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Sample records for suggests central susceptibility

  1. Social suggestibility to central and peripheral misinformation.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Andrea L; Daneman, Meredyth

    2006-05-01

    This study used a laboratory-based paradigm to investigate social influences on participants' susceptibility to misleading suggestions. Participants viewed a video clip of an action sequence with one or more peers, and then were required to discuss the event with the co-witness or with the group of co-witnesses. During the discussion a confederate, posing as a peer, presented misinformation about central and peripheral features of the co-witnessed event. Results indicated that participants were more susceptible to misleading suggestions during one-on-one discussions than during group discussions. In addition, participants were susceptible to misleading suggestions about central features of the witnessed event, although to a lesser extent than they were susceptible to misleading suggestions about peripheral features. PMID:16766450

  2. Association Analysis Suggests SOD2 as a Newly Identified Candidate Gene Associated With Leprosy Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Geovana Brotto; Salomão, Heloisa; Francio, Angela Schneider; Fava, Vinícius Medeiros; Werneck, Renata Iani; Mira, Marcelo Távora

    2016-08-01

    Genetic studies have identified several genes and genomic regions contributing to the control of host susceptibility to leprosy. Here, we test variants of the positional and functional candidate gene SOD2 for association with leprosy in 2 independent population samples. Family-based analysis revealed an association between leprosy and allele G of marker rs295340 (P = .042) and borderline evidence of an association between leprosy and alleles C and A of markers rs4880 (P = .077) and rs5746136 (P = .071), respectively. Findings were validated in an independent case-control sample for markers rs295340 (P = .049) and rs4880 (P = .038). These results suggest SOD2 as a newly identified gene conferring susceptibility to leprosy. PMID:27132285

  3. The impact of outcome valence on the susceptibility to suggestion for post-event causal misinformation.

    PubMed

    Chrobak, Quin M; Groves, Chris L; Otradovec, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that people are especially susceptible to false memory development for suggested misinformation that fills a causal role (i.e., explains some known outcome) (Chrobak & Zaragoza, 2013). However, little is known about how factors associated with the witnessed outcome impact the likelihood of false memory development. In the present study, outcome valence (negative, positive, or neutral) was manipulated. Participants heard several short stories that contained an outcome (e.g., a counselor getting promoted) that lacked a causal explanation. Participants were subsequently exposed to suggested causal misinformation that explained that outcome (e.g., the counselor performed an impressive act the previous day) and then were tested on their memory for the original event. Results indicated that participants incorrectly reported the suggested causal information more when it explained either a positive or negative outcome as opposed to a neutral outcome. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26786731

  4. Contrasting Patterns of Coral Bleaching Susceptibility in 2010 Suggest an Adaptive Response to Thermal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guest, James R.; Baird, Andrew H.; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Muttaqin, Efin; Edwards, Alasdair J.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Yewdall, Katie; Affendi, Yang Amri; Chou, Loke Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral bleaching events vary in severity, however, to date, the hierarchy of susceptibility to bleaching among coral taxa has been consistent over a broad geographic range and among bleaching episodes. Here we examine the extent of spatial and temporal variation in thermal tolerance among scleractinian coral taxa and between locations during the 2010 thermally induced, large-scale bleaching event in South East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys to estimate the bleaching and mortality indices of coral genera were carried out at three locations with contrasting thermal and bleaching histories. Despite the magnitude of thermal stress being similar among locations in 2010, there was a remarkable contrast in the patterns of bleaching susceptibility. Comparisons of bleaching susceptibility within coral taxa and among locations revealed no significant differences between locations with similar thermal histories, but significant differences between locations with contrasting thermal histories (Friedman = 34.97; p<0.001). Bleaching was much less severe at locations that bleached during 1998, that had greater historical temperature variability and lower rates of warming. Remarkably, Acropora and Pocillopora, taxa that are typically highly susceptible, although among the most susceptible in Pulau Weh (Sumatra, Indonesia) where respectively, 94% and 87% of colonies died, were among the least susceptible in Singapore, where only 5% and 12% of colonies died. Conclusions/Significance The pattern of susceptibility among coral genera documented here is unprecedented. A parsimonious explanation for these results is that coral populations that bleached during the last major warming event in 1998 have adapted and/or acclimatised to thermal stress. These data also lend support to the hypothesis that corals in regions subject to more variable temperature regimes are more resistant to thermal stress than those in less variable environments. PMID:22428027

  5. Magnetic susceptibility and relation to initial 87Sr/86Sr for granitoids of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bateman, P.C.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kistler, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of more than 6000 samples of granitic rock from the Mariposa 1?? by 2?? quadrangle, which crosses the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith between 37?? and 38??N latitude, shows that magnetic susceptibility values are above 10-2 SI units in the east and central parts of the batholith and drop abruptly to less than 10-3 SI units in the western foothills. In a narrow transitional zone, intermediate values (10-3 to 10-2) prevail. Magnetic susceptibility appears to decrease slightly westward within the zones of both high and low values. Magnetic susceptibility in plutonic rocks is chiefly a function of the abundance of magnetite, which depends, in turn, on the total iron content of the rocks and their oxidation ratio. Correlations of magnetic susceptibility with initial 87Sr/86Sr suggest that oxidation ratios have been inherited from the source regions for the magmas from which the rocks crystallized. Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ by organic carbon or other reducing substances may also have affected magnetic susceptibility. -from Authors

  6. A Two-Stage Association Study Suggests BRAP as a Susceptibility Gene for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Guoyang; Yuan, Guozhen; Cheng, Zaohuo; Wang, Jidong; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Zhenhe; Zhao, Xingfu; Tian, Lin; Jin, Chunhui; Yuan, Janmin; Zhang, Guofu; Chen, Yaguang; Wang, Lifang; Lu, Tianlan; Yan, Hao; Ruan, Yanyan; Yue, Weihua; Zhang, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which altered immune function typically plays an important role in mediating the effect of environmental insults and regulation of inflammation. The breast cancer suppressor protein associated protein (BRAP) is suggested to exert vital effects in neurodevelopment by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and inflammation signaling. To explore the possible role of BRAP in SZ, we conducted a two-stage study to examine the association of BRAP polymorphisms with SZ in the Han Chinese population. In stage one, we screened SNPs in BRAP from our GWAS data, which detected three associated SNPs, with rs3782886 being the most significant one (P  =  2.31E-6, OR  =  0.67). In stage two, we validated these three SNPs in an independently collected population including 1957 patients and 1509 controls, supporting the association of rs3782886 with SZ (P  =  1.43E-6, OR  =  0.73). Furthermore, cis-eQTL analysis indicates that rs3782886 genotypes are associated with mRNA levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (ALDH2) (P  =  0.0039) and myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MYL2) (P < 1.0E-4). Our data suggest that the BRAP gene may confer vulnerability for SZ in Han Chinese population, adding further evidence for the involvement of developmental and/or neuroinflammatory cascades in the illness. PMID:24454952

  7. Study of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility on Central Chimei Fault, Coastal Range of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Chimei fault is the only major reverse fault across the entire Coastal Range and is also a typical lithology-contrast fault thrusting the volcanic Tuluanshan Formation of Miocene over the sedimentary Paliwan Formation of Pleistocene. To investigate the deformation pattern across the Chimei fault more precisely, we analyzed oriented coring samples of mudstone across the fault zone, damage zone, fold zone and wall rocks along the Hsiukuluan River via anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Prolate (cigar-shaped) and oblate (disc-shaped) ellipsoids appear together at fault zone, damage zone and fold zone, suggesting that strong variation of deformation and lithology in each zone of the Chimei fault. Previous study pointed out that oblate ellipsoid usually appears in the footwall, further indicating that the Chimei fault behaves differently from regular detachment faults. It strongly speculates although the central Chimei fault displays N-S shortening, the deformation is not strong enough to develop penetrative oblate fabric, even in the main fault zone of the Chimei fault. Further studies will be rnrformation is not sobear theequired to identify the magnetic carriers and grain size to improve current concept. Keywords : Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Coastal Range, Chimei Fault, Taiwan

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Belard, Sabine; Toepfner, Nicole; Capan-Melser, Mesküre; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Groger, Mirjam; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Selidji T; Adegnika, Ayôla A; González, Raquel; Kremsner, Peter G; Menendez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael; Berner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective antibiotics. This is the first report on serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae in pregnant women from a Central African region. Serotypes V, III, and Ib accounted for 88/109 (81%) serotypes and all isolates were susceptible to penicillin and clindamycin while 13% showed intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin. PMID:26603208

  9. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Belard, Sabine; Toepfner, Nicole; Capan-Melser, Mesküre; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Groger, Mirjam; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Selidji T.; Adegnika, Ayôla A.; González, Raquel; Kremsner, Peter G.; Menendez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael; Berner, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective antibiotics. This is the first report on serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae in pregnant women from a Central African region. Serotypes V, III, and Ib accounted for 88/109 (81%) serotypes and all isolates were susceptible to penicillin and clindamycin while 13% showed intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin. PMID:26603208

  10. Susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to organophosphates and a pyrethroid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Debin; Indelicato, Nick; Petersen, Jack; Williges, Eric; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Chemical insecticides are the primary means to control mosquitoes, and mosquito control programs must regularly monitor for resistance of mosquito vectors to commonly used insecticides to ensure the efficacy and sustainability of active ingredients. We performed insecticide resistance bioassays to test the susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to 1 larvicide (temephos) and 2 adulticides (malathion and sumithrin). Larval susceptibility of Culex pipiens pipiens to temephos provided median concentration (LC50) and 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values of 1.108 microg/l and 2.02 microg/l, respectively. Bottle bioassays of adult Aedes albopictus showed that 100% mortality was achieved at 35-min exposure to sumithrin and at 40-min to malathion. Baseline values were obtained using both temephos and sumithrin. Our bioassays indicate satisfactory susceptibility to temephos and sumithrin in Ae. albopictus and Cx. p. pipiens field populations in central New Jersey. Despite constant field use, both products are still effective and can be used adequately for control of the test species. However, the susceptibility of target insects to various formulations should be closely monitored periodically to ensure continual efficacy. PMID:25102600

  11. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  12. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K; Münzel, Susanne C; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  13. Lengthened Cutaneous Silent Period in Fibromyalgia Suggesting Central Sensitization as a Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Yong Seo; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of fibromyalgia (FM) has not been clearly elucidated, but central sensitization, which plays an important role in the development of neuropathic pain, is considered to be the main mechanism. The cutaneous silent period (CSP), which is a spinal reflex mediated by A-delta cutaneous afferents, is useful for the evaluation of sensorimotor integration at the spinal and supraspinal levels. To understand the pathophysiology of FM, we compared CSP patterns between patients with FM and normal healthy subjects. Twenty-four patients with FM diagnosed in accordance with the 1990 American College of Rheumatology classification system and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. The CSP was measured from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. Demographic data, number of tender points, and visual analog scale and FM impact questionnaire scores were collected. The measured CSP and clinical parameters of the patient and control groups were compared. In addition, possible correlations between the CSP parameters and the other clinical characteristics were analyzed. Mean CSP latencies did not differ between patients (55.50 ± 10.97 ms) and healthy controls (60.23 ± 11.87 ms; p = 0.158), although the mean CSP duration was significantly longer in patients (73.75 ± 15.67 ms) than in controls (63.50 ± 14.05 ms; p = 0.021). CSP variables did not correlate with any clinical variables. The significantly longer CSP duration in FM patients suggests central dysregulation at the spinal and supraspinal levels, rather than peripheral small fiber dysfunction. PMID:26871583

  14. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (-786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles -786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2-5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  15. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (−786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles −786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2–5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  16. An active loudness model suggesting tinnitus as increased central noise and hyperacusis as increased nonlinear gain

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The present study uses a systems engineering approach to delineate the relationship between tinnitus and hyperacusis as a result of either hearing loss in the ear or an imbalanced state in the brain. Specifically examined is the input–output function, or loudness growth as a function of intensity in both normal and pathological conditions. Tinnitus reduces the output dynamic range by raising the floor, while hyperacusis reduces the input dynamic range by lowering the ceiling or sound tolerance level. Tinnitus does not necessarily steepen the loudness growth function but hyperacusis always does. An active loudness model that consists of an expansion stage following a compression stage can account for these key properties in tinnitus and hyperacusis loudness functions. The active loudness model suggests that tinnitus is a result of increased central noise, while hyperacusis is due to increased nonlinear gain. The active loudness model also generates specific predictions on loudness growth in tinnitus, hyperacusis, hearing loss or any combinations of the three conditions. These predictions need to be verified by experimental data and have explicit implications for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis. PMID:22641191

  17. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu M; Gomes, Alberto; Ismael, Ana Paula K; Koller, Wilson W

    2002-09-01

    From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 micro g/cm2, and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6). Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides) represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations. PMID:12386720

  18. A genome-wide association study follow-up suggests a possible role for PPARG in systemic sclerosis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) comprising a French cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) reported several non-HLA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a nominal association in the discovery phase. We aimed to identify previously overlooked susceptibility variants by using a follow-up strategy. Methods Sixty-six non-HLA SNPs showing a P value <10-4 in the discovery phase of the French SSc GWAS were analyzed in the first step of this study, performing a meta-analysis that combined data from the two published SSc GWASs. A total of 2,921 SSc patients and 6,963 healthy controls were included in this first phase. Two SNPs, PPARG rs310746 and CHRNA9 rs6832151, were selected for genotyping in the replication cohort (1,068 SSc patients and 6,762 healthy controls) based on the results of the first step. Genotyping was performed by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results We observed nominal associations for both PPARG rs310746 (PMH = 1.90 × 10-6, OR, 1.28) and CHRNA9 rs6832151 (PMH = 4.30 × 10-6, OR, 1.17) genetic variants with SSc in the first step of our study. In the replication phase, we observed a trend of association for PPARG rs310746 (P value = 0.066; OR, 1.17). The combined overall Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study revealed that PPARG rs310746 remained associated with SSc with a nominal non-genome-wide significant P value (PMH = 5.00 × 10-7; OR, 1.25). No evidence of association was observed for CHRNA9 rs6832151 either in the replication phase or in the overall pooled analysis. Conclusion Our results suggest a role of PPARG gene in the development of SSc. PMID:24401602

  19. An innovative tool for landslide susceptibility mapping in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, Annamaria; Pilz, Marco; Wieland, Marc; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Kyrgyzstan is among the most exposed countries in the world to landslide susceptibility. The high seismicity of the area, the presence of high mountain ridges and topographic relieves, the geology of the local materials and the occurrence of heavy precipitations represent the main factors responsible for slope failures. In particular, the large variability of material properties and slope conditions as well as the difficulties in forecasting heavy precipitations locally and in quantifying the level of ground shaking call for harmonized procedures for reducing the negative impact of these factors. Several studies have recently been carried out aiming at preparing landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; however, some of them - qualitative-based - suffer from the application of subjective decision rules from experts in the classification of parameters that influence the occurrence of a landslide. On the other hand, statistical methods provide objectivity over qualitative ones since they allow a numerical evaluation of landslide spatial distribution with landslide potential factors. For this reason, we will make use of a bivariate technique known as Weight-Of-Evidence method to evaluate the influence of landslide predictive factors. The aim of this study is to identify areas in Kyrgyzstan being more prone to earthquake-triggered landslides. An innovative approach which exploits the new advances of GIS technology together with statistical concepts is presented. A range of conditioning factors and their potential impact on landslide activation is quantitatively assessed on the basis of landslide spatial distribution and seismic zonation. Results show areas which are more susceptible to landslides induced by earthquakes. Our approach can be used to fill the gap of subjectivity that typically affects already performed qualitative analysis. The resulting landslide susceptibility map represents a potentially supportive tool for disaster management and planning activities

  20. Regional Mapping of Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central Puget Sound Region, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, S. P.; Perkins, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    In the late 1980's we began development of a series of regional liquefaction susceptibility maps covering the urban areas of the central Puget Sound region, including the cities of Seattle and Tacoma. In producing these maps we used a standardized approach that utilizes 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping and analyses of geotechnical boring data and allows direct comparison of the liquefaction susceptibility assessments depicted on each map. The geologic units in a study area were grouped based on their geological and engineering characteristics, and a suite of geotechnical borings was compiled for each geologic grouping. A standard engineering analysis was used to calculate factors-of-safety from standard penetration test N-values, sample descriptions, grain-size analyses, and ground-water depths obtained from the compiled geotechnical borings. Liquefaction factors-of-safety were calculated for two magnitude 7.3 earthquake scenarios, one having a 0.15 g peak ground acceleration (PGA), and the other a 0.30 g PGA. The choice of earthquake scenarios is consistent with an intraplate earthquake similar to the 1949 Olympia and 2001 Nisqually events in the Puget Sound region. Using these factor-of-safety calculations we determined the aggregated total thicknesses of liquefiable material for each boring in a geologic grouping, and normalized these data by expressing the aggregated thicknesses as a percentage of the total penetrated thickness. A series of histograms, one for each earthquake scenario, were used to present the distribution of aggregate liquefiable thicknesses and to assign a liquefaction susceptibility to each geologic grouping. We have calibrated our analyses of liquefaction susceptibility using the liquefaction response observed during the Nisqually earthquake. We developed histograms for each geologic grouping using measured PGA's from this event and the geotechnical boring datasets compiled in the production of the previously published liquefaction

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Zaire: high level plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance in central Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, E; Rossau, R; Duhamel, M; Behets, F; Laga, M; Nzila, M; Bygdeman, S; Van Heuverswijn, H; Piot, P

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of gonococcal strains isolated in 1988 among female prostitutes in Kinshasa, Zaire and to characterise strains with high level tetracycline resistance. METHODS--Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8 antimicrobials were measured by agar dilution technique. Plasmid-profiles and serovars were determined. RESULTS--Two hundred and thirteen strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were tested of which 59% were beta-lactamase producers and an additional 21% showed intermediate or chromosomal resistance to penicillin (MIC = 0.5-8 mg/l). Eleven percent of the strains were resistant to the combination sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (MIC greater than 8 mg/l) and 57% of the isolates showed decreased susceptibility to thiamphenicol (MIC = 1-4 mg/l). All strains were sensitive to spectinomycin, norfloxacin and ceftriaxone and moderately sensitive to kanamycin. Chromosomal resistance to tetracycline was observed in 45% of strains (MIC = 2-8 mg/l). Ten percent were highly resistant to tetracycline (TRNG, MIC = 16-128 mg/l) and were shown to carry a plasmid borne Tet M determinant; such strains were not found in Kinshasa in 1985. TRNG belonged to 4 different serovars, which were also the dominant serovars in non-TRNG. CONCLUSION--These findings illustrate the high frequency of multiresistant gonococci in Zaire and suggest that high level tetracycline resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae have become endemic in Central Africa. Images PMID:1582653

  2. Susceptibility of central Red Sea corals during a major bleaching event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furby, K. A.; Bouwmeester, J.; Berumen, M. L.

    2013-06-01

    A major coral bleaching event occurred in the central Red Sea near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, in the summer of 2010, when the region experienced up to 10-11 degree heating weeks. We documented the susceptibility of various coral taxa to bleaching at eight reefs during the peak of this thermal stress. Oculinids and agaricids were most susceptible to bleaching, with up to 100 and 80 % of colonies of these families, respectively, bleaching at some reefs. In contrast, some families, such as mussids, pocilloporids, and pectinids showed low levels of bleaching (<20 % on average). We resurveyed the reefs 7 months later to estimate subsequent mortality. Mortality was highly variable among taxa, with some taxa showing evidence of full recovery and some (e.g., acroporids) apparently suffering nearly complete mortality. The unequal mortality among families resulted in significant change in community composition following the bleaching. Significant factors in the likelihood of coral bleaching during this event were depth of the reef and distance of the reef from shore. Shallow reefs and inshore reefs had a higher prevalence of bleaching. This bleaching event shows that Red Sea reefs are subject to the same increasing pressures that reefs face worldwide. This study provides a quantitative, genus-level assessment of the vulnerability of various coral groups from within the Red Sea to bleaching and estimates subsequent mortality. As such, it can provide valuable insights into the future for reef communities in the Red Sea.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively. PMID:19090221

  4. B cell VLA-4-deficiency reduces leukocyte recruitment and susceptibility to central nervous system autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Sagan, Sharon A.; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Zamvil, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    Natalizumab, which binds very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), is a potent therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies have focused primarily upon its capacity to interfere with T cell-migration into the central nervous system (CNS). B cells are important in MS pathogenesis and express high levels of VLA-4. Here, we report that the selective inhibition of VLA-4-expression on B cells impedes CNS accumulation of B cells, recruitment of Th17 cells and macrophages, and reduces susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These results underscore the importance of B cell VLA-4-expression in pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity and provide insight regarding mechanisms that may contribute to the benefit of natalizumab in MS, as well as candidate therapeutics that selectively target B cells. PMID:25712734

  5. GIS-analysis of gully erosion susceptibility: a key study in north-central Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnesi, Valerio; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Maerker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    Erosion by water is responsible for severe geo-environmental problems in semi-humid to arid Mediterranean areas. Large sectors of Sicily are affected by intense soil erosion phenomena leading to severe damages in agriculture lands that, in some cases, experience high soil loss rates. An important contribution to sediment yield from these areas is given by gully erosion phenomena; the latter, in the last decades, attracted attention of many researches that developed and applied methods to quantify soil loss volumes and to evaluate proneness of territory to this process. The present research aims to assess gully erosion susceptibility in the basin of the San Giorgio torrent, a mountain stream flowing in north-central Sicily and draining an area of about 9.5 km2; the watershed, which is mainly covered by arable lands, has highly erodible slopes characterized by the outcropping of clays and marls. In order to predict gully erosion susceptibility, a multivariate geostatistical approach is adopted here. In particular, the method is based on the definition of spatial relationships between the geographical variability of a set of controlling factors and the occurrence of gullies on slopes; the linear density of gullies computed on homogeneous domains is selected as the probabilistic function expressing how proneness to gully erosion spatially changes in the studied area. Available thematic maps, which were integrated by field and remote surveys, and a high quality DEM, were used to derive eight layers of terrain variables, selected according to geomorphological criteria and expressing both soil erodibility (bedrock lithology, land use) and erosivity of flowing waters (slope angle, Stream Power Index, SL-factor, Topographic Wetness Index, plan and profile curvature). All the parameters were computed for homogeneous spatial domains, created by intersecting a grid of 50m square polygons and a layer of slope units automatically derived from DEM; therefore, the eight layers

  6. Pathway-based evaluation of 380 candidate genes and lung cancer susceptibility suggests the importance of the cell cycle pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H.Dean; Menashe, Idan; Shen, Min; Yeager, Meredith; Yuenger, Jeff; Rajaraman, Preetha; He, Xingzhou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Caporaso, Neil E.; Zhu, Yong; Chanock, Stephen J.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Lan, Qing

    2008-01-01

    Common genetic variation may play an important role in altering lung cancer risk. We conducted a pathway-based candidate gene evaluation to identify genetic variations that may be associated with lung cancer in a population-based case–control study in Xuan Wei, China (122 cases and 111 controls). A total of 1260 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 380 candidate genes for lung cancer were successfully genotyped and assigned to one of 10 pathways based on gene ontology. Logistic regression was used to assess the marginal effect of each SNP on lung cancer susceptibility. The minP test was used to identify statistically significant associations at the gene level. Important pathways were identified using a test of proportions and the rank truncated product methods. The cell cycle pathway was found as the most important pathway (P = 0.044) with four genes significantly associated with lung cancer (PLA2G6 minP = 0.001, CCNA2 minP = 0.006, GSK3β minP = 0.007 and EGF minP = 0.013), after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Interestingly, most cell cycle genes that were associated with lung cancer in this analysis were concentrated in the AKT signaling pathway, which is essential for regulation of cell cycle progression and cellular survival, and may be important in lung cancer etiology in Xuan Wei. These results should be viewed as exploratory until they are replicated in a larger study. PMID:18676680

  7. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap; Lanteri, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  8. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L.; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T.; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D.; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  9. Identification of potential mitochondrial CLPXP protease interactors and substrates suggests its central role in energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Fabian; Langer, Julian D.; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of mitochondria is achieved by several mechanisms, including the regulation of mitochondrial proteostasis. The matrix protease CLPXP, involved in protein quality control, has been implicated in ageing and disease. However, particularly due to the lack of knowledge of CLPXP’s substrate spectrum, only little is known about the pathways and mechanisms controlled by this protease. Here we report the first comprehensive identification of potential mitochondrial CLPXP in vivo interaction partners and substrates using a combination of tandem affinity purification and differential proteomics. This analysis reveals that CLPXP in the fungal ageing model Podospora anserina is mainly associated with metabolic pathways in mitochondria, e.g. components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the tricarboxylic acid cycle as well as subunits of electron transport chain complex I. These data suggest a possible function of mitochondrial CLPXP in the control and/or maintenance of energy metabolism. Since bioenergetic alterations are a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and ageing, our data comprise an important resource for specific studies addressing the role of CLPXP in these adverse processes. PMID:26679294

  10. Crystallographic Studies of Prion Protein (PrP) Segments Suggest How Structural Changes Encoded by Polymorphism at Residue 129 Modulate Susceptibility to Human Prion Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Apostol, Marcin I.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David

    2010-09-23

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 129 of the human prion gene, leading to a change from methionine to valine at residue 129 of prion protein (PrP), has been shown to be a determinant in the susceptibility to prion disease. However, the molecular basis of this effect remains unexplained. In the current study, we determined crystal structures of prion segments having either Met or Val at residue 129. These 6-residue segments of PrP centered on residue 129 are 'steric zippers,' pairs of interacting {beta}-sheets. Both structures of these 'homozygous steric zippers' reveal direct intermolecular interactions between Met or Val in one sheet and the identical residue in the mating sheet. These two structures, plus a structure-based model of the heterozygous Met-Val steric zipper, suggest an explanation for the previously observed effects of this locus on prion disease susceptibility and progression.

  11. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  12. Genome-wide association study in East Asians suggests UHMK1 as a novel bone mineral density susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Park, Hyojung; Zhang, Lei; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Ye An; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Pei, Yu-Fang; Tian, Qing; Shen, Hui; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Deng, Hong-Wen; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Soo

    2016-10-01

    To identify genetic variants that influence bone mineral density (BMD) in East Asians, we performed a quantitative trait analysis of lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck BMD in a Korean population-based cohort (N=2729) and follow-up replication analysis in a Chinese Han population and two Caucasian populations (N=1547, 2250 and 987, respectively). From the meta-analysis of the stage 1 discovery analysis and stage 2 replication analysis, we identified four BMD loci that reached near-genome-wide significance level (P<5×10(-7)). One locus on 1q23 (UHMK1, rs16863247, P=4.1×10(-7) for femoral neck BMD and P=3.2×10(-6) for total hip BMD) was a novel BMD signal. Interestingly, rs16863247 was very rare in Caucasians (minor allele frequency<0.01), indicating that this association could be specific to East Asians. In gender specific analysis, rs1160574 on 1q32 (KCNH1) was associated with femoral neck BMD (P=2.1×10(-7)) in female subjects. rs9371538 in the known BMD region on 6q25 ESR1 was associated with lumbar spine BMD (P=5.6×10(-9)). rs7776725 in the known BMD region on 7q31 WTN16 was associated with total hip BMD (P=8.6×10(-9)). In osteoblasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was increased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown decreased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression increased its differentiation. In osteoclasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was decreased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown increased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression decreased its differentiation. In conclusion, our genome-wide association study identified the UHMK1 gene as a novel BMD locus specific to East Asians. Functional studies suggest a role of UHMK1 on regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:27424934

  13. Genetic, epidemiological and biological analysis of interleukin-10 promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms suggests a definitive role for -819C/T in leprosy susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A C; Brito-de-Souza, V N; Cardoso, C C; Dias-Baptista, I M F; Parelli, F P C; Venturini, J; Villani-Moreno, F R; Pacheco, A G; Moraes, M O

    2009-03-01

    Leprosy is a complex infectious disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The genetic contributing factors are considered heterogeneous and several genes have been consistently associated with susceptibility like PARK2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) and vitamin-D receptor (VDR). Here, we combined a case-control study (374 patients and 380 controls), with meta-analysis (5 studies; 2702 individuals) and biological study to test the epidemiological and physiological relevance of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) genetic markers in leprosy. We observed that the -819T allele is associated with leprosy susceptibility either in the case-control or in the meta-analysis studies. Haplotypes combining promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms also implicated a haplotype carrying the -819T allele in leprosy susceptibility (odds ratio (OR)=1.40; P=0.01). Finally, we tested IL-10 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Mycobacterium leprae antigens and found that -819T carriers produced lower levels of IL-10 when compared with non-carriers. Taken together, these data suggest that low levels of IL-10 during the disease outcome can drive patients to a chronic and unprotective response that culminates with leprosy. PMID:19110537

  14. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Mirabello, Lisa; Vineis, Joseph H; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Scarpassa, Vera M; Póvoa, Marinete M; Padilla, Norma; Achee, Nicole L; Conn, Jan E

    2008-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742), and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457). The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P < 0.05). Both the DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1) and

  15. Microsatellite genotyping of medieval cattle from central Italy suggests an old origin of Chianina and Romagnola cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gargani, Maria; Pariset, Lorraine; Lenstra, Johannes A.; De Minicis, Elisabetta; Valentini, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA from archeological remains is a valuable tool to interpret the history of ancient animal populations. So far most studies of ancient DNA target mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which reveals maternal lineages, but only partially the relationships of current breeds and ancient populations. In this study we explore the feasibility of nuclear DNA analysis. DNA was extracted from 1000-years old cattle bone collected from Ferento, an archeological site in central Italy. Amplification of 15 microsatellite FAO-recommended markers with PCR products yielded genotypes for four markers. Expected heterozygosity was comparable with values of modern breeds, but observed heterozygosity was underestimated due to allelic loss. Genetic distances suggested a position intermediate between (1) Anatolian, Balkan, Sicilian and South-Italian cattle and (2) the Iberian, North-European and Central-European cattle, but also a clear relationship with two central-Italian breeds, Chianina and Romagnola. This suggests that these breeds are derived from medieval cattle living in the same area. Our results illustrate the potential of ancient DNA for reconstructing the history of local cattle husbandry. PMID:25788902

  16. Female rats are more susceptible to central nervous system oxygen toxicity than male rats

    PubMed Central

    Held, Heather E.; Pilla, Raffaele; Ciarlone, Geoffrey E.; Landon, Carol S.; Dean, Jay B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tonic–clonic seizures typify central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS‐OT) in humans and animals exposed to high levels of oxygen, as are encountered during scuba diving. We previously demonstrated that high doses of pseudoephedrine (PSE) decrease the latency to seizure (LS) for CNS‐OT in young male rats. This study investigated whether female rats respond similarly to PSE and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). We implanted 60 virgin stock (VS) and 54 former breeder (FB) female rats with radio‐telemetry devices that measured brain electrical activity. One week later, rats were gavaged with saline or PSE in saline (40, 80, 120, 160, or 320 mg/kg) before diving to five atmospheres absolute in 100% oxygen. The time between reaching maximum pressure and exhibiting seizure was LS. Vaginal smears identified estrus cycle phase. PSE did not decrease LS for VS or FB, primarily because they exhibited low LS for all conditions tested. VS had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (−42, −49, and −57%, respectively). FB also had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (−60, −86, and −73%, respectively). FB were older than VS (286 ± 10 days vs. 128 ± 5 days) and weighed more than VS (299 ± 2.7 g vs. 272 ± 2.1 g). Males tested were younger (88 ± 2 days), heavier (340 ± 4.5 g), and gained more weight postoperatively (7.2 ± 1.6 g) than either VS (−0.4 ± 1.5 g) or FB (−1.6 ± 1.5 g); however, LS correlated poorly with age, body mass, change in body mass, and estrus cycle phase. We hypothesize that differences in sex hormones underlie females' higher susceptibility to CNS‐OT than males. PMID:24771690

  17. Female rats are more susceptible to central nervous system oxygen toxicity than male rats.

    PubMed

    Held, Heather E; Pilla, Raffaele; Ciarlone, Geoffrey E; Landon, Carol S; Dean, Jay B

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tonic-clonic seizures typify central nervous system oxygen toxicity (CNS-OT) in humans and animals exposed to high levels of oxygen, as are encountered during scuba diving. We previously demonstrated that high doses of pseudoephedrine (PSE) decrease the latency to seizure (LS) for CNS-OT in young male rats. This study investigated whether female rats respond similarly to PSE and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). We implanted 60 virgin stock (VS) and 54 former breeder (FB) female rats with radio-telemetry devices that measured brain electrical activity. One week later, rats were gavaged with saline or PSE in saline (40, 80, 120, 160, or 320 mg/kg) before diving to five atmospheres absolute in 100% oxygen. The time between reaching maximum pressure and exhibiting seizure was LS. Vaginal smears identified estrus cycle phase. PSE did not decrease LS for VS or FB, primarily because they exhibited low LS for all conditions tested. VS had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (-42, -49, and -57%, respectively). FB also had shorter LS than males at 0, 40, and 80 mg/kg (-60, -86, and -73%, respectively). FB were older than VS (286 ± 10 days vs. 128 ± 5 days) and weighed more than VS (299 ± 2.7 g vs. 272 ± 2.1 g). Males tested were younger (88 ± 2 days), heavier (340 ± 4.5 g), and gained more weight postoperatively (7.2 ± 1.6 g) than either VS (-0.4 ± 1.5 g) or FB (-1.6 ± 1.5 g); however, LS correlated poorly with age, body mass, change in body mass, and estrus cycle phase. We hypothesize that differences in sex hormones underlie females' higher susceptibility to CNS-OT than males. PMID:24771690

  18. Cretaceous stratigraphic sequences of north-central California suggest a discontinuity in the Late Cretaceous forearc basin

    SciTech Connect

    Haggart, J.W.

    1986-10-01

    The Cretaceous sedimentary succession preserved east of Redding, at the northern end of California's Great Valley, indicates that marine deposition was widespread in the region for only two periods during the Late Cretaceous. If it is assumed that there was minimal Cenozoic offset between the northern Sierra Nevada and eastern Klamath Mountains terranes, Cretaceous sedimentation in this region was most likely restricted to a narrow trough and was not a continuation of the wide, Cretaceous forearc basin of central California. The dissimilar depositional histories of the Redding basin and the Hornbrook basin of north-central California suggest that the basins were not linked continuously during the Late Cretaceous. A thick section of Cretaceous strata beneath the southwestern Modoc Plateau is considered unlikely.

  19. Antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates in Jabalpur, a city of Madhya Pradesh in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Ruchi Sethi; Nawange, Shesh Rao; Singh, Shankar Mohan; Yadu, Ruchika; Tiwari, Aditi; Gumasta, Richa; Kavishwar, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present antifungal susceptibility data of clinical and environmental isolates of Central Indian Cryptococcus neoformans (Serotype A, n = 8 and n = 50 respectively) and Cryptococcus gattii (Serotype B, n = 01 and n = 04 respectively). Susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined by using NCCLS broth micro-dilution methodology. The total number of resistant strains for fluconazole in case of C. neoformans and C. gattii showed a significant difference by using chi-square test (p < 0.05*), while considering fisher's exact p value was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). However, the total number of resistant strains for itraconazole and ketoconazole was not found statistically significant. A comparison of geometric means of clinical and environmental strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans was not found statistically significant using student ‘t’ test (p value > 0.05 NS). Though less, the antifungal data obtained in this study suggests that primary resistance among environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii against tested antifungal was present and C. gattii comparatively was less susceptible than C. neoformans var. grubii isolates to fluconazole than to itraconazole and ketoconazole. A continuous surveillance of antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii is desirable to monitor the emergence of any resistant strains for better management of cryptococcosis patients. PMID:26691471

  20. Modern and long-term evaporation of central Andes surface waters suggests paleo archives underestimate Neogene elevations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorella, Richard P.; Poulsen, Christopher J.; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro S.; Jeffery, M. Louise; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2015-12-01

    Central Andean paleoelevations reconstructed from stable isotope and paleofloral data imply a large magnitude (>2 km) Miocene-to-modern surface uplift. However, the isotopic relationships between precipitation, surface waters, and soil waters upon which these reconstructions are based remain poorly constrained for both past, and in many cases, modern conditions. We quantify the relationships between central Andean precipitation and surface waters by measuring the isotopic composition of 249 stream water samples (δ18O and δD) collected between April 2009 and October 2012. The isotopic compositions of stream waters match precipitation along the eastern flank. In contrast, Altiplano surface waters possess a lower δD-δ18O slope (4.59 vs ∼8 for meteoric waters) not observed in precipitation, which signals heavy isotope evaporative enrichment in surface waters. Paleoclimate models indicate that highly evaporative conditions have persisted on the plateau throughout Andean uplift, and that conditions may have been more evaporative when the Andes were lower. Thus, more ancient proxy materials may have a greater evaporative bias than previously recognized and paleoelevation reconstructions from stable isotope based central Andean plateau proxy materials likely overstate Miocene-to-present surface uplift. We propose Altiplano paleoelevations of 1-2 km at 24.5 Ma, 1.5-2.9 km by 11.45 Ma, and modern elevations by ∼6 Ma based on the lightest isotopic compositions observed in Altiplano proxy materials, which are least likely to be influenced by evaporation. These constraints limit total late-Miocene-to-modern uplift to <2.2 km, are more consistent with crustal shortening records, and suggest that plateau uplift may have been more spatially uniform than suggested by previous interpretations of stable isotope proxies.

  1. Seedling stage low temperature response in tolerant and susceptible rice genotypes suggests role of relative water content and members of OsSNAC gene family.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Tapu; Rai, Mayank; Tyagi, Wricha; Challam, Clarissa

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature (LT) severely affects rice growth and grain yield. Recently, we reported contrasting genotypes including ARR 09 and Takyer for seedling stage long duration low temperature response. Here we show that susceptible rice genotypes show an increase in lipid peroxide levels and decrease in relative water content (RWC) to a higher extent in comparison to tolerant genotypes in response to 3 h LT. Stress induced NAC family members (OsNAC1, OsNAC2, OsNAC3, and OsNAC5) showed a higher transcript accumulation in tolerant genotypes than in sensitive genotypes after LT treatment suggesting stress tolerance might be due to higher expression of stress-responsive transcription factors. Furthermore, ARR 09 can be used as an important genetic resource to better understand LT tolerance mechanism. PMID:26829663

  2. Extreme mitogenomic divergence between two syntopic specimens of Arremon aurantiirostris (Aves: Emberizidae) in central Panama suggests possible cryptic species.

    PubMed

    López, Krisangel; Angeli, Cody; Aguilar, Celestino; Loaiza, Jose R; De León, Luis Fernando; McMillan, W Owen; Miller, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome of two specimens of Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris from Colón Province, in central Panama. The two specimens were collected on the same day, and at the same locality; however, they showed substantial divergence (6.3% average pairwise divergence among coding genes). A survey of ND2 sequence variation across Panama suggests that this divergence is the result of geographic differentiation and secondary contact. This high level of mitochondrial divergence among co-occurring individuals raises the possibility of multiple biological species in Orange-billed Sparrows. Our results are yet another demonstration that much remains to be discovered regarding avian biodiversity in Panama and throughout the Neotropics. PMID:26367084

  3. Segregation among test-cross progeny suggests that two complementary dominant genes explain the difference between ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible broiler lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Cahaner, A

    2007-11-01

    Ascites syndrome (AS) is a major cause of economic losses to the broiler industry. The tendency of broilers to develop AS was found to be heritable, suggesting that selective breeding could provide a solution to this problem. To further elucidate the genetic control of AS, AS-susceptible (AS-S) and AS-resistant (AS-R) lines were established by 3 cycles of divergent selection on pedigree data of AS mortality under AS-inducing conditions. The rapid divergence between the lines suggested the involvement of a major gene with dominance for AS resistance. It was hypothesized that the difference between the lines is controlled by a single dominant gene, denoted A, with AA (and some Aa) individuals in the AS-R line, and aa individuals in the AS-S line. The current study was designed to test this hypothesis by test-crossing heterozygous (Aa) sires from the AS-R line and F(1) from the AS-R x AS-S cross, with recessive homozygous (aa) dams from the AS-S line. A ratio of 1:1 was expected between progeny with AS vs. healthy progeny when reared under AS-inducing conditions. Test-cross progeny of 5 sires from the AS-R line segregated 1:1, indicating that these sires were heterozygous (Aa) in the suggested major gene and thus supporting the hypothesis of a single major gene with dominance of AS resistance. There was segregation among test-cross progeny of 8 F(1) sires, but with a 3:1 ratio of AS progeny to healthy progeny. The 3:1 ratio is expected if the F(1) sires are heterozygous (AaBb) with complementary interaction between the dominant alleles in 2 unlinked major genes. The segregation among test-cross progeny of the 9 heterozygous AS-R sires could also be explained by the same model. These results suggested that 2 major genes are responsible for the difference between the AS-R and AS-S lines. Resource populations derived from these lines will facilitate an efficient genomic search for these 2 genes. Once the alleles of these genes are identified and genotyping tests are

  4. Intrinsic Functional Hypoconnectivity in Core Neurocognitive Networks Suggests Central Nervous System Pathology in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Marcie L; Zinn, Mark A; Jason, Leonard A

    2016-09-01

    Exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) was recorded from nineteen EEG channels in nine patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and 9 healthy controls to assess current source density and functional connectivity, a physiological measure of similarity between pairs of distributed regions of interest, between groups. Current source density and functional connectivity were measured using eLORETA software. We found significantly decreased eLORETA source analysis oscillations in the occipital, parietal, posterior cingulate, and posterior temporal lobes in Alpha and Alpha-2. For connectivity analysis, we assessed functional connectivity within Menon triple network model of neuropathology. We found support for all three networks of the triple network model, namely the central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN), and the default mode network (DMN) indicating hypo-connectivity in the Delta, Alpha, and Alpha-2 frequency bands in patients with ME compared to controls. In addition to the current source density resting state dysfunction in the occipital, parietal, posterior temporal and posterior cingulate, the disrupted connectivity of the CEN, SN, and DMN appears to be involved in cognitive impairment for patients with ME. This research suggests that disruptions in these regions and networks could be a neurobiological feature of the disorder, representing underlying neural dysfunction. PMID:26869373

  5. Susceptibility assessment to different types of landslides in the coastal cliffs of Lourinhã (Central Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifânio, Bruno; Zêzere, José Luís; Neves, Mário

    2014-10-01

    The coastal zone of Lourinhã (located in Central Portugal) is characterized by beach-cliff systems, where beaches are narrow and cliffs have notorious slope instability. These cliffs evolve by different types of landslides, which are one of the main sources of natural hazard and risk in this coastal region. In this work, aerial photo interpretation and a systematic field survey were performed in order to obtain an inventory of landslides of the following types: rotational slides, translational slides and debris flows. The entire coast was then split into 261 terrain mapping units. For each unit, landslide predisposing factors were derived and classified: cliff elevation, slope angle (maximum, mean and standard deviation), potential solar radiation, slope curvature (profile and plan), lithological units and geologic structure. The predictive susceptibility models were computed for each type of landslide using a bi-variate statistical method - the Information Value Method. The degree of fit and the predictive capacity of the models were assessed using the Effectiveness Ratio, the standard Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and the respective Area Under Curve. Results show that each landslide typology occurs in particular terrain conditions. Individual susceptibility models evidence better predictive capacity than susceptibility model for total landslides.

  6. Predictive landslide susceptibility analysis along the mountain highway in central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Keh-Jian; Lin, Zora

    2016-04-01

    Climate change caused by global warming affects Taiwan significantly for the past decade. The increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, in which concentrated and intensive rainfalls generally cause geohazards including landslides and debris flows. The extraordinary Typhoon Morakot hit Southern Taiwan, on August 8, 2009, and induced serious flooding and landslides. Considering the existence of various types of large scale landslides (shallow and deep-seated) and the importance of protection targets (the landslide might affect a residential area, cut a road, isolate a village, etc.), this study aims to analyze the landslide susceptibility along the Nantou County Road # 89 of Taiwan, in the upstream of Wu River. This study employs rainfall frequency analysis together with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) downscaling estimation to understand the temporal rainfall trends, distributions, and intensities in the Wu River watershed. Based on the data of Li-DAR and the information from boreholes, the temporal behavior and the complex mechanism of large scale landslides were analyzed. To assess the spatial hazard of the landslides, landslide susceptibility analysis was also implemented. The results of this study can be applied for risk prevention and management in the study area.

  7. Determination of hot-spot susceptibility of multistring photovoltaic modules in a central-station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Weaver, R. W.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Spencer, R.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the effort of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA) includes a program to improve module and array reliability. A collaborative activity with industry dealing with the problem of hot-spot heating due to the shadowing of photovoltaic cells in modules and arrays containing several paralleled cell strings is described. The use of multiparallel strings in large central-station arrays introduces the likelihood of unequal current sharing and increased heating levels. Test results that relate power dissipated, current imbalance, cross-strapping frequency, and shadow configuration to hot-spot heating levels are presented. Recommendations for circuit design configurations appropriate to central-station applications that reduce the risk of hot-spot problems are offered. Guidelines are provided for developing hot-spot tests for arrays when current imbalance is a threat.

  8. Relationships between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoils in the arid region of Isfahan, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Rezvan; Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Jalalian, Ahmad; Sheikh-Hosseini, Ahmad Reza; Afyuni, Majid

    2011-05-01

    Recently methods dealing with magnetometry have been proposed as a proper proxy for assessing the heavy metal pollution of soils. A total of 113 topsoil samples were collected from public parks and green strips along the rim of roads with high-density traffic within the city of Isfahan, central Iran. The magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the collected soil samples was measured at both low and high frequency (χlf and χhf) using the Bartington MS2 dual frequency sensor. As, Cd, Cr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Sr and V concentrations were measured in the all collected soil samples. Significant correlations were found between Zn and Cu (0.85) and between Zn and Pb (0.84). The χfd value of urban topsoil varied from 0.45% to 7.7%. Low mean value of χfd indicated that the magnetic properties of the samples are predominately contributed by multi-domain grains, rather than by super-paramagnetic particles. Lead, Cu, Zn, and Ba showed positive significant correlations with magnetic susceptibility, but As, Sr, Cd, Mn, Cr and V, had no significant correlation with the magnetic susceptibility. There was a significant correlation between pollution load index (PLI) and χlf. PLI was computed to evaluate the soil environmental quality of selected heavy metals. Moreover, the results of multiple regression analysis between χlf and heavy metal concentrations indicated the LnPb, V and LnCu could explain approximately 54% of the total variability of χlf in the study area. These results indicate the potential of the magnetometric methods to evaluate the heavy metal pollution of soils.

  9. The pathogenic role of virus-specific antibody-secreting cells in the central nervous system of rats with different susceptibility to coronavirus-induced demyelinating encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, S; Imrich, H; Dörries, R

    1991-01-01

    The humoral immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) of susceptible Lewis (LE) rats and resistant Brown Norway (BN) rats was analysed after intracerebral infection with the murine coronavirus JHM (MHV4). The subclinical course of the infection in BN rats was characterized by an early rise of neutralizing antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 7 days post-infection. At this time in LE rats, neutralizing antibodies were not detectable in the CSF and the animals developed neurological signs of infection. Subsequently, LE rats recovered from disease. This process was accompanied by increasing titres of virus-neutralizing antibodies. Within the CNS parenchyma of both rat strains, equivalent numbers of IgM-secreting cells were detected. However, in BN rats, virus-specific IgG secreting cells appeared earlier and in higher numbers. Moreover, based on the size of zones of antibody secreted by single cells in the Spot-ELISA assay, it appeared that cells from BN rats secreted IgG antibody of higher affinity. These data suggest that early maturation of antiviral antibody responses in the resistant BN rat probably restricts the spread of viral infection to small foci within the CNS, resulting in a subclinical level of primary demyelination. In contrast, the absence of neutralizing antibodies in the susceptible LE rats favours spread of the virus throughout the CNS, resulting finally in severe neurological disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1663078

  10. Differences in the susceptibility of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to modified heparin compounds suggest serotype differences in viral entry.

    PubMed Central

    Herold, B C; Gerber, S I; Belval, B J; Siston, A M; Shulman, N

    1996-01-01

    Although heparan sulfate (HS) serves as an initial receptor for the binding of both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 to cell surfaces, the two serotypes differ in epidemiology, cell tropism, and ability to compete for viral receptors in vitro. These observations are not necessarily contradictory and can be explained if the two serotypes recognize different structural features of HS. To compare the specific features of HS important for the binding and infection of HSV-1 and HSV-2, we took advantage of structural similarities between heparin and cell surface HS and compared the abilities of chemically modified heparin compounds to inhibit plaque formation. We found that the antiviral activity of heparin for both serotypes was independent of anticoagulant activity. Moreover, specific negatively charged regions of the polysaccharide, including N sulfations and the carboxyl groups, are key structural features for interactions of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 with cell surfaces since N desulfation or carboxyl reduction abolished heparin's antiviral activity. In contrast, 6-O sulfations and 2-,3-O sulfations are important determinants primarily for HSV- 1 infection. The O-desulfated heparins had little or no inhibitory effect on HSV-1 infection but inhibited HSV-2 infection. Using a series of intertypic recombinant mutant viruses, we found that susceptibility to O-desulfated heparins can be transferred to HSV-1 by the gene for glycoprotein C of HSV-2 (gC-2). This supports the notion that the envelope glycoproteins of HSV-1 and HSV-2 interact with different affinities for different structural features of heparin. To determine if the modified heparin compounds inhibited plaque formation by competing with cell surface HS for viral attachment, binding studies were also performed. As anticipated, most compounds inhibited binding and plaque formation in parallel. However, several compounds inhibited the binding of HSV-1 to cells during the initial attachment period at 4

  11. SNP screening of central MHC-identified HLA-DMB as a candidate susceptibility gene for HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Aissani, B; Boehme, A K; Wiener, H W; Shrestha, S; Jacobson, L P; Kaslow, R A

    2014-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6p21.3 is suspected to host susceptibility loci for HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV-KS). A nested case-control study in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study was designed to conduct fine genetic association mapping across central MHC. Individuals co-infected with HIV-1 and human herpes virus-8 who later developed KS were defined as cases (n=354) and were matched 1:1 with co-infected KS-free controls. We report data for new independent MHC class II and III susceptibility loci. In particular, class II HLA-DMB emerged as a strong candidate, with the intronic variant rs6902982 A>G associated with a fourfold increase of risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.90-8.80; P=0.0003). A striking multiplicative effect on the estimated risk was associated with further carriage of two non-synonymous variants, rs1800453 A>G (Asp697Gly) and rs4148880 A>G (Ile393Val), in the linked TAP1 gene (OR=10.5; 95% CI=2.54-43.6; P=0.0012). The class III susceptibility variant is moderately associated with HIV-KS and lies within a 120-kb-long haplotype (OR=1.52; 95% CI=1.01-2.28; P=0.047) formed by rs7029 A>G (GPANK1 3' untranslated region), rs1065356 G>A (LY6G6C), rs3749953 A>G (MSH5-SAPCD1 read through) and rs707926 G>A (VARS). Our data suggest that antigen processing by MHC class II molecules is a target pathway in the pathogenesis of HIV-KS. PMID:25008864

  12. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Guido; Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Haak, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  13. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment in the Central Part of Republic of Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercanoglu, Murat; Boboc, Nicolae; Sirodoev, Igor; Ahmet Temiz, F.; Sirodoev, Ghenadi

    2010-05-01

    There has been an increasing interest in natural hazard assessments within the scientific community, particularly in the last two decades. In other respect, there is also a dramatically rising trend in the number of natural hazards. Growing population and expansion of settlements and lifelines over hazardous areas have largely increased the impact of natural disasters both in industrialized and developing countries. Furthermore, natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, floods have dramatic effects on human life, infrastructures, environment, and so on. Landslides, one of the most destructive natural hazards, constitute a major geological hazard throughout the world, like in Turkey and Moldova. There are a lot of regions affected by landslides in Turkey (particularly the West, Middle and East Black Sea Region) and Moldova (e.g.: area between Nisporeni, Calarasi, Balti, Western Rezina District, Codri Hills in Central Moldova etc.), and consequences of landslides are of great importance in the two countries. In the last 50 years' period, only the economic loss due to landslides in Turkey is estimated about 5 billion , and 12.5 % of the whole settlement areas, including big and populated cities, are facing landslide threat. Similar to Turkey, there are about 16000 areas affected by landslides in Moldova. In February-March, 1998 the intensity of landslides in the central part of Moldova, including Chisinau, considerably increased. In total, 357 private households involving 1400 people were affected, 214 houses were destroyed, and 137 were damaged. The total national damage accounted for 44.3 million Lei. At present on Moldavian territory, there are more than 17000 landslides of various types. These landslides are mostly located within Central Moldavian heights, one of the most complicated geomorphologic structure and territory's fragmentation. Among major landslide triggering factors, in addition to natural ones, one should also consider the anthropogenic

  14. Central histamine H3 receptor signaling negatively regulates susceptibility to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Teuscher, Cory; Subramanian, Meena; Noubade, Rajkumar; Gao, Jian Feng; Offner, Halina; Zachary, James F.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.

    2007-01-01

    Histamine (HA), a biogenic amine with a broad spectrum of activities in both physiological and pathological settings, plays a key regulatory role in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the autoimmune model of multiple sclerosis. HA exerts its effect through four G protein-coupled receptors designated HA receptor H1, H2, H3, and H4. We report here that, compared with wild-type animals, mice with a disrupted HA H3 receptor (H3RKO), the expression of which is normally confined to cells of the nervous system, develop more severe disease and neuroinflammation. We show that this effect is associated with dysregulation of blood–brain barrier permeability and increased expression of MIP-2, IP-10, and CXCR3 by peripheral T cells. Our data suggest that pharmacological targeting of the H3R may be useful in preventing the development and formation of new lesions in multiple sclerosis, thereby significantly limiting the progression of the disease. PMID:17548817

  15. Magnetic Susceptibility and Mineral Zonations Controlled by Provenance in Loess along the Illinois and Central Mississippi River Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Follmer, L.R.; McKay, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) patterns have proven useful for regional stratigraphic correlations of zones within thick, oxidized Peoria and Roxana Silts along the Illinois and Central Mississippi River valleys for more than 350 km. Variations in MS of C horizon loess are controlled by silt-sized magnetite content and are interpreted to reflect changes in sediment provenance due to fluctuations of the Superior and Lake Michigan glacier lobes and the diversion of the Mississippi River to its present course. Grain size distributions and scanning electron microscopic observations indicate that stratigraphic changes in MS are not significantly influenced by eolian sorting or diagenetic dissolution, respectively. Three compositional zones (lower, middle, and upper) are delineated within Peoria Silt which usually can be traced in the field by MS, the occurrence of clay beds, interstadial soils, and/or subtle color changes. These zones can be correlated with, but are generally of more practical use than, previously studied dolomite zones (McKay, 1977) or clay mineral zones (Frye et al., 1968). However, mineralogical analyses can help to substantiate zone boundaries when in question. MS and compositional zones may indirectly record a climatic signal, primarily through the effect that global cooling has had on ice lobe fluctuations in the Upper Mississippi drainage basin. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  16. High adenylyl cyclase activity and in vivo cAMP fluctuations in corals suggest central physiological role.

    PubMed

    Barott, K L; Helman, Y; Haramaty, L; Barron, M E; Hess, K C; Buck, J; Levin, L R; Tresguerres, M

    2013-01-01

    Corals are an ecologically and evolutionarily significant group, providing the framework for coral reef biodiversity while representing one of the most basal of metazoan phyla. However, little is known about fundamental signaling pathways in corals. Here we investigate the dynamics of cAMP, a conserved signaling molecule that can regulate virtually every physiological process. Bioinformatics revealed corals have both transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclases (AC). Endogenous cAMP levels in live corals followed a potential diel cycle, as they were higher during the day compared to the middle of the night. Coral homogenates exhibited some of the highest cAMP production rates ever to be recorded in any organism; this activity was inhibited by calcium ions and stimulated by bicarbonate. In contrast, zooxanthellae or mucus had >1000-fold lower AC activity. These results suggest that cAMP is an important regulator of coral physiology, especially in response to light, acid/base disturbances and inorganic carbon levels. PMID:23459251

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of the hippocampus from six inbred strains of mice suggests a basis for sex-specific susceptibility and severity of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Vied, Cynthia; Ray, Surjyendu; Badger, Crystal-Dawn; Bundy, Joseph L; Arbeitman, Michelle N; Nowakowski, Richard S

    2016-09-01

    Identifying sex differences in gene expression within the brain is critical for determining why multiple neurological and behavioral disorders differentially affect males and females. Several disorders are more common or severe in males (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) or in females (e.g., Alzheimer's disease and depression). We analyzed transcriptomic data from the mouse hippocampus of six inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, DBA/1J, DBA/2J, and PWD/Ph) to provide a perspective on differences between male and female gene expression. Our data show that 1) gene expression differences in males vs. females varies substantially across the strains, 2) only a few genes are differentially expressed across all of the strains (termed core genes), and 3) >2,600 genes differ in the individual strain comparisons (termed noncore genes). We found that DBA/2J uniquely has a substantial majority (89%) of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that are more highly expressed in females than in males (female-biased); 129/SvImJ has a majority (69%) of DEGs that are more highly expressed in males. To gain insight into the function of the DEGs, we examined gene ontology and pathway and phenotype enrichment and found significant enrichment in phenotypes related to abnormal nervous system morphology and physiology, among others. In addition, several pathways are enriched significantly, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), with 32 genes implicated in AD, eight of which are male-biased. Three of the male-biased genes have been implicated in a neuroprotective role in AD. Our transcriptomic data provide new insight into the possible genetic bases for sex-specific susceptibility and severity of brain disorders. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2696-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26917114

  18. Susceptibility of field populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to a selection of insecticides in Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Mao, Kaikai; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a globally distributed and important economic pest. Chemical control is the primary approach to regulate populations of this pest. However, resistance to insecticides evolves following heavy and frequent use. Therefore, the insecticide resistance in field populations of P. xylostella collected from Central China from 2013 to 2014 was determined with a leaf-dipping method. Based on the results of the monitoring, P. xylostella has developed high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio=69.76-335.76-fold), Bt (WG-001) (RR=35.43-167.36), and chlorfluazuron (RR=13.60-104.95) and medium levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR=1.19-14.26), chlorfenapyr (RR=4.22-13.44), spinosad (RR=5.89-21.45), indoxacarb (RR=4.01-34.45), and abamectin (RR=23.88-95.15). By contrast, the field populations of P. xylostella remained susceptible to or developed low levels of resistance to diafenthiuron (RR=1.61-8.05), spinetoram (RR=0.88-2.35), and cyantraniliprole (RR=0.4-2.15). Moreover, the LC50 values of field populations of P. xylostella were highly positively correlated between chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (r=0.88, P=0.045), chlorantraniliprole and spinosad (r=0.66, P=0.039), spinosad and diafenthiuron (r=0.57, P=0.0060), and chlorfenapyr and diafenthiuron (r=0.51, P=0.016). Additionally, the activities of detoxification enzymes in field populations of P. xylostella were significantly positively correlated with the log LC50 values of chlorantraniliprole and spinosad. The results of this study provide an important base for developing effective and successful strategies to manage insecticide resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:27521911

  19. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data bearing on the transport direction of mid-tertiary regional ignimbrites, Candelaria Hills area, West-Central Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronis, Michael S.; Geissman, John W.

    2009-03-01

    In west-central Nevada, the Oligocene Candelaria pyroclastic sequence reaches a local thickness of up to 1.3 km, in what has been referred to as the Candelaria trough, but more generally the accumulation of ash-flow tuffs and related volcanic rocks is less than 300 m thick. Complete to near complete outcrops are scattered over about 3200 km2 in the Candelaria Hills and surrounding ranges of the Southern Walker Lane structural zone. Three regionally extensive compound cooling units within the overall sequence (25.8 Ma Metallic City, 24.1 Ma Belleville, and 23.7 Ma Candelaria Junction Tuffs) have distinguishing characteristics and are the focus of study. At 106 sites, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data provide an estimate of transport direction of each tuff. Inferred transport directions based on the AMS data are corrected for a modest clockwise, yet variable magnitude, vertical axis rotation that affected these rocks in late Miocene to Pliocene time, as revealed by paleomagnetic studies. The AMS data show a somewhat orderly pattern of magnetic fabrics that we interpret to define unique transport directions for the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs. The low susceptibility and degree of anisotropy of the Belleville Tuff limits our interpretation from this pyroclastic deposit. The Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs typically show gentle, south-southeast and southeast dipping magnetic fabric imbrication, respectively, and very gently plunging magnetic lineations. These AMS fabric elements indicate the tuffs were transported to the north-northwest and northwest, respectively. The AMS fabric data from the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs suggest relatively unrestricted flow during emplacement. Evidence across the 3,200 km2 area to support more regionally controlled channelized flow into and/or flow along the east northeast-west southwest axis of the Candelaria trough is lacking. The ignimbrites clearly filled a topographic

  20. The "window of susceptibility" for inflammation in the immature central nervous system is characterized by a leaky blood-brain barrier and the local expression of inflammatory chemokines.

    PubMed

    Schoderboeck, Lucia; Adzemovic, Milena; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Crupinschi, Claudia; Hochmeister, Sonja; Fischer, Marie-Therese; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2009-09-01

    Early in postnatal development, the immature central nervous system (CNS) is more susceptible to inflammation than its adult counterpart. We show here that this "window of susceptibility" is characterized by the presence of leaky vessels in the CNS, and by a global chemokine expression profile which is clearly distinct from the one observed in the adult CNS and has three important characteristics. First, it contains chemokines with known roles in the differentiation and maturation of glia and neurons. Secondly, these chemokines have been described before in inflammatory lesions of the CNS, where they are important for the recruitment of monocytes and T cells. Lastly, the chemokine profile is shaped by pathological changes like oligodendrocyte stress and attempts of myelin repair. Changes in the chemokine expression profile along with a leaky blood-brain barrier pave the ground for an accelerated development of CNS inflammation. PMID:19520164

  1. Susceptibility to acidic precipitation contributes to the decline of the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-04-01

    The effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (Phi2) was shown to be reduced in the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica by short-term exposure to aqueous SO2 at pH values occurring in the precipitation of areas with high SO2 pollution. Significant reduction of Phi2 was found at pHsuggests that sensitivity to SO2 (primarily associated with epiphytic lichens in the past) has contributed to the decline of both species in central Europe. In C. islandica, but not in C. aculeata, thalli with the natural content of lichen substances were more tolerant to SO2 than thalli where the extracellular lichen substances were extracted before the experiment. This supports published results that the depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid, a major lichen substance of C. islandica, increases the pollution tolerance in lichens. PMID:18053625

  2. Resequencing and association analysis of coding regions at twenty candidate genes suggest a role for rare risk variation at AKAP9 and protective variation at NRXN1 in schizophrenia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Rama, José Javier; Arrojo, Manuel; Sobrino, Beatriz; Amigo, Jorge; Brenlla, Julio; Agra, Santiago; Paz, Eduardo; Brión, María; Carracedo, Ángel; Páramo, Mario; Costas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of genetic risk to develop schizophrenia may be due to low-frequency variants. This multistep study attempted to find low-frequency variants of high effect at coding regions of eleven schizophrenia susceptibility genes supported by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and nine genes for the DISC1 interactome, a susceptibility gene-set. During the discovery step, a total of 125 kb per sample were resequenced in 153 schizophrenia patients and 153 controls from Galicia (NW Spain), and the cumulative role of low-frequency variants at a gene or at the DISC1 gene-set were analyzed by burden and variance-based tests. Relevant results were meta-analyzed when appropriate data were available. In addition, case-only putative damaging variants were genotyped in a further 419 cases and 398 controls. The discovery step revealed a protective effect of rare missense variants at NRXN1, a result supported by meta-analysis (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47-0.94, P = 0.021, based on 3848 patients and 3896 controls from six studies). The follow-up step based on case-only putative damaging variants revealed a promising risk variant at AKAP9. This variant, K873R, reached nominal significance after inclusion of 240 additional Spanish controls from databases. The variant, located in an ADCY2 binding region, is absent from large public databases. Interestingly, GWAS revealed an association between common ADCY2 variants and bipolar disorder, a disorder with considerable genetic overlap with schizophrenia. These data suggest a role of rare missense variants at NRXN1 and AKAP9 in schizophrenia susceptibility, probably related to alteration of the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance, deserving further investigation. PMID:25943950

  3. A comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of autophagy-related genes identified in tobacco suggests a central role of autophagy in plant response to various environmental cues

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue-mei; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Wei; Zou, Jie; Cheng, Tian-he; Peng, Xiong-bo; Sun, Meng-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in both animals and plants, which has been shown to be involved in various essential developmental processes in plants. Nicotiana tabacum is considered to be an ideal model plant and has been widely used for the study of the roles of autophagy in the processes of plant development and in the response to various stresses. However, only a few autophagy-related genes (ATGs) have been identified in tobacco up to now. Here, we identified 30 ATGs belonging to 16 different groups in tobacco through a genome-wide survey. Comprehensive expression profile analysis reveals an abroad expression pattern of these ATGs, which could be detected in all tissues tested under normal growth conditions. Our series tests further reveal that majority of ATGs are sensitive and responsive to different stresses including nutrient starvation, plant hormones, heavy metal and other abiotic stresses, suggesting a central role of autophagy, likely as an effector, in plant response to various environmental cues. This work offers a detailed survey of all ATGs in tobacco and also suggests manifold functions of autophagy in both normal plant growth and plant response to environmental stresses. PMID:26205094

  4. A comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of autophagy-related genes identified in tobacco suggests a central role of autophagy in plant response to various environmental cues.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-mei; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Wei; Zou, Jie; Cheng, Tian-he; Peng, Xiong-bo; Sun, Meng-xiang

    2015-08-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in both animals and plants, which has been shown to be involved in various essential developmental processes in plants. Nicotiana tabacum is considered to be an ideal model plant and has been widely used for the study of the roles of autophagy in the processes of plant development and in the response to various stresses. However, only a few autophagy-related genes (ATGs) have been identified in tobacco up to now. Here, we identified 30 ATGs belonging to 16 different groups in tobacco through a genome-wide survey. Comprehensive expression profile analysis reveals an abroad expression pattern of these ATGs, which could be detected in all tissues tested under normal growth conditions. Our series tests further reveal that majority of ATGs are sensitive and responsive to different stresses including nutrient starvation, plant hormones, heavy metal and other abiotic stresses, suggesting a central role of autophagy, likely as an effector, in plant response to various environmental cues. This work offers a detailed survey of all ATGs in tobacco and also suggests manifold functions of autophagy in both normal plant growth and plant response to environmental stresses. PMID:26205094

  5. Does a central MHC gene in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1*0401 affect susceptibility to type 1 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Windsor, L; Puschendorf, M; Allcock, R; Scott, A; Sayer, D; Kucharzak, R; Gut, I; McCann, V; Davis, E; Witt, C; Christiansen, F; Price, P

    2005-06-01

    Subtypes of HLA-DR4 are associated with susceptibility or protection against type 1 diabetes (T1DM). We addressed whether this reflects linkage disequilibrium with the true susceptibility locus by studying broader MHC haplotypes marked by alleles of HLA-B, IKBL (adjacent to TNFA) and complement C4. The study used a largely Caucasian cohort from Western Australia. HLA-DRB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0405 marked susceptibility to T1DM. In Caucasians, DRB1*0401 occurs predominantly in the 44.1 ancestral haplotype (AH; HLA-A2,B44, DRB1*0401,DQB1*0301) and the 62.1AH (HLA-A2,B15(62),DRB1*0401,DQB1*0302). HLA-B15 marked susceptibility and HLA-B44 marked with resistance to T1DM in patients and controls preselected for HLA-DRB1*0401. A gene between TNFA and HLA-B on the 8.1AH (HLA-A1,B8,;DR3,DQ2) modifies the effects of the class II alleles. Here, alleles characteristic of the 62.1AH (C4B3, IKBL+446*T and HLA-A2,B15) were screened in donors preselected for HLA-DRB1*0401. C4B3 was associated with diabetes, consistent with a diabetes gene telomeric of MHC class II. However, increases in carriage of IKBL+446*T and HLA-A2,B15 were marginal, as too few control subjects were available with the diabetogenic alleles. However, with these tools, selection of HLA-DRB1*0401, DQB1*0302 donors who are positive and negative for C4B3 will allow bidirectional mapping of diabetes genes in the central MHC. PMID:15858601

  6. Inference of the Arabidopsis Lateral Root Gene Regulatory Network Suggests a Bifurcation Mechanism That Defines Primordia Flanking and Central Zones[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lavenus, Julien; Goh, Tatsuaki; Guyomarc’h, Soazig; Hill, Kristine; Lucas, Mikael; Voß, Ute; Kenobi, Kim; Wilson, Michael H.; Farcot, Etienne; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Fukaki, Hidehiro; Laplaze, Laurent; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of genes involved in lateral root (LR) organogenesis have been identified over the last decade using forward and reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nevertheless, how these genes interact to form a LR regulatory network largely remains to be elucidated. In this study, we developed a time-delay correlation algorithm (TDCor) to infer the gene regulatory network (GRN) controlling LR primordium initiation and patterning in Arabidopsis from a time-series transcriptomic data set. The predicted network topology links the very early-activated genes involved in LR initiation to later expressed cell identity markers through a multistep genetic cascade exhibiting both positive and negative feedback loops. The predictions were tested for the key transcriptional regulator AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 node, and over 70% of its targets were validated experimentally. Intriguingly, the predicted GRN revealed a mutual inhibition between the ARF7 and ARF5 modules that would control an early bifurcation between two cell fates. Analyses of the expression pattern of ARF7 and ARF5 targets suggest that this patterning mechanism controls flanking and central zone specification in Arabidopsis LR primordia. PMID:25944102

  7. Suggestion and psychoanalytic technique.

    PubMed

    Levy, S T; Inderbitzin, L B

    2000-01-01

    The role of the analyst's suggestive influence on the course and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment is explored, and traditional and newer perspectives on analytic technique are contrasted. The intersubjective critique of the neutral, objective analyst in relation to suggestion is examined. The inevitable presence and need for suggestive factors in analysis, and the relationship of suggestion to transference susceptibility, are emphasized. The manner in which the analysis of suggestive factors is subsumed in transference analysis as part of traditional technique is highlighted. PMID:11059395

  8. Landslide susceptibility-certainty mapping by a multi-method approach: A case study in the Tertiary basin of Puy-en-Velay (Massif central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poiraud, Alexandre

    2014-07-01

    The present study discusses the use of integrated variables along with a combination of multi-method forecasts for landslide susceptibility mapping. The study area is located in the south-eastern French Massif central, a volcanic region containing Tertiary sedimentary materials that are prone to landslides. The flowage-type landslides within the study area are very slow-moving phenomena which affect the infrastructures and human settlements. The modelling process is based on a training set of landslides (70% of total landslides) and a set of controlling factor (slope, lithology, surficial formation, the topographic wetness index, the topographic position index, distance to thalweg, and aspect). We create a composite variable (or integrated variable), corresponding to the union of geology and surficial formation, in order to avoid the conditional dependence between these two variables and to build a geotechnical variable. We use five classical modelling methods (index, weight-of-evidence, logistic regression, decision tree, and unique condition unit) with the same training set but with different architectures of input data made up of controlling factors. All the models are tested with a validation group (30% of total landslides), using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) to quantify their predictive performance. We finally select a single “best” model for each method. However, these five models are all equivalent in quality, despite their differences in detail, so no single model stands out against another. Finally, we combine the five models into a unique susceptibility map with a calculation of median susceptibility class. The final AUC value of this combined map is better than that for a single model (except for Unique Condition Unit), and we can evaluate the certainty of the susceptibility class pixel by pixel. In agreement with the sparse literature on this topic, we conclude that i) integrated variables increase the performance

  9. Oroclinal bending of the Juan Fernández Ridge suggested by geohistory analysis of the Bahía Inglesa Formation, north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Achurra, Luciano; Henríquez, Álvaro; Carreño, Catalina; Rivera, Huber; Suárez, Mario E.; Ishman, Scott E.; Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2016-03-01

    The stratigraphy of the Bahía Inglesa Formation in the Caldera Basin west of Copiapó, (north-central Chile) is revised, based on hitherto unpublished stratigraphic sections and 87Sr/86Sr dating. The depositional environment varied from a rocky shoreline to the upper continental slope, with sea-level oscillations and tectonic movements causing numerous local unconformities as well as lateral and vertical facies changes. Geohistory and sedimentological analyses show that the area was close to the concurrent sea level at about 15.3 Ma, but at the same time being elevated about 100 m above the present sea level. Although the basin then subsided at least 350 m until around 6 Ma, marine deposition was only recorded after 10.4 Ma. This suggests that the sea level initially dropped faster than the rate of subsidence so that subaerial erosion occurred. The period of subaerial exposure before 10.4 Ma can be attributed to the presence of a NE-trending branch of the Juan Fernández Ridge below the continental crust at this time, whereas the ensuing subsidence was due to subduction erosion and crustal accommodation in its wake as it migrated south along the South American coastline. The subsequent uplift of at least 250 m can be explained by an acceleration in plate expansion and isostatic rebound of the continental crust after being partially submerged in the upper mantle. The uplift-subsidence-uplift pattern mirrors those recorded around the Nazca Ridge in Peru, as well as in similar basins to the south of Caldera. However, a higher southward migration rate of the Juan Fernández Ridge against the edge of the South American Plate and less intense uplift-subsidence-uplift cycles are recorded in the latter basins. This can possibly be attributed to oroclinal bending of the ridge due to friction with the overlying continental plate, which diminished the angle of incidence and the intensity of the stress field, but increased the migration velocity of the ridge relative to the

  10. Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Central and South America revealed highly diverse populations and suggested possible different origins of the three archetypal lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most T. gondii strains in North America and Europe belong to three archetypal clonal lineages including the Type I, II and III but, isolates from Brazil are highly diverse. Here, we analyzed 164 T. gondii isolates from three countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), from one c...

  11. Landslide susceptibility analysis in central Vietnam based on an incomplete landslide inventory: Comparison of a new method to calculate weighting factors by means of bivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, Markus; Fink, Manfred; Tünschel, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Vietnam is regarded as a country strongly impacted by climate change. Population and economic growth result in additional pressures on the ecosystems in the region. In particular, changes in landuse and precipitation extremes lead to a higher landslide susceptibility in the study area (approx. 12,400 km2), located in central Vietnam and impacted by a tropical monsoon climate. Hence, this natural hazard is a serious problem in the study area. A probability assessment of landslides is therefore undertaken through the use of bivariate statistics. However, the landslide inventory based only on field campaigns does not cover the whole area. To avoid a systematic bias due to the limited mapping area, the investigated regions are depicted as the viewshed in the calculations. On this basis, the distribution of the landslides is evaluated in relation to the maps of 13 parameters, showing the strongest correlation to distance to roads and precipitation increase. An additional weighting of the input parameters leads to better results, since some parameters contribute more to landslides than others. The method developed in this work is based on the validation of different parameter sets used within the statistical index method. It is called "omit error" because always omitting another parameter leads to the weightings, which describe how strong every single parameter improves or reduces the objective function. Furthermore, this approach is used to find a better input parameter set by excluding some parameters. After this optimization, nine input parameters are left, and they are weighted by the omit error method, providing the best susceptibility map with a success rate of 92.9% and a prediction rate of 92.3%. This is an improvement of 4.4% and 4.2%, respectively, compared to the basic statistical index method with the 13 input parameters.

  12. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru’s Central Coast during the Middle Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650–1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region’s demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500–700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800–1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000–1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  13. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  14. Estimates of flow direction for calc-alkaline welded tuffs and paleomagnetic data reliability from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements: Central San Juan Mountains, southwest Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Brooks B.

    1982-07-01

    Flow directions are estimated from the measurement of the magnetic fabric of 106 samples, collected at 18 sites in four welded tuff units in the central San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado. The estimates assume that the tuffs generally flowed directly away from the extrusive vents and that the lineations of magnetic grains within the tuffs represent the flow direction at individual sites. Errors in the estimation may arise from topographic variation, rheomorphism (post-emplacement mass flow) within the tuff, and other factors. Magnetic lineation is defined as the site mean anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility maximum azimuth. A test on the flow directions for individual units is based on the projection of lineation azimuths and their intersection within or near the known source caldera for the tuff. This test is positive for the four units examined. Paleomagnetic results for these tuffs are probably reliable indicators of the geomagnetic field direction in southwest Colorado, during the time (28.2-26.5 Ma) of emplacement.

  15. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from bovine subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in the central region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Raspanti, Claudia G; Bonetto, Cesar C; Vissio, Claudina; Pellegrino, Matías S; Reinoso, Elina B; Dieser, Silvana A; Bogni, Cristina I; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of CNS species causing SCM identified by genotyping varies among countries. Overall, the antimicrobial resistance in this group of organisms is increasing worldwide; however, little information exists about a CNS species resistant to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize CNS at species level and to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of CNS species isolated from bovine SCM in 51 dairy herds located in the central region of the province of Cordoba, Argentina. In this study, we identified 219 CNS isolates at species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the groEL gene. Staphylococcus chromogenes (46.6%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (32%) were the most prevalent species. A minimum of three different CNS species were present in 41.2% of the herds. S. chromogenes was isolated from most of the herds (86.3%), whereas S. haemolyticus was isolated from 66.7% of them. The broth microdilution method was used to test in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to a single compound or two related compounds was expressed in 43.8% of the isolates. S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus showed a very high proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin. Resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials was found in 30.6% of all CNS. S. haemolyticus exhibited a higher frequency of resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials than S. chromogenes. PMID:26935912

  16. Comparative geochemical, magnetic susceptibility, and fluid inclusion studies on the Paleoproterozoic Malanjkhand and Dongargarh granitoids, Central India and implications to metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Dinesh; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.; Moriyama, Takeru; Ishihara, Shunso

    2014-10-01

    The Malanjkhand granodiorite (MG) hosting economic copper mineralization and the hitherto barren Dongargarh granitoids (DG) have subtle differences in their petrographic and bulk geochemical features. The two plutons are contiguous and occur in the northern part of the Bhandara Craton in Central India with intervening volcanosedimentary sequence of the Dongargarh Supergroup amidst older gneisses. The Dongargarh granitoids studied in two smaller units have higher bulk magnetic susceptibility than the Cu-bearing MG; the majority of samples studied from the latter being ilmenite-series rocks. DG crystallized at higher pressures compared to MG. Plagioclase composition ranges from albite to high bytownite in MG, whereas its compositional range is restricted to high andesine in DG. However, both intrusions give identical temperature ranges estimated by binary feldspar thermometry. Biotite in MG shows higher Fe/Mg ratios, as well as a greater range of compositional variation, than that in DG. MG has a moderately fractionated rare earth element distribution pattern without any significant Eu anomaly, showing depletion in mid-range rare earth elements (REE) and no depletion in heavy REE. DG is characterized by a prominent negative Eu anomaly. Geochemical features indicate subtle differences in the nature of source rocks and/or melting processes responsible for the generation of the two granitoids. MG displays more consistent bulk chemical features and is possibly a result of crystallization from a homogeneous granodioritic melt. DG displays a greater diversity and possibly incorporated a significant felsic crustal component that contributed to the parent melt. A fluid inclusion study of quartz grains from the granitoids and barren quartz veins occurring in MG indicates identical low-temperature nature of the fluid in both cases. They differ from the fluid in the mineralized zone in MG in the absence of a high-temperature component and CO2 in the fluid. Late-stage fluids in

  17. Mice with different susceptibility to tick-borne encephalitis virus infection show selective neutralizing antibody response and inflammatory reaction in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical course of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a disease caused by TBE virus, ranges from asymptomatic or mild influenza-like infection to severe debilitating encephalitis or encephalomyelitis. Despite the medical importance of this disease, some crucial steps in the development of encephalitis remain poorly understood. In particular, the basis of the disease severity is largely unknown. Methods TBE virus growth, neutralizing antibody response, key cytokine and chemokine mRNA production and changes in mRNA levels of cell surface markers of immunocompetent cells in brain were measured in mice with different susceptibilities to TBE virus infection. Results An animal model of TBE based on BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem) recombinant congenic mouse strains showing different severities of the infection in relation to the host genetic background was developed. After subcutaneous inoculation of TBE virus, BALB/c mice showed medium susceptibility to the infection, STS mice were resistant, and CcS-11 mice were highly susceptible. The resistant STS mice showed lower and delayed viremia, lower virus production in the brain and low cytokine/chemokine mRNA production, but had a strong neutralizing antibody response. The most sensitive strain (CcS-11) failed in production of neutralizing antibodies, but exhibited strong cytokine/chemokine mRNA production in the brain. After intracerebral inoculation, all mouse strains were sensitive to the infection and had similar virus production in the brain, but STS mice survived significantly longer than CcS-11 mice. These two strains also differed in the expression of key cytokines/chemokines, particularly interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) in the brain. Conclusions Our data indicate that the genetic control is an important factor influencing the clinical course of TBE. High neutralizing antibody response might be crucial for preventing host fatality, but high

  18. Using the statistical analysis method to assess the landslide susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hsun-Chuan; Chen, Bo-An; Wen, Yo-Ting

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the landslide susceptibility in Jing-Shan River upstream watershed, central Taiwan. The landslide inventories during typhoons Toraji in 2001, Mindulle in 2004, Kalmaegi and Sinlaku in 2008, Morakot in 2009, and the 0719 rainfall event in 2011, which were established by Taiwan Central Geological Survey, were used as landslide data. This study aims to assess the landslide susceptibility by using different statistical methods including logistic regression, instability index method and support vector machine (SVM). After the evaluations, the elevation, slope, slope aspect, lithology, terrain roughness, slope roughness, plan curvature, profile curvature, total curvature, average of rainfall were chosen as the landslide factors. The validity of the three established models was further examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. The result of logistic regression showed that the factor of terrain roughness and slope roughness had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Instability index method showed that the factor of terrain roughness and lithology had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Due to the fact that the use of instability index method may lead to possible underestimation around the river side. In addition, landslide susceptibility indicated that the use of instability index method laid a potential issue about the number of factor classification. An increase of the number of factor classification may cause excessive variation coefficient of the factor. An decrease of the number of factor classification may make a large range of nearby cells classified into the same susceptibility level. Finally, using the receiver operating characteristic curve discriminate the three models. SVM is a preferred method than the others in assessment of landslide susceptibility. Moreover, SVM is further suggested to be nearly logistic regression in terms of recognizing the medium-high and high susceptibility.

  19. Late-stage magma flow in a shallow felsic reservoir: Merging the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility record with numerical simulations in La Gloria Pluton, central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GutiéRrez, F.; PayacáN, I.; Gelman, S. E.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    La Gloria Pluton is a 10 Myr old epizonal intrusion located in the southern Andes. We present anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data that indicate a magnetic fabric that is mainly oblate. We find that lineations are weak and have a N-NW trend with a nearly horizontal dip, while foliations are more pronounced, have NW trends, and have dips that vary from vertical at the walls of the intrusion to horizontal at the center and under the roof of the chamber. To interpret these magmatic fabrics, we developed a time-dependent 2-D magmatic fluid dynamic numerical simulation. Our model is calibrated with MELTS and accounts for the coupled processes of cooling, crystallization, and degassing of a magma chamber. Simulations indicate that the resulting convective flow pattern in the crystallizing reservoir is consistent with the magnetic fabric, which is largely produced in the shear zone between the convecting liquid-dominated core and the growing solidification fronts adjacent to the walls. The magnetic fabric records the last increment of strain induced by convective magmatic flow in the cooling reservoir during crystallization at the rheological magma locking point along solidification fronts. Despite the small size of the pluton, the core of the chamber remains thermally insulated from the colder host rocks, surviving up to 20 kyr above the solidus, which allows enough time for the extraction of residual leucogranitic melt and partial late magmatic reactive recrystallization. The results of the simulations are also consistent with the previously determined compositional and mineralogical zonation patterns in the pluton.

  20. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis. PMID:25928681

  1. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  2. Subsidence and drowning of a carbonate platform in south-central Mongolia (Gobi Altai region) during the late Eifelian to early Givetian: A synthesis of conodont data, magnetic susceptibility, and paleoecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Nicholas B.; Jeffrey Over, D.; Chuluun, Minjin; Myrow, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    New and published stratigraphic data are integrated herein to resolve the age and depositional setting of Middle Devonian strata in the Gobi-Altai Terrane of south-central Mongolia (Bayanhongar Province). The Tsagaankhaalga Formation (Emsian?-Eifelian) is composed primarily of tabular sandy carbonates; it is sharply overlain by dark, fine-grained volcanoclastic marine sedimentary rock of the Govialtai Formation (Givetian), which is comparatively unfossiliferous, except for sporadic, fossiliferous carbonate interbeds. The latter unit contains abundant tentaculites as well as a newly recovered collection of conodonts assigned to the lower Givetian varcus Zone (timorensis, rhenana, or ansatus). A positive shift in bulk magnetic susceptibility coincides with the Tsagaankhaalga/Govialtai contact, and elevated values within the Govialtai correspond to tuffaceous and rhyolitic strata. The transition from carbonate facies of the Tsagaankhaalga Formation to the volcanoclastic shales of the Govialtai Formation is interpreted as the result of local tectonic activity. This may be qualitatively described as a transition from a shallow marine carbonate shoal with an epibenthic fauna (Tsagaankhaalga), to a deeper, clastic dominated environment with a nektic fauna (Govialtai). The pulse of tectonism must predate the lower Givetian, and it echoes the "Tsakhir Event", which is recorded by the transition from Ordovician-Silurian carbonates to Lochkovian conglomerate. These findings provide useful biostratigraphic control and insight into the complex tectonic evolution of the Gobi-Altai Terrane and adjacent blocks on the Eurasian Craton.

  3. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•ΔELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ΔELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•ΔELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ΔT=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ΔT=0.78°C. The differences are

  4. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  5. [Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, F

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated. PMID:23399415

  6. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:3555209

  7. Attention control and susceptibility to hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Iani, Cristina; Ricci, Federico; Baroni, Giulia; Rubichi, Sandro

    2009-12-01

    The present work aimed at assessing whether the interference exerted by task-irrelevant spatial information is comparable in high- and low-susceptible individuals and whether it may be eliminated by means of a specific posthypnotic suggestion. To this purpose high- and low-susceptible participants were tested using a Simon-like interference task after the administration of a suggestion aimed at preventing the processing of the irrelevant spatial information conveyed by the stimuli. The suggestion could be administered either in the absence or following a standard hypnotic induction. We showed that, outside from the hypnotic context, the Simon effect was similar in high and low-susceptible participants and it was significantly reduced following the posthypnotic suggestion in high-susceptible participants only. These results show that a specific posthypnotic suggestion can alter information processing in high-susceptible individuals and reduce the interfering effect exerted by arrow stimuli. PMID:19648030

  8. Reactivation of Memory by Hypnosis and Suggestion. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Perry; Cooper, Leslie M.

    This study tested the hypothesis that the memory of meaningful material can be reactivated without relearning by means of hypnotic suggestion. Very susceptible (T) and non-susceptible (UT) subjects were sought from among those who volunteered for the experiment. Two forms of a memory test for connected meaningful material were developed. Each form…

  9. Alate susceptibility in ants

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  10. Alate susceptibility in ants.

    PubMed

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  11. Unprecedented Degree of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Group M Genetic Diversity in the Democratic Republic of Congo Suggests that the HIV-1 Pandemic Originated in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Nicole; Peeters, Martine; Mulanga-Kabeya, Claire; Nzilambi, Nzila; Robertson, David; Ilunga, Wantabala; Sema, Hurogo; Tshimanga, Kazadi; Bongo, Beni; Delaporte, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; formerly Zaire). A total of 247 HIV-1-positive samples, collected during an epidemiologic survey conducted in 1997 in three regions (Kinshasa [the capital], Bwamanda [in the north], and Mbuyi-Maya [in the south]), were genetically characterized in the env V3-V5 region. All known subtypes were found to cocirculate, and for 6% of the samples the subtype could not be identified. Subtype A is predominant, with prevalences decreasing from north to south (69% in the north, 53% in the capital city, and 46% in the south). Subtype C, D, G, and H prevalences range from 7 to 9%, whereas subtype F, J, K, and CRF01-AE strains represent 2 to 4% of the samples; only one subtype B strain was identified. The highest prevalence (25%) of subtype C was in the south, and CRF01-AE was seen mainly in the north. The high intersubtype variability among the V3-V5 sequences is the most probable reason for the low (45%) efficiency of subtype A-specific PCR and HMA (heteroduplex mobility assay). Eighteen (29%) of 62 samples had discordant subtype designations between env and gag. Sequence analysis of the entire envelope from 13 samples confirmed the high degree of diversity and complexity of HIV-1 strains in the DRC; 9 had a complex recombinant structure in gp160, involving fragments of known and unknown subtypes. Interestingly, the unknown fragments from the different strains did not cluster together. Overall, the high number of HIV-1 subtypes cocirculating, the high intrasubtype diversity, and the high numbers of possible recombinant viruses as well as different unclassified strains are all in agreement with an old and mature epidemic in the DRC, suggesting that this region is the epicenter of HIV-1 group M. PMID:11044094

  12. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  13. Individual personality characteristics related to suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Cheryl W; Steele, Connie

    2002-12-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between suggestibility of memory, personality characteristics identified by the Millon Index of Personality Traits, and tolerance for ambiguity measured by MacDonald's Ambiguity Tolerance-20. 85 female and 16 male college students were assigned to either an experimental group receiving the suggestive information or a control group. Suggestibility was assessed using Lindberg's suggestibility measure consisting of a short video, followed by a questionnaire used to assess memory, and a second administration one week later. Logistical regression analyses were used to construct a model of the personality characteristics predictive of suggestibility and indicated that susceptibility to suggestive information may differ across personalities for variables such as sensing, innovating, agreeing, and low tolerance of ambiguity. PMID:12530759

  14. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    PubMed

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). PMID:27404406

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium sp.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Ruano, Delia; Roberts, David M; Gonzalez-Del-Rio, Ruben; Álvarez, Daniel; Rebollo, Ma José; Pérez-Herrán, Esther; Mendoza, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The concept of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is an essential part of clinical microbiology. Antimicrobial testing has played a central role in the identification of new antibiotics and defining their clinical uses. Here we describe different approaches to determine the activity of compounds in medium- or high-throughput format. PMID:25779321

  16. Fungal Susceptibility of Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Richard T.; Kaplan, Arthur M.

    1968-01-01

    One hundred laboratory-synthesized polyurethanes were tested by a mixed-culture petri dish method for susceptibility to fungus attack. Polyether polyurethanes were moderately to highly resistant to fungal attack, whereas all polyester polyurethanes tested were highly susceptible. The susceptibility of the polyethers was related to the number of adjacent methylene groups in the polymer chain. At least two such groups were required for appreciable attack to occur. The presence of side chains on the diol moiety of the polyurethane reduced susceptibility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16349806

  17. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Angela R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2007-09-01

    Deleterious mutations in two breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are candidates for additional risk reduction measures such as intensive screening, prophylactic surgery or chemoprevention. Additional susceptibility genes have been identified, including PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, CASP8, PBRL and BRIP1. Yet, many women with a personal or family history suggestive of a hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer undergo genetic testing and no significant genetic alteration is found. Thus, there are other susceptibility genes that have not been identified, and it is likely that the remaining familial contribution to breast cancer will be explained by the presence of multiple low penetrance alleles that coexist to confer high penetrance risks (a polygenic model). The American Cancer Society has identified cancer prevention as a key component of cancer management and there is interest in developing individualized cancer prevention focused on identifying high risk individuals who are most likely to benefit from more aggressive risk reduction measures. Breast cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling are currently provided by genetic counselors, oncology nurse specialist, geneticists, medical and surgical oncologists, gynecologists and other health care professionals, often working within a multidisciplinary clinical setting. Current methods for risk assessment and predictive genetic testing have limitations and improvements in molecular testing and risk assessment tools is necessary to maximize individual breast cancer risk assessment and to fulfill the promise of cancer prevention. PMID:17508290

  18. Asymmetric otolith function and increased susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to variations in gravitoinertial acceleration level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; Graybiel, Ashton; Johnson, Walter H.; Money, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Von Baumgarten and coworkers (1979, 1981) have suggested that asymmetries in otolith function between the left and right labyrinths may result from differences in otoconial mass and could play a role in space motion sickness. Such asymmetries would be centrally compensated for under terrestrial conditions, but on exposure to weightlessness the persisting central compensation would produce a central imbalance that could lead to motion sickness. In this work ocular counterrolling was used as a way of measuring the relative 'efficiency' of the left and right otoliths; the ocular counterrolling scores of individuals were compared with their susceptibility to motion sickness during passive exposure to variations in Gz in parabolic flight maneuvers. The experimental findings indicate that large asymmetries in counterrolling for leftward and rightward body tilts are associated with greater susceptibility to motion sickness in parabolic flight.

  19. Genetic Susceptibility to Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Skibola, Christine F.; Curry, John D.; Nieters, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic susceptibility studies of lymphoma may serve to identify at risk populations and to elucidate important disease mechanisms. METHODS This review considered all studies published through October 2006 on the contribution of genetic polymorphisms in the risk of lymphoma. RESULTS Numerous studies implicate the role of genetic variants that promote B-cell survival and growth with increased risk of lymphoma. Several reports including a large pooled study by InterLymph, an international consortium of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) case-control studies, found positive associations between variant alleles in TNF -308G>A and IL10 -3575T>A genes and risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Four studies reported positive associations between a GSTT1 deletion and risk of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genetic studies of folate-metabolizing genes implicate folate in NHL risk, but further studies that include folate and alcohol assessments are needed. Links between NHL and genes involved in energy regulation and hormone production and metabolism may provide insights into novel mechanisms implicating neuro- and endocrine-immune cross-talk with lymphomagenesis, but will need replication in larger populations. CONCLUSIONS Numerous studies suggest that common genetic variants with low penetrance influence lymphoma risk, though replication studies will be needed to eliminate false positive associations. PMID:17606447

  20. MR susceptibility imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duyn, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    This work reviews recent developments in the use of magnetic susceptibility contrast for human MRI, with a focus on the study of brain anatomy. The increase in susceptibility contrast with modern high field scanners has led to novel applications and insights into the sources and mechanism contributing to this contrast in brain tissues. Dedicated experiments have demonstrated that in most of healthy brain, iron and myelin dominate tissue susceptibility variations, although their relative contribution varies substantially. Local variations in these compounds can affect both amplitude and frequency of the MRI signal. In white matter, the myelin sheath introduces an anisotropic susceptibility that has distinct effects on the water compartments inside the axons, between the myelin sheath, and the axonal space, and renders their signals dependent on the angle between the axon and the magnetic field. This offers opportunities to derive tissue properties specific to these cellular compartments.

  1. Retrieval enhances eyewitness suggestibility to misinformation in free and cued recall.

    PubMed

    Wilford, Miko M; Chan, Jason C K; Tuhn, Sam J

    2014-03-01

    Immediately recalling a witnessed event can increase people's susceptibility to later postevent misinformation. But this retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) effect has been shown only when the initial recall test included specific questions that reappeared on the final test. Moreover, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is affected by the centrality of event details. These limitations make it difficult to generalize RES to criminal investigations, which often begin with free recall prior to more specific queries from legal officials and attorneys. In 3 experiments, we examined the influence of test formats (free recall vs. cued recall) and centrality of event details (central vs. peripheral) on RES. In Experiment 1, both the initial and final tests were cued recall. In Experiment 2, the initial test was free recall and the final test was cued recall. In Experiment 3, both the initial and final tests were free recall. Initial testing increased misinformation reporting on the final test for peripheral details in all experiments, but the effect was significant for central details only after aggregating the data from all 3 experiments. These results show that initial free recall can produce RES, and more broadly, that free recall can potentiate subsequent learning of complex prose materials. PMID:24000960

  2. Magnetic Susceptibility as a Biosignature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryshyn, V.; Corsetti, F. A.; Lund, S.; Berelson, W.

    2011-12-01

    Stromatolites, laminated sedimentary structures generally thought to have been produced by the activity of microorganisms, have long been studied in the geobiologic community. However, abiotic processes such as mineral growth can mimic stromatolite morphology and diagenesis commonly obscures other potentially diagnostic features (microstructure, isotopes, etc.). Here, we report a new biosignature based on the detrital magnetic mineral component present in nearly all sedimentary rocks. Magnetic grains in an abiotic structure should obey the laws of gravity/angle of repose and be swept off peaks/concentrated in lows, whereas magnetic grains should adhere to a biofilm and be more evenly distributed around the structure, even at steep angles, versus the abiotic scenario. Laboratory experiments were preformed in which small (2 μm) particles of magnetite were introduced into a tank that contained glass slides on which carbonate had abiotically precipitated. The slides were inclined at a variety of angles, ranging from 0 (horizontal) to 90 degrees (vertical). Samples were taken from the slides, dried, and their magnetic susceptibility was measured. In these experiments, no magnetic signature was found on the slides inclined at angles higher than 45 degrees, even though carbonate had precipitated onto the slides. A parallel biotic laboratory experiment was performed using cyanobacterial mats inclined at a variety of angles. In this experiment, all mats had over an order of magnitude more magnetic susceptibility than their abiotic counterparts, and even mats inclined at 90 degrees (vertical) held significant amounts of magnetic particles. Lastly, using the results of the laboratory experiments as a framework, several stromatolites of both known and strongly suspected biogenicity (biotic and abiotic) were tested by microdrilling and measuring the magnetic susceptibility at different depositional angles along individual lamina. The results of these experiments suggest that

  3. Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160079.html Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest Researchers found it boosted cellular aging by ... it, can speed aging in women, two new studies suggest. "For decades, scientists have disagreed over whether ...

  4. Resisting Suggestive Questions: Can Theory of Mind Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lisa; Okamoto, Yukari

    2006-01-01

    Children's credibility as witnesses in court cases has become an important issue in recent years. When testifying, younger children are considered to be more susceptible to suggestion than are older children. The present study examined the possibility that knowledge of an interviewer's mental states (intention and false belief, in this study)…

  5. Rubella susceptibility predicts measles susceptibility: implications for postpartum immunization.

    PubMed

    Libman, M D; Behr, M A; Martel, N; Ward, B J

    2000-12-01

    Measles and mumps antibody titers were measured in 262 pregnant women who were either positive (n=128) or negative (n=134) for rubella antibodies. Susceptibility to measles and mumps was detected in 4.6% (12/262) and 7.6% (14/184) of the women, respectively. Of the rubella-susceptible group, 8.2% were also measles susceptible, whereas only 0.8% of the rubella-immune women were measles susceptible. Susceptibility to mumps was evenly divided between rubella-susceptible (7.8%) and rubella-immune (7.4%) groups. PMID:11096023

  6. The genetics of susceptibility to cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Newton Bishop, Julia A; Bishop, D Timothy

    2005-03-01

    The most common genetic determinants of skin cancer are the genes that control skin color so that the genes expressed as black skin are protective. Within the white population variants at the MC1R locus are shown to increase susceptibility, and recent evidence suggests that polymorphisms in the OCA2 gene interact to modify risk. Other as-yet-unidentified pigment genes may also play a role in susceptibility to melanoma. Thus MC1R variants are the most common low-penetrance melanoma-susceptibility genes so far identified. Other putative low-penetrance susceptibility genes have been explored using candidate gene approaches. Good candidates such as the DNA repair gene XRCC3 and polymorphisms of EGF have been studied but excluded. Other candidates such as BRAF polymorphisms and variants at the CDKN2A locus remain to be fully investigated. More progress has been made in identifying high-penetrance genes, however. The most common (and probably the most penetrant) susceptibility locus is the CDKN2A locus coding for two tumor suppressor proteins, p16 and p14ARF. Mutations at this locus that impact p16, p14ARF or both proteins all increase susceptibility to melanoma. Families inheriting such mutants are at increased risk of cutaneous melanoma, and the penetrance is increased by residence in sunny climates and co-inheritance of MC1R variants. Some families also appear to be at increased risk of pancreatic cancer, but the determinants of susceptibility to pancreatic cancer are not yet understood. Very rare families have germline mutations in the CDK4 gene which impact on the p16 binding site. There are other high-penetrance susceptibility genes, however, which remain undiscovered. There is evidence of one at 1p22. The Melanoma Genetics Consortium (www.genomel.org) continues to explore this and the genetic epidemiology of the CDKN2A locus. PMID:15883616

  7. The ontology of genetic susceptibility factors (OGSF) and its application in modeling genetic susceptibility to vaccine adverse events

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    the susceptibility genes in Case Study 2. These results validated the proper OGSF structure identified different ontology aspects with SNA methods. Conclusions OGSF provides a verified and robust framework for representing various genetic susceptibility types and genetic susceptibility factors annotated from experimental VAE genetic association studies. The RDF/OWL formulated ontology data can be queried using SPARQL and analyzed using centrality-based network analysis methods. PMID:24963371

  8. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  9. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  10. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2) Lectures must be…

  11. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  12. Revision of Suggested State Regulations.

    PubMed

    Winston, John P

    2016-02-01

    It is the mission of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) to promote radiological health in all aspects and phases of implementation and to create a seamless and coherent regulatory structure across the United States. CRCPD currently has 25 committees charged with the development of Suggested State Regulations (SSRs) for everything from transportation and waste disposal to tanning and medical therapy. The SR-F Committee is responsible for the suggested regulations of the equipment and processes used in medical diagnostic and interventional x-ray procedures. Several states are required by law to adopt the SSR verbatim, making it vital that they are kept current. The current revision of SR-F brought together representatives from the state radiation control programs, the Food and Drug Administration, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American College of Radiology, and industry. Through the course of two meetings and multiple conference calls, the Committee finalized an updated draft. The CRCPD process for the development of SSR is well established and includes internal and external peer review, review by the state Director Members, approval by the Board of Directors, and concurrence from relevant federal agencies. Once final, an SSR allows a state radiation control program to proceed through the state's own regulatory process with a vetted set of regulations, making this difficult process more efficient and effective. PMID:26717174

  13. Cognitive interviewing procedures and suggestibility in children's recall.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B K; Delamothe, K

    1997-08-01

    In this study the authors examine the effects of procedures adapted from the cognitive interview of R. E. Geiselman, R.P. Fisher, D.P. MacKinnon, and H.L. Holland (1985) on children's recall following exposure to misleading suggestions. Children aged 5-7 years and 9-11 years saw a videotaped story and were presented with misleading or neutral information concerning story details. All were later given free- and cued-recall tests preceded by standard interview instructions or instructions that reinstated the encoding context and encouraged exhaustive reporting. Increased recall accuracy was found following cognitive interview instructions. Both age groups were susceptible to misleading suggestions, but susceptibility was unaffected by interview type. The authors discuss the implications for interviewing child witnesses. PMID:9378684

  14. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing. PMID:24340808

  15. Building false memories without suggestions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

  16. Labyrinthine lesions and motion sickness susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) has a fast pathway, which mediates compensatory eye movements, and a slow (velocity storage) pathway, which determines its low frequency characteristics and orients eye velocity toward gravity. We have proposed that motion sickness is generated through velocity storage, when its orientation vector, which lies close to the gravitational vertical, is misaligned with eye velocity during head motion. The duration of the misalignment, determined by the dominant time constant of velocity storage, causes the buildup of motion sickness. To test this hypothesis, we studied bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects with short vestibular time constants but normal aVOR gains for their motion sickness susceptibility. Time constants and gains were taken from rotational responses. Motion sickness was generated by rolling the head while rotating, and susceptibility was assessed by the number of head movements made before reaching intolerable levels of nausea. More head movements signified lower motion sickness susceptibility. Labyrinthine-defective subjects made more head movements on their first exposure to roll while rotating than normals (39.8 ± 7.2 vs 13.7 ± 5.5; P < 0.0001). Normals were tested eight times, which habituated their time constants and reduced their motion sickness susceptibility. Combining data from all subjects, there was a strong inverse relationship between time constants and number of head movements (r = 0.94), but none between motion sickness susceptibility and aVOR gains. This provides further evidence that motion sickness is generated through velocity storage, not the direct pathway, and suggests that motion sickness susceptibility can be reduced by reducing the aVOR time constant. PMID:17256169

  17. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  18. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  19. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  20. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  1. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  2. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  3. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  4. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  5. 32 CFR 1900.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1900.04 Section 1900.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC ACCESS TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) General § 1900.04 Suggestions...

  6. 32 CFR 1909.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ACCESS... 12958 General § 1909.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with... consideration. The Agency will respond to all substantive communications and take such actions as...

  7. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  8. 32 CFR 1909.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ACCESS... 12958 General § 1909.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with... consideration. The Agency will respond to all substantive communications and take such actions as...

  9. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY... General § 1907.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes suggestions or complaints with regard to... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  10. Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mattner, Jochen

    2011-01-27

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are considered as putative autoimmune diseases of the liver. Whereas strong evidence that bacterial infection may trigger PBC exists, the etiologies for PSC and AIH remain unknown. Although there have been significant discoveries of genetic polymorphisms that may underlie the susceptibility to these liver diseases, their associations with environmental triggers and the subsequent implications have been difficult to elucidate. While single nucleotide polymorphisms within the negative costimulatory molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) have been suggested as genetic susceptibility factors for all three disorders, we discuss the implications of CTLA-4 susceptibility alleles mainly in the context of PBC, where Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, an ubiquitous alphaproteobacterium, has recently been specifically associated with the pathogenesis of this devastating liver disease. Ultimately, the discovery of infectious triggers of PBC may expand the concept of genetic susceptibility in immune-mediated liver diseases from the concept of aberrant immune responses against self-antigens to insufficient and/or inappropriate immunological defense mechanisms allowing microbes to cross natural barriers, establish infection and damage respective target organs. PMID:21307981

  11. Progress on low susceptibility mechanisms of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    QING, Li-Li; ZHAO, Hui; LIU, Lin-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases detected in a wide range of mammalian species. The “protein-only” hypothesis of TSE suggests that prions are transmissible particles devoid of nucleic acid and the primary pathogenic event is thought to be the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the disease-associated isoform (PrPSc). According to susceptibility to TSEs, animals can be classified into susceptible species and low susceptibility species. In this review we focus on several species with low susceptibility to TSEs: dogs, rabbits, horses and buffaloes. We summarize recent studies into the characteristics of low susceptibility regarding protein structure, and biochemical and genetic properties. PMID:25297084

  12. Susceptibility to gingivitis: a way to predict periodontal disease?

    PubMed

    Trombelli, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that gingival inflammatory response to plaque accumulation may vary between individuals. Evidence seems to indicate that there is an association between susceptibility to gingivitis and susceptibility to periodontitis. Recently, among participants in a large scale experimental gingivitis trial, we were able to identify and characterize subjects that differ significantly in their gingival inflammatory response to plaque accumulation. Research efforts are being focused on the effect of genetic, anatomic and environmental host-related factors which may be implicated in the pathogenesis of the gingival inflammatory process, and whether susceptibility to periodontitis and susceptibility to gingivitis may partly share common risk factors. In this respect, it is possible that identification of factors related to increased susceptibility to gingivitis may help identify, at an early age, subjects at risk of periodontitis. PMID:15646584

  13. Source monitoring reduces the suggestibility of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Giles, Jessica W; Gopnik, Alison; Heyman, Gail D

    2002-05-01

    The relation between source monitoring and suggestibility was examined among preschool children. Thirty-two 3- to 5-year-olds were simultaneously presented with a brief story in two different modalities, as a silent video vignette and a spoken narrative. Each modality presented unique information about the story, but the information in the two versions was mutually compatible. The children were then asked a series of questions, including questions about the source (modality) of story details, and leading questions about story details (to assess suggestibility). Performance on the source-monitoring questions was highly correlated with the ability to resist suggestion. In addition, children who were asked source-monitoring questions prior to leading questioning were less susceptible to suggestion than were those who were asked the leading questions first. This study provides evidence that source monitoring can play a causal role in reducing the suggestibility of preschool children. PMID:12009053

  14. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Landslide susceptibility analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, H. B.; Torgoev, A.; Schlögel, R.; Braun, A.; Torgoev, I.; Ischuk, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is the second part of a new geohazards analysis applied to a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia, focused on landslide susceptibility computations that are based on recently compiled geographic, geological and geomorphological data. The core data are a digital elevation model, an updated earthquake catalogue, an active fault map as well as a new landslide inventory. The most recently added digital data are a new simplified geological map, an annual precipitation map, as well as river and road network maps that were produced for the Kyrgyz and Tajik parts of the Tien Shan. On the basis of these records we determine landslide densities with respect to morphological (M), geological (G), river distance (R), precipitation (P), earthquake (E) and fault (F) distance factors. Correlations were also established between scarp locations and the slope angle, distance to rivers, curvature. These correlations show that scarps tend to be located on steeper slopes, farther from rivers and on more convex terrain than the entire landslides. On the basis of the landslide density values computed for each class of the aforementioned factors, two landslide susceptibility maps are created according to the Landslide Factor analysis: the first one considers correlations between the landslide occurrences and the first four factors (MGRP); the second one is based on the first map (MGRP) combined with the seismo-tectonic influence (+ E + F) on landslide distributions. From the comparison of these two maps with actual landslide distributions we infer that the distances to rivers as well as to faults and past earthquakes most strongly constrain the susceptibility of slopes to landslides. We highlight several zones where the landslide susceptibilities computed for the MGRP + E + F factors fit better the observed concentration of landslides than those computed for the MGRP factors alone. For a few zones, both maps produce high landslide susceptibilities that do not well reflect

  15. A survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in endangered and highly susceptible Vietnamese salamanders (Tylototriton spp.).

    PubMed

    Thien, Tao Nguyen; Martel, An; Brutyn, Melanie; Bogaerts, Sergé; Sparreboom, Max; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Fisher, Matthew C; Beukema, Wouter; Van, Tang Duong; Chiers, Koen; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Until now, Asian amphibians appear to have largely escaped declines driven by chytridiomycosis. Vietnamese salamanders that belong to the genus Tylototriton are rare and have a patchy distribution in mountainous areas, falling within the proposed environmental envelope of chytrid infections, surrounded by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infected regions. If these salamanders are susceptible to chytridiomycosis, then their populations could be highly vulnerable after the introduction of B. dendrobatidis. Examination for the presence of the chytrid fungus in skin swabs from 19 Tylototriton asperrimus and 104 Tylototriton vietnamensis by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed. Susceptibility of T. asperrimus to experimental infection by using the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) strain of B. dendrobatidis was examined. The fungus was absent in all samples from all wild salamanders examined. Inoculation with the BdGPL strain resulted in mortality of all five inoculated salamanders within 3 weeks after inoculation with infected animals that manifested severe orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and spongiosis. Although infection by B. dendrobatidis currently appears absent in Vietnamese Tylototriton populations, the rarity of these animals, their pronounced susceptibility to chytridiomycosis, an apparently suitable environmental context and increasing likelihood of the pathogen being introduced, together suggest the need of urgent measures to avoid future scenarios of extinction as witnessed in Central America and Australia. PMID:24063090

  16. Spatial Resolution Effects of Digital Terrain Models on Landslide Susceptibility Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. T.; Dou, J.; Chang, Y.; Kuo, C. P.; Xu, K. M.; Liu, J. K.

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to identify the maximum number of correlated factors for landslide susceptibility mapping and to evaluate landslide susceptibility at Sihjhong river catchment in the southern Taiwan, integrating two techniques, namely certainty factor (CF) and artificial neural network (ANN). The landslide inventory data of the Central Geological Survey (CGS, MOEA) in 2004-2014 and two digital elevation model (DEM) datasets including a 5-meter LiDAR DEM and a 30-meter Aster DEM were prepared. We collected thirteen possible landslide-conditioning factors. Considering the multi-collinearity and factor redundancy, we applied the CF approach to optimize these thirteen conditioning factors. We hypothesize that if the CF values of the thematic factor layers are positive, it implies that these conditioning factors have a positive relationship with the landslide occurrence. Therefore, based on this assumption and positive CF values, seven conditioning factors including slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, terrain roughness index (TRI), terrain position index (TPI), total curvature, and lithology have been selected for further analysis. The results showed that the optimized-factors model provides a better accuracy for predicting landslide susceptibility in the study area. In conclusion, the optimized-factors model is suggested for selecting relative factors of landslide occurrence.

  17. The multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes TAGAP and IL2RA are regulated by vitamin D in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Berge, T; Leikfoss, I S; Brorson, I S; Bos, S D; Page, C M; Gustavsen, M W; Bjølgerud, A; Holmøy, T; Celius, E G; Damoiseaux, J; Smolders, J; Harbo, H F; Spurkland, A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that develops in genetically susceptible individuals. The majority of the MS-associated gene variants are located in genetic regions with importance for T-cell differentiation. Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator, and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to be associated with increased MS disease susceptibility and activity. In CD4+ T cells, we have analyzed in vitro vitamin D responsiveness of genes that contain an MS-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and with one or more vitamin D response elements in their regulatory regions. We identify IL2RA and TAGAP as novel vitamin D target genes. The vitamin D response is observed in samples from both MS patients and controls, and is not dependent on the genotype of MS-associated SNPs in the respective genes. PMID:26765264

  18. The multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes TAGAP and IL2RA are regulated by vitamin D in CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Berge, T; Leikfoss, I S; Brorson, I S; Bos, S D; Page, C M; Gustavsen, M W; Bjølgerud, A; Holmøy, T; Celius, E G; Damoiseaux, J; Smolders, J; Harbo, H F; Spurkland, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that develops in genetically susceptible individuals. The majority of the MS-associated gene variants are located in genetic regions with importance for T-cell differentiation. Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator, and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to be associated with increased MS disease susceptibility and activity. In CD4+ T cells, we have analyzed in vitro vitamin D responsiveness of genes that contain an MS-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and with one or more vitamin D response elements in their regulatory regions. We identify IL2RA and TAGAP as novel vitamin D target genes. The vitamin D response is observed in samples from both MS patients and controls, and is not dependent on the genotype of MS-associated SNPs in the respective genes. PMID:26765264

  19. Return of research results from pharmacogenomic versus disease susceptibility studies: what’s drugs got to do with it?

    PubMed Central

    Dressler, Lynn G

    2012-01-01

    One of the most controversial ethical issues in genomics research is the return of individual research results to research subjects. As new technologies, including whole-genome sequencing, provide an increased opportunity for researchers to find clinically relevant research results, the questions related to if, when and how individual research results should be returned become more central to the ethical conduct of genomic research. In the absence of federal guidance on this issue, many groups and individuals have developed recommendations and suggestions to address these questions. Most of these recommendations have focused on the return of individual results from disease susceptibility studies. However, in addition to predicting the development of disease, genomic research also includes predicting an individual’s response to drugs, especially the risk of developing adverse events. This article evaluates and compares the return of individual research results from disease susceptibility studies versus pharmacogenomic studies. PMID:22676197

  20. Classroom Seating and Hypnotic Susceptibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackeim, Harold A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether people who differ in behavioral and self-report measures of lateralized seating preferences also differ in hypnotic susceptibility. Only right-handed subjects were used, and the associations between hypnotic susceptibility and seating preference were examined separately for males and females.…

  1. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P < 0.0001), suggesting that resistance to fungal reproduction is associated with MLR aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption. PMID:25198847

  2. An investigation into the association between HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and multiple sclerosis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Nabiallah; Adib, Minoo; Alsahebfosoul, Fereshteh; Kazemi, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-01-15

    Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) gene polymorphism and expression rate have recently been suggested to have a potential role in susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of HLA-G gene 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and its plasma level with MS susceptibility. In this study, the HLA-G gene from 212 patients and 210 healthy individuals was amplified using real time PCR and screened for the 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism. In addition, HLA-G plasma levels of the patients were measured and compared to normal controls by ELISA method. Our results revealed that 14 bp insertion in HLA-G could result in lower plasma HLA-G level of the subjects, regardless of their health status and vice versa. Additionally, significant correlation of HLA-G genotype and its plasma level with MS susceptibility was observed. In conclusion, not only HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism could be associated with expression rate of the HLA-G gene and its plasma level, but also could be considered as a risk factor for susceptibility to MS in our study population. PMID:26711580

  3. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum reservoir fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Oleksandr P.; Potter, David K.

    A knowledge of the magnetic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids may provide new techniques for improved reservoir characterisation, petroleum exploration and production. However, magnetic information is currently scarce for the vast majority of reservoir fluids. For instance, there is little in the literature concerning basic magnetic susceptibility values of crude oils or formation waters. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility ( χm) of several crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters from local and world-wide sites. All the fluids measured were diamagnetic, however there were distinct differences in magnitude between the different fluid types. In particular, χm for the crude oils was more negative than for the formation waters of the same locality. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties. The results correlated with the density, residue content, API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity, viscosity, sulphur content and metal concentration of the fluids. Light fractions of crude oil were the most diamagnetic. The magnetic measurements potentially allow physical and chemical differences between the fluids to be rapidly characterised. The results suggest other possible applications, such as passive in situ magnetic susceptibility sensors for fluid monitoring (for example, the onset of water breakthrough, or the detection of migrating fines) in reservoirs, which would provide an environmentally friendly alternative to radioactive tracers. The mass magnetic susceptibilities of the fluids in relation to typical reservoir minerals may also play a role in fluid-rock interactions, such as studies of wettability. The χm of crude oil from the various world-wide oil provinces that were tested also showed some differences, possibly reflecting broad physical and chemical features of the geological history of each province.

  4. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, José L

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. PMID:27216048

  5. Susceptibility to COPD: Differential Proteomic Profiling after Acute Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Franciosi, Lorenza; Postma, Dirkje S.; van den Berge, Maarten; Govorukhina, Natalia; Horvatovich, Peter L.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Poolman, Bert; Lodewijk, Monique E.; Timens, Wim; Bischoff, Rainer; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), yet only a subset of smokers develops COPD. Family members of patients with severe early-onset COPD have an increased risk to develop COPD and are therefore defined as “susceptible individuals”. Here we perform unbiased analyses of proteomic profiles to assess how “susceptible individuals” differ from age-matched “non-susceptible individuals” in response to cigarette smoking. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) was collected at baseline and 24 hours after smoking 3 cigarettes in young individuals susceptible or non-susceptible to develop COPD and older subjects with established COPD. Controls at baseline were older healthy smoking and non-smoking individuals. Five samples per group were pooled and analysed by stable isotope labelling (iTRAQ) in duplicate. Six proteins were selected and validated by ELISA or immunohistochemistry. After smoking, 23 proteins increased or decreased in young susceptible individuals, 7 in young non-susceptible individuals, and 13 in COPD in the first experiment; 23 proteins increased or decreased in young susceptible individuals, 32 in young non-susceptible individuals, and 11 in COPD in the second experiment. SerpinB3 and Uteroglobin decreased after acute smoke exposure in young non-susceptible individuals exclusively, whereas Peroxiredoxin I, S100A9, S100A8, ALDH3A1 (Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1) decreased both in young susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, changes being significantly different between groups for Uteroglobin with iTRAQ and for Serpin B3 with iTRAQ and ELISA measures. Peroxiredoxin I, SerpinB3 and ALDH3A1 increased in COPD patients after smoking. We conclude that smoking induces a differential protein response in ELF of susceptible and non-susceptible young individuals, which differs from patients with established COPD. This is the first study applying unbiased proteomic profiling to unravel the underlying mechanisms

  6. Cognitive Factors in Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert D.; Field, Peter B.

    1971-01-01

    This research explored the influence of cognitive variables on susceptibility to hypnosis. The three variables of concern in the present study are automatization, attention, and body experience. The results are summarized. (Author)

  7. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  8. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  9. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1907.04 Section 1907.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER...

  10. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1907.04 Section 1907.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER...

  11. 32 CFR 1907.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1907.04 Section 1907.04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER...

  12. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency welcomes... specific purpose and the issues for consideration. The Agency will respond to all...

  13. Growth Conditions and Rifampin Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Arthur L.; Gross, Gayle H.

    1979-01-01

    The susceptibility of Escherichia coli to rifampin was measured during unlimited growth in rich and poor media and during chemostat growth limited by the carbon source. During batch growth at low turbidities, the susceptibility of the bacteria increased as the growth rate decreased, consistent with the longer time available for drug penetration in the poorer media. During chemostat culture, the bacteria remained highly susceptible or became genetically resistant, dependent on the manner in which the bacteria were exposed to the antibiotic. If the concentration of rifampin was abruptly raised, susceptible cells were replaced by genetically resistant cells. However, if the concentration of antibiotic was raised slowly, the genetically susceptible cells continued to grow. This difference in response of chemostat cultures according to mode of drug administration was attributed to an inducible detoxification of the drug by the bacteria, because the susceptible genotype is maintained only when the concentration of rifampin is increased gradually and when a high population of cells is maintained. Direct evidence for the inactivation of the rifampin from the bioassay of culture supernatants is presented. PMID:371543

  14. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  15. CHARACTERIZING AND PROVIDING ADEQUATE PROTECTION FOR SUSCEPTIBLE SUBPOPULATIONS: SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS: SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE AGED

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: An important Agency mandate is to identify subpopulations particularly susceptible to adverse effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants. For example, a critical public health question is the extent to which exposure to environmental contaminants cont...

  16. Measuring multipartite entanglement through dynamic susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Heyl, Markus; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Zoller, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Entanglement is considered an essential resource in quantum technologies, and central to the understanding of quantum many-body physics. Developing protocols to detect and quantify the entanglement of many-particle quantum states is thus a key challenge for present experiments. Here, we show that the quantum Fisher information, a witness for genuinely multipartite entanglement, becomes measurable for thermal ensembles by means of the dynamic susceptibility--that is, with resources readily available in present cold atomic-gas and condensed-matter experiments. This establishes a connection between multipartite entanglement and many-body correlations contained in response functions, with immediate implications close to quantum phase transitions, where the quantum Fisher information becomes universal, allowing us to identify strongly entangled phase transitions with a divergent multipartite entanglement. We illustrate our framework using paradigmatic quantum Ising models, and point out potential signatures in optical-lattice experiments and strongly correlated materials.

  17. Xylazine emesis, yohimbine and motion sickness susceptibility in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible role of the alpha-2 adrenoceptors in xylazine-induced vomiting and in motion sickness was investigated. Cats were divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility and were observed after s.c. injections of xylazine. The incidence of vomiting increased with the dose, and at each dose the high susceptibility group had a greater emetic incidence than the low susceptibility group. In another experiment with cats divided into two groups according to motion sickness susceptibility, s.c. administration of yohimbine effectively antagonized the xylazine-induced emesis in both susceptibility groups. The cats in the latter experiment were then challenged with a motion sickness stimulus after s.c. pretreatment with yohimbine. Yohimbine failed to prevent motion sickness but did occasion an unexplained variability in the incidence of vomiting. These findings suggest that the emetic effect of xylazine results from stimulation of alpha-2 adrenoceptors but that these receptors are not fundamental to feline motion sickness. The fact that susceptibilities to xylazine-induced emesis and to motion sickness are correlated suggests a point of interaction other than the area postrema, which is known to be essential for xylazine-induced vomiting but not for motion sickness in the cat.

  18. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality. PMID:26905891

  19. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality. PMID:26905891

  20. Transmission disequilibrium suggests a role for the sulfotransferase-4A1 gene in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Mark D; Condra, Jodi

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies suggest a role for chromosome 22q13 in schizophrenia. This segment of chromosome 22 contains the sulfotransferase-4A1 (Sult4A1) gene, which encodes an enzyme thought to be involved in neurotransmitter metabolism in the central nervous system. To evaluate this candidate, we developed a microsatellite marker targeting a polymorphism in its 5' nontranslated region (D22s1749E). Using samples obtained from the National Institutes of Mental Health Schizophrenia Genetics Initiative, we evaluated 27 families having multiple siblings with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders for transmission disequilibrium (TDT) of this marker along with three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 37 kb segment containing the Sult4A1 gene. TDT for D22s1749E was significant (P < 0.05), with a tendency for the 213 nt allele to be preferentially transferred to affected children (P = 0.0079). Global chi-square values for haplotypes involving the SNPs (ss146366, ss146407, and ss146420) and D22s1749E, also showed significant TDT values (P = 0.0006-0.0016). Consequently, we proposed that Sult4A merited more careful scrutiny as a candidate gene for schizophrenia susceptibility. PMID:16152568

  1. Linking landslide susceptibility to sediment yield in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Bǎlteanu, Dan; Chendeş, Viorel; Sima, Mihaela; Enciu, Petru; Poesen, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies revealed the importance of seismic activity in explaining regional patterns of catchment sediment yield (SY). This relation is often explained by the fact that seismic activity induces landslides that contribute to SY. Nevertheless, only a few studies focused on the effects of landslides on SY and even fewer studies have explored the potential of landslide susceptibility as a predictor for SY. The objective of this study is therefore to explore the potential of landslide susceptibility maps to explain the spatial variation of SY in the Romanian Carpathians, a region with moderate to high seismicity. 133 catchments, covering 63% of Romania, for which SY was measured during a period of at least 10 years and for which SY was not significantly affected by upstream reservoirs, were compiled and selected. 78 of these catchments were 'less disturbed', being covered for at least 50% by forest and semi-natural areas and confined to the Carpathian mountains. Landslide susceptibility in each catchment was assessed, using an earlier published state of the art landslide susceptibility map of Romania. Mean landslide susceptibility for each catchment shows a highly significant correlation with SY (r² = 0.44). This indicates that landslides are an important contributor to SY in Romania and suggests that regional and national landslide susceptibility maps can indeed be a useful tool to predict SY. Nevertheless, the susceptibility map did not explain much more of the observed variance in SY than some other individual catchment characteristics such as seismicity (r² = 0.40) and lithology (r² = 0.33). Also taking into account the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility within the catchment did not significantly improve the observed correlations. Surprisingly, topography showed a nonsignificant correlation with SY, which can be attributed to the overwhelming effect of seismicity and lithology. Overall, our results suggest that seismicity is indeed a highly

  2. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tomer, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine) is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4) and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg). Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity. PMID:15712599

  3. Genetic susceptibility to radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. J.; Brenner, D. J.; Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.

    In the context of space radiation, it is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. One possibility is that haploinsufficiency for ATM confers radiosensitivity, and this defect involves 1-3% of the population. Using knock-out mice we chose to study cataractogenesis in the lens and oncogenic transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts to assay for effects of ATM deficiency. Radiation induced cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals following exposure to either gamma rays or 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. In addition, it was found that embryo fibroblasts of Atm heterozygotes showed an increased incidence of oncogenic transformation compared with their normal litter-matched counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally-significant radiosensitive subpopulation.

  4. Genetic susceptibility to radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. J.; Brenner, D. J.; Worgul, B.; Smilenov, L.

    In the context of space radiation, it is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. One possibility is that haploinsufficiency for ATM confers radiosensitivity, and this defect involves 1 3% of the population. Using knock-out mice we chose to study cataractogenesis in the lens and oncogenic transformation in mouse embryo fibroblasts to assay for effects of ATM deficiency. Radiation induced cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals following exposure to either gamma rays or 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. In addition, it was found that embryo fibroblasts of Atm heterozygotes showed an increased incidence of oncogenic transformation compared with their normal litter-matched counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally significant radiosensitive subpopulation. Knock-out mice are now available for other genes including BRCA1 and 2, and Mrad9. An exciting possibility is the creation of double heterozygotes for pairs of mutated genes that function in the same signal transduction pathway, and consequently confer even greater radiosensitivity.

  5. Genetic Susceptibility to Non-Necrotizing Erysipelas/Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Massinen, Satu; Siljander, Tuula; Mäkelä, Siru; Kivinen, Katja; Leinonen, Rasko; Jiao, Hong; Aitos, Päivi; Karppelin, Matti; Vuopio, Jaana; Syrjänen, Jaana; Kere, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial non-necrotizing erysipelas and cellulitis are often recurring, diffusely spreading infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused most commonly by streptococci. Host genetic factors influence infection susceptibility but no extensive studies on the genetic determinants of human erysipelas exist. Methods We performed genome-wide linkage with the 10,000 variant Human Mapping Array (HMA10K) array on 52 Finnish families with multiple erysipelas cases followed by microsatellite fine mapping of suggestive linkage peaks. A scan with the HMA250K array was subsequently performed with a subset of cases and controls. Results Significant linkage was found at 9q34 (nonparametric multipoint linkage score (NPLall) 3.84, p = 0.026), which is syntenic to a quantitative trait locus for susceptibility to group A streptococci infections on chromosome 2 in mouse. Sequencing of candidate genes in the 9q34 region did not conclusively associate any to erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility. Suggestive linkage (NPLall>3.0) was found at three loci: 3q22-24, 21q22, and 22q13. A subsequent denser genome scan with the HMA250K array supported the 3q22 locus, in which several SNPs in the promoter of AGTR1 (Angiotensin II receptor type I) suggestively associated with erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility. Conclusions Specific host genetic factors may cause erysipelas/cellulitis susceptibility in humans. PMID:23437094

  6. Serum susceptibility of bovine pasteurellas.

    PubMed Central

    Blau, K A; Ward, A C; Prieur, D J; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the serum sensitivity of 23 P. haemolytica isolates and 18 P. multocida isolates was determined by incubating dilutions of bacteria with equal volumes of fresh or heat-inactivated bovine serum for one, two, or three hours. Clinical isolates of both Pasteurella species were resistant to serum, whereas isolates from asymptomatic cattle varied in serum susceptibility. The classical pathway of complement appeared to be the principal means of complement mediated killing as detected by incubation in the presence or absence of EGTA-MgCl2. Lyzozyme and iron saturation of serum did not greatly affect serum susceptibility with either of the Pasteurella species. PMID:3300919

  7. Behavioural phenotypes predict disease susceptibility and infectiousness.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Alessandra; Kirschman, Lucas; Warne, Robin W

    2016-08-01

    Behavioural phenotypes may provide a means for identifying individuals that disproportionally contribute to disease spread and epizootic outbreaks. For example, bolder phenotypes may experience greater exposure and susceptibility to pathogenic infection because of distinct interactions with conspecifics and their environment. We tested the value of behavioural phenotypes in larval amphibians for predicting ranavirus transmission in experimental trials. We found that behavioural phenotypes characterized by latency-to-food and swimming profiles were predictive of disease susceptibility and infectiousness defined as the capacity of an infected host to transmit an infection by contacts. While viral shedding rates were positively associated with transmission, we also found an inverse relationship between contacts and infections. Together these results suggest intrinsic traits that influence behaviour and the quantity of pathogens shed during conspecific interactions may be an important contributor to ranavirus transmission. These results suggest that behavioural phenotypes provide a means to identify individuals more likely to spread disease and thus give insights into disease outbreaks that threaten wildlife and humans. PMID:27555652

  8. Strong ties promote the epidemic prevalence in susceptible-infected-susceptible spreading dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Tao

    2016-03-01

    We propose a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model on complex networks, where the weight of an edge is defined by the topological proximity of the two associated nodes. Each infected individual is allowed to select a limited number of neighbors to contact, and a tunable parameter is introduced to control the preference to contact through high-weight or low-weight edges. Simulation results on six real networks show that the epidemic prevalence can be largely promoted when strong ties are favored. By comparing with two statistical null models, we show that the distribution pattern of weights, rather than the topological structure, mainly contributes to the observations. Further analysis suggests that the weight-weight correlation strongly affects the results: high-weight edges are more significant in keeping high epidemic prevalence when the weight-weight correlation is positive.

  9. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on...

  10. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. PMID:25594911

  11. Genetics and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Lu, Fang; Zeng, Sha; Sun, Suqing; Lu, Li; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer has high morbidity and mortality in China. It is ranked first in malignant tumors of the digestive system. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, but they may be associated with a variety of factors. Genetic susceptibility genes have become a research hotspot in China. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of gastric cancer can facilitate achieving individualized prevention and developing more effective methods to reduce clinical adverse consequences, which has important clinical significance. Genetic susceptibility results from the influence of genetic factors or specific genetic defects that endow an individual’s offspring with certain physiological and metabolic features that are prone to certain diseases. Currently, studies on the genetic susceptibility genes of gastric cancer have become a hotspot. The purpose is to screen for the etiology of gastric cancer, search for gene therapy methods, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of gastric cancer. This article reviews the current progress of studies on genetic susceptibility genes for gastric cancer. PMID:26309491

  12. Antibacterial susceptibility of plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Hulem, C; Colgate, J; Anselmo, C

    1979-07-01

    Selected anaerobic, capnophilic and facultative bacteria isolated from patients with various forms of periodontal health and disease were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Specific bactericidal and minimum inhibitory concentrations were compared to disc zone diameters, thereby generating new standards for the potential selection of antimicrobial agents. PMID:286720

  13. The European landslide susceptibility map ELSUS 1000 Version 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Andreas; Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Reichenbach, Paola; Hervás, Javier

    2013-04-01

    With the increase in availability of environmental data sets at global and continental scale and the adoption of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in 2006, small scale risk assessments of soil threats received increasing attention in Europe. We focus on landslides and present an approach for landslide susceptibility evaluation at the continental scale (1 km resolution) over the European territory covered by the EU member states and adjacent countries. Different to previous continental and global scale landslide susceptibility studies, we start with collecting more than 102,000 landslides in 22 European countries. These landslides are heterogeneously distributed over Europe, but are indispensable for the evaluation and classification of Pan-European datasets that can be used as spatial predictors for landslide susceptibility, and the validation of respective assessments. We further attempted a subdivision of the European territory into seven different climato-physiographic zones by combining morphometric and climatic data sets for terrain differentiation, and additionally defining coastal areas as a 1km inland from the coastline. Landslide susceptibility modelling was performed for the individual zones involving heuristic spatial multicriteria evaluations, and validated with the inventory data using receiver operating characteristics. The reliability of the resulting susceptibility map ELSUS 1000 Version 1 was examined on an administrative terrain unit level in areas with landslide information. ELSUS 1000 was further evaluated through comparisons with available national and regional landslide susceptibility maps. These evaluations suggest that although the first version of ELSUS 1000 is capable for a correct synoptic assessment of landslide susceptibility in the majority of the area, it needs further improvement in terms of data used. These should also consider differentiated susceptibility evaluations with respect to different landslide types. ELSUS 1000

  14. Magnetic susceptibility anisotropy of human brain in vivo and its molecular underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Avram, Alexandru V; Liu, Chunlei

    2012-02-01

    Frequency shift of gradient-echo MRI provides valuable information for assessing brain tissues. Recent studies suggest that the frequency and susceptibility contrast depend on white matter fiber orientation. However, the molecular underpinning of the orientation dependence is unclear. In this study, we investigated the orientation dependence of susceptibility of human brain in vivo and mouse brains ex vivo. The source of susceptibility anisotropy in white matter is likely to be myelin as evidenced by the loss of anisotropy in the dysmyelinating shiverer mouse brain. A biophysical model is developed to investigate the effect of the molecular susceptibility anisotropy of myelin components, especially myelin lipids, on the bulk anisotropy observed by MRI. This model provides a consistent interpretation of the orientation dependence of macroscopic magnetic susceptibility in normal mouse brain ex vivo and human brain in vivo and the microscopic origin of anisotropic susceptibility. It is predicted by the theoretical model and illustrated by the experimental data that the magnetic susceptibility of the white matter is least diamagnetic along the fiber direction. This relationship allows an efficient extraction of fiber orientation using susceptibility tensor imaging. These results suggest that anisotropy on the molecular level can be observed on the macroscopic level when the molecules are aligned in a highly ordered manner. Similar to the utilization of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy in elucidating molecular structures, imaging magnetic susceptibility anisotropy may also provide a useful tool for elucidating the microstructure of ordered biological tissues. PMID:22036681

  15. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.; Potter, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Technological progress in petroleum exploration, production and processing requires a profound knowledge of the magnetic properties of the petroleum fluids. However, as far as we know there are not widely available constants of magnetic susceptibility for the majority of petroleum fluids. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility (χ_m) of several petroleum fluids (such as crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters) from local and worldwide sites. The magnetic features of natural reservoir petroleum fluids, together with fluids connected with the petroleum industry (such as drilling fluids etc.), fall into the following categories: diamagnetic solutions, paramagnetic suspensions and ferromagnetic "ferrofluid" suspensions. In the current investigations we have concentrated on the natural reservoir fluids, which are generally diamagnetic. There were distinct differences between the χ_m of the crude oils and the formation waters, with the oils having generally a more negative value of χ_m. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties, such as density, composition of group hydrocarbons, sulphur content and concentration of organometallic compounds. Low acidity and low sulphur oils have more negative values of χ_m. Light fractions of crude oil consisting mainly of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons are the most diamagnetic. The content of the less diamagnetic aromatics increases in the kerosene and gas oil fractions, and results in an increase in the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the magnetic susceptibility of the heavy oil fraction has a significantly higher χ_m than the light fractions, which appears to be connected with a higher concentration of paramagnetic components in the heavy fraction. The χ_m of the oil from various oil provinces were compared and found to be different. It seems that values of χ_m reflect specific features of the geological conditions for

  16. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. PMID:22286663

  17. Variants of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes and susceptibility to tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Malik, S; Greenwood, C M T; Eguale, T; Kifle, A; Beyene, J; Habte, A; Tadesse, A; Gebrexabher, H; Britton, S; Schurr, E

    2006-02-01

    Lungs are the central organ affected and targeted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and immune processes in the lung are of critical importance in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. A major lung defense against invading pathogens is provided by surfactant protein A, a multi-chain protein encoded by the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes. Here, we investigated polymorphisms in the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes for association with tuberculosis in 181 Ethiopian families comprising 226 tuberculosis cases. Four polymorphisms, SFTPA1 307A, SFTPA1 776T, SFTPA2 355C, and SFTPA2 751C, were associated with tuberculosis (P=0.00008; P=0.019, P=0.029 and P=0.042, respectively). Additional subgroup analysis in male, female and more severely affected patients provided evidence for SFTPA1/2-covariate interaction. Finally, out of five intragenic haplotypes identified in the SFTPA1 gene and nine identified in the SFTPA2 gene, 1A(3) was most significantly associated with tuberculosis susceptibility (P=0.026). These findings suggest that SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 modify the risk of tuberculosis susceptibility and that this risk is influenced by additional covariates. PMID:16292672

  18. Spatially and temporally distributed modeling of landslide susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Pece V.; Gessler, Paul E.; Boll, Jan; Elliot, William J.; Foltz, Randy B.

    2006-10-01

    Mapping of landslide susceptibility in forested watersheds is important for management decisions. In forested watersheds, especially in mountainous areas, the spatial distribution of relevant parameters for landslide prediction is often unavailable. This paper presents a GIS-based modeling approach that includes representation of the uncertainty and variability inherent in parameters. In this approach, grid-based tools are used to integrate the Soil Moisture Routing (SMR) model and infinite slope model with probabilistic analysis. The SMR model is a daily water balance model that simulates the hydrology of forested watersheds by combining climate data, a digital elevation model, soil, and land use data. The infinite slope model is used for slope stability analysis and determining the factor of safety for a slope. Monte Carlo simulation is used to incorporate the variability of input parameters and account for uncertainties associated with the evaluation of landslide susceptibility. This integrated approach of dynamic slope stability analysis was applied to the 72-km 2 Pete King watershed located in the Clearwater National Forest in north-central Idaho, USA, where landslides have occurred. A 30-year simulation was performed beginning with the existing vegetation covers that represented the watershed during the landslide year. Comparison of the GIS-based approach with existing models (FSmet and SHALSTAB) showed better precision of landslides based on the ratio of correctly identified landslides to susceptible areas. Analysis of landslide susceptibility showed that (1) the proportion of susceptible and non-susceptible cells changes spatially and temporally, (2) changed cells were a function of effective precipitation and soil storage amount, and (3) cell stability increased over time especially for clear-cut areas as root strength increased and vegetation transitioned to regenerated forest. Our modeling results showed that landslide susceptibility is strongly

  19. Indianapolis Plan Suggests Blueprint for Other Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2012-01-01

    An Indianapolis-based nonprofit organization has crafted a sweeping plan for reworking the 33,000-student Indianapolis school system that would place the district under the control of the city's mayor, pare down the money spent in central administration, and give principals broad authority to hire and fire teachers. The reform plan created by the…

  20. Some Suggestions for Teaching Introductory Urban Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, C. Murray

    1977-01-01

    Describes objectives, content, and teaching procedures of an introductory college-level urban geography course. Lectures, student papers, and role playing are designed to help students learn about central place theory, space economy, land use, and social geography. (Author/AV)

  1. Career Education: Suggested School-Industry Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Donald, Ed.

    The document, produced to aid Ohio communities in linking their schools' kindergarten through secondary career education (CE) programs with the needs and interests of local General Motors (GM) plants, defines some central concepts of career education and discusses successful, cooperative interaction between industry and career education. The focus…

  2. Maternal immune activation increases seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xin-Ting; Li, Jun; Yu, Lin; Wang, Ji-Wen; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng; Li, Bao-Min

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a relationship between maternal infection and a high incidence of childhood epilepsy in offspring. However, there is little experimental evidence that links maternal infection with later seizure susceptibility in juvenile offspring. Here, we asked whether maternal immune challenge during pregnancy can alter seizure susceptibility and seizure-associated brain damage in adolescence. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline (NS) on gestational days 15 and 16. At postnatal day 21, seizure susceptibility to kainic acid (KA) was evaluated in male offspring. Four groups were studied, including normal control (NS-NS), prenatal infection (LPS-NS), juvenile seizure (NS-KA), and "two-hit" (LPS-KA) groups. Our results demonstrated that maternal LPS exposure caused long-term reactive astrogliosis and increased seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring. Compared to the juvenile seizure group, animals in the "two-hit" group showed exaggerated astrogliosis, followed by worsened spatial learning ability in adulthood. In addition, prenatal immune challenge alone led to spatial learning impairment in offspring but had no effect on anxiety. These data suggest that prenatal immune challenge causes a long-term increase in juvenile seizure susceptibility and exacerbates seizure-induced brain injury, possibly by priming astroglia. PMID:25982885

  3. Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Harp, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    We examine rockfall susceptibility of folded strata in the Sevier fold-thrust belt exposed in American Fork Canyon in north-central Utah. Large-scale geologic mapping, talus production data, rock-mass-quality measurements, and historical rockfall data indicate that rockfall susceptibility is correlated with limb dip and curvature of the folded, cliff-forming Mississippian limestones. On fold limbs, rockfall susceptibility increases as dip increases. This relation is controlled by several factors, including an increase in adverse dip conditions and apertures of discontinuities, and shearing by flexural slip during folding that has reduced the friction angles of discontinuities by smoothing surface asperities. Susceptibility is greater in fold hinge zones than on adjacent limbs primarily because there are greater numbers of discontinuities in hinge zones. We speculate that susceptibility increases in hinge zones as fold curvature becomes tighter.

  4. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say inflammation or cigarette ... a significant risk to kidney health for black Americans, new research suggests. The study included more than ...

  5. Are Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Susceptible to Contour Illusions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Elizabeth; Scope, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Children with autism have been shown to be less susceptible to Kanisza type contour illusions than children without autism (Happe, 1996). Other authors have suggested that this finding could be explained by the fact that participants with autism were required to make a potentially ambiguous verbal response which may have masked whether or not they…

  6. Beyond Diathesis Stress: Differential Susceptibility to Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary-biological reasoning suggests that individuals should be differentially susceptible to environmental influences, with some people being not just more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, as the prevailing diathesis-stress view of psychopathology (and of many environmental influences) maintains, but also…

  7. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting and Quality Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Research on differential susceptibility to rearing suggests that infants with difficult temperaments are disproportionately affected by parenting and child care quality, but a major U.S. child care study raises questions as to whether quality of care influences social adjustment. One thousand three hundred sixty-four American children from…

  8. Parenting and Preschoolers' Executive Functioning: A Case of Differential Susceptibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of theoretical and empirical work has been attempting to answer the questions of how and how much of the effects of children's early experience may depend on their inner characteristics. Theory and evidence suggest that some children, notably those with difficult temperaments, are more susceptible to both negative and positive…

  9. Magnetic susceptibility of strongly interacting matter across the deconfinement transition.

    PubMed

    Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mariti, Marco; Negro, Francesco; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    We propose a method to determine the total magnetic susceptibility of strongly interacting matter by lattice QCD simulations and present numerical results for the theory with two light flavors, which suggest a weak magnetic activity in the confined phase and the emergence of strong paramagnetism in the deconfined, quark-gluon plasma phase. PMID:24237508

  10. Cell-type-specific enrichment of risk-associated regulatory elements at ovarian cancer susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Simon G.; Shen, Howard C.; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Lawrenson, Kate; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Tyrer, Jonathan; Rhie, Suhn K.; Levanon, Keren; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Ramus, Susan J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Antoniou, Antonis; Freedman, Matthew; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Noushmehr, Houtan; Gayther, Simon A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory landscape of the human genome is a central question in complex trait genetics. Most single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer risk lie in non-protein-coding regions, implicating regulatory DNA elements as functional targets of susceptibility variants. Here, we describe genome-wide annotation of regions of open chromatin and histone modification in fallopian tube and ovarian surface epithelial cells (FTSECs, OSECs), the debated cellular origins of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and in endometriosis epithelial cells (EECs), the likely precursor of clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCOCs). The regulatory architecture of these cell types was compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We observed similar positional patterns of global enhancer signatures across the three different ovarian cancer precursor cell types, and evidence of tissue-specific regulatory signatures compared to non-gynecological cell types. We found significant enrichment for risk-associated SNPs intersecting regulatory biofeatures at 17 known HGSOC susceptibility loci in FTSECs (P = 3.8 × 10−30), OSECs (P = 2.4 × 10−23) and HMECs (P = 6.7 × 10−15) but not for EECs (P = 0.45) or LNCaP cells (P = 0.88). Hierarchical clustering of risk SNPs conditioned on the six different cell types indicates FTSECs and OSECs are highly related (96% of samples using multi-scale bootstrapping) suggesting both cell types may be precursors of HGSOC. These data represent the first description of regulatory catalogues of normal precursor cells for different ovarian cancer subtypes, and provide unique insights into the tissue specific regulatory variation with respect to the likely functional targets of germline genetic susceptibility variants for ovarian cancer. PMID:25804953

  11. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  12. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    PubMed

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyorhinis.

    PubMed

    Wu, C C; Shryock, T R; Lin, T L; Faderan, M; Veenhuizen, M F

    2000-09-15

    A broth microdilution technique was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 15 field isolates of Mycoplasma hyorhinis to 10 antimicrobial agents, representative of different classes, and contrasting newer agents to existing ones. For the macrolides, the MIC(90) for tylosin and tilmicosin was 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively, but was > or = 16 microg/ml for erythromycin. Tetracycline, lincomycin and enrofloxacin each had an MIC(90) of 2 microg/ml. The mycoplasma had similar levels of susceptibility to the aminoglycoside and aminocyclictol classes exhibiting an MIC(90) of 4 microg/ml for gentamicin and 2 microg/ml for spectinomycin. The isolates exhibited high MICs to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with an MIC(90) > or = 16/304 microg/ml. In summary, M. hyorhinis isolates from the US had low MICs against a variety of antimicrobials tested, with the exception of erythromycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. PMID:10925038

  14. Anthelmintic resistance: markers for resistance, or susceptibility?

    PubMed Central

    BEECH, R. N.; SKUCE, P.; BARTLEY, D. J.; MARTIN, R. J.; PRICHARD, R. K.; GILLEARD, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) brings together researchers worldwide, with a focus of advancing knowledge of resistance and providing information on detection methods and treatment strategies. Advances in this field suggest mechanisms and features of resistance that are shared among different classes of anthelmintic. Benzimidazole resistance is characterized by specific amino acid substitutions in beta-tubulin. If present, these substitutions increase in frequency upon drug treatment and lead to treatment failure. In the laboratory, sequence substitutions in ion-channels can contribute to macrocyclic lactone resistance, but there is little evidence that they are significant in the field. Changes in gene expression are associated with resistance to several different classes of anthelmintic. Increased P-glycoprotein expression may prevent drug access to its site of action. Decreased expression of ion-channel subunits and the loss of specific receptors may remove the drug target. Tools for the identification and genetic analysis of parasitic nematodes and a new online database will help to coordinate research efforts in this area. Resistance may result from a loss of sensitivity as well as the appearance of resistance. A focus on the presence of anthelmintic susceptibility may be as important as the detection of resistance. PMID:20825689

  15. Hyperglycemia Increases Susceptibility to Ischemic Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lévigne, D.; Tobalem, M.; Modarressi, A.; Pittet-Cuénod, B.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.). In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia. PMID:23509730

  16. Temporal percolation of a susceptible adaptive network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, L. D.; Macri, P. A.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    In the past decades, many authors have used the susceptible-infected-recovered model to study the impact of the disease spreading on the evolution of the infected individuals. However, few authors focused on the temporal unfolding of the susceptible individuals. In this paper, we study the dynamic of the susceptible-infected-recovered model in an adaptive network that mimics the transitory deactivation of permanent social contacts, such as friendship and work-ship ties. Using an edge-based compartmental model and percolation theory, we obtain the evolution equations for the fraction susceptible individuals in the susceptible biggest component. In particular, we focus on how the individual’s behavior impacts on the dilution of the susceptible network. We show that, as a consequence, the spreading of the disease slows down, protecting the biggest susceptible cluster by increasing the critical time at which the giant susceptible component is destroyed. Our theoretical results are fully supported by extensive simulations.

  17. Family Process Effects on Adolescent Males' Susceptibility to Antisocial Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtner-Smith, Mary E.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining relationship between adolescents' susceptibility to antisocial peer pressure and parenting style and frequency of behavior monitoring. Suggests adolescents most susceptible to antisocial peer pressure perceived infrequent monitoring by fathers, inappropriate discipline practice by fathers, and had mothers who…

  18. Effect of soybean leaf and plant age on susceptibility to initiation of infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although previous studies have been conducted to determine the relationship of plant and leaf age to susceptibility to soybean rust, this relationship still is unresolved. Some studies suggest that as plants reach the flowering stage they become more susceptible to initiation of infection. However, ...

  19. Theory of Orbital Susceptibility on Excitonic Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Ogata, Masao

    2016-09-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the orbital susceptibility of an excitonic insulator on the basis of a two-band model. It is shown that a drastic change (an anomalous enhancement) in susceptibility as a function of temperature occurs owing to the occurrence of additional orbital susceptibility due to the excitonic gap. We calculate explicitly the temperature dependence of orbital susceptibility for a model of Ta2NiSe5, and show that the result is consistent with experimental results.

  20. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

  1. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    PubMed

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions. PMID:18662974

  2. Retiring the central executive.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement. PMID:26821744

  3. Motion sickness susceptibility and aerobic fitness: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B S; Money, K E; Jacobs, I

    1990-03-01

    A longitudinal study evaluated the susceptibility to motion sickness in initially unfit subjects before and after an endurance training program. Motion stimulation was provided by the Precision Angular Mover, in which the subject was tumbled head over heels about an Earth-horizontal axis at 20 cycles per minute in darkness. Maximal aerobic power and the blood lactate response to submaximal exercise were evaluated with cycle ergometry. The training program caused significant improvements in VO2max and endurance capacity, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. There was a significant (p less than 0.0125) increase in motion sickness susceptibility after the physical training, suggesting that increased physical fitness caused increased susceptibility to motion sickness in some individuals. PMID:2156490

  4. Susceptibility of bifidobacteria of animal origin to selected antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, Sigrid; Mair, Christiane; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2011-01-01

    Strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are frequently used as probiotics, for which the absence of acquired antimicrobial resistance has become an important safety criterion. This clarifies the need for antibiotic susceptibility data for bifidobacteria. Based on a recently published standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bifidobacteria with broth microdilution method, the range of susceptibility to selected antibiotics in 117 animal bifidobacterial strains was examined. Narrow unimodal MIC distributions either situated at the low-end (chloramphenicol, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin) or high-end (kanamycin, neomycin) concentration range could be detected. In contrast, the MIC distribution of trimethoprim was multimodal. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing or verifying present microbiological breakpoints suggested by regulatory agencies to assess the safety of these micro-organisms intended for the use in probiotics. PMID:22312561

  5. Optimal landslide susceptibility zonation based on multiple forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola; Mondini, Alessandro Cesare; Peruccacci, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Environmental and multi-temporal landslide information for an area in Umbria, Italy, was exploited to produce four single and two combined landslide susceptibility zonations. The 78.9 km 2 study area was partitioned in 894 slope units, and the single susceptibility zonations were obtained through linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), logistic regression (LR), and by training a neural network (NN). The presence or absence of landslides in the slope units in the period from pre-1941 to 1996 (training set) was used as the dependent variable for the terrain classification. Next, adopting a regression approach, two "optimal" combinations of the four single zonations were prepared. The single and the combined zonations were tested against landslides in the 9-year period from 1997 to 2005 (validation set). Different metrics were used to evaluate the quality of the susceptibility zonations, including degree of model fit, uncertainty in the probability estimates, and model prediction skills. These metrics showed that the degree of model fit was not a good indicator of the model forecasting skills. Zonations obtained through classical multivariate classification techniques (LDA, QDA and LR) produced superior predictions when compared to the NN model, that over fitted the landslide information in the training set. LDA and LR produced less uncertain zonations than QDA and NN. The combined models resulted in a reduced number of errors and in less uncertain predictions; an important result that suggests that the combination of landslide susceptibility zonations can provide "optimal" susceptibility assessments.

  6. Suggested Learnings: Consumer and Homemaking Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Dorothy Jean; Swanson, Bettye B.

    The guide presents suggested learning concepts, experiences, and references for home economics educators in the planning and organization of secondary level consumer and homemaking programs. The suggestions are based on questionnaires and interviews with teachers and administrators involved in this program. The guide's main focus is on the process…

  7. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  8. In vitro drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium other than tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    Imwidthaya, P; Komolpis, P; Suthiravitayavaniz, K; Rienthong, S

    1990-08-01

    MOTT were isolated from clinical specimens from the Division of Mycobacteriology, Department of Microbiology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, and also from natural sources, namely water and soil in the Bangkok area from January to December, 1987. The strains isolated were as follows: 30 M. fortuitum fortuitum, 5 M. fortuitum peregrinum 3 M. fortuitum 3 rd. biovariant complex, 3 M. chelonae chelonae, 7 M. chelonae abscessus. Of these, 5 strains were isolated from clinical specimens and the other 43 were from the environment. The pattern of drug susceptibility to antituberculous and antimicrobial agents revealed that they were resistant to antituberculous agents but susceptible to aminoglycosides (which contain a central ring of 2-deoxystreptamine) such as amikacin (83% of cultures), netilmicin (83%), gentamicin (77%) and kanamycin (75%). Some strains were sensitive to tetracyclines (35%), but all were resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. PMID:2262746

  9. Orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Koudai; Ohta, Yukinori

    2016-08-01

    We study the orbital diamagnetic susceptibility in excitonic condensation phase using the mean-field approximation for a two-band model defined on a square lattice. We find that, in semiconductors, the excitonic condensation acquires a finite diamagnetic susceptibility due to spontaneous hybridization between the valence and the conduction bands, whereas in semimetals, the diamagnetic susceptibility in the normal phase is suppressed by the excitonic condensation. We also study the orbital diamagnetic and Pauli paramagnetic susceptibilities of Ta2NiSe5 using a two-dimensional three-band model and find that the calculated temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  10. Induction Technique: Beyond Simple Response to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    The hypnotic induction is intended to induce hypnosis. This implies that what is sought is intended to go beyond what might be wrought by mere suggestion, expectancy, and social influence. The experimentally controlled research showing that the induction makes a difference and how small changes in wording of suggestions can produce orthogonal responses is briefly reviewed. This article explains the principles of induction and three critical phases of hypnotic induction in detail. An arm levitation scripted protocol demonstrating how to respond to the patient using the three phases to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions is presented. PMID:27586048

  11. Electronic Reference Services: Some Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Bernie

    1998-01-01

    Suggests guidelines to help libraries formalize their electronic reference services. Covers the following issues: administration/management (library division/department, library administration, campus administration, academic departments); services; primary clientele; personnel; infrastructure/facilities; finances; and evaluation. (AEF)

  12. No Statins Before Heart Surgery, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... harm, a new study suggests. In that setting, Crestor (rosuvastatin) did not prevent either the abnormal heart rhythm ... who were having elective heart surgery to take Crestor or a placebo before surgery. The researchers found ...

  13. Suggested Minimum Cataloging Standards for Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sharon

    1979-01-01

    Notes problems with cataloging library materials in the small and medium sized public library and suggests interpretations of the Anglo-American cataloging rules, with recommendations for their adaptation to smaller libraries. (CWM)

  14. Perceived susceptibility to AIDS predicts subsequent HIV risk: a longitudinal evaluation of jail inmates.

    PubMed

    Adams, Leah M; Stuewig, Jeffrey B; Tangney, June P; Kashdan, Todd B

    2014-06-01

    Theories of health behavior change suggest that perceived susceptibility to illness precedes health-protective behavior. We used a cross-lagged panel design to explore the relationship between perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and HIV risk behavior pre-incarceration and post-release in a sample of 499 jail inmates, a group at high risk for HIV. We also explored moderators of this relationship. HIV risk was calculated with a Bernoulli mathematical process model. Controlling for pre-incarceration HIV risk, perceived susceptibility to AIDS predicted less post-release HIV risk; the reverse relationship was not supported. Consistent with health behavior change theories, perceived susceptibility seemed to partially guide behavior. However, this relationship was not true for everyone. African-Americans and individuals high in borderline personality features exhibited no relationship between perceived susceptibility and changes in HIV risk. This suggests that targeted interventions are needed to use information about risk level to prevent HIV contraction. PMID:23591920

  15. Perceived Susceptibility to AIDS Predicts Subsequent HIV Risk: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Jail Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Leah M.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Tangney, June P.; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of health behavior change suggest that perceived susceptibility to illness precedes health-protective behavior. We used a cross-lagged panel design to explore the relationship between perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and HIV risk behavior pre-incarceration and post-release in a sample of 499 jail inmates, a group at high risk for HIV. We also explored moderators of this relationship. HIV risk was calculated with a Bernoulli mathematical process model. Controlling for pre-incarceration HIV risk, perceived susceptibility to AIDS predicted less post-release HIV risk; the reverse relationship was not supported. Consistent with health behavior change theories, perceived susceptibility seemed to partially guide behavior. However, this relationship was not true for everyone. African-Americans and individuals high in borderline personality features exhibited no relationship between perceived susceptibility and changes in HIV risk. This suggests that targeted interventions are needed to use information about risk level to prevent HIV contraction. PMID:23591920

  16. Credible suggestions affect false autobiographical beliefs.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Wysman, Lauren; Otgaar, Henry

    2012-07-01

    False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences how individuals come to believe that false events occurred. Two studies used a variant of implantation methods to vary the proportion of events attributed to parents and the presence of true events within the suggestion. In Study 1 participants received six false events, and were told that all or some events came from parents. Participants told that all of the events came from parents formed more and stronger false beliefs. In Study 2 participants also received two true events, and a third group was told that half of the events came from their parents. Participants given the specific ratio ("half") endorsed more false beliefs, and beliefs between the other groups no longer differed. Across both studies participants told that some events came from parents reported stronger memory phenomenology. The effect of suggestions on false beliefs in implantation studies depends partly on the credibility of suggestions derived from providing information about the source of suggested events. PMID:22537029

  17. Grain-size Distributions from Deconvolved Broadband Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, K.

    2014-12-01

    A magnetic susceptibility meter with several-decade frequency band has recently made it possible to obtain superparamagnetic grain-size distributions only by room-temperature measurement. A rigorous deconvolution scheme of frequency dependence of susceptibility is already available. I have made some corrections on the deconvolution scheme and present its applications to broadband susceptibility data on loess and volcanic rocks. Deconvolution of frequency dependence of susceptibility was originally developed by Shchervakov and Fabian [2005]. Suppose an ensemble of grains distributed for two independent variables of volume (grain-size) and energy barrier. Applying alternating magnetic field with varying frequency results in differentiating grains by energy barrier - not directly by volume. Since the response function for frequency is known, deconvolution of frequency dependence of susceptibility provide a rigorous solution for the second moment of volume on the volume-energy barrier distribution. Based on a common assumption of a linear relation between volume and energy barrier, we can obtain analytical volume or grain-size distributions of superparamagnetic grains. A ZH broadband susceptibility meter comprises of two separated devices for lower (SM-100, 65 - 16kHz) and higher (SM-105, 16k - 512kHz) frequency ranges. At every frequency susceptibility calibration was conducted using three kinds of paramagnetic rare earth oxides [Fukuma and Torii, 2011]. Almost all samples exhibited seemingly linear dependences of in-phase susceptibility on logarithmic frequency. This indicates that the measured data do not suffer serious noise, and that the second moment of volume is relatively constant against energy barrier. Nonetheless, third-order polynomial fittings revealed slight deflections from the quasi-linear susceptibility - logarithmic frequency relations. Deconvolving the polynomials showed that such slight defections come from peaks or troughs in varying second moment

  18. Optimal control in a model of malaria with differential susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan

    2014-06-01

    A malaria model with differential susceptibility is analyzed using the optimal control technique. In the model the human population is classified as susceptible, infected and recovered. Susceptibility is assumed dependent on genetic, physiological, or social characteristics that vary between individuals. The model is described by a system of differential equations that relate the human and vector populations, so that the infection is transmitted to humans by vectors, and the infection is transmitted to vectors by humans. The model considered is analyzed using the optimal control method when the control consists in using of insecticide-treated nets and educational campaigns; and the optimality criterion is to minimize the number of infected humans, while keeping the cost as low as is possible. One first goal is to determine the effects of differential susceptibility in the proposed control mechanism; and the second goal is to determine the algebraic form of the basic reproductive number of the model. All computations are performed using computer algebra, specifically Maple. It is claimed that the analytical results obtained are important for the design and implementation of control measures for malaria. It is suggested some future investigations such as the application of the method to other vector-borne diseases such as dengue or yellow fever; and also it is suggested the possible application of free software of computer algebra like Maxima.

  19. COMPARATIVE MICROARRAY EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CANCER RELEVANT GENES IN HYPERTENSIVE RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RODENT STRAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypertension and cancer are prevalent diseases. Epidemiological studies suggest that hypertension may increase the long term risk of cancer. Identification of resistance and/or susceptibility genes using rodent models could provide important insights into the management and treat...

  20. Spacecraft materials HCl susceptibility assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C.-T.; Liu, De-Ling; Kim, Hyun; Alaan, Diana R.

    2014-09-01

    The susceptibility of spacecraft materials to HCl exposure was investigated in light of concerns to potential contamination during evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) overflight scenarios. Overflight refers to the circumstance where one spacecraft, resident on a launch pad, may be exposed to HCl generated from an earlier solid rocket launch at an adjacent pad. One aspect of the overflight risk assessments involves spacecraft materials susceptibility to HCl exposure. This study examined a wide range of spacecraft materials after being exposed to HCl vapor in a well-characterized facility. Sample thermal/optical and electrostatic dissipation properties, as well as surface chemical and morphological features, were characterized before and after the HCl exposure. All materials tested, except for indium tin oxide (ITO) coated Kapton film, showed no significant degradation after HCl exposure of up to 4800 ppb-hr. The ITO coated Kapton sample showed slight signs of degradation after being exposed to 500 ppb-hr HCl, as the surface resistance was increased by a factor of 5. However, the potential HCl dose inside the payload fairing (PLF) was estimated to be far below 500 ppb-hr in an EELV overflight event. These results, along with other relevant laboratory test data on the HCl removal efficiency of the filtration media used on the launch sites, provide the technical rationale that properly filtered air as the PLF purge should pose little risk in terms of HCl contamination under EELV overflight scenarios.

  1. Antifungal susceptibilities of Paecilomyces species.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, C; Pujol, I; Sala, J; Guarro, J

    1998-07-01

    The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 52 isolates of Paecilomyces species were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, largely based on the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (document M27-A). The fungal isolates tested included 16 P. variotii, 11 P. lilacinus, 9 P. marquandii, 6 P. fumosoroseus, 4 P. javanicus, and 2 P. viridis isolates and 1 isolate of each of the following species: P. carneus, P. farinosus, P. fulvus, and P. niveus. The MFCs and the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) for the six antifungal agents were remarkably high; the MIC50s indicated that amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole had good activities, while fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated poor efficacy. The ranges of the MICs were generally wider and lower than those of the MFCs. There were significant susceptibility differences among the species. All species with the exception of P. variotii were highly resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine; P. variotii was susceptible to flucytosine. Amphotericin B and the rest of the azoles showed good activity against P. variotii, while all the antifungal agents assayed showed low efficacy against P. lilacinus. PMID:9660991

  2. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Paecilomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, C.; Pujol, I.; Sala, J.; Guarro, J.

    1998-01-01

    The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 52 isolates of Paecilomyces species were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, largely based on the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (document M27-A). The fungal isolates tested included 16 P. variotii, 11 P. lilacinus, 9 P. marquandii, 6 P. fumosoroseus, 4 P. javanicus, and 2 P. viridis isolates and 1 isolate of each of the following species: P. carneus, P. farinosus, P. fulvus, and P. niveus. The MFCs and the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) for the six antifungal agents were remarkably high; the MIC50s indicated that amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole had good activities, while fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated poor efficacy. The ranges of the MICs were generally wider and lower than those of the MFCs. There were significant susceptibility differences among the species. All species with the exception of P. variotii were highly resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine; P. variotii was susceptible to flucytosine. Amphotericin B and the rest of the azoles showed good activity against P. variotii, while all the antifungal agents assayed showed low efficacy against P. lilacinus. PMID:9660991

  3. Toxicity and transcriptomic analysis in Hyalella azteca suggests increased exposure and susceptibility of epibenthic organisms to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to make their way into the aquatic environment where sedimentation of particles will likely occur, putting benthic organisms at particular risk. Therefore, organisms such as Hyalella azteca, an epibenthic crustacean which forages at the sediment ...

  4. [Central manifestations of dystrophinopathies].

    PubMed

    Cuisset, J-M; Rivier, F

    2015-12-01

    The dystrophin gene involved in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy is expressed in three main tissues resulting in clinical manifestations: skeletal muscle, heart and central nervous system. The 6 different existing dystrophins in the brain may play a role in the maturation and plasticity of neuronal synapses in particular by their functions in clustering and stabilization of different receptors at the post synaptic membrane. The possibility of an intellectual deficiency in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known from the original description by Duchenne himself. Current data are in line with a constant cognitive impairment with a Gaussian curve shifted intellectual quotient (IQ) at -1 standard deviation from the standard population with an average IQ around 80. Clinical manifestations suggestive of a central nervous system involvement can affect all dystrophinopathies, including isolated central presentations without myopathic sign. The phenotypic spectrum appears broader and more subtle than non specific intellectual deficiency. The isolated or shared involvement of specific cognitive functions is possible (memory functions, executive functions, attention) with or without intellectual deficiency. Autism spectrum disorders are also among the encountered events. In clinical practice, it seems worth to ask for a measurement of serum creatine kinase (CK) in these different situations, keeping in mind that pure forms of central dystrophinopathies with a normal CK level have been recently reported. PMID:26773588

  5. Polymorphic Variation in Susceptibility and Metabolism of Triclosan-Resistant Mutants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains Obtained after Exposure to Biocides and Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Curiao, Tânia; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco R.; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to biocides may result in cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. Changes in biocide and antibiotic susceptibilities, metabolism, and fitness costs were studied here in biocide-selected Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants. E. coli and K. pneumoniae mutants with various degrees of triclosan susceptibility were obtained after exposure to triclosan (TRI), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), chlorhexidine (CHX) or sodium hypochlorite (SHC), and ampicillin or ciprofloxacin. Alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility and metabolism in mutants were tested using Phenotype MicroArrays. The expression of AcrAB pump and global regulators (SoxR, MarA, and RamA) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the central part of the fabI gene was sequenced. The fitness costs of resistance were assessed by a comparison of relative growth rates. Triclosan-resistant (TRIr) and triclosan-hypersusceptible (TRIhs) mutants of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were obtained after selection with biocides and/or antibiotics. E. coli TRIr mutants, including those with mutations in the fabI gene or in the expression of acrB, acrF, and marA, exhibited changes in susceptibility to TRI, CHX, and antibiotics. TRIr mutants for which the TRI MIC was high presented improved metabolism of carboxylic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. In TRIr mutants, resistance to one antimicrobial provoked hypersusceptibility to another one(s). TRIr mutants had fitness costs, particularly marA-overexpressing (E. coli) or ramA-overexpressing (K. pneumoniae) mutants. TRI, BKC, and CIP exposure frequently yielded TRIr mutants exhibiting alterations in AraC-like global regulators (MarA, SoxR, and RamA), AcrAB-TolC, and/or FabI, and influencing antimicrobial susceptibility, fitness, and metabolism. These various phenotypes suggest a trade-off of different selective processes shaping the evolution toward antibiotic/biocide resistance and influencing other adaptive traits. PMID

  6. Polyamine Effects on Antibiotic Susceptibility in Bacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dong-Hyeon; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2007-01-01

    OprD. In E. coli, the MICs of carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline were decreased in two acrA mutants devoid of a major efflux pump, AcrAB. However, retention of the spermine effect on antibiotic susceptibility in two acrA mutants of E. coli suggested that the AcrAB efflux pump was not the target for a synergistic effect by spermine and antibiotics and ruled out the hypothesis of spermine serving as an efflux pump inhibitor in this organism. In summary, this interesting finding of the effect of spermine on antibiotic susceptibility provides the basis for a new potential approach against drug-resistant pathogens by use of existing β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:17438056

  7. Paleoclimatic forcing of magnetic susceptibility variations in Alaskan loess during the late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Beget, J.E.; Stone, D.B.; Hawkins, D.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Visual matches and statistical tests suggest correlations between marine isotope curves, retrodictive solar insolation at lat 65{degree}N, and magnetic susceptibility profiles through late Quaternary age Alaskan loess sections. The susceptibility changes largely appear to reflect variability in magnetite content due to climatically controlled changes in wind intensity and competence. Magnetic susceptibility profiles through massive loess can provide stratigraphic context for intercalated paleosols and tephras. A prominent paleosol correlated with marine isotope stage 5 occurs several metres above the Old Crow ash in loess sections, indicating that this important tephra is older than suggested by thermoluminescence dates, and may have been deposited ca. 215 {plus minus}25 ka.

  8. Assessing the antibiotic susceptibility of freshwater Cyanobacteria spp.

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Elsa; Oliveira, Micaela; Jones-Dias, Daniela; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Ferreira, Eugénia; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater is a vehicle for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in freshwater, where they are exposed to antibiotics and resistant organisms, but their role on water resistome was never evaluated. Data concerning the effects of antibiotics on cyanobacteria, obtained by distinct methodologies, is often contradictory. This emphasizes the importance of developing procedures to understand the trends of antibiotic susceptibility in cyanobacteria. In this study we aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of four cyanobacterial isolates from different genera (Microcystis aeruginosa, Aphanizomenon gracile, Chrisosporum bergii, Planktothix agradhii), and among them nine isolates from the same specie (M. aeruginosa) to distinct antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, kanamycine, gentamicine, tetracycline, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin). We used a method adapted from the bacteria standard broth microdilution. Cyanobacteria were exposed to serial dilution of each antibiotic (0.0015–1.6 mg/L) in Z8 medium (20 ± 1°C; 14/10 h L/D cycle; light intensity 16 ± 4 μEm−2s−1). Cell growth was followed overtime (OD450nm/microscopic examination) and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were calculated for each antibiotic/isolate. We found that β-lactams exhibited the lower MICs, aminoglycosides, tetracycline and norfloxacine presented intermediate MICs; none of the isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim and nalidixic acid. The reduced susceptibility of all tested cyanobacteria to some antibiotics suggests that they might be naturally non-susceptible to these compounds, or that they might became non-susceptible due to antibiotic contamination pressure, or to the transfer of genes from resistant bacteria present in the environment. PMID:26322027

  9. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior. PMID:22112639

  10. Neurological susceptibility to a skull defect

    PubMed Central

    Honeybul, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There continues to be considerable interest in the use of decompressive craniectomy in the management of neurological emergencies. The procedure is technically straightforward; however, it is becoming increasingly apparent that it is associated with significant complications. One complication that has received relatively little attention is the neurological dysfunction that can occur due to the absence of the bone flap and the subsequent distortion of the brain under the scalp as cerebral swelling subsides. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the literature available regarding the clinical features described, outline the proposed pathophysiology for these clinical manifestations and highlight the implications that this may have for rehabilitation of patients with a large skull defect. Methods: A literature search was performed in the MEDLINE database (1966 to June 2012). The following keywords were used: Hemicraniectomy, decompressive craniectomy, complications, syndrome of the trephined, syndrome of the sinking scalp flap, motor trephined syndrome. The bibliographies of retrieved reports were searched for additional references. Results: Various terms have been used to describe the different neurological signs and symptoms with which patients with a skull defect can present. These include; syndrome of the trephined, posttraumatic syndrome, syndrome of the sinking scalp flap, and motor trephined syndrome. There is, however, considerable overlap between the conditions described and a patient's individual clinical presentation. Conclusion: It is becoming increasingly apparent that certain patients are particularly susceptible to the presence of a large skull defect. The term “Neurological Susceptibility to a Skull Defect” (NSSD) is therefore suggested as a blanket term to describe any neurological change attributable to the absence of cranial coverage. PMID:25024883

  11. Suggested Universals in the Ontogenesis of Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobin, Dan I.

    This paper represents a preliminary attempt to determine universals of grammatical development in children. On the basis of language acquisition data, a limited number of findings are presented in the form of suggested developmental universals. These universals are grouped according to the psychological variables which may determine them, in the…

  12. Minimum Competency Program, Citizenship: Suggestions for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This monograph explains the need for graduating high school seniors to demonstrate minimum competence in citizenship and suggests performance-related assessment tasks to help school authorities determine whether these competency requirements have been met. Minimum citizenship competencies are interpreted to include essential skills and concepts…

  13. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  14. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  15. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  16. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  17. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  18. Suggestions for Career Exploration and Job Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet, which is intended for individuals seeking jobs in New York State, consists of suggestions for career exploration and job seeking. The booklet begins with a brief discussion of places to begin a job search: New York State Job Service and community service centers; schools and community organizations providing free advice; libraries;…

  19. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  20. Youth Physical Fitness. Suggestions for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This book, divided into three main parts--basic, advanced, and comprehensive programs--suggests (a) basic physical education programs designed to assist classroom teachers inexperienced in physical education to develop activities that will make a contribution to the physical fitness of the children in their charge and (b) advanced activities…

  1. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  2. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  3. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  4. Methodology for determining susceptibility of rough rice to Rhyzopertha dominica (L.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varieties of rough rice, Oryzae sativa (L)., were obtained from different sources in the south-central United States and evaluated for susceptibility to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.), and the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), in laboratory studies. Adult R. ...

  5. Flavivirus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Black, William C; Bennett, Kristine E; Gorrochótegui-Escalante, Norma; Barillas-Mury, Carolina V; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; de Lourdes Muñoz, María; Farfán-Alé, José A; Olson, Ken E; Beaty, Barry J

    2002-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of yellow fever (YF) and dengue fever (DF) flaviviruses worldwide. In this review we focus on past and present research on genetic components and environmental factors in Aedes aegypti that appear to control flavivirus transmission. We review genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations throughout the world and discuss how variation in vector competence is correlated with overall genetic differences among populations. We describe current research into how genetic and environmental factors jointly affect distribution of vector competence in natural populations. Based on this information, we propose a population genetic model for vector competence and discuss our recent progress in testing this model. We end with a discussion of approaches being taken to identify the genes that may control flavivirus susceptibility in Ae. aegypti. PMID:12234528

  6. Exploring Genetic Susceptibility to Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Yim, Yi-Rang; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects 1% to 5% of the population, and approximately 90% of the affected individuals are women. FM patients experience impaired quality of life and the disorder places a considerable economic burden on the medical care system. With the recognition of FM as a major health problem, many recent studies have evaluated the pathophysiology of FM. Although the etiology of FM remains unknown, it is thought to involve some combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure that triggers further alterations in gene expression. Because FM shows marked familial aggregation, most previous research has focused on genetic predisposition to FM and has revealed associations between genetic factors and the development of FM, including specific gene polymorphisms involved in the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and catecholaminergic pathways. The aim of this review was to discuss the current evidence regarding genetic factors that may play a role in the development and symptom severity of FM. PMID:26306300

  7. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time. PMID:17966053

  8. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  9. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice. PMID:2640034

  10. Susceptibility of SCADA systems and the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goike, Lindsay

    The research in this paper focused on analyzing SCADA systems in the energy sector for susceptibility to cyber attacks, in furtherance of providing suggestions to mitigate current and future cyber attacks. The research will be addressing the questions: how are SCADA systems susceptible to cyber attacks, and what are the suggested ways to mitigate both current and future cyber attacks. The five main categories of security vulnerabilities facing current SCADA systems were found to be: connectivity to the Internet, failure to plan, interdependency of sectors, numerous different types of threats, and outdated software. Some of the recommendations mentioned to mitigate current and future risks were: virtual private networks, risk assessments, increased physical security, updating of software, and firewalls.