Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Cha, Christine B.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lee, Sing
Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior. PMID:18653727
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.
This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…
... or alcohol use Post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) Schizophrenia Stressful life issues, such as serious financial or ... personality disorder Drug or alcohol dependence Major depression Schizophrenia Always take suicide attempts and threats seriously. If ...
More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458
Yin, Honglei; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Galfalvy, Hanga; Huang, Yung-Yu; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Burke, Ainsley; Arango, Victoria; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, Joseph John
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are the major inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system, respectively, and have been associated with suicidal behavior and major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined the relationship between genotype, brain transcriptome, and MDD/suicide for 24 genes involved in GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling. In part 1 of the study, 119 candidate SNPs in 24 genes (4 transporters, 4 enzymes, and 16 receptors) were tested for associations with MDD and suicidal behavior in 276 live participants (86 nonfatal suicide attempters with MDD and 190 non-attempters of whom 70% had MDD) and 209 postmortem cases (121 suicide deaths of whom 62% had MDD and 88 sudden death from other causes of whom 11% had MDD) using logistic regression adjusting for sex and age. In part 2, RNA-seq was used to assay isoform-level expression in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 59 postmortem samples (21 with MDD and suicide, 9 MDD without suicide, and 29 sudden death non-suicides and no psychiatric illness) using robust regression adjusting for sex, age, and RIN score. In part 3, SNPs with subthreshold (uncorrected) significance levels below 0.05 for an association with suicidal behavior and/or MDD in part 1 were tested for eQTL effects in prefrontal cortex using the Brain eQTL Almanac (www.braineac.org). No SNPs or transcripts were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. However, a protein coding transcript (ENST00000414552) of the GABA A receptor, gamma 2 (GABRG2) had lower brain expression postmortem in suicide (P = 0.01) and evidence for association with suicide death (P = 0.03) in a SNP that may be an eQTL in prefrontal cortex (rs424740, P = 0.02). These preliminary results implicate GABRG2 in suicide and warrant further investigation and replication in larger samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26892569
Wells, Karen C.; Heilbron, Nicole
A considerable research base underscores the importance of family functioning in the risk for and treatment of adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This paper reviews the extant empirical literature documenting associations between features of the family context and adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A case example is provided to…
Juon, H S; Nam, J J; Ensminger, M E
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviors and their relation to background characteristics, social integration, academic stress, psychological distress, and substance use in a stratified random sample of 9886 high school students in Korea. In a multiple logistic regression, we found that depression was the strongest predictor of suicidal behaviors. The other factors significantly associated with suicidal behaviors were gender, academic stress, hostility and substance use. These results indicate that early identification of risk factors for suicidal behaviors may have potential for reducing possible future suicides. PMID:8040219
Oquendo, Maria A
This issue of Focus on Suicide brings us new data about risk assessment, with 2 articles examining the utility of rating scales for assessment of suicidal behavior. Youngstrom et al conduct a careful comparison of 3 suicide rating scales: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), the Suicide Tracking Scale (STS), and the Sheehan Suicidality Tracking Scale (S-STS). While the scales did comparably in 2 broad categories, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the study suggests that some subtypes of suicidal behavior/ideation are not captured as well by the S-STS. PMID:26717527
Munzer, Jane; And Others
Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation among adolescents have been increasing faster than those for adults. This study addresses three questions on adolescent suicidal behavior: (1) Why do some adolescents with psychiatric disorders have a history of suicidal behaviors and some do not?; (2) How do intrapsychic and interpersonal underpinnings of…
Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.
Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…
Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…
Beautrais, Annette L.
Analysis of rates of further suicidal behavior among individuals making medically serious suicide attempts may help to predict suicide and suicide attempt from baseline characteristics of the individual and the index suicide attempt. Data are drawn from a 5-year study of 302 individuals making medically serious suicide attempts with information…
Gover, F. Jill
There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…
Rudd, M. David; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
An integrative conceptual framework is provided for ongoing assessment and day-to-day treatment of suicidal adolescents. Goals are to provide a summary of therapeutic and assessment tasks consistent with existing standards of care and supported by empirical findings and to emphasize the roles, tasks, demands, and limitations of psychotherapy with…
Studies of the neurobiology of suicidal behavior have become an important and integral part of psychiatric research. Over the past several years, studies of the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of suicidality have attracted significant interest of researchers. Multiple lines of evidence including studies of levels of BDNF in blood cells and plasma of suicidal patients, postmortem brain studies in suicidal subjects with or without depression, and genetic association studies linking BDNF to suicide suggest that suicidal behavior may be associated with a decrease in BDNF functioning. Studies of the BDNF function are important for suicide research and prevention because of the multiple reasons including the following: (i) BDNF plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders and other conditions associated with suicidal behavior. Treatment-induced enhancements of BDNF can facilitate neural integrity and recovery of function in psychiatric disorders, and consequently prevent suicidal behavior; (ii) abnormal BDNF function may be associated with elevated suicidality independently of psychiatric diagnoses. It is possible that treatment-induced improvement in the BDNF function prevents suicidal behavior independently of improvement in psychiatric disorders; (iii) BDNF may be a biological marker of suicidal behavior in certain patient populations. It is to be hoped that the studies of the neurobiology of suicidal behavior will lead to the development of new methods of suicide prevention. PMID:21051476
Fasko, Sharla Nichols
This paper reviews studies of childhood suicide and reports findings which suggest that the incidence of suicide under the age of 14 is greatly underreported. It notes that the incidence of non-fatal suicide attempts in children is even harder to determine than is the incidence of suicide. Studies are cited which suggest that, while preadolescent…
Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David
Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037
... Exposure to friends’/family members’ suicide xii Low self-esteem xiii Protective Factors Family and school connectedness iii ... Reduced access to firearms vii Academic achievement ix Self-esteem xi Talking to teens about suicide does not ...
Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T
A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308
Cha, Christine B.; Najmi, Sadia; Park, Jennifer M.; Finn, Christine T.; Nock, Matthew K.
A long-standing challenge for scientific and clinical work on suicidal behavior is that people often are motivated to deny or conceal suicidal thoughts. We proposed that people considering suicide would possess an objectively measurable attentional bias toward suicide-related stimuli, and that this bias would predict future suicidal behavior. Participants were 124 adults presenting to a psychiatric emergency department who were administered a modified emotional Stroop task and followed for six months. Suicide attempters showed an attentional bias toward suicide-related words relative to neutral words, and this bias was strongest among those who had made a more recent attempt. Importantly, this suicide-specific attentional bias predicted which people made a suicide attempt over the next six months, above and beyond other clinical predictors. Attentional bias toward more general negatively-valenced words did not predict any suicide-related outcomes, supporting the specificity of the observed effect. These results suggest that suicide-specific attentional bias can serve as a behavioral marker for suicidal risk, and ultimately improve scientific and clinical work on suicide-related outcomes. PMID:20677851
Samuel, Diana; Sher, Leo
Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those <30 years old. The methods most commonly used to commit suicide in India include the ingestion of poison (often pesticides), hanging, burning, and drowning. When immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided. PMID:24006319
Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.
Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…
Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.
An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…
Insel, Beverly J; Gould, Madelyn S
The evidence to date suggests that suicide modeling is a real phenomenon, although of a smaller effect size than other psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors for adolescent suicide. Multiple lines of inquiry provide converging evidence, including studies on suicide clusters, media influence on suicide (particularly coverage of nonfictional suicides), and peer influence on suicidality. Despite variations in study setting and methodology, the body of literature is consistent with a modeling hypothesis. Although advances in documentation of suicide modeling have been made over the past decade, we are still confronted by unresolved issues regarding the underlying mechanisms. Prevention and postvention strategies can be optimized to avert modeling of suicidal behavior only once research addresses the complexities and uncertainties of this phenomenon. PMID:18439450
Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K
Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931
Mewton, Louise; Andrews, Gavin
This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing suicidal cognitions and behavior in the adult population. We identified 15 randomized controlled trials of CBT for adults (aged 18 years and older) that included suicide-related cognitions or behaviors as an outcome measure. The studies were identified from PsycINFO searches, reference lists, and a publicly available database of psychosocial interventions for suicidal behaviors. This review identified some evidence of the use of CBT in the reduction of both suicidal cognitions and behaviors. There was not enough evidence from clinical trials to suggest that CBT focusing on mental illness reduces suicidal cognitions and behaviors. On the other hand, CBT focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors was found to be effective. Given the current evidence, clinicians should be trained in CBT techniques focusing on suicidal cognitions and behaviors that are independent of the treatment of mental illness. PMID:27042148
Mendez-Bustos, Pablo; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Baca-García, Enrique; Ceverino, Antonio
It is nowadays accepted that, independently of methodological issues, women commit fewer suicides than men but make more frequent attempts. Yet, female suicidal risk varies greatly along the lifetime and is linked to the most significant moments in it. A wide analysis of the existing literature was performed to provide a narrative description on the evolution of female suicidal rates from childhood to old age, considering the milestones in their life history. A detailed analysis of gender differences in suicidal behavior is key to establish preventive measures and priorities. More specific studies are needed to adapt future interventions on female suicide. PMID:23533350
Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.
Youth suicidal behavior continues to be a significant national problem in need of urgent attention by school personnel. The purpose of this introductory article to the special series is to provide an overview of youth suicidal behavior, including research-based information on demographic data; risk factors and warning signs; and where, when, and…
Schlebusch, Lourens; Vawda, Naseema B M; Bosch, Brenda A
In the past suicidal behavior among Black South Africans has been largely underresearched. Earlier studies among the other main ethnic groups in the country showed suicidal behavior in those groups to be a serious problem. This article briefly reviews some of the more recent research on suicidal behavior in Black South Africans. The results indicate an apparent increase in suicidal behavior in this group. Several explanations are offered for the change in suicidal behavior in the reported clinical populations. This includes past difficulties for all South Africans to access health care facilities in the Apartheid (legal racial separation) era, and present difficulties of post-Apartheid transformation the South African society is undergoing, as the people struggle to come to terms with the deleterious effects of the former South African racial policies, related socio-cultural, socio-economic, and other pressures. PMID:12809149
Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P
Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people. PMID:25259671
Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.
Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…
Canetto, Silvia Sara
Around the world girls and women have higher rates of suicidal ideation and behavior but lower rates of suicide than boys and men. There is, however, significant variability in gender patterns and meanings suicidal behavior within and across cultures. For example, in the United States, suicide is most common among older "White" men, and is typically considered masculine behavior. Women who kill themselves are viewed as acting like men, and therefore deviant. By contrast, in other societies, including China, suicide is viewed as an act of the powerless, and is most frequent in young women. In these societies, men who kill themselves are considered weak and effeminate. The cultural diversity in gender patterns and interpretations of suicidal behavior challenges essentialist perspectives on gender and suicidal behavior. It also challenges the assumption, common in industrialized countries, that women are protected from suicide as long as they stay "feminine" and subsumed within the family. This cultural diversity also points to the pitfalls of theorizing about clinical phenomena as if they were culture-free, and calls for culturally grounded theory, research, and practice. PMID:18954189
Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David
In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength…
Friedlander, Adam; Nazem, Sarra; Fiske, Amy; Nadorff, Michael R.; Smith, Merideth D.
Understanding self-concealment, the tendency to actively conceal distressing personal information from others, may be important in developing effective ways to help individuals with suicidal ideation. No published study has yet assessed the relation between self-concealment and suicidal behaviors. Additionally, most self-concealment research has…
Tong, Yongsheng; Phillips, Michael R.; Duberstein, Paul; Zhan, Weihai
The prevalence and odds ratios of different suicide risk factors were compared in three pairs of decedents: 80 suicides and 25 injury decedents with blood-relatives with suicidal behavior history (biologically-exposed); 259 suicides and 126 injury decedents with unrelated acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (socially-exposed); and 471 suicides and 523 injury decedents with neither relatives nor acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (unexposed). Negative life events and high psychological stress were more common in socially-exposed suicides than in other suicides. The adjusted odds ratios of most established suicide risk factors were higher in unexposed decedents than in biologically- or socially-exposed decedents, suggesting that the predictive value of established risk factors wanes in individuals who have been exposed to suicidal behavior in family or friends. PMID:25443455
Kaplan, H B; Pokorny, A D
Findings are reported concerning the hypothesized relationship between adoption of suicidal responses (ideation, threats, attempts) and antecedent negative self-attitudes. Data were provided by junior high school student (N = 3,148) responses to questionnaires administered three times at annual intervals. Antecedent negative self-attitudes were measured by a seven-item self-derogation scale at the first testing. Adoption of suicidal responses was indicated by earlier denial and subsequent affirmation of the response (self-reports). Findings indicate that suicidal behaviors are responses (whether or not subsequently continued) to experiences of negative self-attitudes in the more recent past. However, whether or not suicidal behaviors are related to self-derogating feelings in the more remote past can be seen as a function of a sex-social-class-mode of suicidal response interaction. PMID:1265814
McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Rogers James R.
Surveys 162 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals with regard to suicidal behaviors, suicide risk factors, and reasons for living. Approximately 41% of the respondents indicated a serious consideration of suicide including the identification of a specific suicide plan or a past suicide attempt with significant intent to die.…
Else, Iwalani; Andrade, Naleen; Nahulu, Linda
The authors present a comprehensive review on U.S. Pacific Islander suicide and suicide-related behaviors to extend the knowledge and understanding of suicide and suicide-related behaviors among the indigenous peoples of the state of Hawai'i, the territories of American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Pacific…
Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J
Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855
Britton, Peter C; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Hirsch, Jameson K; Williams, Geoffrey C
Associations between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness with current suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior were examined. Two logistic regressions were conducted with a cross-sectional database of 440 university students to examine the association of need satisfaction with suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior, while controlling for demographics and depressive symptoms. Suicidal ideation was reported by 15% of participants and 18% were found to be at risk for suicidal behavior. A one standard deviation increase in need satisfaction reduced the odds of suicidal ideation by 53%, OR (95% CI) = 0.47 (0.33-0.67), and the odds of being at risk for suicidal behavior by 50%, OR (95% CI) = 0.50 (0.37-0.69). Young adults whose basic psychological needs are met may be less likely to consider suicide and engage in suicidal behavior. Prospective research is needed to confirm these associations. PMID:24494652
Britton, Peter C.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Williams, Geoffrey C.
This study examined associations between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness with current suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior. Two logistic regressions were conducted with a cross-sectional database of 440 university students to examine the association of need satisfaction with suicidal ideation and risk for suicidal behavior, while controlling for demographics and depressive symptoms. Suicidal ideation was reported by 15% of participants and 18% were found to be at risk for suicidal behavior. A one standard deviation increase in need satisfaction reduced the odds of suicidal ideation by 53%, OR (95% CI) = 0.47 (0.33-0.67), and the odds of being at risk for suicidal behavior by 50%, OR (95% CI) = 0.50 (0.37-0.69). Young adults whose basic psychological needs are met may be less likely to consider suicide and engage in suicidal behavior. Prospective research is needed to confirm these associations. PMID:24494652
Wilson, Scott T; Chesin, Megan; Fertuck, Eric; Keilp, John; Brodsky, Beth; Mann, J John; Sönmez, Cemile Ceren; Benjamin-Phillips, Christopher; Stanley, Barbara
Identification of biological indicators of suicide risk is important given advantages of biomarker-based models. Decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) may be a biomarker of suicide risk. The aim of this research was to determine whether HF HRV differs between suicide attempters and non-attempters. Using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), we compared HF HRV between females with and without a history of suicide attempt, all with a lifetime diagnosis of a mood disorder. To investigate a potential mechanism explaining association between HF HRV and suicide, we examined the association between self-reported anger and HF HRV. Results of an Area under the Curve (AUC) analysis showed attempters had a lower cumulative HF HRV during the TSST than non-attempters. In addition, while there was no difference in self-reported anger at baseline, the increase in anger was greater in attempters, and negatively associated with HF HRV. Results suggest that suicide attempters have a reduced capacity to regulate their response to stress, and that reduced capacity to regulate anger may be a mechanism through which decreased HF HRV can lead to an increase in suicide risk. Our results have implications for the prevention of suicidal behavior in at-risk populations. PMID:27124209
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.
Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…
Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T; Hong, Seunghye
This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Analysis of weighted lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors revealed that U.S.-born Asian American women had higher prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide plan than U.S.-born Asian American men and immigrant Asian American men and women. In multivariate analyses controlling for socio-demographic differences such as ethnicity, marital status and income, differences in suicidal behaviors are found only between U.S.-born women and U.S.-born men. The findings demonstrate the need to disaggregate data by immigrant status as well as socio-demographic correlates. PMID:19591001
... with suicidal thoughts. Study records that indicated suicide, suicide attempts, or suicidal thoughts were examined. All of these ... as likely to experience suicidal thoughts or to attempt or actually commit suicide as those not receiving efavirenz. Adverse events were ...
Mahableshwarkar, Atul R.; Alphs, Larry D.; Bangs, Mark E.; Butler, Adam; DuBrava, Sarah J.; Greist, John H.; Lenderking, William R.; Mundt, James C.; Stewart, Michelle
standardization of retrospective assessment timeframes and differing approaches to summarizing and analyzing suicidal ideation and behavior-related study data were frequently reported. These results suggest that inconsistent reports of suicidal ideation and behavior within study datasets may occur and that integration of data across studies remains a concern. PMID:25520885
Mallick, Faryal; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B
Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist with efficacy as a rapid anti-depressant, has early evidence for action to reduce suicidal ideation. This review will explore several important questions that arise from these studies. First, how do we measure reductions in suicidal ideation that occur over minutes to hours? Second, are the reductions in suicidal ideation after ketamine treatment solely a result of its rapid anti-depressant effect? Third, is ketamine only effective in reducing suicidal ideation in patients with mood disorders? Fourth, could ketamine's action lead us to a greater understanding of the neurobiology of suicidal processes? Last, do the reductions in depression and suicidal ideation after ketamine treatment translate into decreased risk for suicidal behavior? Our review concludes that ketamine treatment can be seen as a double-edged sword, clinically to help provide treatment for acutely suicidal patients and experimentally to explore the neurobiological nature of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. PMID:27194043
Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.
Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…
Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…
O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony
Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646
Chesin, Megan S.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.
Latina college students are one of the fastest-growing segments of the college student population. Although there is evidence suggesting Latina high school students are at increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior, it is unclear Bwhether this risk continues in college. Over the course of 3 years, 554 Latina college students, the majority of…
Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah
On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership. PMID:23975641
Crosby, Alex E.; Sacks, Jeffrey J.
From a national random telephone survey of U.S. adults, estimates the 12-month incidence of exposure to suicide and its association with suicidal ideation, planning, and behavior. Of 5,238 respondents, 342 reported knowing a suicide decedent from the previous year. Univariate analysis showed persons reporting such exposure were significantly more…
Gibbs, J T
Depressive symptomatology and suicidal behavior were evaluated in a multiethnic sample of 48 delinquent females through ratings on self-reports and probation officers' reports. Psychological functioning of the subjects was also evaluated through the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, the Rorschach, and the WAIS or WISC-R in order to identify delinquent personality patterns. Four personality patterns were identified: the borderline, the antisocial, the neurotic, and the socialized delinquent personalities. A chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that level of depression and frequency of suicidal behavior were both significantly related to personality patterns. Level of depression was also significantly related to ethnicity, but not to socioeconomic status. The results have implications for assessment and treatment of delinquent females and also raise issues concerning the interaction of personality, cultural factors, and delinquent behavior which should be addressed in future research with larger, socioculturally diverse samples. PMID:24310248
Rice, Timothy R; Sher, Leo
Military veterans represent a unique, heterogeneous population with suicide prevalence rates, risk factors and preventative management needs that differ from those of the rest of community. Veterans worldwide receive high proportions of their healthcare from community providers, and sensitivity to these distinct needs is required for optimized care. An overview of the recent prevalence-study literature, with a focus upon statistical design, is presented in order to provide a critical orientation within this field with high levels of popular media attention. Attention to psychiatric comorbidity, subthreshold symptomology, select signature disorders of contemporary conflicts (namely, post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury), and veteran life narratives before, within and beyond military service will guide our review of risk factor assessment and management strategies. This critical review of the literature provides an overview of this active field of neuropsychiatric research with a select focus upon these topics of special interest. PMID:22550989
Burke, Ainsley K.; Galfalvy, Hanga; Everett, Benjamin; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Oquendo, Maria A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Kolko, David; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.
Objective: Exposure to suicidal behavior in peers and relatives is thought to increase risk for suicidal behavior in vulnerable individuals, possibly as a result of imitation or modeling. This study examines exposure to suicidal behavior and likelihood of suicide attempt in a high-risk cohort of offspring of a depressed parent. Method: A total of…
Zalsman, Gil; Levy, Tomer; Shoval, Gal
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescence in the United States. Nonfatal forms of suicidal behavior are the most common reasons for the psychiatric hospitalization of adolescents in many countries. The risk for suicide attempt among offspring of suicide completers is multifactorial, challenging experts to develop a strategy that includes assessment and management that consider these factors. Although treatment of depression is necessary, antisuicide treatment strategies that solely target depression may not be sufficient to reduce suicidal risk. Other factors, such as impulsive aggression and parental history of sexual abuse, also contribute to suicidal risk. PMID:18439447
Thompson, Martie P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Lane, Danielle Bradshaw; Kingree, J. B.
Investigates how childhood maltreatment and current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) predict nonfatal suicide attempts among 335 African American women. PTSD in combination with any of the maltreatments of childhood increased the risk of suicide attempts. Suggests that interventions designed to reduce suicidal behavior should focus on women…
Suicide is the second leading cause of death in the 10- to 19-year-old population in Oregon. The suicide rate has increased more than five-fold in the last three and one-half decades. This trend can be reversed by developing an understanding of the characteristics, behaviors, and events associated with suicide in at-risk youth. The Youth Risk…
Glenn, Catherine R.; Nock, Matthew K.
Suicidal behaviors increase dramatically during adolescence. In order to effectively intervene and ultimately prevent suicide in youth, the field needs to be able to identify and predict which adolescents are at greatest suicide risk. However, present knowledge of risk factors for suicide and techniques for identifying at-risk youth are insufficient. The purpose of the current manuscript is to highlight some of the key, yet unanswered, questions about the prediction of suicidal behavior in youth, and to suggest the types of research advances needed to move the field forward. PMID:23850053
van Bergen, Diana D; Smit, Johannes H; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Saharso, Sawitri
Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of social integration and regulation with ecological insights into family relations and psychological and psychiatric theories on individual distress are relevant. It is suggested that young Hindustani women who display suicidal behavior possess certain personality and cognitive constellations that are interlocked with specific parenting styles in stressful family environments. These families are embedded in a context of moral transformations resulting from migration to a Western culture and may be facing difficulties accompanying the transitional processes encountered in the West, particularly those regarding gender roles. Durkheimian fatalistic and anomic suicides elucidate this. The Hindustani women who appear most at risk are those facing contradictory norms and overregulation, which prevent them from developing autonomy. PMID:17219750
Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S.
Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals’ vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model—for teenagers at least—matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure – and content – of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality. PMID:26069341
Ingram, Ellen; Ellis, Jon B.
College students (n=228) completed a suicide ideation questionnaire and read one of 4 scenarios: cancer, AIDS, schizophrenia, and depression. People in the cancer and AIDS scenario were viewed as the most justified in committing suicide. Suicide ideators saw the people in the scenarios as justified in committing suicide more often than did…
McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H.
Adolescents psychiatrically hospitalized following a suicide attempt are at high risk for a repeat attempt or suicide completion, and substance use is consistently implicated as a risk factor for continued suicidal behavior in adolescents. Despite this knowledge, there have been few studies that have investigated the effectiveness of combined suicidality and substance use interventions within acute psychiatric care settings for suicidal youth with substance use problems. While social workers are well-positioned to deliver such interventions, greater emphasis on teaching integrated therapeutic techniques in social work curriculum and professional training is needed to ensure their implementation. PMID:26674510
Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar
The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…
Osgood, Nancy J.; Brant, Barbara A.
Surveyed administrators of 463 long-term care facilities concerning overt suicides and intentional life-threatening behaviors. Data revealed that White males were highest risk group. Refusal to eat, drink, or take medications were most common suicidal behaviors. Depression, loneliness, feelings of family rejection, and loss were significant…
Brownson, Chris; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Shadick, Richard; Jaggars, Shanna S.; Nitkin-Kaner, Yael
Suicidal and help-seeking behaviors of students of color remain a significant problem on college campuses. Self-reported suicidal experiences and help-seeking behavior of diverse students are examined on the basis of results from a national survey of college student mental health. The results suggest significant differences in the expression of…
Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A
Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26450815
Fitzpatrick, Scott J
Moral constructions of suicide are deliberately avoided in contemporary suicidology, yet morality persists, little or imperfectly acknowledged, in its practices and in the policies, discourses, and instruments that it underpins. This study used narrative methodologies to examine the normative force of suicidology and its implications for persons who had engaged in an act of nonfatal suicidal behavior. I interviewed a convenience sample of twelve persons from two inner-urban community mental health centers who were receiving crisis and case management services after a recent act of nonfatal suicidal behavior. Interviews focused on events leading up to and after participants' suicidal behavior; the responses their suicidal behavior generated in others, including family, friends, and the health professionals caring for them; and cultural views of suicide more broadly. Analysis of these interviews revealed that, although participants' narratives were broadly consistent with a number of recognizable, canonical story formats common to our cultural repertoire of stories of suicide, they also revealed important tensions, divisions, conflicts, and challenges to contemporary suicidological discourse and practice. Despite evidence to suggest that biomedical understandings of suicide provided some therapeutic benefit to participants, they did not address important social and moral dimensions of human life or explore their connection to suicidal behavior-aspects of the suicidal event that were critical to its causation and to its retelling and "resolution." The results of this study provide important insights into the moral features of suicidal behavior, the moral and ethical implications of suicide research, and the limitations of moral and ethical discourse in suicidology. PMID:25130355
Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Ramu, Rajalakshmi; Selvi, Sugavana; Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada
This descriptive study examined gender differences related to attitudes toward suicide among randomly selected urban residents. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Our findings revealed that men hold more pro preventive attitudes to help persons with suicidal thoughts (80.3 %, p = 0.05) and agreed that suicidal attempts are impulsive (78.6 %, p = 0.01). However, they hold permissive attitude to help persons with incurable diseases and expressing death wishes to die (66 %, p = 0.05). A majority of men (78.6 %) than women agreed that "suicidal attempt is essentially a cry for help" (χ (2) = 11.798, p = 0.05). These gender differences need to be taken into consideration when developing appropriate programs to prevent suicide. Further, decriminalizing the law, high-quality research and raising awareness about suicide prevention among the general population is crucial in developing countries like India. PMID:26293749
Harris, Keith M
The present findings offer new perspectives on differences between suicide-risk heterosexuals and non-heterosexuals (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning: LGBQ). Results from an anonymous online survey, employing standardized scales, showed that LGBQ participants reported significantly greater suicide-risk than heterosexuals. Seventy-nine matched pairs of suicide-risk LGBQ and heterosexuals were examined by individual suicide risk factors. Results showed no significant differences on separate measures of suicidal ideation; however, LGBQ participants were more likely to report suicide attempts, disclosure of suicidal intentions, and prediction of future suicide attempts. The LGBQ group also indicated greater likelihood of going online to develop new personal relationships. Multiple regression modeling was conducted to guide outreach and support efforts, revealing unique factors predicting help-seeking denial of suicide-risk LGBQ. Implications include the importance of online support and considering sexual minorities not just as a potential high-risk group, but also as a population with unique suicide risks and behaviors. PMID:23657812
Soltaninejad, Abdollah; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Mirsharafoddini, Hediye Sadat; Nikmorad, Alireza; Pilevarzadeh, Motahare
Background: Suicidal behavior is one the most significant mental health problems in the military. Militaries are closed systems that operate in particular situations. Military service is associated with certain stressful conditions. On this basis, there is likely of trauma in the military environment. Measures of suicidal behavior are pathologically complex. A range of biological, psychological, social, and institutional factors are involved in the incidence and prevalence of these behaviors. Objectives: One of the underlying factors in suicidal behavior is individuals' personality. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised of the Iranian Armed Forces. To recruit the sample of the research, 1659 soldiers were selected by multistage sampling. Data were collected using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Results: There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.323) between neuroticism and suicide ideation; however, significant negative correlations existed between three other personality traits --extraversion [r = -0.306], agreeableness [r = -0.227], and conscientiousness [r = -0.271] and suicidal ideation. Unlike neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness personality factors could reduce significantly (as much 14% as are predicted) levels of suicidal ideation. Conclusions: Based on these results, neuroticism might increase suicide, but extraversion and conscientiousness personality traits are associated with a reduced risk of suicide. PMID:24910793
Selby, Edward A.; Anestis, Michael D.; Bender, Theodore W.; Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Rudd, M. David; Bryan, Craig J.; Lim, Ingrid C.; Baker, Monty T.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Joiner, Thomas E.
Suicide rates have been increasing in military personnel since the start of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, and it is vital that efforts be made to advance suicide risk assessment techniques and treatment for members of the military who may be experiencing suicidal symptoms. One potential way to advance the understanding of suicide in the military is through the use of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This theory proposes that three necessary factors are needed to complete suicide: feelings that one does not belong with other people, feelings that one is a burden on others or society, and an acquired capability to overcome the fear and pain associated with suicide. This review analyzes the various ways that military service may influence suicidal behavior and integrates these findings into an overall framework with relevant practical implications. Findings suggest that although there are many important factors in military suicide, the acquired capability may be the most impacted by military experience because combat exposure and training may cause habituation to fear of painful experiences, including suicide. Future research directions, ways to enhance risk assessment, and treatment implications are also discussed. PMID:20051309
Dave, Dhaval; Rashad, Inas
Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in the USA. The suicide rate for individuals 15-19 years of age, while having declined since the early 1990s, has recently shown signs of an increasing trend. The prevalence of being overweight has also steadily risen among adolescents, and has tripled since 1960. This study utilizes data from the Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System (1999-2007) to explore the relationship between the perception of being overweight and suicidal behaviors. Studies have shown a high degree of correlation between overweight status, depressive disorders, and suicidal behaviors. This study analyzes these indicators in conjunction with individuals' perception of their weight. The empirical methodology is based on simultaneous-equations models and stratified samples to gauge whether the link between overweight indicators and suicide is causal or whether it is driven by other factors. Results indicate that body dissatisfaction, as measured by the perception of being overweight, has a strong impact on all suicidal behaviors for girls. It raises the risk of suicide ideation by 6.1 percentage points, suicide attempt by 3.6 percentage points, and a serious suicide attempt by 0.5 percentage points. Results are generally insignificant for males. Conditional on overweight perception, actual weight does not generally have an independent effect on suicidal behaviors. Policies aimed at reducing the prevalence of overweight among adolescents may further reduce suicidal behaviors by limiting overweight perception, especially among girls. However, the independent role of perception also highlights the importance of educating youths and fostering healthy attitudes regarding body image. PMID:19297063
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.
To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816
Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert
Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about disapproval of suicide. Data refer to age and marital status-specific female suicide rates from 12 developed countries. The results provide the strongest support for the marital status integration theory and consistent support for the social integration perspective. There is also mixed support for the cultural disapproval of suicide hypothesis. PMID:18275377
Keilp, J. G.; Gorlyn, M.; Russell, M.; Oquendo, M. A.; Burke, A. K.; Harkavy-Friedman, J.; Mann, J. J.
Background Executive dysfunction, distinct from other cognitive deficits in depression, has been associated with suicidal behavior. However, this dysfunction is not found consistently across samples. Method Medication-free subjects with DSM-IV major depressive episode (major depressive disorder and bipolar type I disorder) and a past history of suicidal behavior (n=72) were compared to medication-free depressed subjects with no history of suicidal behavior (n=80) and healthy volunteers (n=56) on a battery of tests assessing neuropsychological functions typically affected by depression (motor and psychomotor speed, attention, memory) and executive functions reportedly impaired in suicide attempters (abstract/contingent learning, working memory, language fluency, impulse control). Results All of the depressed subjects performed worse than healthy volunteers on motor, psychomotor and language fluency tasks. Past suicide attempters, in turn, performed worse than depressed non-attempters on attention and memory/working memory tasks [a computerized Stroop task, the Buschke Selective Reminding Task (SRT), the Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT) and an N-back task] but not on other executive function measures, including a task associated with ventral prefrontal function (Object Alternation). Deficits were not accounted for by current suicidal ideation or the lethality of past attempts. A small subsample of those using a violent method in their most lethal attempt showed a pattern of poor executive performance. Conclusions Deficits in specific components of attention control, memory and working memory were associated with suicidal behavior in a sample where non-violent attempt predominated. Broader executive dysfunction in depression may be associated with specific forms of suicidal behavior, rather than suicidal behavior per se. PMID:22781400
Holt, Melissa K.; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Holland, Kristin M.; DeGue, Sarah; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Wolfe, Misty; Reid, Gerald
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Over the last decade there has been increased attention to the association between bullying involvement (as a victim, perpetrator, or bully-victim) and suicidal ideation/behaviors. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the association between bullying involvement and suicidal ideation and behaviors. METHODS We searched multiple online databases and reviewed reference sections of articles derived from searches to identify cross-sectional studies published through July 2013. Using search terms associated with bullying, suicide, and youth, 47 studies (38.3% from the United States, 61.7% in non-US samples) met inclusion criteria. Seven observers independently coded studies and met in pairs to reach consensus. RESULTS Six different meta-analyses were conducted by using 3 predictors (bullying victimization, bullying perpetration, and bully/victim status) and 2 outcomes (suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors). A total of 280 effect sizes were extracted and multilevel, random effects meta-analyses were performed. Results indicated that each of the predictors were associated with risk for suicidal ideation and behavior (range, 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.69] to 4.02 [95% CI, 2.39–6.76]). Significant heterogeneity remained across each analysis. The bullying perpetration and suicidal behavior effect sizes were moderated by the study’s country of origin; the bully/victim status and suicidal ideation results were moderated by bullying assessment method. CONCLUSIONS Findings demonstrated that involvement in bullying in any capacity is associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. Future research should address mental health implications of bullying involvement to prevent suicidal ideation/behavior. PMID:25560447
Simon, Robert I.
Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…
Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.
Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.
Struve, Frederick A.
Shows that EEGs (electroencephalography) can be used to help screen for the presence of covert disease that may produce psychiatric depressive symptomatology, as well as to denote cerebral dysrhythmias that may directly influence suicidal behavior. The clinical EEG cannot effectively predict suicide attempt risk, nor can it reasonably guide…
Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn
Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…
De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Xiangdong, Wang
Current knowledge of suicidal behavior in the Western Pacific region is relatively limited when compared to other areas of the world. This area is characterized by a wide diversity of social, economic, and cultural aspects that do not permit any homogenous reading of suicide phenomena. Data from countries of the region included in this article…
Katz, Laurence Y.; Cox, Brian J.; Gunasekara, Shiny; Miller, Alec L.
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) implementation in a general child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit and to provide preliminary effectiveness data on DBT versus treatment as usual (TAU). Method: Sixty-two adolescents with suicide attempts or suicidal ideation were admitted to one of two…
Opperman, Kiel; Czyz, Ewa K; Gipson, Polly Y; King, Cheryl A
The interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior emphasizes the constructs of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capacity, which warrant investigation in adolescents at risk for suicide due to interpersonal stressors. This study examined one component of the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior, "suicidal desire" (suicidal ideation), in 129 adolescents (12-15 years) recruited from a general medical emergency department who screened positive for bully victimization, bully perpetration, or low interpersonal connectedness. Greater perceived burdensomeness combined with low family connectedness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation. This suggests the importance of addressing connectedness and perceptions of burdensomeness in prevention and early intervention efforts with at-risk adolescents. PMID:25751375
Plener, Paul L; Kapusta, Nestor D; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael
Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) were included as diagnostic categories in Section 3 of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Thus, these diagnostic entities were not recognized as formal clinical diagnoses, but rather for the first time clearly defined in a classificatory system to standardize further research in this field. This paper introduces both concepts and addresses the discussion about NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder based on a selective review of the literature. First studies using the new definitions are introduced. In Germany the prevalence of NSSI is estimated to lie at about 4 %, of SBD at about 9 %. It can be expected that in the future the new definitions will lead to a better comparability of study outcomes with regards to NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder. PMID:25335519
Paul, Elise; Tsypes, Aliona; Eidlitz, Laura; Ernhout, Carrie; Whitlock, Janis
Previous research has found associations between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), yet the nature of this relationship remains equivocal. The goal of the present study was to examine how lifetime NSSI frequency and individual NSSI functions relate to a history of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Data were collected via a large (N=13,396) web-based survey of university students between the ages of 18 and 29. After demographics and psychiatric conditions were controlled for, we found a positive curvilinear relationship between NSSI frequency and each of the suicide outcomes. When examined among those with STBs, bipolar disorder and problematic substance use remained positively associated with risk for suicide attempt, but not NSSI. Analyses of individual NSSI functions showed differential associations with STBs of varying severity. Specifically, nearly every NSSI function was significantly related to suicide attempt, with functions related to avoiding committing suicide, coping with self-hatred, and feeling generation (anti-dissociation) showing the strongest risks for suicide attempt. From both clinical and research perspectives, these findings suggest the importance of assessing multiple reasons for engaging in self-injury. PMID:25592979
Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann
Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…
Dobry, Yuriy; Braquehais, María Dolores; Sher, Leo
Bullying is a highly prevalent behavior which carries a significant social, medical and financial cost for its victims and perpetrators, with powerful and long-lasting psychological and social impact. Bullying has been defined as a specific form of intentional, repeated aggression, that involves a disparity of power between the victim(s) and perpetrator(s). The aggression can take physical, verbal or gestural forms. The behavior of bullying crosses sociodemographic categories of age, gender, ethnicity, level of academic achievement and professional environment. It has been abundantly observed by teachers and parents in elementary schools, but has also shown its negative presence in corporate boardrooms. The direct outcome of bullying, for both victims and perpetrators, is an increased risk of psychiatric disorders including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Cruelty (and bullying, as one of its manifestations) breaks the basis of morality. Mental health professionals usually treat the victims of those actions unfortunately long after they have been exposed to the harm. The evidence does not support the idea that the majority of cruel actions are intrinsically "pathological", in the sense of being motivated by "mental disorders". Therefore, only moral rules and legal actions - but not psychiatric or psychological interventions - may dissuade humans from this form of cruelty. PMID:24006324
Guzmán, Alvaro; Koons, Ann; Postolache, Teodor T
The multicultural nature of American society presents clinicians and mental health providers with the unique challenge of working with mentally ill patients from many different cultural backgrounds. Although research investigating suicidal behavior among Latinos is limited, the literature suggests the presence of two distinct phenomena: (a) the prevalence of completed suicide among Latinos as a group is lower than the national rate and (b) the prevalence of suicidal behavior among Latino youth between the ages of 10-24 years is greater than in other ethnic groups, especially among females. Acculturation, family conflicts, physical abuse and sexual abuse, among other factors, have been suggested to increase the risk of depression and suicide among young Latinos. To ameliorate suicidal behavior among Latino youth, more research is needed about specific risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately, suicide prevention. Research focused on identifying risk and mediating factors for suicidal behavior in young Latinos is particularly relevant, given the size and rapid growth of the Latino population in the United States of America. PMID:20306758
O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C
Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, p<.001), and where the mean age was 40 or above the association was negative (i.e., lower cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, p<.001). These findings confirm that HPA axis activity, as indicated by age-dependent variations in cortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications. PMID:26555430
Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil
Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…
Zeller, Meg H.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Jenkins, Todd M.; Ratcliff, Megan B.
The present study examined relative suicidal behavioral risks (ideation, attempts) for overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents (vs. healthy weight) and who did/did not accurately perceive themselves as overweight utilizing cross-sectional data from the publicly available Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). A new variable (weight status/accuracy) was computed that combined actual weight status (based on BMI) with weight perception accuracy. To evaluate the effect of weight status/accuracy on each suicidal risk behavior, logistic regression was performed to calculate odds-ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Potential model covariates included gender, age, race, survey year, and whether they had felt sad/hopeless. Weight perception accuracy increased as the degree of excess weight increased. Relative to healthy weight, being obese or extremely obese (but not overweight) was associated with significantly greater risk for adolescent engagement in suicidal ideation, but was unrelated to suicide attempts. Adolescents in all excess weight categories who were accurate in their weight perception were at significantly greater odds of suicidal ideation, whereas those who were inaccurate of no greater odds of suicidal ideation than healthy weight youth who accurately perceived their weight. Findings regarding suicide attempts varied based on actual weight/weight perception accuracy and race/ethnicity. The present findings are both important and clinically relevant. While widely accepted that there are multiple pathways to suicide, our understanding of adolescent suicidal behavior risks and accordingly, prevention efforts, will be informed by comprehensive prospective studies that should also, from here forward, consider categorization of the entire weight spectrum (e.g., extreme obesity). PMID:23784908
Borowsky, I W
Suicidality is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality among young people. Important risk factors for suicidal behavior are mental illness, alcohol and other substance use disorders, previous suicide attempt, impulsive and/or aggressive behavior, history of abuse, and access to lethal means. Emotional well-being and connectedness to family and school act to buffer or protect young people from involvement in self-directed violence. Pediatricians can play a major role in suicide prevention by identifying emotional and behavioral problems and intervening appropriately, promoting positive parenting skills and family cohesion, and providing injury prevention education to reduce access to lethal means. As part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent youth suicidal behavior, child health professionals are uniquely positioned to promote resiliency among youth and families as well as identify and provide appropriate treatment and service coordination for risk factors before injuries occur. Adequate training is critical to ensure that pediatricians are prepared to provide effective assessment, prevention and intervention for suicidal behavior. PMID:11862165
Ganz, D; Sher, L
Recently, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence is higher than the prevalence of PTSD in adult populations. PTSD and suicidality are often found in populations of adolescents presenting with other emotional disorders (particularly mood disorders), traumatic grief, childhood abuse, and/or a family or peer history of suicide. The reasons and developments of the association between PTSD and suicidality in adolescence, however, remain unclear. Core psychobiological changes contributing to PTSD affect emotion, arousal, perception of the self and the world, irritability, impulsivity, anger, aggression and depression. There is evidence that the aforementioned factors, as well as alcohol and other drug use may act to moderate the influence of stressful life events and lead to eventual suicidality. Both PTSD and suicidality in adolescents have also been hypothesized to be a result of exposure to violence and negative coping styles. There are many treatment challenges for these populations, yet the most promising prevention and treatments include suicide risk screenings, suicide education, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, addressing associated coping mechanisms and prescribing anti-depressant and anti-anxiety medications. However, when prescribing medications, physicians do need to be careful to consider the weaknesses and strengths of each of the pharmacological options as they apply to adolescents presenting with PTSD and suicidality. PMID:20940670
Ran, Mao-Sheng; Wu, Qiu-Hua; Conwell, Yeates; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan
This study evaluated the characteristics of suicidal behavior (suicide attempt or suicidal ideation) among 230 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in a university hospital in China. The rate of lifetime suicidal behavior was found to be significantly higher in patients with mood disorders (62.4%) than in…
Tarrier, Nicholas; Taylor, Katherine; Gooding, Patricia
Suicide behavior is a serious clinical problem worldwide, and understanding ways of reducing it is a priority. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to investigate whether Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) would reduce suicide behavior. From 123 potential articles, 28 studies met the entry criteria. Overall, there was a highly…
Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Radić, Josipa; Degmecić, Dunja; Fileković, Pavo
In last decade suicide attempts and suicides among youngsters are increasing greatly and are one of the leading causes of mortality in this age group. Epidemiological data are pointing on more frequent trend of self-destructive behavior among youngsters in the world as well as in our country. Risk factors which influence on increasing number of suicide attempts and suicides in this age are different in etiology: interference of genetic influences, family dynamics and external environment (school, friends, social environment, peers, television, video, and internet). Croatia as a country in transition is also following trends in the world according to epidemiological data, what is for sure great challenge for all who participate in dealing with youngsters, especially psychiatric services. In the planning of treatment is very important to include family with intention to accomplish optimal therapeutic effect. Also, it is very important to warn parents on their part of responsibility in upbringing and developing of their adolescent. PMID:20698169
Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.
To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…
Tondo, Leonardo; Baldessarini, Ross J
Suicidal behavior is strongly associated with depression, especially if accompanied by behavioral activation, dysphoria, or agitation. It may respond to some treatments, but the design of scientifically sound, ethical trials to test for therapeutic effects on suicidal behavior is highly challenging. In bipolar disorder, and possibly also unipolar major depression, an underprescribed medical intervention with substantial evidence of preventive effects on suicidal behavior is long-term treatment with lithium. It is unclear whether this effect is specifically antisuicidal or reflects beneficial effects of lithium on depression, mood instability, and perhaps aggression and impulsivity. Antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate) appear to be less than with lithium. Further evaluation is needed for potential antisuicidal effects of atypical antipsychotics with growing evidence of efficacy in depression, particularly acute bipolar depression, while generally lacking risk of inducing agitation, mania, or mood instability. Short-term and long-term value and safety of antidepressants are relatively secure for unipolar depression but uncertain and poorly tested for bipolar depression; their effects on suicidal risk in unipolar depression may be age-dependent. Sedative anxiolytics are virtually unstudied as regards suicidal risks. Adequate management of suicidal risks in mood disorder patients requires comprehensive, clinically skillful monitoring and timely interventions. PMID:27542851
Mundt, James C.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Jefferson, James W.; Posner, Kelly
Objective: Examine the ability of baseline electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior categories to predict prospective reports of suicidal behavior in psychiatric and non-psychiatric research participants. Design: Meta-analysis of 74,406 eC-SSRS assessments completed between September 2009 and December 2012. Setting: Thirty-three clinical research studies that used the electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale to assess suicidal ideation and behavior at baseline and prospectively during follow-up visits. Participants: Records from 6,760 patients with psychiatric disorders (opioid dependence, generalized anxiety, major depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorders) and 2,077 nonpsychiatric disorder patients (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, epilepsy, fibromyalgia, human immunodeficiency virus, insomnia, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, pain/back pain, Parkinson’s disease, restless leg syndrome) were analyzed. Measurements: Electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale assessment of lifetime suicidal ideation (5 severity levels) and suicidal behavior (4 types) at baseline and prospectively reported suicidal behavior during study participation. Results: Increasingly more severe lifetime suicidal ideation at baseline was associated with a progressively greater likelihood of prospectively reported suicidal behavior during study participation. Intent to act on suicidal ideation was most predictive of reports of suicidal behavior. Reports of lifetime suicidal behaviors at baseline also predicted subsequent suicidal behavior, and multiple lifetime behaviors monotonically increased prospective risk of suicidal behavior. Baseline suicidal ideation and behavior predicted future suicidal behavior in both psychiatric and non-psychiatric trials. Conclusions: Lifetime reports of suicidal ideation and/or behavior at baseline significantly increased risk of prospectively reporting suicidal behavior during
Frederick, C J
Suicidal behavior in the United States from 1900 to 1975 is reviewed. The data presented cover demographic variables such as: age, sex, color, and geographic area. While the overall suicide rate continues to increase, the most striking upturn can be seen in both sexes between the ages of 15 to 25 years. The need for a wide range of innovative approaches and increased research is manifest. PMID:677350
This paper discusses the theoretical concept of symbiosis, as described by Mahler and her co-workers, and its clinical applications in suicidal situations. Also, the practical implications of the concept of symbiosis for assessment and treatment are discussed (Author)
Conejero, Ismael; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Giner, Lucas; Baca-Garcia, Enrique
Suicidal behavior and its prevention constitute a major public health issue. Etiology of suicidal behavior is multifactorial. Whereas current research is mostly focused on clinical and biological risk factors, the sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior, first highlighted by Durkheim, have received less attention. Besides the well-known impact of age and gender, sociodemographic variables such as marital and parental status, education, occupation, income, employment status, religion, migration or minority status, and sexual orientation are repeatedly reported to play an important role in suicidal behavior. This narrative review aimed to summarize recent research on sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior and to elicit possible implications for suicide prevention. PMID:27595860
Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara
Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…
Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.
This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…
Harris, Keith M; McLean, John P; Sheffield, Jeanie
To assist suicide prevention we need a better understanding of how suicidal individuals act in their environment, and the online world offers an ideal opportunity to examine daily behaviors. This anonymous survey (N = 1,016) provides first-of-its-kind empirical evidence demonstrating suicide-risk people (n = 290) are unique in their online behaviors. Suicidal users reported more time online, greater likelihood of developing online personal relationships, and greater use of online forums. In addition, suicide-risk women reported more time browsing/surfing and social networking. The authors conclude that suicide prevention efforts should respond to suicide-risk users' greater demands for online interpersonal communications. PMID:24666145
Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack
This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…
Ganz, D; Sher, L
Depression, alcohol abuse and suicidality each continue to threaten adolescent populations throughout the world. The comorbidity between these diseases has been found to be up to 73% with consistent positive correlations between adolescent drinking, depression and suicidality. Alcohol abuse, depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents have also been found to have biochemical and genetic correlates. This article explores the contributing and causative factors and directional models underlying such prevalent comorbidities. Alcohol use is shown to be both a distal and proximal cause of suicide attempts in adolescent populations. Individuals with both alcoholism and depression who attempt or complete suicide often present with significantly high levels of aggression and impulsivity. These factors may be caused or nuanced by poor or underdeveloped coping skills as well as other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Such behaviors, alone or in comorbidity, may be a consequence of childhood abuse, social pressures, low self-esteem and/or delinquency- all of which may be particularly salient among adolescent populations. Such adolescent stressors are implicated as the cause for the self-medication model. Some studies suggest that depression encourages alcohol use as self-medication and then leads to suicidality, while others imply that the initial alcohol consumption is responsible for increasing depressive and suicidal symptoms in adolescents. This article discusses the social stigma associated with alcoholism, depression and suicidality, and how that may serve to enhance these disorders in adolescent populations. Many directional models are presented based on past research and as suggestions for future research. There is a lot that can be done by clinicians, legal and educational professionals and society at large that may help to prevent and treat such problems. PMID:19461576
Altangerel, Uyanga; Liou, Jenn-Chang; Yeh, Pi-Ming
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of suicidal behavior among Mongolian high school students. Females were more likely to have suicidal behavior than males. No close friends, feelings of loneliness, insomnia, self perception of underweight or overweight, carrying a weapon were significant predictors of students' suicidal behavior. Missing school without permission, being bullied and going hungry were also important risk factors of suicidal ideation. Families and Schools are important environments to prevent high students' suicide. Improving students' psychological well being, quality of relationship with people, and support resources are critical to prevent suicidal behavior. PMID:24282032
Bandiera, Frank C.; Ramirez, Rafael; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.
There is growing evidence of a positive association between asthma and suicidal ideation and behavior in the general community, although information on this potential association is scarce among adolescents and Puerto Ricans, groups at-risk for both conditions. Data came from wave three of the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of youth in the Bronx and San Juan conducted from 2000–2004. Logistic regressions for correlated data (GEE) were conducted with asthma predicting suicidal ideation and behavior among participants aged 11 years or older. After adjustment for survey design, age, gender, poverty, DSM-IV mental disorders, cigarette smoking, and stressful life events, asthma was positively associated with suicidal ideation and behavior among Puerto Rican adolescents. Public health interventions targeting Puerto Rican adolescents with asthma and future studies investigating potential biological and psychological mechanisms of association are warranted. PMID:23817156
Ellis, B. Heidi; Lankau, Emily W.; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A.; Miller, Alisa B.; Shetty, Sharmila; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Geltman, Paul L.; Cochran, Jennifer
Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community. PMID:25642653
Ellis, B Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A; Miller, Alisa B; Shetty, Sharmila; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer
Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community. PMID:25642653
Kleiman, Evan M; Law, Keyne C; Anestis, Michael D
Given that suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, there has been considerable research on theories of suicide risk. Despite the volume of such research, each theory is largely investigated in isolation and there has been little attempt to integrate them. Thus, the goal of the present study is to integrate two theories of suicide risk, Alloy and Abramson's hopelessness theory of suicide (HT) and Joiner's interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS), into one mediational model where the effects of the risk associated with the HT variables (i.e., a negative cognitive style) on suicidal ideation are transmitted by the IPTS (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belonging) variables. Participants were 245 young adults with elevated levels of depressive symptoms who completed self-report measures of suicide risk at baseline and a measure of suicidal ideation eight weeks later. The results of a mediated model supported our hypothesis. The effects of the HT variables on suicidal ideation were mediated by the IPTS variables. Furthermore, results did not support the reverse model, suggesting specificity of the direction of our hypotheses. These findings imply that there may be merit in attempting to integrate theories of suicide risk rather than studying them in isolation. PMID:24332385
Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya
Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. PMID:22497848
Anestis, Michael D; Capron, Daniel W
Recent research has emphasized the importance of examining factors that strengthen the association between suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior, thereby aiding in the transition from thought to action. Theoretical and empirical work has demonstrated that suicidal desire is more strongly associated with suicidal behavior among individuals better able to tolerate distressing sensations, consistent with the notion that suicidal behavior is difficult and aversive and requires a capability to overcome otherwise daunting obstacles. Participants were 100 adults, recruited from the community, in part based upon their prior history of suicidal behavior. Each participant took part in a behavioral task during which both emotional distress and physical pain were induced. Participants were told that persistence through the end of the task would result in the ability to opt out of all but five minutes of the remaining protocol, whereas early cessation of the task would result in the administration of the entire protocol. Results indicated the relationship between current suicidal thoughts and lifetime attempts was significant only at mean and high levels of task persistence. Our results provide novel behavioral support for the importance of persistence through pain and distress in suicidal behavior. PMID:26919055
Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V.; Brent, David A.
Abstract Objective: Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Methods: Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results: Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=−0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions: In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are
Hill, Ryan M; Pettit, Jeremy W
This study investigated the role of autonomy satisfaction in the development of suicidal ideation by integrating two theoretical models of suicide-related behaviors. The first hypothesized a direct effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation. The second hypothesized an indirect effect of autonomy on suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. This was a cross-sectional study of 449 college students, who were predominantly female (73.1%) and Hispanic (70.6%), with a mean age of 20.40 years (SD = 4.38, range 18-50 years). Participants were recruited from a psychology participant pool and completed self-report survey measures for course credit. The model of indirect effects provided the best fit to the data; relatedness, autonomy, and competence were significantly associated with higher thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, which, in turn, were significantly associated with higher suicidal ideation. Future studies should test this model longitudinally and consider autonomy as a possible avenue for the prevention of suicide-related behaviors. PMID:23889577
Opperman, Kiel; Czyz, Ewa K.; Gipson, Polly Y.; King, Cheryl A.
Objective The interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior emphasizes the constructs of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capacity, which warrant investigation in adolescents at-risk for suicide due to interpersonal stressors. Methods This study examined one component of the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior, “suicidal desire” (suicidal ideation), in 129 adolescents (12–15 years) recruited from a general medical emergency department who screened positive for bully victimization, bully perpetration, or low interpersonal connectedness. Results Greater perceived burdensomeness combined with low family connectedness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation. Conclusion This suggests the importance of addressing connectedness and perceptions of burdensomeness in prevention and early intervention efforts with at-risk adolescents. PMID:25751375
Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.
A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu
The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783
Kposowa, Augustine J; McElvain, James P; Breault, Kevin D
The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of immigration on suicide. An unmatched case-control design was employed. Data on cases were obtained on suicides in Riverside County, California, 1998 to 2001. Information on controls was obtained from the 2000 Census. Immigration increased suicide risk. Immigrant divorced persons were over 2 times more likely to commit suicide than natives. Single immigrants were nearly 2.6 times more likely to kill themselves than the native born. Shorter duration of residence was associated with higher suicide risk. Integration of immigrants in receiving societies is important for decreasing suicide. Policies aimed at reducing suicide should target more recent immigrants. PMID:18240038
Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others
Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…
Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron; Fite, Paula J.
Two subtypes of aggression--reactive and proactive--were examined to see how they relate to suicidal behaviors among young children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care. The children and their parents completed self-report questionnaires/interviews. Regression analyses revealed that depressed girls who scored higher on reactive aggression…
Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun
A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios,…
Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel; Lachal, Jonathan; Moro, Marie-Rose
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care. PMID:27089157
Grandclerc, Salome; De Labrouhe, Diane; Spodenkiewicz, Michel
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11–25 years) expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological) literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care. PMID:27089157
Eskin, Mehmet; Palova, Eva; Krokavcova, Martina
Suicidal behavior and its variation across social contexts are of importance for the science of suicidology. Due to its special character controlled experimental studies on suicide are ruled out for ethical reasons. Cross-cultural studies may throw light on the etiology of both suicidal behavior and its cross-cultural variation. The present study compared suicidal behavior and attitudes in 423 Slovak and 541 Turkish high school students by means of a self-report questionnaire. The two groups reported similar percentages (Slovak = 36.4%; Turkish = 33.8%) of lifetime, past 12-months or current suicidal ideation but significantly more Turkish (12.2%) than Slovak (4.8%) students reported lifetime or past 12-months suicide attempts. Slovak adolescents displayed more liberal and permissive attitudes toward suicide, while those of Turkish adolescents were more rejecting. Turkish students rated themselves to be more religious and hence they believed to a greater extent that suicidal persons would be punished in a life after death than their Slovak peers. However, attitudes of Turkish students toward an imagined suicidal close friend were more accepting than the attitudes of Slovak students. Comparison of suicidal and nonsuicidal students revealed that those reporting suicidal ideation or attempts were more accepting of suicide and viewed suicide as a solution to a greater extent than the nonsuicidal ones. The results from this study suggest that cultural factors play a role in suicidal behavior, attitudes and reactions in a predicted direction. PMID:24350593
Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. PMID:20129737
Ellis, Thomas E.; Trumpower, David
Various theorists have suggested that unhealthy behaviors such as cigarette smoking and problem drinking may be subtle forms of suicidality. Consistent with this view, prior research has shown an association between health risk behaviors and suicidal ideation. In the present study we examined relationships among suicidal ideation, health-related…
Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer
Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…
Thompson, Martie P.; Kingree, J. B.; Ho, Ching-hua
Suicide was the second leading cause of death for 14-17 years olds in 2002. Prior studies indicate that suicidal behaviors are especially common among juvenile delinquents, yet this association has not been examined in a national sample. The 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was used to examine associations between suicidal behaviors…
Wexler, Lisa; Hill, Ryan; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth; Fenaughty, Andrea
Factors correlated with suicidal behavior in a predominately Alaska Native region of Alaska are described, and the correlates relating to fatal and nonfatal suicide behaviors in this indigenous population are distinguished. Suicide data from the region (1990-2001) were aggregated and compared to 2000 U.S. Census Data using chi-squared tests.…
Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron
Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…
Crepeau-Hobson, M Franci; Leech, Nancy L
There is considerable evidence that being exposed to the suicide or suicidal behavior of another can increase the risk for suicide. Significant relationships between media coverage and youth suicide have been documented in the professional literature. Exposure to familial suicidal behavior has also been established as a risk factor for youth suicidal behavior; However, peer suicide exposure is not as clear cut as research results in this area have been mixed. In the current paper the empirical literature focused on the associations between exposure to peer suicides and suicide attempts and youth suicidal behavior is critically reviewed. Effect sizes were computed for each of the 23 studies included in the review to allow for cross-study comparisons. The results demonstrate that having a friend or acquaintance attempt suicide is significantly related to risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior. However, the support for the relationship between the suicide of a peer and youth suicidal behavior was less consistent. Implications for clinical practice and suicide postvention as well as areas of future research are discussed. PMID:24033603
Beyer, John L; Weisler, Richard H
Suicide behaviors (ideation, attempts, and completions) are unfortunately common in patients with bipolar disorder. It is estimated that 25 to 50% attempt suicide at least once during their lifetime, and 6% to 19% complete suicide. Risk factors include a family history of suicide, previous suicide attempts, younger age of onset, comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and psychological constructs like hopelessness. Pharmacologic treatment may impact suicidal behaviors, either increasing vulnerability or resilience. Clinicians need to be particularly sensitive to their patient's thoughts and beliefs about death, particularly during stressful times of life or when in a depressive/mixed episode of bipolar disorder. PMID:26876322
Moore, Thomas J.; Furberg, Curt D.; Glenmullen, Joseph; Maltsberger, John T.; Singh, Sonal
Background Two treatments for smoking cessation—varenicline and bupropion—carry Boxed Warnings from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about suicidal/self-injurious behavior and depression. However, some epidemiological studies report an increased risk in smoking or smoking cessation independent of treatment, and differences between drugs are unknown. Methodology From the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database from 1998 through September 2010 we selected domestic, serious case reports for varenicline (n = 9,575), bupropion for smoking cessation (n = 1,751), and nicotine replacement products (n = 1,917). A composite endpoint of suicidal/self-injurious behavior or depression was defined as a case with one or more Preferred Terms in Standardized MedDRA Query (SMQ) for those adverse effects. The main outcome measure was the ratio of reported suicide/self-injury or depression cases for each drug compared to all other serious events for that drug. Results Overall we identified 3,249 reported cases of suicidal/self-injurious behavior or depression, 2,925 (90%) for varenicline, 229 (7%) for bupropion, and 95 (3%) for nicotine replacement. Compared to nicotine replacement, the disproportionality results (OR (95% CI)) were varenicline 8.4 (6.8–10.4), and bupropion 2.9 (2.3–3.7). The disproportionality persisted after excluding reports indicating concomitant therapy with any of 58 drugs with suicidal behavior warnings or precautions in the prescribing information. An additional antibiotic comparison group showed that adverse event reports of suicidal/self-injurious behavior or depression were otherwise rare in a healthy population receiving short-term drug treatment. Conclusions Varenicline shows a substantial, statistically significant increased risk of reported depression and suicidal/self-injurious behavior. Bupropion for smoking cessation had smaller increased risks. The findings for varenicline, combined with other problems with
Nock, Matthew K.; Stein, Murray B.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Ursano, Robert J.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.
IMPORTANCE The suicide rate among US Army soldiers has increased substantially in recent years. OBJECTIVES To estimate the lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic, Army career, and psychiatric predictors of suicidal behaviors among nondeployed US Army soldiers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A representative cross-sectional survey of 5428 nondeployed soldiers participating in a group self-administered survey. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Lifetime suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. RESULTS The lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts are 13.9%, 5.3%, and 2.4%. Most reported cases (47.0%–58.2%) had pre-enlistment onsets. Pre-enlistment onset rates were lower than in a prior national civilian survey (with imputed/simulated age at enlistment), whereas post-enlistment onsets of ideation and plans were higher, and post-enlistment first attempts were equivalent to civilian rates. Most reported onsets of plans and attempts among ideators (58.3%–63.3%) occur within the year of onset of ideation. Post-enlistment attempts are positively related to being a woman (with an odds ratio [OR] of 3.3 [95% CI, 1.5–7.5]), lower rank (OR = 5.8 [95% CI, 1.8–18.1]), and previously deployed (OR = 2.4–3.7) and are negatively related to being unmarried (OR = 0.1–0.8) and assigned to Special Operations Command (OR = 0.0 [95% CI, 0.0–0.0]). Five mental disorders predict post-enlistment first suicide attempts in multivariate analysis: pre-enlistment panic disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0–0.8]), pre-enlistment posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0–0.7]), post-enlistment depression (OR = 3.8 [95% CI, 1.2–11.6]), and both pre- and post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder (OR = 3.7–3.8). Four of these 5 ORs (posttraumatic stress disorder is the exception) predict ideation, whereas only post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder predicts attempts among ideators. The population
Hamza, Chloe A.; Willoughby, Teena
Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavior, we examined individual variability in both NSSI and suicidal behavior among a sample of young adults with a history of NSSI (N = 439, Mage = 19.1). Participants completed self-report measures assessing NSSI, suicidal behavior, and psychosocial adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms, daily hassles). We conducted a latent class analysis using several characteristics of NSSI and suicidal behaviors as class indicators. Three subgroups of individuals were identified: 1) an infrequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, 2) a frequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, and 3) a frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior group. Follow-up analyses indicated that individuals in the ‘frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior’ group met the clinical-cut off score for high suicidal risk and reported significantly greater levels of suicidal ideation, attempts, and risk for future suicidal behavior as compared to the other two classes. Thus, this study is the first to identity variability in suicidal risk among individuals engaging in frequent and multiple methods of NSSI. Class 3 was also differentiated by higher levels of psychosocial impairment relative to the other two classes, as well as a comparison group of non-injuring young adults. Results underscore the importance of assessing individual differences in NSSI characteristics, as well as psychosocial impairment, when assessing risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:23544113
Zschoche, Maria; Schlarb, Angelika Anita
Purpose Sleep disturbances are a common problem during adolescence. Often there is a relationship with the mental health of the affected person. The existing literature concerning the link between sleep disturbances and aggressive behavior and sleep disturbances and suicidality during adolescence shows no clear results. The present study tested a mediation model to prove the relation between sleep problems, aggressive behavior, and suicidality during adolescence. To take the link between suicidality and depression into account, the amount of depressive symptoms was included into the mediation model. Methods A sample of 93 adolescents aged 14–18 years (30% male) was studied. A survey was conducted to interview the adolescents about their mental health, sleep-related behaviors, aggressive behavior, and suicidality. Results Sleep problems and suicidality measures were significantly related to each other. Furthermore, aggressive behavior and suicidality showed a significant relationship. The expected link between sleep problems and aggressive behavior was not significant. For the mediation model, no significant influence of aggressive behavior on the relationship between the amount of sleep problems and suicidality was found. However, the impact of depressive symptoms on the relationship between sleep problems and suicidality was significant. Conclusion Sleep problems and overall suicidality in adolescents are significantly connected, even after adjusting for several possible influencing factors. Aggressive behavior could not be confirmed as a mediator for the association between sleep problems and suicidality in adolescents. Further studies to examine the link between insomnia symptoms, aggressive behavior, and suicidality in adolescents are necessary. PMID:25767409
Associations between risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: do racial/ethnic variations in associations account for increased risk of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina 9th- to 12th-grade female students?
Eaton, Danice K; Foti, Kathryn; Brener, Nancy D; Crosby, Alex E; Flores, Glenn; Kann, Laura
The objective of this study was to identify factors that may account for the disproportionately high prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina youth by examining whether associations of health risk behaviors with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts vary by race/ethnicity among female students. Data from the school-based 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Analyses were conducted among female students in grades 9 through 12 and included 21 risk behaviors related to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus; physical activity; obesity and weight control; and perceived health status. With the exception of physical activity behaviors and obesity, all risk behaviors examined were associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Associations of risk behaviors with suicidal ideation varied by race/ethnicity for 5 of 21 behaviors, and for 0 of 21 behaviors for suicide attempts. Stratified analyses provided little insight into factors that may account for the higher prevalence of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina female students. These results suggest that the increased risk of suicidal behaviors among Hispanic/Latina female students cannot be accounted for by differential associations with these selected risk behaviors. Other factors, such as family characteristics, acculturation, and the socio-cultural environment, should be examined in future research. PMID:21541858
Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.
Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114
Litwiller, Brett J; Brausch, Amy M
The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent behavior, substance use, and unsafe sexual behavior were tested as mediators between two forms of bullying, cyber and physical, and suicidal behavior. Data were taken from a large risk-behavior screening study with a sample of 4,693 public high school students (mean age = 16.11, 47 % female). The study's findings showed that both physical bullying and cyber bullying associated with substance use, violent behavior, unsafe sexual behavior, and suicidal behavior. Substance use, violent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior also all associated with suicidal behavior. Substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between both forms of bullying and suicidal behavior. The comparable amount of variance in suicidal behavior accounted for by both cyber bullying and physical bullying underscores the important of further cyber bullying research. The direct association of each risk behavior with suicidal behavior also underscores the importance of reducing risk behaviors. Moreover, the role of violence and substance use as mediating behaviors offers an explanation of how risk behaviors can increase an adolescent's likelihood of suicidal behavior through habituation to physical pain and psychological anxiety. PMID:23381779
Noor-Mahomed, S B; Schlebusch, L; Bosch, B A
There is a paucity of literature on suicide and cancer, especially cancer of the cervix. This study reports on suicidal behavior in these patients. The sample consisted of adult, black, Zulu-speaking women from palliative and radical oncology treatment groups who volunteered for the study. There were more patients in the palliative group who were younger, and had a more significant delay between cancer symptom presentation and seeking oncology treatment. Patients experienced: significant depression, anxiety, stress, hopelessness/helplessness, anxious preoccupation about their disease, poor current or delayed social support, feelings of being a burden to their significant others, beliefs that they would be better off dead, perceptions that they were stigmatized by society or that their communities suspected them of being HIV-AIDS positive, and suppressed anger. More patients in the palliative, compared to the radical treatment, group were inclined toward suicidal ideation with serious intent. Overall, most patients coped inadequately with their disease and its management. These patients are a high risk group for suicidal behavior and should be identified in time for appropriate psychological intervention. PMID:15509142
Sayar, Kemal; Kose, Samet; Acar, Burcin; Ak, Ismail; Reeves, Robert A.
In a Turkish sample, 100 suicide attempters, were compared with 60 healthy controls on measures of hopelessness, depression, and suicidal ideation. Suicide attempters were more depressive, more hopeless, and displayed greater suicidal ideation than healthy controls. Depression severity rather than hopelessness correlated with suicidal intent.…
Gonzalez, Vivian M
Emerging adult college students who binge drink in solitary contexts (i.e., while alone) experience greater depression and suicidal ideation than do students who only binge drink in social contexts, suggesting that they may be at greater risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined the association of a previous suicide attempt, one of the best predictors of future suicide attempts and suicide, and severity of recent suicidal ideation with drinking in solitary and social contexts. Participants were binge drinking, emerging adult (18- to 25-year-old) college students (N=182) drawn from two studies of college drinkers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that both suicide attempt history and severity of suicidal ideation were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being a solitary binge drinker as opposed to only a social binge drinker. Students with a previous suicide attempt were nearly four times more likely to be solitary binge drinkers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that suicide attempt history was significantly associated with greater frequency and quantity of drinking in solitary, but not social contexts. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with drinks per solitary drinking day, but not frequency of solitary drinking once suicide attempt history was accounted for. Given the associations found between solitary binge drinking and a history of suicide attempts, as well as greater severity of recent suicidal ideation, it appears that these students are in need of suicide prevention efforts, including treatment efforts aimed at reducing binge drinking. PMID:22288976
... it's related to serious depression, alcohol or substance abuse, or a major stressful event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report more suicide attempts. If someone ...
In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the study examined official police data spanning 2006-2008. This investigation revealed that reported cases of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior overwhelmingly involved males. Furthermore, the majority of males who engaged in suicidal acts did so to deal with feelings of shame and dishonor of variable sources. Findings suggest changing the rigid dichotomization associated with male-female gender roles and socialization that emphasize masculinity ideals in Ghana and the need for increased research and the promotion of counseling for males facing emotional stress. PMID:21075496
O'Connor, Maebh; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
Suicide is a key concern among young adults. The aim of the study was to (1) construct a suicide risk index (SRI) based on demographic, situational, and behavioral factors known to be linked to suicidal behavior and (2) investigate whether the association between the SRI and suicidal behavior was mediated by proximal processes (personal factors, coping strategies, and emotional states). Participants consisted of 7,558 individuals aged 17-25 years (M = 20.35, SD = 1.91). Nearly 22% (n = 1,542) reported self-harm and 7% (n = 499) had attempted suicide. Mediation analysis revealed both a direct effect (ß = .299, 95% CI = [.281, .317], p < .001), and a mediated effect (ß = .204, 95% CI = [.186, .222], p < .001), between the risk index and suicidal behavior. The strongest mediators were levels of self-esteem, depression, and avoidant coping. Interventions to increase self-esteem, reduce depression, and encourage adaptive coping strategies may prevent suicidal behavior in young people. PMID:25058873
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Anderson, Nicholas L.
Objective To describe feasibility, safety, and outcome results from a treatment development trial of the SAFETY Program, a brief intervention designed for integration with emergency services for suicide-attempting youths. Method Suicide-attempting youths, ages 11–18, were enrolled in a 12-week trial of the SAFETY Program, a cognitive-behavioral family intervention designed to increase safety and reduce suicide-attempt (SA) risk (N=35). Rooted in a social-ecological cognitive-behavioral model, treatment sessions included individual youth and parent session-components, with different therapists assigned to youths and parents, and family session-components to practice skills identified as critical in the pathway for preventing repeat SAs in individual youths. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results At the 3-month post-treatment assessment, there were statistically significant improvements on measures of suicidal behavior, hopelessness, youth and parent depression, and youth social adjustment. There was one reported suicide attempt by 3-months and another by 6-months, yielding cumulative attempt rates of 3% and 6% at 3 and 6-months respectively. Treatment satisfaction was high. Conclusions Suicide-attempting youths are at high-risk for repeat attempts and continuing mental health problems. Results support the value of a randomized controlled trial to further evaluate the SAFETY intervention. Extension of treatment effects to parent depression and youth social adjustment are consistent with our strong family focus and social-ecological model of behavior-change. PMID:25255931
Kranzler, Amy; Fehling, Kara B; Anestis, Michael D; Selby, Edward A
This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationships between emotion dysregulation, internalizing symptoms, nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and suicide. One hundred forty-eight undergraduates completed a brief structured interview and self-report measures of emotion dysregulation, internalizing symptoms, and NSSI and suicidal behaviors. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of emotion dysregulation on NSSI via internalizing symptoms and on suicide attempts via NSSI. Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of the indirect association between emotion dysregulation and NSSI and suicidal behaviors. Implications for the potential utility of targeting internalizing symptoms as well as emotion dysregulation in interventions addressing NSSI and suicidal behaviors are discussed. PMID:26808092
Park, Sunhee; Kim, Junghee
Smoking and suicidal behaviors are significant health problems in adolescence. To address these two important health problems in youth, it is critical to understand the associations between them. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationships between smoking and suicidal behaviors in adolescence. This study analyzed secondary data obtained from a national survey of Korean adolescents (i.e., the 7th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey). Respondents were divided into two samples (38,474 middle school students and 37,169 high school students). In each sample, sample characteristics, smoking behaviors, and suicidal behaviors were examined using descriptive statistics (means and frequencies). The associations between smoking and suicidal behaviors were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analyses. To obtain more accurate findings, the complex sampling design employed in the national survey was incorporated in the analyses. Lifetime smokers and daily smokers made up 20% and 13% of the middle school sample and 32% and 29% of the high school sample, respectively. In both samples, of the three suicidal behaviors, the proportion of suicidal ideation was the greatest (20%), followed by suicide plans (6%-8%) and suicide attempts (4%-5%). This study revealed statistically significant associations between smoking and suicidal behaviors. Furthermore, most analyses revealed noncausal dose-related associations between these behaviors. On the basis of the study findings, health professionals should implement concurrent strategies targeting both smoking and suicidal behaviors rather than focus on them separately to address related health problems. PMID:26669224
Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...
Storch, Eric A; Sulkowski, Michael L; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B; Arnold, Elysse B; Mutch, P Jane; Jones, Anna M; Murphy, Tanya K
This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity, functional impairment, and behavioral and emotional problems. Approximately 11 % of youth displayed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Children with autism were more likely to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors whereas children with Asperger's disorder were less likely. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were associated with the presence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overall, results suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are common in youth with ASD, and may be related to depression and trauma. PMID:23446993
Cooper, Sara L.; Lezotte, Dennis; Jacobellis, Jillian; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn
This study examines whether availability of mental health resources in the county of residence is associated with subsequent suicidal behavior after a previous suicide attempt. Among 10,922 individuals who attempted suicide in Colorado between 1998 and 2002, residence in a county that offered a minimum safety-net of mental health services…
Jacobson, Colleen M.; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.
Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and…
Groves, Shelly A; Stanley, Barbara H; Sher, Leo
Adolescent suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death in the United States and alcohol consumption is estimated to cause adolescent males to be up to 17 times more likely to attempt suicide, and females three times more likely to attempt suicide. Suicide and suicide attempt rates vary across different ethnicities. Also, associated psychopathology, stressors and substance use differ across ethnic groups in adolescents. In an exhaustive review of the literature, we found that depressed Asian-American youth were four times more likely to display suicidal behavior when compared to other Asian youths with other diagnoses; and depressed African-American females were more likely to report suicidal ideation than male adolescents. We also found that Asian-Americans who experience high parental conflict are 30 times more likely to engage in suicidal behavior when compared to Asian-American youths with low parental conflict. African-American adolescents are 6.4 times more likely to attempt suicide as a result of parental conflict. With respect to alcohol use and dependence, Caucasian adolescents were twice as likely as the African American victims to have used alcohol before committing suicide. Alcohol use among adolescents was associated with increased suicidal behavior. Cultural differences in alcohol consumption may account for disparities, however future research is needed to further examine cultural trends in suicidal behavior and alcoholism. PMID:17458320
Barrett, Thomas C.
Designed as a guide for the prevention of suicide and other self-destructive behavior, this booklet is divided into two main sections. Outlining the problem of suicide in the nation, the first section contains an introduction to the topic of suicide with statistical information, then eight segments deal with such subjects as facing the reality of…
Witte, Tracy K.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Menard, William; Phillips, Katharine A.
In a sample of 200 individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we utilized the interpersonal-psychological theory for suicide as a framework to examine BDD behaviors that might be associated with suicide risk, insofar as they might increase the acquired capability for suicide. We predicted that physically painful BDD behaviors…
Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A
Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women. PMID:26680447
Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.
Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…
Anestis, Joye C; Anestis, Michael D; Rufino, Katrina A; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Holly; Khazem, Lauren R; Joiner, Thomas E
A number of studies have reported a bifurcated relationship between psychopathy and suicidality, such that suicidality is positively related to Factor 2 (impulsive-antisocial lifestyle) of psychopathy but negatively related or unrelated to Factor 1 (affective-interpersonal deficits). The present study aims to expand these findings by investigating this relationship through the lens of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior across both undergraduate and forensic samples. We hypothesized that, although both Factors 1 and 2 would be associated with the acquired capability for suicide, Factor 2 would exhibit a unique relationship with suicidal desire (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Results were largely supportive of these hypotheses, although differences were noted across samples and measures. Findings highlight the importance of precision in the assessment of antisociality and suggest potential differences in the construct of psychopathy between non-criminal and criminal samples. PMID:26954611
Conner, Kenneth R; Bagge, Courtney L; Goldston, David B; Ilgen, Mark A
Research on associations between substances of abuse and suicidal behaviors is a large, complex area. Herein, alcohol, the most commonly abused intoxicant worldwide, is examined with a focus on two topics: (1) acute use of alcohol (AUA) shortly prior to suicidal behavior; and (2) more chronic alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicidal behavior. First, a brief summary of what is known about AUA, AUD, and suicidal behavior is provided. Next, we draw on preliminary evidence, practical considerations, and our own experience to offer recommendations for intervention research that may lower risk associated with AUA and AUD. The literature on AUD and suicidal behavior is more developed, thus we discuss separately research designed to: (1) prevent individuals with AUD with suicidal ideation from engaging in suicidal behavior; and (2) prevent individuals with AUD who have made a suicide attempt from reattempting. Our focus is on clinical intervention strategies for individuals at risk for suicidal behavior that use alcohol or have developed AUD. We also focus on applied research that may directly lead to practical prevention efforts. Although clinical interventions are important components of a comprehensive suicide prevention strategy, they should be complemented with primary prevention efforts. PMID:25145740
Vidot, Denise C; Huang, Shi; Poma, Sofia; Estrada, Yannine; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Prado, Guillermo
The long-term impact of Familias Unidas on suicidal behaviors among Hispanic 8th graders (N = 746) was examined along with parent-adolescent communication as a moderator of intervention effectiveness. At baseline, 9.2% (95% CI = 7.3%-11.6%) of adolescents reported suicide ideation and 5.7% (95% CI = 4.1%-7.7%) reported a past year suicide attempt. There were no significant intervention effects on suicidal behaviors; however, parent-adolescent communication was a moderator of suicide attempts in the past year, across the intervention (b = -.01, p = .01). Results suggest that Familias Unidas reduces suicidal behaviors among Hispanic adolescents with low levels of parent-adolescent communication despite no suicide-specific intervention content. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27094111
Brodsky, Beth S
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk for suicide and suicidal behavior later in life. There are known associations between childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, and higher rates of suicide, non-lethal suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Emotional abuse/neglect, disrupted parental attachment, and cumulative effect of multiple forms of maltreatment, also increase risk. Yet, the causal relationship remains unclear. The diathesis-stress model provides a framework for understanding how early life adverse experiences contribute to suicide vulnerability. Current findings from the fields of biology, neurology, and genetics shed new light on mediating variables and possible causal links between early childhood trauma and suicide. In this paper, we review recent advances, particularly regarding the interaction of early life environmental adverse events with genetics factors, that increase the diathesis for psychological traits are associated with subsequent deliberate self-harm behaviors. PMID:27484207
Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A
Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions. PMID:26084946
Serafini, Gianluca; Muzio, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Flouri, Eirini; Ferrigno, Gabriella; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario
Suicidal behavior in young people is a significant public health problem. However, it is not yet clear whether adversities (adverse life events) may be related to suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. This paper aimed to investigate systematically the association between the type/number of adverse life events and experiences and suicidal behavior in young people. We developed a detailed strategy to search relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Science Direct (January 1980-January 2015) about adverse life events and suicidal behavior. Adverse life events and experiences included maltreatment and violence, loss events, intra-familial problems, school and interpersonal problems. Studies were restricted to suicidal behavior in young people aged 10-25 years. The search yielded 245 articles, of which 28 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported a strong association between adversities and suicidality (both suicidal ideation and attempts). Based on the main results, the number of adversities or negative life events experienced seemed to have a positive dose-response relationship with youth suicidal behavior. However, the type of event experienced also appeared to matter: one of the most consistent findings was the association between suicidal behavior and experience of sexual abuse. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of risk accumulation and risk specificity for youth suicide. PMID:26303813
Garrison, C Z
The studies reviewed indicate that suicidal behavior is infrequent among school children (12%), but increases progressively among junior high (35%), high school (65%), and college students (50-65%). Though considerable, these values are lower than those of similar-age psychiatric populations. Estimates of the rate of actual attempts were 3% for elementary students, 11% for high school students, and 15-18% for college students. Most were low-lethality attempts for which medical or other attention was not sought. Accordingly, the vast majority of suicide attempts will not be uncovered by investigations dealing solely with clinical or medically identified populations. The most commonly identified correlates of suicidal behaviors included depressive symptoms, social problems, family disorganization and problems, life stress, and poor problem-solving skills. Academic problems were not as important. These findings must be interpreted in light of methodological constraints. Response rates have been low, samples have been small, minorities have been underrepresented, nonstudents have been ignored, and volunteers of unreported characteristics have predominated. The representativeness of such groups is questionable. The definition and categorization of behaviors have varied considerably, making between-study comparisons difficult. The differences among thoughts, threats, and attempts (the most frequently used categories) have often not been taken into account. Rather, in analyses, these behaviors have been treated as if they were homogeneous entities and grouped together. Where attempters have been separated from ideators, they too have been treated as a single entity. Many deliberately survived attempts are manipulative and oriented toward the benefits the individual survivors expect. Such attempts probably differ substantially in nature from those attempts where survival is not intended. Understanding of this phenomenon could be enhanced by a comparison of the
Groschwitz, Rebecca C; Kaess, Michael; Fischer, Gloria; Ameis, Nina; Schulze, Ulrike M E; Brunner, Romuald; Koelch, Michael; Plener, Paul L
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors frequently occur among adolescent psychiatric patients. Although those behaviors are distinct with regards to intent, NSSI has been shown to be an important risk-factor for suicide attempts. However, the association of NSSI and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) according to DSM-5 criteria has not yet been investigated. For investigating distinctive features and mutual risk-factors of NSSI-disorder and SBD, adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N=111, aged 12-19 years; 65.8% females) were interviewed using the Self-Injurious-Thoughts-And-Behaviors-Interview-German (SITBI-G). NSSI started significantly earlier in life (M=12.5 years, SD=2.2) than first suicide attempts (M=14.1 years, SD=2.0). Patients meeting NSSI-disorder and/or SBD were significantly more likely to be female and to be diagnosed with an affective disorder. NSSI-disorder and SBD seem to have several distinctive features (i.e. age of onset or frequency), but also seem to share certain mutual risk-factors (i.e. affective disorders, female gender). While both NSSI and SBD seem to be maintained by mainly automatic negative reinforcement, positive automatic and social functions were rated significantly higher for NSSI. Most importantly, NSSI seems to be a strong risk factor for the occurrence of SBD (even when controlling for suicidal ideation) and should therefore always be assessed when dealing with psychiatric adolescent patients. PMID:26144578
Thatcher, W. Gregory; Reininger, Belinda M.; Drane, J. Wanzer
Examined racial and gender differences in attempted suicide among South Carolina public high school students. Data on quality of life, life satisfaction, and six risk-behavior categories from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that specific associations among risk behaviors, mediating variables, and self- reported attempted suicide varied…
Shakeri, Jalal; Farnia, Vahid; Abdoli, Nasrin; Akrami, Mohammad R.; Arman, Farid; Shakeri, Hania
Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%). However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320). Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively). Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001). Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004). Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts. PMID:26171123
Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal
This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The results of multiple and logistic regression analyses found that hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Religious coping style was significantly related to suicidal behaviors: Self-directed coping was related to increased hopelessness, depression, and suicide attempts, and collaborative coping was related to increased reasons for living. Gender differences were found in symptoms of depression, religious coping style and religious participation. Results provide additional support for suicide interventions to target hopelessness and depressive symptoms and highlight the importance of examining the role of culturally salient variables, such as religious participation and religious coping style, when developing intervention programs for suicide. PMID:17080183
Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L; Anderson, Nicholas L
The purpose of this article is to describe feasibility, safety, and outcome results from a treatment development trial of the SAFETY Program, a brief intervention designed for integration with emergency services for suicide-attempting youths. Suicide-attempting youths, ages 11 to 18, were enrolled in a 12-week trial of the SAFETY Program, a cognitive-behavioral family intervention designed to increase safety and reduce suicide attempt (SA) risk (N = 35). Rooted in a social-ecological cognitive-behavioral model, treatment sessions included individual youth and parent session-components, with different therapists assigned to youths and parents, and family session-components to practice skills identified as critical in the pathway for preventing repeat SAs in individual youths. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups. At the 3-month posttreatment assessment, there were statistically significant improvements on measures of suicidal behavior, hopelessness, youth and parent depression, and youth social adjustment. There was one reported SA by 3 months and another by 6 months, yielding cumulative attempt rates of 3% and 6% at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Treatment satisfaction was high. Suicide-attempting youths are at high risk for repeat attempts and continuing mental health problems. Results support the value of a randomized controlled trial to further evaluate the SAFETY intervention. Extension of treatment effects to parent depression and youth social adjustment are consistent with our strong family focus and social-ecological model of behavior change. PMID:25255931
Koutek, Jiri; Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva
Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children's Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. PMID:27114709
Koutek, Jiri; Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva
Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. PMID:27114709
Filipino Americans have lower suicide rates than other Asian ethnic groups. The present study examined risk factors for suicide ideation and attempt among Filipino Americans with random forest. The data were from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study (Takeuchi, 2011). The results showed that the important predictors for suicide ideation were depressive disorder, substance use disorder, and years in the United States. The important predictors for suicide attempt were the number of family relatives and family conflict. Clinicians are advised to investigate familial and cultural factors among Filipino Americans. How family and cultural factors may affect suicidal behaviors were further discussed. PMID:25110976
de Groot, Marieke; Neeleman, Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert
Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, the effect of suicide ideation on the…
King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.
Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…
Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Koposov, Roman
Our aim was to build a model delineating the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and suicidal behavior and to assess equivalence by applying the model on data from different countries. Representative samples from the general population were approached in Sweden, Norway, and Russia with the Attitudes Toward Suicide (ATTS) questionnaire.…
Alphs, Larry D.; Mao, Lian; Li, Qin; May, Roberta S.; Bruer, Emily H.; Mccullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Gray, Christopher R.; Li, Xiaohua; Williamson, David J.
Objective: This exploratory study examines the concurrent validity for mapping symptoms of suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicidal behavior as recorded on the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale (clinician- and patient-rated and reconciled patient/clinician versions), and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale to the 11 United States Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (September 2012) categories. Method: Forty subjects with varying degrees of suicidal ideation and behavior severity (from not present to extremely severe) were recruited from inpatient, outpatient, and emergency room settings. Each patient was interviewed using all three scales (InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus, the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, and the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale) on the same day. The scales were administered in a random sequence by three independent raters who were blind to the ratings on the other scales. Results: The Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus show acceptable agreement with the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in detecting the presence or absence of the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories 1, 5, 6, 10, and 11 (passive ideation; active ideation with method, intent, and plan; completed suicide; preparatory actions; and self-injurious behavior) but not of categories 2, 3, and 4 (3 other active suicidal ideation combination categories) or to 8 and 9 (aborted and interrupted attempt). Despite the significant disagreement between the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale on the one side and the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking-Plus and the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale on the other in the ability to accurately map to the 2012 Food and Drug Administration-Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment categories on some items
Breslau, Joshua; Su, Maxwell; Miller, Matthew; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio
Objectives. We examined migration to the United States as a risk factor for suicidal behavior among people of Mexican origin. Methods. We pooled data from 2 nationally representative surveys in the United States (2001–2003; n = 1284) and Mexico (2001–2002; n = 5782). We used discrete time survival models to account for time-varying and time-invariant characteristics, including psychiatric disorders. Results. Risk for suicidal ideation was higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 2.11), Mexican-born immigrants who arrived in the United States at 12 years or younger (OR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.09, 3.09), and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.03, 2.38) than among Mexicans with neither a history of migration to the United States nor a family member currently living there. Risk for suicide attempts was also higher among Mexicans with a family member in the United States (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.52) and US-born Mexican Americans (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.65). Selection bias caused by differential migration or differential return migration of persons at higher risk of suicidal ideation or attempt did not account for these findings. Conclusions. Public health efforts should focus on the impact of Mexico–US migration on family members of migrants and on US-born Mexican Americans. PMID:19150909
Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Cox, Kenneth L.; Naifeh, James A.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Aliaga, Pablo A.; Vegella, Patti; Mash, Holly Herberman; Buckley, Christina; Colpe, Lisa J.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Stein, Murray B.
Objective Although the U.S. Army suicide rate is known to have risen sharply over the past decade, information about medically documented, nonfatal suicidal behaviors is far more limited. Here we examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of suicide attempts, suspicious injuries, and suicide ideation among regular Army soldiers. Methods Data come from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) Historical Administrative Data Study (HADS), which integrates administrative records for all soldiers on active duty during the years 2004 through 2009 (n = 1.66 million). Results We identified 21,740 unique regular Army soldiers with a nonfatal suicidal event documented at some point during the HADS study period. There were substantial increases in the annual incidence rates of suicide attempts (179–400/100,000 person-years) and suicide ideation (557–830/100,000 person-years), but not suspicious injuries. Using hierarchical classification rules to identify the first instance of each soldier's most severe behavior, we found increased risk of all outcomes among those who were female, non-Hispanic White, never married, lower-ranking enlisted, less educated, and of younger age when entering Army service. These sociodemographic associations significantly differed across outcomes, despite some patterns that appear similar. Conclusion Results provide a broad overview of nonfatal suicidal trends in the U.S. Army during 2004 through 2009 and demonstrate that integration of multiple administrative data systems enriches analysis of the predictors of such events. PMID:26168022
Razin, A M; O'Dowd, M A; Nathan, A; Rodriguez, I; Goldfield, A; Martin, C; Goulet, L; Scheftel, S; Mezan, P; Mosca, J
Suicidal behavior is disproportionately frequent among inner-city Hispanic adolescent girls. In an attempt to generate a multifactorial set of hypotheses to explain this behavior, 33 such subjects consecutively admitted for suicidal behavior and 15 demographically identical nonsuicidal subjects were assessed by means of a structured interview. Mothers of all subjects were also assessed. Attempts were nearly always impulsive and nonlethal, though often with a stated wish to die. Nearly all were overdoses, and were precipitated by conflicts with mother or boyfriend. Mothers could usually identify the precipitants. Attempters' parents were less often born in the U.S., their mothers seemed medically less healthy, and their extended families were more often supported by public assistance, and had a higher incidence of criminal and psychiatric problems. School performance was poorer among attempters, who had suffered more and earlier losses, especially of biologic fathers, with whom fewer had ongoing relationships. They more often had boyfriends, had begun sexual activity, had recently lost friends, and expressed a mistrustful stance toward friendships. Similarly, their mothers had fewer friends and more often expressed a mistrustful stance. Relationships with mothers seemed more intense, desperate, and even violent, and attempters were much more often parentified, i.e., mothering their mothers. Although both groups often assumed caretaking roles in their families, attempters were more negatively described by themselves and by their mothers. While knowledge of suicidal models was common in both groups, attempters' mothers knew of even more models than did their daughters or the nonsuicidal subjects or their mothers. Notably, more attempters' mothers had themselves made attempts. Families of most attempters were usually mobilized by the attempt. These findings permit the construction of a putative profile of risk factors that can be tested more rigorously. PMID:1993520
Roberts, Robert E; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun
A reexamination of ethnicity as a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior, focusing on whether Mexican American youths are at increased risk, was undertaken. Data from a sample of 4,175 African, European, and Mexican Americans, aged 11-17, are presented. We examined lifetime attempts and past year attempts, thoughts, and plans. Odds ratios, adjusting for covariates, indicate no differences between European and Mexican Americans on past year thoughts, plans, or attempts or lifetime attempts. Although some studies have reported Mexican American youths are at increased risk, we did not find any differences. Possible explanations for disparate results across studies are discussed, in particular methods effects. PMID:17397276
Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.
This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…
Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping
The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…
...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in prospectively assessing the occurrence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials of drug and biological......
Hartwig, Sven; Tsokos, Michael
When the situation at a death scene is unusual, this may suggest the involvement of another person. On the other hand, one also has to consider the possibility of a conscious or unconscious behavior in connection with extreme stress situations or suicidal acts. The forensic findings and criminalistic reconstruction of two cases of suicidal burrowing behavior are presented and discussed. PMID:18260568
Thompson, Elaine Adams; Mazza, James J.; Herting, Jerald R.; Randell, Brooke P.; Eggert, Leona L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as mediators between known risk factors and suicidal behaviors among 1,287 potential high school dropouts. As a step toward theory development, a model was tested that posited the relationships among these variables and their effects on suicidal behaviors.…
Connell, David K.; Meyer, Robert G.
College students (n=150) completed Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire and self-report inventories of depression, hopelessness, social desirability, and anxiety. Found significant correlations between self-report instruments and suicidal behaviors. Findings may be a result of the fact that anxiety and depression are often found together in clinical…
May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…
Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.
Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…
Shaughnessy, Lana; Doshi, Sonal R.; Jones, Sherry Everett
Suicide represents the second-leading cause of death among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth aged 15-24 years. Data from the 2001 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the association between attempted suicide among high school students and unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk…
Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; Venarde, David F.; Mann, J. John
Understanding the relationship between depression and suicidal behavior among individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder can aid assessment and treatment. In this study, 86 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were assessed for past and current suicidal behavior, depression, hopelessness, and reasons for…
Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz
The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…
O'Riley, Alisa A.; Fiske, Amy
A cognitive style marked by emphasis on autonomy has been linked to negative outcomes throughout the life span. Two preliminary studies are presented that examined factors on a measure of autonomy (Personal Style Inventory-Revised) in relation to propensity for suicidal behavior (Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-14; SBQ-14). Perfectionism, B =…
Linehan, Marsha M.; Laffaw, Julie A.
Compared suicidal behaviors among two populations in the same geographical area: clients at a psychology clinic versus individuals from the general population. In both samples, 10 percent of the individuals reported prior parasuicidal behavior; the two populations were also quite similar on reports of prior suicidal ideation. (JAC)
Background Suicide is a major public health issue in China. Studies of suicide risk factors have reported both inconsistent and inconclusive results. This review aimed to determine suicide risk factors in China. Methods Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) and VIP (Chinese Journal of Science and Technology of VIP) were searched for relevant reports. Two investigators independently assessed the eligibility of identified studies and extracted data. Pooled odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated for each factor with Revman 5.0. Results Forty-four studies with 192,362 subjects were included. The pooled results indicated that mood disorders and stressful life events (physical illness, suicide of relatives) increased the risk of suicide ideation among the entire population. Socio-family environment (single or remarried parent, study pressure and academic achievement) and unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol drinking, and drug use) were risk factors for suicide ideation among youth. Unhealthy behaviors (smoking and alcohol drinking), mood disorders, and stressful life events (suicide of relatives) were the main risk factors for attempted suicide. Persons living in rural areas, and those with lower education, mood disorders, and/or a history of negative life events had a higher risk of completed suicide. In China, before 2000, females had a significantly higher rate of completed suicide than males, while after 2000, no significant gender difference was found. Conclusions Socio-family environment, lifestyle, life events and psychiatric/psychological factors are associated with suicidal behaviors in China. Further case–control or cohort studies are needed to better understand suicide behaviors in China. Meanwhile, there is an urgent need for comprehensive studies of suicide interventions among high-risk populations. PMID:22800121
Links, Paul S; Eynan, Rahel; Heisel, Marnin J; Barr, Aiala; Korzekwa, Marilyn; McMain, Shelley; Ball, Jeffrey S
This study employed an Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) to test whether various elements of affective instability can predict future suicide ideation in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of recurrent suicidal behavior. Eighty-two individuals with BPD and a history of recurrent suicidal behavior were followed prospectively for one month during which time they recorded their current mood states, 6 times daily over three weeks. Accounting for a set of robust suicide risk factors in multiple regression analyses, only negative mood intensity was significantly related to intensity of self-reported suicide ideation and to number of suicidal behaviors over the past year. Other elements of affective instability examined (e.g., mood amplitude, dyscontrol, and reactivity) were not associated with future suicide ideation or with recent suicidal behavior. Affective instability in patients with BPD is highly variable from one individual to another and is characterized by high levels of intense negative mood. These negative mood states, versus other aspects of mood variability, seem to be more closely tied to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and behavior. PMID:17373891
Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C; Lynskey, Michael T; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G
Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N = 2,559). We found significant CSA-associated risk for depression, PTSD, and suicidal behavior for women and men. In survival analyses controlling for these disorders, we observed persistent but somewhat reduced CSA-associated risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Our findings suggest that these disorders partially mediate CSA-associated risk. PMID:21599726
... mania, causes of depression, depression in elderly men, depression in boys and adolescent males, suicide, diagnosis, treatment, and how to find help and support. Men and Depression (Copyright © Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance) - This publication ...
Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron
Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior. PMID:19806443
Using Norway 1948-2004 as a case, I test whether changes in variables related to social integration can explain changes in suicide rates. The method is the Box-Jenkins approach to time-series analysis. Different aspects of family integration contribute significantly to the explanation of Norwegian suicide rates in this period. The estimated effect…
Several lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between testosterone and suicidal behavior. A link between testosterone and the neurobiology of suicidal behavior may be related to: a) a direct effect of testosterone on suicidality via certain brain mechanisms; and/or b) a testosterone influence on aggression and, consequently, suicidality; and/or c) a testosterone effect on mood and, consequently, suicidality; and/or d) a testosterone effect on cognition and, consequently, suicidality. At least one study has demonstrated a relation between high levels of testosterone and suicide in young people. A significant number of studies suggest that high testosterone levels are associated with aggression in adolescents and adults. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that aggression is associated with suicidal behavior. The effect of high testosterone levels on suicidality in adolescents and young adults may be mediated by testosterone-related elevated aggression. It is also possible that, in young people, high testosterone levels are directly linked to suicidality via certain brain mechanisms. In older men, decreased testosterone levels are associated with depressive symptoms and reduced cognitive function, whereas higher blood levels of testosterone are associated with better mood and cognitive functioning. Depression and reduced cognition are associated with suicidal behavior and may mediate the effect of decreased testosterone levels on suicidality. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults is associated with high testosterone levels, whereas suicidality in older men is associated with decreased testosterone secretion. PMID:23893672
Dieserud, G; Røysamb, E; Ekeberg, O; Kraft, P
Applying a cognitive approach, the purpose of the present study was to expand previous research on stress-vulnerability models of depression and problem-solving deficits, as it relates to suicide attempt. Structural equation modelling, involving latent variables, was used to evaluate (a) whether low self-esteem, a low sense of self-efficacy, loneliness, and divorce constituted vulnerability factors for the development of depression; (b) whether hopelessness and suicidal ideation mediated the relationship between depression and suicide attempt; and (c) whether problem-solving deficits mediated the relationship between the vulnerability factors and suicide attempt, separate from depression/hopelessness. A total of 123 individuals, aged 18-75 years, participated in the study (72 suicide attempters and 51 psychiatric outpatients with no history of suicidal behavior). The results indicated a two path model of suicide attempt. The first path began with low self-esteem, loneliness, and separation or divorce, which advanced to depression, and was further mediated by hopelessness and suicidal ideation which led to suicide attempt. The second path developed from low self-esteem and a low sense of self-efficacy and advanced to suicide attempt, mediated by a negative appraisal of one's own problem-solving capacity, and poor interpersonal problem-solving skills. The importance of addressing both depression/hopelessness, and problem-solving deficits when working with suicide attempters is noted. PMID:11459248
Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan
Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178
Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.
This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…
Lee, Sang Ah; Jang, Suk Yong; Shin, Jaeyong; Ju, Yeong Jun; Nam, Jin Young; Park, Eun Cheol
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents globally, and body weight is also a recognized reason for adolescent suicide. Therefore, we investigated the association between weight control behaviors (WCB) and suicide ideation and attempt, focusing on inappropriate weight control measures. We used data from the 2014 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, representing a total of 35,224 boys and 34,361 girls aged 12 to 18 years. Adolescents were classified into groups based on WCB: appropriate WCB, inappropriate WCB, and no WCB. We performed logistic regression models to examine associations between WCB and suicide ideation and attempt, controlling for covariates. Both boys and girls with inappropriate WCB were more likely to report suicide ideation and attempt. Underweight and normal weight boys with inappropriate WCB were more likely to think or attempt suicide, and underweight girls with inappropriate WCB were also more likely to attempt suicide. Among five common WCB combinations, the combination of "regular exercise, fasting, eating less" was highly associated with suicide ideation and attempt. We confirmed that inappropriate WCB is associated with suicide ideation and attempt among Korean adolescents. Given the high incidence rate of suicide among adolescents and the adverse effect of inappropriate WCB, encouraging adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is imperative. PMID:27550479
Duarte-Velez, Yovanska; Bernal, Guillermo
Suicide is the cause of 11.7% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10 to 24 years in the United States (J. A. Grunbaum et al., 2004). Suicide is third leading cause of death for young Latinos/as aged 10 to 24 years (National Institute of Mental Health, 2001). Latino/a youth are at a greater risk of suicide behavior than other ethnic…
Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire
There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group. PMID:24773094
Hjelmeland, Heidi; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Nordvik, Hilmar
Data from the Norwegian part of the WHO/EURO Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior were used to investigate gender differences in the communicative aspect of nonfatal suicidal behavior by means of analyzing precipitating factors, intentions involved in and effects of the suicidal act within the frame of Qvortrup's interpretation of speech-act theory. Eighty-nine patients (48 women and 41 men) were included in the analyses, virtually no gender differences were found. Thus, in general, the results did not support the view that persons engaging in nonfatal suicidal behavior should receive different treatment or follow-up as a group based on their gender. The results gave some support to Qvortrup's speech-act theory and his four categories of suicidal behavior, emotional toward others, regulative toward others, emotional toward oneself and regulative toward oneself. PMID:12617478
Reider, Eve E; Sims, Belinda E
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youth aged 10-24. Research informed prevention efforts have the opportunity to decrease risk for suicidal ideation and behavior before it is manifested. Indeed, there is a small body of research findings demonstrating both proximal and distal effects of preventive interventions delivered in childhood and adolescence on suicidal ideation and/or behavior. These efforts build off of other secondary analyses of prevention research that has demonstrated benefits for multiple types of youth outcomes. This supplement provides "proof of concept" that family-based preventive interventions aimed at reducing a number of risk factors for suicide (e.g., substance use, externalizing, and internalizing behavior) can prevent suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:27094108
Leung, Cyrus L K; Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Ling, Chloe C Y
This study tested the model of suicidal ideation, incorporating family and personal factors to predict suicidal ideation with hopelessness as a mediating factor in the Hong Kong sample, to a sample in Shanghai. Using MGSEM, the study aims to investigate the personal correlates and the family correlates of suicidal ideation in Hong Kong and Shanghai adolescents. We integrated the family ecological and diathesis-stress-hopelessness models of suicidal ideation in connecting the correlates. A cross-sectional design was used. The full model achieved metric invariance and partial path-loading invariance. Family functioning and social problem solving negatively predicted hopelessness or suicidal ideation in both the Hong Kong and Shanghai adolescents. The results supported an integrative approach in facilitating parent-adolescent communication and strengthening family functioning, and reducing the use of negative social problem-solving styles in adolescent suicide prevention. PMID:26308835
Dhingra, Katie; Boduszek, Daniel; O'Connor, Rory C
Suicidal behaviours are highly complex, multi-determined phenomena. Despite this, historically research has tended to focus on bivariate associations between atheoretical demographic and/or psychiatric factors and suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to empirically test the Integrated Motivational-Volitional model of suicidal behaviour using structural equation modelling. Healthy adults (N=1809) completed anonymous self-report surveys. The fit of the proposed model was good, and explained 79% of variance in defeat, 83% of variance in entrapment, 61% of variance in suicidal ideation, and 27% of variance in suicide attempts. All proposed paths were significant except for those between goal re-engagement and two factors of suicide resilience (Internal Protective and External Protective) and suicidal ideation; and impulsivity and discomfort intolerance and suicide attempts. These findings represent a preliminary step towards greater clarification of the mechanisms driving suicidal behaviour, and support the utility of basing future research on the Integrated Motivational-Volitional model of suicidal behaviour. PMID:27137980
Kennedy, Mary Clare; Marshall, Brandon D.L; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas
Background People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) are known to experience high rates of suicidal behavior. While heavy alcohol use has been associated with suicide risk, its impact on the suicidal behavior of PWUD has not been well characterized. Therefore, we examined the relationship between heavy alcohol use and suicidal behavior among PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Data are derived from two prospective cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada, from 2005 to 2013. Participants completed questionnaires that elicited information regarding sociodemographics, drug use patterns, and mental health problems, including suicidal behavior. We used recurrent event survival analyses to estimate the independent association between at-risk/heavy drinking (based on National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA] criteria) and risk of incident, self-reported suicide attempts. Results Of 1,757 participants, 162 participants (9.2%) reported 227 suicide attempts over the 8-year study period, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.5 cases per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, including intensive illicit drug use patterns, heavy alcohol use (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.78) was positively associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Conclusions We observed a high burden of suicidal behavior among a community-recruited sample of PWUD. Heavy alcohol use predicted a higher risk of suicide attempt, independent of other drug use patterns. These findings demonstrate the need for evidence-based interventions to address suicide risk among PWUD, particularly those who are heavy consumers of alcohol. PMID:25823908
Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Teplin, Linda A.; King, Devon C.; Dulcan, Mina K.
Objective To examine suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, lethality of suicide attempts, and the relationship between psychiatric disorder and recent attempts in newly detained juveniles. Methods The sample included 1829 juveniles, aged 10 to 18 years, sampled after intake to a detention center in Chicago, IL. Interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) to assess for thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, suicide plans, lifetime suicide attempts, number of attempts, age at first attempt, attempts within the last 6 months, method of suicide attempts, and psychiatric disorder. Results More than one-third of juvenile detainees and nearly half of females had felt hopeless or thought about death in the 6 months prior to detention. Approximately 1 of 10 (10.3%, CI: 7.7% – 12.8%) juvenile detainees had thought about committing suicide in the past 6 months, and 1 of 10 (11.0%, CI: 8.3% – 13.7%) had ever attempted suicide. Recent suicide attempts were most prevalent in females and youth with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions Fewer than half of detainees with recent thoughts of suicide had told anyone about their ideation. Identifying youth at risk for suicide -- especially those suffering from depressive and anxiety disorders -- is a crucial step to preventing suicide. PMID:18216737
Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José
The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB. PMID:25580865
Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M
Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed. PMID:19070272
Zayas, Luis H; Pilat, Allyson M
We posit that the high rates of suicidal behavior by teenage Hispanic females reported in large-scale surveys can be understood as a cultural phenomenon, a product of specific elements of the history, tradition, ideology, or social norms of a particular society, and that treatment interventions must take family and cultural factors into consideration. For over a decade, surveys have reported that among ethnic and racial minority youth in the United States, Latinas have the highest rates of suicidal behavior compared to African American and non-Hispanic White adolescent females. However, other research shows that the psychological profiles of suicidal Latina adolescent girls and the risk factors for Latina suicidal behavior may not be that different from non-Hispanic suicidal adolescent females. The unique situation of adolescent Latinas involves the convergence of cultural and familial factors (i.e., familism, acculturation, relatedness, autonomy, etc.) with the developmental, social, and individual factors frequently associated with suicidal behaviors. Based on this background, family-oriented interventions appear to be the most appropriate approach to the prevention and treatment of Hispanic suicidal girls. Factors implicated in Latina suicidal behavior and community-based interventions that include the adolescent and her family are suggested. PMID:18611132
Introduction Suicidal behavior in media may promote others towards suicide. No published study was found about suicidal attempt in children less than 10 years old after watching a homicidal behavior. Case presentation This is a report of a 7 year old boy referred because he hanged himself after watching homicidal behavior of hanging in a fictional movie. Discussion To the author's knowledge, there was no published report of copycat suicidal attempt in a 7 year old child after watching a homicidal behavior in media. This report warns about an imitative effect of movie watching of homicidal behavior on suicidal attempt. PMID:19138418
Millner, Alexander J.; Lee, Michael D.; Nock, Matthew K.
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although research has made strides in better defining suicidal behaviors, there has been less focus on accurate measurement. Currently, the widespread use of self-report, single-item questions to assess suicide ideation, plans and attempts may contribute to measurement problems and misclassification. We examined the validity of single-item measurement and the potential for statistical errors. Over 1,500 participants completed an online survey containing single-item questions regarding a history of suicidal behaviors, followed by questions with more precise language, multiple response options and narrative responses to examine the validity of single-item questions. We also conducted simulations to test whether common statistical tests are robust against the degree of misclassification produced by the use of single-items. We found that 11.3% of participants that endorsed a single-item suicide attempt measure engaged in behavior that would not meet the standard definition of a suicide attempt. Similarly, 8.8% of those who endorsed a single-item measure of suicide ideation endorsed thoughts that would not meet standard definitions of suicide ideation. Statistical simulations revealed that this level of misclassification substantially decreases statistical power and increases the likelihood of false conclusions from statistical tests. Providing a wider range of response options for each item reduced the misclassification rate by approximately half. Overall, the use of single-item, self-report questions to assess the presence of suicidal behaviors leads to misclassification, increasing the likelihood of statistical decision errors. Improving the measurement of suicidal behaviors is critical to increase understanding and prevention of suicide. PMID:26496707
Molnar, Beth E.; Shade, Starley B.; Kral, Alex H.; Booth, Robert E.; Watters, John K.
Street youth 12 to 19 years old (N=775) in four American cities were interviewed to examine the relationship between suicide attempts and antecedent home life variables. Forty-eight percent of the females and 27% of the males had attempted suicide. Sexual and physical abuse before leaving home were independent predictors of suicide attempts for…
Safran, Stephen P.; Lehman, Cynthia J.
Preadolescent suicide appears to be increasing, although less than 1% of the attempts are successful. Several high risk factors of preadolescent suicide including depression, family pathology, and a child's cognitive concept of death have been identified. Educators should refer children who threaten or attempt suicide to mental health services.…
Rabinovitch, Sara M; Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7-12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history and (marginally) to postbaseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436
Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors. PMID:25569508
Serafini, Gianluca; Montebovi, Franco; Lamis, Dorian A; Erbuto, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio
AIM: To investigate the potential associations among major depression, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. METHODS: A detailed MEDLINE search was carried out to identify all articles and book chapters in English published from January 1995 to January 2015. RESULTS: Based on the main findings, the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) ranged from 14.0% to 27.2%. Furthermore, the prevalence of suicidal ideation varied from 13.6% to 31.0% whereas, attempted suicides were reported to range from 3.9% to 32.7%. Interestingly, various associated risk factors for both depression and suicide were identified in HIV patients. Finally, consistent associations were reported among MDD, suicidal ideation, and poor quality of life in individuals living with HIV. CONCLUSION: Although additional studies are needed to elucidate this complex association, our results suggest the importance of early detection of both MDD and suicidality in patients living with HIV. PMID:26279991
Hajebi, Ahmad; Ahmadzad-Asl, Masoud; Ershadi, Mona; Nikfarjam, Ali; Davoudi, Farnoush
The present article describes the process of developing a national suicide registry in Iran and evaluates the obstacles in this respect. We established a systematic and uniform portal data collection system in the country and evaluated it from March 2009 for a year. The quality of database and data registration challenges were assessed from different aspects. A total number of 41,109 suicide attempts and 1,338 completed suicides were reported from an area that covered 83.6% of Iran's population in 2009. The rate of suicide attempt was 65.8 per 100,000 people. This study revealed some of the obstacles and challenges of implementing a national registration system. Nationwide suicide registry can serve as a solid foundation for conceptual work, data collection, and preventive interventions. A concerted effort between various organizations is required to efficiently collect data on suicide behaviors. PMID:24224674
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.
In this article, we explored the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results revealed that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, girls in our sample described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals. PMID:25288407
Gulbas, Lauren E; Zayas, Luis H
In this article, we explore the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results reveal that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, the girls in our study described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals. PMID:25288407
Ystgaard, Mette; Hestetun, Ingebjorg; Loeb, Mitchell; Mehlum, Lars
Objective: Studies show that childhood sexual and physical abuse predict repeated suicide attempts and self-mutilation. Little is known about the importance of sexual and physical abuse when compared to other severe childhood adversities with respect to chronic suicidal behavior. Method: Seventy-four subjects, 65% of whom were women, consecutively…
Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.
Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…
Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal
This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…
Gould, Madelyn S.; Velting, Drew; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lucas, Christopher; Thomas, John Graham; Chung, Michelle
Objective: To identify youths' attitudes about coping and help-seeking strategies for suicidal ideation/behavior and examine their demographic and clinical correlates. Method: A self-report survey was completed by high school students (N = 2,419) in six New York State schools from 1998 through 2001. The relationship between suicide attitudes and…
Wassenaar, Douglas R.; van der Veen, Marchiene B. W.; Pillay, Anthony L.
The relationship between suicidal behavior and gender, and between gender, culture, and cultural transition for Indians in South Africa is studied. Data on suicide rates are presented. Social change, tension between Indian culture and westernization, traditional power relations, and gender are considered. Three case studies are related to…
Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.
A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…
Dunn, Michael S.; Goodrow, Bruce; Givens, Connie; Austin, Susan
Background: This study provides a descriptive profile of substance use behavior and the prevalence of suicide indicators (thought about, considered, and planned) among rural middle school students and examines the association between substance use and suicidal indicators among middle school students participating in the Coordinated School Health…
Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.
The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…
Moffitt, Lauren B.; Garcia-Williams, Amanda; Berg, John P.; Calderon, Michelle E.; Haas, Ann P.; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Suicidal behavior is a significant concern among graduate students. Because many suicidal graduate students do not access mental health services, programs to connect them to resources are essential. This article describes the Interactive Screening Program (ISP), an anonymous, Web-based tool for screening and engaging at-risk graduate school…
Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David
Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…
Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter
Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…
Kim, Jun-Su; Lee, Kayoung
The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between weight-related attitudes and suicidal behavior after consideration of depressive mood in Korean adolescents. The study population consisted of a nationally representative sample of 74,698 adolescents (n = 39,466 boys, 35,232 girls) in middle and high school who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) in 2007. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between measures of weight-related and self-reported suicidal behavior, controlling for demographics, depressive mood, stress perception, level of school achievement, and substance use. Suicide attempts were surveyed among those reported to have suicidal ideation (n = 7,579 boys, 10,204 girls). Significantly more girls than boys reported suicidal ideation (29 vs. 19%) and suicide attempts (7.7 vs. 4.5%). Factors significantly associated with suicidal ideation were overestimation of weight (vs. correct estimation) and behaviors to lose or gain weight (vs. no weight control) among boys and overestimation of weight and attempting to lose weight among girls. In contrast, the odds of suicide attempts were significantly higher among boys who tried to lose, gain, or maintain their weight (vs. no weight control) and girls who underestimated their weight (vs. correct estimation) and tried to lose weight (vs. no weight control). Boys and girls classified as overweight or at risk for overweight were significantly less likely to report suicide attempts compared to those classified as underweight. Weight-related attitudes, such as incorrect weight perception and weight control behaviors, seem to be useful indicators for identifying Korean adolescents who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. PMID:20339366
Pulay, Attila J; Réthelyi, János M
Despite moderate heritability estimates the genetics of suicidal behavior remains unclear, genome-wide association and candidate gene studies focusing on single nucleotide associations reported inconsistent findings. Our study explored biologically informed, multimarker candidate gene associations with suicidal behavior in mood disorders. We analyzed the GAIN Whole Genome Association Study of Bipolar Disorder version 3 (n = 999, suicidal n = 358) and the GAIN Major Depression: Stage 1 Genomewide Association in Population-Based Samples (n = 1,753, suicidal n = 245) datasets. Suicidal behavior was defined as severe suicidal ideation or attempt. Candidate genes were selected based on literature search (Geneset1, n = 35), gene expression data of microRNA genes, (Geneset2, n = 68) and their target genes (Geneset3, n = 11,259). Quality control, dosage analyses were carried out with PLINK. Gene-based associations of Geneset1 were analyzed with KGG. Polygenic profile scores of suicidal behavior were computed in the major depression dataset both with PRSice and LDpred and validated in the bipolar disorder data. Several nominally significant gene-based associations were detected, but only DICER1 associated with suicidal behavior in both samples, while only the associations of NTRK2 in the depression sample reached family wise and experiment wise significance. Polygenic profile scores negatively predicted suicidal behavior in the bipolar sample for only Geneset2, with the strongest prediction by PRSice at Pt < 0.03 (Nagelkerke R(2) = 0.01, P < 0.007). Gene-based association results confirmed the potential involvement of the BDNF-NTRK2-CREB pathway in the pathogenesis of suicide and the cross-disorder association of DICER1. Polygenic risk prediction of the selected miRNA genes indicates that the miRNA system may play a mediating role, but with considerable pleiotropy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26921221
Seo, Ho-Jun; Jung, Young-Eun; Jeong, Seunghee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn
The aim of the current study was to identify personality traits associated with suicidal behavior in patients with depression. Of the 1183 patients screened for an observational cohort study of depression, 334 (28.2%) who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were included in these analyses. To minimize the effect of current mood state, the TCI was performed 12 weeks after initiation of treatment, and we adjusted for the severity of depression. Of the 344 participants, 59 had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt, 37 had a lifetime history of multiple suicide attempts, and 5 attempted suicide during the 12-week study period. At baseline, patients with a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt, a lifetime history of multiple suicide attempts, and a suicide attempt during the study period expressed more serious current suicidal ideation than did those without such a history, despite the absence of differences among the groups in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Of the seven personality scales of the TCI, lower scores on the self-directedness scale of the character dimension were associated with a history of at least one suicide attempt (OR [95% CI], 0.91 [0.87-0.96]; p<0.001), a history of multiple suicide attempts (0.91 [0.86-0.97]; p=0.003), and suicide attempts during study period (0.80 [0.69-0.94]; p=0.006). These findings suggest that depressed patients with a history of suicidal behavior differ from non-attempters with regard to personality traits, especially the character dimension of self-directedness. It is noteworthy that this result emerged after controlling for the effect of current mood state. PMID:24794639
Bhatta, Madhav P.; Jefferis, Eric; Kavadas, Angela; Alemagno, Sonia A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family) on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. Materials and Methods The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. Results Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation) and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval = 2.08–3.63) and homelessness (1.51; 1.17–1.94) were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22–4.08), homelessness (1.49; 1.12–1.98), and running away from home (1.38; 1.06–1.81) were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41–25.37) to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. Conclusions Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention. PMID:24586756
Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D
This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most psychiatric disorders are associated with significantly increased likelihood of suicidal behaviors. These findings provide critical new information by demonstrating specificity in the link between psychiatric disorders and suicidal behaviors. These data also suggest consistency in the links in both clinical and community samples, and by gender. PMID:18470780
Şengül, Melike Ceyhan Balcı; Kaya, Vildan; Şen, Cenk Ahmet; Kaya, Kemal
Background The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between suicidal behavior and associated factors such as depression, anxiety, and perceived social support level in cancer patients. Material/Methods The study group included 102 patients who were under treatment in the oncology department and the control group included 100 individuals with similar sociodemographic features. A sociodemographic information form, Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, suicidal behavior inventory, suicidal ideation inventory, and multidimensional inventory of perceived social support were used. Results The mean Beck depression inventory and Beck anxiety inventory scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. Thirteen patients in the study group attempted suicide, whereas 3 individuals attempted suicide in the control group. Similarly, the mean suicide behavior and ideation scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. The mean total multidimensional inventories of perceived social support score, as well as the mean family and friend sub-inventory scores in the control group were significantly higher compared to the study group. Conclusions This study revealed that depression and anxiety occur frequently in cancer patients. Suicide attempts and ideation are higher in cancer patients compared to the control group. Social support perceived from family and friends is lower in cancer patients. Suicide attempts are correlated with depression, anxiety, low level of perceived social support, and advanced disease stage. PMID:24584172
De Luca, Susan M; Franklin, Cynthia; Yueqi, Yan; Johnson, Shannon; Brownson, Chris
The impact of suicidal ideation on college students' academic performance has yet to be examined, yet mental health is often linked with academic performance. Underclassmen and upperclassmen were compared on behavioral health outcomes related to academic success (N = 26,457). Ideation (b = -0.05, p < .05), increased mental health (b = -0.03, p < .01) or substance use severity (b = -0.02, p < .01) was associated with lower GPAs. Underclassmen's behavioral health severity was related to lower GPA. Students reported higher GPAs when participating in extracurricular activities during the past year. Ideation, beyond mental health, is an important when assessing academic performance. Increasing students' connections benefits students experiencing behavioral concerns but also aids in suicide prevention initiatives and improves academic outcomes. Creating integrated health care systems on campus where physical, mental health and academic support services is crucial to offer solutions for students with severe or co-morbid mental health histories. PMID:26831304
Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham
The inner experience of spiritual and religious feelings is an integral part of the everyday lives of many individuals. For over 100 years the role of religion as a deterrent to suicidal behavior has been studied in various disciplines. We attempt to systematize the existing literature investigating the relationship between religion/spirituality and suicide in this paper. After an overview of the attitudes of the dominant religions (e.g., Catholicism, Islam, and Buddhism) toward suicide, the three main theories that have speculated regarding the link between religion and suicide are presented: "integration theory" (Durkheim, 1897/1997), "religious commitment theory" (Stack, 1983a; Stark, 1983), and "network theory" (Pescosolido & Georgianna, 1989). Subsequent to this theoretical introduction, we report on studies on religion/spirituality keeping the suicidal path as a reference: from suicidal ideation to nonlethal suicidal behavior to lethal suicidal behavior. Studies presenting indications of religious beliefs as a possible risk factor for suicidal behavior are also presented. The last section reviews possible intervention strategies for suicidal patients and suicide survivors. Indications for future research, such as more studies on nonreligious forms of spirituality and the use of qualitative methodology to achieve a better and deeper understanding of the spiritual dimension of suicidal behavior and treatment, are offered. PMID:18444780
A developmental psychopathology conceptual model was provided to represent the major categories of risk and protective factors, including alcohol use and binge drinking, that predict suicidal behaviors that range from suicidal thoughts to completed suicides. The conceptual model emphasized the importance of identifying age-specific sets of risk and protective factors to facilitate the development of effective interventions. As an empirical illustration, a multivariate mediation path model was specified and evaluated with a sample of teens. Findings indicated that several distal variables (e.g., difficult temperament, coping motives for drinking, lower family support, higher percentage of friends using alcohol) significantly predicted mediators (e.g., depression, stressful events, binge drinking) that, in turn, predicted suicidal behaviors. Binge drinking significantly predicted suicide attempts over and above the influence of depression and stressful events. PMID:15166634