found that β-lactams exhibited the lower MICs, aminoglycosides, tetracycline and norfloxacine presented intermediate MICs; none of the isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim and nalidixic acid. The reduced susceptibility of all tested cyanobacteria to some antibiotics suggests that they might be naturally non-susceptible to these compounds, or that they might became non-susceptible due to antibiotic contamination pressure, or to the transfer of genes from resistant bacteria present in the environment. PMID:26322027

  9. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior. PMID:22112639

  10. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  11. Suggestions for Career Exploration and Job Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet, which is intended for individuals seeking jobs in New York State, consists of suggestions for career exploration and job seeking. The booklet begins with a brief discussion of places to begin a job search: New York State Job Service and community service centers; schools and community organizations providing free advice; libraries;…

  12. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  13. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  14. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  15. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  16. Suggested Universals in the Ontogenesis of Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobin, Dan I.

    This paper represents a preliminary attempt to determine universals of grammatical development in children. On the basis of language acquisition data, a limited number of findings are presented in the form of suggested developmental universals. These universals are grouped according to the psychological variables which may determine them, in the…

  17. Minimum Competency Program, Citizenship: Suggestions for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This monograph explains the need for graduating high school seniors to demonstrate minimum competence in citizenship and suggests performance-related assessment tasks to help school authorities determine whether these competency requirements have been met. Minimum citizenship competencies are interpreted to include essential skills and concepts…

  18. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  19. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  20. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  1. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  2. Youth Physical Fitness. Suggestions for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This book, divided into three main parts--basic, advanced, and comprehensive programs--suggests (a) basic physical education programs designed to assist classroom teachers inexperienced in physical education to develop activities that will make a contribution to the physical fitness of the children in their charge and (b) advanced activities…

  3. Neurological susceptibility to a skull defect

    PubMed Central

    Honeybul, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There continues to be considerable interest in the use of decompressive craniectomy in the management of neurological emergencies. The procedure is technically straightforward; however, it is becoming increasingly apparent that it is associated with significant complications. One complication that has received relatively little attention is the neurological dysfunction that can occur due to the absence of the bone flap and the subsequent distortion of the brain under the scalp as cerebral swelling subsides. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the literature available regarding the clinical features described, outline the proposed pathophysiology for these clinical manifestations and highlight the implications that this may have for rehabilitation of patients with a large skull defect. Methods: A literature search was performed in the MEDLINE database (1966 to June 2012). The following keywords were used: Hemicraniectomy, decompressive craniectomy, complications, syndrome of the trephined, syndrome of the sinking scalp flap, motor trephined syndrome. The bibliographies of retrieved reports were searched for additional references. Results: Various terms have been used to describe the different neurological signs and symptoms with which patients with a skull defect can present. These include; syndrome of the trephined, posttraumatic syndrome, syndrome of the sinking scalp flap, and motor trephined syndrome. There is, however, considerable overlap between the conditions described and a patient's individual clinical presentation. Conclusion: It is becoming increasingly apparent that certain patients are particularly susceptible to the presence of a large skull defect. The term “Neurological Susceptibility to a Skull Defect” (NSSD) is therefore suggested as a blanket term to describe any neurological change attributable to the absence of cranial coverage. PMID:25024883

  4. Methodology for determining susceptibility of rough rice to Rhyzopertha dominica (L.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varieties of rough rice, Oryzae sativa (L)., were obtained from different sources in the south-central United States and evaluated for susceptibility to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.), and the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), in laboratory studies. Adult R. ...

  5. Flavivirus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Black, William C; Bennett, Kristine E; Gorrochótegui-Escalante, Norma; Barillas-Mury, Carolina V; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; de Lourdes Muñoz, María; Farfán-Alé, José A; Olson, Ken E; Beaty, Barry J

    2002-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of yellow fever (YF) and dengue fever (DF) flaviviruses worldwide. In this review we focus on past and present research on genetic components and environmental factors in Aedes aegypti that appear to control flavivirus transmission. We review genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations throughout the world and discuss how variation in vector competence is correlated with overall genetic differences among populations. We describe current research into how genetic and environmental factors jointly affect distribution of vector competence in natural populations. Based on this information, we propose a population genetic model for vector competence and discuss our recent progress in testing this model. We end with a discussion of approaches being taken to identify the genes that may control flavivirus susceptibility in Ae. aegypti. PMID:12234528

  6. Exploring Genetic Susceptibility to Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Yim, Yi-Rang; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects 1% to 5% of the population, and approximately 90% of the affected individuals are women. FM patients experience impaired quality of life and the disorder places a considerable economic burden on the medical care system. With the recognition of FM as a major health problem, many recent studies have evaluated the pathophysiology of FM. Although the etiology of FM remains unknown, it is thought to involve some combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure that triggers further alterations in gene expression. Because FM shows marked familial aggregation, most previous research has focused on genetic predisposition to FM and has revealed associations between genetic factors and the development of FM, including specific gene polymorphisms involved in the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and catecholaminergic pathways. The aim of this review was to discuss the current evidence regarding genetic factors that may play a role in the development and symptom severity of FM. PMID:26306300

  7. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time. PMID:17966053

  8. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  9. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice. PMID:2640034

  10. Susceptibility of SCADA systems and the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goike, Lindsay

    The research in this paper focused on analyzing SCADA systems in the energy sector for susceptibility to cyber attacks, in furtherance of providing suggestions to mitigate current and future cyber attacks. The research will be addressing the questions: how are SCADA systems susceptible to cyber attacks, and what are the suggested ways to mitigate both current and future cyber attacks. The five main categories of security vulnerabilities facing current SCADA systems were found to be: connectivity to the Internet, failure to plan, interdependency of sectors, numerous different types of threats, and outdated software. Some of the recommendations mentioned to mitigate current and future risks were: virtual private networks, risk assessments, increased physical security, updating of software, and firewalls.

  11. Common variants in CASP3 confer susceptibility to Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Onouchi, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Kouichi; Buns, Jane C.; Shimizu, Chisato; Hamada, Hiromichi; Honda, Takafumi; Terai, Masaru; Honda, Akihito; Takeuchi, Takashi; Shibuta, Shoichi; Suenaga, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Higashi, Kouji; Yasukawa, Kumi; Suzuki, Yoichi; Sasago, Kumiko; Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Takatsuki, Shinichi; Saji, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Nagai, Toshiro; Hamamoto, Kunihiro; Kishi, Fumio; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Sato, Yoshitake; Newburger, Jane W.; Baker, Annette L.; Shulman, Stanford T.; Rowley, Anne H.; Yashiro, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Wakui, Keiko; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Fujino, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Hata, Akira; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD; OMIM 611775) is an acute vasculitis syndrome which predominantly affects small- and medium-sized arteries of infants and children. Epidemiological data suggest that host genetics underlie the disease pathogenesis. Here we report that multiple variants in the caspase-3 gene (CASP3) that are in linkage disequilibrium confer susceptibility to KD in both Japanese and US subjects of European ancestry. We found that a G to A substitution of one commonly associated SNP located in the 5′ untranslated region of CASP3 (rs72689236; P = 4.2 × 10−8 in the Japanese and P = 3.7 × 10−3 in the European Americans) abolished binding of nuclear factor of activated T cells to the DNA sequence surrounding the SNP. Our findings suggest that altered CASP3 expression in immune effecter cells influences susceptibility to KD. PMID:20423928

  12. Resonance damping and optical susceptibilities (Critical Review Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.; Davila Romero, Luciana C.

    2003-07-01

    In the formal development of optical response theory in terms of susceptibilities, proper representation of the optical frequency dependence necessitates modeling both the discrete linewidth and the finite signal enhancement associated with the onset of resonance. Such dispersion behavior is generally accommodated by damping factors, featured in both resonant and non-resonant susceptibility terms. For the resonant terms, the sign of such damping corrections is unequivocal; however the correct choice of sign for non-resonant terms has become a matter of debate, heightened by the discovery that entirely opposite conventions are applied in mainstream literature on Raman scattering and nonlinear optics. Where the two conventions are applied to electro-optical processes in fluids there are significant and potentially verifiable differences between the associated results. Through a full thorough quantum electrodynamical treatment the universal correctness of one convention can be ascertained and flaws in the counter-convention identified. Resolution of the central issue requires consideration of a number of fundamental questions concerning the nature of dissipation in quantum mechanical systems. It is concluded that optical susceptibilities formulated with correct signing of the damping corrections must fulfill several fundamental tests: satisfaction of a new sum rule; invariance of the associated quantum amplitudes under time-reversal symmetry, and a resilience to canonical transformation.

  13. Limits of quantitation - Yet another suggestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Jill; Wysoczanski, Artur; Voigtman, Edward

    2014-06-01

    The work presented herein suggests that the limit of quantitation concept may be rendered substantially less ambiguous and ultimately more useful as a figure of merit by basing it upon the significant figure and relative measurement error ideas due to Coleman, Auses and Gram, coupled with the correct instantiation of Currie's detection limit methodology. Simple theoretical results are presented for a linear, univariate chemical measurement system with homoscedastic Gaussian noise, and these are tested against both Monte Carlo computer simulations and laser-excited molecular fluorescence experimental results. Good agreement among experiment, theory and simulation is obtained and an easy extension to linearly heteroscedastic Gaussian noise is also outlined.

  14. Suggesting strategies improves creative visual synthesis.

    PubMed

    Antonietti, A; Martini, E

    2000-04-01

    An experiment assessed whether a figural or an interpretative strategy can enhance creative visual synthesis. 45 undergraduates were presented a set of simple figures and asked to imagine combining them to obtain a whole pattern corresponding to a creative product. In the figurative condition participants were instructed to combine figures in unusual ways; in the interpretative condition they were induced to look for unusual meanings embedded in the combinations; in the control condition no strategy was suggested. Results showed that certain strategies induced a more flexible visual synthesis. PMID:10833724

  15. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  16. Differential susceptibility of macrophage cell lines to Bacillus anthracis-Vollum 1B.

    PubMed

    Gutting, B W; Gaske, K S; Schilling, A S; Slaterbeck, A F; Sobota, L; Mackie, R S; Buhr, T L

    2005-03-01

    Bacillus anthracis (BA) is a spore forming bacterium and the causative agent of anthrax disease. Macrophages (Mphis) play a central role in anthrax disease. An important step in disease progression is the ability of BA to secrete lethal toxin (LeTx) that kills Mphis. LeTx is a heterodimer composed of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF). Researchers have shown that Mphi cell lines demonstrate differential susceptibility to purified LeTx; for example RAW264.7 and J774A.1 Mphis are sensitive to LeTx whereas IC-21 Mphis are resistant. Research has also suggested that exogenous factors, including other BA proteins, can influence the activity of LeTx. For this reason, the objective of the current work was to examine if RAW264.7, J774A.1, and IC-21 Mphis demonstrated differential susceptibility when cultured with a LeTx-producing strain of BA. Here, we co-cultured Mphis with LeTx+ Vollum 1B (V1B) spores for >15 h and assayed for Mphi cell death by morphology, trypan blue (TB) staining, neutral red (NR) activity, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the culture media. Following the addition of V1B spores, necrosis (approximately 50% mortality) was observed in RAW264.7 and J774A.1 Mphis at 7.5 and 10 h, respectively. By 15 h, both RAW264.7 and J774A.1 Mphis demonstrated 100% mortality. In contrast, IC-21 Mphis, under identical culture conditions, remained viable (98%) and activated throughout the course of the experiment (>24 h). The mechanism of RAW264.7 cell death appeared to involve LeTx because the V1B-induced cytotoxicity was dose-dependently reversed by the addition of anti-PA antibody to the culture media. These observations suggest there is differential susceptibility of Mphi cell lines to the LeTx+ V1B strain of BA. Further development of this in vitro model may be useful to further characterize the interactions between Mphis and BA spores. PMID:15649636

  17. Temporal interactions facilitate endemicity in the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, Leo; Klemm, Konstantin; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    Data of physical contacts and face-to-face communications suggest temporally varying networks as the media on which infections take place among humans and animals. Epidemic processes on temporal networks are complicated by complexity of both network structure and temporal dimensions. Theoretical approaches are much needed for identifying key factors that affect dynamics of epidemics. In particular, what factors make some temporal networks stronger media of infection than other temporal networks is under debate. We develop a theory to understand the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on arbitrary temporal networks, where each contact is used for a finite duration. We show that temporality of networks lessens the epidemic threshold such that infections persist more easily in temporal networks than in their static counterparts. We further show that the Lie commutator bracket of the adjacency matrices at different times is a key determinant of the epidemic threshold in temporal networks. The effect of temporality on the epidemic threshold, which depends on a data set, is approximately predicted by the magnitude of a commutator norm.

  18. Griffiths effects of the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on random power-law networks.

    PubMed

    Cota, Wesley; Ferreira, Silvio C; Ódor, Géza

    2016-03-01

    We provide numerical evidence for slow dynamics of the susceptible-infected-susceptible model evolving on finite-size random networks with power-law degree distributions. Extensive simulations were done by averaging the activity density over many realizations of networks. We investigated the effects of outliers in both highly fluctuating (natural cutoff) and nonfluctuating (hard cutoff) most connected vertices. Logarithmic and power-law decays in time were found for natural and hard cutoffs, respectively. This happens in extended regions of the control parameter space λ(1)<λ<λ(2), suggesting Griffiths effects, induced by the topological inhomogeneities. Optimal fluctuation theory considering sample-to-sample fluctuations of the pseudothresholds is presented to explain the observed slow dynamics. A quasistationary analysis shows that response functions remain bounded at λ(2). We argue these to be signals of a smeared transition. However, in the thermodynamic limit the Griffiths effects loose their relevancy and have a conventional critical point at λ(c)=0. Since many real networks are composed by heterogeneous and weakly connected modules, the slow dynamics found in our analysis of independent and finite networks can play an important role for the deeper understanding of such systems. PMID:27078381

  19. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in alkali feldspar and plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Angel, Ross J.; Hirt, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Feldspars are the most abundant rock-forming minerals in the Earth's crust, but their magnetic properties have not been rigorously studied. This work focuses on the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of 31 feldspar samples with various chemical compositions. Because feldspar is often twinned or shows exsolution textures, measurements were performed on twinned and exsolved samples as well as single crystals. The anisotropy is controlled by the diamagnetic susceptibility and displays a consistent orientation of principal susceptibility axes; the most negative or minimum susceptibility is parallel to [010], and the maximum (least negative) is close to the crystallographic [001] axis. However, the magnetic anisotropy is weak when compared to other rock-forming minerals, 1.53*10-9 m3 kg-1 at maximum. Therefore, lower abundance minerals such as augite, hornblende or biotite often dominate the bulk paramagnetic anisotropy of a rock. Ferromagnetic anisotropy is not significant in most samples. In the few samples that do show ferromagnetic anisotropy, the principal susceptibility directions of the ferromagnetic subfabric do not display a systematic orientation with respect to the feldspar lattice. These results suggest that paleointensity estimates of the geomagnetic field made on single crystals of feldspar will not be affected by a systematic orientation of the ferromagnetic inclusions within the feldspar lattice.

  20. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in alkali feldspar and plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Pettke, Thomas; Angel, Ross J.; Hirt, Ann M.

    2016-04-01

    Feldspars are the most abundant rock-forming minerals in the Earth's crust, but their magnetic properties have not been rigorously studied. This work focuses on the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy of 31 feldspar samples with various chemical compositions. Because feldspar is often twinned or shows exsolution textures, measurements were performed on twinned and exsolved samples as well as single crystals. The anisotropy is controlled by the diamagnetic susceptibility and displays a consistent orientation of principal susceptibility axes; the most negative or minimum susceptibility is parallel to [010], and the maximum (least negative) is close to the crystallographic [001] axis. However, the magnetic anisotropy is weak when compared to other rock-forming minerals, 1.53 × 10-9 m3 kg-1 at maximum. Therefore, lower abundance minerals, such as augite, hornblende or biotite, often dominate the bulk paramagnetic anisotropy of a rock. Ferromagnetic anisotropy is not significant in most samples. In the few samples that do show ferromagnetic anisotropy, the principal susceptibility directions of the ferromagnetic subfabric do not display a systematic orientation with respect to the feldspar lattice. These results suggest that palaeointensity estimates of the geomagnetic field made on single crystals of feldspar will not be affected by a systematic orientation of the ferromagnetic inclusions within the feldspar lattice.

  1. Sialomucin and lytic susceptibility of rat mammary tumor ascites cells.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, J; Skelly, C M; Bharathan, S; Moody, C E; Sherblom, A P

    1990-11-01

    The potential role of cell surface sialomucin in preventing natural killer (NK)-mediated lysis of tumor cell targets has been addressed by comparing the properties of 2 NK-resistant [ascites (ASC) and short-term cultured (STC)] and 2 NK-susceptible [tunicamycin-treated (TUN) and long-term cultured (LTC)] preparations of 13762 MAT-B1 rat mammary tumor cells. Both the ASC and STC cell preparations contain elevated levels of the sialomucin ASGP-1 relative to TUN and LTC preparations as determined by [3H]glucosamine labeling and by binding of peanut agglutinin. The major difference in the susceptibility to NK-mediated lysis appeared to be due to the differences in the susceptibility to lysis by lytic granules, rather than to differences in the ability to bind or trigger effector cells, since TUN and LTC cells were approximately 10-fold more sensitive to lysis by lytic granules than were ASC and STC cells. All preparations inhibited the lysis of the susceptible target YAC-1 by normal rat splenocytes, indicating an ability to bind these effector cells. Triggering of effectors, as monitored either by incorporation of 32P into phosphatidylinositol or by transmethylation of phosphatidylcholine, was similar for the positive control YAC-1, STC, TUN, and LTC, whereas ASC appeared to be defective in triggering effectors. These results suggest that tumor sialomucin blocks the final phase of lysis, but not the initial recognition of tumor cells by NK effectors. PMID:2208144

  2. The bacterial microbiome of Dermacentor andersoni ticks influences pathogen susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Gall, Cory A; Reif, Kathryn E; Scoles, Glen A; Mason, Kathleen L; Mousel, Michelle; Noh, Susan M; Brayton, Kelly A

    2016-08-01

    Ticks are of medical importance owing to their ability to transmit pathogens to humans and animals. The Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, is a vector of a number of pathogens, including Anaplasma marginale, which is the most widespread tick-borne pathogen of livestock. Although ticks host pathogenic bacteria, they also harbor bacterial endosymbionts that have a role in tick physiology, survival, as well as pathogen acquisition and transmission. The goal of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome and examine the impact of microbiome disruption on pathogen susceptibility. The bacterial microbiome of two populations of D. andersoni with historically different susceptibilities to A. marginale was characterized. In this study, the microbiome was disrupted and then ticks were exposed to A. marginale or Francisella novicida to determine whether the microbiome correlated with pathogen susceptibility. Our study showed that an increase in proportion and quantity of Rickettsia bellii in the microbiome was negatively correlated to A. marginale levels in ticks. Furthermore, a decrease in Francisella endosymbionts was associated with lower F. novicida infection levels, demonstrating a positive pathogen-endosymbiont relationship. We demonstrate that endosymbionts and pathogens have varying interactions, and suggest that microbiome manipulation may provide a possible method for biocontrol by decreasing pathogen susceptibility of ticks. PMID:26882265

  3. Gender Differences in Cancer Susceptibility: An Inadequately Addressed Issue

    PubMed Central

    Dorak, M. Tevfik; Karpuzoglu, Ebru

    2012-01-01

    The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies. PMID:23226157

  4. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance. PMID:26302171

  5. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    PubMed Central

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P. R. O.

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a ‘preservation motif’, and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival. PMID:21687667

  6. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    SciTech Connect

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  7. Landslide susceptibility mapping using a neuro-fuzzy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Choi, J.; Oh, H.

    2009-12-01

    This paper develops and applied an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on a geographic information system (GIS) environment using landslide-related factors and location for landslide susceptibility mapping. A neuro-fuzzy system is based on a fuzzy system that is trained by a learning algorithm derived from the neural network theory. The learning procedure operates on local information, and causes only local modifications in the underlying fuzzy system. The study area, Boun, suffered much damage following heavy rain in 1998 and was selected as a suitable site for the evaluation of the frequency and distribution of landslides. Boun is located in the central part of Korea. Landslide-related factors such as slope, soil texture, wood type, lithology, and density of lineament were extracted from topographic, soil, forest, and lineament maps. Landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys. Landslide-susceptible areas were analyzed by the ANFIS method and mapped using occurrence factors. In particular, we applied various membership functions (MFs) and analysis results were verified using the landslide location data. The predictive maps using triangular, trapezoidal, and polynomial MFs were the best individual MFs for modeling landslide susceptibility maps (84.96% accuracy), proving that ANFIS could be very effective in modeling landslide susceptibility mapping. Various MFs were used in this study, and after verification, the difference in accuracy according to the MFs was small, between 84.81% and 84.96%. The difference was just 0.15% and therefore the choice of MFs was not important in the study. Also, compared with the likelihood ratio model, which showed 84.94%, the accuracy was similar. Thus, the ANFIS could be applied to other study areas with different data and other study methods such as cross-validation. The developed ANFIS learns the if-then rules between landslide-related factors and landslide

  8. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  9. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  10. Proactive and retroactive effects of negative suggestion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan S; Brown, Christine M; Mosbacher, Joy L; Dryden, W Erich

    2006-11-01

    The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false discrimination was evaluated via multiple-choice tests. Negative suggestion, defined as poorer performance on interference items than noninterference (control) items, consistently occurred when the wrong information followed the correct information (RI) but not when it preceded the correct information (PI). These effects did not change as a function of retention interval (immediate, 1 week, or 3 weeks) or number of incorrect alternatives (1 or 3). Implications of this outcome for experiencing incorrect information in both academic and nonacademic situations are considered. PMID:17087580

  11. Analysis of Rainfall induced landslides susceptibility along 50-110k section of the Southern Cross Island Highway in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzu-Chia; Chan, Hsun-Chuan; Hong, Yu-Jou

    2014-05-01

    Landslide located at the Southern Cross Island Highway, Taiwan damaged the natural environment and caused economic losses, damaged basic facilities, and resulted in human casualties in recent years. In order to reduce the reconstruction cost of broken roads, the study areas were chosen from mileage ranging from 50 to 110 kilometers and buffer range of 1,400 meters of the highway. The landslide susceptibilities along the highway were established. Two steps, the selection procedure and the model development procedure, have been used to establish landslide susceptibility model. The landslide inventories of the study area triggered by typhoon Mindulle, Morakot, and 0719 rainfall event, produced by the Central Geological Survey, were used for analyzing and modeling. In the selection procedure, the potential environmental factors, including the elevation, slope, slope aspect, slope high, lithology, terrain roughness, slope roughness, plan curvature, profile curvature, total curvature, distance of road, and distance of river, were selected as landslide causative factors. In order to select the factors efficiently, each factor was normalized from 0 to 1 to reduce the difference between the range of various factors. In the model development procedure, the Logistic regression method was used to establish the landslide susceptibility model. The classification error matrix and ROC-curve were used to evaluate the accuracy of landslide predicted by the developed model. The rainfall intensities of different rainfall durations were used as a landslide triggering factor in different rainfall events. The present model could predict landslide effectively. The overall accuracy of the three rainfall events was up to 70% or above. However, the predictions of Mindulle and 0719 rainfall event did not improve obviously by using landslide triggering factors, while the overall accuracy of Morakot event increased from 66.82% to 71.34%. The result suggests that if the rainfall event is long

  12. Air Research Program: Susceptibility Research Track

    EPA Science Inventory

    The susceptibility research track is focused on susceptibility due to life stage, disease state, and genetics. For each aspect, wherever possible an integrative cross-disciplinary approach is used that combines in vitro mechanistic studies with animal models and human clinical an...

  13. THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present article the putative role of environmental factors in schizophrenia is reviewed and synthesized. Accumulating evidence from recent studies suggests that environmental exposures may play a more significant role in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder than previously thought. This expanding knowledge base is largely a consequence of refinements in the methodology of epidemiologic studies, including birth cohort investigations, and in preclinical research that has been inspired by the evolving literature on animal models of environmental exposures. The bulk of evidence supports a contribution of environmental factors acting during fetal and perinatal life; these include infections, nutritional deficiencies, paternal age, fetal/neonatal hypoxic insults, maternal stress and other exposures. A considerable amount of data supports cannabis use in adolescence, migration, unfavorable neighborhood environments, and possibly infections at different points in the lifespan as risk factors for schizophrenia. Animal models have yielded evidence suggesting that these exposures cause brain and behavioral phenotypes that are analogous to findings observed in patients with schizophrenia. It is suggested that future studies attempt to replicate these findings, identify new risk factors, explore the gestational specificity of environmental insults, elaborate developmental trajectories, and examine relationships between environmental exposures and structural and functional brain anomalies in schizophrenia patients. Future research on gene-environment interactions and epigenetic effects of environmental exposures should shed further light on genes and exposures that may not be identified in the absence of these integrated approaches. Moreover, translational studies should further facilitate the discovery of neurodevelopmental mechanisms that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia. The study of environmental factors in schizophrenia may have important implications for

  14. Genetic susceptibility factors of Type 1 diabetes in Asians.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Eisenbarth, G S

    2001-01-01

    in the DR3/4 genotype. Since in Asians DQB1*0401 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with DRB1*0405, we find more DRB1*0405-DQB1*0401 haplotypes in patients with DR4/X than in patients with DR3/4, suggesting that the contribution of the DRB1 locus may be greater in DR4/X than in DR3/4 genotypes. Several genome scans suggested additional susceptibility intervals and provided supporting evidence for several previously reported linkages. Other studies focused on the confirmation of linkage using multipoint sib-pair analyses with densely spaced markers and multiethnic collection of families. Although significant and consistent linkage evidence was reported for the susceptibility intervals IDDM12 (on 2q33) even in Asia, evidence for most other intervals varies in different data sets. LD mapping has become an increasingly important tool for both confirmation and fine-mapping of susceptibility intervals, as well as identification of etiological mutations. The examination of large and ethnically varied data sets including those of Asia has allowed identification of haplotypes that differ only at a single codon in a single locus. As more data become available, the study of pairs of haplotypes which differ at a single polymorphic site, but have different effects on disease susceptibility, should allow more precise definition of the polymorphisms involved in the disease process. PMID:11241886

  15. Susceptibility testing of Propionibacterium acnes comparing agar dilution with E test.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M A; Alperstein, P; France, K; Vellozzi, E M; Isenberg, H D

    1996-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been identified as a significant agent of nosocomial infections, including endophthalmitis. Data concerning susceptibility of P. acnes to newer beta-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones are limited. Recent reports suggest that quinolones have activity against these organisms sufficient to warrant further study. We undertook a study to select appropriate antimicrobial agents for use in a rabbit model of P. acnes endophthalmitis. We compared the antibiotic susceptibilities of P. acnes by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards method of agar dilution with the E test. Thirteen clinical isolates obtained from eye specimens and three American Type Culture Collection control strains were tested against 14 antibiotics. All the clinical isolates were susceptible by both methods to piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ampicillin-sulbactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, cefotaxime, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, and imipenem in addition to clindamycin but were resistant to metronidazole. The clinical P. acnes isolates also displayed high-level susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ofloxacin. Almost all the P. acnes strains demonstrated E-test MICs within 2 dilutions of the MICs observed by the agar dilution method. Those few strains for which discrepancies were noted exhibited E-test susceptibilities three- to fivefold dilutions lower than the agar dilution method susceptibilities but only with ampicillin-sulbactam, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and/or clindamycin. On the basis of our study, all of clinical eye isolates were susceptible to these newer antimicrobial agents and the two methods demonstrated similar susceptibility patterns. PMID:8815076

  16. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-05

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. We note that consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equalmore » to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.« less

  17. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-05

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. We note that consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equal to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.

  18. Susceptibility of treatment-naive hepatitis C virus (HCV) clinical isolates to HCV protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Andrew; Sun, Siu-Chi; Qi, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiaowu; Ku, Karin; Worth, Angela; Wong, Kelly A; Harris, Jeanette; Miller, Michael D; Mo, Hongmei

    2010-12-01

    In order to assess the natural variation in susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors (PIs) among untreated HCV patient samples, the susceptibilities of 39 baseline clinical isolates were determined using a transient-replication assay on a panel of HCV PIs, including two α-ketoamides (VX-950 and SCH-503034) and three macrocyclic inhibitors (MK-7009, ITMN-191, and TMC-435350). Some natural variation in susceptibility to all HCV PIs tested was observed among the baseline clinical isolates. The susceptibility to VX-950 correlated strongly with the susceptibility to SCH-503034. A moderate correlation was observed between the susceptibilities to ITMN-191 and MK-7009. In contrast, the phenotypic correlations between the α-ketoamides and macrocyclic inhibitors were significantly lower. This difference is partly attributable to reduced susceptibility of the HCV variants containing the NS3 polymorphism Q80K (existing in 47% of genotype 1a isolates) to the macrocyclic compounds but no change in the sensitivity of the same variants to the α-ketoamides tested. Our results suggest that the natural variation in baseline susceptibility may contribute to different degrees of antiviral response among patients in vivo, particularly at lower doses. PMID:20855726

  19. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equal to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.

  20. Stone Morphology Suggestive of Randall's Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Traxer, Olivier; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    Randall's plaques are found in a number of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stones developed on a Randall's plaque typically present a small depressed zone ("umbilication") corresponding to the tip of the papilla and containing material detached from the plaque. By examining the morphology and infrared composition of 45,774 calculi referred to our laboratory over the past three decades, we identified 8,916 umbilicated calculi (19.5%). We have selected three periods of time corresponding to the first years of each decade. Over these periods, we analyzed 26,182 consecutive calculi. Among them, we identified 5,401 umbilicated calculi, of which 91.5% had an identifiable plaque. We analyzed the relative prevalence of umbilicated stones over time and the respective composition of Randall's plaque and stones. The proportion of umbilicated stones rose significantly from 10% in period 1 (1978-1984) to 21% in period 2 (1990-1993) and 22.2% in period 3 (2000-2006), with a parallel rise in the prevalence of stones with identifiable Randall's plaque. The main component of plaques was carbapatite in 90.8% of cases, whereas other components such as amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate, sodium hydrogen urate or uric acid were found in other cases. The morphology of plaques made of carbapatite was diverse, as was their carbonate content, thus suggesting variable pathophysiological mechanisms. Stones were made of whewellite as the main component in 51.4% of cases, or admixed with weddellite in 26.8%, predominant weddellite in 12.5% and other components (mainly uric acid) in 7.5% of cases. Our findings confirm that Randall's plaques are made of carbapatite in the great majority of cases, but with the stones more frequently composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (which is associated with hyperoxaluria) than of calcium oxalate dihydrate (associated with hypercalciuria). In conclusion, in our country, stones developed on a carbapatite Randall's plaque are as frequently made of

  1. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27225987

  2. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27225987

  3. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality. PMID:26299061

  4. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  5. Epigenomic elements enriched in the promoters of autoimmunity susceptibility genes.

    PubMed

    Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Wren, Jonathan D; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E

    2014-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of autoimmune disease-susceptibility genes. Whether or not these loci share any regulatory or functional elements, however, is an open question. Finding such common regulators is of considerable research interest in order to define systemic therapeutic targets. The growing amount of experimental genomic annotations, particularly those from the ENCODE project, provide a wealth of opportunities to search for such commonalities. We hypothesized that regulatory commonalities might not only delineate a regulatory landscape predisposing to autoimmune diseases, but also define functional elements distinguishing specific diseases. We further investigated if, and how, disease-specific epigenomic elements can identify novel genes yet to be associated with the diseases. We evaluated transcription factors, histone modifications, and chromatin state data obtained from the ENCODE project for statistically significant over- or under-representation in the promoters of genes associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), and Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). We identified BATF, BCL11A, IRF4, NFkB, PAX5, and PU.1 as transcription factors over-represented in SLE- and RA-susceptibility gene promoters. H3K4me1 and H3K4me2 epigenomic marks were associated with SLE susceptibility genes, and H3K9me3 was common to both SLE and RA. In contrast to a transcriptionally active signature in SLE and RA, SSc-susceptibility genes were depleted in activating epigenomic elements. Using epigenomic elements enriched in SLE and RA, we identified additional immune and B cell signaling-related genes with the same elements in their promoters. Our analysis suggests common and disease-specific epigenomic elements that may define novel therapeutic targets for controlling aberrant activation of autoimmune susceptibility genes. PMID:24213554

  6. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.

    2008-11-25

    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  7. Functional polymorphism in the 5′-UTR of CR2 is associated with susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    FAN, QIN; HE, JUN-FANG; WANG, QI-RUI; CAI, HONG-BING; SUN, XUE-GANG; ZHOU, XIN-XI; QIN, HAI-DE; SHUGART, YIN YAO; JIA, WEI-HUA

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a squamous cell cancer endemic in Southern China and Southeast Asia. It has been shown that inflammatory and immune responses during EBV infection contribute to the development of NPC. The complement receptor 2 (CR2) gene plays central roles during inflammatory and immune responses and, therefore, is a good candidate susceptibility gene for NPC. We performed PCR-based sequencing to identify multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the exon regions of the CR2 gene in a Cantonese population. Two SNPs were screened in 528 NPC patients and 408 normal individuals to perform a case-control study matched according to age, gender and residence. Furthermore, we cloned the entire 5′-UTR and entire CR2 promoter into a luciferase report system and compared the luciferase activities between the different allelic constructs. A SNP in the 5′-UTR of CR2 (24 T/C, rs3813946) showed a significant association (P<0.01) with NPC in the Cantonese population studied. The subjects were categorized into 2 age groups: group 1, age ≤45 years and group 2, age >45 years. In group 1, the allelic frequencies of 24 T/C in the patients were significantly different from those of the controls (P=0.0034). The odds ratio (OR=1.81) also indicated a higher risk of NPC in individuals who carried the minor allele C. All constructs exerted allelic differences on luciferase activities, but only the susceptible allele +24C construct showed increased activity. Our findings implicate CR2 as a susceptibility gene for NPC and suggest that enhanced CR2 expression may be involved in the oncogenesis and development of NPC. PMID:23612877

  8. Cataracts Heavy Ions and Individual Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Worgul, B.; Brenner, D.; Smilenov, L.

    Ocular cataracts represents one of the few legacies of space flight evident in a significant proportion of astronauts X-rays are known to induce cataracts Heavy ions are known to be much more effective per unit dose than gamma -rays The object of this present study was to identify genes that confer individual susceptibility and to estimate RBE values Wild type mice were compared with animals heterozygous for Atm Mrad9 or BRCA1 or animals that were double heterozygotes for pairs of genes Mice were irradiated with x-rays at Columbia University in New York City or with heavy ions 1GeV amu 56 Fe ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory Haploinsufficiency for either Atm or mRAD9 resulted in cataracts appearing earlier than in wild type animals whether exposed to gamma -rays or heavy ions Double heterozygotes were more radiosensitive than animals haploinsufficient for either gene alone Heavy ions were much more effective than x-rays in inducing cataracts of all grades in animals of all genotypes A detailed analysis suggest that the RBE varies to some extent with the genotype of the animal and the cataract grade

  9. Evaluation of SLE Susceptibility Genes in Malaysians

    PubMed Central

    Molineros, Julio E.; Chua, Kek Heng; Sun, Celi; Lian, Lay Hoong; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Kim-Howard, Xana; Nath, Swapan K.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease with strong genetic and environmental components. Our objective was to replicate 25 recently identified SLE susceptibility genes in two distinct populations (Chinese (CH) and Malays (MA)) from Malaysia. We genotyped 347 SLE cases and 356 controls (CH and MA) using the ImmunoChip array and performed an admixture corrected case-control association analysis. Associated genes were grouped into five immune-related pathways. While CH were largely homogenous, MA had three ancestry components (average 82.3% Asian, 14.5% European, and 3.2% African). Ancestry proportions were significantly different between cases and controls in MA. We identified 22 genes with at least one associated SNP (P < 0.05). The strongest signal was at HLA-DRA (PMeta = 9.96 × 10−9; PCH = 6.57 × 10−8, PMA = 6.73 × 10−3); the strongest non-HLA signal occurred at STAT4 (PMeta = 1.67 × 10−7; PCH = 2.88 × 10−6, PMA = 2.99 × 10−3). Most of these genes were associated with B- and T-cell function and signaling pathways. Our exploratory study using high-density fine-mapping suggests that most of the established SLE genes are also associated in the major ethnicities of Malaysia. However, these novel SNPs showed stronger association in these Asian populations than with the SNPs reported in previous studies. PMID:24696779

  10. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10127910

  11. Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

  12. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Isolates of Human and Animal Origin.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Romney M; Wu, Max T; Westblade, Lars F; Robertson, Amy E; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Wallace, Meghan A; Burd, Eileen M; Lawhon, Sara; Hindler, Janet A

    2016-05-01

    MIC results for 115 Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates are presented. Of these, 33% were methicillin resistant, among which 51.4% were susceptible to doxycycline, 29.7% to clindamycin, and 21.6% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All of the isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline, daptomycin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampin, tigecycline, and vancomycin. Of all the isolates, 82.6%, 67.8%, and 23.5% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and penicillin, respectively. No isolates harbored mupA or qacA/B genes, which suggested a lack of resistance to mupirocin or chlorhexidine. PMID:26962087

  13. Arginine depletion increases susceptibility to serious infections in preterm newborns

    PubMed Central

    Badurdeen, Shiraz; Mulongo, Musa; Berkley, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm newborns are highly susceptible to bacterial infections. This susceptibility is regarded as being due to immaturity of multiple pathways of the immune system. However, it is unclear whether a mechanism that unifies these different, suppressed pathways exists. Here, we argue that the immune vulnerability of the preterm neonate is critically related to arginine depletion. Arginine, a “conditionally essential” amino acid, is depleted in acute catabolic states, including sepsis. Its metabolism is highly compartmentalized and regulated, including by arginase-mediated hydrolysis. Recent data suggest that arginase II-mediated arginine depletion is essential for the innate immune suppression that occurs in newborn models of bacterial challenge, impairing pathways critical for the immune response. Evidence that arginine depletion mediates protection from immune activation during first gut colonization suggests a regulatory role in controlling gut-derived pathogens. Clinical studies show that plasma arginine is depleted during sepsis. In keeping with animal studies, small clinical trials of L-arginine supplementation have shown benefit in reducing necrotizing enterocolitis in premature neonates. We propose a novel, broader hypothesis that arginine depletion during bacterial challenge is a key factor limiting the neonate's ability to mount an adequate immune response, contributing to the increased susceptibility to infections, particularly with respect to gut-derived sepsis. PMID:25360828

  14. Pitfalls in statistical landslide susceptibility modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Boris; Vorpahl, Peter; Märker, Michael; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The use of statistical methods is a well-established approach to predict landslide occurrence probabilities and to assess landslide susceptibility. This is achieved by applying statistical methods relating historical landslide inventories to topographic indices as predictor variables. In our contribution, we compare several new and powerful methods developed in machine learning and well-established in landscape ecology and macroecology for predicting the distribution of shallow landslides in tropical mountain rainforests in southern Ecuador (among others: boosted regression trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, maximum entropy). Although these methods are powerful, we think it is necessary to follow a basic set of guidelines to avoid some pitfalls regarding data sampling, predictor selection, and model quality assessment, especially if a comparison of different models is contemplated. We therefore suggest to apply a novel toolbox to evaluate approaches to the statistical modelling of landslide susceptibility. Additionally, we propose some methods to open the "black box" as an inherent part of machine learning methods in order to achieve further explanatory insights into preparatory factors that control landslides. Sampling of training data should be guided by hypotheses regarding processes that lead to slope failure taking into account their respective spatial scales. This approach leads to the selection of a set of candidate predictor variables considered on adequate spatial scales. This set should be checked for multicollinearity in order to facilitate model response curve interpretation. Model quality assesses how well a model is able to reproduce independent observations of its response variable. This includes criteria to evaluate different aspects of model performance, i.e. model discrimination, model calibration, and model refinement. In order to assess a possible violation of the assumption of independency in the training samples or a possible

  15. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Volume 3, Number 2, Summer 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Contents of this issue are as follows: "Suggestopedia: The Use of Music and Suggestion in Learning and Hypermnesia:" by Elizabeth Risova Philipov; "A Two Year Evaluation of the Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching (SALT) Method in Central Iowa Public Schools" by D.H. Schuster and R.A. Prichard; "Improving Lecturer Performance Through…

  16. Natural antimicrobial susceptibilities of Plesiomonas shigelloides strains.

    PubMed

    Stock, I; Wiedemann, B

    2001-12-01

    The natural susceptibility of 74 Plesiomonas shigelloides strains isolated from humans (n = 50), water (n = 22) and animals (n = 2) to 71 antibiotics was examined. MICs were performed using a microdilution procedure with Mueller-Hinton broth and an inoculum of 1 x 10(6) cfu/mL. Plesiomonas strains were naturally susceptible or naturally susceptible and intermediate to tetracyclines, several aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins in combination with beta-lactamase inhibitors, all cephalosporins except cefoperazone, ceftazidime and cefepime, carbapenems, aztreonam, quinolones, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin. Uniform natural resistance was found to all penicillins tested, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, lincosamides, streptogramins, glycopeptides and fusidic acid. Plesiomonas strains were naturally resistant and intermediate to streptomycin, erythromycin and rifampicin. There were two susceptibility patterns to piperacillin/tazobactam, several cephalosporins and aztreonam. In contrast to a previous study with beta-lactam antibiotics, susceptibility testing of non-beta-lactams revealed no alterations of the MICs of most antibiotics, using different inocula and media. A database is described of the natural susceptibility of P. shigelloides strains to a wide range of antibiotics. It can be used for the validation of susceptibility test results of these bacteria. PMID:11733464

  17. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Interstitial Lung Disease Associated with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tochimoto, Akiko; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease that is characterized by tissue fibrosis, microvasculopathy, and autoimmunity. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of SSc and is one of the frequent causes of mortality in SSc. Although the exact etiology of SSc remains unknown, clinical and experimental investigations have suggested that genetic and environmental factors are relevant to the pathogenesis of SSc and SSc-ILD. More than 30 genes have been identified as susceptibility loci for SSc, most of which are involved in immune regulation and inflammation. It is thought that the key pathogenesis of SSc-ILD is caused by the release of profibrotic mediators such as transforming growth factor β1 and connective tissue growth factor from lung cells induced by a persistent damage. This review presents the genetic susceptibility to SSc-ILD, including human leukocyte antigen and non-human leukocyte antigen genes, especially focusing on connective tissue growth factor. PMID:26997879

  19. [Anesthesiologic management of susceptible children at risk for malignant hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F; D'Alessandro, S; Pietrandrea, G; Villani, A

    1997-10-01

    In order to prevent malignant hyperthermia (MH) in children, the authors are currently using a perioperative anaesthetic protocol. In vitro contracture tests with halothane and caffein are performed in selected patients: those with previous signs suggestive of MH, but not severe enough for a definite diagnosis; those with susceptibility to MH in their relatives; those affected by myopathies or other disorders very frequently associated with MH. Even though CK should be considered an unreliable predictor of MH susceptibility, trigger agents are avoided in children with high and constant CK levels. However, prophylactic dantrolene is never employed. In this way, over the last decade no episodes of classic malignant hyperthermia in a large number of children submitted to anaesthesia (more than 50,000) have been observed. PMID:9567608

  20. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    PubMed

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. PMID:24105926

  1. Interferon-Inducible Transmembrane Protein 3 Genetic Variant rs12252 and Influenza Susceptibility and Severity: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xianxian; Tan, Bin; Zhou, Xipeng; Xue, Jian; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Peng; Shao, Chuang; Li, Yingli; Li, Chaorui; Xia, Huiming; Qiu, Jingfu

    2015-01-01

    Background The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus, avian influenza A (H5N1) virus, and influenza A (H7N9) virus induced severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Previous studies suggested a close association between the interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 (IFITM3) genetic variant rs12252 and influenza. Here, we explored the correlation between the rs12252 and influenza susceptibility and severity using meta-analysis. Methods Relevant studies published before May 22, 2014 were retrieved from PubMed, ISI web of knowledge, EBSCO, and Cochrane central register of controlled trials databases. Association between rs12252 and influenza susceptibility and severity were determined using statistical analysis of odds ratios (ORs). Results A total of four studies consisting of 445 cases and 4180 controls were included in our analysis. Generally, there is increased risk of influenza in subjects carrying rs12252 in the recessive model (CC vs. CT+TT: OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.49-3.70, P<0.001), the dominant model (CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.18–2.22, P=0.003), the homozygote comparison (CC vs. TT: OR=4.11, 95% CI: 2.15–7.84, P<0.001), and the allele contrast (C vs. T: OR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.32–2.13, P<0.001). Stratification analysis of ethnicity and severity revealed a significant increase in influenza susceptibility by IFITM3-SNP rs12252 among both Asian and Caucasian population. SNP rs12252 shows significant impact on severe infections (P<0.05), but not on mild influenza. Besides, our result also associated rs12252 with influenza severity (severe vs. mild: OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.32–4.25, P=0.004), (severe vs. control: OR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.85–3.94, P<0.001). Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests a significant association between a minor IFITM3 allele (SNP rs12252-C) with severe influenza susceptibility, but not in mild influenza subjects, in both UK Caucasians and Han Chinese population. The rs12252-C allele causes a 23.7% higher chance of infection and

  2. Aging augments mitochondrial susceptibility to heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Haak, Jodie L.; Buettner, Garry R.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Kregel, Kevin C.

    2009-01-01

    The pathophysiology of aging is accompanied by a decline in tolerance to environmental stress. While mitochondria are primary suspects in the etiology of aging, little is known about their ability to tolerate perturbations to homeostasis in older organisms. To investigate the role of mitochondria in the increased susceptibility to heat stress that accompanies aging, young and old Fischer 344 rats underwent a heat stress protocol known to elicit exaggerated cellular damage with aging. At either 2 or 24 h after heat stress, livers were removed from animals, and hepatic mitochondria were isolated. Electron microscopy revealed extensive morphological damage to mitochondria from young and, to a greater extent, old rats after heat stress. There was also a significant loss of cytochrome c from old, but not young, mitochondria and a persistent increase in 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins in old vs. young mitochondria exposed to heat stress. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of superoxide indicate greater superoxide production from mitochondria of old compared with young animals and suggest that mitochondrial integrity was altered during heat stress. The mitochondrial stress response, which functions to correct stress-induced damage to mitochondrial proteins, was also blunted in old rats. Delayed and reduced levels of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), the main inducible mitochondrial stress protein, were observed in old compared with young mitochondria after heat stress. Additionally, the amount of Hsp10 protein increased in young, but not old, rat liver mitochondria after hyperthermic challenge. Taken together, these data suggest that mitochondria in old animals are more vulnerable to incurring and less able to repair oxidative damage that occurs in response to a physiologically relevant heat stress. PMID:19144753

  3. Coalbed methane reservoir characterization using magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Makhatova, Meruyert; Kalbekov, Arkhat; Baibussinova, Zhanar; Moldagereyeva, Anel

    2016-04-01

    This research describes a study of the dependence of the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and permeability as a new approach for coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir characterization. Experimental measurements were undertaken in coal cores from Kazakhstan (Karaganda Basin). The well sections containing coal are the area of high interest where regular deposition of sandstone, shale and coal is observed. The MS measurements were made by the core logging sensor with the sensitive area of the probe providing volume magnetic susceptibility values. Permeability has been determined by air permeameter. Both magnetic susceptibility and permeability have been measured at the same points. The obtained values of permeability and magnetic susceptibility exhibit the predicted pattern of deposition of reservoir rocks. Coal reservoirs generally is spaced between shale layers with extremely high MS values and highly low permeability. Sandstone with shale interlayers tends to be a transition area between shale and coal. Such tendency appears within several sections. The experimental results showed a strong correspondence between measured magnetic susceptibility and permeability of coal core samples. Therefore, inverse proportionality between magnetic susceptibility and permeability is observed. Generally, the high values of magnetic susceptibility correspond to low permeability, likewise the low diamagnetic MS values comply with high permeability of production zones. In a point of fact, linear proportionality appears as well due to fractures. In this case, permeability must be recalculated in relation to degree of fracturing. Magnetic susceptibility results could sometimes be affected by small content of ferrimagnetic minerals that resulted in high MS values. However, MS data demonstrated good correlations with permeability. The application of magnetic susceptibility values for coalbed methane reservoir characterization could be a non-destructive and rapid method potentially used in both

  4. Extended biofilm susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis isolates: evidence for association between genetic makeup and biofilm susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Melchior, M B; van Osch, M H J; Lam, T J G M; Vernooij, J C M; Gaastra, W; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent causes of bovine mastitis. The antimicrobial treatment of this disease is currently based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards. However, various authors have shown a discrepancy between the results of this standard susceptibility test and the actual cure rate of the applied antimicrobial treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that in vivo biofilm formation by Staph. aureus, which is not assessed in the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, is associated with this problem, resulting in disappointing cure rates, especially for infections of longer duration. Previous data obtained with a limited number of strains showed that the extended biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility (EBS) assay reveals differences between strains, which cannot be derived from a standard susceptibility test or from a 24-h biofilm susceptibility test. The objective of this study was to test a collection of Staph. aureus bovine mastitis strains in the EBS assay and to model the effect of antimicrobial exposure, duration of antimicrobial exposure, and genotype profile of the strains on antimicrobial susceptibility. With the results from a previous study with the same collection of strains, the effect of genotype represented by accessory gene regulator gene (agr-type), the presence of insertional sequence 257 (IS257), intercellular adhesion (ica), and the β-lactamase (blaZ) gene were entered as explanatory factors in a logistic regression model. The agr locus of Staph. aureus controls the expression of most of the virulence factors, represses the transcription of several cell wall-associated proteins, and activates several exoproteins during the post-exponential phase. The IS257 gene has been related to biofilm formation in vitro and was found earlier in 50% of the agr-type 2 strains. The ica gene cluster encodes for the production of an extracellular polysaccharide adhesin, termed

  5. Small-angle neutron scattering of nanocrystalline terbium with random paramagnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Balaji, G; Ghosh, S; Döbrich, F; Eckerlebe, H; Weissmüller, J

    2008-06-01

    We report magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data for the nanocrystalline rare earth metal Terbium in its paramagnetic state. Whereas critical scattering dominates at large momentum transfer, q, the (magnetic-) field response of the scattering at small q arises from the spatial nonuniformity of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor. The finding of an interrelation between SANS and the susceptibility suggests a way for characterizing the nonuniform magnetic interactions in hard magnets by neutron scattering. PMID:18643454

  6. Prion permissive pathways: extracellular matrix genes control susceptibility to prion infection

    PubMed Central

    Imberdis, Thibaut; Harris, David A

    2014-01-01

    There are wide variations in the susceptibility of humans, animals, and cultured cell lines to infection by prions. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Marbiah et al (2014) identified a gene regulatory network that regulates the susceptibility of cultured cells to prion infection. Surprisingly, a number of these genes impact the structure of the extracellular matrix. These results have important implications for understanding mechanisms of prion infection and also suggest new therapeutic targets. PMID:24952893

  7. Quark number susceptibilities, strangeness, and dynamical confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavai, Rajiv V.; Gupta, Sourendu

    2001-10-01

    We report the first results on the strange quark number susceptibility χs over a large range of temperatures, mainly in the plasma phase of QCD. χs jumps across the phase transition temperature Tc and grows rapidly with temperature above but close to Tc. For all quark masses and susceptibilities in the entire temperature range studied, we find a significant departure from ideal-gas values. We also observe a strong correlation between these quantities and the susceptibility in the pseudoscalar channel, supporting ideas of ``dynamical confinement'' in the high temperature phase of the QCD plasma.

  8. Magnetic susceptibility of tetragonal titanium dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Pankey, T.; Grant, F.A.

    1960-01-01

    Careful measurements have been made of the magnetic susceptibility of the rutile and anatase crystalline forms of titanium dioxide. The magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal of high-purity rutile was found to be (0.067??0.0015)??10-6 emu per gram, and was temperature-independent from 55??to 372??K. Difficulty was encountered in obtaining a good value of the magnetic susceptibility of anatase because of impurities. However, a value of 0.02??10-6 emu per gram was obtained as a maximum value for anatase powder. A discussion is given for the different values obtained for anatase and rutile. ?? 1960 The American Physical Society.

  9. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  10. Development of a rubella vaccination strategy: contribution of a rubella susceptibility study of women of childbearing age in Kyrgyzstan, 2001.

    PubMed

    Malakmadze, Naile; Zimmerman, Laura A; Uzicanin, Amra; Shteinke, Luidmila; Caceres, Victor M; Kasymbekova, Kaliya; Sozina, Irina; Glasser, John W; Joldubaeva, Mira; Aidyralieva, Chinara; Icenogle, Joseph P; Strebel, Peter M; Reef, Susan E

    2004-06-15

    To contribute to the development of a rubella vaccination strategy, we conducted a study to determine age-specific susceptibility among women aged 15-39 years by testing for rubella-specific IgG antibodies. Of 964 women, 13% were found to be susceptible to rubella. Significantly higher susceptibility among women >25 years old was observed. Susceptibility data are important but are not sufficient to develop a vaccination strategy. After considering all available information, we suggested vaccination of women aged <35 years and selective vaccination of older women who were planning pregnancy. PMID:15227627

  11. Physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling: geotechnical testing and model evaluation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We used the software r.slope.stability for physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling in the 90 km² Collazzone area, Central Italy, exploiting a comprehensive set of lithological, geotechnical, and landslide inventory data. The model results were evaluated against the inventory. r.slope.stability is a GIS-supported tool for modelling shallow and deep-seated slope stability and slope failure probability at comparatively broad scales. Developed as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software, r.slope.stability evaluates the slope stability for a large number of randomly selected ellipsoidal potential sliding surfaces. The bottom of the soil (for shallow slope stability) or the bedding planes of lithological layers (for deep-seated slope stability) are taken as potential sliding surfaces by truncating the ellipsoids, allowing for the analysis of relatively complex geological structures. To take account for the uncertain geotechnical and geometric parameters, r.slope.stability computes the slope failure probability by testing multiple parameter combinations sampled deterministically or stochastically, and evaluating the ratio between the number of parameter combinations yielding a factor of safety below 1 and the total number of tested combinations. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a slope failure probability. The most critical sliding surface is relevant for each pixel. Intensive use of r.slope.stability in the Collazzone Area has opened up two questions elaborated in the present work: (i) To what extent does a larger number of geotechnical tests help to better constrain the geotechnical characteristics of the study area and, consequently, to improve the model results? The ranges of values of cohesion and angle of internal friction obtained through 13 direct shear tests corresponds remarkably well to the range of values suggested by a geotechnical textbook. We elaborate how far an increased number of

  12. Drug susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    van Ingen, Jakko; Kuijper, Ed J

    2014-01-01

    Diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria are emerging in many settings. With an increased number of patients needing treatment, the role of drug susceptibility testing is again in the spotlight. This articles covers the history and methodology of drug susceptibility tests for nontuberculous mycobacteria, but focuses on the correlations between in vitro drug susceptibility, pharmacokinetics and in vivo outcomes of treatment. Among slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, clear correlations have been established for macrolides and amikacin (Mycobacterium avium complex) and for rifampicin (Mycobacterium kansasii). Among rapid-growing mycobacteria, correlations have been established in extrapulmonary disease for aminoglycosides, cefoxitin and co-trimoxazole. In pulmonary disease, correlations are less clear and outcomes of treatment are generally poor, especially for Mycobacterium abscessus. The clinical significance of inducible resistance to macrolides among rapid growers is an important topic. The true role of drug susceptibility testing for nontuberculous mycobacteria still needs to be addressed, preferably within clinical trials. PMID:25340838

  13. An Inexpensive, Convenient Demonstration of Magnetic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, S. S.; Eaton, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A new, small magnetic susceptibility system is described which can be constructed from commercially available components for less than one hundred dollars for use with a standard laboratory balance. (BB)

  14. DSN RFI susceptibility models development program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    The RFI model development described intended to provide an understanding of the interference susceptibility of DSN receivers. An overview of interference types and effects, analytic modelling and experimental verification is presented.

  15. Parasitic Central Nervous System Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Melanie; Zunt, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Immunosuppression due to therapy after transplantation or associated with HIV infection increases susceptibility to various central nervous system (CNS) infections. This article discusses how immunosuppression modifies the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of selected parasitic CNS infections, with a focus on toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, neurocysticercosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. PMID:15824993

  16. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy: cylindrical symmetry from macroscopically ordered anisotropic molecules and accuracy of MRI measurements using few orientations.

    PubMed

    Wisnieff, Cynthia; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Yi

    2013-04-15

    White matter is an essential component of the central nervous system and is of major concern in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent MRI studies have explored the unique anisotropic magnetic properties of white matter using susceptibility tensor imaging. However, these measurements are inhibited in practice by the large number of different head orientations needed to accurately reconstruct the susceptibility tensor. Adding reasonable constraints reduces the number of model parameters and can help condition the tensor reconstruction from a small number of orientations. The macroscopic magnetic susceptibility is decomposed as a sum of molecular magnetic polarizabilities, demonstrating that macroscopic order in molecular arrangement is essential to the existence of and symmetry in susceptibility anisotropy and cylindrical symmetry is a natural outcome of an ordered molecular arrangement. Noise propagation in the susceptibility tensor reconstruction is analyzed through its condition number, showing that the tensor reconstruction is highly susceptible to the distribution of acquired subject orientations and to the tensor symmetry properties, with a substantial over- or under-estimation of susceptibility anisotropy in fiber directions not favorably oriented with respect to the acquired orientations. It was found that a careful acquisition of three non-coplanar orientations and the use of cylindrical symmetry guided by diffusion tensor imaging allowed reasonable estimation of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in certain major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:23296181

  17. Interleukin-10 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Tuberculosis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuan; Chen, Junjun; Tong, Zhongkai; Yang, Guangdie; Yao, Yinan; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Objective As an update to other recent meta-analyses, the purpose of this study was to explore whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms and their haplotypes contribute to tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility. Methods We searched for published case-control studies examining IL-10 polymorphisms and TB in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Wanfang databases and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strengths of the associations. Results A total of 28 studies comprising 8,242 TB patients and 9,666 controls were included in the present study. There were no significant associations between the -1082G/A, -819C/T, and -592A/C polymorphisms and TB in the pooled samples. Subgroup analyses revealed that the -819T allele was associated with an increased TB risk in Asians in all genetic models (T vs. C: OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.05-1.29, P=0.003; TT vs. CC: OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.09-1.72, P=0.006; CT+TT vs. CC: OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.09-1.63, P=0.006; TT vs. CT+CC: OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.02-1.35, P=0.03) and that the -592A/C polymorphism was significantly associated with TB in Europeans under two genetic models (A vs. C: OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.60-0.98, P=0.03; AA vs. CC: OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.30-0.95, P=0.03). Furthermore, the GCC IL-10 promoter haplotype was associated with an increased risk of TB (GCC vs. others: P=1.42, 95% CI=1.02-1.97, P=0.04). Subgroup analyses based on ethnicity revealed that the GCC haplotype was associated with a higher risk of TB in Europeans, whereas the ACC haplotype was associated with a lower TB risk in both Asians and Europeans. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the IL-10-819T/C polymorphism is associated with the risk of TB in Asians and that the IL-10-592A/C polymorphism may be a risk factor for TB in Europeans. Furthermore, these data indicate that IL-10 promoter haplotypes play a vital role in the susceptibility to or protection

  18. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  19. Central and peripheral residual vision in humans with bilateral deprivation amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Mioche, L; Perenin, M T

    1986-01-01

    Residual visual capacities were investigated in the central and peripheral visual fields of 13 patients with bilateral deprivation amblyopia secondary to congenital cataracts removed at an early age. In comparison with a control group of normal subjects, spatial modulation sensitivity function of the amblyopes was markedly impaired in each experimental condition, i.e. both when the stimuli were stationary or drifting (8 Hz) gratings and both in central or peripheral visual field, at 10 and 20 degrees eccentricity. The sensitivity drop was observed over the whole spatial frequency range, although it was much more severe at high frequencies. Threshold elevation, with respect to controls, was very similar in conditions using stationary or drifting gratings, suggesting that both sustained and transient mechanisms are affected by stimulus deprivation amblyopia. Temporal modulation sensitivity function was uniformly impaired over the whole temporal frequency range. When compared with other types of amblyopia, this pattern of spatiotemporal sensitivity loss appeared characteristic of deprivation amblyopia. The peripheral deficit was particularly striking by its severity and extent, as ascertained by static perimetry and visual acuity measurements up to 50 degrees eccentricity. This finding emphasizes the susceptibility of peripheral as well as central human vision to early deprivation and suggests that peripheral visual functions are still immature in newborns. Finally, the overall deficit varied with the severity of the deprivation, in that patients with complete neonatal cataract performed much worse than those with incomplete cataract. PMID:3709711

  20. Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene) alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene) alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same interval as the

  1. Comparative susceptibility of Deschutes River, Oregon, Tubifex tubifex populations to Myxobolus cerebralis.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Christopher M; Lorz, Harriet V; Hallett, Sascha L; Xue, Lan; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2011-03-01

    Dams along the Deschutes River (DR) in central Oregon have blocked fish migration for over 40 years. Reestablishment of anadromous fish runs above the dams as part of a fish passage plan may introduce fish pathogens, such as Myxobolus cerebralis, the myxozoan parasite that causes salmonid whirling disease. This parasite is carried by adult salmon that stray into the DR system during their return to enzootic areas of the upper Columbia River basin, and it is now known to be established in at least one lower DR tributary. The life cycle of M. cerebralis involves two obligate hosts: a salmonid and the oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex. To determine the likelihood of parasite establishment above the DR dams, we conducted benthic sediment surveys between 1999 and 2007 and found that T. tubifex had a patchy distribution and low relative abundance. Mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene analysis indicated that two lineages of T. tubifex (III and VI) were present both above and below the dams. Laboratory susceptibility studies to characterize differences in infection prevalence and parasite production between nine T. tubifex populations revealed that production varied considerably among exposed groups and was proportional to the number of lineage III worms present. Our results suggest that M. cerebralis could become established above the dams if infected fish are allowed passage into the upper DR system, but not all areas of the DR basin can be classified as having the same likelihood for parasite establishment, and the potential impact will be location dependent. PMID:21699131

  2. Broadband soil susceptibility measurements for EMI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Michael; Scott, Waymond R.

    2013-03-01

    When seeking low-metal targets, the success rate of an electromagnetic induction (EMI) system is often determined by the susceptibility of the soil near the object. In this paper, we begin the process of characterizing a random soil in terms of its effect on EMI sensor readings. After providing a brief review of the theory behind how soil susceptibilities affect EMI measurements, we measure the susceptibilities of 43 samples of soil from the United States, Puerto Rico, Iraq, and Afghanistan using a custom susceptibility sensor. We define a set of metrics and give the distribution of values for how magnetically active the soils are, how dispersive they are, and how well the commonly used log model fits to their susceptibility as a function of frequency. All measurements taken in the study are consistent with the log model of susceptibility if one accounts for the noise floor of the sensor. The sensor used for the measurements is described briefly and validated using a set of magnetic salts.

  3. An updated systematic review of the role of host genetics in susceptibility to influenza.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter; Nguyen, Nhu Y; Dunstan, Sarah J; Baillie, John Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    The World Health Organization has identified studies of the role of host genetics on susceptibility to severe influenza as a priority. A systematic review was conducted in June 2011 to summarise the evidence on the role of host genetics in susceptibility to influenza, and this report updates that previously published review. Animal studies suggest that genetic control of susceptibility to severe influenza in mice is complex and not controlled by a single locus, but there is encouraging evidence that some of the host genetic determinants of susceptibility to severe disease may be common across influenza subtypes. Although a number of studies on genetic susceptibility to influenza in humans have been published recently, all are underpowered and unreplicated, so do not provide robust statistical evidence of an association between the identified genetic loci and susceptibility. One study does however present convincing functional evidence for an important role for IFITM3 in susceptibility to severe influenza in mice, and some evidence that this may also be important in human A/H1N1/pdm2009 infection. PMID:24034482

  4. Stages of smoking acquisition versus susceptibility as predictors of smoking initiation in adolescents in primary care.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minnie; Hollis, Jack; Polen, Michael; Lapidus, Jodi; Austin, Donald

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated whether susceptibility, the stages of smoking acquisition, and socio-environmental factors can identify adolescents who will become smokers. Our data came from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to prevent adolescent smoking. Subjects were adolescents (n=1955) ages 14-17 being seen for routine medical care. The dependent variable was 30-day smoking status at 2-year follow-up (89.6% response rate). Independent variables included susceptibility, the stages of acquisition, and socio-environmental factors. Susceptible adolescents were two to three times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible adolescents. Compared to acquisition precontemplators, acquisition contemplators were three to five times more likely, and acquisition preparers were five to eight times more likely, to be smokers. When combined into a single measure, susceptible precontemplators were two times, contemplators were six times, and preparers were nine times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible precontemplators. Our findings suggest that acquisition stage and susceptibility can independently predict smoking onset. They may be used together to target teens for smoking prevention efforts in the clinical setting. PMID:15925127

  5. Susceptibilities of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Luttrell, R G; Young, S Y

    2006-02-01

    Susceptibilities of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) to Cry1Ac were measured via a diet-incorporated assay with MPV II at the University of Arkansas during 2002-2004. Lethal concentration-mortality (LC50) estimates of five laboratory, seven laboratory-cross, and 10 field populations of H. virescens varied 12-fold. Pooled susceptibilities of H. virescens across all laboratory and field populations varied five-fold. The LC50 estimates for H. virescens were higher than those reported by previous research before the introduction of transgenic crops. However, the ratio of susceptibility of laboratory and field populations was similar, suggesting no change in overall species susceptibility. Individual LC50 estimates of five laboratory, nine laboratory-cross, and 57 field populations of H. zea varied over 130-fold. Pooled susceptibilities across laboratory and field populations varied widely. Among the field populations, colonies from non-Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops were generally more susceptible than those from Bt crops. Across the Bt crops expressing Cry protein, colonies from Bollgard (Monsanto Company) cotton had lower susceptibility to CrylAc than those from Bt corn and those from non-Bt crops. PMID:16573337

  6. Network Analysis of Human Genes Influencing Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lipner, Ettie M.; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Strong, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections constitute a high burden of pulmonary disease in humans, resulting in over 1.5 million deaths per year. Building on the premise that genetic factors influence the instance, progression, and defense of infectious disease, we undertook a systems biology approach to investigate relationships among genetic factors that may play a role in increased susceptibility or control of mycobacterial infections. We combined literature and database mining with network analysis and pathway enrichment analysis to examine genes, pathways, and networks, involved in the human response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. This approach allowed us to examine functional relationships among reported genes, and to identify novel genes and enriched pathways that may play a role in mycobacterial susceptibility or control. Our findings suggest that the primary pathways and genes influencing mycobacterial infection control involve an interplay between innate and adaptive immune proteins and pathways. Signaling pathways involved in autoimmune disease were significantly enriched as revealed in our networks. Mycobacterial disease susceptibility networks were also examined within the context of gene-chemical relationships, in order to identify putative drugs and nutrients with potential beneficial immunomodulatory or anti-mycobacterial effects. PMID:26751573

  7. Human genetic susceptibility and infection with Leishmania peruviana

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.A.; Davis, C.R.; Collins, A.

    1995-11-01

    Racial differences, familial clustering, and murine studies are suggestive of host genetic control of Leishmania infections. Complex segregation analysis has been carried out by use of the programs POINTER and COMDS and data from a total population survey, comprising 636 nuclear families, from an L. perurviana endemic area. The data support genetic components controlling susceptibility to clinical leishmaniasis, influencing severity of disease and resistance to disease among healthy individuals. A multifactorial model is favored over a sporadic model. Two-locus models provided the best fit to the data, the optimal model being a recessive gene (frequency .57) plus a modifier locus. Individuals infected at an early age and with recurrent lesions are genetically more susceptible than those infected with a single episode of disease at a later age. Among people with no lesions, those with a positive skin-test response are genetically less susceptible than those with a negative response. The possibility of the involvement of more than one gene together with environmental effects has implications for the design of future linkage studies. 31 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Mycobacterium abscessus in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Shinok; Park, Eun Mi; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung; Chang, Chulhun L.; Lew, Woo Jin; Park, Young Kil

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is the second most common etiology of pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in Korea. Although antimicrobial susceptibility tests are important for appropriate patient management in M. abscessus lung disease, the tests have never been investigated in Korea. Seventy-four isolates of M. abscessus recovered from patient respiratory samples were tested against eight antimicrobial agents following the guidelines set forth by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Of the parenteral antibiotics, amikacin (99%, 73/74) and cefoxitin (99%, 73/74) were active against most isolates. Imipenem (55%, 36/66) and tobramycin (36%, 27/74) had activity against moderate number of isolates. Of the oral antibiotics, clarithromycin (91%, 67/74) was active against the majority of isolates. Moxifloxacin (73%, 54/74) and ciprofloxacin (57%, 42/74) had activity against a moderate number of isolates. Doxycycline was the least active, inhibiting only 7% (5/74) of isolates. In conclusion, the variations in susceptibility within M. abscessus isolates to currently available antimicrobials suggest that the antimicrobial susceptibilities of any clinically significant M. abscessus isolate be needed individually. PMID:18303198

  9. Divergent nematic susceptibility of optimally doped Fe-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jiun-Haw; Kuo, Hsueh-Hui; Fisher, Ian

    2015-03-01

    By performing differential elastoresistivity measurements on a wider range of iron based superconductors, including electron doped (Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2, Ba(Fe1-xNix)2As2),holedoped(Ba1-xKxFe2As2), isovalent substituted pnictides (BaFe2(As1-xPx)2) and chalcogenides (FeTe1-xSex), we show that a divergent nematic susceptibility in the B2g symmetry channel appears to be a generic feature of optimally doped compositions. For the specific case of optimally ``doped'' BaFe2(As1-xPx)2, the nematic susceptibility can be well fitted by a Curie-Weiss temperature dependence with critical temperature close to zero, consistent with expectations of quantum critical behavior in the absence of disorder. However for all the other optimal doped iron based superconductors, the nematic susceptibility exhibits a downward deviation from Curie-Weiss behavior, suggestive of an important role played by disorder.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and beta-lactamase characterization of Capnocytophaga species.

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, D L; Zemcov, S J; Thornber, D; Wise, R; Clarke, A M

    1992-01-01

    Capnocytophaga species have been associated with a wide variety of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. On the basis of data from antimicrobial susceptibility studies, beta-lactam antibiotics have been considered efficacious therapy. Six of 19 isolates from primarily clinical sources across Canada demonstrated beta-lactamase production, and agar dilution susceptibility testing showed broad resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. For the beta-lactamase producing isolates, clavulanate reduced the MIC of amoxicillin for 90% of the strains tested by 64-fold. Isolates were highly susceptible to clindamycin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin. Characterization of the beta-lactamases produced by two of these isolates (Van1 and Van2) was performed. Isoelectric focusing revealed an identical isoelectric point of 5.6 for both enzymes, but they had markedly different relative hydrolysis efficiencies, and different conditions were required to extract the enzymes. This study demonstrates the production of different types of beta-lactamases by Capnocytophaga spp. and suggests the need to screen all clinical isolates of Capnocytophaga spp. for the presence of beta-lactamases. PMID:1444299

  11. Population genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: founder mutations to genomes.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, William D; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Turnbull, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The current standard model for identifying carriers of high-risk mutations in cancer-susceptibility genes (CSGs) generally involves a process that is not amenable to population-based testing: access to genetic tests is typically regulated by health-care providers on the basis of a labour-intensive assessment of an individual's personal and family history of cancer, with face-to-face genetic counselling performed before mutation testing. Several studies have shown that application of these selection criteria results in a substantial proportion of mutation carriers being missed. Population-based genetic testing has been proposed as an alternative approach to determining cancer susceptibility, and aims for a more-comprehensive detection of mutation carriers. Herein, we review the existing data on population-based genetic testing, and consider some of the barriers, pitfalls, and challenges related to the possible expansion of this approach. We consider mechanisms by which population-based genetic testing for cancer susceptibility could be delivered, and suggest how such genetic testing might be integrated into existing and emerging health-care structures. The existing models of genetic testing (including issues relating to informed consent) will very likely require considerable alteration if the potential benefits of population-based genetic testing are to be fully realized. PMID:26483301

  12. Smartphone-based Data Acquisition for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Park, H. D.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to suggest a smartphone application for collecting geological data in the assessment process of landslide susceptibility. Spatial and geological information collection is the most crucial part in risk assessment while the evaluation of large area is often conducted using geographic information system (GIS). GIS-based landslide susceptibility assessment requires large database to ensure the reliability of analyses. The digitalized collection tool can help its users obtaining precise measurements and reducing time for the data collection process. In this study, the mobile application which measures structural information from inbuilt sensors and accepts various data types had been developed. It can collect the triggering factors that promote or inhibit the hazard occurrence in the training domain areas. The database includes various spatial information such as slope, aspect, joint set and their coordinates, as well as hazard inventory. Collected geospatial datasets with smartphone application can be applied to a series of geospatial processes regarding the assessment of the landslide susceptibility.

  13. Susceptibility of irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells to injury

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, M.H.; Dong, Q.; Ts'ao, C.

    1988-11-01

    Using cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), the authors attempted to determine whether prior irradiation would alter the susceptibility of these cells to three known injurious stimuli and, if so, whether the alteration would be related to radiation dose. BAEC were irradiated with 0, 5, or 10 Gy of gamma rays and, on the third postirradiation day, exposed to fibrin, nicotine, or bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Release of prelabeled 51Cr, representing cell lysis, cell detachment, or a combination of the two, was determined. Significant differences between irradiated and control cells were determined by using paired Student's t-tests. Irradiation did not appear to have altered the sensitivity of BAEC to fibrin-induced injury. Cells irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays, but generally not those irradiated with half this dose, showed a heightened susceptibility to nicotine. Contrary to the nicotine results, irradiated cells showed less cell detachment and lysis after exposure to LPS. These results suggest that the susceptibility of irradiated BAEC to harmful stimuli depends largely on the nature of the stimulus as well as the radiation dose.

  14. Awareness of Cancer Susceptibility Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Phuong L.; Vadaparampil, Susan Thomas; Breen, Nancy; McNeel, Timothy S.; Wideroff, Louise; Graubard, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic testing for several cancer susceptibility syndromes is clinically available; however, existing data suggest limited population awareness of such tests. Purpose To examine awareness regarding cancer genetic testing in the U.S. population aged ≥25 years in the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Methods The weighted percentages of respondents aware of cancer genetic tests, and percent changes from 2000–2005 and 2005–2010, overall and by demographic, family history, and healthcare factors were calculated. Interactions were used to evaluate the patterns of change in awareness between 2005 and 2010 among subgroups within each factor. To evaluate associations with awareness in 2005 and 2010, percentages were adjusted for covariates using multiple logistic regression. The analysis was performed in 2012. Results Awareness decreased from 44.4% to 41.5% (p<0.001) between 2000 and 2005, and increased to 47.0% (p<0.001) in 2010. Awareness increased between 2005 and 2010 in most subgroups, particularly among individuals in the South (p-interaction=0.03) or with a usual place of care (p-interaction=0.01). In 2005 and 2010, awareness was positively associated with personal or family cancer history and high perceived cancer risk, and inversely associated with racial/ethnic minorities, age 25–39 or ≥60 years, male gender, lower education and income levels, public or no health insurance, and no provider contact in 12 months. Conclusions Despite improvement from 2005 to 2010, ≤50% of the U.S. adult population was aware of cancer genetic testing in 2010. Notably, disparities persist for racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with limited health care access or income. PMID:24745633

  15. The Video Suggestibility Scale for Children: how generalizable is children's performance to other measures of suggestibility?

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Felicity; Powell, Martine B

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the generalizability of the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which was developed by Scullin and colleagues (Scullin & Ceci, 2001; Scullin & Hembrooke, 1998) as a tool for discriminating among children (aged three to five years) who have different levels of suggestibility. The VSSC consists of two subscales; Yield (a measure of children's willingness to acquiesce to misleading questions) and Shift (a measure of children's tendency to change their responses after feedback from the interviewer). Children's (N = 77) performance on each of the subscales was compared with their performance using several other measures of suggestibility. These measures included children's willingness to assent to a false event as well as the number of false interviewer suggestions and false new details that the children provided when responding to cued-recall questions about an independent true-biased and an independent false (non-experienced) event. An independent samples t-test revealed that those children who assented to the false event generated higher scores on the Yield measure. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that Yield was a significant predictor of the number of false details reported about the false activity, but not the true-biased activity. There was no significant relationship between the Shift subscale and any of the dependent variables. The potential contribution of the VSSC for forensic researchers and practitioners is discussed. PMID:12465135

  16. Retrieval Can Increase or Decrease Suggestibility Depending on How Memory Is Tested: The Importance of Source Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.; Wilford, Miko M.; Hughes, Katharine L.

    2012-01-01

    Taking an intervening test between learning episodes can enhance later source recollection. Paradoxically, testing can also increase people's susceptibility to the misinformation effect--a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES, Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). We conducted three experiments to examine this apparent contradiction.…

  17. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidarieh, Parvin; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Bostanabad, Saeed Zaker; Nobar, Mostafa Ghalami; Hashemi Shahraki, Abodolrazagh

    2016-03-01

    Many species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have long been identified as important causes of human disease, the incidence of which is rising. Several reports have suggested increasing trend of both in vitro and in vivo resistance to available treatment regimes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic susceptibility of clinically relevant NTM isolates using standard microbroth dilution test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methods for NTM isolates, including 85 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 39 Mycobacterium chelonae, and 30 Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus as rapidly growing mycobacteria and 48 Mycobacterium simiae and 40 Mycobacterium kansasii as slowly growing mycobacteria. All isolates were recovered from various types of clinical samples and identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ), amikacin, tobramycin, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, and imipenem showed better activity against M. fortuitum rather than meropenem, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, and doxycycline. Amikacin was active against 93% of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus. Linezolid, clarithromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, TMP-SMZ, doxycycline, and meropenem showed some activities on M. abscessus subsp. abscessus as well. The majority of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. chelonae strains were multidrug resistant. Among the 40 isolates of M. kansasii, all were susceptible to ethambutol, isoniazid, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, and linezolid. These isolates were also resistant to doxycycline and 50% were resistant to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin. M. simiae was resistant to clarithromycin, doxycycline, isoniazid, and TMP-SMZ, and the majority of isolates showed high levels of resistance to linezolid, ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and rifampicin. The majority of M. simiae isolates were multidrug resistant. Our data

  18. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellugi, Dino; Dietrich, William E.; Stock, Jonathan D.; McKean, Jim; Kazian, Brian; Hargrove, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so it has generated downscaled precipitation maps for the storm. To predict the corresponding pattern of shallow landslide susceptibility across the state, we have used the model Shalstab (a coupled steady state runoff and infinite slope stability model) which susceptibility spatially explicit estimates of relative potential instability. Such slope stability models that include the effects of subsurface runoff on potentially destabilizing pore pressure evolution require water routing and hence the definition of upslope drainage area to each potential cell. To calculate drainage area efficiently over a large area we developed a parallel framework to scale-up Shalstab and specifically introduce a new efficient parallel drainage area algorithm which produces seamless results. The single seamless shallow landslide susceptibility map for all of California was accomplished in a short run time, and indicates that much larger areas can be efficiently modelled. As landslide maps generally over predict the extent of instability for any given storm. Local empirical data on the fraction of predicted unstable cells that failed for observed rainfall intensity can be used to specify the likely extent of hazard for a given storm. This suggests that campaigns to collect local precipitation data and detailed shallow landslide location maps after major storms could be used to calibrate models and improve their use in hazard assessment for individual storms.

  19. Sex-Specific Differences in Pathogen Susceptibility in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R.; Mehmann, Marion M.; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels. PMID:24465518

  20. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Mehmann, Marion M; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels. PMID:24465518

  1. Rapid multi-orientation quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    PubMed

    Bilgic, Berkin; Xie, Luke; Dibb, Russell; Langkammer, Christian; Mutluay, Aysegul; Ye, Huihui; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Augustinack, Jean; Liu, Chunlei; Wald, Lawrence L; Setsompop, Kawin

    2016-01-15

    Three-dimensional gradient echo (GRE) is the main workhorse sequence used for susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). Achieving optimal phase signal-to-noise ratio requires late echo times, thus necessitating a long repetition time (TR). Combined with the large encoding burden of whole-brain coverage with high resolution, this leads to increased scan time. Further, the dipole kernel relating the tissue phase to the underlying susceptibility distribution undersamples the frequency content of the susceptibility map. Scans at multiple head orientations along with calculation of susceptibility through multi-orientation sampling (COSMOS) are one way to effectively mitigate this issue. Additionally, STI requires a minimum of 6 head orientations to solve for the independent tensor elements in each voxel. The requirements of high-resolution imaging with long TR at multiple orientations substantially lengthen the acquisition of COSMOS and STI. The goal of this work is to dramatically speed up susceptibility mapping at multiple head orientations. We demonstrate highly efficient acquisition using 3D-GRE with Wave-CAIPI and dramatically reduce the acquisition time of these protocols. Using R=15-fold acceleration with Wave-CAIPI permits acquisition per head orientation in 90s at 1.1mm isotropic resolution, and 5:35min at 0.5mm isotropic resolution. Since Wave-CAIPI fully harnesses the 3D spatial encoding capability of receive arrays, the maximum g-factor noise amplification remains below 1.30 at 3T and 1.12 at 7T. This allows a 30-min exam for STI with 12 orientations, thus paving the way to its clinical application. PMID:26277773

  2. Calcium handling by platelets from normal and malignant hyperthermia-susceptible pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.E.; Brooks, R.R.; Bonk, K.R.; Carpenter, J.F. )

    1991-01-01

    Platelets from normal and malignant hyperthermia (MH)-susceptible pigs were evaluated for differences in {sup 45}calcium uptake in the absence or presence of caffeine, halothane, or halothane and caffeine together. There were no statistically significant differences in basal or halothane-inhibited calcium uptake by platelets from either source. There was a small statistically significant difference in calcium uptake between platelets from normal and MH-susceptible pigs in the presence of 16 mM caffeine and 0.5% halothane. Calcium uptake by platelets from one pedigree of MH-susceptible pigs were stimulated in a concentration-dependent manner by caffeine. These data suggest that exposure of platelets to caffeine may have potential for identifying MH-susceptibility.

  3. Discovery of six new susceptibility loci and analysis of pleiotropic effects in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Irwanto, Astrid; Fu, Xi'an; Yu, Gongqi; Yu, Yongxiang; Sun, Yonghu; Wang, Chuan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Okada, Yukinori; Low, Huiqi; Li, Yi; Liany, Herty; Chen, Mingfei; Bao, Fangfang; Li, Jinghui; You, Jiabao; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Jian; Chu, Tongsheng; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Wang, Na; Niu, Guiye; Liu, Dianchang; Yu, Xiulu; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Hongqing; Zhou, Guizhi; Rotzschke, Olaf; Chen, Shumin; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Furen

    2015-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of several susceptibility loci for leprosy with robust evidence, providing biological insight into the role of host genetic factors in mycobacterial infection. However, the identified loci only partially explain disease heritability, and additional genetic risk factors remain to be discovered. We performed a 3-stage GWAS of leprosy in the Chinese population using 8,313 cases and 16,017 controls. Besides confirming all previously published loci, we discovered six new susceptibility loci, and further gene prioritization analysis of these loci implicated BATF3, CCDC88B and CIITA-SOCS1 as new susceptibility genes for leprosy. A systematic evaluation of pleiotropic effects demonstrated a high tendency for leprosy susceptibility loci to show association with autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases. Further analysis suggests that molecular sensing of infection might have a similar pathogenic role across these diseases, whereas immune responses have discordant roles in infectious and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25642632

  4. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. PMID:27181059

  5. Bayesian multinomial probit modeling of daily windows of susceptibility for maternal PM2.5 exposure and congenital heart defects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past epidemiologic studies suggest maternal ambient air pollution exposure during critical periods of the pregnancy is associated with fetal development. We introduce a multinomial probit model that allows for the joint identification of susceptible daily periods during the pregn...

  6. SPECIES SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DELAYED TOXIC NEUROPATHY IN RELATION TO IN VIVO INHIBITION OF NEUROTOXIC ESTERASE BY NEUROTOXIC ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) and O-ethyl O-(4-cyanophenyl) phenylphosphonothioate (cyanofenphos, Surecide) were found to be delayed neurotoxicants. The results suggest that the differences between chickens and mice in susceptibility to neurotoxic organophosphates may be attribut...

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    suggested that during first days in anaerobic conditions the susceptibility changes with time. The results demonstrate that assessing effects of antimicrobial treatments on resistance in the host’s enteric bacteria that are Gram negative facultative Anaerobe Bacilli requires data on the bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility in the conditions resembling those in the intestine. PMID:27191612

  8. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal PMID:23088621

  9. Chinese hyper-susceptibility to vection-induced motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert M.; Hu, Senqi; Leblanc, Ree; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1993-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that control individual differences in susceptible to motion sickness. A serendipitous observation in our laboratory that most Chinese subjects become motion sick prompted this study. We used a rotating optokinetic drum to provoke motion sickness and compared gastric responses and symptom reports of Chinese, European-American, and African-American subjects. There was no difference in the responses of European-American and African-American subjects; however, Chinese subjects showed significantly greater disturbances in gastric activity and reported significantly more severe symptoms. We suggest that this hypersusceptibility presents a natural model for the study of physiological mechanisms of nausea and other symptoms of motion sickness.

  10. Transition in magnetic fabric types in progressively deformed, fine-grained sedimentary rocks of Central Armorica (Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerinck, Tom; Hirt, Ann M.; Debacker, Timothy N.; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of progressively deformed, fine-grained sedimentary rocks is determined for different tectonometamorphic settings in Central Armorica (Brittany, France). Low-temperature AMS and high-field torque magnetometry on a representative selection of samples indicate that the magnetic fabric is dominantly paramagnetic and the ferromagnetic (s.l.) contribution can be neglected. The AMS documents a progressive transition of intermediate fabrics to tectonic fabrics and increasingly stronger developed tectonic fabrics. An integrated magnetic-mineralogical approach is performed in order to assess whether we can use this evolution as a quantitative indicator for the intensity of cleavage development in Central Armorica. During the magnetic fabric transition, the maximum susceptibility axis (K1) remains stationary oriented parallel to the bedding - cleavage intersection, whereas the minimum susceptibility axis (K3) orientation distribution changes from a moderate girdle distribution in the intermediate fabric types, to a strongly clustered distribution parallel to the cleavage pole for the tectonic fabric types. A Woodcock two-axis ratio plot is used to evaluate this change in K3 distribution. This shows a regional pattern with intermediate fabrics in the southern part of Central Armorica and tectonic fabrics in the northern part of Central Armorica. Quantitative analysis of the observed magnetic fabrics shows that the fabric transition described above is accompanied by an evolution from prolate susceptibility ellipsoids with a relatively low degree of anisotropy to oblate ellipsoid with an increasingly higher degree of anisotropy. In a graph of the shape parameter T against the corrected degree of anisotropy PJ, this evolution has a hockey-stick shaped pattern with the vertical branch reflecting the actual transition from intermediate to tectonic fabric type and the horizontal branch reflecting progressively stronger developed

  11. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events. PMID:23362807

  12. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    PubMed

    Pashut, Tamar; Wolfus, Shuki; Friedman, Alex; Lavidor, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Yeshurun, Yosef; Korngreen, Alon

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS) with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS. PMID:21455288

  13. Magnetic susceptibility tensor and heme contact shifts determinations in the Rhodobacter capsulatus ferricytochrome c': NMR and magnetic susceptibility studies.

    PubMed

    Tsan, P; Caffrey, M; Daku, M L; Cusanovich, M; Marion, D; Gans, P

    2001-03-14

    The 1H and 15N resonances of the carbon monoxide complex of ferrocytochrome c' of Rhodobacter capsulatus, a ferrous diamagnetic heme protein, have been extensively assigned by TOCSY-HSQC, NOESY-HSQC, and HSQC-NOESY-HSQC 3D heteronuclear experiments performed on a 7 mM sample labeled with 15N. Based on short-range and medium-range NOEs and H(N) exchange rates, the secondary structure consists of four helices: helix 1 (3-29), helix 2 (33-48), helix 3 (78-101), and helix 4 (103-125). The 15N, 1HN, and 1H(alpha) chemical shifts of the CO complex form are compared to those of the previously assigned oxidized (or ferric) state. From the chemical shift differences between these redox states, the orientation and the anisotropy of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor have been determined using the crystallographic coordinates of the ferric state. The chi-tensor is axial, and the orientation of the z-axis is approximately perpendicular to the heme plane. The paramagnetic chemical shifts of the protons of the heme ligand have been determined and decomposed into the Fermi shift and dipolar shift contributions. Magnetic susceptibility studies in frozen solutions have been performed. Fits of the susceptibility data using the model of Maltempo (Maltempo, M. M. J. Chem. Phys. 1974, 61, 2540-2547) are consistent with a rather low contribution of the S = 3/2 spin state over the range of temperatures and confirm the value of the axial anisotropy. Values in the range 10.4-12.5 cm(-1) have been inferred for the axial zero-field splitting parameter (D). Analysis of the contact shift and the susceptibility data suggests that cytochrome c' of Rb. capsulatus exhibits a predominant high-spin character of the iron in the oxidized state at room temperature. PMID:11456869

  14. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context.

    PubMed

    Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts - be they positive or negative - such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  15. Antianaerobic Antimicrobials: Spectrum and Susceptibility Testing

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, Hannah M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. PMID:23824372

  16. Susceptibility to motion sickness among Skylab astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Miller, E. F., II; Homick, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanisms causing susceptibility to motion sickness in zero gravity are not well understood. Preflight and postflight motion sickness susceptibility tests conducted on the three Skylab crews are described. Under operational conditions, the first Skylab crew experienced no motion sickness, while the other two crews did. Susceptibility was greater in the Skylab workshop than in the command module. Weightlessness in itself is a unique motion environment. Changes occur in nonrigid body parts and in the response of macular receptors in the otolith organs. Tests in parabolic flight, where zero gravity is the only significant factor in motion sickness susceptibility, indicate that some people need to adapt to weightlessness and others do not. A comparison of all US and Soviet manned missions indicates that a headward shift of fluid on transition to zero gravity is not a predisposing factor in motion sickness. Under certain conditions after adaptation susceptibility was lower in the Skylab workshop than on the ground. The anti-motion sickness drugs used in Skylab are judged effective for prevention and treatment.

  17. Optimal magnetic susceptibility matching in 3D.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feng; Kumar, Rajesh; Korvink, Jan G

    2013-04-01

    When an object is inserted into the strong homogeneous magnetic field of a magnetic resonance magnet, its intrinsic relative susceptibility can cause unwanted local magnetic field inhomogeneities in the space surrounding the object. As is known, this effect can be partially countered by selectively adding material layers with opposing sign in susceptibility to the part. The determination of an optimal magnetic susceptibility distribution is an inverse problem, in which the susceptibility-induced inhomogeneity of the magnetic field inside a region of interest is reduced by redistributing the placement of materials in the design domain. This article proposes an efficient numerical topology optimization method for obtaining an optimal magnetic susceptibility distribution, in particular, for which the induced spatial magnetic field inhomogeneity is minimized. Using a material density function as a design variable, the value of the magnetic field inside a computational domain is determined using a finite element method. The first-order sensitivity of the objective function is calculated using an adjoint equation method. Numerical examples on a variety of design domain geometries illustrate the effectiveness of the optimization method. The method is of specific interest for the design of interventional magnetic resonance devices. It is a particularly useful method if passive shimming of magnetic resonance equipment is aimed for. PMID:22576319

  18. Antianaerobic antimicrobials: spectrum and susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak; Wexler, Hannah M; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2013-07-01

    Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. PMID:23824372

  19. Cross Fostering Experiments Suggest That Mice Songs Are Innate

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Nakanishi, Kaori; Nakagawa, Ryoko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Background Vocal learning is a central functional constituent of human speech, and recent studies showing that adult male mice emit ultrasonic sound sequences characterized as “songs” have suggested that the ultrasonic courtship sounds of mice provide a mammalian model of vocal learning. Objectives We tested whether mouse songs are learned, by examining the relative role of rearing environment in a cross-fostering experiment. Methods and Findings We found that C57BL/6 and BALB/c males emit a clearly different pattern of songs with different frequency and syllable compositions; C57BL/6 males showed a higher peak frequency of syllables, shorter intervals between syllables, and more upward frequency modulations with jumps, whereas BALB/c males produced more “chevron” and “harmonics” syllables. To establish the degree of environmental influences in mouse song development, sons of these two strains were cross-fostered to another strain of parents. Songs were recorded when these cross-fostered pups were fully developed and their songs were compared with those of male mice reared by the genetic parents. The cross-fostered animals sang songs with acoustic characteristics - including syllable interval, peak frequency, and modulation patterns - similar to those of their genetic parents. In addition their song elements retained sequential characteristics similar to those of their genetic parents' songs. Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that mouse “song” is learned; we found no evidence for vocal learning of any sort under the conditions of this experiment. Our observation that the strain-specific character of the song profile persisted even after changing the developmental auditory environment suggests that the structure of these courtship sound sequences is under strong genetic control. Thus, the usefulness of mouse “song” as a model of mammalian vocal learning is limited, but mouse song has the potential to be an indispensable model

  20. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Gillian L.; Melin, Amanda D.; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels. PMID:25120441

  1. How interviewers' nonverbal behaviors can affect children's perceptions and suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-05-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g., friendliness, strictness). Smiling received high ratings on the positive attributes (i.e., friendly, helpful, and sincere), and fidgeting received high ratings on the negative attributes (i.e., strict, bored, and stressed). For the second study, 86 8- to 10-year-olds participated in a learning activity about the vocal chords. One week later, they were interviewed individually about the activity by an interviewer adopting either the supportive (i.e., smiling) or nonsupportive (i.e., fidgeting) behavior. Children questioned by the nonsupportive interviewer were less accurate and more likely to falsely report having been touched than were those questioned by the supportive interviewer. Children questioned by the supportive interviewer were also more likely to say that they did not know an answer than were children questioned by the nonsupportive interviewer. Participants in both conditions gave more correct answers to questions about central, as opposed to peripheral, details of the activity. Implications of these findings for the appropriate interviewing of child witnesses are discussed. PMID:18316091

  2. Differential Susceptibility Experiments: Going beyond Correlational Evidence--Comment on beyond Mental Health, Differential Susceptibility Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    Reviewing the studies on differential susceptibility presented in this section, we argue that the time is ripe to go beyond correlational designs to differential susceptibility experiments. In such experiments, randomization prevents hidden moderator effects on the environment and guarantees the independence of moderator and outcome, while the…

  3. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A; Yeom, Kristen W; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging. PMID:25270052

  4. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging. PMID:25270052

  5. Quantitative Microplate-Based Growth Assay for Determination of Antifungal Susceptibility of Histoplasma capsulatum Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Goughenour, Kristie D.; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Standardized methodologies for determining the antifungal susceptibility of fungal pathogens is central to the clinical management of invasive fungal disease. Yeast-form fungi can be tested using broth macrodilution and microdilution assays. Reference procedures exist for Candida species and Cryptococcus yeasts; however, no standardized methods have been developed for testing the antifungal susceptibility of yeast forms of the dimorphic systemic fungal pathogens. For the dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, susceptibility to echinocandins differs for the yeast and the filamentous forms, which highlights the need to employ Histoplasma yeasts, not hyphae, in antifungal susceptibility tests. To address this, we developed and optimized methodology for the 96-well microtiter plate-based measurement of Histoplasma yeast growth in vitro. Using optical density, the assay is quantitative for fungal growth with a dynamic range greater than 30-fold. Concentration and assay reaction time parameters were also optimized for colorimetric (MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] reduction) and fluorescent (resazurin reduction) indicators of fungal vitality. We employed this microtiter-based assay to determine the antifungal susceptibility patterns of multiple clinical isolates of Histoplasma representing different phylogenetic groups. This methodology fulfills a critical need for the ability to monitor the effectiveness of antifungals on Histoplasma yeasts, the morphological form present in mammalian hosts and, thus, the form most relevant to disease. PMID:26246483

  6. Bipolar disorder: idioms of susceptibility and disease and the role of 'genes' in illness explanations.

    PubMed

    Baart, Ingrid; Widdershoven, Guy

    2013-11-01

    This qualitative study explores (1) how members of the Dutch Association for People with Bipolar Disorder explain the affliction of bipolar disorder; (2) the relationship between genetic, environmental and personal factors in these explanations and (3) the relationship between illness explanations, self-management and identity. A total of 40 participants took part in seven different focus group discussions. The results demonstrate that there are two different explanatory idioms, each one centred around an opposing concept, that is, susceptibility and disease. Individuals who construct explanations around the concept of 'disease' attach more importance to 'genes and chemicals' than to environmental components in the onset of the disorder, whereas individuals adhering to the central concept of 'susceptibility' tend to do this much less. Compared with individuals using the 'susceptibility' idiom, those who use a 'disease' idiom tend to observe fewer possibilities for self-management and are less inclined to construct normalcy through a quest for personal growth. Stories of suffering seem more integral to the 'disease' idiom than to the 'susceptibility' idiom. The 'disease' idiom seems less integrated in a contemporary surveillance psychiatric discourse than the 'susceptibility' idiom; however, both vocabularies can offer normative constraints. PMID:23382566

  7. Recent development of shallow landslide susceptibility for two alpine catchments with different land use history, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide inventories conducted between 1964 and 1999 show a steady increase in the number of landslide disasters. The alpine valleys of Switzerland have always been subject to landslides, however, the recent development of landslide susceptibility is unknown. In this study we aim to evaluate and compare the development of shallow landslide susceptibly and its possible causes for two alpine valleys. Assessment of the shallow landslide incidence over time is done by aerial photograph interpretation using photos of several years since 1959. Based on these inventory maps shallow landslide susceptibility maps are constructed using multivariate logistic regression. An increasing trend of shallow landslide incidence could be observed for the alpine valley Urseren (30 km2; Central Swiss Alps) during the last 45 years. The valley is characterized by susceptible geology and rapid land use change that increased landslide susceptibility. The second site is the neighboring valley of Obergoms (65 km2). The Obergoms was chosen because it is characterized by a similar geological situation as the Urseren valley but a differing land use and land cover development. The Obergoms also showed an increase in shallow landslide incidence of 62% since 1967. Compared with the Urseren Valley the Obergoms is generally less affected by shallow landslides. This might be due to the fact that the highly susceptible geological formations in the Obergoms are forested and not pastured (as in the Urseren valley). The spatial pattern- and development of shallow landslide susceptibility will be discussed in connection with documented land use- and climate changes. Further the comparison between the valleys points to potential drivers for the increased shallow landslide incidence.

  8. Assessing the Surrogate Susceptibility of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin for Commonly Utilized Parenteral Agents against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: Focus on Ceftriaxone Discordance between Predictive Susceptibility and in Vivo Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nayon; Housman, Seth T.; Nicolau, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility testing with the use of surrogate agents is common among clinical microbiology laboratories. One such example is oxacillin and cefoxitin for β-lactams against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). This study aimed to assess the surrogate predictive value (SPV) of oxacillin and cefoxitin for the susceptibility of commonly utilized parenteral β-lactams against MSSA as well as to evaluate the concordance between predictive susceptibility testing and the in vivo exposures for ceftriaxone. Broth microdilution MICs were determined for cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftaroline, ceftriaxone, nafcillin, and oxacillin against a national collection of 1238 MSSA from US hospitals. Pharmacodynamic profiling was utilized to establish a clinical breakpoint for commonly utilized doses of ceftriaxone. Oxacillin had good SPVs for all the β-lactams tested, whereas cefoxitin produced unacceptable major errors for all four agents and thus appears to be an unacceptable susceptibility surrogate. While oxacillin is an adequate surrogate based on the currently defined laboratory criteria, our data also suggest that caution should be exercised when incorporating this testing approach in the clinical setting in view of the fact that the MIC distribution of MSSA coupled with the commonly utilized low doses of ceftriaxone may result in inadequate in vivo exposures against this pathogen. PMID:26264030

  9. Assessing the Surrogate Susceptibility of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin for Commonly Utilized Parenteral Agents against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: Focus on Ceftriaxone Discordance between Predictive Susceptibility and in Vivo Exposures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nayon; Housman, Seth T; Nicolau, David P

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility testing with the use of surrogate agents is common among clinical microbiology laboratories. One such example is oxacillin and cefoxitin for β-lactams against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). This study aimed to assess the surrogate predictive value (SPV) of oxacillin and cefoxitin for the susceptibility of commonly utilized parenteral β-lactams against MSSA as well as to evaluate the concordance between predictive susceptibility testing and the in vivo exposures for ceftriaxone. Broth microdilution MICs were determined for cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftaroline, ceftriaxone, nafcillin, and oxacillin against a national collection of 1238 MSSA from US hospitals. Pharmacodynamic profiling was utilized to establish a clinical breakpoint for commonly utilized doses of ceftriaxone. Oxacillin had good SPVs for all the β-lactams tested, whereas cefoxitin produced unacceptable major errors for all four agents and thus appears to be an unacceptable susceptibility surrogate. While oxacillin is an adequate surrogate based on the currently defined laboratory criteria, our data also suggest that caution should be exercised when incorporating this testing approach in the clinical setting in view of the fact that the MIC distribution of MSSA coupled with the commonly utilized low doses of ceftriaxone may result in inadequate in vivo exposures against this pathogen. PMID:26264030

  10. Exploring model sensitivity issues across different scales in landslide susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, F.; Lagomarsino, D.; Segoni, S.; Tofani, V.

    2013-03-01

    variables and the of RF model random component on the susceptibility results. We apply the model statistics to a test area in central Italy, the basin of the Arno river (ca. 9000 km2), we present the obtained results and discuss them. Results confirm that the choice of parameter set, mapping unit resolution and training sampling method highly influences the overall accuracy of classification and prediction results. This, in turn, implies that a careful sensitivity analysis making use of traditional and new tools should always be performed before producing final susceptibility maps at all levels and scales.

  11. Aeromagnetic anomaly modeling of the central sector of the Chicxulub impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Lopez-Loera, H.; Delgado-Rodriguez, O.

    2003-04-01

    We propose an updated model of the Chicxulub impact structure based on modeling of the aeromagnetic anomaly data, which incorporates electromagnetic sounding models and UNAM and CSDP borehole information. Modeling takes into account the relative contributions of the induced and remanent components. Studies of the magnetic susceptibility variation in the UNAM and Yaxcopoil boreholes along the lithologic column in the crater area reveal that the suevite-like breccias have a stronger magnetic signature than that of the impact-melt. The crystalline component estimated from clasts analyses in the suevite-like breccias has a higher magnetic susceptibility (up to 1200x10-5 SI) than that of the impact melt (~500x10-5 SI) and the crystalline basement (400x10-5 SI). Reduction to the pole and downward continuations document a fragmented character of the anomaly. The second-derivative of the magnetic anomaly depicts five concentric rings within the anomaly, the last ring correlates with the cenote ring, supporting the its relation with the buried structure. The analytical signal and the radially averaged spectrum yield an estimate of the depth to the magnetic sources, ranging from 1000 to 6000 m. Using this data, new 2-D magnetic models were developed, which suggest that the fragmented character of the northern portion of the crater might be controlled by system of near vertical faults. The main central anomaly is produced by a central uplift that is ~2500 m deep, from ground level, in the central area of the crater. Geophysical models are developed and compared with borehole information for the area of the Yaxcopoil-1 well, drilled recently as part of the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

  12. Many factors complicate EM susceptibility tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, R. J.

    1982-09-01

    Procedures and apparatus currently employed for assaying the EM susceptibility of communication, navigation, and EW equipment are described. Susceptibility is examined in either conducted susceptibility tests, where signals are introduced into the input port of the device under test, or in radiated modes, where the entire device is exposed to an EM field to test for component and system failure. Noting that military standards require up to 10 times the EM resistance as commercial standards, the use of shielded enclosures in both commercial and military testing facilities is explored. RF-tight enclosures are filled with a homogeneous EM field produced by, optimally, broadband generators which emit signals which are amplified to desired levels. Sweep functions permit testing under broadband conditions. Attention is given to radiator selection and antenna choice to produce satisfactory test conditions at all frequencies.

  13. Endocrine correlates of susceptibility to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Motion sickness releases ACTH, epinerphrine, and norepinephrine. The endocrine responses to motion sickness, adaptive responses leading to the resolution of the syndrome, and the way in which antimotion-sickness drugs influence the endocrine responses were studied. Susceptible or insusceptible subjects were administered antimotion-sickness drugs prior to stressful stimulation. Insusceptible subjects displayed more pronounced elevations of ACTH, epinephrine, and norepinephrine after stressful motion. Predrug levels of ACTH were higher in insusceptible subjects (p less than 0.01). Acute blockade of hormone responses to stressful motion or alteration of levels of ACTH by drugs were not correlated with individual susceptibility. No correlation was apparent between epinephrine and ACTH release. These endocrine differences may represent neurochemical markers for susceptibility to motion, stress, or general adaptability, and it may be that the chronic modulation of their levels might be more effective in preventing motion sickness than the acute blockage or stimulation of specific receptors.

  14. Baryonic strangeness and related susceptibilities in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, A.; Müller, B.

    2006-11-01

    The ratios of off-diagonal to diagonal conserved charge susceptibilities, e.g., χBS/χS,χQS/χS, related to the quark flavor susceptibilities, have proven to be discerning probes of the flavor carrying degrees of freedom in hot strongly interacting matter. Various constraining relations between the different susceptibilities are derived based on the Gell-Mann-Nishijima formula and the assumption of isospin symmetry. Using generic models of deconfined matter and results from lattice quantum chromodynamics, it is demonstrated that the flavor-carrying degrees of freedom at a temperature above 1.5Tc are quarklike quasiparticles. A new observable related by isospin symmetry to CBS=-3χBS/χS and equal to it in the baryon free regime is identified. This new observable, which is blind to neutral and nonstrange particles, carries the potential of being measured in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  15. Magnetic susceptibility of the QCD vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Musakhanov, M.; Siddikov, M.

    2005-02-01

    We investigate the magnetic susceptibility of the QCD vacuum, based on the instanton vacuum. Starting from the instanton liquid model for the instanton vacuum, we derive the light-quark partition function Z [ V, T,mˆ ] in the presence of the current quark mass mˆ as well as the external Abelian vector and tensor fields. We calculate a two-point correlation function relevant for the magnetic susceptibility and derive it beyond the chiral limit. We obtain for the different flavors the following magnetic susceptibility: χu, d< i ψu,d†ψu,d > 0 ∼ 40- 45MeV, while χs0 ≃ 6- 10MeV with the quark condensate < iψ† ψ > 0.

  16. Magnetic Susceptibility in the Vertebral Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, F.; Nagele, T.; Lutz, O.; Pfeffer, K.; Giehl, J.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic resonance method is described which provides good-quality field-mapping images of the spine, although the in vivo signals from red bone marrow of the vertebral bodies exhibit similar fractions of lipid and water protons with their chemical-shift difference of 3.4 ppm. The susceptibilities of bone marrow and intervertebral disks were examined in 20 cadaveric human spines, 9 healthy volunteers, and 9 patients with degenerative disk alterations. The influence of geometrical properties was studied in cylindrical spine phantoms of different size and contents with different susceptibility. The measurements reveal interindividual differences of the susceptibility of the intervertebral disks in healthy subjects. Three out of nine degenerated disks with low signal in T2-weighted spin-echo images showed irregularities of the field distribution within the nucleus pulposus.

  17. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  18. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (CPAP) , bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Some types of central sleep ... et al. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based ...

  19. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... catheter is attached to a device called a port that will be under your skin. The port ...

  20. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed. PMID:26944242

  1. Superficial scald susceptibility and a-farnesene metabolism in ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in California and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in northern California (CA) consistently show development of the physiological storage disorder superficial scald, particularly after prolonged storage of 4–5 months in air. In contrast, fruit of this cultivar grown in central Washington (WA) are typically less susceptible to ...

  2. Homeostasis, Inflammation, and Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Kotas, Maya E.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    While modernization has dramatically increased lifespan, it has also witnessed the increasing prevalence of diseases such as obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Such chronic, acquired diseases result when normal physiologic control goes awry and may thus be viewed as failures of homeostasis. However, while nearly every process in human physiology relies on homeostatic mechanisms for stability, only some have demonstrated vulnerability to dysregulation. Additionally, chronic inflammation is a common accomplice of the diseases of homeostasis, yet the basis for this connection is not fully understood. Here we review the design of homeostatic systems and discuss universal features of control circuits that operate at the cellular, tissue and organismal levels. We suggest a framework for classification of homeostatic signals that is based on different classes of homeostatic variables they report on. Finally, we discuss how adaptability of homeostatic systems with adjustable set points creates vulnerability to dysregulation and disease. This framework highlights the fundamental parallels between homeostatic and inflammatory control mechanisms and provides a new perspective on the physiological origin of inflammation. PMID:25723161

  3. Hypnotic induction is followed by state-like changes in the organization of EEG functional connectivity in the theta and beta frequency bands in high-hypnotically susceptible individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Graham A.; Burgess, Adrian P.

    2014-01-01

    Altered state theories of hypnosis posit that a qualitatively distinct state of mental processing, which emerges in those with high hypnotic susceptibility following a hypnotic induction, enables the generation of anomalous experiences in response to specific hypnotic suggestions. If so then such a state should be observable as a discrete pattern of changes to functional connectivity (shared information) between brain regions following a hypnotic induction in high but not low hypnotically susceptible participants. Twenty-eight channel EEG was recorded from 12 high susceptible (highs) and 11 low susceptible (lows) participants with their eyes closed prior to and following a standard hypnotic induction. The EEG was used to provide a measure of functional connectivity using both coherence (COH) and the imaginary component of coherence (iCOH), which is insensitive to the effects of volume conduction. COH and iCOH were calculated between all electrode pairs for the frequency bands: delta (0.1–3.9 Hz), theta (4–7.9 Hz) alpha (8–12.9 Hz), beta1 (13–19.9 Hz), beta2 (20–29.9 Hz) and gamma (30–45 Hz). The results showed that there was an increase in theta iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition in highs but not lows with a large proportion of significant links being focused on a central-parietal hub. There was also a decrease in beta1 iCOH from the pre-hypnosis to hypnosis condition with a focus on a fronto-central and an occipital hub that was greater in high compared to low susceptibles. There were no significant differences for COH or for spectral band amplitude in any frequency band. The results are interpreted as indicating that the hypnotic induction elicited a qualitative change in the organization of specific control systems within the brain for high as compared to low susceptible participants. This change in the functional organization of neural networks is a plausible indicator of the much theorized “hypnotic-state.” PMID:25104928

  4. Central obesity and health-related factors among middle-aged men: a comparison among native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. PMID:17641453

  5. Does Titan's Slightly Oblate Shape suggest a Capture Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Cassini radar observations show that Titan is slightly oblate (Zebker et al, 2009 Science 324 921). The average polar radius falls short of the expected value by 120 m. The synchronously rotating ellipsoid of uniform density that best matches Titan’s shape has a spin rate that is 1.12 times faster than the present rate. Next, a freely-spinning, uniform-density, oblate spheroid of Titan’s mass and mean size which best fits the satellite’s shape has a polar radius which equals the observed value exactly. The spin rate of this hydrostatic equilibrium object is 1.97 times the present value. These calculation are based on the theory of rotating fluid satellites developed by Dermott (1988, Icarus 37 575). The Titan shape data, along with the existence of the non-zero value of the eccentricity of Titan’s orbit, re-awaken the possibility that Titan did not originally condense in orbit about Saturn (Prentice, 1980 JPL Publication 80-80; 1984 Earth, Moon and Planets 30 209). Instead, it is suggested that Titan first condensed as a secondary solid embryo within the gas ring that was shed by protosolar cloud (hereafter PSC) at Saturn’s orbital distance from the Sun. By forming in a free orbit about the PSC, Titan’s shape would have initially been that of an oblate spheroid, like Ceres. Next, the condensate that forms in the PSC gas ring of temperature 94 K consists of anhydrous rock (mass fraction 0.4925), water ice (0.4739) and graphite (0.0336). Its mean density at 94 K is 1.5221 g/cm3 (Prentice, 2006 Publ. Astron. Soc. Australia 23 1; 2007 38th LPSC, 2402.pdf). The gravity measurements of Iess et al (2010 Science 327 1367) have revealed that the interior of Titan is in a state of incomplete separation between the rock and ice phases. The axial moment of inertia is C/MR2 = 0.342. The gravity data suggest that the interior of Titan is cold and that its structure consists of a central core of rock and ice that is surmounted by a mantle of pure ice. The non

  6. Population screening for genetic susceptibility to disease.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, A.

    1995-01-01

    Genetic screening for susceptibility to common diseases, such as the common cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, may soon be technically feasible. Commercial interests should not be allowed to introduce such screening before proper evaluation or without adequate counselling and support. The evaluation of such testing should include psychosocial and medical outcomes and outcomes for those given low risks as well as high risks. These tests may distract attention away from environmental factors contributing to disease, for which social and political measures may be more appropriate than individualised susceptibility screening and lifestyle modification. PMID:7613325

  7. The Aging Kidney: Increased Susceptibility to Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinhui; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Parrish, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair. PMID:25257519

  8. [Susceptibility weighted imaging. Theory and applications].

    PubMed

    Haddar, D; Haacke, Em; Sehgal, V; Delproposto, Z; Salamon, G; Seror, O; Sellier, N

    2004-11-01

    Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI) is a new MR imaging technique using the BOLD effect (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) and the differences of susceptibility between tissues. It is a 3D gradient echo, fully velocity compensated sequence. The echo time is chosen to maximize the signal cancellation in veins and a specific post-processing is applied using the phase images as a complementary source of contrast. It is very useful for the visualization of veins either normal or abnormal. It shows hemorrhage, even of small quantity, better than conventional gradient echo sequences. Its use is still limited by a long acquisition time and some remaining artifacts. PMID:15602412

  9. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    PubMed

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  10. Global Association between Thermophilicity and Vancomycin Susceptibility in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chayan; Alam, Masrure; Mandal, Subhrangshu; Haldar, Prabir K.; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Roy, Rimi; Rameez, Moidu J.; Misra, Anup K.; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Nanda, Ashish K.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra K.; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of the aquatic microbiota of several circum-neutral (6.0–8.5 pH) mid-temperature (55–85°C) springs revealed rich diversities of phylogenetic relatives of mesophilic bacteria, which surpassed the diversity of the truly-thermophilic taxa. To gain insight into the potentially-thermophilic adaptations of the phylogenetic relatives of Gram-negative mesophilic bacteria detected in culture-independent investigations we attempted pure-culture isolation by supplementing the enrichment media with 50 μg ml−1 vancomycin. Surprisingly, this Gram-positive-specific antibiotic eliminated the entire culturable-diversity of chemoorganotrophic and sulfur-chemolithotrophic bacteria present in the tested hot water inocula. Moreover, it also killed all the Gram-negative hot-spring isolates that were obtained in vancomycin-free media. Concurrent literature search for the description of Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that at least 16 of them were reportedly vancomycin-susceptible. While these data suggested that vancomycin-susceptibility could be a global trait of thermophilic bacteria (irrespective of their taxonomy, biogeography and Gram-character), MALDI Mass Spectroscopy of the peptidoglycans of a few Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that tandem alanines were present in the fourth and fifth positions of their muropeptide precursors (MPPs). Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affinity between the D-alanine-D-alanine ligases (Ddl) of taxonomically-diverse Gram-negative thermophiles and the thermostable Ddl protein of Thermotoga maritima, which is well-known for its high specificity for alanine over other amino acids. The Ddl tree further illustrated a divergence between the homologs of Gram-negative thermophiles and mesophiles, which broadly coincided with vancomycin-susceptibility and vancomycin-resistance respectively. It was thus hypothesized that thermophilic Ddls have been evolutionarily selected to favor a D

  11. Global Association between Thermophilicity and Vancomycin Susceptibility in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chayan; Alam, Masrure; Mandal, Subhrangshu; Haldar, Prabir K; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Roy, Rimi; Rameez, Moidu J; Misra, Anup K; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Nanda, Ashish K; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra K; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of the aquatic microbiota of several circum-neutral (6.0-8.5 pH) mid-temperature (55-85°C) springs revealed rich diversities of phylogenetic relatives of mesophilic bacteria, which surpassed the diversity of the truly-thermophilic taxa. To gain insight into the potentially-thermophilic adaptations of the phylogenetic relatives of Gram-negative mesophilic bacteria detected in culture-independent investigations we attempted pure-culture isolation by supplementing the enrichment media with 50 μg ml(-1) vancomycin. Surprisingly, this Gram-positive-specific antibiotic eliminated the entire culturable-diversity of chemoorganotrophic and sulfur-chemolithotrophic bacteria present in the tested hot water inocula. Moreover, it also killed all the Gram-negative hot-spring isolates that were obtained in vancomycin-free media. Concurrent literature search for the description of Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that at least 16 of them were reportedly vancomycin-susceptible. While these data suggested that vancomycin-susceptibility could be a global trait of thermophilic bacteria (irrespective of their taxonomy, biogeography and Gram-character), MALDI Mass Spectroscopy of the peptidoglycans of a few Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that tandem alanines were present in the fourth and fifth positions of their muropeptide precursors (MPPs). Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affinity between the D-alanine-D-alanine ligases (Ddl) of taxonomically-diverse Gram-negative thermophiles and the thermostable Ddl protein of Thermotoga maritima, which is well-known for its high specificity for alanine over other amino acids. The Ddl tree further illustrated a divergence between the homologs of Gram-negative thermophiles and mesophiles, which broadly coincided with vancomycin-susceptibility and vancomycin-resistance respectively. It was thus hypothesized that thermophilic Ddls have been evolutionarily selected to favor a D-ala-D-ala bonding

  12. Methodology for Elaborating Regional Susceptibility Maps of Slope Instability: the State of Guerrero (mexico) Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Huesca, A. E.; Ferrés, D.; Domínguez-M, L.

    2013-05-01

    Numerous cases of different types of slope instability occur every year in the mountain areas of México. Sometimes these instabilities severely affect the exposed communities, roads and infrastructure, causing deaths and serious material damage, mainly in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Chiapas, at the central and south sectors of the country. The occurrence of the slope instability is the result of the combination of climatic, geologic, hydrologic, geomorphologic and anthropogenic factors. The National Center for Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) is developing several projects in order to offer civil protection authorities of the Mexican states some methodologies to address the hazard assessment for different natural phenomena in a regional level. In this framework, during the past two years, a methodology was prepared to construct susceptibility maps for slope instability at regional (≤ 1:100 000) and national (≤ 1:1 000 000) levels. This research was addressed in accordance to the criteria established by the International Association of Engineering Geology, which is the highest international authority in this topic. The state of Guerrero has been taken as a pilot scheme to elaborate the susceptibility map for slope instability at a regional level. The major constraints considered in the methodology to calculate susceptibility are: a) the slope of the surface, b) the geology and c) the land use, which were integrated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The arithmetic sum and weighting factors to obtain the final susceptibility map were based on the average values calculated in the individual study of several cases of slope instability occurred in the state in the past decade. For each case, the evaluation format proposed by CENAPRED in 2006 in the "Guía Básica para la elaboración de Atlas Estatales y Municipales de Peligros y Riesgos" to evaluate instabilities in a local level, was applied. The resulting susceptibility map shows

  13. Magnetic susceptibility as a biosignature in stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryshyn, Victoria A.; Corsetti, Frank A.; Frantz, Carie M.; Lund, Steve P.; Berelson, William M.

    2016-03-01

    results. The results of these experiments suggest that magnetic susceptibility shows promise as a new biosignature in the study of putative microbialites. Abiotic structure: a structure that formed in the absence of life. Given that nearly all surface environments on the Earth today contain life, this is a rare condition for a sedimentary structure. In ancient putative microbialites, this requires a burden of proof that will not often be possible, but would indicate a sterile environment. Abiogenic structure: a structure whose formation was dominated by inorganic processes. Although life may have been present in the environment or even on or in the structure, it was not actively involved in the structure's building or precipitation. An ancient putative microbialite deemed abiogenic is ambiguous as to whether or not life was present at the time it formed. Biogenic structure: a structure built by the activity of organisms. This includes trapping and binding of sediment by a microbial mat, or a mineral precipitating because of the activity of an organism. The structure would not exist in the same form if life had not been present. Biogenic structures are a positive indication of the past presence of life. Biotic structure: a structure that was once part of a living organism (e.g., a shell, bone, or tissue). Biotic structures are also a positive indication of the past presence of life. Most of the structures discussed herein, and indeed most microbialites in general, would be considered either abiogenic or biogenic.The majority of microbialites are composed of carbonate minerals, so carbon isotopes are commonly cited as a potential biosignature. However, isotope ratios can also be ambiguous; microbial phototrophic CO2 fixation drives the surrounding DIC δ13C positive, while bacterial sulfate reduction drives it negative, making carbon isotopes a problematic biosignature in stromatolites (e.g., Guy et al., 1993

  14. Neuropsychological deficits in mice depleted of the schizophrenia susceptibility gene CSMD1.

    PubMed

    Steen, Vidar M; Nepal, Chirag; Ersland, Kari M; Holdhus, Rita; Nævdal, Marianne; Ratvik, Siri M; Skrede, Silje; Håvik, Bjarte

    2013-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of schizophrenia genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified the CUB and SUSHI multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) gene as a statistically strong risk factor. CSMD1 is a complement control-related protein suggested to inhibit the classical complement pathway, being expressed in developing neurons. However, expression of CSMD1 is largely uncharacterized and relevance for behavioral phenotypes is not previously demonstrated. Here, we assess neuropsychological behaviors of a Csmd1 knockout (KO) mouse in a selection of standard behavioral tests. Deregulation of neuropsychological responses were observed in both the open field and the elevated plus maze tests, in which KO mice spent 55% and 33% less time than WT littermate mice in open areas, respectively. Altered behaviors were also observed in tail suspension and to higher acoustic stimuli, for which Csmd1 KO mice showed helplessness and moderate increase in startle amplitude, respectively. Furthermore, Csmd1 KO mice also displayed increased weight-gain and glucose tolerance, similar to a major phenotype of the metabolic syndrome that also has been associated to the human CSMD1 locus. Consistent with a role in the control of behaviors, Csmd1 was found highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), and with some expression in visceral fat and ovary, under tissue-specific control by a novel promoter-associated lncRNA. In summary, disruption of Csmd1 induces behaviors reminiscent of blunted emotional responses, anxiety and depression. These observations suggest an influence of the CSMD1 schizophrenia susceptibility gene on psychopathology and endophenotypes of the negative symptom spectra. PMID:24244513

  15. Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak. PMID:26938868

  16. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  17. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings. PMID:11847456

  18. Genetic variation and shared biological susceptibility underlying comorbidity in neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Tomas; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Beninger, Richard J; Archer, Trevor

    2007-07-01

    Genetic factors underlying alcoholism, substance abuse, antisocial and violent behaviour, psychosis, schizophrenia and psychopathy are emerging to implicate dopaminergic and cannabinoid, but also monoaminergic and glutamatergic systems through the maze of promoter genes and polymorphisms. Candidate gene association studies suggest the involvement of a range of genes in different disorders of CNS structure and function. Indices of comorbidity both complicate the array of gene-involvement and provide a substrate of hazardous interactivity. The putative role of the serotonin transporter gene in affective-dissociative spectrum disorders presents both plausible genetic variation and complication of comorbidity The position of genetic variation is further complicated through ethnic, contextual and social factors that provide geometric progressions in the comordity already underlying diagnostic obstacles. The concept of shared biological susceptibility to two or more disorder conditions of comorbidity seems a recurring observation, e.g., bipolar disorder with alcoholism or schizophrenia with alcohol/substance abuse or diabetes with schizopsychotic disorder. Several lines of evidence seem to suggest that the factors influencing variation in one set of symptoms and those affecting one or more disorders are observed to a marked extent which ought to facilitate the search for susceptibility genes in comorbid brain disorders. Identification of regional genetic factors is awaited for a more compelling outline that ought eventually to lead to greater efficacy of symptom-disorder arrangements and an augmentation of current pharmacological treatment therapies. PMID:17513198

  19. Dysferlin deficiency confers increased susceptibility to coxsackievirus-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Wong, Jerry; Fung, Gabriel; Shi, Junyan; Deng, Haoyu; Zhang, Jingchun; Bernatchez, Pascal; Luo, Honglin

    2015-10-01

    Coxsackievirus infection can lead to viral myocarditis and its sequela, dilated cardiomyopathy, which represent major causes of cardiovascular mortality worldwide in children. Yet, the host genetic susceptible factors and the underlying mechanisms by which viral infection damages cardiac function remain to be fully resolved. Dysferlin is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. In humans, mutations in the dysferlin gene can cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi myopathy. Dysferlin deficiency has also been linked to cardiomyopathy. Defective muscle membrane repair has been suggested to be an important mechanism responsible for muscle degeneration in dysferlin-deficient patients and animals. Using both naturally occurring and genetically engineered dysferlin-deficient mice, we demonstrated that loss of dysferlin confers increased susceptibility to coxsackievirus infection and myocardial damage. More interestingly, we found that dysferlin is cleaved following coxsackieviral infection through the proteolytic activity of virally encoded proteinases, suggesting an important mechanism underlying virus-induced cardiac dysfunction. Our results in this study not only identify dysferlin deficiency as a novel host risk factor for viral myocarditis but also reveal a key mechanism by which coxsackievirus infection impairs cardiac function, leading to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:26073173

  20. Iron Deprivation Affects Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacteria Targeting Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rahul; Hameed, Saif; Fatima, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) acquired by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) through continuous deployment of antitubercular drugs warrants immediate search for novel targets and mechanisms. The ability of MTB to sense and become accustomed to changes in the host is essential for survival and confers the basis of infection. A crucial condition that MTB must surmount is iron limitation, during the establishment of infection, since iron is required by both bacteria and humans. This study focuses on how iron deprivation affects drug susceptibilities of known anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a “surrogate of MTB.” We showed that iron deprivation leads to enhanced potency of most commonly used first line anti-TB drugs that could be reverted upon iron supplementation. We explored that membrane homeostasis is disrupted upon iron deprivation as revealed by enhanced membrane permeability and hypersensitivity to membrane perturbing agent leading to increased passive diffusion of drug and TEM images showing detectable differences in cell envelope thickness. Furthermore, iron seems to be indispensable to sustain genotoxic stress suggesting its possible role in DNA repair machinery. Taken together, we for the first time established a link between cellular iron and drug susceptibility of mycobacteria suggesting iron as novel determinant to combat MDR. PMID:26779346

  1. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A.; White, Ronald H.; Fox, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development. PMID:22690184

  2. Differential susceptibility to the environment: Are developmental models compatible with the evidence from twin studies?

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-08-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic variation interacts with exposure to early environmental factors, such as prenatal stress hormones and family conflict. In this study I employed a simulation approach to explore whether, and under what conditions, developmental models of differential susceptibility are compatible with the cumulative findings from twin studies of personality and behavior, which consistently show sizable effects of genetic and nonshared environmental factors and small to negligible effects of the shared environment. Simulation results showed that, to a first approximation, current alternative models of differential susceptibility are all equally compatible with the evidence from twin research; that sizable interaction effects involving individual differences in plasticity are plausible, but only if direct environmental effects are correspondingly weak; and that a major role of shared environmental factors is plausible in early development (consistent with the developmental mechanisms postulated in the differential susceptibility literature) but not in later development. These results support the general plausibility of differential susceptibility models and suggest some realistic constraints on their assumptions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455408

  3. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci with reduced daptomycin susceptibility in Singapore: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Chow, A; Win, N N; Ng, P Y; Lee, W; Win, M K

    2016-09-01

    Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and use of daptomycin are increasing in Asia. To determine the prevalence of daptomycin non-susceptible enterococci (DNSE) and understand factors associated with reduced daptomycin susceptibility in VRE, we conducted a case-control study in a 1600-bed adult tertiary hospital in Singapore. All VRE isolates from inpatients in 2012 were tested for daptomycin susceptibility. Patients with VRE isolates of daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ⩾3 µg/ml were classified as daptomycin-reduced susceptible VRE (DRS-VRE) and those with daptomycin MIC 4 µg/ml (DNSE). About half (135, 55%) had reduced susceptibility to daptomycin (MIC 3-4 µg/ml). None in the DS-VRE group had prior exposure to daptomycin. After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity, hospitalization duration, surgical history, indwelling device use, and duration of antibiotic exposure in the prior 3 months, >1 movement between wards [odds ratio (OR) 0·35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·16-0·74, P = 0·006] and minocycline resistance (OR 0·45, 95% CI 0·25-0·84, P = 0·011) were independently associated with DRS-VRE. Our study suggests that daptomycin exposure, >1 movement between wards, and resistance to minocycline, were associated with reduced daptomycin susceptibility in VRE. PMID:27174845

  4. Meta-analysis and genome-wide interpretation of genetic susceptibility to drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Classical genetic studies provide strong evidence for heritable contributions to susceptibility to developing dependence on addictive substances. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have sought genes, chromosomal regions and allelic variants likely to contribute to susceptibility to drug addiction. Results Here, we performed a meta-analysis of addiction candidate gene association studies and GWAS to investigate possible functional mechanisms associated with addiction susceptibility. From meta-data retrieved from 212 publications on candidate gene association studies and 5 GWAS reports, we linked a total of 843 haplotypes to addiction susceptibility. We mapped the SNPs in these haplotypes to functional and regulatory elements in the genome and estimated the magnitude of the contributions of different molecular mechanisms to their effects on addiction susceptibility. In addition to SNPs in coding regions, these data suggest that haplotypes in gene regulatory regions may also contribute to addiction susceptibility. When we compared the lists of genes identified by association studies and those identified by molecular biological studies of drug-regulated genes, we observed significantly higher participation in the same gene interaction networks than expected by chance, despite little overlap between the two gene lists. Conclusions These results appear to offer new insights into the genetic factors underlying drug addiction. PMID:21999673

  5. The association between polymorphism of P53 codon 72 Arg/Pro and hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis of 15 studies with 3704 cases☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Surong; Zhao, Lianying; Yang, Jingting; Hu, Miao

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence has shown that p53gene participates in human carcinogenesis as tumor suppressors. Polymorphism of p53 gene codon 72 Arg/Pro (rs1042522) may influence the function of p53 protein and then affect the processing of carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, published results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To examine the validity of the association between the polymorphism and HCC risk, we performed this meta-analysis. Methodology/principal findings We have conducted a search of case–control studies on the associations of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to HCC in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Bio-Med central, Springer-link, EBSCO, Wanfang databases and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. A total of 15 studies were identified with 3704 cases and 4559 controls for codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism. The result did support a significant genetic association between Pro allele and susceptibility to HCC in all the genetic models. Similarly, subgroup analysis showed significant associations between the Arg/Pro polymorphism and susceptibility to HCC when stratifying by race, gender, source of controls and hepatitis virus infection status. Conclusions/significance This meta-analysis suggests that p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism may be associated with the risk of HCC, especially in subgroup analysis of Asian and Caucasian population, hospital-based population, the female, and the individuals infected with hepatitis virus. However, well-designed studies based on different ethnic groups with larger sample size and more detailed data are needed to confirm these conclusions. PMID:25606382

  6. Neuregulin 1 and Susceptibility to Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjornsdottir, Soley; Sigmundsson, Thordur; Ghosh, Shyamali; Brynjolfsson, Jon; Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn; Ivarsson, Omar; Chou, Thomas T.; Hjaltason, Omar; Birgisdottir, Birgitta; Jonsson, Helgi; Gudnadottir, Vala G.; Gudmundsdottir, Elsa; Bjornsson, Asgeir; Ingvarsson, Brynjolfur; Ingason, Andres; Sigfusson, Sigmundur; Hardardottir, Hronn; Harvey, Richard P.; Lai, Donna; Zhou, Mingdong; Brunner, Daniela; Mutel, Vincent; Gonzalo, Acuna; Lemke, Greg; Sainz, Jesus; Johannesson, Gardar; Andresson, Thorkell; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Manolescu, Andrei; Frigge, Michael L.; Gurney, Mark E.; Kong, Augustine; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Petursson, Hannes; Stefansson, Kari

    2002-01-01

    The cause of schizophrenia is unknown, but it has a significant genetic component. Pharmacologic studies, studies of gene expression in man, and studies of mouse mutants suggest involvement of glutamate and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. However, so far, strong association has not been found between schizophrenia and variants of the genes encoding components of these systems. Here, we report the results of a genomewide scan of schizophrenia families in Iceland; these results support previous work, done in five populations, showing that schizophrenia maps to chromosome 8p. Extensive fine-mapping of the 8p locus and haplotype-association analysis, supplemented by a transmission/disequilibrium test, identifies neuregulin 1 (NRG1) as a candidate gene for schizophrenia. NRG1 is expressed at central nervous system synapses and has a clear role in the expression and activation of neurotransmitter receptors, including glutamate receptors. Mutant mice heterozygous for either NRG1 or its receptor, ErbB4, show a behavioral phenotype that overlaps with mouse models for schizophrenia. Furthermore, NRG1 hypomorphs have fewer functional NMDA receptors than wild-type mice. We also demonstrate that the behavioral phenotypes of the NRG1 hypomorphs are partially reversible with clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat schizophrenia. PMID:12145742

  7. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

  8. Susceptibility of irradiated steels to hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossin, A. D.

    1968-01-01

    Investigation determined whether irradiated pressure-vessel steels 4340 and 212-B are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement and to catastrophic failure. Hydrogen-charging conditions which completely embrittled 4340 steel had negligible effect on 212-B steel in tensile and delayed-failure tests.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  10. The magnetic susceptibility of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, K.; Reimann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The GEMAS (Geochemical mapping of agricultural soils) project, a cooperation project between EuroGeoSurveys and Eurometaux, aims at providing soil quality data for Europe. Samples of arable soil were taken during 2008 at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 covering the member states of the European Union (except Malta and Romania) and several neighbouring countries (e.g., Norway, Serbia, Ukraine). While the primary aim of the GEMAS project is to produce REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals - EC, 2006) consistent soil geochemistry data at the continental scale, the data set is also optimally apt to provide the first continental scale overview of magnetic properties in European soils. Soil samples from the upper 20 cm were taken as composites from 5 sites spread over a ca. 100 m2 area in a large agricultural field (Ap-sample). The samples were air dried and sieved to pass a 2 mm nylon screen. Weight normalized magnetic susceptibility of these dried samples was measured using a Sapphire Instruments SI2B susceptibility meter with dynamic background removal. The here presented maps of magnetic susceptibility in relation to geochemical composition and geological structures for the first time allow to outline the large scale influence of tectonics and climate on magnetic mineral concentration in European soils. The data set also provides the background variability for regional studies aiming to relate magnetic susceptibility of soils to local contamination sources.

  11. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  12. AGE-RELATED SUSCEPTIBILITY: A GENOMICS APPROACH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    By the year 2030 more than 70 million Americans will be over the age of 65. These older adults are a subpopulation that may have special susceptibility to toxic insult due to critical characteristics of their life-stage. Current EPA testing guidelines do not identify the elderl...

  13. Climate change and corn susceptibility to mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is an essential part of the world’s grain supply, but climate change has the potential to increase maize susceptibility to mycotoxigenic fungal pathogens and reduce food security and safety. While rising atmospheric [CO2] is a driving force of climate change, our understanding of how elevated ...

  14. Parasitism enhances tilapia susceptibility to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of columnaris disease. Many commercially important freshwater fish worldwide are susceptible to columnaris disease that can result in high fish mortality. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a protozoan parasite in many ...

  15. High-temperature-superconducting magnetic susceptibility bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasunas, J.; Lakew, B.; Lee, C.

    1992-01-01

    An infrared detector called the magnetic susceptibility bolometer is introduced which is based on the tmperature dependence of the diamagnetic screening of a high-Tc superconductor film near Tc. Results are reported for the response of a prototype model to modulated blackbody radiation. Possible improvements are discussed as is the potential sensitivity of an improved device.

  16. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identification of new genes involved in melanoma susceptibility: Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein 1 (BAP1), CXC genes, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), protection of telomeres 1 (POT1), ACD and TERF2IP, the latter four being involved in telomere maintenance. Furthermore variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) give a moderately increased risk to develop melanoma. Melanoma genetic counseling is offered to families in order to better understand the disease and the genetic susceptibility of developing it. Genetic counseling often implies genetic testing, although patients can benefit from genetic counseling even when they do not fulfill the criteria for these tests. Genetic testing for melanoma predisposition mutations can be used in clinical practice under adequate selection criteria and giving a valid test interpretation and genetic counseling to the individual. PMID:26488006

  17. Sparse methods for Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgic, Berkin; Chatnuntawech, Itthi; Langkammer, Christian; Setsompop, Kawin

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) aims to estimate the tissue susceptibility distribution that gives rise to subtle changes in the main magnetic field, which are captured by the image phase in a gradient echo (GRE) experiment. The underlying susceptibility distribution is related to the acquired tissue phase through an ill-posed linear system. To facilitate its inversion, spatial regularization that imposes sparsity or smoothness assumptions can be employed. This paper focuses on efficient algorithms for regularized QSM reconstruction. Fast solvers that enforce sparsity under Total Variation (TV) and Total Generalized Variation (TGV) constraints are developed using Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Through variable splitting that permits closed-form iterations, the computation efficiency of these solvers are dramatically improved. An alternative approach to improve the conditioning of the ill-posed inversion is to acquire multiple GRE volumes at different head orientations relative to the main magnetic field. The phase information from such multi-orientation acquisition can be combined to yield exquisite susceptibility maps and obviate the need for regularized reconstruction, albeit at the cost of increased data acquisition time.

  18. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identification of new genes involved in melanoma susceptibility: Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein 1 (BAP1), CXC genes, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), protection of telomeres 1 (POT1), ACD and TERF2IP, the latter four being involved in telomere maintenance. Furthermore variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) give a moderately increased risk to develop melanoma. Melanoma genetic counseling is offered to families in order to better understand the disease and the genetic susceptibility of developing it. Genetic counseling often implies genetic testing, although patients can benefit from genetic counseling even when they do not fulfill the criteria for these tests. Genetic testing for melanoma predisposition mutations can be used in clinical practice under adequate selection criteria and giving a valid test interpretation and genetic counseling to the individual. PMID:26488006

  19. Fast measurement of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Schrock, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Method, based on photoanalysis of adenosine triphosphate using light-emitting reaction with luciferase-luciferin technique, saves time by eliminating isolation period required by conventional methods. Technique is also used to determine presence of infection as well as susceptibilities to several antibiotics.

  20. Hyperinducibility of Ia antigen on astrocytes correlates with strain-specific susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Massa, P.T.; ter Meulen, V.; Fontana, A.

    1987-06-01

    In search of a phenotypic marker determining genetically controlled susceptibility to delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in the brain-in particular, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)- the authors have compared the ..gamma..-interferon (IFN-..gamma..) induction of Ia molecules on astrocytes and macrophages from rat and mouse strains that are susceptible or resistant to this disease. They focused on Ia expression because DTH reactions to self or foreign antigens are largely mediated by lymphocytes restricted by class II (Ia) antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The data demonstrate that Lewis (fully susceptible) and Brown Norway (BN) (fully resistant) rats are very different in that Lewis astrocytes express much higher levels of Ia than BN astrocytes. Similar data were obtained from an analysis of EAE-susceptible and -resistant mouse strains (SJL and BALB/c, respectively), which suggest that this phenomenon may be universal and not limited to only one mammalian species. At least one gene responsible for Ia hyperinduction is located outside the rat RT-1 or the mouse MHC locus. Animals congenic at the RT-1 or MHC locus of the resistant strain but with background genes of the susceptible strain exhibit intermediate levels of Ia compared to fully resistant and susceptible rodents, which fits well with the reduced EAE susceptibility of these congenic animals. Furthermore, hyperinduction of Ia is astrocyte specific, since peritoneal macrophages of susceptible and resistant strains exhibit identical profiles of Ia induction. Thus, astrocyte Ia hyperinducibility may be a major strain- and tissue-specific factor that contributes to Ia-restricted DTH reactions in the brain.

  1. Analeptic effect of centrally administered histamine H2-receptor agonist dimaprit but not impromidine in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Paakkari, I; Karppanen, H

    1982-02-01

    Intracerebroventricularly administered dimaprit decreased the depth of urethane anaesthesia. Ventilatory stimulation, positive corneal reflex and increased susceptibility to pain were observed. Furthermore, dimaprit decreased the lethal effect of large doses of urethane. The analeptic property of dimaprit was not shared by the potent H2-receptor agonist, impromidine, Histamine increased ventilatory tidal volume but no other stimulatory effects were observed. These findings suggest that the analeptic effects of dimaprit were not mediated by H2-receptors. Among the analeptic effects of dimaprit, only the protection against urethane toxicity was antagonized by metiamide. However, this phenomenon appeared to be due to the nonspecific interaction between the three bradypnoeic drugs metiamide, dimaprit and urethane. The histamine-induced increase in ventilatory tidal volume was not antagonized by diphenhydramine or metiamide, suggesting the existence of a novel histaminergic mechanism in the central nervous system. PMID:6121302

  2. Absence of IFN-γ increases brain pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-susceptible DRB1*0301.DQ8 HLA transgenic mice through secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 and induction of pathogenic monocytes/microglia into the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Ashutosh K; Luo, Ningling; Luckey, David; Papke, Louisa; Hubbard, Alyssa; Wussow, Arika; Smart, Michele; Giri, Shailendra; Rodriguez, Moses; David, Chella

    2014-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS of presumed autoimmune origin. Of all the genetic factors linked with multiple sclerosis, MHC class II molecules have the strongest association. Generation of HLA class II transgenic (Tg) mice has helped to elucidate the role of HLA class II genes in chronic inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. We have shown that the human HLA-DRB1*0301 gene predisposes to proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), whereas HLA-DQβ1*0601 (DQ6) was resistant. We also showed that the DQ6 molecule protects from EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ6 double-Tg mice by producing anti-inflammatory IFN-γ. HLA-DQβ1*0302 (DQ8) Tg mice were also resistant to PLP(91-110)-induced EAE, but production of proinflammatory IL-17 exacerbated disease in DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice. To further confirm the role of IFN-γ in protection, we generated DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice lacking IFN-γ (DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-)). Immunization with PLP(91-110) peptide caused atypical EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-) mice characterized by ataxia, spasticity, and dystonia, hallmarks of brain-specific disease. Severe brain-specific inflammation and demyelination in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-) mice with minimal spinal cord pathology further confirmed brain-specific pathology. Atypical EAE in DRB1*0301.DQ8.IFN-γ(-/-) mice was associated with increased encephalitogenicity of CD4 T cells and their ability to produce greater levels of IL-17 and GM-CSF compared with DRB1*0301.DQ8 mice. Further, areas with demyelination showed increased presence of CD68(+) inflammatory cells, suggesting an important role for monocytes/microglia in causing brain pathology. Thus, our study supports a protective role for IFN-γ in the demyelination of brain through downregulation of IL-17/GM-CSF and induction of neuroprotective factors in the brain by monocytes/microglial cells. PMID:25339670

  3. Brain systems underlying susceptibility to helplessness and depression.

    PubMed

    Shumake, J; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2003-09-01

    There has been a relative lack of research into the neurobiological predispositions that confer vulnerability to depression. This article reviews functional brain mappings from a genetic animal model, the congenitally helpless rat, which is predisposed to develop learned helplessness. Neurometabolic findings from this model are integrated with the neuroscientific literature from other animal models of depression as well as depressed humans. Changes in four major brain systems are suggested to underlie susceptibility to helplessness and possibly depression: (a) an unbalanced prefrontal-cingulate cortical system, (b) a dissociated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, (c) a dissociated septal-hippocampal system, and (d) a hypoactive brain reward system, as exemplified by a hypermetabolic habenula-interpeduncular nucleus pathway and a hypometabolic ventral tegmental area-striatum pathway. Functional interconnections and causal relationships among these systems are considered and further experiments are suggested, with theoretical attention to how an abnormality in any one system could affect the others. PMID:15006293

  4. Consanguinity and susceptibility to infectious diseases in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Emily J.; Frodsham, Angela J.; Zhang, Lyna; Hill, Adrian V.S.; Amos, William

    2009-01-01

    Studies of animal populations suggest that low genetic heterozygosity is an important risk factor for infection by a diverse range of pathogens, but relatively little research has looked to see whether similar patterns exist in humans. We have used microsatellite genome screen data for tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis and leprosy to test the hypothesis that inbreeding depression increases risk of infection. Our results indicate that inbred individuals are more common among our infected cases for TB and hepatitis, but only in populations where consanguineous marriages are common. No effect was found either for leprosy, which is thought to be oligogenic, or for hepatitis in Italy where consanguineous marriages are rare. Our results suggest that consanguinity is an important risk factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases in humans. PMID:19324620

  5. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. PMID:24461550

  6. Polymorphic variation in susceptibility and metabolism of triclosan-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains obtained after exposure to biocides and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Curiao, Tânia; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco R; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to biocides may result in cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. Changes in biocide and antibiotic susceptibilities, metabolism, and fitness costs were studied here in biocide-selected Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants. E. coli and K. pneumoniae mutants with various degrees of triclosan susceptibility were obtained after exposure to triclosan (TRI), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), chlorhexidine (CHX) or sodium hypochlorite (SHC), and ampicillin or ciprofloxacin. Alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility and metabolism in mutants were tested using Phenotype MicroArrays. The expression of AcrAB pump and global regulators (SoxR, MarA, and RamA) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the central part of the fabI gene was sequenced. The fitness costs of resistance were assessed by a comparison of relative growth rates. Triclosan-resistant (TRI(r)) and triclosan-hypersusceptible (TRI(hs)) mutants of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were obtained after selection with biocides and/or antibiotics. E. coli TRI(r) mutants, including those with mutations in the fabI gene or in the expression of acrB, acrF, and marA, exhibited changes in susceptibility to TRI, CHX, and antibiotics. TRI(r) mutants for which the TRI MIC was high presented improved metabolism of carboxylic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. In TRI(r) mutants, resistance to one antimicrobial provoked hypersusceptibility to another one(s). TRI(r) mutants had fitness costs, particularly marA-overexpressing (E. coli) or ramA-overexpressing (K. pneumoniae) mutants. TRI, BKC, and CIP exposure frequently yielded TRI(r) mutants exhibiting alterations in AraC-like global regulators (MarA, SoxR, and RamA), AcrAB-TolC, and/or FabI, and influencing antimicrobial susceptibility, fitness, and metabolism. These various phenotypes suggest a trade-off of different selective processes shaping the evolution toward antibiotic/biocide resistance and influencing other adaptive

  7. [Antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical Nocardia isolates identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis].

    PubMed

    Uner, Mahmut Celalettin; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Müştak, Hamit Kaan

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia species are ubiquitous in the environment and responsible for various human infections such as pulmonary, cutaneous, central nervous system and disseminated nocardiosis. Since the clinical pictures and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Nocardia species exhibit variability, susceptibility testing is recommended for every Nocardia isolates. The aims of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Nocardia clinical isolates and to compare the results of broth microdilution and disc diffusion susceptibility tests. A total of 45 clinical Nocardia isolates (isolated from 17 respiratory tract, 8 brain abscess, 7 pus, 3 skin, 3 conjunctiva, 2 blood, 2 tissue, 2 pleural fluid and 1 cerebrospinal fluid samples) were identified by using conventional methods and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing was performed for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) by broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria recommended in 2011 approved standard (M24-A2) and disk diffusion method used as an alternative comparative susceptibility testing method. Among the 45 Nocardia strains, N.cyriacigeorgica (n: 26, 57.8%) was the most common species, followed by N.farcinica (n: 12, 26.7%), N.otitiscaviarum (n: 4, 8.9%), N.asteroides (n: 1, 2.2%), N.neocaledoniensis (n: 1, 2.2%) and N.abscessus (n: 1, 2.2%). Amikacin and linezolid were the only two antimicrobials to which all isolates were susceptible for both broth microdilution and disk diffusion tests. In broth microdilution test, resistance rates to TMP-SMX, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were found as 15.6%, 37.8% and 84.4% respectively, whereas in the disk diffusion test, the highest resistance rate was observed against ciprofloxacin (n: 33, 73.3%), followed by TMP-SMX (n: 22, 48.9%) and ceftriaxone (n: 15, 33.3%). In both of these tests, N.cyriacigeorgica was the species with the

  8. Susceptibility of Treatment-Naive Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Clinical Isolates to HCV Protease Inhibitors ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Andrew; Sun, Siu-Chi; Qi, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiaowu; Ku, Karin; Worth, Angela; Wong, Kelly A.; Harris, Jeanette; Miller, Michael D.; Mo, Hongmei

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the natural variation in susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors (PIs) among untreated HCV patient samples, the susceptibilities of 39 baseline clinical isolates were determined using a transient-replication assay on a panel of HCV PIs, including two α-ketoamides (VX-950 and SCH-503034) and three macrocyclic inhibitors (MK-7009, ITMN-191, and TMC-435350). Some natural variation in susceptibility to all HCV PIs tested was observed among the baseline clinical isolates. The susceptibility to VX-950 correlated strongly with the susceptibility to SCH-503034. A moderate correlation was observed between the susceptibilities to ITMN-191 and MK-7009. In contrast, the phenotypic correlations between the α-ketoamides and macrocyclic inhibitors were significantly lower. This difference is partly attributable to reduced susceptibility of the HCV variants containing the NS3 polymorphism Q80K (existing in 47% of genotype 1a isolates) to the macrocyclic compounds but no change in the sensitivity of the same variants to the α-ketoamides tested. Our results suggest that the natural variation in baseline susceptibility may contribute to different degrees of antiviral response among patients in vivo, particularly at lower doses. PMID:20855726

  9. RAD51 and Breast Cancer Susceptibility: No Evidence for Rare Variant Association in the Breast Cancer Family Registry Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Oliver, Javier; Damiola, Francesca; Forey, Nathalie; Robinot, Nivonirina; Durand, Geoffroy; Voegele, Catherine; Vallée, Maxime P.; Byrnes, Graham; Registry, Breast Cancer Family; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Andrulis, Irene L.; John, Esther M.; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Lesueur, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Background Although inherited breast cancer has been associated with germline mutations in genes that are functionally involved in the DNA homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway, including BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2 and PALB2, about 70% of breast cancer heritability remains unexplained. Because of their critical functions in maintaining genome integrity and already well-established associations with breast cancer susceptibility, it is likely that additional genes involved in the HRR pathway harbor sequence variants associated with increased risk of breast cancer. RAD51 plays a central biological function in DNA repair and despite the fact that rare, likely dysfunctional variants in three of its five paralogs, RAD51C, RAD51D, and XRCC2, have been associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk, no population-based case-control mutation screening data are available for the RAD51 gene. We thus postulated that RAD51 could harbor rare germline mutations that confer increased risk of breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened the coding exons and proximal splice junction regions of the gene for germline sequence variation in 1,330 early-onset breast cancer cases and 1,123 controls from the Breast Cancer Family Registry, using the same population-based sampling and analytical strategy that we developed for assessment of rare sequence variants in ATM and CHEK2. In total, 12 distinct very rare or private variants were characterized in RAD51, with 10 cases (0.75%) and 9 controls (0.80%) carrying such a variant. Variants were either likely neutral missense substitutions (3), silent substitutions (4) or non-coding substitutions (5) that were predicted to have little effect on efficiency of the splicing machinery. Conclusion Altogether, our data suggest that RAD51 tolerates so little dysfunctional sequence variation that rare variants in the gene contribute little, if anything, to breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:23300655

  10. Transforming growth factor-beta mediates intestinal healing and susceptibility to injury in vitro and in vivo through epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Beck, Paul L; Rosenberg, Ian M; Xavier, Ramnik J; Koh, Theodore; Wong, Josée F; Podolsky, Daniel K

    2003-02-01

    In vitro studies suggest that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta has potent effects on gastrointestinal mucosal integrity, wound repair, and neoplasia. However, the multiplicity of actions of this peptide on many different cell types confounds efforts to define the role of TGF-beta within the intestinal epithelium in vivo. To delineate these effects selective blockade of intestinal epithelial TGF-beta activity was undertaken through targeted expression of a dominant-negative (DN) TGF-beta RII to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Stable intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-6 lines overexpressing TGF-beta RII-DN (nucleotides -7 to 573) were established. Transgenic mice overexpressing TGF-beta RII-DN under the regulation of a modified liver fatty acid-binding promoter (LFABP-PTS4) were constructed. In vitro healing was assessed by wounding of confluent monolayers. Colitis was induced by the addition of dextran sodium sulfate (2.5 to 7.5% w/v) to their drinking water. Overexpression of TGF-beta RII-DN in intestinal epithelial cell-6 cells resulted in a marked reduction in cell migration and TGF-beta-stimulated wound healing in vitro. TGF-beta RII-DN transgenic mice did not exhibit baseline intestinal inflammation or changes in survival, body weight, epithelial cell proliferation, aberrant crypt foci, or tumor formation. TGF-beta RII-DN mice were markedly more susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and exhibited impaired recovery after colonic injury. TGF-beta is required for intestinal mucosal healing and TGF-beta modulation of the intestinal epithelium plays a central role in determining susceptibility to injury. PMID:12547717

  11. Central Cascadia subduction zone creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzle, Gina M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Creager, Kenneth C.

    2014-04-01

    Cascadia between 43°N and 46°N has reduced interseismic uplift observed in geodetic data and coseismic subsidence seen in multiple thrust earthquakes, suggesting elevated persistent fault creep in this section of the subduction zone. We estimate subduction thrust "decade-scale" locking and crustal block rotations from three-component continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from 1997 to 2013, as well as 80 year tide gauge and leveling-derived uplift rates. Geodetic observations indicate coastal central Oregon is rising at a slower rate than coastal Washington, southern Oregon and northern California. Modeled locking distributions suggest a wide locking transition zone that extends inland under central Oregon. Paleoseismic records of multiple great earthquakes along Cascadia indicate less subsidence in central Oregon. The Cascade thrust under central Oregon may be partially creeping for at least 6500 years (the length of the paleoseismic record) reducing interseismic uplift and resulting in reduced coseismic subsidence. Large accretions of Eocene age basalt (Siletzia terrane) between 43°N and 46°N may be less permeable compared to surrounding terranes, potentially increasing pore fluid pressures along the fault interface resulting in a wide zone of persistent fault creep. In a separate inversion, three-component GPS time series from 1 July 2005 to 1 January 2011 are used to estimate upper plate deformation, locking between slow-slip events (SSEs), slip from 16 SSEs and an earthquake mechanism. Cumulative SSEs and tectonic tremor are weakest between 43°N and 46°N where partial fault creep is increased and Siletzia terrane is thick, suggesting that surrounding rock properties may influence the mode of slip.

  12. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ADULTS FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENT EXPOSURE TO NEUROTOXICANTS: ANOTHER SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is considerable public and regulatory interest in the adverse outcomes of developmental exposure to toxicants. The 1996 Food Quality Protection Act spurred research on understanding potential neurotoxic, immunotoxic, and endocrine outcomes in susceptible populations, parti...

  13. Candida and candidaemia. Susceptibility and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2013-11-01

    In our part of the world invasive fungal infections include invasive yeast infections with Candida as the absolutely dominating pathogen and invasive mould infections with Aspergillus as the main organism. Yeasts are part of our normal micro-flora and invasive infections arise only when barrier leakage or impaired immune function occurs. On the contrary, moulds are ubiquitous in the nature and environment and their conidia inhaled at a daily basis. Hence invasive mould infections typically arise from the airways whereas invasive yeast infections typically enter the bloodstream causing fungaemia. Candida is by far the most common fungal blood stream pathogen; hence this genus has been the main focus of this thesis. As neither the Danish epidemiology nor the susceptibility of fungal pathogens was well described when we initiated our studies we initially wanted to be able to include animal models in our work. Therefore, a comprehensive animal study was undertaken comparing the virulence in a haematogenous mouse model of eight different Candida species including the five most common ones in human infections (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis and in addition three rarer species C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr). We found remarkable differences in the virulence among these species and were able to group the species according to decreasing virulence in three groups I: C. albicans and C. tropicalis, II: C. glabrata, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr, and III: C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Apart from being necessary for our subsequent animal experiments exploring in vivo antifungal susceptibility, these findings also helped us understand at least part of the reason for the differences in the epidemiology and the pitfalls associated with the establishment of genus rather than species specific breakpoints. In example, it was less surprising that C. albicans has been the dominant pathogen and associated with a

  14. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  15. Aphid-encoded variability in susceptibility to a parasitoid

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many animals exhibit variation in resistance to specific natural enemies. Such variation may be encoded in their genomes or derived from infection with protective symbionts. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, for example, exhibits tremendous variation in susceptibility to a common natural enemy, the parasitic wasp Aphidius ervi. Pea aphids are often infected with the heritable bacterial symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, which confers partial to complete resistance against this parasitoid depending on bacterial strain and associated bacteriophages. That previous studies found that pea aphids without H. defensa (or other symbionts) were generally susceptible to parasitism, together with observations of a limited encapsulation response, suggested that pea aphids largely rely on infection with H. defensa for protection against parasitoids. However, the limited number of uninfected clones previously examined, and our recent report of two symbiont-free resistant clones, led us to explicitly examine aphid-encoded variability in resistance to parasitoids. Results After rigorous screening for known and unknown symbionts, and microsatellite genotyping to confirm clonal identity, we conducted parasitism assays using fifteen clonal pea aphid lines. We recovered significant variability in aphid-encoded resistance, with variation levels comparable to that contributed by H. defensa. Because resistance can be costly, we also measured aphid longevity and cumulative fecundity of the most and least resistant aphid lines under permissive conditions, but found no trade-offs between higher resistance and these fitness parameters. Conclusions These results indicate that pea aphid resistance to A. ervi is more complex than previously appreciated, and that aphids employ multiple tactics to aid in their defense. While we did not detect a tradeoff, these may become apparent under stressful conditions or when resistant and susceptible aphids are in direct competition. Understanding

  16. Monitoring noise susceptibility: sensitivity of otoacoustic emissions and subjective audiometry.

    PubMed

    Plinkert, P K; Hemmert, W; Wagner, W; Just, K; Zenner, H P

    1999-12-01

    The capacity of different audiological methods to detect a high noise susceptibility was examined in 20 normally hearing and 26 especially noise-susceptible subjects. The latter were selected from 422 soldiers in field studies: they had shown a temporary threshold shift (TTS) in pure tone audiometry (PTA) after regular training with firearms. In laboratory experiments, the TTS-positive soldiers were re-examined using greatly reduced sound intensities, which caused no TTS in a control subject group. Before and after acoustic stimulation, different subjective (PTA, high frequency audiometry (HFA), upper limit of hearing (ULH)) and objective (transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), distortion products (DPOAE)) audiological tests were performed. After exposure to low impact noise in the laboratory, in both PTA and HFA, a TTS was observed in 11.5% (N = 3) of the noise-susceptible group (compared to 0% in the control group). In the TTS-positive group, deterioration of the ULH occurred in 28% (N = 7) (compared to 15% (N = 3) in the control group). An ULH improvement occurred in only one subject (3.8%) (compared to 25% (N = 5) in the control group). Significant alterations of click-evoked OAE-amplitudes were found in 26.9% (N = 7) of the selected groups, whereas stable emissions were observed in all but one subject (5%) of the control group. However, DPOAE alterations were seen in 19.2% (N = 5) of the TTS-positive soldiers but also in 25% (N = 5) of the control group. These results suggest that TEOAE provides a more sensitive and more objective method of detecting a subtle noise-induced disturbance of cochlear function than do PTA or DPOAE. PMID:10656598

  17. Red Blood Cell Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Peter A.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection has been widely recognised to result from absence of the Duffy (Fy) blood group from the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) in individuals of African descent. Interestingly, recent studies from different malaria-endemic regions have begun to reveal new perspectives on the association between Duffy gene polymorphism and P. vivax malaria. In Papua New Guinea and the Americas, heterozygous carriers of a Duffy-negative allele are less susceptible to P. vivax infection than Duffy-positive homozygotes. In Brazil, studies show that the Fya antigen, compared to Fyb, is associated with lower binding to the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein and reduced susceptibility to vivax malaria. Additionally, it is interesting that numerous studies have now shown that P. vivax can infect RBCs and cause clinical disease in Duffy-negative people. This suggests that the relationship between P. vivax and the Duffy antigen is more complex than customarily described. Evidence of P. vivax Duffy-independent red cell invasion indicates that the parasite must be evolving alternative red cell invasion pathways. In this chapter, we review the evidence for P. vivax Duffy-dependent and Duffy-independent red cell invasion. We also consider the influence of further host gene polymorphism associated with malaria endemicity on susceptibility to vivax malaria. The interaction between the parasite and the RBC has significant potential to influence the effectiveness of P. vivax-specific vaccines and drug treatments. Ultimately, the relationships between red cell polymorphisms and P. vivax blood-stage infection will influence our estimates on the population at risk and efforts to eliminate vivax malaria. PMID:23384621

  18. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  19. Recalling a witnessed event increases eyewitness suggestibility: the reversed testing effect.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason C K; Thomas, Ayanna K; Bulevich, John B

    2009-01-01

    People's later memory of an event can be altered by exposure to misinformation about that event. The typical misinformation paradigm, however, does not include a recall test prior to the introduction of misinformation, contrary to what real-life eyewitnesses encounter when they report to a 911 operator or crime-scene officer. Because retrieval is a powerful memory enhancer (the testing effect), recalling a witnessed event prior to receiving misinformation about it should reduce eyewitness suggestibility. We show, however, that immediate cued recall actually exacerbates the later misinformation effect for both younger and older adults. The reversed testing effect we observed was based on two mechanisms: First, immediate cued recall enhanced learning of the misinformation; second, the initially recalled details became particularly susceptible to interference from later misinformation, a finding suggesting that even human episodic memory may undergo a reconsolidation process. These results show that real-life eyewitness memory may be even more susceptible to misinformation than is currently envisioned. PMID:19037905

  20. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE CORAL MONTASTRAEA FAVEOLATE TO BLACK-BAND DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black-band disease affects many species of tropical reef-building corals, but it is unclear what factors contribute to the disease-susceptibility of individual corals or how the disease is transmitted between colonies. Studies have suggested that the ability of black-band disease...

  2. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  3. Affiliation with Antisocial Peers, Susceptibility to Peer Influence, and Antisocial Behavior during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Developmental theories suggest that affiliation with deviant peers and susceptibility to peer influence are important contributors to adolescent delinquency, but it is unclear how these variables impact antisocial behavior during the transition to adulthood, a period when most delinquent individuals decline in antisocial behavior. Using data from…

  4. Report of Two Fatal Cases of Mycobacterium mucogenicum Central Nervous System Infection in Immunocompetent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adékambi, Toïdi; Foucault, Cedric; La Scola, Bernard; Drancourt, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Neurological infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have rarely been reported. We recently investigated two unrelated immunocompetent patients, one with community-acquired lymphocytic meningitis and the other with cerebral thrombophlebitis. Mycobacterium mucogenicum was isolated in pure culture and detected by PCR sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid samples. Both patients eventually died. The two isolates exhibited an overlapping antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. They were susceptible in vitro to tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, amikacin, imipenem, cefoxitin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and resistant to ceftriaxone. They shared 100% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with M. mucogenicum ATCC 49650T over 1,482 bp. Their partial rpoB sequences shared 97.8% and 98.1% similarity with M. mucogenicum ATCC 49650T, suggesting that the two isolates were representative of two sequevars of M. mucogenicum species. This case report should make clinicians aware that M. mucogenicum, an RGM frequently isolated from tap water or from respiratory specimens and mostly without clinical significance, can even be encountered in the central nervous system of immunocompetent patients. PMID:16517863

  5. Carbapenem Resistance among Enterobacter Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Atul; Praharaj, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Mahadevan; Grover, Naveen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To detect genes encoding carbapenem resistance among Enterobacter species in a tertiary care hospital in central India. Methods. Bacterial identification of Enterobacter spp. isolates from various clinical specimens in patients admitted to intensive care units was performed by routine conventional microbial culture and biochemical tests using standard recommended techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. PCR amplification and automated sequencing was carried out. Transfer of resistance genes was determined by conjugation. Results. A total of 70/130 (53.84%) isolates of Enterobacter spp. were found to exhibit reduced susceptibility to imipenem (diameter of zones of inhibition ≤13 mm) by disc diffusion method. Among 70 isolates tested, 48 (68.57%) isolates showed MIC values for imipenem and meropenem ranging from 32 to 64 mg/L as per CLSI breakpoints. All of these 70 isolates were found susceptible to colistin in vitro as per MIC breakpoints (<0.5 mg/L). PCR carried out on these 48 MBL (IP/IPI) E-test positive isolates (12 Enterobacter aerogenes, 31 Enterobacter cloacae, and 05 Enterobacter cloacae complex) was validated by sequencing for beta-lactam resistance genes and result was interpreted accordingly. Conclusion. The study showed MBL production as an important mechanism in carbapenem resistance in Enterobacter spp. and interspecies transfer of these genes through plasmids suggesting early detection by molecular methods. PMID:25180095

  6. Central vestibular disease in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) with cerebral infarction and hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Grosset, Claire; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Keating, M Kelly; Gaffney, Patricia M; Lowenstine, Linda; Zwingenberger, Allison; Young, Alex C; Vernau, Karen M; Sokoloff, Amberly M; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2014-06-01

    A 24-year-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented for an acute onset of left head tilt. On examination, the macaw was dehydrated and had a 120-degree left head tilt, decreased proprioception of the left pelvic limb, and intermittent vertical nystagmus. Results of hematologic testing and biochemical analysis revealed severe leukocytosis with lymphopenia and heterophilia and a high uric acid concentration. Radiographs showed bilateral intertarsal joint osteoarthritis and a healed ulnar fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed focal T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense lesions in the right cerebral hemisphere and in the midbrain. The midbrain lesion showed susceptibility artifact on the T2* sequence, suggesting hemorrhage. In the T2* sequence, iron accumulation (as seen with hemorrhage) distorts the magnetic signal, resulting in the production of a susceptibility artifact, which can then be visualized as a region of hypointensity. The bird was hospitalized but died despite intensive care. Necropsy revealed multiple cerebral vascular lesions including an acute cerebral infarct, a ruptured midbrain aneurysm, and multifocal systemic atherosclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cerebral aneurysm in a bird. This report correlates the clinical presentation, imaging, and histopathologic findings in a macaw with central vestibular disease and demonstrates how advanced imaging techniques can identify hemorrhagic lesions through the T2* sequence. PMID:25115042

  7. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies

    PubMed Central

    Pasta, Vittorio; D’Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing—along with the removal of the NAC—is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  8. Sensitivity analysis and scale issues in landslide susceptibility mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, Filippo; Lagomarsino, Daniela; Segoni, Samuele; Tofani, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    random forest enables to estimate the relative importance of the single input parameters and to select the optimal configuration of the regression model. The model was initially applied using the complete set of input parameters, then with progressively smaller subsamples of the parameter space. Considering the best set of parameters we also studied the impact of scale and accuracy of input variables and the influence of the RF model random component on the susceptibility results. We apply the model statistics to a test area in central Italy, the hydrographic basin of the Arno river (ca. 9000 km2), we present the obtained results and discuss them. We also use the outcomes of the parameter sensitivity analysis to investigate the different role of environmental factors in the test area.

  9. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter suis strains.

    PubMed

    Vermoote, Miet; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Van Deun, Kim; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2011-12-15

    Helicobacter suis is a very fastidious porcine gastric pathogen, which is also considered to be of zoonotic importance. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility cannot be determined using standard assays, as this agent only grows in a biphasic medium with an acidic pH. Therefore, a combined agar and broth dilution method was used to analyse the activity of nine antimicrobial agents against nine H. suis isolates. After 48 h microaerobic incubation, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by software-assisted calculation of bacterial growth. Only for enrofloxacin a bimodal distribution of MICs was demonstrated, indicating acquired resistance in one strain, which showed an AGT→AGG (Ser→Arg) substitution at codon 99 of gyrA. In conclusion, the assay developed here is suitable for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. suis isolates, although activity of acid sensitive antimicrobial agents may be higher than predicted from MIC endpoints. PMID:21733643

  11. Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M

    2015-05-15

    The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin. PMID:25922408

  12. Susceptibility of avian hosts to experimental Gymnophalloides seoi infection.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Y S; Yoo, J C; Lee, S H; Chai, J Y

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether avian species are susceptible to infection with Gymnophalloides seoi (a human-infecting intestinal trematode), we exposed 7 species of birds with metacercariae obtained from oysters. The birds were necropsied at days 2, 4, and 6 postinfection (PI). The highest worm recovery at day 6 PI was obtained from the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus; mean = 56.0%), followed by the Mongolian plover (C. mongolus; 49.3%), and the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola; 32.3%). In contrast, no mature worms were recovered from the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), dunlin (C. alpina), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Among the plovers, the worms attained the greatest size at day 6 PI (254.1 x 190.4 microm) in the Kentish plover, with a significantly higher number of eggs in the uterus. The 3 species of plovers are highly susceptible to experimental G. seoi infection, suggesting that they could play a role as definitive hosts for these worms in nature. PMID:11318587

  13. Susceptibility of Monkeypox virus aerosol suspensions in a rotating chamber

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Daniel; Killeen, Stephanie Z.; Redmann, Rachel K.; Roy, Chad. J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Viral aerosols can have a major impact on public health and on the dynamics of infection. Once aerosolized, viruses are subjected to various stress factors and their integrity and potential of infectivity can be altered. Empirical characterization is needed in order to predict more accurately the fate of these bioaerosols both for short term and long term suspension in the air. Here the susceptibility to aerosolization of the monkeypox virus (MPXV), associated with emerging zoonotic diseases, was studied using a 10.7 liter rotating chamber. This chamber was built to fit inside a Class three biological safety cabinet, specifically for studying airborne biosafety level three (BSL3) microorganisms. Airborne viruses were detected by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after up to 90 hours of aging. Viral concentrations detected dropped by two logs for culture analysis and by one log for qPCR analysis within the first 18 hours of aging; viral concentrations were stable between 18 and 90 hours, suggesting a potential for the MPXV to retain infectivity in aerosols for more than 90 hours. The rotating chamber used in this study maintained viral particles airborne successfully for prolonged periods and could be used to study the susceptibility of other BSL3 microorganisms. PMID:23142251

  14. Neprilysin Confers Genetic Susceptibility to Alzheimer's Disease in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Zhen; Bi, Rui; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Yiru; Li, Tao; Zhang, Chen; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, with increasing incidence all over the world. Amyloid-β (Aβ) was considered to be the original cause to AD, and many reported pathogenic or risk genes for AD were located in the Aβ generation and degradation pathways. Neprilysin (NEP), insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) are the most important Aβ-degrading proteases. Accumulating genetic evidence suggested that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these genes confer susceptibility to AD in Caucasian populations. In this study, we screened eight SNPs within these three Aβ-degrading protease genes in 1475 individuals of two independent Han Chinese case-control cohorts. SNP rs1816558 of NEP was found to be significantly associated with AD after adjustment for ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOEε4) and the Bonferroni correction. The remaining variants were not associated with risk of AD in Han Chinese sample set. Further data mining revealed that messenger RNA (mRNA) level of NEP substantially increased during the development of AD and was positively correlated with APP expression. The combined results indicated that NEP confers genetic susceptibility to AD in Han Chinese populations. PMID:26362309

  15. Susceptibility of some oral microorganisms to chlorhexidine and paramonochlorophenol.

    PubMed

    do Amorim, Crystiane Venditi Gomes; Aun, Carlos Eduardo; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves

    2004-01-01

    Since the use of antimicrobial agents is required in endodontic therapies, this study aimed at determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chlorhexidine digluconate and paramonochlorophenol (PMC) against microorganisms commonly found in endodontic infections. Both agents were tested by agar dilution tests against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella denticola and Prevotella melaninogenica. The MIC of chlorhexidine ranged from 2.67 to 80.00 microg/ml, and the MIC of PMC from 46.67 to 213.33 microg/ml. The highest MIC value of PMC was detected for E. faecalis whereas E. coli was the most susceptible microorganism to this agent. The highest MIC values of chlorhexidine were observed for P. aeruginosa whereas E. coli and P. denticola were the most susceptible microorganisms to this agent. Since the MIC values observed are much lower than the concentrations currently used in the endodontic therapy, it is suggested that both agents are effective in reducing the microbiota in the root canal. PMID:15619879

  16. Age-related changes in serological susceptibility patterns to measles

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yongzhen; Wang, Dong; Lin, Weiyan; Tang, Hao; Chen, Shaoli; Ni, Jindong

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of IgG measles antibodies in Dongguan residents (irrespective of vaccination status), to analyze the changes in age-related serological susceptibility patterns. A total of 1960 residents aged 0–60 years and 315 mother–infant pairs were studied. Serum IgG antibodies against measles virus were measured by ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 93.4% in the general population in Dongguan, China. In subgroups aged 1–29 years who were likely vaccinated, there was a declining trend of seropositivity with age from 98.6% at 1–4 years to 85.7% at 20–29 years (P < 0.0001). Seroprevalence were near or >95% in the older population (30–39 years and ≥40 years) who had not been immunized against measles. Age and sex were independent factors associated with seropositivity. Seroprevalence in pregnant women and their newborns was 87.0% and 84.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that the waning vaccine-induced immunity may be the main cause of increased serological susceptibility in young adults and young infants. An additional vaccination strategy that targets young adults is important for elimination of measles. PMID:24448194

  17. Gingivitis Susceptibility and its Relation to Periodontitis in Men

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, T.; Kaye, E. Krall; Nunn, M.E.; Van Dyke, T.; Garcia, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate whether gingivitis susceptibility is associated with periodontitis. We analyzed data of 462 men in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study aged 47 to 92 years who had never smoked or had quit smoking 5+ years previously. Multiple logistic regression models, with tooth-level bleeding on probing at sites with attachment loss ≤ 2 mm as the dependent variable, were derived with adjustment for plaque, calculus, crown coverage, age, income, education, marital status, body mass index, diabetes, and vitamin C intake, and stratification by age (< 65, 65+ years). Periodontitis and mean attachment loss were positively associated with bleeding on probing, with stronger associations among men < 65 years old (for periodontitis, OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5, 3.1) than men 65+ years of age (OR 1.2; 95% CI 0.9, 1.6). Our results suggest that among never and former smokers, gingivitis susceptibility is higher among men with periodontitis compared with that in men without periodontitis. PMID:17122168

  18. Genetic Association Between PER3 Genetic Polymorphisms and Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Peiliang; Ou, Juanjuan; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Ning; Xie, Ganfeng; Sa, Rina; Liu, Chen; Xiang, Lisha; Liang, Houjie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genes along the circadian pathways control and modulate circadian rhythms essential for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis through self-sustained transcription-translation feedback loops. PER3 (period 3) is a circadian pathway gene and its variants (rs1012477, 4/5-repeat) have frequently been associated with human cancer. The mixed findings, however, make the role of the 2 variants in cancer susceptibility elusive. We aimed in this article to clarify the association of PER3 variants with cancer. We collected genetic data from 8 studies, providing 6149 individuals for rs1012477 and 5241 individuals for 4/5-repeat. Based on the genotype and allele frequency, we chose the fixed-effects model to estimate risk of cancer. Overall analysis did not suggest a global role of rs1012477 in cancer susceptibility. For PER3 4/5-repeat variant, we found a moderate increase in risk of cancer among individuals with the 5-allele compared to individuals with the 4-allele, although this association was not statistically significant (homozygous model: odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81–1.67; recessive model: OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.82–1.67). No substantial heterogeneity was revealed in this analysis. Our meta-analysis provides no evidence supporting a global association of PER3 genetic variants with the incidence of cancer. PMID:25837749

  19. Susceptibility for hydroperoxide formation of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Y; Shibata, T; Ueki, T; Miyazawa, T

    1995-06-01

    To compare the peroxidative susceptibilities of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in liposomes, multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were prepared with equimolar L-alpha-dilinoleoyl PC (DLPC) and L-alpha-dilinoleoyl PE (DLPE), and with soya PC and soya PE having a uniform constituent fatty acids. The hydroperoxide formation at 37 degrees C in the presence of a water-soluble radical initiator was examined by chemiluminescence-high-performance liquid chromatography (CL-HPLC), and the effect of heterogeneous distribution of PC and PE on peroxidation was investigated. No difference was found between the hydroperoxidation of PC and PE in MLVs systems, except that soya PC was more susceptible to peroxidation than soya PE in the L-alpha-dipalmitoyl PC (DPPC)-based liposomes. No correlation was found between the amount of phospholipids distributed in the external leaflet of MLVs and hydroperoxide formation. This result suggested that the unsaturation of constituent fatty acids in phospholipids is more important than the difference in the polar head group of phospholipids regarding their peroxidizabilities in liposomes. PMID:7472672

  20. In vitro susceptibility testing of Dientamoeba fragilis.

    PubMed

    Nagata, N; Marriott, D; Harkness, J; Ellis, J T; Stark, D

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a commonly encountered trichomonad which has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease in humans. Despite the frequency of reports recording infections with this parasite, little research has been undertaken in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of D. fragilis to several commonly used antiparasitic agents: diloxanide furoate, furazolidone, iodoquinol, metronidazole, nitazoxanide, ornidazole, paromomycin, secnidazole, ronidazole, tetracycline, and tinidazole. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on four clinical strains of D. fragilis, designated A, E, M, and V, respectively. Molecular testing followed, and all strains were determined to be genotype 1. The activities of antiprotozoal compounds at concentrations ranging from 2 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml were determined via cell counts of D. fragilis trophozoites grown in dixenic culture. Minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) were as follows: ornidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; ronidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; tinidazole, 31 μg/ml; metronidazole, 31 μg/ml; secnidazole, 31 to 63 μg/ml; nitazoxanide, 63 μg/ml; tetracycline, 250 μg/ml; furazolidone, 250 to 500 μg/ml; iodoquinol, 500 μg/ml; paromomycin, 500 μg/ml; and diloxanide furoate, >500 μg/ml. This is the first study to report the profiles of susceptibility to a wide range of commonly used treatments for clinical isolates of D. fragilis. Our study indicated 5-nitroimidazole derivatives to be the most active compounds in vitro against D. fragilis. PMID:22024820

  1. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Dientamoeba fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, N.; Marriott, D.; Harkness, J.; Ellis, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a commonly encountered trichomonad which has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease in humans. Despite the frequency of reports recording infections with this parasite, little research has been undertaken in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of D. fragilis to several commonly used antiparasitic agents: diloxanide furoate, furazolidone, iodoquinol, metronidazole, nitazoxanide, ornidazole, paromomycin, secnidazole, ronidazole, tetracycline, and tinidazole. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on four clinical strains of D. fragilis, designated A, E, M, and V, respectively. Molecular testing followed, and all strains were determined to be genotype 1. The activities of antiprotozoal compounds at concentrations ranging from 2 μg/ml to 500 μg/ml were determined via cell counts of D. fragilis trophozoites grown in dixenic culture. Minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) were as follows: ornidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; ronidazole, 8 to 16 μg/ml; tinidazole, 31 μg/ml; metronidazole, 31 μg/ml; secnidazole, 31 to 63 μg/ml; nitazoxanide, 63 μg/ml; tetracycline, 250 μg/ml; furazolidone, 250 to 500 μg/ml; iodoquinol, 500 μg/ml; paromomycin, 500 μg/ml; and diloxanide furoate, >500 μg/ml. This is the first study to report the profiles of susceptibility to a wide range of commonly used treatments for clinical isolates of D. fragilis. Our study indicated 5-nitroimidazole derivatives to be the most active compounds in vitro against D. fragilis. PMID:22024820

  2. Topological susceptibility with the improved Asqtad action

    SciTech Connect

    C. Bernard et al.

    2004-01-06

    As a test of the chiral properties of the improved Asqtad (staggered fermion) action, we have been measuring the topological susceptibility as a function of quark masses for 2 + 1 dynamical flavors. We report preliminary results, which show reasonable agreement with leading order chiral perturbation theory for lattice spacing less than 0.1 fm. The total topological charge, however, shows strong persistence over Monte Carlo time.

  3. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  4. Phase informed model for motion and susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Chloe; Andersson, Jesper; Deichmann, Ralf; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2013-11-01

    Field inhomogeneities caused by variations in magnetic susceptibility throughout the head lead to geometric distortions, mainly in the phase-encode direction of echo-planar images (EPI). The magnitude and spatial characteristics of the distortions depend on the orientation of the head in the magnetic field and will therefore vary with head movement. A new method is presented, based on a phase informed model for motion and susceptibility (PIMMS), which estimates the change in geometric distortion associated with head motion. This method fits a model of the head motion parameters and scanner hardware characteristics to EPI phase time series. The resulting maps of the model fit parameters are used to correct for susceptibility artifacts in the magnitude images. Results are shown for EPI-based fMRI time-series acquired at 3T, demonstrating that compared with conventional rigid body realignment, PIMMS removes residual variance associated with motion-related distortion effects. Furthermore, PIMMS can lead to a reduction in false negatives compared with the widely accepted approach which uses standard rigid body realignment and includes the head motion parameters in the statistical model. The PIMMS method can be used with any standard EPI sequence for which accurate phase information is available. PMID:22736546

  5. RF susceptibility of magnetic nanoparticles and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Srikanth; Hajndl, Ranko; Sanders, Jeff; Carpenter, Everett; Sudarshan, T.

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles embedded in non-magnetic matrices like polymers or dielectric oxides are of great technological interest as the coating provides encapsulation and prevents grain growth and agglomeration. Moreover, in electromagnetic applications, the systems can be considered as nanocomposites with possible multi-functionality resulting from the magnetic and dielectric response. We have studied the static and dynamic magnetic properties of as-prepared nanoparticles (Fe, Co, γ-Fe_2O_3, MnFe_2O_4) and particles dispersed in a matrix (like polystyrene, SiO_2). The systems ranged from polymerized magnetic nanopowders synthesized using a microwave plasma method to highly monodisperse nanoparticles prepared by reverse-micelle techniques. The magnetic anisotropy and switching fields in these materials were systematically tracked over a wide range in temperatures and fields using a novel resonant RF method based on a tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO) operating at 10 MHz. This technique accurately probes the dynamic transverse susceptibility and has been validated in several nanoparticle systems. While the overall behavior of the transverse susceptibility can be described by standard Stoner-Wohlfarth formalism, there are subtle variations in the transverse susceptibility features including the approach to saturation that are different in the particles embedded in a dielectric matrix. A comparison between several systems and the role of matrix-mediated interactions will be discussed. HS acknowledges support from NSF through grant # NSF-ECS-0102622

  6. Superparamagnetism and dynamic transverse susceptibility in magnetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinu, L.; Srikanth, H.; O'Connor, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    Dynamic transverse susceptibility (\\chi _T) measurements yield important information about spin dynamics in magnetic materials. They also provide a very sensitive and unique way to probe the magnetic anisotropy in novel systems like nanoparticles. We have developed a resonant method based on a tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO) operating at around 5 MHz to accurately measure the variation in dynamic transverse susceptibility over a wide range in temperature (5K to 300K) and static magnetic fields (0 to 9 T). Our experiments on magnetic nanoparticles (γ -Fe_2O_3/Ag nanocomposites), synthesized using reverse-micelle technique, reveal singular peaks in the low temperature transverse susceptibility at characteristic anisotropy fields (± 400 Oe). As the temperature is increased, the peaks evolve from being asymmetric to symmetric and eventually disappear at high temperatures well into the superparamagnetic regime. For the first time, we have mapped the complete variation of \\chi T in the H-T plane. We have also theoretically analyzed our results based on coherent rotation and find good agreement with a two-level model developed by us that includes thermal relaxation effects. This work is supported by DARPA through grant No. MDA 972-97-1-003

  7. Classification of Meteorites by Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Mary Lou; Stolarz, M.

    2006-09-01

    Measurement of bulk magnetic susceptibility per unit mass is a new, quick, non-destructive method to classify meteorites. Macke et al. (2005) and Rochette et al. (2003) used it to classify ordinary chondrites. We have used a KLY Kappabridge on twelve more diverse meteorites and found it to be an accurate classifier except for one meteorite sample. The iron meteorites had the strongest bulk magnetic susceptibility per unit mass, as expected. The ordinary chondrites separated clearly into their H, L, and LL (high, low, low low iron) categories. The carbonaceous chondrites were lower still, then the achondrite was the lowest. However, one carbonaceous chondrite, NWA 801, fell between H and L ordinary chondrites. It is classified as CR (Renazzo type), and this type of meteorite is known to contain some nickel-iron, magnetite and iron sulfides. Why these metals occur in this type of meteorite is not yet understood. We conclude that magnetic susceptibility measurements are an excellent way to classify meteorites without having to destroy them. However, this would have to be combined with other methods to properly classify meteorites of the CR type. We thank Bob Summerfield and Al Witzgall for assistance in obtaining samples, and Stephanie Brachfeld for use of her equipment.

  8. Human variability and susceptibility to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed Central

    Pastino, G M; Yap, W Y; Carroquino, M

    2000-01-01

    Although humans vary in their response to chemicals, comprehensive measures of susceptibility have generally not been incorporated into human risk assessment. The U.S. EPA dose-response-based risk assessments for cancer and the RfD/RfC (reference dose-reference concentration) approach for noncancer risk assessments are assumed to protect vulnerable human subgroups. However, these approaches generally rely on default assumptions and do not consider the specific biological basis for potential susceptibility to a given toxicant. In an effort to focus more explicitly on this issue, this article addresses biological factors that may affect human variability and susceptibility to trichloroethylene (TCE), a widely used halogenated industrial solvent. In response to Executive Order 13045, which requires federal agencies to make protection of children a high priority in implementing their policies and to take special risks to children into account when developing standards, this article examines factors that may affect risk of exposure to TCE in children. The influence of genetics, sex, altered health state, coexposure to alcohol, and enzyme induction on TCE toxicity are also examined. PMID:10807552

  9. Mechanisms underlying Children's susceptibility to environmental toxicants.

    PubMed Central

    Faustman, E M; Silbernagel, S M; Fenske, R A; Burbacher, T M; Ponce, R A

    2000-01-01

    An important public health challenge has been the need to protect children's health. To accomplish this goal, the scientific community needs scientifically based child-specific risk assessment methods. Critical to their development is the need to understand mechanisms underlying children's sensitivity to environmental toxicants. Risk is defined as the probability of adverse outcome and when applied to environmental risk assessment is usually defined as a function of both toxicity and exposure. To adequately evaluate the potential for enhanced health risks during development, both child-specific factors affecting toxicity and exposure need to be considered. In the first section of this article, example mechanisms of susceptibility relevant for toxicity assessment are identified and discussed. In the second section, examples of exposure factors that help define children's susceptibility are presented. Examples of pesticide research from the newly funded Child Health Center at the University of Washington will be given for illustration. The final section discusses the importance of putting these considerations of children's susceptibility into an overall framework for ascertaining relevancy for human risk assessment. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10698720

  10. Disk Agar Diffusion Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Saubolle, Michael A.; Hoeprich, Paul D.

    1978-01-01

    A disk agar diffusion method was developed for testing the susceptibility of rapidly growing yeasts in vitro. A totally defined, completely synthetic agar culture medium (synthetic amino acid medium, fungal) and clinical isolates of Candida spp. and Torulopsis glabrata were used. Turbidimetric adjustment of cell suspensions resulted in standard, reproducible inocula, which gave sharp, clear zones of inhibition when applied by an agar overlay method. Optimal disk loads were determined for amphotericin B, amphotericin B methyl ester, 5-fluorocytosine, clotrimazole, and miconazole. Disk potencies were stable over a 2-month period when stored in a vacuum desiccator at −30°C. Using an error ratebounded classification, the zones of inhibition were correlated with both broth dilution and agar dilution minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). With amphotericin B and amphotericin B methyl ester, all isolates were susceptible, yielding zone diameters which clustered within 5 mm. Overall correlations between zone diameters and broth dilution MICs with 5-fluorocytosine, miconazole, and clotrimazole were 97, 96, and 82% (excluding T. glabrata), respectively; correlations of zone diameters with agar dilution MICs were 96, 92, and 88%, respectively. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts appears to be generally applicable. However, when results are equivocal, quantitative test methods should be used. PMID:568910

  11. [An update on antifungal susceptibility testing].

    PubMed

    Tapia P, Cecilia V

    2009-04-01

    Due to increasing of invasive fungal infections and emergeney of antifungal drugs resistant fungi, standardized methods of antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) have been developed. The Clinical Laboratory Standards Instutute (CLSI) and the European for Committee Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) have guidelines for susceptibility of yeasts by broth microdilution (M27-A2 and E. Dis. 7.1 documents, respectively). Both are equivalent, although they present methodological and interpretative breakpoints differences. In addition, the CLSI have the M38-A (for filamentous fungi) and M44-A (disk diffusion) documents, whereas EUCAST is developing a document for Aspergillus spp. Furthermore, commercial methods are available that display good correlation with the methods of reference such as E-test, Sensititre and Vitek2. The interpretation of the results must be careful because the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (CIM) is difficult for fungi, there are host factors involved and not always there is a correlation between MIC and clinical outcome. Due to these methods are laborious and require trained personnel, to ask for AST to a reference laboratory is recommendable. PMID:19621145

  12. Genetic polymorphisms linked to susceptibility to malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The influence of host genetics on susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been extensively studied over the past twenty years. It is now clear that malaria parasites have imposed strong selective forces on the human genome in endemic regions. Different genes have been identified that are associated with different malaria related phenotypes. Factors that promote severity of malaria include parasitaemia, parasite induced inflammation, anaemia and sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in brain microvasculature. Recent advances in human genome research technologies such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine genotyping tools have enabled the discovery of several genetic polymorphisms and biomarkers that warrant further study in host-parasite interactions. This review describes and discusses human gene polymorphisms identified thus far that have been shown to be associated with susceptibility or resistance to P. falciparum malaria. Although some polymorphisms play significant roles in susceptibility to malaria, several findings are inconclusive and contradictory and must be considered with caution. The discovery of genetic markers associated with different malaria phenotypes will help elucidate the pathophysiology of malaria and enable development of interventions or cures. Diversity in human populations as well as environmental effects can influence the clinical heterogeneity of malaria, thus warranting further investigations with a goal of developing new interventions, therapies and better management against malaria. PMID:21929748

  13. Immune ageing and susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Mariana Torrente; Mitchell, Timothy J; Lord, Janet M

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a complex Gram-positive bacterium comprising over 90 different serotypes and is a major cause of pneumonia. Susceptibility to S. pneumoniae is remarkably age-related being greatest in children under 5 years old and adults over 65. Whilst the immaturity of the immune system is largely responsible for poor immunity in the former, the underlying causes of susceptibility in older adults is complex. Immunity to S. pneumoniae is mediated predominantly through the inflammatory response in the nasopharyngeal mucosa recruiting phagocytes (neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages) which recognise the pathogen via TLR2 and ingest and kill the bacteria, with the induction of Th17 cells being required to maintain neutrophil recruitment and ensure clearance of the infection. In this review we discuss the impact of ageing upon these aspects of immunity to S. pneumoniae, as well as age-related changes to the serotypes present in the adult nasopharyngeal tract which could further influence susceptibility to infection. PMID:26472172

  14. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of solid oxygen at pressures up to 3.3 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Mito, M. Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuruda, H.; Deguchi, H.; Ishizuka, M.

    2014-01-07

    The magnetic susceptibility of solid oxygen had long been observed only in the restricted pressure region below 0.8 GPa. We succeeded in extending the pressure region up to 3.3 GPa by clamping condensed oxygen in the sample chamber of a miniature diamond anvil cell and measuring the dc magnetic susceptibility using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. In this experiment, the well-known α–β and β–γ transitions are observed in the phase diagram, suggesting consistency with the previous results of X-ray and Raman studies. In addition, a new magnetic anomaly is observed in the β phase.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, drug resistance mechanisms, and therapy of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Nash, Kevin A; Wallace, Richard J

    2012-07-01

    Within the past 10 years, treatment and diagnostic guidelines for nontuberculous mycobacteria have been recommended by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Moreover, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has published and recently (in 2011) updated recommendations including suggested antimicrobial and susceptibility breakpoints. The CLSI has also recommended the broth microdilution method as the gold standard for laboratories performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria. This article reviews the laboratory, diagnostic, and treatment guidelines together with established and probable drug resistance mechanisms of the nontuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:22763637

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Drug Resistance Mechanisms, and Therapy of Infections with Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Kevin A.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Within the past 10 years, treatment and diagnostic guidelines for nontuberculous mycobacteria have been recommended by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Moreover, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has published and recently (in 2011) updated recommendations including suggested antimicrobial and susceptibility breakpoints. The CLSI has also recommended the broth microdilution method as the gold standard for laboratories performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria. This article reviews the laboratory, diagnostic, and treatment guidelines together with established and probable drug resistance mechanisms of the nontuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:22763637

  17. Association of elevated mutagenesis in the spleen with genetic susceptibility to induced plasmacytoma development in mice.

    PubMed

    Felix, K; Kelliher, K; Bornkamm, G W; Janz, S

    1998-04-15

    Using the phage lambdaLIZ-based transgenic in vivo mutagenesis assay, mean mutant rates were determined in the spleen of mice exposed to sustained oxidative stress and were found to be increased approximately 3-fold in plasmacytoma-susceptible BALB/c and C.D2-Idh1-Pep3 mice, but not in plasmacytoma-resistant DBA/2N mice. This finding suggests a correlation between the genetic susceptibility to inflammation-induced peritoneal plasmacytomagenesis and the phenotype of increased mutagenesis in lymphoid tissues, raising the possibility that plasmacytoma resistance genes may inhibit tumor development by minimizing oxidative mutagenesis in B cells. PMID:9563470

  18. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Helicobacter felis, H. bizzozeronii, and H. salomonis.

    PubMed

    Van den Bulck, K; Decostere, A; Gruntar, I; Baele, M; Krt, B; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F

    2005-07-01

    The susceptibilities of Helicobacter felis (15 strains), H. bizzozeronii (7 strains), and H. salomonis (3 strains) to 10 antimicrobial agents were investigated by determination of the MIC using the agar dilution method. No consistent differences were noticed between the different Helicobacter species, which were all highly susceptible to ampicillin, clarithromycin, tetracycline, tylosin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and neomycin, as demonstrated by low MICs. Higher MICs were obtained for lincomycin (up to 8 microg/ml) and spectinomycin (up to 4 microg/ml). Two H. felis strains showed a MIC of 16 microg/ml for metronidazole, suggesting acquired resistance to this antimicrobial agent. PMID:15980383

  19. Susceptibility of Skeletal Muscle to Coxsackie A2 Virus Infection: Effects of Botulinum Toxin and Denervation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, Clifford G.; Drachman, Daniel B.; Pestronk, Alan; Narayan, Opendra

    1984-02-01

    Coxsackie A viruses can infect denervated but not innervated mature skeletal muscles. The role of synaptic transmission in preventing susceptibility to Coxsackievirus infection was studied by surgically denervating leg muscles of mice or injecting the muscles with botulinum toxin to block quantal release of acetylcholine. Control muscles were injected with heat-inactivated toxin. Subsequent injection of Coxsackie A2 virus resulted in extensive virus replication and tissue destruction in the denervated and botulinum toxin-treated muscles, while the control muscles showed only minimal changes. This suggests that the susceptibility of skeletal muscle to Coxsackievirus infection is regulated by synaptic transmission.

  20. Hydrogenation of Zr0.9Ti0.1CrxFe2-x Intermetallic Compounds: Free Electron Model for Magnetic Susceptibility and Thermoelectric Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyomsoan, S.; Termsuksawad, P.; Goldfarb, R. B.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.; Kaydanov, V.; Gavra, Z.

    2008-02-01

    The magnetic susceptibility and thermoelectric power of Zr0.9Ti0.1CrxFe2-x intermetallic compounds were investigated as functions of hydrogen content. The alloys are paramagnetic, with magnetic susceptibility and Seebeck coefficient increasing with the amount of stored hydrogen. The susceptibility is proportional to the Seebeck coefficient and to the d-electron concentration, consistent with a free-electron model. The susceptibility of alloys with lower iron concentration suggests exchange-enhanced Pauli paramagnetism. However, Curie-Weiss paramagnetism likely coexists in alloys with higher iron content. Magnetic and electronic measurements may be used to assess the ability of an alloy to store hydrogen.

  1. Central pontine myelinolysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from one nerve to another. The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is a quick change in the body's sodium ... The nerve damage caused by central pontine myelinolysis is usually ... The disorder can cause serious long-term (chronic) disability.

  2. Central auditory testing and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1980-06-01

    A group of dyslexic pupils with normal end organ function was studied by a central auditory battery to determine whether a hearing disability existed. The clinical features of dyslexia are presented with emphasis on the psychological developmental and functional disorders associated with this reading problem. The central battery of Willeford was selected as the test medium and the results of the 77 dyslexic students were compared to the normative data. The model proposed by Sparks, et al., is accepted as the mechanism for dichotic audition. Reference is made to the organic basis of reading disorders from lesion in the calcarine area to the angular gyrus. The competing sentence test, binaural fusion, rapidly alternating speech perception, and filtered speech are described in detail and are organic foundation for the study. The authors indentified a high rate of failure in this investigation. Over 50% of the dyslexic students failed two of the four tests, and each of the 77 failed at least one component. The most sensitive tests were binaural fusion and filtered speech with less variation from the norm in the remaining two components. The effect of maturation in central audition was measured in each of the four tests. The data suggest: 1. the scores are lower in the early ages in each test; 2. that rapidly alternating speech and competing sentences approach the normal range albeit somewhat delayed; and 3. that binaural fusion and filtered speech improve in score somewhat but rather moderately and never approach the normal range. Based upon the central auditory data and in conjunction with the anatomical pathways of vision, the authors suggest the site of lesion to be in the temporo-parietal cortex and the association fibers. PMID:7382713

  3. Use of in vitro vancomycin testing results to predict susceptibility to oritavancin, a new long-acting lipoglycopeptide.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Turnidge, John D; Moeck, Greg; Arhin, Francis F; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2015-04-01

    Oritavancin is a recently approved lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial agent with activity against Gram-positive pathogens. Its extended serum elimination half-life and concentration-dependent killing enable single-dose treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. At the time of regulatory approval, new agents, including oritavancin, are not offered in the most widely used susceptibility testing devices and therefore may require application of surrogate testing using a related antimicrobial to infer susceptibility. To evaluate vancomycin as a predictive susceptibility marker for oritavancin, 26,993 recent Gram-positive organisms from U.S. and European hospitals were tested using reference MIC methods. Organisms included Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS), viridans group streptococci (VGS), and enterococci (ENT). These five major pathogen groups were analyzed by comparing results with FDA-approved susceptible breakpoints for both drugs, as well as those suggested by epidemiological cutoff values and supported by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses. Vancomycin susceptibility was highly accurate (98.1 to 100.0%) as a surrogate for oritavancin susceptibility among the indicated pathogen species. Furthermore, direct MIC comparisons showed high oritavancin potencies, with vancomycin/oritavancin MIC90 results of 1/0.06, 2/0.06, 0.5/0.12,1/0.06, and >16/0.06 μg/ml for S. aureus, CoNS, BHS, VGS, and ENT, respectively. In conclusion, vancomycin demonstrated acceptable accuracy as a surrogate marker for predicting oritavancin susceptibility when tested against the indicated pathogens. In contrast, 93.3% of vancomycin-nonsusceptible enterococci had oritavancin MIC values of ≤0.12 μg/ml, indicating a poor predictive value of vancomycin for oritavancin resistance against these organisms. Until commercial oritavancin susceptibility testing devices are readily available, isolates that when

  4. Central regions of keloids are severely ischaemic.

    PubMed

    Touchi, Ryoma; Ueda, Koichi; Kurokawa, Norifumi; Tsuji, Motomu

    2016-02-01

    We classified scars as keloids, hypertrophic scars and mature scars, and then examined the scars for differences in central and marginal vascularization. We found significant differences in localized hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and vascular density in keloids, but no localized differences in hypertrophic or mature scars. The central areas of keloids exhibited higher HIF-1α expression and lower vascular density than marginal areas, suggesting that the former are severely ischaemic. PMID:26794626

  5. Secondhand smoke exposure and other correlates of susceptibility to smoking: a propensity score matching approach.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Russell K; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2015-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is responsible for numerous diseases of the lungs and other bodily systems among children. In addition to the adverse health effects of SHS exposure, studies show that children exposed to SHS are more likely to smoke in adolescence. Susceptibility to smoking is a measure used to identify adolescent never-smokers who are at risk for smoking. Limited research has been conducted on the influence of SHS on susceptibility to smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine a robust measure of the strength of correlation between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking U.S. adolescents. This study used data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey to identify predictors of susceptibility to smoking in the full (pre-match) sample of adolescents and a smaller (post-match) sample created by propensity score matching. Results showed a significant association between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking adolescents in the pre-match (OR=1.47) and post-match (OR=1.52) samples. The odds ratio increase after matching suggests that the strength of the relationship was underestimated in the pre-match sample. Other significant correlates of susceptibility to smoking identified include: gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, smoke-free home rules, number of smoking friends, perception of SHS harm, perceived benefits of smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages. The use of propensity score matching procedures reduced bias in the post-match sample, and provided a more robust estimate of the influence of SHS exposure on susceptibility to smoking, compared to the pre-match sample estimates. PMID:25967679

  6. Electrotonic remodeling following myocardial infarction in dogs susceptible and resistant to sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Carlos L; McConnell, Patrick I; Kukielka, Monica; Dzwonczyk, Roger; Clymer, Bradley D; Howie, Michael B; Billman, George E

    2008-02-01

    Passive electrical remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) is well established. These changes can alter electrotonic loading and trigger the remodeling of repolarization currents, a potential mechanism for ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, little is known about the role of passive electrical markers as tools to identify VF susceptibility post-MI. This study investigated electrotonic remodeling in the post-MI ventricle, as measured by myocardial electrical impedance (MEI), in animals prone to and resistant to VF. MI was induced in dogs by a two-stage left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Before infarction, MEI electrodes were placed in remote (left circumflex, LCX) and infarcted (LAD) myocardium. MEI was measured in awake animals 1, 2, 7, and 21 days post-MI. Subsequently, VF susceptibility was tested by a 2-min LCX occlusion during exercise; 12 animals developed VF (susceptible, S) and 12 did not (resistant, R). The healing infarct had lower MEI than the normal myocardium. This difference was stable by day 2 post-MI (287 +/- 32 Omega vs. 425 +/- 62 Omega, P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed between resistant and susceptible animals 7 days post-MI; susceptible dogs had a wider electrotonic gradient between remote and infarcted myocardium (R: 89 +/- 60 Omega vs. S: 180 +/- 37 Omega). This difference increased over time in susceptible animals (252 +/- 53 Omega at 21 days) due to post-MI impedance changes on the remote myocardium. These data suggest that early electrotonic changes post-MI could be used to assess later arrhythmia susceptibility. In addition, passive-electrical changes could be a mechanism driving active-electrical remodeling post-MI, thereby facilitating the induction of arrhythmias. PMID:18048585

  7. Expert opinion on landslide susceptibility elicted by probabilistic inversion from scenario rankings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Lark, Murray

    2016-04-01

    For many natural hazards the opinion of experts, with experience in assessing susceptibility under different circumstances, is a valuable source of information on which to base risk assessments. This is particularly important where incomplete process understanding, and limited data, limit the scope to predict susceptibility by mechanistic or statistical modelling. The expert has a tacit model of a system, based on their understanding of processes and their field experience. This model may vary in quality, depending on the experience of the expert. There is considerable interest in how one may elicit expert understanding by a process which is transparent and robust, to provide a basis for decision support. One approach is to provide experts with a set of scenarios, and then to ask them to rank small overlapping subsets of these with respect to susceptibility. Methods of probabilistic inversion have been used to compute susceptibility scores for each scenario, implicit in the expert ranking. It is also possible to model these scores as functions of measurable properties of the scenarios. This approach has been used to assess susceptibility of animal populations to invasive diseases, to assess risk to vulnerable marine environments and to assess the risk in hypothetical novel technologies for food production. We will present the results of a study in which a group of geologists with varying degrees of expertise in assessing landslide hazards were asked to rank sets of hypothetical simplified scenarios with respect to land slide susceptibility. We examine the consistency of their rankings and the importance of different properties of the scenarios in the tacit susceptibility model that their rankings implied. Our results suggest that this is a promising approach to the problem of how experts can communicate their tacit model of uncertain systems to those who want to make use of their expertise.

  8. Antiviral Susceptibility of Avian and Swine Influenza Virus of the N1 Neuraminidase Subtype▿

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Terri D.; Krauss, Scott; DuBois, Rebecca M.; Negovetich, Nicholas J.; Stallknecht, David E.; Senne, Dennis A.; Gramer, Marie R.; Swafford, Seth; DeLiberto, Tom; Govorkova, Elena A.; Webster, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza viruses of the N1 neuraminidase (NA) subtype affecting both animals and humans caused the 2009 pandemic. Anti-influenza virus NA inhibitors are crucial early in a pandemic, when specific influenza vaccines are unavailable. Thus, it is urgent to confirm the antiviral susceptibility of the avian viruses, a potential source of a pandemic virus. We evaluated the NA inhibitor susceptibilities of viruses of the N1 subtype isolated from wild waterbirds, swine, and humans. Most avian viruses were highly or moderately susceptible to oseltamivir (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], <5.1 to 50 nM). Of 91 avian isolates, 7 (7.7%) had reduced susceptibility (IC50, >50 nM) but were sensitive to the NA inhibitors zanamivir and peramivir. Oseltamivir susceptibility ranged more widely among the waterbird viruses (IC50, 0.5 to 154.43 nM) than among swine and human viruses (IC50, 0.33 to 2.56 nM). Swine viruses were sensitive to oseltamivir, compared to human seasonal H1N1 isolated before 2007 (mean IC50, 1.4 nM). Avian viruses from 2007 to 2008 were sensitive to oseltamivir, in contrast to the emergence of resistant H1N1 in humans. Susceptibility remained high to moderate over time among influenza viruses. Sequence analysis of the outliers did not detect molecular markers of drug-resistance (e.g., H275Y NA mutation [N1 numbering]) but revealed mutations outside the NA active site. In particular, V267I, N307D, and V321I residue changes were found, and structural analyses suggest that these mutations distort hydrophobic pockets and affect residues in the NA active site. We determined that natural oseltamivir resistance among swine and wild waterbirds is rare. Minor naturally occurring variants in NA can affect antiviral susceptibility. PMID:20660186

  9. Central diffraction at ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämsä, J. W.; Orava, R.

    2011-02-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  10. Aquifer susceptibility in Virginia, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow,, George E., Jr.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Health, sampled water from 171 wells and springs across the Commonwealth of Virginia between 1998 and 2000 as part of the Virginia Aquifer Susceptibility study. Most of the sites sampled are public water supplies that are part of the comprehensive Source Water Assessment Program for the Commonwealth. The fundamental premise of the study was that the identification of young waters (less than 50 years) by multiple environmental tracers could be used as a guide for classifying aquifers in terms of susceptibility to contamination from near-surface sources. Environmental tracers, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), and carbon isotopes (14C and d13C) were used to determine the age of water discharging from wells and springs. Concentrations of CFCs greater than 5 picograms per kilogram and 3H concentrations greater than 0.6 tritium unit were used as thresholds to indicate that parts of the aquifer sampled have a component of young water and are, therefore, susceptible to near-surface contamination. Concentrations of CFCs exceeded the susceptibility threshold in 22 percent of the wells and in one spring sampled in the Coastal Plain regional aquifer systems. About 74 percent of the samples from wells with the top of the first water zone less than 100 feet below land surface exceeded the threshold values, and water supplies developed in the upper 100 feet of the Coastal Plain are considered to be susceptible to contamination from near-surface sources. The maximum depth to the top of the screened interval for wells that contained CFCs was less than 150 feet. Wells completed in the deep confined aquifers in the Coastal Plain generally contain water older than 1,000 years, as indicated by carbon-14 dating, and are not considered to be susceptible to contamination under natural conditions. All of the water samples from wells

  11. A multidisciplinary approach for analysing landslide susceptibility in Abruzzo piedmont (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Marco; Urbano, Tullio; Coco, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility is the probability or likelihood that a landslide phenomenon happens in a specific area and in a not determined date, based on the correlation of controlling factors with distribution of past events. The present work presents a landslide susceptibility analysis assessment in the Feltrino Stream basin and minor surrounding coastal basins in south-eastern Abruzzo Region (Central Italy). The work was based on a multidisciplinary approach involving GIS (Geographic Information System) processing and geomorphological field survey. The study area, as well as the whole Italian Adriatic hills, is characterized by moderate to high landslide susceptibility, because of the complex geological, geomorphological and climatic features. Geologically, the bedrock is mainly characterised by marine deposits composed by clay-sandstone-conglomerate lithology belonging to Upper Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene, and locally by marine to continental transitional deposits belonging to Middle Pleistocene. The bedrock is largely covered by near-surface continental deposits composed by clay-silt-sand-gravel lithology ranging in age from Upper Pleistocene to Holocene. From the geomorphological viewpoint, the area is involved in different landslides phenomena (rock falls, rotational, translational and complex landslides, earth flows) which affect ~15% of the overall surface area. The landslide susceptibility study was carried out through a geostatistical analysis of landslides driver factors. Air-photos analysis was conducted for larger landslides and hillslope areas. The identified landslides were corroborated through a detailed geomorphological field survey. The methodology involved three main steps. Firstly, the main driver factors, directly or indirectly linked to slope instability, were defined and mapped by DTM processing, air-photos analysis and detailed geomorphological field survey. Morphological, geological and geomorphological factors were considered: slope

  12. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive Candida bloodstream isolates from the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thean Yen; Hsu, Li Yang; Alejandria, Marissa M; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Chinniah, Terrence; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Choudhury, Saugata; Chen, Yen Hsu; Shin, Jong Hee; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendoza, Myrna; Prabhu, Kavitha; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tan, Ai Ling; Phan, Xuan Thi; Tran, Thi Thanh Nga; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Doan, Mai Phuong; Huynh, Van An; Nguyen, Su Minh Tuyet; Tran, Thanh Binh; Van Pham, Hung

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S = susceptible, S-DD = susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C. albicans (35.9%), C. tropicalis (30.7%), C. parapsilosis (15.7%), and C. glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C. albicans (S = 99.7%) but lower for C. tropicalis (S = 75.8%, S-DD = 6.1%), C. glabrata (S-DD = 94.9%), and C. parapsilosis (S = 94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C. tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia. PMID:26868904

  13. Towards a Remote Sensing Based Assessment of Land Susceptibility to Degradation: Examining Seasonal Variation in Land Use-Land Cover for Modelling Land Degradation in a Semi-Arid Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashame, Gofamodimo; Akinyemi, Felicia

    2016-06-01

    Land degradation (LD) is among the major environmental and anthropogenic problems driven by land use-land cover (LULC) and climate change worldwide. For example, poor LULC practises such as deforestation, livestock overstocking, overgrazing and arable land use intensification on steep slopes disturbs the soil structure leaving the land susceptible to water erosion, a type of physical land degradation. Land degradation related problems exist in Sub-Saharan African countries such as Botswana which is semi-arid in nature. LULC and LD linkage information is still missing in many semi-arid regions worldwide.Mapping seasonal LULC is therefore very important in understanding LULC and LD linkages. This study assesses the impact of seasonal LULC variation on LD utilizing Remote Sensing (RS) techniques for Palapye region in Central District, Botswana. LULC classes for the dry and rainy seasons were classified using LANDSAT 8 images at Level I according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) International Organization of Standardization (ISO) code 19144. Level I consists of 10 LULC classes. The seasonal variations in LULC are further related to LD susceptibility in the semi-arid context. The results suggest that about 985 km² (22%) of the study area is susceptible to LD by water, major LULC types affected include: cropland, paved/rocky material, bare land, built-up area, mining area, and water body. Land degradation by water susceptibility due to seasonal land use-land cover variations is highest in the east of the study area where there is high cropland to bare land conversion.

  14. Unique Activity Spectrum of Colicin FY: All 110 Characterized Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates Were Colicin FY Susceptible

    PubMed Central

    Bosák, Juraj; Micenková, Lenka; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Dědičová, Daniela; Garzetti, Debora; Šmajs, David

    2013-01-01

    Colicin FY is a plasmid encoded toxin that recognizes a yersinia-specific outer membrane protein (YiuR) as a receptor molecule. We have previously shown that the activity spectrum of colicin FY comprises strains of the genus Yersinia. In this study, we analyzed the activity of colicin FY against 110 Yersinia enterocolitica isolates differing in geographical origin and source. All isolates were characterized through analysis of 16S rRNA genes, serotyping, biotyping, restriction profiling of genomic DNA, detection of virulence markers and susceptibility to antibiotics. This confirmed the broad variability of the collection, in which all 110 Y. enterocolitica isolates, representing 77 various strains, were inhibited by colicin FY. Although isolates showed variable levels of susceptibility to colicin FY, it was not associated with any strain characteristic. The universal susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica strains to colicin FY together with the absence of activity towards strains outside the Yersinia genus suggests potential therapeutic applications for colicin FY. PMID:24339971

  15. Bacterial Manipulation of NK Cell Regulatory Activity Increases Susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Brandon S.; Schmidt, Rebecca L.; Jamieson, Amanda; Merkel, Patricia; Knight, Vijaya; Cole, Caroline M.; Raulet, David H.; Lenz, Laurel L.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ and thus have been suggested to promote type I immunity during bacterial infections. Yet, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and some other pathogens encode proteins that cause increased NK cell activation. Here, we show that stimulation of NK cell activation increases susceptibility during Lm infection despite and independent from robust NK cell production of IFNγ. The increased susceptibility correlated with IL-10 production by responding NK cells. NK cells produced IL-10 as their IFNγ production waned and the Lm virulence protein p60 promoted induction of IL-10 production by mouse and human NK cells. NK cells consequently exerted regulatory effects to suppress accumulation and activation of inflammatory myeloid cells. Our results reveal new dimensions of the role played by NK cells during Lm infection and demonstrate the ability of this bacterial pathogen to exploit the induction of regulatory NK cell activity to increase host susceptibility. PMID:27295349

  16. In vitro susceptibility of fungi to killing by neutrophil granulocytes discriminates between primary pathogenicity and opportunism.

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, A; Davis, C E; Schaffner, T; Markert, M; Douglas, H; Braude, A I

    1986-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi, according to their propensity to cause infection of apparently normal individuals, can be grouped into either primary pathogens (e.g., Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Paracoccidioides, Blastomyces, and Sporothrix) or opportunists (e.g., Candida, Mucoraceae, Aspergillus spp., Petriellidium, and Trichosporon). There is, however, no unifying concept explaining the difference between the virulence of the two fungal categories. Previously we have speculated that neutrophils are the common denominator of the high natural resistance to opportunistic fungi. Accordingly, we then compared the susceptibility to killing by neutrophil granulocytes of Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Paracoccidioides, and Sporothrix with that of 14 opportunistic fungi. We found the four virulent dimorphic yeasts, in contrast to opportunistic fungi, to be resistant to killing by neutrophils. Virulent dimorphic yeasts were ingested by neutrophils, and triggered a respiratory burst comparably to opportunists but were less susceptible to hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that differences in the susceptibility to microbicidal products of leukocytes may explain the difference in virulence. Images PMID:3734102

  17. The role of male disease susceptibility in the evolution of haplodiploid insect societies.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Sean; Beshers, Samuel N.

    2004-01-01

    Heterozygosity at loci affecting resistance against parasites can benefit host fitness. We predict that, in haplodiploid species, haploid males will suffer decreased parasite resistance relative to diploid females. We suggest that elevated susceptibility in haploid males has shaped the evolution of social behaviour in haplodiploid species. Male susceptibility will select for behavioural adaptations that limit males' exposure to pathogens and that limit male transmission of pathogens within and between colonies. The relatedness-asymmetry hypothesis that has been advanced to explain female-only workers does not make these predictions. We review the relevant evidence for genetic effects on parasite resistance in insects and summarize empirical evidence that relates to the haploid-susceptibility hypothesis. PMID:15255054

  18. Superconductivity and itinerant ferromagnetism of Y9Co7 probed by ac susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R T; Vannette, M D; Strychalska, J; Klimczuk, T; Cava, R J; Prozorov, R

    2016-04-27

    The ac magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal sample of the compound Y9Co7 has been measured in applied dc fields ranging from 0-6.7 kOe by utilizing a tunnel diode resonator circuit. In agreement with previous measurements on this material, a superconducting transition has been observed to occur at [Formula: see text] K. A broad maximum has been observed in the zero field susceptibility measurements from 2.5 K  <  T  <  8 K and its behavior with applied dc magnetic fields is consistent with that of the itinerant ferromagnet ZrZn2, which supports previous claims of itinerant ferromagnetism in this compound. The susceptibility has also been measured as a function of applied magnetic field and the results indicate that the actual Curie temperature for this system is higher than that suggested by previous reports based on Arrott plots constructed from dc magnetization. PMID:27022686

  19. Differences in susceptibility to infection with Treponema pallidum (Nichols) between five strains of guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Wicher, K; Wicher, V; Gruhn, R F

    1985-02-01

    Groups of 10 young male guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13 and outbred strains Hartley A, Hartley B, and one deficient in the fourth component of complement (C4D) were infected intradermally with 80 X 10(6) Treponema pallidum (Nichols). The course of infection and production of antitreponemal antibody were examined. Strain C4D guinea pigs were the most susceptible to infection (100%); inbred strains 2 and 13 and outbred strain Hartley B showed 80-90% symptomatic infection; and the Hartley A strain was the least susceptible to infection (10%). Strain 13 animals responded with the highest antitreponemal antibody activity, and the Hartley A strain with the lowest. The results suggest that genetic factors or complement, or both, may influence the degree of susceptibility to infection with T pallidum in guinea pigs. PMID:3910539

  20. Bacterial Manipulation of NK Cell Regulatory Activity Increases Susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes Infection.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sarah E; Filak, Holly C; Guthrie, Brandon S; Schmidt, Rebecca L; Jamieson, Amanda; Merkel, Patricia; Knight, Vijaya; Cole, Caroline M; Raulet, David H; Lenz, Laurel L

    2016-06-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ and thus have been suggested to promote type I immunity during bacterial infections. Yet, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and some other pathogens encode proteins that cause increased NK cell activation. Here, we show that stimulation of NK cell activation increases susceptibility during Lm infection despite and independent from robust NK cell production of IFNγ. The increased susceptibility correlated with IL-10 production by responding NK cells. NK cells produced IL-10 as their IFNγ production waned and the Lm virulence protein p60 promoted induction of IL-10 production by mouse and human NK cells. NK cells consequently exerted regulatory effects to suppress accumulation and activation of inflammatory myeloid cells. Our results reveal new dimensions of the role played by NK cells during Lm infection and demonstrate the ability of this bacterial pathogen to exploit the induction of regulatory NK cell activity to increase host susceptibility. PMID:27295349