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1

Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallizat...

A. L. Schiozer

1994-01-01

2

Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6{degrees}C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35{degrees}C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

Schiozer, A.L.

1994-03-01

3

21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3798 Sodium sulfite...that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of...

2013-04-01

4

40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory....

2010-07-01

5

40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory....

2012-07-01

6

40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory....

2009-07-01

7

Crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate and calcium sulfite hemihydrate from synthetic flue gas desulfurization solutions: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The precipitation of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO/sub 4/.2H/sub 2/O) and calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO/sub 3/.1/2H/sub 2/O) from high, up to 240,000 mg/L, total dissolved solids (TDS) solutions was studied at 50/sup 0/C. The solutions were selected to cover a range of solution compositions of magnesium, calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Precipitation rates along with crystal habit and size changes were measured to determine the effects of these dissolved species as compared to dilute solution conditions. Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) precipitation rate was accelerated in the high TDS solutions, especially those containing chloride ion. Alternatively, calcium sulfite hemihydrate precipitation rate was found to be faster in high sulfate ion containing solutions. Sodium ion appears to produce gypsum crystals more columnar in habit while solutions containing high amounts of calcium produced very lamellar gypsum crystals. Solutions containing magnesium produced acicular gypsum crystals. Calcium sulfite hemihydrate solids precipitated from solutions containing high sulfate concentrations were rod shaped and globular as compared to the lamellar calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals precipitated from high chloride and dilute solution liquors. Calcium sulfate-calcium sulfite solid solutions were characterized using infrared spectroscopy. Ion scavenging of Na, Mg, and Cl by gypsum and calcium sulfite solids precipitated from these high TDS solutions was also investigated. 10 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

Trofe, T.W.; Fishman, V.A.; Meserole, F.B.

1986-10-01

8

Sulfite-sulfide-sulfate-carbonate equilibria with applications to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars volcanic SO2 and H2S gas emissions are likely the dominant source of martian sulfate, and the source of sulfuric acid. Until this work, the FREZCHEM model lacked SO2 and H2S gases and associated sulfite and sulfide minerals. The specific objectives of this paper were to add these components and associated sulfite and sulfide minerals and phases into FREZCHEM, and to explore some possible roles of these chemistries on Mars. New solid phases added included the sulfites: Na2SO37H2O, K2SO3, (NH4)2SO3H2O, MgSO36H2O, CaSO30.5H2O, and FeSO31.5H2O, and the sulfide: FeS2. The lowest eutectic of these minerals was K2SO3 (= 6.57 m) at 228 K. Because sulfurous acid is stronger than carbonic acid, this causes a much larger fraction of S(IV) to exist as sulfite (SO32-) at acidic to mildly alkaline pH, whereas almost none of the C is present as carbonate anion. Model calculations show that small quantities of SO2 in an early CO2-rich martian atmosphere suppressed formation of carbonates because SO2 is much more water soluble than CO2 and a stronger acid, which may be a major reason why sulfates are much more common than carbonates on Mars. Also, perhaps equally important are low temperatures that favor sulfite mineral precipitation, the oxidation of which leads to sulfate minerals. Another potentially important factor that favors sulfite/sulfide mineral formation is low pH values that cannot allow carbonate minerals, but can allow sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2). The presence of pyrite, highly insoluble, would lead to sulfate minerals when oxygen becomes available in acidic environments. Major cations for both sulfites (or sulfates) and carbonates (Ca and Mg) can limit carbonates. Sulfite-sulfide volcanism on a cold, lower pH, Mars are the primary causes of high sulfate minerals (e.g., Ca and Mg sulfates), compared to volcanism on a warm, higher pH, Earth that led to more abundant carbonate minerals (e.g., Ca and Mg carbonates).

Marion, G. M.; Kargel, J. S.; Crowley, J. K.; Catling, D. C.

2013-07-01

9

Thermochemical Reduction Experiments of Native Sulfur, Sulfite, and Sulfate by Amino Acids at 150 - 200C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted series of laboratory experiments to investigate geochemical characteristics (e.g., kinetics and sulfur isotope fractionations) of redox reactions between a variety of amino acids (alanine, glycine, hystidine, etc.) and native sulfur, sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate at 150 - 200C. While previous researchers failed to demonstrate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) at temperatures below 230C using a variety of organic compounds (sugars, methane, xylene, etc), in our series of experiments, all S-species were reduced to H2S by amino acids without presence of initial H2S and at neutral pH (i.e., pH = 6) even at 150C. The reduction rates generally decreased: (a) from native sulfur, to sulfite, and to sulfate; (b) from simple amino acids to more complex amino acids, particularly with aromatic functional groups (e.g., histidine); and (c) with decreasing temperatures. The rates of sulfite and S0 reduction were, respectively, approximately 2 and 3 orders of magnitude faster than those of sulfate. The kinetic isotope effects (?34S = ?34SH2S - ?34Sreactant) generally increased with increasing valence of the starting S-compounds. However, they have very complex trends for particularly experiments using sulfate. They fluctuated between positive and negative in others, and continued to increase or decrease in some runs up to +10 or -10 per mil. These variations likely associated with changes in S/C ratios of initial mixtures, and probably occurred because the generation of reductants (i.e., CH4, H2, and NH4+) from the solid mixtures varied; the kinetic isotope effects associated with sulfate reduction by NH4+ may be quite different from those associated with reduction by H2 and/or CH4. The ?^{33}S values of run products (H2S) generally increased from +0.16 per mil to +0.61 per mil with decreasing rates of sulfate reduction.

Naraoka, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohmoto, H.

2006-12-01

10

Performance of a thermophilic sulfate and sulfite reducing high rate anaerobic reactor fed with methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic sulfate and sulfite reduction was studied in lab-scale Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) reactors operated at 65C and pH 7.5 with methanol as the sole carbon and energy source for the sulfate- and sulfite-reducing bacteria. At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 h, maximum sulfite and sulfate elimination rates of 5.5 gSO32- L-1 day-1 (100 % elimination) and

Jan Weijma; Look W. Hulshoff Pol; Alfons J. M. Stams; Gatze Lettinga

2000-01-01

11

Crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate and calcium sulfite hemihydrate from synthetic flue gas desulfurization solutions: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO.2HO) and calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO.1\\/2HO) from high, up to 240,000 mg\\/L, total dissolved solids (TDS) solutions was studied at 50°C. The solutions were selected to cover a range of solution compositions of magnesium, calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Precipitation rates along with crystal habit and size changes were measured to determine the effects

T. W. Trofe; V. A. Fishman; F. B. Meserole

1986-01-01

12

Hydrogen production via photolytic oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfite solutions.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emission from coal-burning power plants and refinery operations has been implicated as a cause of acid rain and other air pollution related problems. The conventional treatment of SO(2)-contaminated air consists of two steps: SO(2) absorption using an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, forming aqueous sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), and Na(2)SO(3) oxidation via air purging to produce sodium sulfate (Na(2)SO(4)). In this process, the potential energy of SO(2) is lost. This paper presents a novel ultraviolet (UV) photolytic process for production of hydrogen from aqueous Na(2)SO(3) solutions. The results show that the quantum efficiency of hydrogen production can reach 14.4% under illumination from a low pressure mercury lamp. The mechanism occurs via two competing reaction pathways that involve oxidation of SO(3)(2-) to SO(4)(2-) directly and through the dithionate (S(2)O(6)(2-)) ion intermediate. The first route becomes dominant once a photostationary state for S(2)O(6)(2-) is established. The initial pH of Na(2)SO(3) solution plays an important role in determining both the hydrogen production rate and the final products of the photolytic oxidation. At initial solution pH of 9.80 Na(2)SO(3) photo-oxidation generates Na(2)SO(4) as the final reaction product, while Na(2)S(2)O(6) is merely a reaction intermediate. The highest hydrogen production rate occurs when the initial solution pH is 7.55. Reduction in the initial solution pH to 5.93 results in disproportionation of HSO(3)(-) to elemental sulfur and SO(4)(2-) but no hydrogen production. PMID:20515046

Huang, Cunping; Linkous, Clovis A; Adebiyi, Olawale; T-Raissi, Ali

2010-07-01

13

Nitrogen dioxide absorption in aqueous sodium sulfite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires additional reduction of acid gases, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere from coal-fired electric power plants. In the case of older existing power plants, a possible retrofit strategy is to oxidize nitric oxide (NO, the major constituent of NOsbX in flue gas) to nitrogen dioxide (NOsb2) by the addition of methanol or other hydrocarbons into the duct at an optimum temperature regime. NOsb2 can then be removed by either modifying existing SOsb2 control equipment or by adding a limestone (CaCOsb3) slurry scrubbing process. Limestone reacts with SOsb2 to from CaSOsb3, and the free sulfite (SO{sb3sp{=}}) in the solution is reactive toward NOsb2. The focus of this research is to study the reaction between NOsb2 and aqueous sulfite at elevated temperature and in the presence of gas phase Osb2. The removal of NOsb2 by limestone slurry scrubbing involves the reaction between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}, bisulfite (HSO{sb3sp{-}}) and water. The reactions between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}/HSO{sb3sp{-}} are first order in both reactants, while the NOsb2-water reaction is second order in NOsb2 concentration. The rate constants of the above reactions and the NOsb2-thiosulfate (Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}) reaction were determined at 55spC. SO{sb3sp{=}} was found to be the most reactive toward NOsb2, while the contribution of chemical reaction still dominated in the absorption of NOsb2 into water. The effect of gas phase SOsb2 and Osb2, and liquid phase additives such as Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}, Casp{++}, Mgsp{++}, and Clsp{-} on NOsb2 absorption was also investigated. The absorption of NOsb2 catalyzes free radical reactions that lead to sulfite oxidation. A semi-empirical model was proposed to relate the rate of sulfite oxidation to the rate of NOsb2 absorption. Thiosulfate inhibits sulfite oxidation by providing an alternative route for the termination of the free radical reactions, and a fundamental model was derived to quantify the effect of Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}} on sulfite oxidation. The absorption of NOsb2 into aqueous bisulfide (HSsp{-}) was studied in an attempt to discover alternative scrubbing technologies. The reaction between NOsb2 and HSsp{-} is twice as fast as the NOsb2-SO{sb3sp{=}} reaction at 55spC. A semi-empirical model was proposed to relate NOsb2 absorption to HSsp{-} oxidation. This study has shown that acceptable level of NOsb2 removal by a conventional limestone slurry scrubber is not probable. However, aqueous scrubbing of NOsb2 by Nasb2SOsb3 and Nasb2S solutions are viable options. Furthermore, significant reduction in hold tank liquid depth and/or oxidizing air stoichiometry is possible by NOsb2 injection.

Shen, Chen Hua

14

21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium...

2013-04-01

15

Effects of sodium sulfite on recovery and composition of detergent fiber and lignin.  

PubMed

Use of sodium sulfite to reduce nitrogenous contamination in fiber analysis was evaluated. The effects of sodium sulfite on analytical accuracy and precision were examined for amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber (aNDF), sequentially determined acid detergent fiber (sADF), and acid detergent lignin (sADL) in animal feeds. In one experiment, 0.5 g sodium sulfite was added per sample during neutral detergent (ND) extraction. The treatment consistently reduced aNDF, sADF, and sADL values of 180 alfalfa samples and improved precision (decreased within-sample variance of replicated analyses). The greatest effect was on precision of sADL analysis, with within-sample variance reduced by more than 50%. In a second experiment, 24 animal feeds were analyzed for a aNDF, sADF, and sADL with and without addition of 0.5 g sodium sulfite per sample during ND extraction. Nitrogen contents of the recovered fiber fractions were determined. Sodium sulfite reduced fiber and lignin values and decreased nitrogen concentration in residues. Within-sample variance was lower in all analyses. In a third experiment, 23 animal feeds were analyzed for aNDF with sodium sulfite at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 g per sample. Average aNDF of feeds was reduced by each additional increment of sodium sulfite; however, 1.0 g sodium sulfite resulted in only a slight reduction in aNDF compared with 0.5 g. Therefore, 0.5 g sodium sulfite per sample should be added to samples prior to aNDF analysis. PMID:8620104

Hintz, R W; Mertens, D R; Albrecht, K A

16

Flotation of sphalerite and pyrite in the presence of sodium sulfite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium sulfite was used to improve the separation of copper-activated sphalerite from pyrite in mildly alkaline pH conditions. This improved separation was mainly the result of the much larger depression of the flotation of pyrite than sphalerite. A further improvement in this separation was obtained by conditioning the minerals with oxygen and by decreasing the time interval between sulfite and

W. Z Shen; D Fornasiero; J Ralston

2001-01-01

17

Diversity and Composition of Sulfate and Sulfite-Reducing Prokaryotes as Affected by Marine-Freshwater Gradient and Sulfate Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SSRP) communities play a key role in both sulfur and carbon cycles. In estuarine\\u000a ecosystems, sulfate concentrations change with tides and could be limited in tidal freshwater reach or deep sediments. In\\u000a a subtropical estuary of northern Taiwan in December 2007, we examined the compositional changes of SSRP communities. We examined\\u000a three sites: from the lower

Lan-Feng Fan; Sen-Lin Tang; Chang-Po Chen; Hwey-Lian Hsieh

18

Phylogeny of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductases Supports an Early Origin of Sulfate Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms that use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration play a central role in the global sulfur cycle. Here, we report the results of comparative sequence analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes from closely and distantly related sulfate-reducing organisms to infer the evolutionary history of DSR. A 1.9-kb DNA region encoding most of the a and

MICHAEL WAGNER; ANDREW J. ROGER; JODI L. FLAX; GREGORY A. BRUSSEAU; DAVID A. STAHL

1998-01-01

19

Modification of the sulfur dioxide-iodine thermochemical hydrogen cycle with lanthanum sulfites and sulfates  

SciTech Connect

Variable composition, insoluble dilanthanum oxide-sulfite-sulfate-hydrates were prepared by reaction of lanthanum dioxymonosulfate with aqueous sulfur dioxide. These compositions reacted with iodine to yield sulfate in the solid phase, and hydrogen iodide and water in the gas phase. The highest yield of hydrogen iodide measured was 32% at 660 K for a few seconds reaction time of iodine with a reactant containing oxide-sulfite-sulfate with the approximate stoichiometry numbers, 0.9, 1.1, 1.0. Higher yields of hydrogen iodide were obtained by a second iodine oxidation after separation of the first solid product. These reactions are adaptable to a water splitting thermochemical cycle in which hydrogen is made by catalytic decomposition of hydrogen iodide at 700 K, and oxygen results from decomposition of the solid product at 1300 K.

Onstott, E.I.; Bowman, M.G.; Michnovicz, M.F.; Hollabaugh, C.M.

1984-01-01

20

Sulfite exchange dominates oxygen isotope compositions of sulfate produced from abiotic pyrite oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds (solid, liquid and gas phase) is of primary importance when attempting to understand the global sulfur and oxygen cycles as preserved in sulfate minerals. It has long been known that O2, H2O, and Fe3+ all play an important role during this oxidation process, especially during the oxidation of sulfide minerals. The exact role of each oxidant and/or oxygen source has yet to be experimentally determined for oxidation in aqueous solutions over a range of pH values. In addition, the reported air O2 signal being incorporated in product sulfate appears to be highly variable (9-60%), which could be due to the presence of multiple oxidation pathways or the inability of the traditional ?18O label to differentiate kinetic effects on the degree of oxygen exchange. Here we test the affect of pH dependent sulfite-water oxygen exchange rate and precipitation of ferric hydroxides on the produced sulfates O2/H2O ratio. Our experiments utilize a ?17O isotope label in the solutions, enabling a quantitative determination of oxygen source ratios (O2 vs. H2O) in the produced sulfate. We oxidized crushed pyrite grains aerobically in sterile, buffered solutions at pH=2,7,9,10, and 11. A duplicate set was spiked with Fe3+. The results from the reactors indicate that despite the pH dependency of sulfite-water exchange rate, fast at low pH and slow at high pH, the stability of intermediates, thiosulfate and especially sulfite, in alkaline solutions allows the exchange to proceed to equilibrium. This resulted in sulfate produced above pH=9 to contain 21-24% air O2 signal, indicating the last oxidation step, producing sulfate from sulfite, proceeded with direct incorporation of dissolved air O2 as represented by equation (1). The role of Fe3+ under alkaline conditions was observed to be negligible. SO32- + 1/2O2 ? SO42- (1) In the pH=2 reactor, the O2% in the produced sulfate was 21% with the addition of Fe3+, but was 28-29% without the Fe3+ addition. A similar ~25% O2 signal is measured for sulfate produced in circum-neutral solutions. These results indicate that sulfite-water oxygen exchange determines the O2 signal in sulfate produced from oxidation of pyrite for all pH conditions examined. In alkaline conditions, although the exchange rate of sulfur-oxyanion species with water is slow, their stability in solution offsets the low exchange rate. The final oxidation of sulfite to sulfate as depicted by reaction (1) results in a consistent O2% (21-29) incorporation in sulfate. Our results suggest that abiotic oxidative weathering of pyrite produces sulfate with 254% air O2 oxygen, a much smaller range than previously proposed with the use of ?18O labels. This provides important constraints on pyrite oxidation mechanisms and interpreting the anomalous 17O signals found in Marinoan barite (BaSO4) deposits, which are believed to come from atmospheric O2 at a time when global glaciation resulted in unique atmospheric conditions.

Kohl, I. E.; Bao, H.

2009-12-01

21

Direct transformation of calcium sulfite to ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate in a concentrated CaMgMn chloride solution under atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber sludge have been generated by coal burning power plants. Utilization of the sulfite-rich sludge for preparing ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (?-HH), an important kind of cementitious material, is of particular interest to electric utilities and environmental preservation. In the experiment, calcium sulfite hemihydrate was directly transformed to ?-HH without the occurrence of

Baohong Guan; Hailu Fu; Jie Yu; Guangming Jiang; Bao Kong; Zhongbiao Wu

2011-01-01

22

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in...

2013-04-01

23

21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely used in...

2013-04-01

24

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

25

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

26

Catalytic oxidation of sodium sulfite in a gasliquid tubular ejector: optimization of the operational conditions by Simplex method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of the production of medical analyses reagents releases a gaseous effluent containing HCl and SO2. These gasses are absorbed and neutralized by an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. The liquid effluent of this neutralization stage, having an average flow rate of 12000 l\\/day, is an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite and sodium chloride with the concentrations of around

A Tosun-Bayraktar; C Porte; A Delacroix; C Martin-Moreno

2003-01-01

27

40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

2009-07-01

28

40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

2012-07-01

29

40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

2010-07-01

30

Sulfite Oxidation in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfite oxidation in plants was a matter of controversial discussion for a long time and still is not finally understood.\\u000a There is no doubt anymore about the occurrence of sulfite oxidation besides primary sulfate assimilation that takes place\\u000a in the chloroplast. Sulfate is reduced via sulfite to organic sulfide which is essential for the biosynthesis of S-containing\\u000a amino acids and

Robert Hnsch; Ralf R. Mendel

31

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric...

2009-04-01

32

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric...

2010-01-01

33

Sodium Sulfate Induced Hot Corrosion in Gas Turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mass transfer model is developed that considers diffusive and chemical aspects of sodium sulfate formation and deposition on cooled turbine blades. The roles of gas phase condensation of sodium sulfate and multicomponent diffusion across a chemically fr...

K. H. Im R. K. Ahluwalia

1989-01-01

34

Removal of Sodium Sulfate from a Sulfate-Containing Sodium Chloride Solution in a Process for Separating Zirconium and Hafnium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to the removal of sodium sulfate in a process for separating zirconium and hafnium, and relates in one embodiment to the recovery of sodium sulfate having a purity greater than 99.9%.

R. A. Guidotti

1979-01-01

35

Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases from sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mssbauer, EPR, and biochemical techniques were used to characterize two dissimilatory sulfite reductases: desulforubidin from Desulfovibrio baculatus strain DSM 1743 and desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio gigas. For each molecule of desulforubidin, there are two sirohemes and four [4Fe-4S] clusters. The [4Fe-4S] clusters are in the diamagnetic 2+ oxidation state. The sirohemes are high-spin ferric (S=5/2) and each siroheme is exchanged-coupled to a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster. Such an exchange-coupled siroheme-[4Fe-4S] unit has also been found in the assimilatory sulfite reductase from Escherichia coli/1/ and in a low-molecular weight sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris/2/. For each molecule of defulfoviridin, there are two tetrahydroporphyrin groups and four [4Fe-4S]2+ clusters. To our surprise, we discovered that about 80% of the tetrahydroporphyrin groups, however, do not bind iron.

Huynh, B. H.; Moura, I.; Lino, A. R.; Moura, J. J. G.; Legall, J.

1988-02-01

36

Enhanced generation of hydroxyl radical and sulfur trioxide anion radical from oxidation of sodium sulfite, nickel(II) sulfite, and nickel subsulfide in the presence of nickel(II) complexes.  

PubMed Central

Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping was utilized to investigate the generation of free radicals from oxidation of sodium sulfite, nickel(II) sulfite, and nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) by ambient oxygen or H2O2 at pH 7.4. The spin trap used was 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). Under ambient oxygen, a solution of sodium sulfite alone generated predominantly sulfur trioxide anion radical (.SO3-) due to the autoxidation of sulfite. Addition of nickel(II) chloride [Ni(II)] enhanced the .SO3- yield about 4-fold. Incubation of sulfite with Ni(II) in the presence of chelators such as tetraglycine, histidine, beta-alanyl-3-methyl-L-histidine (anserine), beta--L-histidine (carnosine), gamma-aminobutyryl-L-histidine (homocarnosine), glutathione, and penicillamine did not have any significant effect on that enhancement. In contrast, albumin, and especially glycylglycylhistidine (GlyGlyHis), augmented the enhancing effect of Ni(II) by factors of 1.4 and 4, respectively. Computer simulation analysis of the spin-adduct spectrum and formate scavenging experiment showed that the mixture of sodium sulfite, Ni(II), and GlyGlyHis generated both hydroxyl (.OH) radical and .SO3- radical, in the ratio of approximately 1:2. The free-radical spin adduct intensity reached its saturation level in about 5 min. The yield of the radical adducts could be slightly reduced by deferoxamine and very strongly reduced by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Aqueous suspensions of sparingly soluble nickel(II) sulfite in the presence of air and GlyGlyHis generated surface-located .SO3- and .OH radicals. The same radicals were generated in Ni3S2 suspension in the presence of GlyGlyHis and H2O2, indicating sulfite production by oxidation of the sulfide moiety of this compound.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Shi, X; Dalal, N; Kasprzak, K S

1994-01-01

37

Direct demonstration of the presence of coordinated sulfate in the reaction pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana sulfite oxidase using 33S labeling and ESEEM spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Sulfite oxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana has been reduced at pH = 6 with sulfite labeled with 33S (nuclear spin I = 3/2), followed by reoxidation by ferricyanide to generate the Mo(V) state of the active center. To obtain information about the hyperfine interaction (hfi) of 33S with Mo(V), continuous wave EPR and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments have been performed. The interpretation of the EPR and ESEEM spectra was facilitated by a theoretical analysis of the nuclear transition frequencies expected for the situation of the nuclear quadrupole interaction being much stronger than the Zeeman and hyperfine interactions. The isotropic hfi constant of 33S determined in these experiments was about 3 MHz, which demonstrates the presence of coordinated sulfate in the sulfite-reduced low-pH form of the plant enzyme.

Astashkin, Andrei V.; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Klein, Eric L.; Byrne, Robert S.; Hille, Russ; Raitsimring, Arnold M.; Enemark, John H.

2008-01-01

38

Protective performances of two anti-graffiti treatments towards sulfite and sulfate formation in SO 2 polluted model environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific strategies for protection are being developed to counter both the staining and corrosive effects of polluted air in cities, as well as to allow for efficient removal of unwanted graffiti paintings. These protection strategies employ molecules with tailored functionalities, e.g. being hydrophobic, while maintaining porosity for molecular water vapour permeation. The present study employs SO 2 and water to probe the behaviors of two anti-graffiti treatments, a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane ("Protectosil Antigraffiti" marketed by Degussa) and an organically modified silicate (Ormosil) synthesized from a polymer chain (polydimethyl siloxane, PDMS) and two network forming alkoxides (Zr propoxide and methyl triethoxy silane, MTES) dissolved in n-propanol, on five building materials, comprising limestone, aged lime mortar, hydrated cement mortar, granite, and brick material. The materials were exposed to a synthetic atmosphere for 20 h in a climate chamber, 0.78 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and 95% RH. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DR-FTIR) spectra were registered before and after exposure in the climate chamber in the cases of both treated and untreated samples. DR-FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, suggest the anti-graffiti Ormosil to suppress formation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate (the primary initial product of the reaction of calcium compounds with SO 2 and water) on carbonate materials (limestone and lime mortar). In case of the granite, brick and cement mortar, Ormosil has a negligible influence on the SO 2 capture. While no sulfite formation was detected by DR-FTIR, gypsum is inferred to form due to metal oxides and minority compounds catalysed oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. In case of brick, this understanding finds support from SEM images as well as EDX. A priori presence of gypsum in hydrated cement mortars prevents positive identification by SEM. However, support for sulfur accumulation in hydrated cement mortar is provided by means of EDX. In case of a second anti-graffiti considered, Protectosil, no influence of the anti-graffiti treatment on the SO 2 uptake of any of the building materials was observed.

Carmona-Quiroga, Paula Mara; Panas, Itai; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Johansson, Lars-Gunnar; Blanco-Varela, Mara Teresa; Martnez-Ramrez, Sagrario

39

Micellar phases based on sodium dodecyl sulfate for preconcentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features of phase formation from solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate on cooling were examined. The effect of electrolyte and\\u000a phenol additions on the parameters of phase formation and distribution of model substrates was examined. Conditions were found\\u000a for albumin preconcentration with phases in the system sodium dodecyl sulfate-phenol-NaCl.

S. A. Kulichenko; V. A. Doroshchuk; V. S. Starova

2008-01-01

40

Sodium sulfate induced hot corrosion in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass transfer model is developed that considers diffusive and chemical aspects of sodium sulfate formation and deposition on cooled turbine blades. The roles of gas phase condensation of sodium sulfate and multicomponent diffusion across a chemically frozen thin boundary layer are elaborated. A rational procedure is presented for correlating material wastage with laboratory weight gain data obtained by exposing

K. H. Im; R. K. Ahluwalia

1989-01-01

41

Durability of geopolymer materials in sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation into the durability of geopolymer materials manufactured using class F fly ash and alkaline activators when exposed to a sulfate environment. Three tests were used to determine resistance of geopolymer materials. The tests involved immersions for a period of 5 months into 5% solutions of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, and a solution of 5%

T. Bakharev

2005-01-01

42

40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 ...AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory § 436.150 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. The...

2009-01-01

43

40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 ...AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory § 436.150 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

44

40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 ...AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory § 436.150 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

45

40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. 436.150 ...AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory § 436.150 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

46

Effects of sodium sulfate concentration on the sulfate resistance of mortars with and without silica fume  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out on the effect of sodium sulfate concentration on the sulfate resistance of mortars. Experiments were carried out on the RILEM portland cement standard mortars and portland cement-silica fume mortars. Sulfate exposure of mortars were initiated after 28 days of lime saturated water curing. Some physical and mechanical properties were determined periodically up to 300 days

Fevziye Akz; Fikret Trker; Sema Koral; Nabi Yzer

1995-01-01

47

Calculation of the vibrational spectrum of a sodium sulfate crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on model representations a calculation is made of the frequencies and forms of normal vibrations of a fragment of the\\u000a sodium sulfate crystal in the third phase. Calculated results are compared to experimental RS spectra.

M. V. Barashkov; A. I. Komyak; S. N. Shashkov

1999-01-01

48

Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on lipase of Candida lipolytica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate on extracellular lipase produced byCandida lipolytica have been studied. The microorganism was grown in culture medium containing different sodium dodecyl sulfate concentrations\\u000a added to the culture at different intervals of growth. The extracellular lipase activity was not detected when the treated\\u000a culture supernatants were directly tested in Yeast Mold Agar-Triolein-Rhodamine plates, regardless of surfactant

A. E. Nascimento; G. M. Campos-Takaki

1994-01-01

49

Sodium and Magnesium Sulfate Ion Pairing: Evidence from Raman Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of sodium and magnesium sulfates were measured but failed to reveal any evidence of ion pairing. However, sulfate solutions with HCl added did exhibit relatively strong bands due to HSO4(-). Evidence for MgSO4 and NaSO4(...

F. P. Daly C. W. Brown D. R. Kester

1972-01-01

50

Calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate crystallization: Volume 1, Effect of crystallizer type on gypsum size distribution: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to measure crystal growth and nucleation kinetics of calcium sulfite hemihydrate with or without trace quantities of potential crystal modifiers and using different scales of crystallizer operation. The Crystal-Size Distribution (CSD) and morphology of calcium sulfite was observed in 240 ml and 9-liter continuous precipitators using CaCl and Ca(OH) to precipitate NaHSO in solutions

A. D. Randolph; B. J. Kelly; B. Keough

1986-01-01

51

Sulfite Reduction in Mycobacteria?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis places an enormous burden on the welfare of humanity. Its ability to grow and its pathogenicity are linked to sulfur metabolism, which is considered a fertile area for the development of antibiotics, particularly because many of the sulfur acquisition steps in the bacterium are not found in the host. Sulfite reduction is one such mycobacterium-specific step and is the central focus of this paper. Sulfite reduction in Mycobacterium smegmatis was investigated using a combination of deletion mutagenesis, metabolite screening, complementation, and enzymology. The initial rate parameters for the purified sulfite reductase from M. tuberculosis were determined under strict anaerobic conditions [kcat = 1.0 (0.1) electron consumed per second, and Km(SO3?2) = 27 (1) ?M], and the enzyme exhibits no detectible turnover of nitrite, which need not be the case in the sulfite/nitrite reductase family. Deletion of sulfite reductase (sirA, originally misannotated nirA) reveals that it is essential for growth on sulfate or sulfite as the sole sulfur source and, further, that the nitrite-reducing activities of the cell are incapable of reducing sulfite at a rate sufficient to allow growth. Like their nitrite reductase counterparts, sulfite reductases require a siroheme cofactor for catalysis. Rv2393 (renamed che1) resides in the sulfur reduction operon and is shown for the first time to encode a ferrochelatase, a catalyst that inserts Fe2+ into siroheme. Deletion of che1 causes cells to grow slowly on metabolites that require sulfite reductase activity. This slow-growth phenotype was ameliorated by optimizing growth conditions for nitrite assimilation, suggesting that nitrogen and sulfur assimilation overlap at the point of ferrochelatase synthesis and delivery.

Pinto, Rachel; Harrison, Joseph S.; Hsu, Tsungda; Jacobs, William R.; Leyh, Thomas S.

2007-01-01

52

Diffusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in agarose gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gradient diffusion of ionic sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in agarose gel was investigated at moderate concentrations above the CMC. Of particular interest were the effects of micelle, gel, and sodium chloride concentration on the micelle diffusivity. Holographic interferometry was used to measure the gradient diffusion coefficient at three sodium chloride concentrations (0, 0.03, 0.10M), three gel concentrations (0, 1,

Wyatt J. Musnicki; Nathan W. Lloyd; Ronald J. Phillips; Stephanie R. Dungan

2011-01-01

53

Strong adsorption from highly dilute solution: adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate from saturated ammonium sulfate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A method was devised to obtain a correct surface tension vs. equilibrium concentration curve for a very dilute solution of surface active substance, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate dissolved in an aqueous solution of saturated ammonium sulfate, where the decrease of the bulk concentration due to the adsorption is not negligible. Adsorption isotherm was obtained by applyingGibbs adsorption equation

J. Sasaki; M. Koyama; T. Seimiya; T. Sasaki

1975-01-01

54

Calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate crystallization: Volume 1, Effect of crystallizer type on gypsum size distribution: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to measure crystal growth and nucleation kinetics of calcium sulfite hemihydrate with or without trace quantities of potential crystal modifiers and using different scales of crystallizer operation. The Crystal-Size Distribution (CSD) and morphology of calcium sulfite was observed in 240 ml and 9-liter continuous precipitators using CaCl/sub 2/ and Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to precipitate NaHSO/sub 3/ in solutions resembling FGD liquors. Estimates of crystal nucleation and growth rates were obtained from these CSD data and correlated in a useful kinetics form suitable for CSD predictions in a computer model which simulates complex crystallizer configurations. These population balance-based CSD studies indicated that significant improvements in calcium sulfite particle size might be achieved by using precipitators with a size-dependent particle removal configuration. 25 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Randolph, A.D.; Kelly, B.J.; Keough, B.

1986-11-01

55

Introduction of sulfate groups on poly(ethylene) surfaces by argon plasma immobilization of sodium alkyl sulfates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate groups were introduced at the surface of poly(ethylene) (PE) samples. This was accomplished by immobilizing a precoated layer of either sodium 10-undecene sulfate (S11(:)) or sodium dodecane sulfate (SDS) on the polymeric surface by means of an argon plasma treatment. For this purpose, S11(:) was synthesized by sulfating 10-undecene-1-ol using the pyridine-SO3 complex. The presence of sulfate groups at

J. P. Lens; J. G. A. Terlingen; G. H. M. Engbers; J. Feijen

1998-01-01

56

Properties of Sea Water and Solutions Containing Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, Sodium Sulfate and Magnesium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Density, vapor pressure and viscosity were measured and tabulated for: Water; Binary solutions (NaCl-KCl, Na sulfate, Mg sulfate); Ternary solutions (NaCl-KCl, NaCl-Na sulfate, NaCl-Mg sulfate); Sea water and its concentrates. Thermal conductivity data of...

B. M. Fabuss A. Korosi

1968-01-01

57

21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium...

2013-04-01

58

Stabilization of Solutions of Feather Keratins by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feather keratins were extracted from chicken feathers with aqueous solutions of urea and 2-mercaptoethanol. After filtration of the insoluble residue, a feather keratin solution was obtained. Removal of 2-mercaptoethanol and urea by dialysis resulted in aggregation of the keratin polypeptide chains and oxidation of the cysteine residues to afford a gel. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to the

Peter M. M. Schrooyen; Pieter J. Dijkstra; Radulf C. Oberthr; Adriaan Bantjes; Jan Feijen

2001-01-01

59

The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite species and water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfite is an important sulfoxy intermediate in oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling in the marine and terrestrial environment. Different aqueous sulfite species exist, such as dissolved sulfur dioxide (SO2), bisulfite (HSO3-), pyrosulfite (S2O52-) and sulfite sensu stricto (SO32-), whereas their relative abundance in solution depends on the concentration and the pH. Conversion of one species into another is rapid and involves in many cases incorporation of oxygen from, or release of oxygen to, water (e.g. SO2 + H2O ? HSO3- + H+), resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite species and water. Consequently, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfite is strongly influenced by the oxygen isotope composition of water. Since sulfate does not exchange oxygen isotopes with water under most earth surface conditions, it can preserve the sulfite oxygen isotope signature that it inherits via oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling. Therefore, interpretation of ?18O values strongly hinges on the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water which is poorly constrained. This is in large part due to technical difficulties in extraction of sulfite from solution for oxygen isotope analysis. To overcome these challenges, anoxic isotope equilibration experiments were performed with dissolved sodium sulfite in solutions with distinct oxygen isotope signatures. Sulfite was precipitated using two different agents, barium chloride and silver nitrate. The experiments were performed at 22 C and varying pH of 1.5, 6.3, 6.6, and 9.7 to investigate how changes in sulfite speciation affect the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water. From the experiments at pH 1.5 where SO2 is the dominant sulfite species, a rough estimate of 37.0 was determined for the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation factor between aqueous SO2 and water (?SO?HOEQ). The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between the aqueous phases is much larger than the known oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between gaseous SO2 and water vapor, probably because of a stronger association with water molecules. At pH values of 6.3-9.7 a more firm estimate for the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between HSO3-, SO32- and water (?SO32-?HOEQ) of 15.2 0.7 was obtained. Our results provide new insights into the oxygen isotope fractionation during reductive and oxidative sulfur cycling. They demonstrate that isotope exchange between sulfite and water during dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) alone is too small to be responsible for the apparent oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfate and water mediated by DSR. Our estimates also provide a basis for tracing and quantifying the transformation of sulfoxy intermediates during the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds to sulfate.

Mller, Inigo A.; Brunner, Benjamin; Breuer, Christian; Coleman, Max; Bach, Wolfgang

2013-11-01

60

Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases (desulforubidin and desulfoviridin) from the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Moessbauer and EPR studies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors report a detailed Moessbauer investigation of two different sulfite reductases, namely, desulforubidin from D. baculatus and desulfoviridin from D. gigas. In order to better characterize the prosthetic groups, they have also studied the EPR spectra and determined the iron and heme contents of the /sup 57/Fe-enriched enzymes. They found that desulforubidin contains exchange-coupled siroheme-(4Fe-4S) units which are similar to those found in the hemoprotein subunit of E. coli sulfite reductase. To their surprise, they discovered that the majority of the purified desulfoviridin contains demetalized sirohydrochlorin, with only a minor portion of the sample containing siroheme. The siroheme in desulfoviridin was also found to be coupled with a (4Fe-4S) cluster.

Moura, I.; LeGall, J.; Lino, A.R.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; Fauque, G.; Xavier, A.V.; DerVartanian, D.V.; Moura, J.J.G.; Huynh, B.H.

1988-02-17

61

Microorganisms with Novel Dissimilatory (Bi)Sulfite Reductase Genes Are Widespread and Part of the Core Microbiota in Low-Sulfate Peatlands ?  

PubMed Central

Peatlands of the Lehstenbach catchment (Germany) house as-yet-unidentified microorganisms with phylogenetically novel variants of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes dsrAB. These genes are characteristic of microorganisms that reduce sulfate, sulfite, or some organosulfonates for energy conservation but can also be present in anaerobic syntrophs. However, nothing is currently known regarding the abundance, community dynamics, and biogeography of these dsrAB-carrying microorganisms in peatlands. To tackle these issues, soils from a Lehstenbach catchment site (Schlppnerbrunnen II fen) from different depths were sampled at three time points over a 6-year period to analyze the diversity and distribution of dsrAB-containing microorganisms by a newly developed functional gene microarray and quantitative PCR assays. Members of novel, uncultivated dsrAB lineages (approximately representing species-level groups) (i) dominated a temporally stable but spatially structured dsrAB community and (ii) represented core members (up to 1% to 1.7% relative abundance) of the autochthonous microbial community in this fen. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)- and clone library-based comparisons of the dsrAB diversity in soils from a wet meadow, three bogs, and five fens of various geographic locations (distance of ?1 to 400 km) identified that one Syntrophobacter-related and nine novel dsrAB lineages are widespread in low-sulfate peatlands. Signatures of biogeography in dsrB-based DGGE data were not correlated with geographic distance but could be explained largely by soil pH and wetland type, implying that the distribution of dsrAB-carrying microorganisms in wetlands on the scale of a few hundred kilometers is not limited by dispersal but determined by local environmental conditions.

Steger, Doris; Wentrup, Cecilia; Braunegger, Christina; Deevong, Pinsurang; Hofer, Manuel; Richter, Andreas; Baranyi, Christian; Pester, Michael; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

2011-01-01

62

Precipitation of monodispersed basic iron(III) sulfate (sodium jarosite) particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniform sodium jarosite particles were obtained by forced hydrolysis of ferric salt solutions to which copper sulfate, sodium\\u000a sulfate, and sodium nitrate were added. It was found that at the same concentrations of ferric and sulfate ions the particle\\u000a size and yield decreased with the lowering of the concentration of sodium ions, but the morphology remained the same. At a

I. Sondi; S. Shi; E. Matijevic

2001-01-01

63

Flow-injection analysis of two fluoquinolones by the sensitizing effect of terbium(III) on chemiluminescence of the potassium permanganatesodium sulfite system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of two fluoquinolones (FQs), enoxacin (ENX) and ofloxacin (OFLX) is described by using flow injection analysis with potassium permanganatesodium sulfite chemiluminescence detection. The calibration graphs for ENX and OFLX are linear in the range of 8.010?101.010?5 and 1.010?91.010?6 mol l?1, respectively. The 3? limits of detection are 2.410?10 mol l?1 for

Lin Yi; Huichun Zhao; Shilv Chen; Linpei Jin; Dongdong Zheng; Zhenglong Wu

2003-01-01

64

Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion-Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode  

PubMed Central

A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gas diffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for the electrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generate gaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. The sulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of the GDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell and detected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to prevent electrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mg SO32?/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO32?/L was achieved. This method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical results agreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations for the analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was 65 h?1.

Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

2008-01-01

65

Gas evolution during vitrification of sodium sulfate and silica  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the operation of an apparatus designed to identify species evolved during vitrification of hazardous waste materials and to measure the temperatures at which they are evolved. To demonstrate the utility of the apparatus for designing off-gas systems, the authors present the results of heating various sulfates alone and in the presence of silica. During vitrification, the decomposition behavior of some waste components will be affected by the chemical composition of the melt. For example, they found that when silica is present during heating, SO{sub x} gases are evolved at lower temperatures than when pure sodium sulfate is heated. Such analyses will be important in the design of off-gas units for waste vitrification systems.

Ebert, W.L.; Bakel, A.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Rosine, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.]|[Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1997-08-01

66

Diffusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in agarose gels.  

PubMed

The gradient diffusion of ionic sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in agarose gel was investigated at moderate concentrations above the CMC. Of particular interest were the effects of micelle, gel, and sodium chloride concentration on the micelle diffusivity. Holographic interferometry was used to measure the gradient diffusion coefficient at three sodium chloride concentrations (0, 0.03, 0.10 M), three gel concentrations (0, 1, 2 wt%), and several surfactant concentrations. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching was used to measure aggregation numbers both in solution and gel. The micelle diffusivity increased linearly with surfactant concentration at the two larger sodium chloride concentrations and all gel concentrations. In general, the strength of this effect increased with decreasing sodium chloride concentration and increased with gel concentration. This behavior is evidence of decreasing micelle-micelle electrostatic interactions with increasing sodium chloride concentrations, and increasing excluded volume effects and hydrodynamic screening with increasing gel concentration, respectively. The only exception was at 0.1M sodium chloride and 2 wt% agarose, which showed a slight reduction in the slope compared to 1 wt% agarose. It was found that the concentration effect is quite strong for charged solutes: at a NaCl concentration of 0.03 M in a 2% agarose gel, in a solution with 3% SDS micelles by volume, the micelle diffusion coefficient is doubled relative to its value in the same gel at infinite dilution. The extrapolated, infinite-dilution diffusion coefficients and the rate at which the micelle diffusivity increased with surfactant concentration were compared with predictions of previously published theories in which the micelles are treated as charged, colloidal spheres and the gel as a Brinkman medium. The experimental data and theoretical predictions were in good agreement. PMID:21272891

Musnicki, Wyatt J; Lloyd, Nathan W; Phillips, Ronald J; Dungan, Stephanie R

2010-12-28

67

Structure-Based Alteration of Substrate Specificity and Catalytic Activity of Sulfite Oxidase from Sulfite Oxidation to Nitrate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic sulfite oxidase is a dimeric protein that contains the molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the metabolically essential conversion of sulfite to sulfate as the terminal step in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine. Nitrate reductase is an evolutionarily related molybdoprotein in lower organisms that is essential for growth on nitrate. In this study, we describe human and chicken sulfite oxidase

James A. Qiu; Heather L. Wilson; K. V. Rajagopalan

2012-01-01

68

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01

69

Instrumental methods of analysis of sulfur compounds in synfuel process streams. Quarterly technical progress report for April-June 1984. [Sulfidic, polysulfidic, thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfate, thiocyanate  

SciTech Connect

Task 1: methods development for the speciation of the polysulfides. Work on this task has been completed in December 1983 and reported accordingly in DOE/PC/40783-T13. Task 2: methods development for the speciation of dithionite and polythionates. Electrochemical reduction of tetrathionate and pentathionate at the dropping mercury electrode (DME) proceeds through a mechanism involving specific adsorption of the reactant at the DME surface and yielding polarographic waves at -0.2 volt (versus the saturated calomel electrode) in aqueous solution. Ethanol interferes with the specific adsorption of tetrathionate and pentathionate in a range of potentials between 0.0 and -1.1 volt, because EtOH is preferentially adsorbed. This results in a shift of the polarographic half-wave potentials of tetrathionate and pentathionate, which facilitates their determination in polythionate mixtures. On the other hand, the polarographic reduction of trithionate is unaffected by ethanol, because it occurs at -1.5 volt where ethanol is not adsorbed at the surface of the DME. Task 3: total accounting of the sulfur balance in representative samples of synfuel process streams. Analyses of two aqueous gasifier effluents from Grand Forks, ND, were performed. An untreated specimen contained sulfidic and polysulfidic sulfur, thiosulfate and thiocyanate. On the other hand, sulfite, sulfate, and thiocyanate were the only sulfur moieties observed in the Grand Forks sample which had been stripped at PETC. 7 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Jordan, J.; Sexton, E.; Talbott, J.; Yakupkovic, J.

1984-07-01

70

Health effects of sulfur-related environmental air pollution: the pulmonary surfactant system is not disturbed by exposure to acidic sulfate and neutral sulfite aerosols.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to assess the impact of long-term exposure to environmental sulfur-related aerosols on the biochemical and biophysical properties of lung surfactant. Eight Beagle dogs were housed under clean air conditions for 450 days, followed by an exposure period of 400 days to 0.36 mg/m3 of sulfite (16.5 h/d) and to 5.66 mg/m3 of sulfate (6 h/d) equivalent to a pulmonary hydrogen burden of 15 mumol/m3. Other dogs kept in clean air for the whole study period were additional controls. Serial bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) were analyzed for total phospholipid concentration, content and ratio of a surfactant-rich large aggregate (LA) fraction and a small aggregate (SA) fraction, in vitro surface area cycling of LAs into SAs as a measure of alveolar extracellular pulmonary surfactant aggregate metabolism, and surface activity of native and lipid-extracted LA. No significant changes over time and no differences between the clean air period and the exposure period were observed. Thus, long-term environmental exposure of dogs to the sulfur-related air pollution tested does not lead to alterations in the amount, extracellular metabolism, or surface-active properties of pulmonary surfactant. PMID:10351128

Griese, M; Winzinger, G; Schams, A; Josten, M; Ziesenis, A; Maier, K

1999-01-01

71

Crystal size distribution (CSD) of batch salting-out crystallization process for sodium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal size distribution (CSD) of sodium sulfate from the batch crystallization of sodium sulfate from concentrated sulfuric acid (spent acid) by salting-out with methanol was analyzed. The effects of amount of methanol added, the agitation rate, temperature and residence time (sampling time) on CSD were investigated. The mean crystal size and the coefficient of variation (c.v.) were the criteria

Juliana Hash; Ogbonnaya C. Okorafor

2008-01-01

72

Growth of Enterobacter cloacae in the presence of 25% sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed Central

The growth of Enterobacter cloacae in 25% sodium dodecyl sulfate is described. The bacteria appeared to tolerate sodium dodecyl sulfate rather than metabolize it. The process was energy dependent, and cell lysis occurred during stationary phase. Extreme detergent resistance may be characteristic of the genus Enterobacter.

Kramer, V C; Calabrese, D M; Nickerson, K W

1980-01-01

73

Correlation between sodium sulfate mass transfer and low-temperature hot corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass transfer model is developed that considers diffusive and chemical aspects of sodium sulfate formation and deposition on cooled blades of coal-fired gas turbines. The roles of gas phase condensation of sodium sulfate and multicomponent diffusion across a chemically frozen thin boundary layer are elaborated. A rational procedure is presented for correlating material wastage with laboratory weight gain data

R. K. Ahluwalia; K. H. Im

1988-01-01

74

Sodium sulfate from mine-effluent water as a raw material for the glass industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the products of the combined reprocessing of sulfate-chloride mine-effluent water is sodium sulfate the annual discharge of which in the brackish water from the Donbas mines (3-5 g\\/liter) alone is ~250,000 tons. The technology for the reprocessing of such water to obtain sodium sulfate has been described in the literature [2]. The aim of the present study was

V. I. Maksin; O. Z. Standritchuk; R. S. Zolotareva; I. A. Klyuchnik; L. D. Kravchenko

1985-01-01

75

Phylogeography of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria among Disturbed Sediments, Disclosed by Analysis of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes (dsrAB)  

PubMed Central

Sediment samples were collected worldwide from 16 locations on four continents (in New York, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Italy, Latvia, and South Korea) to assess the extent of the diversity and the distribution patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated sediments. The SRB communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) with NdeII digests. The fingerprints of dsrAB genes contained a total of 369 fluorescent TRFs, of which <20% were present in the GenBank database. The global sulfidogenic communities appeared to be significantly different among the anthropogenically impacted (petroleum-contaminated) sites, but nearly all were less diverse than pristine habitats, such as mangroves. A global SRB indicator species of petroleum pollution was not identified. However, several dsrAB gene sequences corresponding to hydrocarbon-degrading isolates or consortium members were detected in geographically widely separated polluted sites. Finally, a cluster analysis of the TRFLP fingerprints indicated that many SRB microbial communities were most similar on the basis of close geographic proximity (tens of kilometers). Yet, on larger scales (hundreds to thousands of kilometers) SRB communities could cluster with geographically widely separated sites and not necessarily with the site with the closest proximity. These data demonstrate that SRB populations do not adhere to a biogeographic distribution pattern similar to that of larger eukaryotic organisms, with the greatest species diversity radiating from the Indo-Pacific region. Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time.

Perez-Jimenez, J. R.; Kerkhof, L. J.

2005-01-01

76

Sodium sulfate solubilities in high temperature aqueous sodium chloride and sulfuric acid solutionspredictions of solubility, vapor pressure, acidity, and speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements of the solubility of sodium sulfate in aqueous solutions containing both sodium chloride and sulfuric acid in the temperature range 250 to 374C are reported. These measurements have been combined with previous data on the solubility of sodium sulfate in water, in aqueous sodium chloride, and in sulfuric acid solutions to produce a comprehensive model describing the solubility

M. H. Lietzke; William L. Marshall

1986-01-01

77

Recovery of sodium sulfate from farm drainage salt for use in reactive dyeing of cotton.  

PubMed

Agricultural drainage salt generated during irrigation of crops in San Joaquin Valley, California, exceeds 600,000 tons annually and cumulates in the field at a rapid rate. As a result, the waste is occupying more farmland for salt storage and disposal, thus causing serious concern to the environment and the local agricultural industry. In searching for a potential solution to reduce or eliminate the waste, the research describe herein explored the feasibility of producing a value-added product, sodium sulfate, from the waste and utilizing the product in textile dyeing. The results indicated that sodium sulfate could be produced from the salt and could be purified by a recrystalization method in a temperature range within the highest and lowest daily temperatures during summer in the valley. The recovered sodium sulfate samples, with purities ranging from 67 to 99.91%, were compared with commercially available sodium sulfate used in reactive dyeing of cotton fabrics. The salt samples recovered from Mendota, California (>98.8% sodium sulfate), cause little color difference in the dyeing with selected reactive dyes. The purified salt (III) (99.91% sodium sulfate) is more applicable for reactive dyeing of cotton fabrics since it has no deleterious effect. The recovered sodium sulfate from certain areas in the valley could not be employed in reactive dyeing due to the high level of impurities present. PMID:11529583

Jung, J; Sun, G

2001-08-15

78

Adverse reactions to sulfites  

PubMed Central

Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products.

Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

1985-01-01

79

Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate partitioning into lipid membranes.  

PubMed Central

The partition equilibria of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and lithium dodecyl sulfate between water and bilayer membranes were investigated with isothermal titration calorimetry and spectroscopic methods (light scattering, (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance) in the temperature range of 28 degrees C to 56 degrees C. The partitioning of the dodecyl sulfate anion (DS(-)) into the bilayer membrane is energetically favored by an exothermic partition enthalpy of Delta H(O)(D) = -6.0 kcal/mol at 28 degrees C. This is in contrast to nonionic detergents where Delta H(O)(D) is usually positive. The partition enthalpy decreases linearly with increasing temperature and the molar heat capacity is Delta C(O)(P) = -50 +/- 3 cal mol(-1) K(-1). The partition isotherm is nonlinear if the bound detergent is plotted versus the free detergent concentration in bulk solution. This is caused by the electrostatic repulsion between the DS(-) ions inserted into the membrane and those free in solution near the membrane surface. The surface concentration of DS(-) immediately above the plane of binding was hence calculated with the Gouy-Chapman theory, and a strictly linear relationship was obtained between the surface concentration and the extent of DS(-) partitioning. The surface partition constant K describes the chemical equilibrium in the absence of electrostatic effects. For the SDS-membrane equilibrium K was found to be 1.2 x 10(4) M(-1) to 6 x 10(4) M(-1) for the various systems and conditions investigated, very similar to data available for nonionic detergents of the same chain length. The membrane-micelle phase diagram was also studied. Complete membrane solubilization requires a ratio of 2.2 mol SDS bound per mole of total lipid at 56 degrees C. The corresponding equilibrium concentration of SDS free in solution is C (sat)(D,F) approximately 1.7 mM and is slightly below the critical micelles concentration (CMC) = 2.1 mM (at 56 degrees C and 0.11 M buffer). Membrane saturation occurs at approximately 0.3 mol SDS per mol lipid and the equilibrium SDS concentration is C (sat)(D,F)approximately equal 2.2 mM +/- 0.6 mM. SDS translocation across the bilayer is slow at ambient temperature but increases at high temperatures.

Tan, Anmin; Ziegler, Andre; Steinbauer, Bernhard; Seelig, Joachim

2002-01-01

80

Purification of fat-containing wastewater with a complex based on poly- N,N,N,N -trimethyl[methacryloyloxyethyl]ammonium methyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibility of using complexes based on poly-N,N,N,N-trimethyl[methacryloyloxyethyl]ammonium methyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate for purification of fat-containing wastewater\\u000a was examined.

Yu. V. Shulevich; T. Kh. Nguen; A. V. Navrotskii; I. A. Novakov

2009-01-01

81

Stimulation of F(1)-ATPase activity by sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

F(1)-ATPase is a rotary molecular motor in which the gamma subunit rotates inside the cylinder made of alpha(3)beta(3) subunits. We have studied the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the rotational and ATP hydrolysis activities of F(1)-ATPase. Bulk hydrolysis activity at various SDS concentrations was examined at 2mM ATP. Maximal stimulation was obtained at 0.003% (w/v) SDS, the initial (least inhibited) activity being about 1.4 times and the steady-state activity 3-4 times the values in the absence of SDS. Rotation rates observed with a 40-nm gold bead or a 0.29-mum bead duplex as well as the torque were unaffected by the presence of 0.003% SDS. The fraction of beads that rotated, in contrast, tended to increase in the presence of SDS. SDS seems to bring inactive F(1) molecules into an active form but it does not alter or enhance the function of already active F(1) molecules significantly. PMID:20044971

Hossain, Mohammad Delawar; Furuike, Shou; Onoue, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Kengo; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

2010-01-04

82

[Should toothpastes foam? Sodium lauryl sulfate--a toothpaste detergent in focus].  

PubMed

Sodium lauryl sulfate is one of the most widely used synthetic detergents in toothpaste. Generally, surface active agents lower the surface tension, penetrate and loosen surface deposits and emulsify or suspend the debris which the dentifrice removes from the tooth. The concentration in dentifrices usually ranges from 0.5-2.0%. It has previously been shown that sodium lauryl sulfate has the potential to initiate hypersensitivity to metal ions. Furthermore, the mucosal permeability will be increased to oil and water soluble compounds. Experiments from this laboratory indicate that sodium lauryl sulfate will interact with the deposition of fluoride on dental enamel. It is furthermore suggested that this interaction may have the potential to decrease the cariostatic effect of fluorides. Clinical studies from Denmark give support to this statement. In conclusion, sodium lauryl sulfate has some side effects, and future work should therefore be concentrated on finding other possible toothpaste detergents without these side effects. PMID:2696932

Barkvoll, P

1989-02-01

83

Sodium Sulfate Hot Corrosion of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Calcium Aluminosilicate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of sodium sulfate hot corrosion on the microstructure of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffracti...

M. A. Oppici

1995-01-01

84

Cellulose extraction from orange peel using sulfite digestion reagents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orange peel (OP) was used as raw material for cellulose extraction. Two different pulping reagents were used, sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite. The effect of the main process parameters, sulfite agent dosage and reaction duration, on cellulose yield was investigated. A central composite rotatable design involving two variables at five levels and response surface methodology were used for the optimization

Ioan Bicu; Fanica Mustata

2011-01-01

85

How does sodium sulfate crystallize? Implications for the decay and testing of building materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental behavior of sodium sulfate crystallization and induced decay in concrete and other building materials is still poorly understood, resulting in some misinterpretation and controversy. We experimentally show that under real world conditions, both thenardite (Na2SO4) and mirabilite (Na2SO410H2O) precipitate directly from a saturated sodium sulfate solution at room temperature (20C). With decreasing relative humidity (RH) and increasing evaporation

Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro; Eric Doehne; Eduardo Sebastian

2000-01-01

86

The role of saline solution properties on porous limestone salt weathering by magnesium and sodium sulfates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline solution properties, viscosity in particular, are shown to be critical in salt weathering associated with sodium and\\u000a magnesium sulfate crystallization in porous limestone. The crystallization of sodium and magnesium sulfate within a porous\\u000a limestone has been studied at a macro- and microscale using different techniques, including mercury intrusion porosimetry,\\u000a environmental scanning microscopy and X-ray computed tomography. Such analysis enabled

E. Ruiz-Agudo; F. Mees; P. Jacobs; C. Rodriguez-Navarro

2007-01-01

87

SEPARATION OF SODIUM SULFATE AND p-TOLUENE SULFONIC ACID BY ELECTRODIALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrodialysis process is proposed to achieve efficient separation of sodium sulfate from its mixture with p-toluene sulfonic acid. In this process, interpolymer type ion-exchange membranes were used due to their higher chemical stability and durability. Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale electrodialysis unit with an effective area of 65cm and 10 cell pairs, at different compositions of sodium sulfate

Vinod K. Shahi; S. K. Thampy; A. K. Siddhanta; R. Rangarajan

2002-01-01

88

Phenyl methimazole suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease characterized by abnormally increased expression of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in colonic epithelial cells, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12), chemokines (e.g., IP-10), and endothelial cell adhesion molecules (e.g., VCAM-1), plus enhanced leukocyte infiltration into colonic interstitium. Previously, we have shown that phenyl methimazole (C10) markedly decreases virally-induced TLR-3 expression and signaling and potently inhibits both TNF-alpha-induced VCAM-1 expression and the resultant leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. In this study we probed the hypothesis that C10 is efficacious in a TLR-4- and VCAM-1-associated murine model [the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model] of human colitis. C10 was administered intraperitoneally coincident with or after DSS treatment was initiated. Macroscopic colon observations revealed that C10 significantly reversed DSS-induced shortening of the colon (P<0.05) and reduced the presence of blood in the colon. Histological analyses of colonic tissues revealed that C10 distinctly attenuated both DSS-induced edema as well as leukocyte infiltration in the colonic mucosa and resulted in pronounced protection against DSS-induced crypt damage (P<0.001). Northern blot analyses and immunohistochemistry of colonic tissue revealed that C10 markedly diminished DSS-induced expression of pertinent inflammatory mediators: TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-12, IP-10, TLR-4 and VCAM-1. Most importantly, C10 significantly improved survival and protected mice against DSS-induced colitic-death: 75% by comparison to 12.5% with identical treatment with DMSO-control (log rank test: P=0.005). These results provide direct evidence that C10 suppresses DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting expression of key inflammatory mediators and leukocyte infiltration, and is a potentially attractive therapeutic for colitis. PMID:20550948

Benavides, Uruguaysito; Gonzalez-Murguiondo, Mariana; Harii, Norikazu; Lewis, Christopher J; Sakhalkar, Harshad S; Deosarkar, Sudhir P; Kurjiaka, David T; Dagia, Nilesh M; Goetz, Douglas J; Kohn, Leonard D

2010-06-13

89

[Parameters of interaction of sodium dodecyl sulfate with human hemoglobin].  

PubMed

It was shown that sodium dodecyl sulfate at concentrations not exceeding the critical micelle concentrations (0-1.9 mM) induced the conversion of oxy- and methemoglobin but not deoxyhemoglobin to hemichrome. The concentration dependences of hemichrome formation were represented as Hill plots, and the parameters of detergent binding were estimated. OxyHb in 20 mM potassium-phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, has two groups of binding sites: the first group is characterized by the Hill constant n1 = 2 and the concentration of half saturation [SDS]50 = 0.8 mM, and the second group is characterized by the Hill constant n2 = 8 and [SDS]50 = 0.9 mM. In the case of metHb one group of binding sites with the Hill constant n = 2 and half saturation concentration [SDS]50 = 0.2 mM was observed. An increase in environmental pH to 7.9 decreased the affinity of Hb for SDS. It is suggested that primary binding sites for SDS in oxyHb coincide with the anion-binding center of the Hb molecule. The interaction of the detergent with these binding sites induced a structural transition of the hemoprotein molecule. As a result of this transition, secondary binding sites were exposed. In a model system (hemin--imidazole in ethanol solution), the enthalpy of the transition of hemin from a high-spin to a low-spin state was estimated to be 47 +/- 7 kJ/mol. PMID:11094702

Zavodnik, I B; Lapshina, E A

90

Time measurement-visual analysis of L-cysteine using the autocatalytic sodium sulfite/hydrogen peroxide reaction system and its application to length detection-flow analysis.  

PubMed

Trace amounts of L-cysteine can function as a trigger, i.e., reaction initiator, in the autocatalytic sodium sulfite/hydrogen peroxide reaction system. Rapidly changing of pH after induction time is visually confirmed by color changing of bromothymol blue in this autocatalytic reaction. Based on this finding, microg L(-1) levels of L-cysteine were measured over time using the autocatalytic reaction system. The determination range using the above method was 5.0 x 10(-8)-2.5 x 10(-6)M, the detection limit (3 sigma) was 1.8 x 10(-8)M (1.94 microg L(-1)), and the relative standard deviation was 2.41% at an l-cysteine concentration of 5 x 10(-7)M (n=5). This method was also applied to length detection-flow injection analysis. The determination range for the flow injection analysis was 2.0 x 10(-7)-1.0 x 10(-5)M. The detection limit (3 sigma) was 1.4 x 10(-7)M (17.0 microg L(-1)), and the relative standard deviation was 0.91% at an initial L-cysteine concentration of 10(-6)M (n=5). PMID:19615525

Kato, Jun; Chiba, Michihito; Igarashi, Shukuro

2009-02-10

91

Simultaneous electrochemical measurement method of histamine and N(?)-methylhistamine by high-performance liquid chromatography-amperometry with o-phthalaldehyde-sodium sulfite derivatization.  

PubMed

An electrochemical detection (ECD) method for analyzing sub-micro amounts of histamine (HA) and N(?)-methylhistamine (N(?)-MHA) in biological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-amperometry has been developed. The method consists of a precolumn derivatization of the amines with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)) to N-alkyl-1-isoindole sulfonate and posterior separation with the HPLC system. Biological samples were pretreated by using a Vivapure sulfonic acid minifilter in which the reaction of the reagent with the amines took place during filtering. HA and N(?)-MHA retention times were 11.8 0.02 and 18.3 0.03 min, respectively (means standard deviations, n = 3). The lowest limit of amperometric detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1 was 0.125 pmol in both cases. HA and N(?)-MHA contents in hypothalamus, cortex, skin, and fundic gland, as well as histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT) activities of mast cell-deficient (Ws/Ws) and Wistar rats, were measured and compared with an HPLC-fluorometry system, among other experiments, in order to validate and demonstrate the usefulness of this assay system. Hence, this consequently confirms not only the sensitivity and specificity of the assay but also the potential and convenience it offers to laboratory work, especially in the analysis of the regulation of histaminergic neurons as well as enzymatic investigation of HA metabolism. PMID:23017876

Maldonado, Martin; Maeyama, Kazutaka

2012-09-24

92

Study on the bile salt, sodium scymnol sulfate, from Rhizoprionodon acutus. IV. Structures of chimaerol and sodium chimaerol sulfate in the bile of Lamna ditropis and Rhizoprionodon acutus.  

PubMed

Sodium chimaerol sulfate (1) was isolated from the bile of Lamna ditropis and Rhizoprionodon acutus by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20, together with sodium scymnol sulfates, (24R,25S)- and (24R,25R)-(+)-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24,26-pentahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-27-yl sodium sulfates (3 and 4) and 3, respectively. On acid hydrolysis, compound 1 afforded chimaerol (2), which was identified as (24R,25R)-(+)-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24,26-pentol by direct comparison with an authentic sample, prepared by reduction of (24R,25S)-(+)-24,26-epoxy-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,27-tetrol (5) with LiAlH4. The structure of 1 was concluded to be (24R,25R)-(+)-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-26-yl sodium sulfate, based on the chemical transformation and spectral data. PMID:7697766

Ishida, H; Yamamoto, N; Nukaya, H; Tsuji, K; Kosuge, T

1994-12-01

93

Energy efficient process for recycling sodium sulfate utilizing ceramic solid electrolyte. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major development effort was undertaken at Cerarnatec to increase the sodium transport rates and transport efficiency of NaSICON membranes for recycling sodium sulfate. A novel NaSICON composition (NAS-D) and its doped versions were developed that exhib...

1999-01-01

94

Nucleation and crystal growth of calcium sulfite hemihydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In slurry scrubbing processes for flue gas desulfurization the precipitation rate of calcium sulfite affects scrubber solution composition, SO absorption, sulfite oxidation, and limestone utilization. Sludge quality and disposal costs are also a function of precipitation kinetics. The nucleation and crystal growth rates of calcium sulfate hemihydrate were measured in a continuous flow crystallizer at conditions that produced agglomerate crystals,

C. L. Gleason; G. T. Rochelle

2009-01-01

95

Structure-Based Alteration of Substrate Specificity and Catalytic Activity of Sulfite Oxidase from Sulfite Oxidation to Nitrate Reduction  

SciTech Connect

Eukaryotic sulfite oxidase is a dimeric protein that contains the molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the metabolically essential conversion of sulfite to sulfate as the terminal step in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine. Nitrate reductase is an evolutionarily related molybdoprotein in lower organisms that is essential for growth on nitrate. In this study, we describe human and chicken sulfite oxidase variants in which the active site has been modified to alter substrate specificity and activity from sulfite oxidation to nitrate reduction. On the basis of sequence alignments and the known crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase, two residues are conserved in nitrate reductases that align with residues in the active site of sulfite oxidase. On the basis of the crystal structure of yeast nitrate reductase, both positions were mutated in human sulfite oxidase and chicken sulfite oxidase. The resulting double-mutant variants demonstrated a marked decrease in sulfite oxidase activity but gained nitrate reductase activity. An additional methionine residue in the active site was proposed to be important in nitrate catalysis, and therefore, the triple variant was also produced. The nitrate reducing ability of the human sulfite oxidase triple mutant was nearly 3-fold greater than that of the double mutant. To obtain detailed structural data for the active site of these variants, we introduced the analogous mutations into chicken sulfite oxidase to perform crystallographic analysis. The crystal structures of the Mo domains of the double and triple mutants were determined to 2.4 and 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, respectively.

Qiu, James A.; Wilson, Heather L.; Rajagopalan, K.V. (Duke)

2012-04-18

96

A Viscometric Study of the Micelles of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate in Dilute Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscosities of solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate of concentrations up to 0.8 percent in distilled water and in 0.01- to 0.12-Af sodium chloride have been measured. By introduc- ing the concept of a monomer saturation concentration it is possible to determine the intrinsic viscosity of the micelles at each concentration of sodium chloride. A method for the experimental determination

Lawrence M. Kushner; Blanton C. Duncan; James I. Hoffman

1952-01-01

97

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Dextran Sulfate as Microbicides against Herpes Simplex and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a sulfated anionic chaotropic surfactant, and dextran sulfate (DS), a polysulfated carbohydrate, against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections was evaluated in cultured cells and in different murine models of HSV infection. Results showed that both SLS and DS were potent inhibitors of the infectivities of various HSV-1 and

JOCELYNE PIRET; JULIE LAMONTAGNE; JULIE BESTMAN-SMITH; SYLVIE ROY; PIERRETTE GOURDE; RABEEA F. OMAR; JULIANNA JUHASZ; MICHEL G. BERGERON

98

Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.  

PubMed

This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. PMID:21527324

Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

2011-04-16

99

Roles of sulfite oxidoreductase and sulfite reductase in improving desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus erythropolis has been widely studied for desulfurization. However, activity levels required for commercial application have not been achieved. A major limitation of the current work in biodesulfurization is inadequate information regarding sulfur metabolism generally, and in particular the metabolism of the sulfur obtained from dibenzothiophene (DBT) metabolism via the 4S pathway. In this work, we have investigated the possible routes taken by the sulfur from DBT to convert into biomass or other metabolites. We propose two alternate hypotheses. In the first, we hypothesize that the cell can convert via sulfite reductase (SR) the sulfite from the metabolism of DBT into sulfide that can be assimilated into biomass. However, in the process, it may convert any excess sulfite into extracellular sulfate via sulfite oxidoreductase (SOR) to avoid the toxic effects of sulfite. In the second, we speculate that the cell cannot assimilate the sulfite directly into biomass via SR. It must first use SOR to produce extracellular sulfate, and then recapture that sulfate into biomass via SR. Thus, either way, we propose that SOR and SR activities, in addition to dsz genes and cofactors, may be critical in increasing desulfurization levels significantly. In particular, we suggest that the simultaneous increase in SOR activity and decrease in SR activity can enable increased desulfurization activity. PMID:22832889

Aggarwal, Shilpi; Karimi, I A; Kilbane Ii, John J; Lee, Dong Yup

2012-10-01

100

Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about l.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodcyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks.

Ward, R.L. (Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, C.S.

1980-06-01

101

Interaction of cationic monomer with sodium dodecyl sulfate in dilute aqueous solutions: ESR study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a cationic monomer (N,N,N,N-trimethyl[methacryloxyethyl]ammonium methyl sulfate) on the formation, structure, and local dynamics of associates resulted\\u000a from the interaction of the monomer with sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions was studied by ESR spectroscopy. In the\\u000a presence of the monomer, micelles are formed at concentrations much lower than the CMC of the pure surfactant with the monomer

M. V. Motyakin; Yu. V. Shulevich; Yu. A. Zakharova; A. M. Vasserman; A. V. Navrotskii; I. A. Novakov

2009-01-01

102

Durability of self-consolidating concrete to different exposure regimes of sodium sulfate attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the durability of a wide scope of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixture designs to sodium sulfate\\u000a attack. The mixture design variables included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment,\\u000a sand-to-aggregate ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. Since current standard test methods (e.g. ASTM C 1012) generally do\\u000a not address various sulfate attack exposure scenarios that may

M. T. Bassuoni; M. L. Nehdi

2009-01-01

103

Cooperative alpha-helix formation of beta-lactoglobulin induced by sodium n-alkyl sulfates.  

PubMed

It is generally assumed that folding intermediates contain partially formed native-like secondary structures. However, if we consider the fact that the conformational stability of the intermediate state is simpler than that of the native state, it would be expected that the secondary structures in a folding intermediate would not necessarily be similar to those of the native state. beta-Lactoglobulin is a predominantly beta-sheet protein, although it has a markedly high intrinsic preference for alpha-helical structure. The formation of non-native alpha-helical intermediate of beta-lactoglobulin was induced by n-alkyl sulfates including sodium octyl sulfate, SOS; sodium decyl sulfate, SDeS; sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS; and sodium tetradecyl sulfate, STS at special condition. The effect of n-alkyl sulfates on the structure of native beta-lactoglobulin at pH 2 was utilized to investigate the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to the stability of non-native alpha-helical intermediate. The addition of various concentrations of n-alkyl sulfates to the native state of beta-lactoglobulin (pH 2) appears to support the stabilized form of non-native alpha-helical intermediate at pH 2. The m values of the intermediate state of beta-lactoglobulin by SOS, SDeS, SDS and STS showed substantial variation. The enhancement of m values as the stability criterion of non-native alpha-helical intermediate state corresponded with increasing chain length of the cited n-alkyl sulfates. The present results suggest that the folding reaction of beta-lactoglobulin follows a non-hierarchical mechanism and hydrophobic interactions play important roles in stabilizing the non-native alpha-helical intermediate state. PMID:15996676

Chamani, J; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Rajabi, O; Gharanfoli, M; Momen-Heravi, M; Hakimelahi, G H; Neamati-Baghsiah, A; Varasteh, A R

2005-07-05

104

Synthetic detergents from animal fats. Disodium alpha-sulfopalmitate and sodium oleyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryDisodium ?-sulfopalmitate and homologous compounds were prepared by sulfonation of the fat acid with liquid sulfur trioxide.\\u000a Sodium oleyl sulfate was prepared in an estimated 95% purity by sulfation of oleyl alcohol with pyridine-sulfur trioxide.\\u000a The solubility, surface tension, wetting, foaming, and detergent properties of these and related compounds were measured.\\u000a \\u000a Disodium ?-sulfopalmitate is potentially inexpensive, has adequate surface active

A. J. Stirton; J. K. Weil; Anna A. Stawitzke; S. James

1952-01-01

105

Study on pharmacological effect of bile salts, sodium scymnol sulfate, from Rhizoprionodon acutus. I. Effect of scymnol, chimaerol and sodium scymnol sulfate on cerebral anoxia.  

PubMed

The effects of scymnol, chimaerol and sodium scymnol sulfate, prepared from the bile of Rhizoprionodon acutus, on cerebral anoxia were investigated in experimental models of hypoxia, ischemia and histotoxic anoxia in mice. Scymnol, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, showed a significant protective action against cerebral anoxia in all of the models studied and significantly increased the partial oxygen pressure of the arterial blood. The anti-anoxic activity of scymnol was found to be slightly greater than that of idevenone. A similar protective effect of sodium scymnol sulfate was seen at doses higher than 100 mg/kg. The survival time on hypoxia was significantly prolonged in the animals pretreated with chimaerol. PMID:7697769

Ishida, H; Kinoshita, S; Yamamoto, N; Nukaya, H; Tsuji, K; Kosuge, T

1994-12-01

106

Sodium and sulfate ion transport in yeast vacuoles.  

PubMed

The intra-luminal acidic pH of endomembrane organelles is established by a proton pump, vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), in combination with other ion transporter(s). The proton gradient (DeltapH) established in yeast vacuolar vesicles decreased and reached the lower value after the addition of alkaline cations including Na(+). As expected, the uptake of (22)Na(+) was coupled with DeltapH generated by V-ATPase. Disruption of NHX1 or NHA1, encoding known Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, did not result in the loss of (22)Na(+) uptake or the alkaline cation-dependent DeltapH decrease. Upon the addition of sulfate ions, the V-ATPase-dependent DeltapH in the vacuolar vesicles increased, but the membrane potential (DeltaPsi) decreased. Consistent with this observation, radioactive sulfate was transported into the vesicles with a K(m) value of 0.07 mM. The transport activity was unaffected upon disruption of the putative genes coding for homologues of plasma membrane sulfate transporters. These results indicate that the vacuoles exhibit unique Na(+)/H(+) antiport and sulfate transport, which regulate the luminal pH and ion homeostasis in yeast. PMID:11820941

Hirata, Tomoyuki; Wada, Yoh; Futai, Masamitsu

2002-02-01

107

Effect of sulfate ions on corrosion inhibition of AA 7075 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the addition of sulfate ions on corrosion inhibition of Aluminum Association (AA) 7075 aluminum (Al) alloy (UNS A97075) in aqueous solution was studied. Corrosion behavior was affected significantly by the addition of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. The corrosion morphology and corrosion rate changed with various thermomechanical treatment sand with the relative amount of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the immersion test solutions. However, the inhibitive effect of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} was evident with the increasing relative amount of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Corrosion data and morphologies obtained were illustrated by a competitive anion adsorption mechanism.

Wu, T.I. [Tatung Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Wu, J.K. [National Taiwan Ocean Univ., Keelung (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Marine Materials Engineering

1995-03-01

108

Prevention of sodium lauryl sulfate irritant contact dermatitis by Pro-Q aerosol foam skin protectant.  

PubMed

Eczematous skin disease is a serious work-related illness. Since 1995, reimbursement by insurance companies for treatment of skin diseases has become the largest cost source in some countries. This study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 20) of the efficacy of Pro-Q, a skin protectant product, in the prevention of contact dermatitis from sodium lauryl sulfate and urushiol, the resinous sap of poison ivy and poison oak. Pro-Q was significantly effective in reducing the irritation from sodium lauryl sulfate but did not prevent the allergic reaction to urushiol. PMID:10321615

Patterson, S E; Williams, J V; Marks, J G

1999-05-01

109

Micellar behaviour of sodium dodecyl sulfate in presence of a cationic dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye adsorption spectroscopy has been used as a tool to determine cmc of anionic and cationic surfactants in water. The effect\\u000a of pH and sodium chloride was examined on cmc. The dye was found to interact with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles but\\u000a did not interact with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). In phosphate buffer and NaCl, the cmc of SDS

H. Singh; Sahab Singh; Onkar Singh

110

Sensory and Associated Reactions to Mineral Dusts: Sodium Borate, Calcium Oxide, and Calcium Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure limits (OELs) for irritant dusts have had no quantifiable bases. This study (1) charted chemosensory feel, denoted chemesthesis here, to dusts of calcium oxide (1 to 5 mg\\/m), sodium tetraborate pentahydrate [sodium borate] (5 to 40 mg\\/m), and calcium sulfate (10 to 40 mg\\/m); (2) examined correlates of the chemesthetic sensations; and (3) sought to illuminate the basis

William S. Cain; Alfredo A. Jalowayski; Michael Kleinman; Nam-Soo Lee; Bo-Ryung Lee; Byung-Hoon Ahn; Kevin Magruder; Roland Schmidt; Brian K. Hillen; Craig B. Warren; B. Dwight Culver

2004-01-01

111

Micelle to solvent stacking of organic cations in micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The on-line sample concentration technique, micelle to solvent stacking (MSS), was studied for small organic cations (quaternary ammonium herbicides, ?-blocker drugs, and tricyclic antidepressant drugs) in reversed migration micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Electrokinetic chromatography was carried out in fused silica capillaries with a background solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a low pH phosphate buffer. MSS was performed using anionic

Joselito P. Quirino; Agnes T. Aranas

2011-01-01

112

Suppression of surfactant interferences in anodic stripping voltammetry by sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was investigated whether interferences from surfactants in anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) could be remedied by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) which causes little or no interference in itself. Cadmium and lead were used as test analytes, and measurements were performed in acetate buffer as well as in 0.1 M HNO3. One hundred parts per million of the

Boy Hoyer; Nina Jensen

2003-01-01

113

The effect of cosurfactants on sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar structures at a graphite surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) self assembles at hydrophobic graphite surfaces forming linear parallel hemicylinders with approximately 5nm spacing between adjacent hemicylinders. In this paper, we report the effect of cosurfactants on the SDS surface micelle structures. It is known from the literature that cosurfactants influence the relaxation times of bulk phase micelles. Specifically, the relaxation times of SDS micelles increase

Vamsi K. Paruchuri; Jakub Nalaskowski; Dinesh O. Shah; Jan D. Miller

2006-01-01

114

Interaction of cefadroxyl monohydrate with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction of a cephalosporin antibiotic drug, cefadroxyl monohydrate (CFM) with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), a cationic surfactant, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, has been studied in aqueous medium by conductivity measurement over a range of temperatures and salt concentrations. Values of critical micelle concentration (c?), degree of micelle ionization (?), and thermodynamic parameters have been determined for

Farida Akhtar; Mohammed Abdullah Khan

2008-01-01

115

A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE (SDS) SEDIMENTATION TEST FOR WHEAT MEALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sedimentation tests have long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. However, the use of the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation test AACC International Approved Method 56-70 for durum wheat has not been characterized...

116

Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy

Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

2011-01-01

117

Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method  

SciTech Connect

A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility.

Lee, C.Y.G. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada); Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

1982-06-01

118

Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate on hydrotalcite and adsolubilization of 2-naphthol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption behavior of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on hydrotalcite was investigated by measuring the amount of SDS adsorbed, ? potential and pyrene fluorescence spectra of suspensions. The amount of SDS adsorbed increased sharply and then reached a plateau with SDS concentration, accompanying the change of ? potential from positive to negative. The X-ray diffraction and fluorescence measurements show that the

Kunio Esumi; Syuji Yamamoto

1998-01-01

119

Stabilization of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers\\/sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes via PEGylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the robust structure of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, they are not stable when complexed with surfactants. Modification of PAMAM dendrimers by grafting PEG chains on the surface of PAMAM substantially improves its colloidal stability in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Michael addition reaction was employed to synthesize PEGylated-PAMAM by activating MPEG with 4-nitrophenylchloroformate. 1H NMR spectrum confirmed that

Ai H. Lim; Kam C. Tam

2011-01-01

120

Multilayer Films from Phenolic ResinSodium Dodecyl Sulfate Complex and Polycations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel multilayer ultrathin films of PRSDSPC were fabricated by employing the complex of phenolic resin (PR) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a complex polyanion and various polycations (PCs). The resulting films were etched quickly when being immersed in polar organic solvents due to the weak hydrophobic interaction between PR and SDS. By employing the photosensitive diazo resin (DR) as

Yongjun Zhang; Weixiao Cao; Jian Xu

2002-01-01

121

Diffusion Coefficients of Three Organic Solutes in Aqueous Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracer diffusion coefficients of phenol, toluene, and benzoic acid in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were measured by the Taylor dispersion technique. In addition, the viscosities and densities of the SDS solutions were measured. For phenol and toluene, the effect of micelle formation on the diffusion coefficient is pronounced. When the SDS concentration is below the critical micelle

Xiao-ning Yang; Michael A. Matthews

2000-01-01

122

Infrared reflectivity study of the phase transitions in sodium ammonium sulfate dihydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports a detailed infrared reflectivity investigation of the phase transitions in single crystals of sodium ammonium sulfate dihydrate (SASD). The polarized reflectivity spectra allow us to follow the temperature dependence of the polar vibrational modes and detect the critical behaviour of the vibrational parameters through the two low temperature structural phase transitions observed in the compound. The results

J L Ribeiro; L G Vieira; I Tarroso Gomes; J Agostinho Moreira; A Almeida; M R Chaves; M L Santos; P P Alferes

2006-01-01

123

Rebamipide Enema is Effective for Treatment of Experimental Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Colitis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated therapeutic efficacy of rebamipide using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis model in rats. Three percent DSS solution was given to rats for 9 days. After that, we evaluated the drug efficacy on colitis sustained with continuous drinking of 1% DSS. Twice-daily treatment with 0.3% or 1% rebamipide for 14 days significantly ameliorated the stool abnormality in the

Takako Nakashima; Takashi Maeda; Hisashi Nagamoto; Takeshi Kumakura; Masaaki Takai; Toyoki Mori

2005-01-01

124

Electrochemical behavior of cobalt oxide coatings on cold-rolled steel in alkaline sodium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behavior of a coating of cobalt oxide on cold-rolled steel in alkaline sodium sulfate was studied using the electrochemical techniques of open-circuit potential measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coating was prepared at different annealing temperatures ranging from 350 to 750 C and characterized by SEM, EDX and XRD. Below 550 C the composition of the coating was

G. C. Silva; C. S. Fugivara; G. Tremiliosi Filho; P. T. A. Sumodjo; A. V. Benedetti

2002-01-01

125

Sodium Sulfate Corrosion of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Calcium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hot corrosion effects of Sodium Sulfate (NaSO4) coated Calcium Aluminosilicate (CAS)/Silicon Carbide (SiC) reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and X-r...

P. J. Newton

1994-01-01

126

Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in Dissolution Media on Dissolution of Hard Gelatin Capsule Shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a commonly used surfactant in dissolution media for poorly water soluble drugs. However, it has occasionally been observed that SLS negatively impacts the dissolution of drug products formulated in gelatin capsules. This study investigated the effect of SLS on the dissolution of hard gelatin capsule shells.

Fang Zhao; Vyacheslav Malayev; Venkatramana Rao; Munir Hussain

2004-01-01

127

Spectroscopic study on the precipitation of sodium alkyl sulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride.  

PubMed

The precipitation of sodium alkyl sulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride was obtained under optimized conditions. The conditions for the most efficient formation of precipitates were obtained as longer alkyl chain length of alkyl sulfate (C(14)), higher pH (pH 12), 1.5 M NaCl, and equimolar ratio between anionic and cationic surfactants. The structures and physical properties of surfactant precipitates were investigated with SEM, UV-vis, and FT-IR spectroscopy and light scattering. The precipitate of sodium alkyl sulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride was studied with the pressure-area isotherm at the air/water interface. In addition, the surface morphology of the Langmuir-Blodgett film of surfactant precipitate was observed with atomic force microscopy. PMID:17603067

Song, Hwan Young; Oh, Sun Wha; Moon, Sung Doo; Kang, Young Soo

2007-07-02

128

The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30 to 80C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O66H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (<5 mum). Complex phase assemblages including gypsum, ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

Clark, Boyd Arthur

129

Synthesis of an isomeric mixture (24RS,25RS) of sodium scymnol sulfate.  

PubMed

This is the first reported multistep synthesis of the shark bile sterol sodium scymnol sulfate epimeric at the C-24 hydroxyl and C-27 sulfate positions. The starting cholic acid was protected as the tetrahydropyran ether (THP) derivative, reduced to the C-24 alcohol and oxidized to the protected aldehyde. This aldehyde was then coupled with methyl 3-hydroxypropionate using 2equiv. of lithium diethylamide at -65 degrees C to produce methyl (24RS,25RS)-24,27-dihydroxy-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,tris[(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)oxy]-5beta-cholestan-26-oate. After protecting the 24 and 27 hydroxyls as the THP derivatives, this fully protected ester was then reduced to the monoalcohol. The monoalcohol was sulfated using the sulfur trioxide-triethylamine complex in dimethylformamide. The protective THP groups were removed with methanolic HCl and the sulfate was converted to the sodium salt with sodium ethoxide in methanol. This general synthetic scheme has application to produce a range of monosulfated sterols. PMID:18255112

Harney, Donald W; Macrides, Theodore A

2007-12-15

130

Behaviour of Nafion 350 membrane in sodium sulfate electrochemical splitting: continuous process modelling and pilot scale tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-compartment membrane electrolysis cell is used to split sodium sulfate into sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. The cell is equipped with a Nafion 350 cation-exchange membrane. Due to the dissociation of the strong acid, free hydrogen ions migrate through the membrane together with sodium ions. This transfer decreases current efficiency. The transport properties of Nafion 350 membrane are studied

M. Rakib; Ph. Mootguy; Ph. Viers; E. Petit; G. Durand

1999-01-01

131

Synthesis, antiviral and contraceptive activities of nucleosidesodium cellulose sulfate acetate and succinate conjugates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical conjugates between sodium cellulose sulfate (CS), displaying contraceptive and HIV-entry inhibiting properties, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (3?-azido-2?,3?-dideoxythymidine (AZT), 3?-fluoro-2?,3?-dideoxythymidine (FLT), or 2?,3?-dideoxy-3?-thiacytidine (3TC)) were designed to simultaneously provide contraceptive and anti-HIV activity. Two linkers, acetate and succinate, were used to conjugate the nucleoside analogs with CS. The conjugates containing cellulose sulfate-acetate (CSA) (e.g., AZTCSA and FLTCSA) were

Hitesh K. Agarwal; Anil Kumar; Gustavo F. Doncel; Keykavous Parang

2010-01-01

132

Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation  

PubMed Central

Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 23 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (?60 and 200 s1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Enemark, John H.; Kappler, Ulrike

2009-01-01

133

Sulfonates as Terminal Electron Acceptors for Growth of Sulfite-Reducing Bacteria (Desulfitobacterium spp.) and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Effects of Inhibitors of Sulfidogenesis  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates the ability of Desulfitobacterium spp. to utilize aliphatic sulfonates as terminal electron acceptors (TEA) for growth. Isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) reduction by Desulfitobacterium hafniense resulted in acetate as well as sulfide accumulation in accordance with the expectation that the carbon portion of isethionate was oxidized to acetate and the sulfur was reduced to sulfide. The presence of a polypeptide, approximately 97 kDa, was evident in isethionate-grown cells of Desulfitobacterium hafniense, Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE 1, and the two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)Desulfovibrio desulfuricans IC1 (T. J. Lie, J. R. Leadbetter, and E. R. Leadbetter, Geomicrobiol. J. 15:135149, 1998) and Desulfomicrobium norvegicum; this polypeptide was not detected when these bacteria were grown on TEA other than isethionate, suggesting involvement in its metabolism. The sulfate analogs molybdate and tungstate, effective in inhibiting sulfate reduction by SRB, were examined for their effects on sulfonate reduction. Molybdate effectively inhibited sulfonate reduction by strain IC1 and selectively inhibited isethionate (but not cysteate) reduction by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans and Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE 1. Desulfitobacterium hafniense, however, grew with both isethionate and cysteate in the presence of molybdate. In contrast, tungstate only partially inhibited sulfonate reduction by both SRB and Desulfitobacterium spp. Similarly, another inhibitor of sulfate reduction, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, effectively inhibited sulfate reduction by SRB but only partially inhibited sulfonate reduction by both SRB and Desulfitobacterium hafniense.

Lie, Thomas J.; Godchaux, Walter; Leadbetter, Edward R.

1999-01-01

134

Nanografting sodium dodecyl sulfate under potential control: new insights into tip-directed molecular assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated that under potential control, sodium dodecyl sulfate can form ordered and stable patterns within nanoscale regions of a pre-existing SAM where thiol molecules have been mechanically removed. The results offer novel insights into the mechanism of nanografting and new routes to fabricating diverse chemical structures on surfaces.We have demonstrated that under potential control, sodium dodecyl sulfate can form ordered and stable patterns within nanoscale regions of a pre-existing SAM where thiol molecules have been mechanically removed. The results offer novel insights into the mechanism of nanografting and new routes to fabricating diverse chemical structures on surfaces. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods; additional AFM images of nanografted SDS; control experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00771e

Josephs, Eric A.; Shao, Jingru; Ye, Tao

2013-05-01

135

The influence of sodium lauryl sulfate on the crystal phases of titania by hydrothermal method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we prepared TiO2 nanostructures by a hydrothermal method and investigated the influence of the SO4^{2-} ion and the effect of long alkyl chains of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the crystal phases of TiO2 by experiments and theoretical calculations. The results indicate that the absorption of the H+HSO4 fragment on rutile (110) is more stable than that of the 2H+SO4 fragment and more favorable to the formation of anatase. The absorption and steric effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the surfaces of TiO2 grains also have an important influence on the formation of mixed crystals by changing the speed and the way of octahedral TiO6 units combining. Based on the above facts, we revised the original reaction scheme for crystalline titania formation by previous authors.

Liu, Chaohong; Wang, Xin

2012-11-01

136

Synergistic Behavior Between Zwitterionic Surfactant ?-Decylbetaine and Anionic Surfactant Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we present experimental surface tension isotherms of mixed solutions of a zwitterionic surfactant ?-decylbetaine (DB)\\u000a and an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in different molar ratios. These mixed solutions show a composition\\u000a dependency with respect to both surface tension effectiveness and critical micelle concentration. The pseudo-regular solution\\u000a theory has been used to evaluate the interaction parameters in the

Ze-yun Wang; Shu-fen Zhang; Yun Fang; Li-yun Qi

2010-01-01

137

ETTRINGITE FORMATION IN LOW C 3A PORTLAND CEMENT EXPOSED TO SODIUM SULFATE SOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four low-C3A Portland cements with different C3S content (40 to 74%) were stored for two years in sodium sulfate solution. Expansion and flexural strength were monitored as mechanical properties, while the microstructural changes were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy using X-ray microanalysis. For this cement type, the alteration processes can be described by three stages: induction, gypsum

M. A. Gonzlez; E. F. Irassar

1997-01-01

138

Biodegradation of diesel oil by cold-adapted microorganisms in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different concentrations of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on biodegradation of diesel oil was assessed during 32 days at 10C, under simulated environmental conditions, in liquid culture and in an alpine soil. Low SDS concentrations (50100 mg 1?1) significantly enhanced oil biodegradation by a psychrotrophic inoculum in liquid culture, whereas higher SDS concentrations (5001000 mg

R. Margesin; F. Schinner

1999-01-01

139

Activity, structural and stability changes of mushroom tyrosinase by sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cresolase and catecholase activities of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) were optimized in the presence of 0.35 and 0.5 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), respectively, at pH 6.8 and 20C. While far-UV circular dichroism (CD) studies ruled out the possibilities of any changes in the secondary structure of the enzyme, near-UV CD results indicated conformational changes in the MT structure. In addition,

F Karbassi; K Haghbeen; A. A Saboury; B Ranjbar; A. A Moosavi-Movahedi

2003-01-01

140

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis of urinary proteins: application to multiple myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated a new sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis (SDS-AGE) for urinary protein analysis in patients with multiple myeloma (MM; n 5 47; ages, 62 6 2 years, mean 6 SE). Abnormal proteinuria (mean 5 1872 6 360 mg\\/24 h) was present in 95% of the samples; 75% of the patients had some sign of renal dysfunction (glomerular and\\/or tubular)

Thierry Le Bricon; Danielle Erlich; Djaouida Bengoufa; Michelle Dussaucy; Jean-Pierre Garnier; Bernard Bousquet

141

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Protein Electrophoresis of Freshwater Photosynthetic Sulfur Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out using different bacterial strains\\u000a of the photosynthetic sulfur bacteria Chlorobium, Thiocapsa, Thiocystis, and Chromatium cultured in the laboratory, and the natural blooms in two karstic lakes (Lake Cis and Lake Vilar, NE Spain) where planktonic\\u000a photosynthetic bacteria (purple and green sulfur bacteria) massively developed accounting for most of the microbial

M. Begoa Osuna; Emilio O. Casamayor

2011-01-01

142

The influence of the structure of organic compounds on their solubilization by sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression analysis of the structural influence of organic compounds on the binding constants in aqueous micellar solutions\\u000a of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was performed. Regression equations were obtained using empirical and calculated descriptors\\u000a that characterize the mechanisms of interaction of substances with micelles and water. For alkanes, compounds with hydroxyl\\u000a groups (alcohols, phenols, and benzoic acids), and aromatic and aliphatic

V. E. Bel'skii; A. E. Arbuzov

1999-01-01

143

Sodium sulfate hot corrosion of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced calcium aluminosilicate. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sodium sulfate hot corrosion on the microstructure of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Hot corrosion of samples at 900 deg C for 50 hours in both air and argon was investigated. SEM and XRD investigations of the sample exposed in air

Oppici

1995-01-01

144

Piceatannol, a stilbene present in grapes, attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piceatannol (3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene; PIC) is a polyphenol found in grapes. It is known as a protein kinase inhibitor that modifies multiple cellular targets, exerting immunosuppressive and antitumorigenic activities in several cell lines. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of PIC on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in BALB\\/c mice by dissolving

Yoon Hee Kim; Hyuck-Se Kwon; Dae Hwan Kim; Han Jin Cho; Hyun Suck Lee; Jong-Gab Jun; Jung Han Yoon Park; Jin-Kyung Kim

2008-01-01

145

Effect of compounding of sodium tripolyphosphate and super plasticizers on the hydration of ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition and its mechanism of sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) composited with super plasticizers (SPs) on hydration of\\u000a ?-calcium sulfate hemihydrate were studied by setting time, strength, hydration heat, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron\\u000a spectroscopy (XPS), electronic probe micro analysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter\\u000a (DSC) measurements. The experimental results show that compared with STP addition, compositing

Wei Pan; Peiming Wang

2011-01-01

146

The Role of Zinc and Metallothionein in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc (Zn) and its binding protein metallothionien (MT) have been proposed to suppress the disease activity in ulcerative colitis.\\u000a To determine the role of Zn and MT in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced model of colitis in mice, a DSS dose-response\\u000a study was conducted in male C57BL\\/6 wild-type (MT+\\/+) and MT-null (MT?\\/?) mice by supplementing 2%, 3%, and 4% DSS

C. D. Tran; J. M. Ball; S. Sundar; P. Coyle; G. S. Howarth

2007-01-01

147

Effect of Lactic Acid and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate against Listeria monocytogenes on Frankfurters  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Federal regulations require processors to control Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products. We evaluated lactic acid (5% v\\/v) and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.5% w\\/v), alone or as a mixture for control of L. monocytogenes on frankfurters. L. monocytogenes (10 strains) were habituated in a frankfurter homogenate (39F, 72 h), combined and then served as the inoculum.

Oleksandr A. Byelashov; Keith E. Belk; John A. Scanga; John N. Sofos

148

Water dispersible avermectin-layered double hydroxide nanocomposites modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium dodecyl sulfate was utilized to modify the avermectin-layered double hydroxide nanohybrids for the preparation of water dispersible nanocomposites, resulting in the successful conversion of hydrophobic surfactant monolayer structure on the solid surface to hydrophilic bilayer. Concentrations of SDS and NaCl had important effects on the bilayer formation, and the highest suspensibility of the obtained nanocomposites reached 97.6%. All the

Jikuan Zhao; Xiaomei Fu; Shouzhi Zhang; Wanguo Hou

2011-01-01

149

Sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment improves properties of cast films from soy protein isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacture of edible\\/biodegradable films or coatings can potentially add value to soy protein. This study was conducted to determine the effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on selected physical properties of glycerin-plasticized soy protein isolate (SPI) films. Films were cast from heated (70C for 20 min), alkaline (pH 10) aqueous solutions of SPI (5 g\\/100 ml water), glycerin (50%

Jong W. Rhim; Aristippos Gennadios; Curtis L. Weller; Milford A. Hanna

2002-01-01

150

Inactivation and conformational changes of lactate dehydrogenase from porcine heart in sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inactivation and conformational changes of porcine heart lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been studied in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. Increasing SDS concentration led to a quick and concentration-dependent inhibition of the enzyme, with complete inactivation within 5 min in the presence of 1.0 mM SDS. Meanwhile, fluorescence emission and circular dichroism spectra were used to follow the conformational changes

Yan-bin Zheng; Fan-guo Meng; Bao-yu Chen; Xi-cheng Wang

2002-01-01

151

Inactivation of HIV-1 in breast milk by treatment with the alkyl sulfate microbicide sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk is needed to help decrease the burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in society. We have previously reported that alkyl sulfates (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, are biodegradable, have little/no toxicity and are inexpensive. Therefore, they may be used for treatment of HIV-1 infected breast milk. In this report, human milk was artificially infected by adding to it HIV-1 (cell-free or cell-associated) and treated with ?1% SDS (?10 mg/ml). Microbicidal treatment was at 37C or room temperature for 10 min. SDS removal was performed with a commercially available resin. Infectivity of HIV-1 and HIV-1 load in breast milk were determined after treatment. Results SDS (?0.1%) was virucidal against cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 in breast milk. SDS could be substantially removed from breast milk, without recovery of viral infectivity. Viral load in artificially infected milk was reduced to undetectable levels after treatment with 0.1% SDS. SDS was virucidal against HIV-1 in human milk and could be removed from breast milk if necessary. Milk was not infectious after SDS removal. Conclusion The proposed treatment concentrations are within reported safe limits for ingestion of SDS by children of 1 g/kg/day. Therefore, use of alkyl sulfate microbicides, such as SDS, to treat HIV1-infected breast milk may be a novel alternative to help prevent/reduce transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding.

Urdaneta, Sandra; Wigdahl, Brian; Neely, Elizabeth B; Berlin, Cheston M; Schengrund, Cara-Lynne; Lin, Hung-Mo; Howett, Mary K

2005-01-01

152

Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]\\/[SDS], ?PTHC=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light

Jingyan Zhang; Zhishen Ge; Xiaoze Jiang; P. A. Hassan; Shiyong Liu

2007-01-01

153

Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate  

PubMed Central

Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at ? side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

2011-01-01

154

Specifics of polymerization of trimethyl(methacryloyloxyethyl)ammonium methyl sulfate in a sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and the properties of resultant complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specifics of polymerization of trimethyl(methacryloyloxyethyl)ammonium methyl sulfate in the presence of sodium dodecyl\\u000a sulfate and the properties of complexes that appear as polymerization products or are formed from these products were studied.\\u000a It was found that the addition of the surfactant to the polymerization medium in sufficiently large amounts changes the polymerization\\u000a rate and has a substantial effect on

Yu. V. Shulevich; O. Yu. Kovaleva; A. V. Navrotskii; Yu. A. Zakharova; A. B. Zezin; I. A. Novakov

2007-01-01

155

Hydrothermal synthesis of sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles in the presence of sodium sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles have been successfully prepared, for the first time, through a simple salt-assisted hydrothermal route based on the reaction between Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and HCl in aqueous solution. The resultant sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) techniques. The ingredients of the sample have been detected by energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) method. It is found that hydrothermal temperature and time play important roles in the control of the morphology and size of the products.

Cao Guangxiang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Song Xinyu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu Haiyun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Fan Chunhua [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Yin Zhilei [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Sun Sixiu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, 27 Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: ssx@sdu.edu.cn

2006-02-02

156

Study on the bile salt, sodium scymnol sulfate, from Rhizoprionodon acutus. II. The structures of scymnol, anhydroscymnol and sodium scymnol sulfate.  

PubMed

The crystal structures of anhydroscymnol (I) and scymnol (II), which were prepared from sodium scymnol sulfate (III) isolated from the bile of Rhizoprionodon acutus, have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction analyses. The crystals of I are orthorhombic, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with Z = 4; unit-cell dimensions: a = 13.562(2), b = 21.636(2), c = 8.735(2) A; II orthorhombic, space group P2(1)2(1)2, with Z = 4; unit-cell dimensions a = 18.553(2), b = 19.887(2), c = 7.986(2) A. Both structures, (24R,25S)-(+)-24,26-epoxy-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,27-tetrol (I) and (24R)-(+)-5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24,26,27-hexol (II), were solved from diffractometric data by direct methods and refined by least-squares calculations to R = 0.073 (I) and R = 0.062 (II) (2044 (I) and 2250 (II) observed independent significant reflections (I greater than 3 sigma(I)), respectively. All the hydroxyl groups of both compounds are involved in a hydrogen-bonding network. The structure of III was determined to be (24R,25S)-(+)-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24,26-pentahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-27-yl sodium sulfate, based on the chemical data that alkaline degradation of III with aqueous potassium hydroxide gives only I. PMID:1814607

Ishida, H; Kinoshita, S; Natsuyama, R; Nukaya, H; Tsuji, K; Kosuge, T; Yamaguchi, K

1991-12-01

157

Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation  

PubMed Central

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1.

Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

1993-01-01

158

Influence and hydrolysis kinetics in titanyl sulfate solution from the sodium hydroxide molten salt method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrated titanium dioxide (HTD) was precipitated by thermal hydrolysis in purified titanyl sulfate solution (TSS) obtained through the sodium hydroxide molten salt clean method. Various factors including the stirring speed and initial concentrations of TiOSO4, sulfuric acid, and sodium ion were studied. The main influence factors in the hydrolysis process were the initial concentrations of TiOSO4 and sulfuric acid. Contrary to the ferrous ion, the sodium ion improved the ionic activity of Ti4+, but did not decrease the crystal size. The Boltzman growth model (x=A2+(A1?A2)/{1+exp[(t?t0)/dt)]}, which focuses on two main parameters (CandC), fits the hydrolysis process well with R2>0.97. An increase in sulfuric acid concentration negatively affected the hydrolysis rates and the value of A2, while t0 increased. An increase in titanyl sulfate concentration directly reduced the hydrolysis rates and particle size of HTD, contrary to the trend for the value of t0. A simulation software called 1stopt was used to observe the relationship between Z (A1, A2, t0, dt) and a, b (CandC).

Wang, Weijing; Chen, Desheng; Chu, Jinglong; Li, Jie; Xue, Tianyan; Wang, Lina; Wang, Dong; Qi, Tao

2013-10-01

159

Oral sodium phosphate versus sulfate-free polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution in outpatient preparation for colonoscopy: a prospective comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Biochemical abnormalities induced by oral sodium phosphate and the risk of cardiac arrhythmias as potential sequelae have yet to be investigated. Methods: We studied 98 outpatients scheduled to undergo diagnostic colonoscopy and prospectively randomized them to receive oral sodium phosphate or sulfate-free polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (SF-PEG-ELS) as recommended by the manufacturers. Results: Forty-nine patients received sodium phosphate

Wendell K. Clarkston; Tony N. Tsen; David F. Dies; C. Lynn Schratz; Surender K. Vaswani; Preben Bjerregaard

1996-01-01

160

Cellulose extraction from orange peel using sulfite digestion reagents.  

PubMed

Orange peel (OP) was used as raw material for cellulose extraction. Two different pulping reagents were used, sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite. The effect of the main process parameters, sulfite agent dosage and reaction duration, on cellulose yield was investigated. A central composite rotatable design involving two variables at five levels and response surface methodology were used for the optimization of cellulose recovery. Other two invariable parameters were reaction temperature and hydromodulus. The optimum yields, referred to the weight of double extracted OP, were 40.4% and 45.2% for sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite digestions, respectively. The crude celluloses were bleached with hypochlorite and oxygen. The physicochemical characterization data of these cellulose materials indicate good levels of purity, low crystallinities, good whitenesses, good water retention and moderate molecular weights. According to these specific properties the recovered celluloses could be used as fillers, water absorbents, or as raw materials for cellulose derivatives. PMID:21893413

Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

2011-08-17

161

The mechanism for the stability of graphene oxide membranes in a sodium sulfate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of graphene oxide (GO) membranes in a sodium sulfate aqueous solution is reported. The mechanism for the stability was interpreted with the assistance of molecular dynamic (MD) simulations as follows: GO disperses uniformly in water because it is hydrated. However, the hydration of GO is weakened when Na2SO4 is present because the Na+ and SO42- ions are preferentially hydrated over GO. Thus the movement of GO in the Na2SO4 solution becomes restricted and it is difficult for the GO in a GO membrane to uniformly disperse in a Na2SO4 solution even with ultrasonic treatment.

Sun, Shuai; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming; Li, Mingwei

2013-03-01

162

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Spin Trapping of Inorganic Radicals by 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline N-Oxide (DMPO). 3. Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite and Sulfate Radical Anions  

PubMed Central

Radical forms of sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfite (SO32?), sulfate (SO42?), and their conjugate acids are known to be generated in vivo through various chemical and biochemical pathways. Oxides of sulfur are environmentally pervasive compounds and are associated with a number of health problems. There is growing evidence that their toxicity may be mediated by their radical forms. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping using the commonly used spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), has been employed in the detection of SO3? and SO4?. The thermochemistries of SO2?, SO3?, SO4?, and their respective conjugate acids addition to DMPO were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level. No spin adduct was observed for SO2? by EPR but an S-centered adduct was observed for SO3? and an O-centered adduct for SO4?. Determination of adducts as S- or O-centered was made via comparison based on qualitative trends of experimental hfccs with theoretically calculated ones. The thermodynamics of the non-radical addition of SO32? and HSO3? to DMPO followed by conversion to the corresponding radical adduct via the Forrester-Hepburn mechanism was also calculated. Adduct acidities and decomposition pathways were investigated as well, including an EPR experiment using H217O to determine the site of hydrolysis of O-centered adducts. The mode of radical addition to DMPO is predicted to be governed by several factors, including spin population density, and geometries stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The thermodynamic data supports evidence for the radical addition pathway over the nucleophilic addition mechanism.

Zamora, Pedro L.; Villamena, Frederick A.

2012-01-01

163

Triple oxygen isotope determination of oxygen exchange between sulfite and water preceding the aqueous oxidation of sulfite (pH=1-10)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of sulfate isotope compositions to interpret past surface conditions has highlighted the importance of understanding sulfur redox pathways. Both O2 and H2O are known to contribute oxygen to sulfate produced from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. The results from a set of our recent experiments pointed to sulfite as a key intermediate in controlling the ?18OSO4. Sulfite is produced as a sulfoxyanion intermediate during both dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) and sulfide oxidation. The importance of sulfite is directly linked to its ability to readily exchange oxygen with water, resulting in a partial or total resetting of the oxygen isotope ratio in sulfite. We propose that during the production of sulfate via sulfide oxidation under Earth surface conditions, sulfate oxygen isotope composition is determined by rate competition between Fe (III)-shuttling (resulting in H2O oxygen incorporation) and direct O2 oxidation during both sulfide-sulfite and sulfite-sulfate oxidation as well as the rate of sulfite-water exchange. These competing rates are in direct control of: 1) the degree of preservation of the oxygen sources preceding sulfite formation, 2) the final SO42oxygen source ratio, and 3) the ?18OSO4. In order to construct a unified, quantitative model, many rate efficiencies and isotope fractionation factors have to be determined. In this study, we focus on the competition between the rate of sulfite-water oxygen exchange and the rate of sulfite to sulfate oxidation. We set up a series of 50 ml (short term) and 150 ml (long term) D.D. and ?17O-labeled, H2O reactors in which we introduced NaHSO3 to a concentration of 0.25 M at variable pH (1-10). Sulfate formed in solution and was collected and precipitated as BaSO4 at time intervals from 10 sec to 24hours (short term) or 1 to 21weeks (long term). The rates of sulfite-water oxygen exchange and sulfite to sulfate oxidation were quantitatively evaluated over the time range 10 sec to 21 weeks for the variable pH reactors, based on the introduction of a ?17O label into precipitated sulfate (BaSO4). The %H2OSO4 ranged from 6-75% during the time intervals investigated and was shown to increase with time in all cases. This data shows an increased incorporation of H2O oxygen (indicating a greater degree of exchange occurred prior to oxidation) in sulfate produced at high pH, which supports that sulfite oxidation rate is more sensitive to changing pH than exchange rate. In low pH conditions there is a greater chance of preserving the original oxygen isotope signal from the reactions preceding sulfite formation, which will allow for a better understanding of the mechanisms of oxidation involved in sulfate production under a variety of conditions and geologic time intervals. We have constrained the effect of sulfite exchange and oxidation rate competition within sulfur oxidizing systems as is reflected in the oxygen source ratio, and resultant isotope composition for produced sulfate. The same rate competition between sulfite exchange and multiple oxidation paths will also apply to atmospheric oxidation of reduced sulfur gasses, where a different set of oxidants (i.e. O3, H2O2, OH radical, and metal-catalyzed O2) are involved.

Kohl, I. E.; Bao, H.

2010-12-01

164

Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

Barker, J. L.

1986-01-01

165

Gene responsible for protecting Escherichia coli from sodium dodecyl sulfate and toluidine blue plus light.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli cells were killed by visible light irradiation in the presence of the photosensitizing dye, toluidine blue. Two uvrB mutant strains of E. coli K-12 (AB1885 and N3-1) were much more sensitive than the isogenic uvrA and uvrC strains to treatment with toluidine blue plus light, suggesting that the uvrB+ gene product was involved in repair of DNA damage induced by the treatment. The uvrB+ gene cloned in a high- or low-copy-number plasmid was transformed into the uvrB strain (AB1885). Although all the transformants showed the same resistance as its wild-type strain (AB1157) to UV irradiation, they were as sensitive as AB1885 was to treatment with toluidine blue plus light. The two uvrB strains were more sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate than the other strains, suggesting that these strains had a defect in the cell surface. A sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant revertant obtained from AB1885 was more resistant than AB1885 was to treatment with toluidine blue plus light. The two uvrB strains (AB1885 and N3-1) appear to have a defective gene (tentatively called dvl) different from uvrB. Its map position was around 7 min on the E. coli map. PMID:6086575

Wakayama, Y; Takagi, M; Yano, K

1984-08-01

166

Synthesis, antiviral and contraceptive activities of nucleoside-sodium cellulose sulfate acetate and succinate conjugates.  

PubMed

Chemical conjugates between sodium cellulose sulfate (CS), displaying contraceptive and HIV-entry inhibiting properties, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT), 3'-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (FLT), or 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC)) were designed to simultaneously provide contraceptive and anti-HIV activity. Two linkers, acetate and succinate, were used to conjugate the nucleoside analogs with CS. The conjugates containing cellulose sulfate-acetate (CSA) (e.g., AZT-CSA and FLT-CSA) were found to be more potent than CS and other conjugates (e.g., AZT-succinate-CS, and FLT-succinate-CS). The presence of both sulfate and the acetate groups on cellulose were critical for generating maximum anti-HIV activity. In addition to showing equal potency against wild-type and multidrug resistant HIV-1, the AZT-CSA conjugate displayed significant contraceptive activity in an animal model, providing the initial proof-of-concept for the design and synthesis of dual-activity compounds based on these combinations. PMID:20965725

Agarwal, Hitesh K; Kumar, Anil; Doncel, Gustavo F; Parang, Keykavous

2010-10-19

167

Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Tripolyphosphate, Sodium Sulfate and Linear Alkylbenzensulfonate in Washing Powder by Attenuated Total Reflectance: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical procedure has been developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP),\\u000a sodium sulfate (SS) and Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (LABS) in a single washing powder sample. The method is based on the\\u000a partial least squares treatment of data obtained by the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR)\\u000a spectrometric method in the wavenumber range of 8001,290cm?1.

M. Khanmohammadi; A. Ashori; K. Kargosha; A. Bagheri Garmarudi

2007-01-01

168

Precipitation in solutions containing mixtures of synthetic anionic surfactant and soap. I. Effect of sodium octanoate on hardness tolerance of sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium octanoate (SO) and pH on the precipitation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with calcium (hardness tolerance)\\u000a in water was investigated. SO can exist as octanoate anion (O?) or as the protonated nonionic fatty acid (HO) with the HO\\/O? ratio increasing with decreasing pH. At intermediate pH levels, SO or SO\\/SDS systems are composed of mixtures of

Cheryl H. Rodriguez; Chanin Chintanasathien; John F. Scamehorn; Chintana Saiwan; Sumaeth Chavadej

1998-01-01

169

Sulfite sensitivity and sulfite oxidase actiivty in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between sulfite oxidase (SO) and sulfite sensitivity inDrosophila melanogaster is addressed. Significant improvements to the SO assay have provided an investigative tool which can be applied to further\\u000a studies of this molybdoenzyme. Using the second-instar larval stage ofD. melanogaster, we have shown a direct relationship between measured levels of sulfite oxidase activity and the organism's ability to withstand

Audrey C. Braaten; Michael M. Bentley

1993-01-01

170

Sulfite sensitivity and sulfite oxidase actiivty in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between sulfite oxidase (SO) and sulfite sensitivity inDrosophila melanogaster is addressed. Significant improvements to the SO assay have provided an investigative tool which can be applied to further studies of this molybdoenzyme. Using the second-instar larval stage ofD. melanogaster, we have shown a direct relationship between measured levels of sulfite oxidase activity and the organism's ability to withstand

Audrey C. Braaten; Michael M. Bentley

1993-01-01

171

Coupled enzymatic production of sulfite, thiosulfate, and hydrogen sulfide from sulfur: purification and properties of a sulfur oxygenase reductase from the facultatively anaerobic archaebacterium Desulfurolobus ambivalens.  

PubMed

From aerobically grown cells of the extremely thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic archaebacterium Desulfurolobus ambivalens (DSM 3772), a soluble oxygenase reductase (SOR) was purified which was not detectable in anaerobically grown cells. In the presence of oxygen but not under a hydrogen atmosphere, the enzyme simultaneously produced sulfite, thiosulfate, and hydrogen sulfide from sulfur. Nonenzymatic control experiments showed that thiosulfate was produced mainly in a chemical reaction between sulfite and sulfur. The maximum specific activity of the purified SOR in sulfite production was 10.6 mumol/mg of protein at pH 7.4 and 85 degrees C. The ratio of sulfite to hydrogen sulfide production was 5:4 in the presence of zinc ions. The temperature range of enzyme activity was 50 to 108 degrees C, with a maximum at 85 degrees C. The molecular mass of the native SOR was 550 kilodaltons, determined by gel filtration. It consisted of identical subunits with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kilodaltons in sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. The particle diameter in electron micrographs was 15 /+- 1.5 nm. The enzyme activity was inhibited by the thiol-binding reagents p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, N-ethyl maleimide, and 2-iodoacetic acid and by flavin adenine dinucleotide, Fe3+, and Fe2+. It was not affected by CN-, N3-, or reduced glutathione. PMID:2493451

Kletzin, A

1989-03-01

172

Setaria digitata in cattle of Thailand identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Adult Thai Setaria worms collected from cattle which were bred, housed and slaughtered in Thailand were morphologically identified as Setaria digitata. Furthermore, in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) adult Thai S. digitata had the same protein profiles as adult Japanese S. digitata, but did not possess the protein with a molecular size of 69 kDa which was confirmed in adult S. marshalli. In addition, there were no differences in the protein profiles between male and female S. digitata. In point of the distribution pattern of the proteins ranging from 73 to 64 kDa revealed by 2D-PAGE, there were no differences between Thai and Japanese S. digitata, and between male and female worms of the species. PMID:10342300

Subhachalat, P; Shirasaka, S; Nakajima, H; Adachi, Y

1999-04-01

173

Nanoscale supramolecular structures in the gels of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) interacting with sodium dodecyl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

A highly ordered supramolecular structure is formed in the polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexe between the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the cationic network of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMACl). From small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the complexes between PDADMACI and SDS were shown to exhibit a hexagonal type of microstructure which is different from that of pure SDS. A d spacing of 3.7 nm corresponding to the interdistance between SDS aggregates in the gel network was obtained. The intensity of the diffraction peaks and the degree of order increased with increasing initial SDS concentration and charge content of the PDADMACl gels. The diffraction peaks were broadened when the concentration of SDS in the external solution phase was higher than its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The SAXS profiles were unexpectedly independent of the degree of cross-linking of the PDADMACI gels in the range of 0.5-2%. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Yeh, F.; Sokolov, E.L.; Khokhlov, A.R.; Chu, B. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1996-07-17

174

Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate on ge substrate: the effect of a low-polarity solvent.  

PubMed

This paper describes the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules in a low polar solvent on Ge substrate by using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The maximum SDS amount adsorbed is (5.0 0.3) 10(14) molecules cm(-2) in CHCl(3), while with the use of CCl(4) as subphase the ability of SDS adsorbed is 48% lower. AFM images show that depositions are highly disordered over the interface, and it was possible to establish that the size of the SDS deposition is around 30-40 nm over the Ge surface. A complete description of the infrared spectroscopic bands for the head and tail groups in the SDS molecule is also provided. PMID:22942685

Viana, Rommel B; da Silva, Albrico B F; Pimentel, Andr S

2012-06-28

175

Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed.

Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur; Yagci Acar, Havva

2012-03-01

176

Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate on kaolin from different alcohol-water mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption of surfactants on solid/liquid interfaces is a subject of great interest especially for enhanced oil recovery processes. The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto kaolin from different alcohol-water mixtures has been studied. The alcohols used were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-decanol containing 3.5 or 7 wt% water. In all cases the adsorption isotherms show a rather steep rise at low surfactant concentrations. Thereafter, there is a more or less continuous leveling off. The plateau adsorption of SDS on kaolin is found to increase with increasing chain length of the alcohol in the alcohol-water solvent. The adsorption properties are discussed in relation to the dielectric constant of the solvents; the aggregation properties of the surfactant in the bulk phase and the molecular packing of the surfactant in the adsorbed state are also considered.

Blokhus, A.M.; Hoeiland, H.; Gjerde, M.I. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry; Ersland, E.K. [Bergen Technological College (Norway)

1996-05-10

177

Heterogeneous freezing of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions by long chain alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High molecular weight organic compounds emitted during biomass burning can be transported to high altitudes where they may affect ice processes through heterogeneous nucleation. We show that freezing of solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride catalyzed by long chain alcohols is roughly consistent with the hypothesis that the water activity at the mean freezing temperature is a constant offset from the water activity at the melting point of the solution, though films of the longer chain alcohols may undergo structural changes at higher salt concentrations which cause a deviation from the constant offset. The heterogeneous nucleation rate coefficient, averaged over all solutions, alcohols, and droplet sizes is 6.0 104 +/- 4.0 104 cm-2 s-1, with no dependence on any of those parameters.

Cantrell, Will; Robinson, Carly

2006-04-01

178

Sodium sulfate hot corrosion of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced calcium aluminosilicate. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

The effects of sodium sulfate hot corrosion on the microstructure of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composite were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Hot corrosion of samples at 900 deg C for 50 hours in both air and argon was investigated. SEM and XRD investigations of the sample exposed in air revealed a complex mixture of wollastonite, nepheline and albite whereas exposure in argon showed pseudowollastonite, nepheline and calcium sulfide. It was observed that the presence of Na2SO4 enhanced the oxidation of the silicon carbide fiber to silica which further reacted to form the products of corrosion.

Oppici, M.A.

1995-03-01

179

Curing Action of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on a Proteus mirabilis R+ Strain  

PubMed Central

Growth of Proteus mirabilis harboring R100-1 (fi+drd strrcmlrtetrsulr) factors in Penassay broth containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) leads to the loss of all or part of the genetic elements in high frequencies. In media containing SDS at concentrations as low as 0.03%, both lysis of R+ cells and elimination of the R factors occur at high frequencies. Appearance of drug-susceptible cells in R+ cultures occurs during the exponential phase of growth; however, the frequencies of susceptible cells increase substantially after the culture reaches the stationary phase. Reconstruction experiments, coupled with other observations, suggest that the major factor in altering the frequency of drug-susceptible variants is the greater resistance of the variants to the lytic action of SDS. This resistance correlates in most cases with the loss of the transfer functions in the resistance transfer factor.

Tomoeda, Munemitsu; Inuzuka, Manabu; Anto, Shizuko; Konishi, Mariko

1974-01-01

180

Renaturation of enzymes after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

A number of enzymes, including amylases, dehydrogenases, and proteases, were shown to be renaturable after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Enzyme activity was detected in situ by action on substrates introduced into the gel and subsequent staining of either the product or unreacted substrate. Enzymes appeared to recover activity as soon as the detergent diffused out of the gel. Renatured enzymes were retained in gels after electrophoresis longer than native enzymes which had been subjected to electrophoresis in the absence of detergent. Re-electrophoresis of the renatured enzymes showed that part of the retained activity was physically anchored to the gel, possibly by the folding of polypeptides around the gel matrix as the enzymes were renatured.

Lacks, S.A.; Springhorn, S.S.

1980-08-10

181

Forced Wetting Dynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Glycerol Solution on Solid Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forced wetting dynamics of a sodium dodecyl sulfate glycerol solution on both intermediate hydrophilic and hydrophilic solid substrates was studied by using the Wilhelmy plate method. The dynamic contact angle ? D at different contact line velocities U (? D-U relationship) was measured. The influences of the macroscopic properties including the surfactant solution concentration, the substrate surface free energy, and the surface tension on the ? D-U relationship were investigated, and all three properties are important. An interesting phenomenon that ? D initially increases then decreases with U was found in the experiment, which could not be explained by modern theoretical models. The microscopic effect of the surfactant adsorption on the solid-vapor interface near the three-phase contact line was used to explain this phenomenon. A modified molecular-kinetic model was proposed, and the model can well describe the experimental results.

Zhu, Jun-Yue; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Min, Qi

2012-10-01

182

Phosphoprotein staining for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using fluorescent reagent morin hydrate.  

PubMed

A fluorescence-based stain with 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (morin hydrate, MH) was designed to stain phosphoproteins in one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Al(3+) was applied as a "fixed bridge," providing an efficient energy transfer channel between phosphoprotein and MH, to produce a strong fluorescent complex for the determination of phosphoprotein. As little as 62.5ng of ?-casein (7 or 8 phosphates) and ?-casein (5 phosphates), 125ng of ovalbumin (2 phosphates), and ?-casein (1 phosphate) could be visualized with a wide linear dynamic range. In comparison with conventional methods, MH stain is a time-saving method that takes just 90min. It also has good compatibility with routine protein stainings such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue R (CBBR) and SYPRO Ruby for total protein analysis. PMID:23274386

Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

2012-12-28

183

Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Thiobacillus ferrooxidans promote indirect oxidation of pyrite through the catalysis of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is an effective oxidant of pyrite. These bacteria also may catalyze direct oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage microorganisms. In this study, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

Onysko, S.J.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

1984-07-01

184

The effect of medium chain length alcohols on the micellar properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate in sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of medium chain length alcohols on the micellar size and shape of sodium dodecyl sulfate in electrolyte solutions has been investigated by means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and viscosity measurements. The surfactant content was kept constant throughout, at 0.04 m, and the alcohols used were 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol. The data from the various techniques are qualitatively in agreement. The SANS data generally fit a model for prolate ellipsoids with varying ratios of the major to minor axis. Addition of butanol first leads to a decrease in micellar size, the major to minor axis ratio decreases from about 6 to less than 2. However, as the butanol concentration exceeds 0.5 m, the micelles starts to grow again. The same can be seen from the diffusion coefficient as measured by DLS. Addition of pentanol or hexanol do not bring about this minimum in micellar size. The minor axis decreases and the major axis increases as these alcohols are added. Thus these alcohols make the prolate ellipsoidal micelles grow continuously towards large rod-like structures. The viscosity data are less detailed, but confirm the general trend upon alcohol addition.

Foerland, G.M.; Hoeiland, H. (Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry); Samseth, J. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Mortensen, K. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

1994-04-01

185

Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.  

PubMed

Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives. PMID:23923788

Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

2013-04-01

186

Solution-mediated phase transformation of haloperidol mesylate in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate.  

PubMed

Forming a salt is a common way to increase the solubility of a poorly soluble compound. However, the solubility enhancement gained by salt formation may be lost due to solution-mediated phase transformation (SMPT) during dissolution. The SMPT of a salt can occur due to a supersaturated solution near the dissolving surface caused by pH or other solution conditions. In addition to changes in pH, surfactants are also known to affect SMPT. In this study, SMPT of a highly soluble salt, haloperidol mesylate, at pH 7 in the presence of a commonly used surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), was investigated. Dissolution experiments were performed using a flow-through dissolution apparatus with solutions containing various concentrations of SLS. Compacts of haloperidol mesylate were observed during dissolution in the flow-through apparatus using a stereomicroscope. Raman microscopy was used to characterize solids. The dissolution of haloperidol mesylate was significantly influenced by the addition of sodium lauryl sulfate. In conditions where SMPT was expected, the addition of SLS at low concentrations (0.1-0.2 mM) reduced the dissolution of haloperidol mesylate. In solutions containing concentrations of SLS above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) (10-15 mM), the dissolution of haloperidol mesylate increased compared to below the CMC. The solids recovered from solubility experiments of haloperidol mesylate indicated that haloperidol free base precipitated at all concentrations of SLS. Above 5 mM of SLS, Raman microscopy suggested a new form, perhaps the estolate salt. The addition of surfactant in solids that undergo solution-mediated phase transformation can add complexity to the dissolution profiles and conversion. PMID:21732157

Greco, Kristyn; Bogner, Robin

2011-07-06

187

Simultaneous adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) on titanium dioxide with quaternary ammonium groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) on titanium dioxide with quaternary ammonium groups (XNm, where m is the carbon number of the alkyl chain, 8 and 12) was investigated by measuring the amount of adsorbed SDS and PVP, ? potential, and dispersion stability. The conformation of PVP adsorbed was also estimated using a spin-labeled polymer.

Kunio Esumi; Kenichi Sakai; Kanjiro Torigoe; Tsuneo Suhara; Hiroshi Fukui

1999-01-01

188

Protein-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Complexes: Determination of Molecular Weight, Size and Shape by Controlled Pore Glass Chromatography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Protein-SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfates) complexes chromatographed on controlled pore glass elute linearly with log molecular weight over a range from 17,000 to 385,000 daltons. A glass with a pore size of approximately 500 A allows the inclusion of all comp...

R. C. Collins W. Haller

1973-01-01

189

Determination of Tyrosine in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Using a Gold Nanoparticle Modified Carbon Paste Electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbon paste electrode modified with gold nanoparticles (AuMCPE) was used as a highly sensitive sensor for determination of Tyrosine (Tyr), in the presence of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), in aqueous solution. The measurements were carried out by using of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry and chronoamperometry methods. The prepared electrode shows voltammetric responses

Sayed Mehdi Ghoreishi; Mohsen Behpour; Nafise Jafari; Asma Khoobi

2012-01-01

190

Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50%

SYLVIE ROY; PIERRETTE GOURDE; JOCELYNE PIRET; A. Desormeaux; J. Lamontagne; C. Haineault; R. F. Omar; M. G. Bergeron

2001-01-01

191

Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

192

Control of selectivity in micellar electrokinetic chromatography by modification of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles with organic hydroxy compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of micellar phases with solubilized solutes was examined to control the separation in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). The addition of organic hydroxy compounds (1-hexanol, cyclohexanol and phenol) as modifiers to a micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate specifically decreased the capacity factor of some aromatic analytes possessing hydrophilic functional groups. The effect of phenol was different in selectivity to

Shoichi Katsuta; Tohru Tsumura; Koichi Saitoh; Norio Teramae

1995-01-01

193

Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume  

EPA Science Inventory

A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

194

Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the

P. A Hassan; Gerhard Fritz; Eric W Kaler

2003-01-01

195

Interaction of indole and tryptophan derivatives with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles measured with ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence quenching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of indole and tryptophan derivatives between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar and aqueous phases was analyzed using conventional methods of ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy and measurement of fluorescence quenching by succinimide. On the assumption of a simple pseudo-phase equilibrium between both phases the distribution coefficient was easily obtained by the measurement of the ratioRpv of the absorbance intensity

Takeyoshi Imamura; Katsutoshi Konishi

1995-01-01

196

Disposition, accumulation and toxicity of iron fed as iron (II) sulfate or as sodium iron EDTA in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to provide data on the disposition, accumulation and toxicity of sodium iron EDTA in comparison with iron (II) sulfate in rats on administration via the diet for 31 and 61 days. Clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, food conversion efficiency, hematology, clinical chemistry and pathology of selected organs were used as criteria for disclosing possible harmful

M. J Appel; C. F Kuper; R. A Woutersen

2001-01-01

197

Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.  

PubMed

Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than 0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of 0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than 0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ?1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment. PMID:21067131

Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

2010-11-10

198

Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

2009-12-15

199

Enoxaparin Improves the Course of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Syndecan-1-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Syndecan-1 (Sdc1) plays a major role in wound healing and modulates inflammatory responses. Sdc1 expression is reduced in lesions of patients with ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Sdc1 in murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. DSS colitis was induced in Sdc1-deficient (knockout (KO)) and wild-type mice by oral administration of 3% DSS. KO mice exhibited a significantly increased lethality as compared with wild-type controls (61 versus 5%, P < 0.05). Impaired mucosal healing and prolonged recruitment of inflammatory cells in KO mice were accompanied by significant up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-?, CC chemokine ligand 3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, as determined by histological correlation between 0 and 15 days after colitis induction, TaqMan low-density array analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment from days 7 through 14 with enoxaparin, a functional analogue of the Sdc1 heparan sulfate chains, significantly reduced lethality of KO mice due to DSS-induced colitis, which was correlated with improved mucosal healing. In vitro, Sdc1-deficient polymorphonuclear cells displayed increased adhesion to endothelial cells and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and enoxaparin reverted adhesion to wild-type levels. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Sdc1 expression resulted in reduced basic fibroblast growth factor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and reduced Caco-2 cell proliferation. We conclude that Sdc1 has a protective effect during experimental colitis. The modification of missing Sdc1 function by heparin analogues may emerge as a promising anti-inflammatory approach.

Floer, Martin; Gotte, Martin; Wild, Martin K.; Heidemann, Jan; Gassar, Ezeddin Salem; Domschke, Wolfram; Kiesel, Ludwig; Luegering, Andreas; Kucharzik, Torsten

2010-01-01

200

Calcium sulfite hemihydrate dissolution and crystallization  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to measure the dissolution and crystallization rate of calcium sulfite hemihydrate in aqueous solutions typical of flue gas desulfurization processes. A stagnant mass transfer model integrated with solution equilibrium was developed to predict CaSO/sub 3/.1/2H/sub 2/O dissolution rates as a function of pH, temperature, solution composition,and particle size. The crystal growth rate was found to be a strong function of relative supersaturation and strongly inhibited by dissolved sulfate. The growth rate per unit BET surface area, R' (mole/cm/sup 2/-min), is given by: 9.7 x 10/sup -4/ exp(-10250/RT) x (RS/sub CaSO/sub 3// - 1)/sup 2/ x RS/sub CaSO/sub 4// - 1, where RS/sub CaSO/sub 3// and RS/sub CaSO/sub 4// are the relative saturations with respect to calcium sulfate (CaSO/sub 3/.1/2H/sub 2/O) and gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/.2H/sub 2/O) respective. Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that solids generated in the presence of dissolved sulfate contained solid solution sulfate and crystallized as agglomerates of very thin platelets. In the absence of solid or dissolved sulfate, the solids were agglomerates of well-formed columnar, hexagonal crystals.

Tseng, C.H.P.

1984-01-01

201

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate  

PubMed Central

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7??1.6?g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-?, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells.

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

202

Microfluidic integration of Western blotting is enabled by electrotransfer-assisted sodium dodecyl sulfate dilution.  

PubMed

We integrate sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with subsequent antibody probing in a single, monolithic microdevice to realize microfluidic Western blotting. A hurdle to successful on-chip Western blotting lies in restoring antibody recognition of previously sized (denatured, reduced) proteins. To surmount this hurdle, we locally dilute free SDS from SDS-protein complexes using differential electromigration of the species during electrotransfer between SDS-PAGE and blotting regions of a microchamber. Local dilution of SDS minimizes re-association of SDS with proteins offering means to restore antibody binding affinity to proteins after SDS-PAGE. To achieve automated, programmable operation in a single instrument, we utilize a 1 2 mm(2) glass microchamber photopatterned with spatially distinct, contiguous polyacrylamide regions for SDS-PAGE, electrotransfer, and antibody blotting. Optimization of both the SDS-PAGE and electrotransfer conditions yields transfer distances of <1 mm (40 s). The Western blot is completed in 180 s, with fully automated assay operation using programmable voltage control. After SDS-PAGE and electrotransfer, we observe ~80% capture of protein band mass on the blotting region for a model protein, C-reactive protein. This novel microfluidic Western blot approach introduces fine transport control for in-transit protein handling to form the basis for an automated, rapid alternative to conventional slab-gel Western blotting. PMID:23042290

Hou, Chenlu; Herr, Amy E

2012-10-08

203

Atomistic simulations of micellization of sodium hexyl, heptyl, octyl, and nonyl sulfates.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the micellization behavior of atomistic models for sodium alkyl sulfates in explicit water. A major finding of the present work is the observation of a strong dependence of free surfactant concentration on overall surfactant concentration, that has not been reported previously and that is key to comparing simulation results for the critical micelle concentration (CMC) to experimental data. The CMC and aggregate size distributions were obtained for alkyl tail lengths from six to nine at temperatures from 268 to 363 K, from 400 ns simulations covering a number of surfactant and water model combinations. The free surfactant concentration is much lower than the critical micelle concentration for strongly micellizing systems at the relatively high concentrations accessible by simulations. Thus, counterion association must be accounted for in determining the CMC from the raw simulation data. Simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental trends for aggregate size and CMC as functions of alkyl tail length and temperature. PMID:22292893

Sanders, Samantha A; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

2012-02-16

204

Beyond the detergent effect: a binding site for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in mammalian apoferritin  

PubMed Central

Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as an anionic detergent, it can also exert specific pharmacological effects that are independent of the surfactant properties of themolecule. However, structural details of how proteins recognize SDS are scarce. Here, it is demonstrated that SDS binds specifically to a naturally occurring four-helix bundle protein: horse apoferritin. The X-ray crystal structure of the apoferritinSDS complex was determined at a resolution of 1.9? and revealed that the SDS binds in an internal cavity that has previously been shown to recognize various general anesthetics. A dissociation constant of 24 9?M at 293?K was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. SDS binds in this cavity by bending its alkyl tail into a horseshoe shape; the charged SDS head group lies in the opening of the cavity at the protein surface. This crystal structure provides insights into the proteinSDS interactions that give rise to binding and may prove useful in the design of novel SDS-like ligands for some proteins.

Liu, Renyu; Bu, Weiming; Xi, Jin; Mortazavi, Shirin R.; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Loll, Patrick J.

2012-01-01

205

Irsogladine maleate ameliorates inflammation and fibrosis in mice with chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.  

PubMed

Intestinal fibrosis is a common and severe complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially Crohn's disease (CD). To investigate the therapeutic approach to intestinal fibrosis, we have developed a mouse model of intestinal fibrosis by administering dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and examining the effects of irsogladine maleate (IM) [2,4-diamino-6-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-s-triazine maleate], which has been widely used as an antiulcer drug for gastric mucosa in Japan, on DDS-induced chronic colitis. In this experimental colitis lesion, several pathognomonic changes were found: increased deposition of collagen, increased number of profibrogenic mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts (vimentin(+), ?-SMA(-)) and myofibroblasts (vimentin(+), ?-SMA(+)) in both mucosa and submucosa of the colon with infiltrating inflammatory cells, and increased mRNA expressions of collagen type I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. When IM was administered intrarectally to this colitis, all these pathological changes were significantly decreased or suppressed, suggesting a potential adjunctive therapy for intestinal fibrosis. IM could consequently reduce fibrosis in DSS colitis by direct or indirect effect on profibrogenic factors or fibroblasts. Therefore, the precise effect of IM on intestinal fibrosis should be investigated further. PMID:23001296

Yamaguchi, Hana; Suzuki, Kenji; Nagata, Masaki; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Kawauchi, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Junji; Tomita, Masayuki; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Asakura, Hitoshi; Takagi, Ritsuo

2012-09-22

206

Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice  

SciTech Connect

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.

Kanbe, Takamasa [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan)]|[Department of Internal Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago (Japan); Murai, Rie [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan); Mukoyama, Tomoyuki [Department of Internal Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago (Japan); Murawaki, Yoshiyuki [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan)]|[Division of Medicine and Clinical Science, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University (Japan); Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan); Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo [Division of Medicine and Clinical Science, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University (Japan); Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Kawasaki, Hironaka [Department of Internal Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago (Japan); Murawaki, Yoshikazu [Division of Medicine and Clinical Science, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University (Japan); Shiota, Goshi [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan)]. E-mail: gshiota@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp

2006-07-14

207

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis of freshwater photosynthetic sulfur bacteria.  

PubMed

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out using different bacterial strains of the photosynthetic sulfur bacteria Chlorobium, Thiocapsa, Thiocystis, and Chromatium cultured in the laboratory, and the natural blooms in two karstic lakes (Lake Cis and Lake Vilar, NE Spain) where planktonic photosynthetic bacteria (purple and green sulfur bacteria) massively developed accounting for most of the microbial biomass. Several extraction, solubilization, and electrophoresis methods were tested to develop an optimal protocol for the best resolution of the SDS-PAGE. Protein composition from different water depths and at different times of the year was visualized within a molecular mass range between 100 and 15 kDa yielding up to 20 different protein bands. Protein banding patterns were reproducible and changed in time and with depth in agreement with changes in photosynthetic bacteria composition. When a taxonomically stable community was followed in time, differences were observed in the intensity but not in the composition of the SDS-PAGE banding pattern. Three environmental variables directly related to the activity of sulfur bacteria (light, oxygen, and sulfide concentrations) had a significant effect on protein banding patterns and explained 33% of the variance. Changes in natural protein profiles of the bacterial blooms agreed with changes in species composition and in the in situ metabolic state of the populations. PMID:20524118

Osuna, M Begoa; Casamayor, Emilio O

2010-06-04

208

Suppression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Radon Inhalation  

PubMed Central

The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils plays important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in various organs of mice. In this study, we examined the protective effects of radon inhalation on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS) induced colitis in mice which were subjected to DSS for 7 days. Mice were continuously treated with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of 2000?Bq/m3 from a day before DSS administration to the end of colitis induction. In the results, radon inhalation suppressed the elevation of the disease activity index score and histological damage score induced by DSS. Based on the changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon, it was shown that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammation. Moreover, radon inhalation suppressed lipid peroxidation of the colon induced by DSS. The antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase and total glutathione) in the colon after DSS administration was significantly higher in mice treated with radon than with the sham. These results suggested that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colitis through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the colon.

Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

2012-01-01

209

Self-assembly of ionic detergents: a simulation study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detergents, amphiphilic molecules used to separate and dissolve molecular aggregates and also as cleaning agents, consist of a polar head group and one or more hydrophobic tails. Above a critical concentration, they self-aggregate in an aqueous solution to form micelles. While industrially extremely important, surprisingly little is known about molecular details of the self-assembly of detergents. Here we extend our previous work of modeling and model construction of charged soft-matter systems [1] by a description of an anionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) [2]. We present the results of large-scale Molecular Dynamics simulations of the formation dynamics and structure of SDS micelles. We demonstrate that temperature affects micelle morphologies through the packing and discuss the effect of SDS concentration on the micellization. [1] M. Patra et al., Biophys. J. 84, 3636 (2003); A. A. Gurtovenko et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 21126 (2005); A. A. Gurtovenko et al., Biophys. J. 86, 3461 (2004). [2] The SDS parameters are available at www.softsimu.org.

Sammalkorpi, Maria; Karttunen, Mikko; Haataja, Mikko

2007-03-01

210

Are micelles needed to form methane hydrates in sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions?  

PubMed

The possibility that methane hydrates form in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) water solutions without the help of micelles formation has been investigated. To asses whether micelles are needed for the hydrate to form only one SDS molecule has been considered. To figure out the possible mechanism through which the SDS promotes the formation of methane clathrate the dynamics of CH(4) solvation in the presence and absence of the surfactant molecule is monitored. To carry out the dynamical calculations, the SDS-H(2)O, SDS-CH(4), and CH(4)-H(2)O interactions were described using a recently proposed model potential. The adopted model leverages both on the decomposition of the molecular polarizability in effective components associated with the interaction centers distributed on the molecular frame and on the use of an improved Lennard-Jones functional form to represent the effective pair interaction energies. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on such potential, contrary to some earlier assumptions, do not support mechanisms requiring the formation of micelles as suggested by the findings of more recent experiments. PMID:22448641

Albert, M; Costantini, A; Lagan, A; Pirani, F

2012-04-03

211

Myristica fragrans Seed Extract Protects Against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.  

PubMed

Abstract Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000?mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin [IL]-1?, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

2013-09-24

212

SFG and SPR Study of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Film Assembly on Positively Charged Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study uses sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing to investigate the structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) films formed on positively charged and hydrophilic surfaces. The SPR signals show a good surface coverage suggesting that full monolayer coverage is reached at 1 mM. SFG spectra of SDS adsorbed exhibits well resolved CH3 peaks and OH peaks. At both 0.2 mM and 1 mM SDS concentration the intensity of both the CH3 and OH peaks decreased close to background levels. We found that the loss of SFG signal at 0.2 mM occurs at this concentration independent of surface charge density. It is more likely that the loss of signal is related to structural inhomogeneity induced by a striped phase - stand-up phase transition. This is supported by a distinct change of the relative SFG phase between CH3/OH near 0.2 mM. The second intensity minimum might be related to charge compensation effects. We observed a substrate dependence for the high concentration transition. We also observed distinct SFG signal phase changes for water molecules associated with SDS layers at different SDS solution concentrations indicating that the orientation of bound water changed with SDS surface structure.

Song, Sanghun; Weidner, Tobias; Wagner, Matthew; Castner, David

2012-02-01

213

Beyond the detergent effect: a binding site for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in mammalian apoferritin.  

PubMed

Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as an anionic detergent, it can also exert specific pharmacological effects that are independent of the surfactant properties of the molecule. However, structural details of how proteins recognize SDS are scarce. Here, it is demonstrated that SDS binds specifically to a naturally occurring four-helix bundle protein: horse apoferritin. The X-ray crystal structure of the apoferritin-SDS complex was determined at a resolution of 1.9 and revealed that the SDS binds in an internal cavity that has previously been shown to recognize various general anesthetics. A dissociation constant of 24 9 M at 293 K was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. SDS binds in this cavity by bending its alkyl tail into a horseshoe shape; the charged SDS head group lies in the opening of the cavity at the protein surface. This crystal structure provides insights into the protein-SDS interactions that give rise to binding and may prove useful in the design of novel SDS-like ligands for some proteins. PMID:22525747

Liu, Renyu; Bu, Weiming; Xi, Jin; Mortazavi, Shirin R; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C; Dmochowski, Ivan J; Loll, Patrick J

2012-04-17

214

Oleuropein protects against dextran sodium sulfate-induced chronic colitis in mice.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effect of oleuropein (1), the major phenolic secoiridoid in Olea europaea, was evaluated in an experimental model of chronic colitis in mice. Animals were exposed to four repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water followed by a 7-day rest period. Animals receiving a standard diet supplemented with 0.25% of 1 (equivalent to 500 mg/kg/day) for 56 days exhibited a decrease of inflammatory symptoms, as reflected by improvement of disease activity index and histopathological changes. It was found that 1 decreased inflammatory cell recruitment and the release of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 with increased IL-10 levels in colon tissue. Colon expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase was reduced significantly by 1. The anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of 1 was associated with the suppression of the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and might be mediated by up-regulation of annexin A1. In addition, 1 ameliorated intestinal wound healing in IEC-18 monolayers. Therefore, oleuropein seems to be a promising active molecule in experimental ulcerative colitis. PMID:23758110

Giner, Elisa; Recio, Mara-Carmen; Ros, Jos-Luis; Giner, Rosa-Mara

2013-06-12

215

Metabolic pathway for the biodegradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate by Pseudomonas sp. C12B  

SciTech Connect

Metabolism of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by the detergent-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas C12B has been studied using a {sup 14}C radiotracer in combination with radio-respirometry, radio-TLC, and GLC. Metabolism was extensive with 70% of the radiolabel released as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} at completion. The remainder of the radiolabel was incorporated almost totally into cells. Ether extraction of cells indicated that {sup 14}C-labeled cellular material appearing early in the uptake process was predominantly ether-extractable (mainly 1-dodecanol) and was subsequently converted to more polar metabolites. Analysis of the extractable lipids established the sequential production from (1-{sup 14}C)SDS of 1-dodecanol, dodecanal, and dodecanoic acid. At this point the pathway diverged leading either to formation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} via beta-oxidation or to elongation to C14, C16, and C18 fatty acyl residues with rapid incorporation into lipid fractions such as phospholipids. The pathway was correlated with known long-chain alkylsulfatases and alcohol dehydrogenases in this isolate and indicated that hydrophobic metabolites of the alkyl chain of surfactants can be incorporated into cellular components such as membrane lipids without prior degradation by beta-oxidation.

Thomas, O.R.; White, G.F. (Univ. of Wales College of Cardiff (England))

1989-06-01

216

Biotechnological Treatment of Sulfate-Rich Wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate-rich wastewaters are generated by many industrial processes that use sulfuric acid or sulfate-rich feed stocks (e.g., fermentation or sea food processing industry). Also, the use of reduced sulfur compounds in industry, that is, sulfide (tanneries, kraft pulping), sulfite (sulfite pulping), or thiosulfate (pulp bleaching, fixing of photographs), contaminates wastewaters with sulfate. A major problem for the biological treatment of

P. N. L. Lens; A. Visser; A. J. H. Janssen; L. W. Hulshoff Pol; G. Lettinga

1998-01-01

217

Antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate in apple slices.  

PubMed

There are few available compounds that can both control browning and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut fruits. In the present study, the antibrowning ability of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) on "Granny Smith" apple slices was first investigated in terms of optimum concentration and treatment time. In a separate experiment, the apple slices were treated with water or 3% of SAS, calcium ascorbate, citric acid, or acidified calcium sulfate for 5 min. Total plate count, color, firmness, and tissue damage were assessed during a 21-d storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that the efficacy of SAS in inhibiting browning of apple slices increased with increasing concentration. A minimum 3% of SAS was needed to achieve 14 d of shelf life. Firmness was not significantly affected by SAS at 3% or lower concentrations. Antibrowning potential of SAS was similar for all treatment times ranging from 2 to 10 min. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. When cut surface of apple slices were stained with a fluorescein diacetate solution, tissue damage could be observed under a microscope even though visual damage was not evident. Among the antibrowning agents tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for the first 14 d. Total plate count of samples treated with 3% SAS was significantly lower than those treated with calcium ascorbate, a commonly used antibrowning agent. Our results suggested that it is possible to use SAS to control browning while inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the apple slices if the skin damage can be minimized. Practical Application: Fresh-cut apples have emerged as one of the popular products in restaurants, schools, and food service establishments as more consumers demand fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Processing of fresh-cut apples induces mechanical damage to the fruit and exposes apple tissue to air, resulting in the development of undesirable tissue browning. The fresh-cut industry currently uses antibrowning agents to prevent discoloration. However, the antibrowning solutions can become contaminated with human pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, and washing of apple slices with the contaminated solutions can result in the transfer of pathogens to the product. It would be ideal if an antibrowning compound prevented the proliferation of human pathogens in solutions and minimized the growth of pathogens during storage. The study was conducted to investigate antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) in comparison with other common antibrowning agents on Granny Smith apples. Results showed that among the antimicrobial agents we tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for 14 d at 4 degrees C. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. Overall, SAS can potentially be used to inhibit tissue browning while reducing the microbial growth on apple slices. The information is useful for the fresh-cut produce industry to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut apples while minimizing browning, thus increasing the consumption of the health benefiting fresh fruit. PMID:20492119

Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q

218

Simple, Time-Saving Dye Staining of Proteins for Sodium Dodecyl SulfatePolyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Using Coomassie Blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fixation-free and fast protein-staining method for sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Coomassie blue is described. The protocol comprises staining and quick washing steps, which can be completed in 0.5 h. It has a sensitivity of 10 ng, comparable with that of conventional Coomassie Brilliant Blue G staining with phosphoric acid in the staining solution. In addition, the dye

Wei-Hua Dong; Tian-Yun Wang; Fang Wang; Jun-He Zhang

2011-01-01

219

Effect of Surfactant Impregnation into Chitosan Hydrogel Beads Formed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Gelation for the Removal of Congo Red  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and triton X-100 (TX100) impregnation into chitosan hydrogel beads formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gelation (CSB) was investigated for the adsorption of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. An impregnation of CTAB at 0.1wt% into CSB increased adsorption from 97.46mg\\/g to 113.24mg\\/g, while 0.5wt% TX100 impregnation into CSB registered a very small increase from

Sudipta Chatterjee; Tania Chatterjee; Seong-Rin Lim; Seung H. Woo

2011-01-01

220

In vitroin situ permeability and dissolution of fexofenadine with kinetic modeling in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to estimate passive permeability and efflux transport parameters of fexofenadine (FEX) from\\u000a in vitro cell culture and in situ rat experiments and determine the dissolution profile of FEX in the absence and presence\\u000a of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The dissolution rate of FEX was investigated at different pH values and in the presence of

Evren Gundogdu; V. Mangas-Sanjuan; Isabel Gonzalez-Alvarez; Marival Bermejo; Ercument Karasulu

221

ChitosanSodium Lauryl Sulfate Nanoparticles as a Carrier System for the In Vivo Delivery of Oral Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work explores the possibility of formulating an oral insulin delivery system using nanoparticulate complexes made\\u000a from the interaction between biodegradable, natural polymer called chitosan and anionic surfactant called sodium lauryl sulfate\\u000a (SLS). The interaction between chitosan and SLS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nanoparticles\\u000a were prepared by simple gelation method under aqueous-based conditions. The nanoparticles

Amani Elsayed; Mayyas Al-Remawi; Nidal Qinna; Asim Farouk; Khaldoun A. Al-Souod; Adnan A. Badwan

222

Purification of plasmid DNA with aqueous two phase systems of PEG 600 and sodium citrate\\/ammonium sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer\\/salt aqueous two phase systems (ATPS) based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) 600, sodium citrate and ammonium sulfate were used to partially purify plasmid DNA (pDNA) from Escherichia coli alkaline lysates. The effect of pH and lysate load on the binodal curve was analyzed and tie-lines were determined in order to establish the optimal conditions for ATPS formation. A series of

Gabriela A. Gomes; Ana M. Azevedo; M. Raquel Aires-Barros; D. Miguel F. Prazeres

2009-01-01

223

Aggregation and micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of Ce(III) at different temperatures: A conductometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of cerium(III) chloride, at various temperatures (298.15323.15 K) have been measured by the electrical conductance technique. The experimental data on aqueous solutions as a function of SDS concentration show the presence of two inflexion points indicating the presence of two distinct interaction mechanisms: the first, occurring at SDS concentrations below

Artur J. M. Valente; Hugh D. Burrows; Sandra M. A. Cruz; Rui F. P. Pereira; Ana C. F. Ribeiro; Victor M. M. Lobo

2008-01-01

224

Characterization of glycation in an IgG1 by capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate and mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case study of characterization of a non-enzymatically glycated IgG1 using reducing capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CESDS) and mass spectrometry (MS). Glycation was found to occur nonspecifically at multiple sites in both the light and heavy chains. The glycated light and heavy chains result in wider peaks eluting late in the reducing CESDS profile; in particular, the

Timothy Kaschak; Daniel Boyd; Boxu Yan

2011-01-01

225

Imaging biomarkers of inflammation in situ with functionalized quantum dots in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mouse colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Objective and design:Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the development of inflammation. These markers\\u000a are generally measured using tedious ELISA procedures. In this study, a novel technique utilizing antibody conjugated quantum\\u000a dot nanoparticles was developed to detect Myeloperoxidase, Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? (TNF-?) in vivo in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of

Amol Karwa; Elisabeth Papazoglou; Kambiz Pourrezaei; Som Tyagi; Sreekant Murthy

2007-01-01

226

Interaction of UO 2 2+ with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles: Association of Phenols to Micelles through Fluorescence Quenching Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLIF) has been used to study the interaction of uranyl ion with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in H3PO4 1 M. The titration curve consists of two curved regions with different slopes, one of them more pronounced at low concentration of SDS and the other, with a less pronounced positive slope at larger [SDS] until a plateau

Walter A Massad; Patricia Repossi; Gerardo A Argello

2002-01-01

227

Effect of salt on the phase behavior of the ternary system water-phenol-sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of the effects of varying temperature and salt concentration on the phase behavior of the water-pentanol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) system is presented. By addition of salt the lamellar phase extends well into the water-rich region and occurs at water contents exceeding 95%. The isotropic mixtures close in composition to the more dilute lamellar phase strongly scatter light

G. Guerin; A. M. Bellocq

1988-01-01

228

Amelioration of dextran sulfate sodiuminduced colitis by anti-macrophage migration inhibitory factor antibody in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: We investigated the effects of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) antibodies in experimental colitis-induced dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) and examined whether plasma levels of MIF were elevated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: BALB\\/c or C57BL\\/6 mice were fed 4% DSS in their drinking water for up to 7 days with

Tatsuya Ohkawara; Jun Nishihira; Hiroshi Takeda; Shuhei Hige; Mototsugu Kato; Toshiro Sugiyama; Toshihiko Iwanaga; Hideki Nakamura; Yuka Mizue; Masahiro Asaka

2002-01-01

229

Determination of biotin on a protein by quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfatecapillary gel electrophoresis of monomeric avidin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium dodecyl sulfatecapillary gel electrophoresis (SDSCGE) is performed to quantify monomeric avidin and biotin on a protein. Under non-reducing SDSCGE conditions, avidin migrates as monomers exhibiting apparent molecular mass 17?000. In the presence of a biotinprotein conjugate, monomeric avidin binds the conjugate and forms a larger complex that migrates later in the separation. The difference between the remaining monomeric avidin

Huey G. Lee; Edward Fritsche

2003-01-01

230

Protective Effect of IntraRectal Administration of Rebamipide on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Rat Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Rebamipide, an anti-ulcer drug, has various actions including radical scavenging and mucus-stimulating as well as anti-inflammatory effects, and exhibits both mucosal protective and healing promoting actions in the stomach. In the present study, we examined the effect of rebamipide on an animal model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Methods: Experimental colitis was induced in rats by

Mitsuaki Okayama; Ryoichi Tsubouchi; Hikaru Nishio; Shinichi Kato; Koji Takeuchi

2004-01-01

231

Synergistic Effects Between Sodium Tripolyphosphate and Zinc Sulfate in Corrosion Inhibition for Copper in Neutral Tap Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (NaPO, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and

Y. Feng; K.-L. Tan; A.-K. Hsieh; W.-K. Teo; K.-S. Siow

1997-01-01

232

[Parameters of hemolysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate as an indicator of the structural states of erythrocyte membranes].  

PubMed

The relationship between the parameters (percentage and rate) of hemolysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate and the time of incubation of human erythrocyte suspensions in glucose-free medium at 37 degrees C was studied. The polyphasic changes in the parameters were found, which depend on the mode of pretreatment: ATP depletion by iodoacetate, heat denaturation of spectrin, and treatment of cells by valinomycin. It was found that the percentage and rate of detergent hemolysis do not always change in parallel. PMID:10330583

Chernitski?, E A; Sen'kovich, O A; Slobozhanina, E I

233

Sodium sulfate corrosion of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composites. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot corrosion effects of Sodium Sulfate (NaSO4) coated Calcium Aluminosilicate (CAS)\\/Silicon Carbide (SiC) reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The samples provided by the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) were unidirectional SiC\\/CAS as follows: (1) as received, (2) uncoated in air, (3) Na2SO4, coated in air

1994-01-01

234

Electrocatalytic oxidation of sulfite at polymeric iron tetra (4-aminophenyl) porphyrinmodified electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electro-oxidation of sulfite was studied by using a glassy carbon electrode coated with a polymeric film of Fe-tetra-4-aminophenylporphyrin, in a wide pH range. The polymeric complex-modified electrode catalyses the electro-oxidation of sulfite to sulfate in acid and basic media, but it is more active at pH higher than 8.5. The polymer film coating is obtained by cycling the electrode

M. Lucero; G. Ramrez; A. Riquelme; I. Azocar; M. Isaacs; F. Armijo; J. E. Frster; E. Trollund; M. J. Aguirre; D. Lexa

2004-01-01

235

High-Resolution EPR Spectroscopy of Mo Enzymes. Sulfite Oxidases: Structural and Functional Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sulfite oxidases (SOs) are physiologically vital Mo-containing enzymes that occur in animals, plants, and bacteria and which\\u000a catalyze the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, the terminal reaction in the oxidative degradation of sulfur-containing compounds.\\u000a X-ray structure determinations of SOs from several species show nearly identical coordination structures of the molybdenum\\u000a active center, and a common catalytic mechanism has been proposed

John H. Enemark; A. V. Astashkin; A. M. Raitsimring

236

Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110C or above 250C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of sodium sulfite injection to remove flue gas NO prior to sodium bicarbonate injection.

Stein, Antoinette Weil

237

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption onto Positively Charged Surfaces: Monolayer Formation With Opposing Headgroup Orientations.  

PubMed

The adsorption and structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) layers onto positively charged films have been monitored in situ with vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. Substrates with different charge densities and polarities used in these studies include CaF2 at different pH values as well as allylamine and heptylamine films deposited onto CaF2 and Au substrates by radio frequency glow discharge deposition. The SDS films were adsorbed from aqueous solutions ranging in concentration from 0.067 to 20 mM. In general the SFG spectra exhibited well resolved CH and OH peaks. However, at SDS concentrations between 1 and 8 mM the SFG CH and OH intensities decreased close to background levels. Combined data sets from molecular conformation, orientation, and order sensitive SFG with mass sensitive SPR suggest that the observed changes in SFG intensities above 0.2 mM are related to structural arrangements in the SDS layer. A model is proposed where the SFG intensity minimum between 1 and 8 mM is associated with a monolayer containing two headgroup orientations, one pointing toward the substrate and one pointing toward the solution phase. The SFG peaks observed at concentrations below 0.2 mM are dominated by the presence of adsorbed contaminants such as fatty alcohols (e.g., dodecanol), which are more surface active than SDS. As SDS solution concentration is increased above 1 mM SDS molecules are incorporated in the surface layer, with dodecanol continuing to be present in the surface layer for solution concentrations up to at least the critical micelle concentration. PMID:24024777

Song, Sang-Hun; Koelsch, Patrick; Weidner, Tobias; Wagner, Matthew S; Castner, David G

2013-10-01

238

Betaine reduces the irritating effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on human oral mucosa in vivo.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate whether betaine has a protective effect during exposure of the human oral mucosa in vivo to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or cocoamidopropylbetaine (CAPB) as measured with a multifrequency electrical impedance spectrometer (EI). Both detergents were used at the concentration of 2.0% w/v with and without 4.0% w/v betaine in distilled water in 20 volunteers, and 0.5% and 1.0% w/v SLS combined with 4.0% w/v betaine in 5 volunteers. EI measurements were taken before application of the test solutions, after their removal, and every 15 min up to 45 min. Both 0.5% and 1% SLS solutions showed a significant reduction in 3 of the 4 indices, indicating mucosal irritation after the 15-min exposure (P < 0.05), whereas 2% SLS did so in all 4 indices (P < 0.001). Betaine had no effect on the detergent-induced decline with either the 2% or the 0.5% SLS solutions. However, when combined with the 1% SLS solution, betaine significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal irritation by abolishing decreases in indices MIX (magnitude index) and IMIX (imaginary part index) and lowering it for PIX (phase index). The 2% CAPB solution showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all 4 indices after the 15-min exposure, but the effect was significantly weaker than that of 2% SLS (P < 0.05). Betaine did not reduce the irritating effect of 2% CAPB. These findings can be used in the development of less irritating products for oral health care. PMID:12418722

Rantanen, Irma; Nicander, Ingrid; Jutila, Kirsti; Ollmar, Stig; Tenovuo, Jorma; Sderling, Eva

2002-10-01

239

Isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida capable of metabolizing anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) is one of the most widely used anionic detergents. The present study deals with isolation and identification of SDS-degrading bacteria from a detergent contaminated pond situated in Varanasi city, India. Materials and Methods Employing enrichment technique in minimal medium (PBM), SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated from pond water sample. Rate of degradation of SDS was studied in liquid PBM and also degradation of different concentrations of SDS was also studied to find out maximum concentration of SDS degraded by the potent isolates. Alkyl sulfatase activity (key enzyme in SDS degradation) was estimated in crude cell extracts and multiplicity of alkyl sulfatase was studied by Native PAGE Zymography. The potent isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Results Using enrichment technique in minimal medium containing SDS as a sole carbon source, initially three SDS degrading isolates were recovered. However, only one isolate, SP3, was found to be an efficient degrader of SDS. It was observed that this strain could completely metabolize 0.1% SDS in 16 h, 0.2% SDS in 20 h and 0.3% SDS in 24 h of incubation. Specific activity of alkyl sulfatase was 0.0870.004 mol SDS/mg protein/min and Native PAGE Zymography showed presence of alkyl sulfatase of Rf value of 0.21. This isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida strain SP3. Conclusion This is the report of isolation of SDS-degrading strain of P. putida, which shows high rate of SDS degradation and can degrade up to 0.3% SDS. It appears that this isolate can be exploited for bioremediation of this detergent from water systems.

Chaturvedi, V; Kumar, A

2011-01-01

240

Characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant proteolytic activity in the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus  

SciTech Connect

Cell extracts from Pyrococcus furiosus were found to contain five proteases, two of which (S66 and S102) are resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) denaturation. Cell extracts incubated at 98{degree}C in the presence of 1% SDS for 24 h exhibited substantial cellular proteolysis such that only four proteins could be visualized by amido black-Coomassie brilliant blue staining of SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The SDS-treated extract retained 19% of the initial proteolytic activity as represented by two proteases, S66 (66 kilodaltons (kDa)) and S102 (102 kDa). Immunoblot analysis with guinea pig sera containing antibodies against protease S66 indicated that S66 is related neither to S102 nor to the other proteases. The results of this analysis also suggest that S66 might be the hydrolysis product of a 200-kDa precursor which does not have proteolytic activity. The 24-h SDS-treated extract showed unusually thermostable proteolytic activity; the measured half-life at 98{degree}C was found to be 33 h. Proteases S66 and S102 were also resistant to denaturation by 8 M urea, 80 mM dithiothreitol, and 5% {beta}-mercaptoethanol. Purified protease S66 was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate but not by EDTA, ethylene glycol-bis({beta}-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetraacetic acid, or iodoacetic acid. These results indicate that S66 is a serine protease. Amino acid ester hydrolysis studies showed that protease S66 was hydrolytically active towards N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester.

Blumentals, I.I.; Robinson, A.S.; Kelly, R.M. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-07-01

241

Comparison of sodium acid sulfate to citric acid to inhibit browning of fresh-cut potatoes.  

PubMed

Sodium acid sulfate (SAS) dip treatments were evaluated against a distilled water control and citric acid (CA) to compare its effectiveness in reducing enzymatic browning of raw, French-fry cut potatoes. Two separate studies were conducted with dip concentrations ranging from 0%, 1%, and 3% in experiment 1 to 0%, 2%, and 2.5% in experiment 2 to determine optimal dip concentrations. Russet Burbank potatoes were peeled, sliced, and dipped for 1 min and stored at 3 C. Color, texture, fry surface pH, and microbiological analyses were conducted on days 0, 7, and 14. The 3% SAS- and CA-treated samples had significantly (p<0.0001) lower pH levels on fry surfaces than all other treatments. Both acidulants had significantly (p?0.05) lower aerobic plate counts compared to controls in both studies by day 7. However, SAS appeared to be the most effective at the 3% level in maintaining a light fry color up to day 14 and had the highest?L-values than all other treatments. The 3% SAS-treated fry slices appeared to have the least change in textural properties over storage time, having a significantly (p=0.0002) higher force value (kg force [kgf]) than the other treatments during experiment 1, without any signs of case-hardening that appeared in the control and CA-treated samples. SAS was just as comparable to CA in reducing surface fry pH and also lowering microbial counts over storage time. According to the results, SAS may be another viable acidulant to be utilized in the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry. PMID:21535855

Calder, Beth L; Kash, Emily A; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Bushway, Alfred A

2011-04-01

242

Effects of anthocyanin-rich tea "Sunrouge" on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Sunrouge, an anthocyanin-rich tea, has similar levels of catechins as "Yabukita," the most popular green tea cultivar consumed in Japan. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) have attracted interest due to their potent antioxidative activities combined with a lack of side effects in humans at normal consumption levels. However, we previously reported that high doses (0.5 and 1%) of dietary GTPs can result in deterioration of colitis and failed to prevent colon carcinogenesis in inflamed colons. In the present study, we determined the inhibitory effects of Sunrouge on colitis in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated and untreated control mice. Five-week-old female ICR mice were administered a single dose of Yabukita or Sunrouge (extracts in 1 mL distilled water) via a stomach tube for 3 weeks. After 1 week of treatment, the mice were divided into four groups (two Yabukita and two Sunrouge groups) and given drinking water with or without 3% DSS for 2 weeks, then they were euthanized. Those treated with DSS developed watery diarrhea and bloody stools, and showed body weight loss, spleen hypertrophy, and shortening of the colon, as well as deteriorations in survival rate, liver function, colon mucosal interleukin-1? level and expression of phase II detoxification enzyme mRNA. Sunrouge improved these DSS-induced symptoms, at least in part, whereas Yabukita showed either no effect or adverse effects in regard to some those parameters. It is suggested that the differences between Yabukita and Sunrouge on DSS-induced colitis might be due to the high levels of anthocyanins found in Sunrouge tea. PMID:22422705

Akiyama, Satoko; Nesumi, Atsushi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Uehara, Mariko; Murakami, Akira

2012-03-16

243

Characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant proteolytic activity in the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus.  

PubMed Central

Cell extracts from Pyrococcus furiosus were found to contain five proteases, two of which (S66 and S102) are resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) denaturation. Cell extracts incubated at 98 degrees C in the presence of 1% SDS for 24 h exhibited substantial cellular proteolysis such that only four proteins could be visualized by amido black-Coomassie brilliant blue staining of SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The SDS-treated extract retained 19% of the initial proteolytic activity as represented by two proteases, S66 (66 kilodaltons [kDa]) and S102 (102 kDa). Immunoblot analysis with guinea pig sera containing antibodies against protease S66 indicated that S66 is related neither to S102 nor to the other proteases. The results of this analysis also suggest that S66 might be the hydrolysis product of a 200-kDa precursor which does not have proteolytic activity. The 24-h SDS-treated extract showed unusually thermostable proteolytic activity; the measured half-life at 98 degrees C was found to be 33 h. Proteases S66 and S102 were also resistant to denaturation by 8 M urea, 80 mM dithiothreitol, and 5% beta-mercaptoethanol. Purified protease S66 was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate but not by EDTA, ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, or iodoacetic acid. These results indicate that S66 is a serine protease. Amino acid ester hydrolysis studies showed that protease S66 was hydrolytically active towards N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester. Images

Blumentals, I I; Robinson, A S; Kelly, R M

1990-01-01

244

L-arginine Supplementation Improves Responses to Injury and Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Colitis  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), results in substantial morbidity and is difficult to treat. New strategies for adjunct therapies are needed. One candidate is the semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg), a complementary medicine purported to be an enhancer of immunity and vitality in the lay media. Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as a murine colonic injury and repair model with similarities to human UC, we assessed the effect of L-Arg, as DSS induced increases in colonic expression of the y+ cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) and L-Arg uptake. L-Arg supplementation improved the clinical parameters of survival, body weight loss, and colon weight, and reduced colonic permeability and the number of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in DSS colitis. Luminex-based multi-analyte profiling demonstrated that there was a marked reduction in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression with L-Arg treatment. Genomic analysis by microarray demonstrated that DSS-treated mice supplemented with L-Arg clustered more closely with mice not exposed to DSS than to those receiving DSS alone, and revealed that multiple genes that were upregulated or downregulated with DSS alone exhibited normalization of expression with L-Arg supplementation. Additionally, L-Arg treatment of mice with DSS colitis resulted in increased ex vivo migration of colonic epithelial cells, suggestive of increased capacity for wound repair. Because CAT2 induction was sustained during L-Arg treatment and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) requires uptake of L-Arg for generation of NO, we tested the effect of L-Arg in iNOS?/? mice and found that its benefits in DSS colitis were eliminated. These preclinical studies indicate that L-Arg supplementation could be a potential therapy for IBD, and that one mechanism of action may be functional enhancement of iNOS activity.

Coburn, Lori A.; Gong, Xue; Singh, Kshipra; Asim, Mohammad; Scull, Brooks P.; Allaman, Margaret M.; Williams, Christopher S.; Rosen, Michael J.; Washington, M. Kay; Barry, Daniel P.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Casero, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Zhao, Zhongming; Wilson, Keith T.

2012-01-01

245

Formation of Reactive Sulfite-Derived Free Radicals by the Activation of Human Neutrophils: An ESR Study  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of (bi)sulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide) on human neutrophils and the ability of these immune cells to produce reactive free radicals due to (bi)sulfite oxidation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an abundant heme protein in neutrophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma and inflammatory disorders. In the present study sulfite (SO3?) and sulfate (SO4?) anion radicals are characterized with the ESR spin-trapping technique using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) in the reaction of (bi)sulfite oxidation by human MPO and human neutrophils via sulfite radical chain reaction chemistry. After treatment with (bi)sulfite, PMA-stimulated neutrophils produced DMPO-sulfite anion radical, -superoxide, and -hydroxyl radical adducts. The latter adduct probably resulted, in part, from the conversion of DMPO-sulfate to DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct via a nucleophilic substitution reaction of the radical adduct. This anion radical (SO4?) is highly reactive and, presumably, can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. Therefore, we propose that the potential toxicity of (bi)sulfite during pulmonary inflammation or lung-associated diseases such as asthma may be related to free radical formation.

Ranguelova, Kalina; Rice, Annette B.; Khajo, Abdelahad; Triquigneaux, Mathilde; Garantziotis, Stavros; Magliozzo, Richard S.; Mason, Ronald P.

2012-01-01

246

Use of Sodium Sulfate Separated from Agricultural Drainage Water in Glass Making. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial container and flat glasses are typically made using sodium carbonate as a source for sodium with the other components being quartz sand and calcite (calcium carbonate). We have investigated the effects of substituting natural and synthetic sodi...

B. M. Jenkins P. Thy

2006-01-01

247

Interfacial and solution properties of tetraalkylammonium bromides and their sodium dodecyl sulfate interacted products: a detailed physicochemical study.  

PubMed

The adsorption and solution behaviors of symmetrical tetramethyl-, tetraethyl-, tetrapropyl-, and tetrabutylammonium bromides (TMAB, TEAB, TPAB, and TBAB, respectively) were studied at the air/water interface and in the bulk aqueous environments. Their salts were prepared by reacting tetraalkylammonium bromide (TAAB) with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a solution from which the products of the higher two homologues (tetrapropylammonium dodecyl sulfate (TPADS) and tetrabutylammonium dodecyl sulfate (TBADS)) could only be isolated as solids and for which detailed characterization has been performed. The interfacial behaviors of 1:1 molar mixtures of TAAB and SDS and the prepared TPADS and TBADS were examined. Micellization of the 1:1 mixtures along with the isolated species were studied in the presence and absence of NaBr salt. The energetics of the micellization process and the counterion binding of the micelles were evaluated. The interaction of the TAABs with SDS micelles was examined, and the results were evaluated in terms of single- and two-site binding interaction models. Of the formed tetraalkylammonium dodecyl sulfates (TAADSs), only TBADS evidenced clouding, which was investigated in detail along with 1:1 molar mixtures of TBAB and SDS in aqueous solution in the presence of additives such as NaBr, SDS, and TBAB. The solution behaviors of the TAADS and the clouding of TBADS have been rationalized in terms of a mixed micellar model. PMID:17302444

Mitra, Debolina; Chakraborty, Indranil; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Moulik, Satya P

2007-02-16

248

Silver staining of extensively glycosylated proteins on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels: enhancement by carbohydrate-binding dyes.  

PubMed

Two methods are described for detecting less than 1 microgram of highly glycosylated proteins, such as mucins, on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. They combine commonly employed periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue dyes with silver stain. Carbohydrate prestaining renders mucins more cationic and favors greater complexation with ionic silver. Comparisons of different mucin samples stained either with PAS-silver or alcian blue-silver indicate differential staining between the two techniques. Such differences may, in part, be due to an affinity of Alcian blue for sulfated glycoproteins. These two staining protocols when used in conjunction with silver staining alone are particularly valuable for assessing sample purity and for detecting contaminating proteins during mucin purification protocols. PMID:1692672

Jay, G D; Culp, D J; Jahnke, M R

1990-03-01

249

Modeling Colitis-Associated Cancer with Azoxymethane (AOM) and Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)  

PubMed Central

Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) over healthy individuals. This risk is proportional to the duration and extent of disease, with a cumulative incidence as high as 30% in individuals with longstanding UC with widespread colonic involvement.1 Colonic dysplasia in IBD and colitis associated cancer (CAC) are believed to develop as a result of repeated cycles of epithelial cell injury and repair while these cells are bathed in a chronic inflammatory cytokine milieu.2 While spontaneous and colitis-associated cancers share the quality of being adenocarcinomas, the sequence of underlying molecular events is believed to be different.3 This distinction argues the need for specific animal models of CAC. Several mouse models currently exist for the study of CAC. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), an agent with direct toxic effects on the colonic epithelium, can be administered in drinking water to mice in multiple cycles to create a chronic inflammatory state. With sufficient duration, some of these mice will develop tumors.4 Tumor development is hastened in this model if administered in a pro-carcinogenic setting. These include mice with genetic mutations in tumorigenesis pathways (APC, p53, Msh2), as well as mice pre-treated with genotoxic agents (azoxymethane [AOM], 1,2-dimethylhydrazine [DMH]).5 The combination of DSS with AOM as a model for colitis associated cancer has gained popularity for its reproducibility, potency, low price, and ease of use. Though they have a shared mechanism, AOM has been found to be more potent and stable in solution than DMH. While tumor development in other models generally requires several months, mice injected with AOM and subsequently treated with DSS develop adequate tumors in as little as 7-10 weeks.6, 7 Finally, AOM and DSS can be administered to mice of any genetic background (knock out, transgenic, etc.) without cross-breeding to a specific tumorigenic strain. Here, we demonstrate a protocol for inflammation-driven colonic tumorigenesis in mice utilizing a single injection of AOM followed by three seven-day cycles of DSS over a 10 week period. This model induces tumors with histological and molecular changes closely resembling those occurring in human CAC and provides a highly valuable model for the study of oncogenesis and chemoprevention in this disease.8

Thaker, Ameet I.; Shaker, Anisa; Rao, M. Suprada; Ciorba, Matthew A.

2012-01-01

250

Global gene expression analysis of the mouse colonic mucosa treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation is well known to be a risk factor for colon cancer. Previously we established a novel mouse model of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, which is useful to examine the involvement of inflammation in colon carcinogenesis. To shed light on the alterations in global gene expression in the background of inflammation-related colon cancer and gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, we conducted a comprehensive DNA microarray analysis using our model. Methods Male ICR mice were given a single ip injection of azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg body weight), followed by the addition of 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to their drinking water for 7 days, starting 1 week after the AOM injection. We performed DNA microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip) on non-tumorous mucosa obtained from mice that received AOM/DSS, AOM alone, and DSS alone, and untreated mice at wks 5 and 10. Results Markedly up-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa given AOM/DSS at wk 5 or 10 included Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5 and 5.7-fold increase at wk 10) and plasminogen activator, tissue (Plat, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5), myelocytomatosis oncogene (Myc, 3.0-fold increase at wk 5), and phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid) (Plscr2, 8.0-fold increase at wk 10). The notable down-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa of mice treated with AOM/DSS were the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding protein (Pparbp, 0.06-fold decrease at wk 10) and the transforming growth factor, beta 3 (Tgfb3, 0.14-fold decrease at wk 10). The inflammation-related gene, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (Ppar? 0.38-fold decrease at wk 5), was also down-regulated in the colonic mucosa of mice that received AOM/DSS. Conclusion This is the first report describing global gene expression analysis of an AOM/DSS-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis model, and our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies against carcinogenesis.

Suzuki, Rikako; Miyamoto, Shingo; Yasui, Yumiko; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Takuji

2007-01-01

251

Higher fecal bile Acid hydrophobicity is associated with exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Increased luminal bile acid hydrophobicity is associated with cytotoxicity and has been suggested to contribute to gut barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare 2 high-fat diets and a low-fat diet as to whether they modify fecal bile acid profile and hydrophobicity and/or susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis in C57Bl/6J mice. Control and DSS-Control groups received a low-fat control diet [5.5% of total energy (E%) soy oil, 4.5 E% lard], and the DSS-Lard (5.5 E% soy oil, 54.5 E% lard) and DSS-Fish oil (5.5 E% soy oil, 27.2 E% lard and 27.2% menhaden oil) groups received high-fat diets. Feces for bile acid analysis were collected after 3-wk feeding, followed by induction of dextran DSS colitis (2 d 5% DSS in drinking water + 2 d tap water). Fecal bile acid hydrophobicity was elevated 76% in the lard group (P = 0.051) and 122% in the fish oil group (P = 0.001) compared with control, indicating potentially increased cytotoxicity. DSS caused severe colitis symptoms, evaluated as rectal bleeding, whereas all the controls were symptom free. The median symptom scores were: DSS-Control, 2.3 (IQR = 0.6, 3.0); DSS-Lard, 0.3 (IQR = 0, 2.3); and DSS-Fish oil, 2.4 (IQR = 1.9, 2.8). The only differences were DSS-Control vs. control (P < 0.001) and DSS-Fish oil vs. control (P < 0.001). Severity of symptoms in all colitic mice was positively correlated with fecal bile acid hydrophobicity (Spearman's ? = 0.43; P = 0.028) and fecal deoxycholic acid concentration (Spearman's ? = 0.39; P = 0.048). These results suggest that luminal bile acid modification, induced by altered dietary fat composition, may alter susceptibility to DSS colitis. PMID:24047703

Stenman, Lotta K; Holma, Reetta; Forsgrd, Richard; Gylling, Helena; Korpela, Riitta

2013-09-18

252

Inhibition of superoxide dismutase, Vitamin C and glutathione on chemiluminescence produced by luminol and the mixture of sulfite and bisulfite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a system which consisted of luminol (3-aminophthalhydrazide), cobalt sulfate (CoSO 4), alkaline buffer and the mixture of NaSO 3 and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO 3) (sulfite and bisulfite = 3:1, m/m), a strong chemiluminescence (CL) was observed using a BPCL ultra-weak luminometer. The CL signals resulted from 3-aminophthalate (the product of oxidized luminol), and were affected by the buffer pH, buffer medium and the concentrations of luminol, CoSO 4 and the NaSO 3-NaHSO 3 mixture. The observation that the CL intensities were inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), Vitamin C (Vc) and glutathione (GSH) in a dose-dependent manner suggested that superoxide radical (O 2rad -) was involved in the CL reaction and responsible for oxidation of luminol.

Geng, Hong; Meng, Ziqiang

2006-05-01

253

On the flocculation and re-dissolution of trivalent lanthanide metal ions by sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between aqueous solutions of trivalent lanthanide ions (M3+: La(III) and Gd(III) and Tb (III)) at fixed (1mM) concentrations and various concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ranging from pre- to post-micellar, has been investigated by ICP-AES (La(III) and Gd(III)), luminescence spectra (Gd(III)) and lifetimes (Tb(III)) and 139La NMR spectroscopy. It has been found that at concentration ratios, r=[SDS]\\/[M3+],

Rui F. P. Pereira; Mara J. Tapia; Artur J. M. Valente; Rachel C. Evans; Hugh D. Burrows; Rui A. Carvalho

2011-01-01

254

Simple, time-saving dye staining of proteins for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Coomassie blue.  

PubMed

A fixation-free and fast protein-staining method for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Coomassie blue is described. The protocol comprises staining and quick washing steps, which can be completed in 0.5 h. It has a sensitivity of 10 ng, comparable with that of conventional Coomassie Brilliant Blue G staining with phosphoric acid in the staining solution. In addition, the dye stain does not contain any amount of acid and methanol, such as phosphoric acid. Considering the speed, simplicity, and low cost, the dye stain may be of more practical value than other dye-based protein stains in routine proteomic research. PMID:21850222

Dong, Wei-Hua; Wang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jun-He

2011-08-05

255

Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate Micellization and Water Solubility Enhancement Towards Naphthalene and Pyrene: Effect of the Degree of Ethoxylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethoxylation on self-aggregation behavior in aqueous media of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), C12H25 (OCH2CH2)xOSO3Na, where x=1 (SLE1S), x=2 (SLE2S), and x=(SLE3S) was investigated. CMCs were determined from the effect of surfactant concentration on (2,2?-bipyridine dichloro-ruthenium(II)\\u000a hexahydrate (Ru(bipy)32+,2Cl?) fluorescence emission. Aggregation numbers and micelle concentrations were estimated from the fluorescent quenching of (Ru(bipy)32+,2Cl?) by 9-methylanthracene. Interestingly, critical

Mohamed Aoudia; Butheina Al-Haddabi; Zuleikha Al-Harthi; Aadel Al-Rubkhi

2010-01-01

256

Microstructure and Physical Properties of Sulfate Hydrate/Ice Eutectic Aggregates in the Binary System Sodium-Sulfate/Water at Planetary Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflectance spectra data from Mars Odyssey, Galileo and potentially from Cassini suggest the presence of hydrated salts on numerous satellites in environments such as evaporate beds or combined with water ice. Improved mission data on these occurrences indicate that grain structures and properties of such materials merit a closer look using laboratory methods. Here we report the synthesis of a two-phase aggregate of sodium sulfate hydrate and water ice made by eutectic solidification from solution, characterization of its microstructure using cryogenic SEM, and comparison of its physical properties to those of its end-member components. Samples are crystallized from solution using a precision cryobath and seeded growth. The reaction is a "simple" one meaning that there is no solid solution formation in either of the two solid phases. The eutectic composition we studied for the sodium sulfate hydrate is 4wt% Na2SO4, which corresponds to about .06 volume fraction of Na2SO4?10H2O, mirabilite, and .94 ice I. The eutectic microstructure observed with this volume fraction, which is termed "broken lamellar", consists of fairly uniform blade-like mirabilite grains arranged in roughly parallel columns within a water ice matrix. The blades and matrix material form a lamella that alternates with lamellae of pure ice. Energy dispersive spectroscopy of these eutectic mixtures confirms the presence of the two crystalline phases. Also, we find that lamellar spacing decreases with increasing growth rate. Constant-strain-rate tests in compression are carried out in the cryogenic gas deformation apparatus at LLNL in a pressure-temperature range appropriate to the icy satellites. We report the rheology of the two-phase aggregate and compare it to the strength properties of pure water ice and pure mirabilite. With the aid of numerous studies on similar structures in the literature on metals, we analyze the deformation mechanics from the perspective of defect and crack propagation between the two phases in the eutectic structure. This ongoing investigation is the first of several planned experimental studies of sulfate-hydrate binaries with ice I that are likely to be important in the icy satellites.

McCarthy, C. M.; Kirby, S.; Durham, W.; Stern, L.

2004-12-01

257

[Adverse reactions induced by food additives: sulfites].  

PubMed

Many chemicals are used to preserve, color and flavor foods and drugs. There have been numerous reports of adverse reactions, including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, asthma an anaphylaxis following the ingestion of food additives such as tartrazine, monosodium glutamate and benzoic acid. Recently the food and drug additives reaching medical awareness as a cause of sensitivity are the sulfiting agents. Sulfites are widely used in the food and beverage industry as preservatives and antioxidants. They are also used by the pharmaceutical industry. This work describes the common uses of sulfiting agents, the mechanisms of sulfite sensitivity, the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of adverse reactions to sulfites. PMID:2672278

Montao Garca, M L

258

Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase  

SciTech Connect

Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. (Univ. South Florida College, Tampa (United States))

1991-03-11

259

Microchamber Western blotting using poly-L-lysine conjugated polyacrylamide gel for blotting of sodium dodecyl sulfate coated proteins.  

PubMed

We report a novel strategy to immobilize sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated proteins for fully integrated microfluidic Western blotting. Polyacrylamide gel copolymerized with a cationic polymer, poly-L-lysine, effectively immobilizes all sized proteins after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and enables SDS-PAGE and subsequent immuno-probing in an automated microfluidic chip. Design of a poly-l-lysine conjugated polyacrylamide gel allows optimization of SDS-protein immobilization strength in the blotting gel region of the microchamber. The dependence of protein capture behavior on both the concentration of copolymerized charges and poly-lysine length is studied and gives important insight into an electrostatic immobilization mechanism. Based on analysis of protein conformation, the immobilized proteins bind with partner antibody after SDS dilution. We demonstrate each step of the microchamber Western blot, including injection, separation, transfer, immobilization, blocking, and immunoblot. The approach advances microfluidic protein immunoblotting, which is directly relevant to the widely-used SDS-PAGE based slab-gel Western blot, while saving sample volume, labor, and assay time. PMID:23848185

Chung, Minsub; Kim, Dohyun; Herr, Amy E

2013-08-05

260

Electron spin echo modulation of doxylstearic acid probes of the surface and internal structure of lithium dodecyl sulfate micelles: comparison with sodium dodecyl sulfate and tetramethylammonium dodecyl sulfate micelles  

SciTech Connect

Two-pulse electron spin echo modulation analyses of x-doxylstearic acid spin probes (x = 5, 7, 10, 12, and 16) in frozen lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) micelles in D/sub 2/O and lithium dodecyl-12,12,12-d/sub 3/ sulfate micelles in H/sub 2/O have been carried out. The results give information on the average conformation of the stearic acid chains and the distribution of D/sub 2/O and the -CD/sub 3/ end groups in the micellar aggregates. These are compared to data from dodecyl sulfate micelles with sodium or tetramethylammonium counterions (SDS and TMADS, respectively) which were studied previously in a similar fashion. The LDS micelles show a less compact and more hydrated headgroup region than SDS micelles. The -CD/sub 3/ surfactant end groups in LDS micelles are not concentrated at the micelle center but are broadly distributed throughout the micellar volume. The surface and internal structure of LDS micelles is quite comparable to that of TMADS micelles and is different from that of SDS micelles. 23 references, 2 figures.

Jones, R.R.M.; Maldonado, R.; Szajdzinska-Pietek, E.; Kevan, L.

1986-03-13

261

[The effect of sodium salts and pH on hydrogenase activity of the haloalkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacteria].  

PubMed

Hydrogenase is the main catabolic enzyme of hydrogen-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacteria. In haloalkaliphilic sulfate reducers, hydrogenase, particularly if it is periplasmic, functions at high concentrations of Na+ ions and low concentrations of H+ ions. The hydrogenases of the newly isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfonatronum thiodismutans, D. lacustre, and Desulfonatrovibrio hydrogenovorans exhibit different sensitivity to Na+ ions and remain active at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 4.3 M and NaHCO3 concentrations between 0 and 1.2 M. The hydrogenases of D. lacustre and D. thiodismutans remain active at pH values between 6 and 12. The optimum pH for the hydrogenase of D. thiodismutans is 9.5. The optimum pH for the cytoplasmic and periplasmic hydrogenases of D. lacustre is 10. Thus, the hydrogenases of D. thiodismutans, D. lacustre, and Dv. hydrogenovorans are tolerant to high concentrations of sodium salts and extremely tolerant to high pH values, which makes them unique objects for biochemical studies and biotechnological applications. PMID:16211848

Detkova, E N; Soboleva, G S; Pikuta, E V; Pusheva, M A

262

On the flocculation and re-dissolution of trivalent lanthanide metal ions by sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The interaction between aqueous solutions of trivalent lanthanide ions (M(3+): La(III) and Gd(III) and Tb (III)) at fixed (1mM) concentrations and various concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ranging from pre- to post-micellar, has been investigated by ICP-AES (La(III) and Gd(III)), luminescence spectra (Gd(III)) and lifetimes (Tb(III)) and (139)La NMR spectroscopy. It has been found that at concentration ratios, r=[SDS]/[M(3+)], around the charge neutralization value (ca. 3), dodecyl sulfate (DS(-)) anion interacts with the metal ions to form insoluble aggregates. The metal ion-DS(-) complexes remain flocculated for r values below 5-6 (Gd(III) and La(III), respectively), while at higher r values, re-dissolution takes place. The flocculated aggregates have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, and show a lamellar structure. Job plot method indicates that a complex with a 1:3 (M(3+):DS(-)) stoichiometry is formed. From ICP-AES analysis, a model based on a three-step mechanism has been developed and association constants calculated. For all systems the interaction between DS(-) and metal ions follows an associative process with K values ranging between K(1)=10 and K(3)=10(4). These data are discussed on the basis of the physical-chemical characteristics of the metal ions. Re-dissolution with increasing surfactant concentration is attributed to formation of mixed lanthanide/sodium dodecyl sulfate aggregates, with the relative lanthanide fraction in these species decreasing with increasing SDS concentration. PMID:21084096

Pereira, Rui F P; Tapia, Mara J; Valente, Artur J M; Evans, Rachel C; Burrows, Hugh D; Carvalho, Rui A

2010-11-03

263

An Essential Role for Tomato Sulfite Oxidase and Enzymes of the Sulfite Network in Maintaining Leaf Sulfite Homeostasis1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the homeostasis of sulfite levels, a cytotoxic by-product of plant sulfur turnover. By employing extended dark to induce catabolic pathways, we followed key elements of the sulfite network enzymes that include adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate reductase and the sulfite scavengers sulfite oxidase (SO), sulfite reductase, UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase, and ?-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferases. During extended dark, SO was enhanced in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) wild-type leaves, while the other sulfite network components were down-regulated. SO RNA interference plants lacking SO activity accumulated sulfite, resulting in leaf damage and mortality. Exogenous sulfite application induced up-regulation of the sulfite scavenger activities in dark-stressed or unstressed wild-type plants, while expression of the sulfite producer, adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate reductase, was down-regulated. Unstressed or dark-stressed wild-type plants were resistant to sulfite applications, but SO RNA interference plants showed sensitivity and overaccumulation of sulfite. Hence, under extended dark stress, SO activity is necessary to cope with rising endogenous sulfite levels. However, under nonstressed conditions, the sulfite network can control sulfite levels in the absence of SO activity. The novel evidence provided by the synchronous dark-induced turnover of sulfur-containing compounds, augmented by exogenous sulfite applications, underlines the role of SO and other sulfite network components in maintaining sulfite homeostasis, where sulfite appears to act as an orchestrating signal molecule.

Brychkova, Galina; Grishkevich, Vladislav; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

2013-01-01

264

Chitosan and Sodium Sulfate as Excipients in the Preparation of Prolonged Release Theophylline Tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objectives of this study were to monitor the effect of cross-linking of cationic chitosan in acidic media with sulfate anion during granules preparation by wet granulation method prior tableting using theophylline (TPH) as a model drug. The prepared granules and the compressed tablets were subjected to in vitro evaluation. The properties of the prepared matrix granules and the

Ibrahim A. Alsarra; Ibrahim El-Bagory; Mohsen A. Bayomi

2005-01-01

265

Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium What is sodium? It is a mineral found naturally in food. Why do we need it? Our bodies need sodium to maintain ... salt) per day How can you control your sodium intake? Read the Nutrition Facts Label to look ...

266

Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.  

PubMed

The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain lengths, the slower the sphere-to-rod transition. PMID:17904570

Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

2007-09-04

267

Characterization and application of molecular binary mixed molecular micelles of sodium 10-undecenyl sulfate and sodium N-undecenyl leucinate as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

Poly (sodium 10-undecenyl sulfate) (poly SUS), poly (sodium 10-undecenyl leucinate) (poly SUL), and their five molecular binary mixed micelles with varied SUS:SUL composition were prepared. The purity of these molecular micelles was confirmed by elemental analysis. Their partial specific volume, aggregation number, methylene selectivity, polarity, phase ratio, mobility, and elution window values were determined using a variety of analytical techniques. These molecular micelles were then evaluated as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for separation of benzene derivatives with a wide range of chemical properties. Elemental analysis results reveal that the ratio of the two surfactants in the binary mixture does not change significantly during the polymerization process. Poly SUS was found to have the lowest partial specific volume and it increases gradually with an increase of SUL mole fraction. Poly SUL was found to provide the most hydrophobic environment for test solutes. Based on the retention results, the strength of interaction between the molecular micelles and the analytes was found to follow the following order: NHB>HBA>HBD. This order indicates that the hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in retention of benzene derivatives. PMID:22967577

Akbay, Cevdet; Ahmed, Hamid H; Arslan, Hakan; Graham, Brittany; Guzel, Mustafa

2012-06-09

268

Measurement of oxidation rate of sulfite in rain water in Yokohama, Japan  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the influences of acid rain such as the acidification of lake water, on bio-system by the heavy metals from effluent of soils with acid rain and also on the structural materials of buildings are seriously discussed. Sulfur and nitrogen that are contained in fossil fuels are released into the atmosphere by the fuel combustion as their oxides dissolve in rain drops as sulfite and nitrous ions, where they are further oxidized into sulfate and nitrate ions These ions lower the pH of rain water resulting so-called acid rain. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine these ions in rain water for the investigation of reality of acid rain. However, it is not easy to accurately determine these ions, especially for sulfite ions in rain water, since they are quickly oxidized by the catalytic action of metallic ions such as ferric and manganous ions. And light, temperature, pH of solution and also species and concentrations of dissolved metallic ions as catalysts, must be influential factors for the rate of oxidation of sulfite ions. In this paper, first, the rate of oxidation of sulfite ion in the test solutions by the catalytic reactions of metallic ions was examined, since the metallic ions is most influential in the oxidation of sulfite ion, and then the relations between the rate of oxidation of sulfite ion and the metallic ions were investigated for rain samples. The contribution of hydrogen ion that was produced by the oxidation of sulfite ion to sulfate was also examined for the change of pH values of rain water.

Tanaka, S.; Yamanaka, K.; Hashimoto, Y.

1986-04-01

269

Electrochemical behavior of sodium azide at Pt and Au electrodes in sodium sulfate electrolyte: A DEMS study  

SciTech Connect

Azides are widely used in chemical technology for a large variety of applications, such as detonators (Pb(N{sub 3}){sub 2}), getters in electric discharge tubes, anticorrosive agents, or additives for the production of foam rubber. The electro-oxidation and -reduction of sodium azide at porous painted platinum and gold electrodes was studied using the multipurpose electrochemical mass spectrometry (MPEMS) which was operated in the differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) mode. The platinum electrode was found to be active for electro-oxidation as well as for electroreduction. Above 0.3 V vs. Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, azide is oxidized to give N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O. Reduction of azide takes place below {minus}0.9 V forming N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and possibly NH{sub 3}. In contrast to platinum, gold showed only activity for the electro-oxidation of azide leading to the formation of N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O above 0.5 V. Evidence for a reaction without evolution of volatile products was also found taking place above 0.1 V. A reaction mechanism is discussed emphasizing the role of adsorbed hydrogen and oxygen.

Dalmia, A.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F.; Liu, C.C. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-11-01

270

Effect of heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate on solubilization of proteins before two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

To solubilize biological samples, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) frequently is added and the mixture heated at 70-100 degrees C. However, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a single protein after SDS treatment has not been reported. When rabbit-muscle creatine kinase was so run, we saw considerable difference in the gel staining pattern for the heated and nonheated enzyme dissolved in the SDS solution. After heating for 10 min at 95 degrees C the number of silver-stained spots apparent increased, and staining of several spots intensified. After 60 min, most of the discrete spots disappeared. Evidently the peptide backbone had been hydrolyzed. When the enzyme was simply left at room temperature for four days, the effects were similar. Appearance of new spots and loss of spots apparently are caused by heating alone but are intensified by SDS. Experiments with human serum albumin yielded similar results. PMID:6499173

Hodges, S C; Hirata, A A

1984-12-01

271

Rinse and evaporation coating of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchip for separation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complex.  

PubMed

We developed a novel channel wall coating on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip using methylcellulose (MC) as a coating reagent to suppress electroosmotic flow (EOF) following the strong analytes adsorption via hydrophobic interaction with channel walls of PMMA. Our coating was obtained by first rinsing channel walls with MC-containing aqueous solution followed by evaporation. The coating made the hydrophilic channel wall lowering EOF by two orders of magnitude (1.2 x 10(-5)cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)) as well as reducing the hydrophobic adsorption. On the coated channel walls, we successfully separated sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes with high reproducibility and efficiency using dextran as a lower viscosity protein separation medium. PMID:18430430

Okada, Hiroki; Kaji, Noritada; Tokeshi, Manabu; Baba, Yoshinobu

2008-03-18

272

Fibril formation of lysozyme upon interaction with sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.2.  

PubMed

Fibril formation seems to be a general property of all proteins. Its occurrence in hen or human lysozyme depends on certain conditions, namely acidic pHs or the presence of some additives. This paper studies the interaction of lysozyme with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at pH 9.2, using UV-visible spectrophotometry, circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry, electron microscopy (EM) and chemometry. Based on observations such as the strange increase in absorbance at 650nm (pH 9.2) and the presence of intermediates, it is assumed that lysozyme fibrils have been formed at pH 9.2 in the presence of SDS as an anionic surfactant. Thioflavin T emission fluorescence and an EM image confirmed this assumption. beta-cyclodextrin was then used as a turbidity inhibitor to establish its effect on the distribution of intermediates that participate in fibril formation. PMID:17616361

Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Pirzadeh, P; Hashemnia, S; Ahmadian, S; Hemmateenejad, B; Amani, M; Saboury, A A; Ahmad, F; Shamsipur, M; Hakimelahi, G H; Tsai, Fu-Yuan; Alijanvand, H Hadi; Yousefi, R

2007-06-02

273

Temporal and geographical distributions of epilithic sodium dodecyl sulfate-degrading bacteria in a polluted South Wales river  

SciTech Connect

Epilithic bacteria were isolated nonselectively from riverbed stones and examined by gel zymography for their ability to produce alkylsulfatase (AS) enzymes and thus to metabolize alkyl sulfate surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. The percentages of AS+ isolates from stone epilithon at five sites from the source to the river mouth were measured on five sampling days spread over 1 year. The results showed that (i) the prevalence of epilithic AS+ strains (as a percentage of all isolates) was much higher at polluted sites than at the source; (ii) when averaged over the whole river, percentages of AS+ strains were significantly higher at the end of summer compared with either the preceding or the following winter; (iii) analysis of site-sampling time interactions indicated that water quality factors (e.g., biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen concentration) rather than climatic factors determined the distributions of epilithic AS+ isolates; (iv) constitutive strains were the most prevalent (7.2% of all isolates), with smaller numbers of isolates with inducible (4.5%) and repressible (1.7%) enzymes.

Anderson, D.J.; Day, M.J.; Russell, N.J.; White, G.F.

1988-02-01

274

Oxygen and sulfur isotope composition of sulfate-rich evaporite mounds at the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the O and S isotope compositions of massive localized deposits of sodium sulfate composed nearly entirely of the mineral thenardite (Na2SO4) and its hydrate, mirabilite (Na2SO4.10H2O) collected from evaporite mounds occurring on the glacial end moraine of the Lewis Cliff Ice Tongue, Antarctica. Mounds are typically situated near the edges of small evaporative brine lakes of unknown depths. Sulfate-rich evaporite mounds at Lewis Cliff Ice Tongue have low ?18O values (average value = -17.2 (VSMOW)) and anomalously high ?34S values (average value = +49.1 (VCDT)). O and D isotope compositions of these brine lake waters confirm that they are derived from a mixture of glacial ice and snow that underwent evaporation. The highly negative ?18O water values (-30.8 to -64.2 (VSMOW)) imply the incorporation of this water oxygen into the hydrated sulfate minerals. When coupled with the enriched 34S values, these data point to mirabilite-thenardite mound formation processes involving bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR), followed by precipitation due to evaporation of the concentrated brines. We suggest that sulfate reduction occurs either at the bottom of the evaporative brine lakes, or sub-glacially, as a result of aqueous basal glacial conditions (Alpine-style) or possibly in an as yet unidentified sub-glacial lake. Sulfate 18O is ~30 more positive than that of the brine lake water and implies that either 1) sulfate formed directly from the oxidation of reduced sulfur within the brine lakes below ~0C, during which a ~30 fractionation of oxygen isotopes could occur between water and the produced sulfate, or 2) sulfate is derived from the residue of the BSR, but with contribution from the re-oxidation of the intermediate product of BSR, sulfite. Oxygen isotopic exchange occurs between sulfite and ambient water rapidly, which also could introduce ~30 fractionation between the water and the sulfite. In turn, the observed sulfate will carry a similar ?18O as the sulfite (~-17).

Socki, R. A.; Sun, T.; Bish, D. L.; Harvey, R. P.; Tonui, E.; Bao, H.

2009-12-01

275

Metachromatic staining patterns of basic proline-rich proteins from rat and human saliva in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of basic proteins, rich in proline, were isolated from the salivary secretions of humans and rats. These proteins underwent metachromasia after staining with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The technique of destaining gels in several changes of 10% acetic acid after a 30-min staining period is a rapid method of general utility for the

M. G. Humphreys-Beher; D. J. Wells

1984-01-01

276

Energy transfer in the gamma radiolytic decomposition of sodium and potassium nitrates dispersed in phosphate, sulfate and carbonate matrices in solid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma radiolytic decomposition of sodium and potassium nitrates dispersed in respective phosphate, sulfate and carbonate matrices has been studied over a wide absorbed dose range upto 300 kGy. Decomposition of nitrates increases with the concentration of the additive in the admixtures. G(NO 2) values, calculated on the basis of electron fraction of the nitrate decreases with the absorbed dose and

N. G. Joshi; A. N. Garg

1994-01-01

277

Protective Effects of Different Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and Rosemary Cream Preparations against Sodium-Lauryl-Sulfate-Induced Irritant Contact Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we evaluated the protective action of cream preparations containing seven different types of marigold and rosemary extracts in vivo in healthy volunteers with experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Marigold and rosemary extracts in base cream DAC (Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex = German Pharmaceutical Codex) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The

S. M. Fuchs; S. Schliemann-Willers; T. W. Fischer; P. Elsner

2005-01-01

278

A simple and efficient method for ?-bromination of carbonyl compounds using N-bromosuccinimide in the presence of silica-supported sodium hydrogen sulfate as a heterogeneous catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Bromination of carbonyl compounds (cyclic and acyclic ketones, amides and ?-ketoesters) has been achieved efficiently by treatment with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and catalyzed by silica-supported sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO4SiO2). The products were formed in high yields under mild reaction conditions and in short reaction times.

Biswanath Das; Katta Venkateswarlu; Gurram Mahender; Ibram Mahender

2005-01-01

279

Cell aggregation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as an energy-dependent stress response during growth with sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 grew with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The growth started with the formation of macroscopic cell aggregates which consisted of respiring cells embedded in an extracellular matrix composed of acidic polysaccharides and DNA. Damaged and uncultivable cells accumulated in these aggregates compared to those cells that remained suspended. We investigated the response of suspended cells

Janosch Klebensberger; Oliver Rui; Eva Fritz; Bernhard Schink; Bodo Philipp

2006-01-01

280

Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceburg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies showed that levulinic acid (LA) and sodium acid sulfate (SAS) were effective in inactivating human pathogens on fresh produce. The present study investigated the effects of LA and SAS in comparison with citric acid and chlorine on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and the sensory qu...

281

Involvement of Luminal Bacteria, Heat Shock Protein 60, Macrophages and ?? T Cells in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo immunological events in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis were evaluated. Rats were fed water (control) or 5% DSS. Colonic sections were assessed by light microscopy, Gram stain, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. A progressive decline in number and increase in fragmentation of bacteria in the colonic lumen was observed over time. Luminal bacteria were the first to

Felix W. Leung; Madalene C. Y. Heng; S. Allen; Kyoji Seno; Joseph W. C. Leung; Ming K. Heng

2000-01-01

282

A novel, environmentally friendly sodium lauryl ether sulfate-, cocamidopropyl betaine-, cocamide monoethanolamine-containing buffer for MEKC on microfluidic devices.  

PubMed

A new buffer has been developed for fast, high-efficiency separations of amino acids by MEKC. This buffer was more environmentally friendly than the most commonly used surfactant-containing buffers for MEKC separations. It used a commercially available dishwashing soap by Seventh Generation (Burlington, VT, USA), which contained three micelle-forming agents. The mixed micelles were composed of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (anionic), cocamidopropyl betaine (zwitterionic), and cocamide monoethanolamine (non-ionic). The optimized buffer contained 5.0% w/w Seventh Generation Free & Clear dishwashing soap, 10 mM sodium borate, and was completely void of organics. The lack of organics and the biodegradability of the surfactant molecules made this buffer more environmentally friendly than typical SDS-containing buffers. This new buffer also had a different selectivity and provided faster separations with higher separation efficiencies than SDS-based buffers. Fast separations of BODIPY FL labeled amino acids yielded peaks with separation efficiencies greater than 100,000 in less than 20 s. PMID:19130569

Hoeman, Kurt W; Culbertson, Christopher T

2008-12-01

283

Kinetics of oxidation of total sulfite in the ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using bubbling apparatus, the kinetics of oxidation of total sulfite in ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process was investigated by varying concentrations of SO32? and SO42?, pH, temperatures and air flow. The concentration range of sulfite is 0.00440.026gmolL?1 and that of sulfate is 0.52gmolL?1. Experiments were conducted at pH level of 4.56.5 and air flow ranging from 50 to

Yong Jia; Qin Zhong; Xueyou Fan; Xinrong Wang

2010-01-01

284

Protection against paraquat-induced toxicity with sulfite or thiosulfate in mice.  

PubMed

The toxicity of the herbicide paraquat in mice, measured by the single dose LD50 after 7 days, was significantly decreased by coinjection of thiosulfite (1 g/kg; one time per day for 3 days) or sulfite (0.2 g/kg; one time per day for 3 days). However, the toxicity of paraquat was not changed by coinjection of sulfate (1 g/kg; one time per day for 3 days). The body weight of mice was significantly decreased by paraquat treatment (30 mg/kg, i.p.). However, the decrease of body weight was abolished by coinjection of thiosulfate or sulfite but not by coinjection of sulfate. On the other hand, paraquat significantly decreased reduced glutathione contents in liver. The depletion of the glutathione contents was also abolished by coinjection of thiosulfate or sulfite but not by coinjection of sulfate. These results suggest that the preventive effect against paraquat-induced toxicity with thiosulfate or sulfite may involve the glutathione-dependent detoxication in mice. PMID:8475498

Yamamoto, H

1993-03-30

285

Characterization of anaerobic sulfite reduction by Salmonella typhimurium and purification of the anaerobically induced sulfite reductase  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that lack the biosynthetic sulfite reductase (cysI and cysJ mutants) retain the ability to reduce sulfite for growth under anaerobic conditions. Here we report studies of sulfite reduction by a cysI mutant of S. typhimurium and purification of the associated anaerobic sulfite reductase. Sulfite reduction for anaerobic growth did not require a reducing atmosphere but was prevented by an argon atmosphere contaminated with air (<0.33%). It was also prevented by the presence of 0.1 mM nitrate. Anaerobic growth in liquid minimal medium, but not on agar, was found to require additions of trace amounts (10{sup {minus}7} M) of cysteine. Spontaneous mutants that grew under the argon contaminated with air also lost the requirement for 10{sup {minus}7}M cysteine for anaerobic growth in liquid. A role for sulfite reduction in anaerobic energy generation was contraindicated by the findings that sulfite reduction did not improve cell yields, and anaerobic sulfite reductase activity was greatest during the stationary phase of growth. Sulfite reductase was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the anaerobically grown cysI mutant and was purified 190-fold. The most effective donor in crude extracts was NADH. NADHP and methyl viologen were, respectively, 40 and 30% as effective as NADH. Oxygen reversibly inhibited the enzyme. The anaerobic sulfite reductase showed some resemblance to the biosynthetic sulfite reductase, but apparently it has a unique, as yet unidentified function.

Hallenbeck, P.C. (Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Clark, M.A.; Barrett, E.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1989-06-01

286

Antifungal azoxybacilin exhibits activity by inhibiting gene expression of sulfite reductase.  

PubMed Central

Azoxybacilin, produced by Bacillus cereus, has a broad spectrum of antifungal activity in methionine-free medium and has been suggested to inhibit sulfite fixation. We have further investigated the mode of action by which azoxybacilin kills fungi. The compound inhibited the incorporation of [35S] sulfate into acid-insoluble fractions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under conditions in which virtually no inhibition was observed for DNA, RNA, or protein synthesis. It did not interfere with the activity of the enzymes for sulfate assimilation but clearly inhibited the induction of those enzymes when S. cerevisiae cells were transferred from rich medium to a synthetic methionine-free medium. Particularly strong inhibition was observed in the induction of sulfite reductase. Northern (RNA) analysis revealed that azoxybacilin decreased the level of mRNA of genes for sulfate assimilation, including MET10 for sulfite reductase and MET4, the transactivator of MET10 and other sulfate assimilation genes. When activities of azoxybacilin were compared for mRNA and enzyme syntheses from MET10, the concentration required for inhibition of transcription of the gene was about 10 times higher (50% inhibitory concentration = 30 micrograms/ml) than that required for inhibition of induction of enzyme synthesis (50% inhibitory concentration = 3 micrograms/ml). The data suggest that azoxybacilin acts on at least two steps in the expression of sulfite reductase; the transcriptional activation of MET4 and a posttranscriptional regulation in MET10 expression. We conclude that azoxybacilin exhibits antifungal activity by interfering with the regulation of expression of sulfite reductase activity.

Aoki, Y; Yamamoto, M; Hosseini-Mazinani, S M; Koshikawa, N; Sugimoto, K; Arisawa, M

1996-01-01

287

Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell suspensions was investigated using batch activity tests and by operating a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The maximum specific hydrogenotrophic sulfite/sulfate reduction rate increased with 10% and 300%, respectively, by crushing granular inoculum sludge and by cultivation of this sludge as cell suspension in a CSTR. Operation of a sulfite fed CSTR (hydraulic retention time 4 days; pH 7.0; sulfite loading rate 0.5-1.5 g SO3(2-) l(-1) d(-1)) with hydrogen as electron donor showed that high (up to 1.6 g l(-1)) H2S concentrations can be obtained within 10 days of operation. H2S inhibition, however, limited the sulfite reducing capacity of the CSTR. Methane production by the cell suspension disappeared within 20 days reactor operation. The outcompetition of methanogens in excess of H2 can be attributed to CO2 limitation and/or to sulfite or sulfide toxicity. The use of cell suspensions opens perspectives for monolith or packed bed reactor configurations, which have a much lower pressure drop compared to air lift reactors, to supply H2 to sulfite/sulfate reducing bioreactors. PMID:12889613

Lens, P N L; Gastesi, R; Lettinga, G

2003-06-01

288

Determination of sulfite in Oriental herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Sulfite was detected in 7 varieties of Oriental herbal medicines (Pueraria radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Platycodon radix, Adenophora radix, Pinellia tuber, Astragalus radix, and Paeonia radix) on the Korean market. Sulfiting of commercial Oriental herbal medicines by fumigation with burning bituminous coal was simulated, and the accumulation of sulfite was investigated by using fresh Platycodon radix roots obtained from a growing field. The sulfite level reached a plateau in 9 h, and the maximum sulfite level found by the Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC 990.28) was 1020 ppm. The sulfite content in the simulated Platycodon radix sample determined by alkali extraction followed by ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection (AOAC 990.31) was approximately 17% lower on average than the MW results. Free-sulfite levels determined by acid extraction and ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection were between 19 and 49% of the MW results. The advantages of different methods for sulfite determination and the significance of the results are discussed. PMID:11048856

Kim, Y K; Koh, E; Park, S Y; Chang, S Y; Park, S J; Na, W I; Kim, H J

289

Simple Method for Simultaneous Determination of Carbonate, Sulfite and Hydroxide in Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide in a complex matrices. The method involves salvation of the tow gases in Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by simultaneous determination of the three species (carbonate, sulfite and hydroxide) using conductometric and potentiometric titration. What set this method apart from other determination methods it`s simplicity.

Al-Itawi, Hossam I.; Al-Ebaisat, Hamdan; Al-Garaleh, Mazen

290

Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organics and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O:C) was ? 0.8 and was always observed for O:C<0.5. For 0.5 ? O:C< 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organics investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ? NH4HSO4 ? NaCl ? NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting-out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O:C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

2013-07-01

291

Complex formation and aggregate transitions of sodium dodecyl sulfate with an oligomeric connecting molecule in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Anionic single-tail surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a molecule with multiple amido and amine groups (Lys-12-Lys) were used as building blocks to fabricate oligomeric surfactants through intermolecular interactions. Their interactions and the resultant complex and aggregate structures were investigated by turbidity titration, isothermal titration microcalorimetry, dynamic light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, (1)H NMR, and 1D NOE techniques. At pH 11.0, the interaction between SDS and Lys-12-Lys is exothermic and mainly resulted from hydrogen bonding among the amido and amine groups of Lys-12-Lys and the sulfate group of SDS and hydrophobic interaction between the hydrocarbon chains of SDS and Lys-12-Lys. At pH 3.0, each Lys-12-Lys carries four positive charges and two hydrogen bonding sites. Then SDS and Lys-12-Lys form complexes Lys-12-Lys(SDS)6 and Lys-12-Lys(SDS)4 through the head groups by electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonds assisted by hydrophobic interaction. Moreover, the complexes pack more tightly in their aggregates with the increase of the molar ratio. Especially the Lys-12-Lys(SDS)4 and Lys-12-Lys(SDS)6 complexes behave like oligomeric surfactants taking Lys-12-Lys as a spacer group, exhibiting a series of aggregates transitions with the increase of concentration, i.e., larger vesicles, smaller spherical micelles, and long threadlike micelles. Therefore, oligomeric surfactants Lys-12-Lys(SDS)4 and Lys-12-Lys(SDS)6 have been successfully fabricated by using a single chain surfactant and an oligomeric connecting molecule through noncovalent association. PMID:24011133

Zhu, Linyi; Han, Yuchun; Tian, Maozhang; Wang, Yilin

2013-09-19

292

Adhesion of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Surfactant Monolayers with TiO2 (Rutile and Anatase) Surfaces.  

PubMed

Surfactants are widely used as templates to control the nucleation and growth of nanostructured metal oxides such as titania. To gain insight into the origin of the surfactant-titania interactions responsible for polymorph and orientation selection, we simulate the self-assembly of an anionic surfactant monolayer on various low-index titania surfaces, for a range of densities. We characterize the binding in each case and compute the adhesion energies, finding anatase (100) and rutile (110) to be the strongest-binding surfaces. The sodium counterions in the monolayer are found to dominate the adhesion. It is also observed that the assembly is directed predominantly by surface-monolayer electrostatic complementarity. Incorporating water displacement into the calculations does not alter the general findings but does cause the adhesion energies to fall within a smaller range. PMID:24004277

Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M

2013-09-04

293

Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

Onysko, S.J.

1984-07-01

294

How are "Atypical" Sulfite Dehydrogenases Linked to Cell Metabolism? Interactions between the SorT Sulfite Dehydrogenase and Small Redox Proteins  

PubMed Central

Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of the toxic and mutagenic compound sulfite to sulfate, thereby protecting cells from adverse effects associated with sulfite exposure. While some bacterial SDHs that have been characterized to date are able to use cytochrome c as an electron acceptor, the majority of these enzymes prefer ferricyanide as an electron acceptor and have therefore been termed atypical SDHs. Identifying the natural electron acceptor of these enzymes, however, is crucial for understanding how the atypical SDHs are integrated into cell metabolism. The SorT sulfite dehydrogenase from Sinorhizobium meliloti is a representative of this enzyme type and we have investigated the interactions of SorT with two small redox proteins, a cytochrome c and a Cu containing pseudoazurin, that are encoded in the same operon and are co-transcribed with the sorT gene. Both potential acceptor proteins have been purified and characterized in terms of their biochemical and electrochemical properties, and interactions and enzymatic studies with both the purified SorT sulfite dehydrogenase and components of the respiratory chain have been carried out. We were able to show for the first time that an atypical sulfite dehydrogenase can couple efficiently to a cytochrome c isolated from the same organism despite being unable to efficiently reduce horse heart cytochrome c, however, at present the role of the pseudoazurin in SorT electron transfer is unclear, but it is possible that it acts as an intermediate electron shuttle between. The SorT system appears to couple directly to the respiratory chain, most likely to a cytochrome oxidase.

Ulrike, Kappler

2011-01-01

295

Physicochemistry of interaction between the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate in water and isopropyl alcohol-water media.  

PubMed

The physicochemistry of interaction of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate was studied in detail using tensiometry, turbidimetry, calorimetry, viscometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fair interaction initially formed induced small micelles of the surfactants and later on produced free normal micelles in solution. The interaction process yielded coacervates that initially grew by aggregation in the aqueous medium and disintegrated into smaller species at higher surfactant concentration. The phenomena observed were affected by the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IP) in the medium. The hydrodynamic sizes of the dispersed polymer and its surfactant-interacted species were determined by DLS measurements. The surface morphologies of the solvent-removed PDADMAC and its surfactant-interacted complexes from water and IP-water media were examined by the SEM technique. The morphologies witnessed different patterns depending on the composition and the solvent environment. The head groups of the dodecyl chain containing surfactants made differences in the interaction process. PMID:21466231

Mukherjee, Suvasree; Dan, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Panda, Amiya K; Moulik, Satya P

2011-04-05

296

Microemulsion formation and phase behavior of anionic and cationic surfactants with sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide  

SciTech Connect

The phase behavior and solubilization of multiphase microemulsions in mixed anionic-cationic surfactant systems were studied for fixed ratio of water-to-oil and surfactant-to-alcohol. In the mixed surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate + cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)/heptane/alcohol/water systems, microemulsions and birefringement phases are formed by adjusting the surfactant ratio {epsilon} and the cationic weight fraction {delta}. The bicontinuous (or w/o microemulsion) {yields} birefringement o/w microemulsion transition takes place and microemulsion domain enlarges with increasing {epsilon}. The optimum surfactant concentration {gamma} increases and the corresponding optimum {delta} decreases with increasing {epsilon} and both of them decrease with increasing the alcohol chain length butanol to hexanol. The birefringent region shrinks rapidly with increasing alcohol and/or CTAB weight fractions in total surfactant concentration. Conductivity measurements have been performed in the single-phase region of the system containing mixed surfactants and alcohols at 25 C. The conductivity results indicate where a transition takes place and which of these different types of phase structures may be in the single-phase of the system containing anionic-cationic mixed surfactants.

Li, X.; Lin, E.; Zhao, G.; Xiao, T. [Northwest Normal Univ., Lanzhou, Gansu (China). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-12-01

297

Development of colorectal sensitization is associated with increased eosinophils and mast cells in dextran sulfate sodium-treated rats.  

PubMed

We used conscious restrained rats, in which balloon distension of the colorectum was used as a repeated visceral stimulus over a 21-day period, either alone or in conjunction with a luminal irritant, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), in order to elicit sensitization as evidenced by amplified blood pressure responses. Female Sprague Dawley rats received 5% DSS in the drinking water for 3 days. A water-filled balloon was used to distend the colorectum. Set volumes (1, 1.5, and 2 mL) were applied for 3 min, at 10-min intervals, weekly for 3 weeks, with colorectal and tail-cuff blood pressures measured. Tissue for mast cell localization and histology were taken from proximal and distal colon at sacrifice. Mean colorectal balloon pressures and blood pressures in the DSS-treated rats compared to controls were 12% (P < 0.01) and 64% (P < 0.03) higher, respectively. At sacrifice the DSS-treated rats had twice the number of mast cell numbers in the mucosa of the proximal colon compared to controls, suggesting that the sensitization effect may be linked to inflammatory mediators (P < 0.05). PMID:15387361

Tobin, J M; Delbridge, L M D; Di Nicolantonio, R; Bhathal, P

2004-08-01

298

Beneficial Effect of Shikonin on Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium in Balb/C Mice  

PubMed Central

The naphthoquinone shikonin, a major component of the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, now is studied as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Acute UC was induced in Balb/C mice by oral administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The disease activity index was evaluated, and a histologic study was carried out. Orally administered shikonin reduces induced UC in a dose-dependent manner, preventing the shortening of the colorectum and decreasing weight loss by 5% while improving the appearance of feces and preventing bloody stools. The disease activity index score was much lower in shikonin-treated mice than in the colitic group, as well as the myeloperoxidase activity. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was reduced by 75%, activation of NF-?B was reduced by 44%, and that of pSTAT-3 by 47%, as well as TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 production. Similar results were obtained in primary macrophages culture. This is the first report of shikonin's ability to attenuate acute UC induced by DSS. Shikonin acts by blocking the activation of two major targets: NF-?B and STAT-3, and thus constitutes a promising potential therapeutic agent for the management of the inflammatory bowel disease.

Andujar, Isabel; Rios, Jose Luis; Giner, Rosa Maria; Miguel Cerda, Jose; Recio, Maria del Carmen

2012-01-01

299

Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, the sensitive marker for DNA deterioration in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis.  

PubMed

Mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes are commonly associated with the development of colorectal cancer. Additionally, base excision repair, which involves apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), recognizes and eliminates oxidative DNA damage. Here, we investigated the possible roles of APE1 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis using the young rat model. Four-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 2% DSS in drinking water for 1 week. MMR and APE1 expression levels were assessed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Following DSS treatment, growth of young rats failed and the animals had loose stools. Together with the histological changes associated with acute colitis, APE1 and MSH2 levels increased significantly at 3 and 5 days after DSS treatment, respectively. The difference between APE1 and MSH2 expression was significant. DSS-induced DNA damage and subsequent repair activity were evaluated by staining for 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and APE1, respectively; 8-OHdG immunoreactivity increased throughout the colonic mucosa, while APE1 levels in the surface epithelium increased at an earlier timepoint. Taken together, our data suggest that changes in APE1 expression after DSS treatment occurred earlier and were more widespread than changes in MMR expression, suggesting that APE1 is more sensitive for prediction of DNA deterioration in DSS-induced colitis. PMID:23883737

Chang, In-Youb; Kim, Jin Nam; Maeng, Young Hee; Yoon, Sang Pil

2013-07-23

300

Crystallization and aggregation behaviors of calcium carbonate in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

An anionic surfactant interacts strongly with a polymer molecule to form a self-assembled structure, due to the attractive force of the hydrophobic association and electrostatic repulsion. In this crystallization medium, the surfactant-stabilized inorganic particles adsorbed on the polymer chains, as well as the bridging effect of polymer molecules, controlled the aggregation behavior of colloidal particles. In this presentation, the spontaneous precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was conducted from the aqueous systems containing a water-soluble polymer (poly(vinylpyrrolidone), PVP) and an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). When the SDS concentrations were lower than the onset of interaction between PVP and SDS, the precipitated CaCO3 crystals were typically hexahedron-shaped calcite; the increasing SDS concentration caused the morphologies of CaCO3 aggregates to change from the flower-shaped calcite to hollow spherical calcite, then to solid spherical vaterite. These results indicate that the self-organized configurations of the polymer/surfactant supramolecules dominate the morphologies of CaCO3 aggregates, implying that this simple and versatile method expands the morphological investigation of the mineralization process. PMID:16853360

Shen, Qiang; Wei, Hao; Wang, Liancheng; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Zhiqing; Wang, Dujin; Xu, Guiying; Xu, Duanfu

2005-10-01

301

Interfacial and bulk behavior of sodium dodecyl sulfate in isopropanol-water and in isopropanol-poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-water media.  

PubMed

The surface activity of isopropanol (IP) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) at the air/water interface has been studied. The self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in IP-water as well as in IP-PVP-water media has been investigated using physical methods, viz., tensiometry, conductometry, calorimetry, and viscometry. The interaction of SDS with PVP in IP-water medium as well as its self-aggregation (or micellization) in the presence of PVP has been assessed. The results reveal a fair degree of surface activity of IP in aqueous medium, which is only moderate for PVP. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) of SDS passes through a minimum at (v/v) % IP = 6.62. SDS interacts with PVP, yielding a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) at a low [SDS], independent of IP content in the medium. At a higher [SDS], free micelle formation takes place in solution, which is lower in mixed solvent than in water and is independent of solvent composition by tensiometry, but not by conductometry and calorimetry. The viscosity of micelle-interacted PVP in solution takes a long time to stabilize, whereas, for non-interacting additives, such as NaCl and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), it is time independent. PMID:17547430

Dan, Abhijit; Chakraborty, Indranil; Ghosh, Soumen; Moulik, Satya P

2007-06-05

302

Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and static magnetic field on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate.  

PubMed

Properties of calcium carbonate precipitated from aqueous solutions of CaCl(2) and Na(2)CO(3) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and S-S 0.1 T magnetic field (MF) were studied. The nucleation and precipitation processes of CaCO(3) were investigated by pH and zeta potential measurements at 20 +/- 1 degrees C up to 2 h after mixing the solutions. Also the amounts of calcium carbonate deposited on the glass surfaces and its structure were examined. It was found that SDS influences the kinetics of precipitation, crystallographic forms, and crystal size of CaCO(3). The SDS effects are more pronounced in MF presence. A small amount of SDS accelerates transformation of vaterite into calcite, whereas increasing surfactant concentration moderates such a transformation. On the other hand, in all the systems, MF in the presence of SDS causes a slower transformation of vaterite into calcite. These effects are reflected in pH and zeta potential changes, although there is no clear dependence between the SDS amount present during the precipitation and changes of the parameters investigated. It seems that MF effect is most significant at a defined optimal SDS concentration. The results, however, do not allow suggestion of any detailed mechanism of the field interaction. PMID:16114911

Chibowski, Emil; Szczes, Aleksandra; Holysz, Lucyna

2005-08-30

303

Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.  

PubMed

The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases. PMID:16256467

Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

2003-01-01

304

Fluorescent derivatization method of proteins for characterization by capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate with laser-induced fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A fast and improved sample preparation scheme was developed for protein analysis using capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) with laser-induced fluorescence detection. This CE-SDS method was developed as a purity assay for recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rMAbs). In this assay, rMAbs are derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent 3-(2-furoyl)-quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (FQ) in the presence of a nucleophile (CN-), which fluoresces only upon covalent binding to the protein. Purification after labeling is therefore not necessary to remove unreacted reagents. Proteins are incubated at 75 degrees C for 5 min to facilitate denaturation and labeling. For nonreduced preparation, rMAbs are labeled at pH 6.5 with a dye-to-protein (D/P) molar ratio of 50:1, which forms conjugates having 6 +/- 4 FQ labels. For reduced preparation, rMAbs are labeled at pH 9.3 with a D/P molar ratio of 10:1, which generates light chain conjugates incorporated with 3 +/- 2 FQ labels. Labeling artifacts such as fragmentation or aggregation are absent with use of alkylation reagents. This efficient labeling scheme generates detection limits for FQ-labeled rMAbs as low as 10 ng/mL. In comparison to other labeling strategies, labeling proteins with FQ has the advantage of speed, ease of use, and robust quantification. PMID:17591753

Michels, David A; Brady, Lowell J; Guo, Amy; Balland, Alain

2007-06-26

305

Characterization of glycation in an IgG1 by capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We report a case study of characterization of a non-enzymatically glycated IgG1 using reducing capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) and mass spectrometry (MS). Glycation was found to occur nonspecifically at multiple sites in both the light and heavy chains. The glycated light and heavy chains result in wider peaks eluting late in the reducing CE-SDS profile; in particular, the glycated light chain behaved as a shoulder peak detected by either ultraviolet (UV) or laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals. The glycated species can be enriched by boronate affinity chromatography. Analyzing the enriched samples by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography in line with time-of-flight MS (RP-HPLC-TOF/MS) revealed adducts of +162 and +324 Da to both the light and heavy chains, suggesting the presence of multiple glycation sites. Tryptic peptide mapping and tandem mass sequencing were used to identify two glycation sites on each of the light and heavy chains. PMID:21756870

Kaschak, Timothy; Boyd, Daniel; Yan, Boxu

2011-06-24

306

Inactivation of salmonella in biofilms and on chicken cages and preharvest poultry by levulinic Acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

Surface contamination (skin and feathers) of broilers with Salmonella occurs primarily during growth and transportation. Immediately after transporting chickens, chicken cage doors were sprayed with a foam containing 3% levulinic acid plus 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples were collected for Salmonella assay after 45 min. Salmonella on cage doors was reduced from 19% (19 of 100 doors) before treatment to 1% (1 of 100 doors) after treatment, coliform counts were reduced from 6 to 8 to 2 to 4 log CFU/9 cm(2), and aerobic plate counts were reduced from 7 to 9 to 4 to 6 log CFU/9 cm(2). Whole chicken carcasses with feathers were inoculated with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis, soaked for 5 min at 21C in 72 liters of a treatment or control solution, and assayed for Salmonella. Salmonella counts on chickens treated with water were 6.8 to 8.5 log CFU/9 cm(2), those treated with 50 ppm of calcium hypochlorite were 7.6 to 8.9 log CFU/9 cm(2), and those treated with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS were <1.7 to 2.8 CFU/9 cm(2) (>4-log reduction). Results of biofilm studies on surfaces of various materials revealed that a 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS treatment used as either a foam or liquid for 10 min effectively reduced Salmonella populations by 5 and >6 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. PMID:22186041

Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Cannon, Jennifer L; Doyle, Michael P

2011-12-01

307

Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants  

PubMed Central

The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between ?1100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 35 minutes following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering.

Nichols, Michael D.; Scott, Evan A.; Elbert, Donald L.

2009-01-01

308

Low and medium but not high doses of green tea polyphenols ameliorated dextran sodium sulfate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.  

PubMed

Our previous study indicated that a diet containing a high dose (1%) of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) disrupted liver and kidney function via a reduction in antioxidant enzyme and heat shock protein (HSP) levels in both colitis and non-treated ICR mice. In the present study, we assessed the effects of 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1% dietary GTPs on liver and kidney physiological functioning in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-exposed and normal mice. GTPs at 0.01% and 0.1% significantly suppressed DSS-increased serum aspartate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. In contrast, GTPs at 1% increased kidney weight, serum creatinine levels, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) in both the kidney and the liver in normal mice, as compared with DSS-exposed mice. GTPs at 0.01% and 0.1% remarkably upregulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA in the liver and kidney of mice exposed to DSS, whereas GTPs at 1% abolished it. Our results indicate that low and medium doses of GTPs have beneficial effects on DSS-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity via upregulation of self-protective enzymes, while these effects disappeared at a high dose. PMID:23748761

Inoue, Hirofumi; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takuji; Murakami, Akira

2013-06-07

309

A Picrorhiza kurroa Derivative, Picroliv, Attenuates the Development of Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background. Free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Picroliv, a Picrorhiza kurroa derivative, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of picroliv on experimental model of UC in mice. Materials and Methods. Picroliv was administrated orally by gavage to mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and histology score were observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and SOD, MDA concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the expression of cytokine mRNAs was studied by real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and also ELISA. The expression of NF-?B p65 was observed by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. Results. A significant improvement was observed in DAI and histological score in mice treated with picroliv, and incerased MPO activity, MDA concentrations, and the expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and NF-?B p65 in mice with DSS-induced colitis were significantly reduced while decreased SOD level increased following administration of picroliv. Conclusion. The administration of picroliv leads to an amelioration of DSS-induced colitis, suggesting administration of picroliv may provide a therapeutic approach for UC.

Zhang, De-Kui; Yu, Jian-Jie; Li, Yu-Min; Wei, Li-Na; Yu, Yi; Feng, Yan-Hu; Wang, Xiang

2012-01-01

310

Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: an alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals.  

PubMed

A simple and relatively fast approach for developing a solid phase extraction has been described and used for determination of trace quantities of some heavy and transition metal ions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated poly vinyl chloride (PVC) modified with bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1,4-butanediimine (BHABDI) ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 10 mL of 3M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed for metals content (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors such as pH, amount of ligand and PVC, amount and type of surfactant, and condition of eluting solutions on the sorption recovery of metal ions have been investigated in detail. The relative standard deviation was found in the range of 1.0-3.2% for 0.2 microg mL(-1)of metals ions. After optimization of the extraction condition and the instrumental parameters, a detection limit was found to be in the range of 1.2-3.1 microg L(-1), with enrichment factor of 50 was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these metals contents in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:19027140

Marahel, Farzaneh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Montazerozohori, Morteza; Davoodi, Shahnaz

2008-11-21

311

Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated alumina modified with a new Schiff's base as a uranyl ion selective adsorbent.  

PubMed

A simple and selective method was used for the preconcentration and determination of uranium(VI) by solid-phase extraction (SPE). In this method, a column of alumina modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a new Schiff's base ligand was prepared for the preconcentration of trace uranyl(VI) from water samples. The uranium(VI) was completely eluted with HCl 2M and determined by a spectrophotometeric method with Arsenazo(III). The preconcentration steps were studied with regard to experimental parameters such as amount of extractant, type, volume and concentration of eluent, pH, flow rate of sample source and tolerance limit of diverse ions on the recovery of uranyl ion. A preconcentration factor more than 200 was achieved and the average recovery of uranyl(VI) was 99.5%. The relative standard deviation was 1.1% for 10 replicate determinations of uranyl(VI) ion in a solution with a concentration of 5 ?g mL(-1). This method was successfully used for the determination of spiked uranium in natural water samples. PMID:21282004

Tashkhourian, J; Moradi Abdoluosofi, L; Pakniat, M; Montazerozohori, M

2011-01-04

312

Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

1997-07-01

313

Sodium sulfate corrosion of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic matrix composites. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Hot corrosion effects of Sodium Sulfate (NaSO4) coated Calcium Aluminosilicate (CAS)/Silicon Carbide (SiC) reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The samples provided by the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) were unidirectional SiC/CAS as follows: (1) as received, (2) uncoated in air, (3) Na2SO4, coated in air and (4) Na2SO4 coated in argon. A heat treatment was conducted at 900 deg C for 100 hours. Experimental observations indicated that the Na2S04 coating in an oxidising environment had severely corroded the silicon fiber resulting in a silica rich, Nepheline, Wollastonite, Rankinite, Albite and glassy phases. In the argon atmosphere fiber degradation was present although less severe than in the oxygen environment. Similar phases of silica rich, Nepheline, Albite, Rankinite, Mullite, Pseudo-Wollastonite and a glassy region were present. Minimal fiber and matrix degradation was observed in the uncoated sample beat treated in air. Calcium aluminosilicate, SiC Fiber reinforced composites.

Newton, P.J.

1994-03-01

314

Enhancing the transdermal delivery of rigid nanoparticles using the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate  

PubMed Central

The potential of rigid nanoparticles to serve as transdermal drug carriers can be greatly enhanced by improving their skin penetration. Therefore, the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) was evaluated as a skin pre-treatment method for enhancing the passive transdermal delivery of nanoparticles. We utilized inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and an improved application of confocal microscopy to compare the delivery of 10- and 20-nm cationic, neutral, and anionic quantum dots (QDs) into US/SLS-treated and untreated pig split-thickness skin. Our findings include: (a) ~0.01% of the QDs penetrate the dermis of untreated skin (which we quantify for the first time), (b) the QDs fully permeate US/SLS-treated skin, (c) the two cationic QDs studied exhibit different extents of skin penetration and dermal clearance, and (d) the QD skin penetration is heterogeneous. We discuss routes of nanoparticle skin penetration and the application of the methods described herein to address conflicting literature reports on nanoparticle skin penetration. We conclude that US/SLS treatment significantly enhances QD transdermal penetration by 5001300%. Our findings suggest that an optimum surface charge exists for nanoparticle skin penetration, and motivate the application of nanoparticle carriers to US/SLS-treated skin for enhanced transdermal drug delivery.

Lopez, Renata F.V.; Seto, Jennifer E.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

2010-01-01

315

Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY  

SciTech Connect

Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

2008-11-10

316

Changes in tyrosinase specificity by ionic liquids and sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase is a member of the type 3 copper enzyme family involved in the production of melanin in a wide range of organisms. The ability of tyrosinases to convert monophenols into diphenols has stimulated studies regarding the production of substituted catechols, important intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, polymerization inhibitors, and antioxidants. Despite its enormous potential, the use of tyrosinases for catechol synthesis has been limited due to the low monophenolase/diphenolase activity ratio. In the presence of two water miscible ionic liquids, [BMIM][BF(4)] and ethylammonium nitrate, the selectivity of a tyrosinase from Bacillus megaterium (TyrBm) was altered, and the ratio of monophenolase/diphenolase activity increased by up to 5-fold. Furthermore, the addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at levels of 2-50 mM increased the activity of TyrBm by 2-fold towards the natural substrates L-tyrosine and L-Dopa and 15- to 20-fold towards the non-native phenol and catechol. The R209H tyrosinase variant we previously identified as having a preferential ratio of monophenolase/diphenolase activity was shown to have a 45-fold increase in activity towards phenol in the presence of SDS. We propose that the effect of SDS on the ability of tyrosinase to convert non-natural substrates is due to the interaction of surfactant molecules with residues located at the entrance to the active site, as visualized by the newly determined crystal structure of TyrBm in the presence of SDS. The effect of SDS on R209 may enable less polar substrates such as phenol and catechol, to penetrate more efficiently into the enzyme catalytic pocket. PMID:22539021

Goldfeder, Mor; Egozy, Mor; Shuster Ben-Yosef, Vered; Adir, Noam; Fishman, Ayelet

2012-04-28

317

A new method for the measurement of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin plasma using sodium dodecyl sulfate for the inactivation of hepatic triglyceride I ipasel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (H-TGL) are lipolytic activities found in postheparin plasma. A simple and precise method for the direct determi- nation of LPL in postheparin plasma is described. Pre- incubation of this plasma (45-60 min at 26C) with sodium dodecyl sulfate (35-50 mM) in 0.2 M Tris-HC1 buffer, pH 8.2, results in the inactivation of H-TGL,

Marietta L. Baginsky; W. Virgil Brown

318

Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous titanium dioxide using self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate and benzyl alcohol systems as templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous TiO2 materials have been synthesized with the aid of benzyl alcohol (BA) as cosurfactant along with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the template\\/structure directing agent (SDA). The synthesis was carried out both with and without the use of BA in the presence of an anionic surfactant (SDS) or cationic (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB) to optimize the

Atanu Mitra; Asim Bhaumik; Bidyut Kumar Paul

2008-01-01

319

The Distribution of mixtures of dodecyl ether of poly(23)ethylene glycol with sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide in the water/octane system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scintillation phase and tensiometry methods were used to study the mutual influence of dodecyl ether of poly(23)ethylene glycol (Brij-35) with sodium dodecyl sulfate and Brij-35 with dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide on the distribution in the water/octane system and adsorption at the liquid/liquid interface. The composition of mixed adsorption layers was determined and interaction parameters between molecules were calculated according to the Rosen model.

Soboleva, O. A.; Pronchenko, K. S.; Chernysheva, M. G.; Badun, G. A.

2012-03-01

320

Removal of metal ions at low concentration by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) has been used to remove dissolved metals including Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ from synthetic water using two anionic surfactants: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in a lab-scale membrane system. The effect of surfactant concentration, pH and conductivity on metal retention was studied. The molar concentration ratio of the surfactant to metal

E. Samper; M. Rodrguez; M. A. De la Rubia; D. Prats

2009-01-01

321

Reprint of: Extraction of fluoxetine from aquatic and urine samples using sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles followed by spectrofluorimetric determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method based on the combination of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and spectrofluorimetric determination was developed for isolation and preconcentration of fluoxetine form aquatic and biological samples using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) as a sorbent. The unique properties of Fe3O4 NPs including high surface area and strong magnetism were utilized effectively in the MSPE

Habib Bagheri; Omid Zandi; Ali Aghakhani

322

Extraction of fluoxetine from aquatic and urine samples using sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles followed by spectrofluorimetric determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method based on the combination of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and spectrofluorimetric determination was developed for isolation and preconcentration of fluoxetine form aquatic and biological samples using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) as a sorbent. The unique properties of Fe3O4 NPs including high surface area and strong magnetism were utilized effectively in the MSPE

Habib Bagheri; Omid Zandi; Ali Aghakhani

2011-01-01

323

Structural studies by 1H NMR of a prototypic alpha-helical peptide (LYQELQKLTQTLK) and homologs in trifluoroethanol\\/water and on sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1H NMR-determined structure and dynamics of a synthetic, amphiphilic alpha-helical peptide, PH-1.0 (LYQELQKLTQTLK), and several homologs were compared in 50% trifluoroethanol-d2 (TFE-d2)\\/H20 and in sodium dodecyl-d25 sulfate (SDS-d25) micelles. The peptides were designed to test the influence on secondary structure of placement of favored and disfavored residues relative to a \\

John K. Young; Frank Mari; Minzhen Xu; Robert E. Humphreys; Nikki M. Clemente; James Michael Walker Stattel; Donald J. Nelson; Joseph Gambino; George E. Wright

1997-01-01

324

Different optimization conditions required for enhancing the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzosulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactants by novel consortium of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pantoea agglomerans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anionic surfactants linear alkylbenzosulfonate (LAS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were degraded by a consortium of the mixed facultative anaerobes Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pantoea agglomerans which were isolated from wastewater. The growth of this consortium in nutrient broth medium at temperature of 30C; pH 8.5; and agitation rates of 250rpm, was able to degrade high biomass of the two

Muayad M. Abboud; Khaled M. Khleifat; Mufeed Batarseh; Khaled A. Tarawneh; Ahmed Al-Mustafa; Maali Al-Madadhah

2007-01-01

325

Interactions between sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles and peptides during matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) of proteolytic digests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is routinely used as a denaturing agent for proteins, its presence is highly detrimental\\u000a on the analysis of peptides and proteins by mass spectrometry. It has been found, however, that when SDS is present in concentrations\\u000a near to or above its critical micelle concentration (CMC), improvements in the matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization\\u000a mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis

Rama Tummala; Kari B. Green-Church; Patrick A. Limbach

2005-01-01

326

Tomato Lycopene Extract Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced NF-?B Signaling but Worsens Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in NF-?BEGFP Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe impact of tomato lycopene extract (TLE) on intestinal inflammation is currently unknown. We investigated the effect of TLE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate signaling and experimental colitis.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsMice were fed a diet containing 0.5 and 2% TLE or isoflavone free control (AIN-76). The therapeutic efficacy of TLE diet was assessed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) exposed mice and IL-10?\\/?;NF-?BEGFP mice,

Young-Eun Joo; Thomas Karrasch; Marcus Mhlbauer; Brigitte Allard; Acharan Narula; Hans H. Herfarth; Christian Jobin

2009-01-01

327

AC impedance spectroscopy study of the corrosion behavior of an AZ91 magnesium alloy in 0.1 M sodium sulfate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of an AZ91 magnesium alloy in 0.1M sodium sulfate solution at the corrosion potential (Ecorr) was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that when the immersion time was less than 18th, general corrosion occurred on the surface and the

Jian Chen; Jianqiu Wang; Enhou Han; Junhua Dong; Wei Ke

2007-01-01

328

Adding sodium dodecyl sulfate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 biosurfactants inhibits polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in a weathered creosote-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two anionic surfactants was assessed during biodegradation of 13 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic\\u000a hydrocarbons (PAH) in a wood-preserving soil contaminated with creosote and pentacholorophenol for a period of at least 20\\u000a years. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 were utilized at concentrations of 10, 100 and 500 ?g\\/g soil. Because

L. Deschnes; P. Lafrance; J.-P. Villeneuve; R. Samson

1996-01-01

329

pH-sensitive polyelectrolyte complex gel microspheres composed of chitosan\\/sodium tripolyphosphate\\/dextran sulfate: swelling kinetics and drug delivery properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous chitosan (CS) polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) hydrogel microspheres were prepared via either wet phase-inversion or ionotropic crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate (Na+-TPP) and dextran sulfate (DS). The resulting microspheres were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis (EA). The controlled release behavior of ibuprofen (IBU) from these microspheres was investigated. The PEC microspheres were about 700950?m in diameter with

Wen-Ching Lin; Da-Guang Yu; Ming-Chien Yang

2005-01-01

330

Improvement of the stability of glucose oxidase via encapsulation in sodium alginatecellulose sulfatepoly(methylene- co-guanidine) capsules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encapsulation of glucose oxidase (GOD) in polyelectrolyte complex capsules and its influence on properties of the enzyme is reported. The immobilization of GOD in the capsules made of sodium alginate (SA), cellulose sulfate (CS), poly(methylene-co-guanidine) (PMCG), CaCl2 and NaCl (GODSACS\\/PMCG capsules) was achieved using a one-step highly reproducible encapsulation protocol which was monitored by a Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS). A

Alica Vikartovsk; Marek Bu?ko; Danica Mislovi?ov; Vladimr Ptoprst; Igor Lack; Peter Gemeiner

2007-01-01

331

Small-Intestinal Manifestations of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Consumption in Rats and Assessment of the Effects of Lactobacillus fermentum BR11  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model has been utilized to screen for novel therapeutics for ulcerative colitis.\\u000a Evidence suggests the small intestine may also be affected by DSS. We characterized the effects of DSS on the small intestine\\u000a and assessed the potential for Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 to modify or normalize DSS-induced changes. Rats were allocated to three groups, Water+Vehicle,

Mark S. Geier; Cassie L. Smith; Ross N. Butler; Gordon S. Howarth

2009-01-01

332

Effects of sodium and magnesium sulfate in drinking water on mallard ducklings.  

PubMed

One-day-old mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings were given drinking water for up to 28 days that contained concentrations of sodium and/or magnesium similar to those found in saline wetlands. Growth, tissue development, and biochemical characteristics of these ducklings were compared to those reared on fresh water. Much of the ingested salt was excreted by passage of voluminous fluid excreta. This effect occurred in birds given water with as little as 500 ppm Mg or 1,000 ppm Na. The supraorbital salt gland was active within 4 days in ducklings drinking water containing greater than or equal to 1,500 ppm of Na. Feather growth was decreased in ducklings drinking water with greater than or equal to 1,500 ppm of either Na or Mg. Ducklings drinking water with 3,000 ppm of either ion, or 1,500 ppm of each, grew more slowly than control birds. Ducklings drinking water with 3,000 ppm of either Na or Mg had reduced thymus size and bone breaking strength. Those drinking water with 3,000 ppm of Mg, or 3,100 ppm Na and 1,300 ppm Mg also had less trabecular bone and enlarged adrenals. Birds drinking the latter water had an elevated concentration of Na and calcium, and a decreased concentration of phosphorus and chloride in their serum, and elevated plasma protein levels. Ducklings reared on fresh or slightly saline water adapted very poorly to an abrupt change to more saline water (specific conductivity = 15,250 microns hos/cm) at 14 days of age. These birds stopped eating, became inactive and some died within 3 days; survivors had many tissue and biochemical abnormalities at 20 days of age. The level of salinity in these trials was similar to that in "brackish" or "moderately saline" wetlands and lower than that previously found to have effects on growth and feathering of ducklings. Many of the sublethal effects were subtle and non-specific manifestations of stress, and would be difficult to detect in wild ducklings on saline wetlands. PMID:3352094

Mitcham, S A; Wobeser, G

1988-01-01

333

Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.  

PubMed

Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate. PMID:19369292

Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

2009-04-15

334

Volatile Component Recovery from Sulfite Evaporator Condensate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is on the operation and modification of a demonstration unit to remove sulfur dioxide, methanol, furfural, and acetic acid from its sulfite evaporator condensate. This unit consisted of a steam stripper, vent tank SO2 recovery, activated carbon...

W. A. Sherman W. A. Dryer J. D. Michna

1979-01-01

335

Radiation inactivation of hepatic sulfite oxidase  

SciTech Connect

Sulfite oxidase purified from chicken liver, is comprised of two identical subunits of 55 kDa, each of which contains a molybdenum and heme prosthetic group. The functional size of sulfite oxidase was determined by radiation inactivation analysis using both full, sulfite:cytochrome c reductase, and partial, sulfite:ferricyanide reductase, catalytic activities. Inactivation of full enzyme activity indicated a target size of 42 kDa while the partial activity indicated a target size of 25 kDa. These results confirm the earlier findings of two equivalent subunits and suggest the presence of a functional domain within the subunit structure that contains the molybdenum center and exhibits a smaller molecular mass than that of the enzyme subunit.

Barber, M.J.; Solomonson, L.P.; McCreery, M.J.

1987-07-01

336

Optimization of spent sulfite liquor fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemicellulose-derived sugars in spent sulfite liquor (SSL), a process stream of the sulfite pulping process, may be fermented to ethanol. Low nutrient concentration, the presence of inhibitors, and a large proportion of xylose limit fermentation of the sugars in SSL. Factorial design experiments were used to find optimum conditions for hexose and xylose fermentation using a robust SSL-adapted (non-xylose

Steve S. Helle; Tony Lin; Sheldon J. B. Duff

2008-01-01

337

Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. Methods In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female ApcMin/+ mice were either housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 6 weeks (for mice maintained on the AIN93G diet; Experiment 1) or 9 weeks (for mice on a high-fat diet; Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, male CF-1 mice at 6 weeks of age were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) and, 12 days later, 1.5% DSS in drinking fluid for 1 week. The mice were then maintained on a high-fat diet and housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 16 weeks. Results In the ApcMin/+ mice maintained on either the AIN93G or the high-fat diet, voluntary exercise decreased the number of small intestinal tumors. In the AOM/DSS-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet, voluntary exercise also decreased the number of colon tumors. In ApcMin/+ mice, voluntary exercise decreased the ratio of serum insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 to IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels. It also decreased prostaglandin E2 and nuclear ?-catenin levels, but increased E-cadherin levels in the tumors. Conclusion These results indicate hat voluntary exercise inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and AOM/DSS-treated mice, and the inhibitory effect is associated with decreased IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, aberrant ?-catenin signaling, and arachidonic acid metabolism.

Ju, Jihyeung; Nolan, Bonnie; Cheh, Michelle; Bose, Mousumi; Lin, Yong; Wagner, George C; Yang, Chung S

2008-01-01

338

?-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPAR? Pathway  

PubMed Central

Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) pathway, and agonists of both receptors improve colitis. Recently, the plant metabolite (E)-?-caryophyllene (BCP) was shown to bind to and activate CB2. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPAR?. Oral treatment with BCP reduced disease activity, colonic macro- and microscopic damage, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, and levels and mRNA expression of colonic tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, interferon-?, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. BCP treatment also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor ?B, I?B-kinase ?/?, cAMP response element binding and the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Moreover, BCP enhanced IL-4 levels and forkhead box P3 mRNA expression in the mouse colon and reduced cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) in a culture of macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effect of BCP. Confirming our results, AM630 reversed the beneficial effect of BCP on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IEC-6 cells. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPAR? pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

Bento, Allisson Freire; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Cola, Maira; Pereira Leite, Daniela Ferraz; Calixto, Joao B.

2011-01-01

339

?-Caryophyllene inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through CB2 receptor activation and PPAR? pathway.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) pathway, and agonists of both receptors improve colitis. Recently, the plant metabolite (E)-?-caryophyllene (BCP) was shown to bind to and activate CB2. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPAR?. Oral treatment with BCP reduced disease activity, colonic macro- and microscopic damage, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, and levels and mRNA expression of colonic tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, interferon-?, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. BCP treatment also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor ?B, I?B-kinase ?/?, cAMP response element binding and the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Moreover, BCP enhanced IL-4 levels and forkhead box P3 mRNA expression in the mouse colon and reduced cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) in a culture of macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effect of BCP. Confirming our results, AM630 reversed the beneficial effect of BCP on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IEC-6 cells. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPAR? pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21356367

Bento, Allisson Freire; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Cola, Mara; Leite, Daniela Ferraz Pereira; Calixto, Joo B

2011-03-01

340

Oral nanotherapeutics: effect of redox nanoparticle on microflora in mice with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) exhibit overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and imbalance of colonic microflora. We previously developed a novel redox nanoparticle (RNP(O)), which effectively scavenged ROS in the inflamed mucosa of mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis after oral administration. The objective of this study was to examine whether the orally administered RNP(O) changed the colonic microflora in healthy mice and those with colitis. METHODS: RNP(O) was synthesized by self-assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer that contains stable nitroxide radicals in hydrophobic side chain via ether linkage. Colitis was induced in mice by supplementing DSS in drinking water for 7days, and RNP(O) was orally administered daily during DSS treatment. The alterations of fecal microflora during treatment of DSS and RNP(O) were investigated using microbiological assays. RESULTS: We investigated that RNP(O) did not result in significant changes to the fecal microflora in healthy mice. Although total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were not significantly different between experimental groups, a remarkable increase in commensal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus sp.) was observed in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Interestingly, orally administered RNP(O) remarkably reduced the rate of increase of these commensal bacteria in mice with colitis. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the obtained results, it was confirmed that the oral administration of RNP(O) did not change any composition of bacteria in feces, which strongly suggests a protective effect of RNP(O) on healthy environments in intestinal microflora. RNP(O) may become an effective and safe medication for treatment of UC. PMID:23715850

Vong, Long Binh; Yoshitomi, Toru; Morikawa, Kazuya; Saito, Shinji; Matsui, Hirofumi; Nagasaki, Yukio

2013-05-29

341

Orally administered glucans from the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius reduce acute inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides are one of the most potent mushroom-derived substances exhibiting anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. The aims of the present study were to determine whether orally administered glucans from the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius could attenuate or prevent the development of experimental colitis in mice. Colonic inflammation was induced in mice by treatment with 3.5 % dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 18 d. Before or after DSS administration, mice were given hot water solubles (HWS) or mycelium extract (ME) (2 or 20 mg per mouse) daily in their food. Colonic damage was macroscopically and histologically evaluated. Inflammation was assessed by changes in colon length, TNF-alpha levels released by colonic samples in organ culture and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1beta) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in colonic samples were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. P. pulmonarius glucans attenuated and prevented the development of symptoms associated with DSS-induced colitis. High doses of HWS and ME blocked colon shortening, suppressed MPO activity and improved macroscopic score in all treatment groups. In addition, histological damage from colitis was reduced by HWS and ME at all doses. The tissue levels of TNF-alpha protein were significantly decreased and correlated with degree of inflammation and macroscopic score. All treatments significantly attenuated the increased DSS-mediated expression levels of IL-1beta. We conclude that the different glucan preparations (HWS or ME) harvested from P. pulmonarius when orally administered to DSS-treated mice attenuate the development of colonic inflammation, suggesting putative clinical utility for these extracts in the treatment of colitis. PMID:19772681

Lavi, Iris; Levinson, Dana; Peri, Irena; Nimri, Lili; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty

2009-09-22

342

An isothermal titration calorimetry study of the interactions between an oxyphenylethylene/oxyethylene diblock copolymer and sodium dodecyl sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between the diblock copolymer S15E63 and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) have been investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the temperature range 10-40C. At 20C, the block copolymer is associated into micelles with a hydrodynamic radius of 11.6 nm, which is composed of a hydrophobic styrene oxide (S) core and a water-swollen oxypolyethylene (PEO) corona. The copolymer/surfactant system has been studied at a constant copolymer concentration of 0.25 wt% and over a wide range of surfactant concentration, from 7.5 10-6 up to 0.3 M. The titration calorimetric data for SDS in the temperature range 10-20C presents a first endothermic increase indicating the formation of mixed copolymer rich-surfactant micelles. From that point, important differences in the ITC plots for surfactant titrations in the presence and in the absence of the copolymer are present. A shallow second endothermic peak is assigned to the interaction between SDS molecules and copolymer molecules resulting from the beginning of micelle disruption. An exothermic peak indicates the end of this disruption where only SDS micelles attached to single copolymer monomers are present, as shown by DLS in a previous paper. At higher temperatures in the range 25-40C, the first endothermic maximum is not totally shown because interactions between surfactant and block copolymer start at very low SDS concentrations. Moreover, the second endothermic peak is absent and the exothermic minimum is less pronounced as a consequence of the increased micellization of the block copolymer.

Castro, Emilio; Taboada, Pablo; Mosquera, Vctor

343

Evaluation of levulinic Acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a sanitizer for use in processing georgia-grown cantaloupes.  

PubMed

Freshly harvested Georgia-grown cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus cv. Athena and Atlantis) were spot inoculated with 100 ?l of a five-strain mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Poona (9 log CFU/ml) at the stem scar and on the netted rind and then subjected to no treatment (control) or a 6-min treatment (tank only) in water, 120 ppm of chlorine (pH 7.0), 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; pH 3.0), or 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS (pH 3.0). The log reduction for the tank-only treatments was 0.31, 0.59, 1.32, and 1.37 log CFU/g at the stem scar and 0.97, 1.59, 2.06. and 3.37 log CFU/g on the netted rind for water, chlorine, 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% SDS, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. A greater log reduction was observed for the cantaloupe surface tissue with the water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS treatments when additional sanitizer (2 ml) and brushing (to simulate cantaloupes tumbling over brushes on the processing line) were added to the dump tank treatment. The stem scar tissue reductions were 0.90, 1.69, and 1.53 log CFU/g, whereas the netted rind reductions were 1.56, 2.50, and 4.47 log CFU/g after treatment with water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. These data suggest that 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS is effective for reducing Salmonella on the netted rind surface of cantaloupes. However, neither 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS nor 120 ppm of chlorine substantially reduced Salmonella on stem scar tissue. PMID:24112578

Webb, Cathy C; Davey, Lindsey E; Erickson, Marilyn C; Doyle, Michael P

2013-10-01

344

Systemic responses of mice to dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute ulcerative colitis using 1H NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The interplay between genetic mutation and environmental factors is believed to contribute to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While focused attention has been paid to the aforementioned research, time-specific and organ-specific metabolic changes associated with IBD are still lacking. Here, we induced acute ulcerative colitis in mice by providing water containing 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days and investigated the metabolic changes of plasma, urine, and a range of biological tissues by employing a (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics approach with complementary information on serum clinical chemistry and histopathology. We found that DSS-induced acute ulcerative colitis leads to significant elevations in the levels of amino acids in plasma and decreased levels in the membrane-related metabolites and a range of nucleotides, nucleobases, and nucleosides in the colon. In addition, acute-colitis-induced elevations in the levels of nucleotides in the liver were observed, accompanied by reduced levels of glucose. DSS-induced acute colitis also resulted in increased levels of oxidized glutathione and attenuated levels of taurine in the spleen. Furthermore, acute colitis resulted in depletion in the levels of gut microbial cometabolites in urine along with an increase in citric acid cycle intermediates. These findings suggest that DSS-induced acute colitis causes a disturbance of lipid and energy metabolism, damage to the colon and liver, a promoted antioxidative and anti-inflammatory response, and perturbed gut microbiotal communities. The information obtained here provided details of the time-dependent and holistic metabolic changes in the development of the DSS-induced acute ulcerative colitis, which could be useful in discovery of novel therapeutic targets for management of IBD. PMID:23651354

Dong, Fangcong; Zhang, Lulu; Hao, Fuhua; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

2013-05-17

345

Treatment of mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis with human interleukin 10 secreted by transformed Bifidobacterium longum.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) the etiology of which has not yet been fully clarified. Cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays a central role in downregulating inflammatory cascade in UC and is likely a candidate for therapeutic intervention. However, its intravenous administration is costly and inconvenient. Therefore, we established a novel IL-10 delivery system by transforming a hIL-10-containing plasmid into B. longum (BL-hIL-10) and investigated its effects on 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice and the possible underlying mechanism. Our results show that (1) hIL-10 was expressed and secreted into the culture supernatant of BL-hIL-10 after L-arabinose induction in vitro as examined by Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR; (2) addition of BL-hIL-10 culture supernatant had no cytotoxic effect and morphological alteration, but significantly inhibited the enhancement of proinflammatory cytokines by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in THP-1 cells; (3) oral administration of BL-hIL-10 alleviated colitis syndrome of the model mice, attenuated colitis-activated NF-?B pathway measured by DNA-binding assay and colitis-elevated expression of proinflammatory cytokines examined with CCK cytotoxic kits, and upregulated CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes measured by flow cytometry. In conclusion, BL-hIL-10 as a novel oral hIL-10 delivery system has been successfully established and oral administration of BL-hIL-10 alleviated inflammatory damage of colonic tissue in the model mice by blocking the colitis-activated NF-?B pathway and upregulating CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in mice. PMID:21271712

Yao, Jun; Wang, Jian-Yao; Lai, Ming-Guang; Li, Ying-Xue; Zhu, Hui-Ming; Shi, Rui-Yue; Mo, Jing; Xun, An-Ying; Jia, Chun-Hong; Feng, Ju-Ling; Wang, Li-Sheng; Zeng, Wei-Sen; Liu, Lei

2011-02-11

346

Isolation and characterization of sulfite oxidase from Alligator mississipiensis  

SciTech Connect

Sulfite oxidase has been isolated from fresh alligator liver using ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionation, DEAE chromatography and FPLC on Mono Q. The enzyme is dimeric and exhibits a subunit M. Wt. of approximately 58 kDa, larger than that of chicken SO. EPR spectroscopy of the partially-reduced enzyme revealed a single Mo(V) species while visible spectroscopy revealed the presence of cytochrome b{sub 557}. Maximal activities were obtained at pH 8 and 9, respectively. K{sub m}'s for SO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}, cyt. c and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3 {minus}} were 23.5 uM, 2.9 uM and 8.0 uM, respectively. Sequencing of peptides obtained by endoprotease K digestion indicated regions of extensive sequence similarity to chicken and rat enzymes in both heme and Mo-pterin domains. Regions of sequence dissimilarity were also found.

Robbins, A.; Neame, P.J.; Barber, M.J. (Univ. of South Florida College, Tampa (United States))

1991-03-11

347

SOTRADECOL (Sodium tetradecyl sulfate)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Inc. Bogart, GA 30622 Manufactured by Bioniche Teo Inverin, Co. Galway, Ireland Issued: October 2004 0521L102 Store ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

348

Determination of free and reversibly-bound sulfite in selected foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.  

PubMed

A rapid and accurate method for measuring low part-per-million levels of free and reversibly-bound sulfites in selected foods by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection was developed. Sulfites were extracted with sodium tetrachloromercurate solution and determined by HPLC-fluorescence spectrometry. During the HPLC analysis, the sample extract was reacted with sodium hydroxide to liberate the reversibly-bound sulfite and subsequently separated from other interferences by a size exclusion column. The effluent was then reacted with o-phthalaldehydelammonium chloride reagent to form a fluorescing 1-sulfonatoisoindole derivative and analyzed by a fluorescence detector. The method has been applied to a variety of foods and food products, with no significant interference encountered in matrixes such as soy products, cabbage, broccoli, brassica, ginger, fungus, mushroom, mandarin peel, potato chips, and biscuits. It was shown to have a broad linear range of 0.01 to 0.4 mg/L as SO2. The spike recoveries of sodium sulfite, sodium metabisulfite, and formaldehyde-sodium bisulfite adduct at the 5 to 10 mg/kg level in the tested food matrix were within 80-120%, and the limit of detection was 5 mg/kg. Laboratory of Government Chemist Reference Material LGC7111 (potato powder) was used to assess the accuracy of the method. The expanded measurement uncertainty of the method at 95% confidence level was estimated to be 17%. PMID:18376591

Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Chan, Benny T P; Chan, Andy C M

349

Metal ion dependence of a heat-modifiable protein from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed Central

One heat-modifiable protein of Escherichia coli outer membrane does not completely change to the high-temperature form in the presence of magnesium ion in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution. When the metal ion complexing reagents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, phosphate ion, hydroxyl ion, or the competitive cations Zn2+ or Ca2+ are added to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized sample of outer membrane, and then the sample is heated to 100 degrees C and recooled to room temperature, the protein is almost completely converted to the high-temperature form. In control samples, or if sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, or manganous chloride are added to these samples and treated the same way, a large amount of the low-temperature form of the protein is preserved. beta-Mercaptoethanol additions gave the same results as the metal ion complexing reagents and may owe its activity in these solutions to metal-binding activity and not to its role as a reducing reagent. We concluded that magnesium ion may be involved with stabilization of the low-temperature form of the protein either by directly binding the magnesium or by mediating interaction with other components of the membrane. Images

McMichael, J C; Ou, J T

1977-01-01

350

Oxidation inhibition of sulfite in dual alkali flue gas desulfurization system.  

PubMed

A laboratory-scale well-mixed thermostatic reactor with continuously blasting air was used to investigate the oxidation inhibition of sulfite in dual alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The effects of operating parameters such as pH value and catalyst concentration on the oxidation were studied. Sodium thiosulfate was used in the system, and was found that it significantly inhabited the sulfite oxidation. In the absence of catalyst, sodium thiosulfate at 12.67 mmol/L had an inhibition efficiency of approximately 98%. While in the presence of catalyst, sodium thiosulfate at 26.72 mmol/L had an inhibition efficiency less than 85.0%. The oxidation reaction order of sulfite in the sodium thiosulfate was determined to be -1.90 and -0.55 in the absence and presence of the catalyst, respectively. Apparent activation energy of oxidation inhibition was calculated to be 53.9 kJ/mol. Pilot tests showed that the consumption rate of thiosulfate agreed well with the laboratory-scale experimental results. PMID:17915734

Mo, Jian-song; Wu, Zhong-biao; Cheng, Chang-jie; Guan, Bao-hong; Zhao, Wei-rong

2007-01-01

351

The role of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in inducing skin barrier perturbation in the presence of glycerol.  

PubMed

The stratum corneum (SC) serves as the skin barrier between the body and the environment. When the skin is contacted with an aqueous solution of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a well-known model skin irritant, SDS penetrates into the skin and disrupts this barrier. It is well established, both in vitro and in vivo, that the SDS skin penetration is dose-dependent, and that it increases with an increase in the total SDS concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SDS. However, when we added the humectant glycerol at a concentration of 10 wt% to the aqueous SDS contacting solution, we observed, through in vitro quantitative skin radioactivity assays using (14)C-radiolabeled SDS, that the dose dependence in SDS skin penetration is almost completely eliminated. To rationalize this important observation, which may also be related to the well-known beneficial effects of glycerol on skin barrier perturbation in vivo, we hypothesize that the addition of 10 wt% glycerol may hinder the ability of the SDS micelles to penetrate into the skin barrier through aqueous pores that exist in the SC. To test this hypothesis, we conducted mannitol skin permeability as well as average skin electrical resistivity measurements in vitro upon exposure of the skin to an aqueous SDS contacting solution and to an aqueous SDS + 10 wt% glycerol contacting solution in the context of a hindered-transport aqueous porous pathway model of the SC. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that the addition of 10 wt% glycerol: (i) reduces the average aqueous pore radius resulting from exposure of the skin to the aqueous SDS contacting solution from 33 +/- 5 Angstrom to 20 +/- 5 Angstrom, such that a SDS micelle of radius 18.5 +/- 1 Angstrom (as determined using dynamic light-scattering measurements) experiences significant steric hindrance and cannot penetrate into the SC, and (ii) reduces the number density of aqueous pores in the SC by more than 50%, thereby further reducing the ability of the SDS micelles to penetrate into the SC and perturb the skin barrier. PMID:17520152

Ghosh, Saswata; Blankschtein, Daniel

352

The small intestinal apical hydrolase activities are decreased in the piglet with bowel inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. We tested the hypothesis that compromised activities of the major small intestinal apical hydrolases contribute to the symptoms of IBD. Changes in hydrolytic kinetics, target protein abundances, and mRNA expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), lactase, maltase, sucrase-isomaltase (SI), maltase-glucoamylase (MGA), and aminopeptidase N (APN) in piglets with colonic inflammation chemically induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) were investigated. Yorkshire piglets at 5 d of age, with an average initial BW of about 3 kg, were fitted with intragastric catheters and were divided into control (CON; n = 6) and treatment groups (DSS; n = 5). Both groups were infused with an equal volume of either saline or 1.25 g of DSS kg BW(-1) d(-1) in saline, respectively, for 10 d. Enzyme kinetic experiments for IAP, lactase, maltase, SI, MGA, and APN were measured at 37C with isolated proximal jejunal apical membrane. Target hydrolase protein abundances in the apical membrane were analyzed by Western blotting and their mRNA abundances in the jejunum were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT-) PCR with ?-actin as the housekeeping gene. Expressed as percentage of the CON, DSS treatment decreased (P < 0.05) the maximal specific activities of IAP (53%), lactase (78%), maltase (56%), SI (72%), MGA (29%), and APN (22%) as well as the target hydrolase protein abundances of IAP (39%), lactase (35%), SI (36%), and APN (54%), respectively. Decreases (P < 0.05) in the mRNA abundances (% of the CON) for lactase (25%), SI (52%), MGA (75%), and APN (39%) were observed in the DSS group. However, DSS treatment increased (P < 0.05) the jejunal IAP mRNA abundance by 3.5 fold. We conclude that decreases in the small intestinal apical activities of these examined hydrolases likely contribute to overgrowth of pathogenic bacterial populations in the distal small intestine and the colon, leading to the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:23365358

Lackeyram, D; Mine, Y; Archbold, T; Fan, M Z

2012-12-01

353

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Protein Banding Patterns among Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli Strains Isolated from the Mexican Bean Phaseolus coccineus  

PubMed Central

Several rhizobial strains were isolated from Phaseolus coccineus root nodules and were determined to be Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli strains after reinfection of the same host plant. These strains were characterized by cultural procedures (growth on different carbon sources and intrinsic antibiotic resistance) and electrophoretic procedures (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total proteins). Our results showed that these rhizobia are very similar to each other, especially in their electrophoretic protein banding patterns, suggesting that they might belong to isolated populations. Images

Arredondo-Peter, R.; Escamilla, E.

1993-01-01

354

Enhanced removal of detergent and recovery of enzymatic activity following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: UUse of casein in gel wash buffer  

SciTech Connect

The inclusion of 1% casein or bovine serum albumin in buffer used to reactivate enzymes subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide electrophoresis resulted in accelerated removal of SDS and restoration of nuclease and beta-galactosidase enzyme activities. Nuclease and beta-galactosidase activities which are absent from gels after longer wash procedures are detectable with this technique. Enzyme activity in gels prepared with SDS which contained inhibitory contaminants was partially restored by the casein wash procedure. The threshold of detection of two-dimensionally separated deoxyribonuclease I using the casein wash procedure was 1 picogram.

McGrew, B.R.; Green, D.M. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA))

1990-08-15

355

Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation studies of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine photoionization in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles: structural effects of alcohol addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of the photogenerated N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine cation radical (TMB\\/sup +\\/) in frozen micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate containing 2-propanol, 1-propanol, 1-pentanol, 1-octanol, 2-propanol-d, and 1-octanol-d in HO and DO have been studied as a function of the alcohol concentration from 0 to 200 mM. Modulation effects due to the TMB\\/sup

Piero. Baglioni; Larry. Kevan

1987-01-01

356

Dextran sulfate sodium and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induce lipid peroxidation by the proliferation of intestinal gram-negative bacteria in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRECT: BACKGROUND: To understand whether TLR-4-linked NF-kB activation negatively correlates with lipid peroxidation in colitic animal models, we caused colitis by the treatment with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to C3H\\/HeJ (TLR-4-defective) and C3H\\/HeN (wild type) mice, investigated inflammatory markers, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines and TLR-4-linked NF-?B activation, in colon and intestinal bacterial composition in vivo. METHODS:

In-Ah Lee; Eun-Ah Bae; Yang-Jin Hyun; Dong-Hyun Kim

2010-01-01

357

Restoration of calcium transport in the trypsin-treated (Ca+ + Mg2+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase of sarcoplasmic reticulum exposed th sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

When sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles are exposed to trypsin for 1 min the adenosine triphosphatase (Mr = 102,000) is cleaved to fragments of Mr = 45,000 and 55,000. The purified ATPase, containing both fragments, transports Ca2+ when incorporated into vesicles containing excess phospholipid. The two fragments can only be dissociated in solutions containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Ca2+ transport activity is restored in SDS-dissociated preparations in a series of steps involving dilution with 5 volumes of 5% phospholipids in 0.75% sodium cholate, incubation in ice for 30 min, and passage through an anion exchange column. Vesicles formed in this procedure regain high Ca2+ transport activity if they are incubated in SDS solution at 24 degrees for less than 20 min. However, the extent of renaturation diminishes if the vesicles are incubated for longer periods and little acitivity is recovered in vesicles incubated longer than 60 min at 24 degrees. PMID:136448

MacLennan, D H; Khanna, V K; Stewart, P S

1976-11-25

358

Solid-surface room-temperature phosphorescence detection of serotonin, tryptamine, and gramine enhanced by inorganic salts and sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

Room-temperature phosphorescence characteristics of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), typtamine, and gramine ([3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole]) were studied on low-background paper substrates. Several experimental parameters were optimized for maximum signal intensity. Sodium iodide, thallium(I) nitrate, silver(I) nitrate, and lead(II) nitrate were tested as phosphorescence enhancers. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the enhancement efficiency of these inorganic salts was also studied. The pH values of the solutions were adjusted to optimize the interaction between analyte molecules and solid substrates. Under the experimental conditions for maximum phosphorescence intensity, working curves ranging from two (gramine) to four (typtamine) orders of magnitude were obtained. Limits of detection at the nanogram level were estimated for the three compounds, showing the potential of solid-surface room-temperature phosphorimetry as a detection technique for biogenic amines. PMID:18966382

de Ribamar, J; Jnior, F; Campiglia, A D

1995-10-01

359

Characterization of anaerobic sulfite reduction by Salmonella typhimurium and purification of the anaerobically induced sulfite reductase.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that lack the biosynthetic sulfite reductase (cysI and cysJ mutants) retain the ability to reduce sulfite for growth under anaerobic conditions (E. L. Barrett and G. W. Chang, J. Gen. Microbiol., 115:513-516, 1979). Here we report studies of sulfite reduction by a cysI mutant of S. typhimurium and purification of the associated anaerobic sulfite reductase. Sulfite reduction for anaerobic growth did not require a reducing atmosphere but was prevented by an argon atmosphere contaminated with air (less than 0.33%). It was also prevented by the presence of 0.1 mM nitrate, which argues against a strictly biosynthetic role for anaerobic sulfite reduction. Anaerobic growth in liquid minimal medium, but not on agar, was found to require additions of trace amounts (10(-7)M) of cysteine. Spontaneous mutants that grew under the argon contaminated with air also lost the requirement for 10(-7)M cysteine for anaerobic growth in liquid. A role for sulfite reduction in anaerobic energy generation was contraindicated by the findings that sulfite reduction did not improve cell yields, and anaerobic sulfite reductase activity was greatest during the stationary phase of growth. Sulfite reductase was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the anaerobically grown cysI mutant and was purified 190-fold. The most effective donor in crude extracts was NADH. NADPH and methyl viologen were, respectively, 40 and 30% as effective as NADH. Oxygen reversibly inhibited the enzyme. Two high-molecular-weight proteins separated by gel filtration (Mr 360,000 and 490,000, respectively) were required for maximal activity with NADH. Indirect evidence, including in vitro complementation experiments with a cysG mutant extract, suggested that the 360,000-Mr component contains siroheme and is the terminal reductase. This component was further purified to near homogeneity and was found to consist of a single subunit of molecular weight 67,500. The anaerobic sulfite reductase showed some resemblance to the biosynthetic sulfite reductase, but apparently it has a unique, as yet unidentified function. Images

Hallenbeck, P C; Clark, M A; Barrett, E L

1989-01-01

360

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses

Shiyuan Yu; Morris Wayman; Sarad K. Parekh

1987-01-01

361

Pattern formation in the thioureaiodatesulfite system: Spatial bistability, waves, and stationary patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a detailed study of the reactiondiffusion patterns observed in the thioureaiodatesulfite (TuIS) reaction, operated in open one-side-fed reactors. Besides spatial bistability and spatio-temporal oscillatory dynamics, this proton autoactivated reaction shows stationary patterns, as a result of two back-to-back Turing bifurcations, in the presence of a low-mobility proton binding agent (sodium polyacrylate). This is the third aqueous solution system

Judit Horvth; Istvn Szalai; Patrick De Kepper

2010-01-01

362

Structures of complexes of octahaem cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens with sulfite and cyanide.  

PubMed

The structures of complexes of octahaem cytochrome c nitrite reductase from the bacterium Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens (TvNiR) with the substrate sulfite (1.4 resolution; R(cryst) = 0.126) and the inhibitor cyanide (1.55 resolution; R(cryst) = 0.148) have been established. The complex with sulfite was prepared by the reduction of the protein crystal with sodium dithionite. The sulfite ion is bound to the iron ion of the catalytic haem through the S atom. The Fe-S distance is 2.24 . The structure of the cyanide complex with full occupancy of the ligand site was established for the first time for cytochrome c nitrite reductases. The cyanide ion is bound to the catalytic haem iron through the C atom. The Fe-C distance is 1.91 and the Fe-C-N angle is 171. The sulfite reductase activity of TvNiR was measured at different pH values. The activity is 0.02?mol of HS(-) per minute per milligram at pH 7.0; it decreases with increasing pH and is absent at pH 9.0. PMID:20944237

Trofimov, Anton A; Polyakov, Konstantin M; Boyko, Konstantin M; Tikhonova, Tamara V; Safonova, Tatyana N; Tikhonov, Alexey V; Popov, Alexandre N; Popov, Vladimir O

2010-09-18

363

Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials  

SciTech Connect

Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

Vivak M. Malhotra

2006-09-30

364

Use of capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate to monitor disulfide scrambled forms of an Fc fusion protein during purification process.  

PubMed

Overexpression of recombinant Fc fusion proteins in Escherichia coli frequently results in the production of inclusion bodies that are subsequently used to produce fully functional protein by an in vitro refolding process. During the refolding step, misfolded proteins such as disulfide scrambled forms can be formed, and purification steps are used to remove these product-related impurities to produce highly purified therapeutic proteins. A variety of analytical methods are commonly used to monitor protein variants throughout the purification process. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based techniques are gaining popularity for such applications. In this work, we used a nonreduced capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (nrCE-SDS) method for the analysis of disulfide scrambled forms in a fusion protein. Under denatured nonreduced conditions, an extra post-shoulder peak was observed at all purification steps. Detailed characterization revealed that the peak was related to the disulfide scrambled forms and was isobaric with the correctly folded product. In addition, when sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used during the CE-SDS peak characterization, we observed that the migration order of scrambled forms is reversed on CE-SDS versus SDS-PAGE. This illustrates the importance of establishing proper correlation of these two techniques when they are used interchangeably to guide the purification process and to characterize proteins. PMID:21420378

Hapuarachchi, Suminda; Fodor, Szilan; Apostol, Izydor; Huang, Gang

2011-03-21

365

Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.  

PubMed

The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (P<0.05; 0.70 log CFU/g) of Salmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (P<0.05) psychrotrophic growth. SDLA patties had more purge (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) subjective color scores. There were not large differences in sensory characteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05). PMID:23639886

Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

2013-04-15

366

Preparation and characterization of biocompatible microcapsules of sodium cellulose sulfate/chitosan by means of layer-by-layer self-assembly.  

PubMed

A novel microcapsule system composed of sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) and chitosan was prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. As a potential drug delivery system, it had several advantages in biocompatibility and biodegradation due to its use of natural polysaccharides. Some parameters in the preparation of the microcapsule, such as layers in the LbL process (up to 20 layers), chitosan viscosities (50, 100, and 200 mPas), outmost layer materials (NaCS or chitosan), and NaCl concentrations (0 M, 0.5 M, 1 M), were investigated to better understand their effects on the LbL process. A novel method for removing the core templates PLA and CaCO3 from the formed core-shell structure was proposed by addition of N-methyl pyrrolidone or EDTA-Na. This preparation process was well observed by a microscope-camera system. The hollow microcapsules were tested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to characterize their size, morphology, and surface. The results showed that the shell thickness of microcapsules was about 6 nm, and the average thickness of one layer of NaCS/chitosan polyelectrolyte complex was 1.5 nm. The molecular weight cutoff in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed about 70 kDa by using of diffusion test with the cell lysate of Escherichia coli. PMID:19583223

Xie, Yu-Liang; Wang, Ming-Jun; Yao, Shan-Jing

2009-08-18

367

Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

2013-03-01

368

VOLATILE COMPONENT RECOVERY FROM SULFITE EVAPORATOR CONDENSATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This study is on the operation and modification of a demonstration unit to remove sulfur dioxide, methanol, furfural, and acetic acid from its sulfite evaporator condensate. This unit consisted of a steam stripper, vent tank SO2 recovery, activated carbon adsorption columns, and ...

369

Exterior Adhesive from Sulfite Mill Effluent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Poplar waferboards bonded with ammonium-based spent sulfite liquor (SSL) binder and properly hot pressed could readily meet the CAN 3-0188.2-M78 requirements. The abundance of SSL at low cost allows the massive use of SSL binder in waferboard production, ...

K. C. Shen L. Calve

1980-01-01

370

Removal of the 33, 23 and 18 kDa extrinsic proteins of photosystem II by sulfite treatment at alkaline pH.  

PubMed

We found that sulfite incubation of photosystem II submembrane fractions can induce selective depletion of the 18, 23 and 33 kDa polypeptides of the PSII oxygen evolving complex. When the sulfite treatment was done at pH 8.0, the 18 and 23 kDa proteins were removed efficiently from the PSII oxygen evolving complex. Under the same conditions, the 33 kDa subunit remained bound (even when 2 M sodium sulfite was used). However, in more alkaline conditions (pH 9.8), we show extensive removal of the 33 kDa in the presence of a low sulfite concentration (50 mM). The different extraction affinity for the 18, 23 and 33 kDa of the photosystem II complex was interpreted to mean that the 33 kDa polypeptides are bound to photosystem II by both electrostatic and hydrogen bonding forces. PMID:3284523

Beauregard, M; Morin, L; Popovic, R

1988-04-29

371

Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.  

PubMed

Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules. PMID:16262297

Dutt, G B

2005-11-01

372

Determination of total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine by flow injection analysis: collaborative study.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine by flow injection analysis (FIA) was collaboratively studied by 8 laboratories. In the method, the sample solution is reacted with sodium hydroxide to liberate aldehyde-bound sulfite. The sample stream is acidified to produce SO2 gas, which diffuses across a Teflon membrane in the gas diffusion cell into a flowing stream of malachite green. The degree of discoloration of the malachite green is proportional to the amount of sulfite in the sample solution. Red wine was included in the study but interlaboratory precision for these samples was not satisfactory and correlation with Monier-Williams results was poor. The present method is not recommended for use with these samples. For shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine, average reproducibility (RSDR) of results was 25% for samples at 10 ppm SO2 and 10% for samples at greater than 50 ppm. Overall average reproducibility was 14%. Recoveries of sulfite added to samples averaged 80%. Comparison of FIA with the Monier-Williams method indicated comparable results by the 2 methods. The FIA method has been adopted official first action for determination of greater than or equal to 5 ppm total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine. PMID:2312511

Sullivan, J J; Hollingworth, T A; Wekell, M M; Meo, V A; Saba, H H; Etemad-Moghadam, A; Eklund, C; Phillips, J G; Gump, B H

373

Determination of sulfite with emphasis on biosensing methods: a review.  

PubMed

Sulfite is used as a preservative in a variety of food and pharmaceutical industries to inhibit enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning and in brewing industries as an antibacterial and antioxidizing agent. Convenient and reproducible analytical methods employing sulfite oxidase are an attractive alternative to conventional detection methods. Sulfite biosensors are based on measurement of either O2 or electrons generated from splitting of H2O2 or heat released during oxidation of sulfite by immobilized sulfite oxidase. Sulfite biosensors can be grouped into 12 classes. They work optimally within 2 to 900 s, between pH 6.5 and 9.0, 25 and 40 C, and in the range from 0 to 50,000 ?M, with detection limit between 0.2 and 200 ?M. Sulfite biosensors measure sulfite in food, beverages, and water and can be reused 100-300 times over a period of 1-240 days. The review presents the principles, merits, and demerits of various analytical methods for determination of sulfite, with special emphasis on sulfite biosensors. PMID:23392406

Pundir, Chandra Shekhar; Rawal, Rachna

2013-02-08

374

Hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4 1 2 H 2O) into gypsum (CaSO 42H 2O). The influence of the sodium poly(acrylate)\\/surface interaction and molecular weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retarding influence of sodium poly(acrylate) (PANa) on the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO412H2O) was investigated. This study reports the influence of sodium poly(acrylate) on hemihydrate dissolution, on homogenous and heterogeneous gypsum (CaSO42H2O) nucleation as well as on gypsum growth. It is shown that adsorption of PANa does not hinder the dissolution of hemihydrate in the present experimental conditions.

Jean-Philippe Boisvert; Marc Domenech; Alain Foissy; Jacques Persello; Jean-Claude Mutin

2000-01-01

375

A mechanistic study of low-temperature corrosion on materials in the coal combustion environment: Final report. [Sodium and potassium sulfates on nickel and cobalt base alloys  

SciTech Connect

The low-temperature corrosion program arose because of the hot corrosion observed at temperatures as low as 1100/sup 0/F in the Long-Term Materials Test (LTMT). The LTMT was sponsored by DOE and involved the operation of the pressurized fluidzed bed combustor (PFBC). The low-temperature corrosion program was a two-year research effort to develop an understanding of the low-temperature hot corrosion phenomena observed during the LTMT. The program involved three tasks: (1) an analysis of selected specimens from the LTMT, (2) thermochemical stability calculations on what molten salts were formed to permit hot corrosion at such low temperatures, and (3) operation of burner rig tests which would simulate the LTMT-PFBC conditions and test the conclusions of the thermochemical calculations. The PFBC burned about a 2/1 mixture of coal and dolomite. The combustion gases were cooled by an in-bed exchanger to about 1750/sup 0/F and then passed through a low-velocity test section where specimens were held at about 1500/sup 0/F (the gas temperature), 1300/sup 0/F, and 1100/sup 0/F, respectively. Gas pressure in the test section was 10 atm. Sulfur concentration calculated as SO/sub 2/ was 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/ atm. The program has shown that there is an increase in hot corrosion where potassium sulfate is present. This was observed in the LTMT tests. This enhancement will be present in all coal environments. This enhancement has two aspects. One, there is an increase in high-temperature hot corrosion (1400 to 1600/sup 0/F), because potassium sulfate lowers the melting point of sodium sulfate. Two, potassium sulfate stabilizes the alloy sulfates nickel and cobalt, particularly the latter, and thus substantially reduces the SO/sub 3/ pressure required for their formation. Thus, low-temperature hot corrosion (1100 to 1400/sup 0/F) can occur over a larger range of sulfur levels. These aspects of hot corrosion were demonstrated in tests and examined by thermochemical calculations. 25 refs., 112 figs., 17 tabs.

Haskell, R.W.; Doering, H.vonE.; Le Blanc, O.H.; Luthra, K.L.

1987-08-01

376

Circular dichroism in magnesium sulfite hexahydrate doped with cobalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new nonlinear crystal of magnesium sulfite hexahydrate (MgSO3.6H2O) belongs to the rare crystallographic class C3 (without a symmetry centre), the other known only representative being sodium periodate (NaIO4). There are some scarce data in the scientific papers about magnesium sulfite hexahydrate's physical properties. Single crystals of significant sizes (up to 40-50 mm) of MgSO3.6H2O as well as such, doped with Ni, Co, and Zn, for the time being are grown only by our own method developed in the Laboratory for Crystal growth at the Faculty of Physics of Sofia University. Recently we have observed the supposed presence of optical activity. Circular dichroism is not observed in pure MgSO3.6H2O. The results of the first ever investigations are presented, which demonstrate the presence of circular dichroism in MgSO3.6H2O doped with Co. The circular dichroism appears in the spectral range from 420 nm to 580 nm. The spectrum of circular dichroism demonstrates a well expressed structure - an isolated maximum at 470 nm and a combination of two overlapped maxima at ~ 495 nm and 520 nm respectively. The spectrum of the circular dichroism is compared with the absorption spectrum of MgSO3.6H2O:Co, along the direction (0001) and with the linear dichroism spectrum measured in direction(1210). It is shown in this way that the circular dichroism appears only in the spectral range of the optical absorption structure due to Co dopant. In the same spectral range can be observed also the linear dichroism determined by Co presence in MgSO3.6H2O.

Bunzarov, Zh.; Iliev, I.; Dimov, T.; Petkova, P.; Kovachev, Tz.; Lyutov, L.; Tzoukrovski, Y.

2009-10-01

377

Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect

The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

1990-07-01

378

Dual behavior of sodium dodecyl sulfate as enhancer or suppressor of insulin aggregation and chaperone-like activity of camel alphaS(1)-casein.  

PubMed

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at low concentrations considerably enhanced insulin aggregation and reduced the chaperone-like activity of purified camel alphaS(1)-casein (alphaS(1)-CN). These observed changes were the result of repulsive electrostatic interactions between both negative charged head groups of SDS and alphaS(1)-CN, and the net negative charge of insulin molecules, resulting in the greater exposure of hydrophobic patches of insulin and its enhanced aggregation. In contrast, enhanced hydrophobic interactions were primarily responsible for the conformational changes observed in insulin and alphaS(1)-CN at high SDS concentrations, resulting in increased binding of SDS and alphaS(1)-CN to insulin and its reduced aggregation. PMID:19723533

Badraghi, Jalil; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Reza; Sharifzadeh, Ahmad; Hong, Jun; Haertl, Thomas; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir; Sheibani, Nader

2009-08-31

379

Preparation of stable electroneutral nanoparticles of sodium dodecyl sulfate and branched poly(ethylenimine) in the presence of pluronic F108 copolymer.  

PubMed

Mixing of polyelectrolyte solutions with solutions of oppositely charged surfactants usually leads to phase separation in a certain concentration range. However, since the charge-neutralized polyelectrolyte/surfactant nanoparticles might be utilized as versatile nanocarriers of different substances, it would be desirable to prevent their aggregation for some applications. As it was revealed in earlier investigations, the complete suppression of precipitation may be achieved only in mixtures of ionic surfactants and appropriate copolymer polyelectrolytes with nonionic and ionic blocks. In this work, we present a method that could prevent phase separation in mixtures of homopolyelectrolytes and oppositely charged surfactants. Specifically, it is shown that nonaggregating electroneutral nanocomplexes of branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can be prepared in the presence of the amphiphilic triblock copolymer Pluronic F108, provided that an adequate mixing protocol is used for preparation of the PEI/SDS/F108 mixtures. PMID:22050126

Pojjk, Katalin; Mszros, Rbert

2011-11-22

380

The Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) on the Properties of ZnO Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method  

PubMed Central

ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed.

Ramimoghadam, Donya; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

2012-01-01

381

Simultaneous solubility of ammonia and carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate in the temperature range 313--393 K and pressures up to 3 MPa  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of weak electrolyte gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or hydrogen cyanide must be known for process design in many applications. Typical examples are applications in the chemical and oil-related industries, the production of fertilizers, and applications in environmental protection. Correlating and predicting the simultaneous solubility of ammonia and sour gases in aqueous phases are difficult tasks due to chemical reactions in the liquid phase resulting in the presence of ionic species. Furthermore, the liquid phase often contains other strong electrolytes, and solid phases might precipitate. The simultaneous solubility of ammonia and carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate was measured in the temperature range 313--393 K at total pressures up to 3 MPa. Experimental results are reported and compared to correlations and predictions. Predicted results generally agree well with experimental data.

Bieling, V.; Kurz, F.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G. [Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik

1995-04-01

382

Fast protein staining in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel using counter ion-dyes, Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 and neutral red.  

PubMed

A fast and sensitive protein staining method in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) using both an acidic dye, Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 (CBBR) and a basic dye, Neutral Red (NR) is described. It is based on a counter ion-dye staining technique that employs oppositely charged two dyes to form an ion-pair complex. The selective binding of the free dye molecules to proteins in an acidic solution enhances the staining effect of CBBR on protein bands, and also reduces gel background. It is a rapid staining procedure, involving fixing and staining steps with short destaining that are completed in about 1 h. As the result, it showed two to fourfold increase in sensitivity comparing with CBBR staining. The stained protein bands can be visualized at the same time of staining. PMID:12433209

Choi, Jung-Kap; Yoo, Gyurng-Soo

2002-10-01

383

Chapter 14 Sulfonates and Organotrophic Sulfite Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

One is used to considering sulfite oxidation as part of a lithotrophic process (e.g. SorAB or Sox system), much of which involves neutral or ionic inorganic sulfur species on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast, the processes referred to in this chapter involve organic compounds, which (1) include a highly stable sulfonate substituent (CSO3?), (2) are involved

Alasdair M. Cook; Theo H. M. Smits; Karin Denger

384

Influence of oxygen on sulfate reduction and growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ambivalent relations of sulfate-reducing bacteria to molecular O2 have been studied with ten freshwater and marine strains. Generally, O2 was reduced prior to sulfur compounds and suppressed the reduction of sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate to sulfide. Three strains slowly formed sulfide at O2 concentrations of below 15 M (6% air saturation). In homogeneously aerated cultures, two out of seven

Christoph Marschall; Peter Frenzel; Heribert Cypionka

1993-01-01

385

Diffusion Coefficients In a Water\\/Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate\\/ Penlanol Mlcroemulslon Base and Its Ammonium Hydroxide Analogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-diffusion coefficients were determined in sodium dodecyl sutfale\\/pcnlanol solutions with water and an aqueous concentrated ammonium hydroxide solution using NMR.Replacing water by the ammonium hydroxide solution destabilized the liquid crystalline phase in the system and also reduced the size of the colloidal association structures in the isotropic liquid part.

Roald Skurtveit; Johan Sjblom; Stig E. Fribcrg; Ching-Chang Yang; Ahsan U. Ahmed

1993-01-01

386

A fiber optic biosensor for sulfite analysis in food.  

PubMed

The sulfite fiber optic biosensor developed herein is based on the enzymatic oxidation reaction of sulfite catalyzed by sulfite oxidase (SOD). The consumption of O(2) is measured with an O(2) fiber optic sensor which monitors the fluorescence quenching of the indicator, perylene, by molecular oxygen. Perylene is immobilized into a polymer matrix and attached to the end of a fiber bundle forming an O(2) sensor. The enzyme, sulfite oxidase is immobilized on a pre-activated membrane and mounted onto the O(2) sensor. Several analytical characteristics of this sulfite biosensor were investigated including dynamic range, reversibility, reproducibility, stability and selectivity. The sulfite contents of various food samples, e.g. dried fruits, potato flakes, lemon juice were determined and the results obtained were in good agreement with the standard AOAC method. PMID:18965928

Xie, X; Shakhsher, Z; Suleiman, A A; Guilbault, G G; Yang, Z; Sun, Z A

1994-02-01

387

pH at the micellar interface: Synthesis of pH probes derived from salicylic acid, acidbase dissociation in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles, and PoissonBoltzmann simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the H+ concentration at the micellar interface is a convenient system for modeling the distribution of H+ at interfaces. We have synthesized salicylic acid derivatives to analyze the proton dissociation of both the carboxylic and phenol groups of the probes, determining spectrophotometrically the apparent pKa's (pKap) in sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, micelles with and without added salt.

T. P. Souza; D. Zanette; A. E. Kawanami; L. de Rezende; H. M. Ishiki; A. T. do Amaral; H. Chaimovich; A. Agostinho-Neto; I. M. Cuccovia

2006-01-01

388

Comparative In Vitro Sensitivities of Human Immune Cell Lines, Vaginal and Cervical Epithelial Cell Lines, and Primary Cells to Candidate Microbicides Nonoxynol 9, C31G, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments to assess the in vitro impact of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol 9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human immune and epithelial cell viability, cell lines and primary cell populations of lymphocytic and monocytic origin were generally shown to be equally sensitive to exposures ranging from 10 min to 48 h. However, U-937 cells were more

Fred C. Krebs; Shendra R. Miller; Bradley J. Catalone; Raina Fichorova; Deborah Anderson; Daniel Malamud; Mary K. Howett; Brian Wigdahl

2002-01-01

389

Isolation of sulfite reductase variants of a commercial wine yeast with significantly reduced hydrogen sulfide production.  

PubMed

The production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) during fermentation is a common and significant problem in the global wine industry as it imparts undesirable off-flavors at low concentrations. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a crucial role in the production of volatile sulfur compounds in wine. In this respect, H(2)S is a necessary intermediate in the assimilation of sulfur by yeast through the sulfate reduction sequence with the key enzyme being sulfite reductase. In this study, we used a classical mutagenesis method to develop and isolate a series of strains, derived from a commercial diploid wine yeast (PDM), which showed a drastic reduction in H(2)S production in both synthetic and grape juice fermentations. Specific mutations in the MET10 and MET5 genes, which encode the catalytic alpha- and beta-subunits of the sulfite reductase enzyme, respectively, were identified in six of the isolated strains. Fermentations with these strains indicated that, in comparison with the parent strain, H(2)S production was reduced by 50-99%, depending on the strain. Further analysis of the wines made with the selected strains indicated that basic chemical parameters were similar to the parent strain except for total sulfite production, which was much higher in some of the mutant strains. PMID:19236486

Cordente, Antonio G; Heinrich, Anthony; Pretorius, Isak S; Swiegers, Jan H

2009-02-19

390

Destruction of tryptophan during the aerobic oxidation of sulfite ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tryptophan was rapidly destroyed aerobically in the presence of Mn\\/sup 2 +\\/ and sulfite. The rate of destruction was greatly increased when horseradish peroxidase was added. The optimal pH for the reaction was 8.0. The destruction of tryptophan was dependent on the aerobic oxidation of sulfite. Superoxide dismutase inhibited sulfite oxidation and thus inhibited the tryptophan destruction. Tracer studies using

S. Yang

1973-01-01

391

Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.  

PubMed

The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes. PMID:7792261

Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Pea, P; Astiarsarn, I; Bello, J

1995-02-01

392

Factors Supporting Cysteine Tolerance and Sulfite Production in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

The amino acid cysteine has long been known to be toxic at elevated levels for bacteria, fungi, and humans. However, mechanisms of cysteine tolerance in microbes remain largely obscure. Here we show that the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans excretes sulfite when confronted with increasing cysteine concentrations. Mutant construction and phenotypic analysis revealed that sulfite formation from cysteine in C. albicans relies on cysteine dioxygenase Cdg1, an enzyme with similar functions in humans. Environmental cysteine induced not only the expression of the CDG1 gene in C. albicans, but also the expression of SSU1, encoding a putative sulfite efflux pump. Accordingly, the deletion of SSU1 resulted in enhanced sensitivity of the fungal cells to both cysteine and sulfite. To study the regulation of sulfite/cysteine tolerance in more detail, we screened a C. albicans library of transcription factor mutants in the presence of sulfite. This approach and subsequent independent mutant analysis identified the zinc cluster transcription factor Zcf2 to govern sulfite/cysteine tolerance, as well as cysteine-inducible SSU1 and CDG1 gene expression. cdg1? and ssu1? mutants displayed reduced hypha formation in the presence of cysteine, indicating a possible role of the newly proposed mechanisms of cysteine tolerance and sulfite secretion in the pathogenicity of C. albicans. Moreover, cdg1? mutants induced delayed mortality in a mouse model of disseminated infection. Since sulfite is toxic and a potent reducing agent, its production by C. albicans suggests diverse roles during host adaptation and pathogenicity.

Hennicke, Florian; Grumbt, Maria; Lermann, Ulrich; Ueberschaar, Nico; Palige, Katja; Bottcher, Bettina; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Staib, Claudia; Morschhauser, Joachim; Monod, Michel; Hube, Bernhard; Hertweck, Christian

2013-01-01

393

A critical evaluation of fasted state simulating gastric fluid (FaSSGF) that contains sodium lauryl sulfate and proposal of a modified recipe.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to evaluate one of the most commonly used fasted state simulating gastric fluids (FaSSGFs), which contains sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (FaSSGF(SLS)), and propose a more appropriate surfactant concentration. Surface tension studies clearly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SLS in the relevant media (a media whose pH and sodium chloride concentration are representative of physiological conditions) is significantly lower (p<0.05) than 8.67 mM, which is the SLS concentration in FaSSGF(SLS). The CMC of SLS in the relevant media was determined to be 1.75 mM. Based on this a modified recipe is proposed in which the concentration of SLS is sufficient to achieve a surface tension similar to that in vivo without causing artificial micellar solubilization. Solubility, intrinsic dissolution, and GastroPlus modeling studies are presented to support and give rationale for the modified recipe. In addition, a comparison between the modified recipe and other FaSSGFs reported in the literature is made. PMID:17656053

Aburub, Aktham; Risley, Donald S; Mishra, Dinesh

2007-06-22

394

40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

395

40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The...

2009-01-01

396

Electron spin resonances and electron spin echo modulation studies of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine photoionization in anionic micelles: structural effects of tetramethylammonium cation counterion substitution for sodium cation in dodecyl sulfate micelles  

SciTech Connect

Comparative electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation studies have been carried out for the radical cation produced by photoionization of N,N,N'N'-tetramethylbenzidine in micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetramethylammonium dodecyl sulfate (TMADS) solutions. The substitution of tetramethylammonium ion for sodium ion brings about a marked increase in photoionization efficiency at 77K which correlates with increased photoproduced cation-water interactions as determined by electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) experiments. ESEM experiments have also been performed for a series of x-doxylstearic acids as paramagnetic probes in both micellar solutions. The data indicate more water penetration in TMADS than SDS micelles. The results have been explained in terms of a decrease in the compactness of the micelle polar head-group region and increased surface roughness by the substitution of the more hydrophobic tetramethylammonium cation for sodium cation. 18 references, 6 figures.

Szajdzinska-Pietek, E.; Maldonado, R.; Kevan, L.; Jones, R.R.M.

1984-08-22

397

Studies on the generalized Shwartzman reaction. VI. Production of the reaction by the synergistic action of endotoxin with three synthetic acidic polymers (sodium polyanethod sulfonate, dextran sulfate, and sodium polyvinyl alcohol sulfonate).  

PubMed

Lesions indistinguishable from those of the generalized Shwartzman reaction occured in rabbits when a single intravenous injection of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin was accompanied, or followed, by an injection of one of the following synthetic, heparin-like, acidic polymers-sodium polyanethol sulfonate, dextran sulfate, or sodium polyvinyl alcohol sulfonate. These reactions were produced by doses of polymer or of endotoxin which were without demonstrable effect when given singly. Heparin, in those similar to those previously shown to protect rabbits against the lesions of the generalized Shwartzman reaction, prevented the reaction to the combined injection of endotoxin and acidic polymers. Nitrogen mustard, which was previously shown to prevent the lesions of the generalized Shwartzman reaction from occurring after two intravenous injections of endotoxin, had no protective action against the lesions produced by the combined injection of endotoxin and polymer. Cortisone did not affect the reaction to endotoxin and polymer. The role of fibrinogen in the reaction under study is discussed in the paper which follows. PMID:13252181

THOMAS, L; BRUNSON, J; SMITH, R T

1955-09-01

398

Stable isotope studies of vent fluids and chimney minerals, southern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Sodium metasomatism and seawater sulfate reduction  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur isotope values (delta/sup 34/S) or H/sub 2/S in vent fluids from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal sites range from 4.0 to 7.4% and are variably /sup 34/S-enriched with respect to coexisting inner wall chimney sulfides. Chimney sulfides range from 1.6 to 5.7%. The chimneys consist of Fe-sphalerite zoned to inner zinc sulfide and chalcopyrite ( +- isocubanite)-pyrrhotite lining channels. Sulfide from inner walls of type A chimneys have the lightest delta/sup 34/S values. Type B chimneys (porous, unzoned, low-Fe-sphalerite) have the isotopically heaviest chimney sulfides and occur at vent sites distal to the along-axis shallow point of the ridge crest, hence distal to the magma chamber. These variations are largely ascribed to sulfate reduction by ferrous iron in the hydrothermal fluid in chimneys of substrate mounds, probably due to transitory entrainment of ambient sulfate-bearing seawater. The delta/sup 18/O values of end-member hydrothermal fluids range from 0.6 to 0.8%, significantly lower than the delta/sup 18/O values at 21 /sup 0/N vent fluids. The deltaD values of the fluid samples range from -2.5 to 0.5%. Isotopic differences from the 21 /sup 0/N fluids may be due to slightly higher water/rock ratios, approximately 1.0, in the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal system. Admixture of a small amount of residual brine from an earlier phase separation even may have contributed water with low deltaD values.

Shanks W.C. III; Seyfried W.E. Jr.

1987-10-10

399

21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that is present in the finished food at a detectable level is misbranded...agent or agents is declared on the label of the food. A detectable amount of sulfiting...sulfiting agent is declared on the label of the food. [58 FR 2876, Jan. 6,...

2013-04-01

400

Small-angle neutron scattering study of the structural effects of substitution of tetramethylammonium for sodium as the counterion in dodecyl sulfate micelles  

SciTech Connect

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data have been obtained at 303 K for aqueous micellar solutions of CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 11/SO/sub 4/Na (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) and CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 11/SO/sub 4/N(CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/ (tetramethylammonium dodecyl sulfate (TMADS)) and their deuterated analogues CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 10/CD/sub 2/SO/sub 4/Na (D/sub 2/-SDS) and CH/sub 3/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 11/SO/sub 4/N(CD/sub 3/)/sub 4/ (D/sub 12/-TMADS). Results have been obtained for 0.4 mol dm/sup -3/ surfactant in various H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O mixtures and for TMADS as a function of surfactant concentration in D/sub 2/O. The SANS data are well described by charged, monodisperse hard spheres interacting through a screened Coulomb potential. The asphericity and the polydispersity of the systems were estimated to be small. The deuterium for the deuterated surfactants lies mainly in the Stern region of the micelle and increases contrast between the hydrocarbon core and the water-saturated Stern layer. Therefore, these deuterated micellar systems were used to determine the radius of the dry core, which was then used in the determination of the structural parameters for the micellar systems. The degree of hydration was determined without resorting to the assignment of values for the water of hydration for the individual ions present. It was found that TMADS micelles are smaller and have a higher charge, smaller degree of aggregation, and less but more deeply penetrating water than do SDS micelles. Both SDS and TMADS micelles had substantial amounts of hydrocarbon residing in the aqueous Stern layer.

Berr, S.S.; Coleman, M.J.; Jones, R.R.M.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.

1986-11-20

401

Effect of Steeping with Sulfite Salts and Adjunct Acids on Corn Wet-Milling Yields and Starch Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 82(4):420-424 Two corn hybrids (3394 and 33R87) were steeped with three sulfite salts and five acids to test the effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) source and acid sources on wet-milling yields and starch properties. Milling yields from each treatment were compared with a control sample that was steeped with 2,000 ppm of SO2 (using sodium metabisulfite) and 0.55%

P. Yang; A. E. Haken; Y. Niu; S. R. Chaney; K. B. Hicks; S. R. Eckhoff; M. E. Tumbleson; V. Singh

2005-01-01

402

Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on visual evoked potentials in rats exposed to sulfite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) administration on sulfite-induced alterations in visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Fifty two male albino Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups as follows; control (C), LA treated (L), sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) treated (S), Na2S2O5+LA treated (SL). Na2S2O5 (260mg\\/kg\\/day) and LA (100mg\\/kg\\/day) were given by intragastric intubation for 5weeks. The

Narin Derin; Deniz Akpinar; Piraye Yargicoglu; Aysel Agar; Mutay Aslan

2009-01-01

403

[The problem and improvement of colorimetric method for determination of sulfite in foods containing sulfur compounds].  

PubMed

The modified Rankine colorimetric method for measuring sulfite added to food as a food additive has a low determination limit and is little influenced by interfering substances from foods. However, it can give erroneous results for foods containing Liliaceae Allium. So, four different methods, alkaline titration, a colorimetric method, ion chromatography and qualitative analysis with potassium iodate-starch paper, were examined. It was found that the sodium azide used in the colorimetric method forms sulfur dioxide during bubbling and heating. The proposed colorimetric method can be applied to food containing sulfur compounds, if sodium azide is omitted and 1% triethanolamine solution is used as an absorbent instead of 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. PMID:15794092

Shimoi, Toshiko; Ibe, Akihiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Suzuki, Jin; Sadamasu, Yuki; Yasui, Akiko; Saito, Kazuo

2004-12-01

404

Degradation of yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings by vanadium pentoxide, phosphorous pentoxide, and sodium sulfate  

SciTech Connect

The presence of vanadium, phosphorus, and sodium impurities in petcoke and coal/petcoke blends used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants warrants a clear understanding of high-temperature material degradation for the development of fuel-flexible gas turbines. In this study, degradation reactions of free-standing air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in contact with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were investigated at temperatures up to 1200{sup o}C. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Molten V{sub 2}O{sub 5} reacted with solid YSZ to form ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} at temperatures below 747{sup o}C. However, at temperatures above 747{sup o}C, molten V{sub 2}O{sub 5} reacted with YSZ to form yttrium vanadate (YVO{sub 4}). The formation of YVO{sub 4} led to the depletion of the Y2O{sub 3} stabilizer and deleterious transformation to the monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} phase. In addition, studies on YSZ degradation by Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and a Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+V{sub 2}O{sub 5} mixture (50-50 mol%) showed that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} itself had no effect on the degradation of YSZ. However, in the presence of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at high temperatures, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} forms vanadate compounds having a lower melting point such as sodium metavanadate (610{sup o}C), which was found to degrade YSZ by the formation of YVO{sub 4} at a relatively lower temperature of 700{sup o}C. P{sub 2}O{sub 5} was found to react with APS YSZ by the formation of ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} at all the temperatures studied. At temperatures as low as 200{sup o}C and as high as 1200{sup o}C, molten P{sub 2}O{sub 5} was observed to react with solid YSZ to yield ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which led to the depletion of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ that promoted the formation of the fluorite-cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase.

Mohan, P.; Yuan, B.; Patterson, T.; Desai, V.H.; Sohn, Y.H. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2007-11-15

405

Augmented activity of the pelvic nerve afferent mediated by TRP channels in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis of rats.  

PubMed

Enteritis has been recognized as a major symptom in domestic animals and human patients suffering from feed and food poisonings. The aim of the present study was to clarify the excitatory mechanism of the pelvic nerve afferent which may influence the occurrence of enteritis in response to nociceptive chemical stimuli of the colon in normal and abnormal rats with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The pelvic nerve afferent activity was markedly increased by colonic instillation of solution (0.5 ml) of acetic acid (5-25%) and capsaicin (100 ?g/ml). The nerve activity was augmented by colonic instillation of capsaicin to a greater extent in rats with DSS-induced colitis than in normal control rats. This augmented activity by capsaicin was more prominent at one day (DSS-1) than at 8 day (DSS-8) after the administration of DSS. The increased nerve activity caused by capsaicin in DSS-1 and DSS-8 was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with ruthenium red, which is a nonselective inhibitor of TRP channels of unmyelinated C-fibers (nociceptors). In conclusion, it was elucidated that the nociceptive function of the pelvic nerve was largely elevated at one day after DSS-induced colitis and such increased function was mostly mediated by TRP channels. PMID:22498929

Makimura, Yukitoshi; Ito, Koichi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

2012-04-13

406

Evaluation of chemical mediators and cellular response during acute and chronic gut inflammatory response induced by dextran sodium sulfate in mice.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects millions of people worldwide but its pathophysiology remains unclear. Therefore, experimental models of colitis have contributed crucially for the understanding of IBD, and also in the investigations for effective therapies. Herein we investigated the kinetics of inflammatory mediator production and cell infiltration during acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The induction phases with DSS were characterized by severe disease activity with massive colonic polymorphonuclear infiltration and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (CXCL1/KC), interleukin (IL)-17 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Interestingly, in the recovery periods, we found marked increase of anti-inflammatory mediators IL-10, IL-4, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) that seems be essential for the resolution of intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) and regulatory T cell marker forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) were increased gradually during experimental colitis, demonstrating a discrepant profile response and evident immune disbalance in the chronic phase of intestinal mucosal inflammation. Taken together, these results provide valuable information for studies on DSS-induced colitis and especially for the identification of biomarkers that predict disease course and possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:23000912

Bento, Allisson Freire; Leite, Daniela Ferraz Pereira; Marcon, Rodrigo; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Cola, Mara; Martini, Alessandra Cadete; Calixto, Joo B

2012-09-19

407

Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (rpore) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 18.5 , but significantly larger than rpore of native skin samples (13.6 ). Conversely, rpore within LTRs increases significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 , to 276 , and to ? (>300) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60 kHz, 40 kHz, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, while the increased rpore values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming.

Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

2011-01-01

408

Ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans attenuates dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators.  

PubMed

The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) ? mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs. PMID:23841050

Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

2013-06-12

409

Optimization and validation of a quantitative capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate method for quality control and stability monitoring of monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

In previous work, a capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) method using precolumn labeling and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed at Genentech Inc. as part of the control system for the quality control release of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (rMAb) (Hunt, G.; Nashabeh, W. Anal. Chem. 1999, 71, 2390-2397.). In the current work, a generic and quantitative CE-SDS assay with LIF detection of rMAbs with improved accuracy and precision is described. The implementation of an alkylating step with iodoacetamide and optimization of the incubation temperature and time, in the presence of SDS, greatly decrease any thermally induced fragmentation of nonreduced labeled rMAb samples. In addition, a quantitative study of the effects of sample buffer pH on rMAb fragmentation is also presented. Furthermore, the performance of alternative CE-SDS polymer solutions and instrumentation for quantitative analysis of rMAbs is shown in this article. The validation of this method, under the guidelines of the International Committee on Harmonization (ICH), demonstrates that the assay quantitatively determines the consistency of rMAb manufacture as it relates to size heterogeneity and product purity. PMID:16970337

Salas-Solano, Oscar; Tomlinson, Brandon; Du, Sarah; Parker, Monica; Strahan, Alex; Ma, Stacey

2006-09-15

410

Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduces the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases the Formation of Anti-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators  

PubMed Central

The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

Kohnke, Thomas; Bilal, Suleyman; Zhou, Xiangzhi; Rothe, Michael; Baumgart, Daniel C.; Weylandt, Karsten H.

2013-01-01

411

Preparation and structure evolution of bowknot-like calcium carbonate particles in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfate).  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate particles with a novel bowknot-like superstructure were fabricated in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfate) (PSS) and under the assistance of ultrasonication during the initial reaction stage. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to characterize the particles. Results demonstrated that the bowknot-like calcium carbonate particles were mainly composed of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and some amounts of calcite and vaterite. Ultrasound irradiation associated with the presence of PSS affects the mesoscale crystallization, resulting in stepwise growth of the earlier bundles to the bowknot. Morphology evolution and dissolution of the bowknot particle were observed in different media, confirming that PSS and Ca(2+) ions in the solutions could accelerate and resist the transformation process, respectively. In the presence of PSS, ACC prefers to transform into vaterite. PMID:22867860

Xie, Lili; Song, Xiaoxue; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

2012-07-16

412

A novel method for dissolution and stabilization of non-mulberry silk gland protein fibroin using anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

The importance of silk protein has increased because of its potential use as a natural biopolymer for tissue engineering and biomedical applications. In this report we show a novel and ecofriendly method for dissolution of gland silk protein fibroin. Non-mulberry silk fibroin from mature fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta was found to be optimally soluble in 1% (w/v) anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Regenerated fibroin showed distinct bands of approximately 395 and 197 kDa on electrophoresis in non-reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Enhanced fibroin dissolution via internalization of hydrophobic amino groups inside a hydrophilic amino acid core in the form of micelles was observed. Prolonged storage stability without gelation of SDS-extracted fibroin was seen. Atomic force microscopy showed micellar aggregation with mean micellar aggregation size of 8 nm. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed predominantly helical conformation due to surfactant addition with internal protein conformational changes as revealed by fluorescence spectroscopic studies. PMID:17969177

Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, S C

2008-04-15

413

Competition of hydrophobic steroids with sodium dodecyl sulfate, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, or dodecyl ?-D-maltoside for the dodecane/water interface.  

PubMed

The surface tension lowering abilities of insoluble steroids, progesterone and testosterone, were examined at the dodecane/water interface in the presence and absence of surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and dodecyl maltoside. In the absence of these surfactants, the steroids significantly lowered the interfacial tension while exhibiting no activity at the air/water and air/dodecane surfaces. Further, in mixtures of surfactants and steroids, significant enhancement of interfacial tension lowering was observed. At a sufficiently high concentration of surfactant, no further lowering of tension was observed in the presence of the steroids. The synergistic effects on interfacial tension of steroids and surfactants were characterized by the free energy of transfer to the interface of each solute based on a two-dimensional solution equation of state. Assuming no significant interaction between the steroids and the surfactants in the interface, predictions of interfacial tensions were made based on the calculated free energies of transfer and interfacial area occupied. Good agreement was found between the predicted values and experimental values for interfacial tension. The results of these studies show that progesterone and testosterone, molecules not normally thought of as surface active, exhibit significant interfacial activity and can successfully compete with surfactants for the dodecane/water interface. PMID:23151278

Feng, Shaoxin; Bummer, Paul M

2012-11-26

414

Purification and characterization of a novel peptide with inhibitory effects on colitis induced mice by dextran sulfate sodium from enzymatic hydrolysates of Crassostrea gigas.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of purified peptides from Crassostrea gigas (C.gigas) hydrolysates was studied. To prepare hydrolysates from C.gigas, we used eight different proteinases and the anti-inflammatory activities were determined using a nitric oxide (NO) assay in RAW264.7 cells. Among the hydrolysates, Protamex hydrolysates showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. We separated and purified the total hydrolysate using an ultrafiltration membrane system and consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, we obtained a peptide with the following sequence: Gln-Cys-Gln-Cys-Ala-Val-Glu-Gly-Gly-Leu at N-terminal position. The anti-inflammatory peptide purified from C.gigas inhibited NO production by 72.2% compared to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated group. In addition, the Protamex hydrolysates from C.gigas showed decreased serum IgE levels and increased spleen CD4(+)/CD8(+) levels on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. These results suggest the peptide and hydrolysate from C.gigas possess potent anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:22960100

Hwang, Jin-Woo; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Jeon, You-Jin; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

2012-08-30

415

Comparison of primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes with immortalized cell lines regarding their sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate in a neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay.  

PubMed

Cell lines present a valuable tool for in vitro assessment of skin damage caused by application of cosmeticals or pharmaceuticals. They form a reproducible test system under controllable test conditions and, in many cases, can be used as alternatives to animal testing in order to assess the compatibility of drugs or cosmetics and human skin. Yet, it can not necessarily be assumed that the behavior of cultured cells, when treated with different substances, is exactly consistent with the behavior of cells being part of a live organism. Becoming immortal, cells exhibit changes in genotype and/or phenotype, possibly resulting in modified reactions to external influences. Therefore, to obtain results close to in vivo studies, it seems apparent to use primary cells for testing that have not yet undergone any modifications. To compare the properties of primary fibroblasts (Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts, NHDF) and primary keratinocytes (Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes, NHEK) with those of immortal cell lines (3T3 (ACC 173) Swiss albino mouse fibroblasts and HaCaT (human, adult, low calcium, high temperature, human adult skin keratinocytes) cells), their sensitivities in cytotoxicity assays have been assessed. While both fibroblast cell cultures showed similar sensitivities towards sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), primary keratinocytes died at SDS concentrations about three times lower than the immortal HaCaT cells. PMID:19402346

Olschlger, Veronika; Schrader, Andreas; Hockertz, Stefan

2009-01-01

416

Routine diagnosis with PhastSystem compared to conventional electrophoresis: automated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining and western blotting of urinary proteins.  

PubMed

The recent introduction of the PhastSystem, an automatic electrophoresis and staining system with precast gradient-gels, allows rapid and reproducible analysis of proteinuria in patients suffering from renal injury. A routine method for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and silver staining of unconcentrated urine specimens in the PhastSystem is described and compared to our conventional "macro"-method with self-cast SDS-polyacrylamide gradient gels. The method described for the PhastSystem using 0.3 microL sample volumes and an 8-25% polyacrylamide gradient gel leads to highly reproducible results within 1.5 h. Before electrophoresis urine specimens were neither concentrated nor dialyzed. Samples with a protein concentration exceeding 5 mg/mL had to be diluted 1:5 (v/v). Analysis and documentation of PhastGels appeared as easy as with our conventional SDS-PAGE. Protein bands could reliably be identified by Western blotting. Urine and serum proteins, separated in PhastGels, were electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose and detected with specific antibodies against human albumin, transferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and IgG. Comparison of several standard kits for molecular weight determination revealed considerable differences concerning the quality of protein separation patterns. Availability of precast gels and automatization of SDS-PAGE and staining allows easy standardization of urine SDS-PAGE among clinical routine laboratories. PMID:2469571

Scherberich, J E; Fischer, P; Bigalke, A; Stangl, P; Wolf, G B; Haimerl, M; Schoeppe, W

1989-01-01

417

Rapid fluorescent monitoring of total protein patterns on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and western blots before immunodetection and sequencing.  

PubMed

The fluorogenic dye 2-methoxy-2,4-diphenyl-3(2H)-furanone (MDPF) has been used for the detection of total protein patterns on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Fluorescent staining of protein bands on membranes with this covalent dye is completed in 20 min. Wet membranes are translucent, allowing protein visualization by transillumination with ultraviolet light. The resulting images can be recorded using Polaroid film or a charge-coupled device camera. Electrophoretic bands containing 5-10 ng of protein can be detected on the MDPF-stained Western blot. When proteins are directly transferred to the membrane using a slot blotting device, as little as 0.5 ng of protein can be detected. Previous visualization of protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels with the noncovalent fluorescent dye Nile red (Alba et al., BioTechniques, 1996, 21, 625-626) does not interfere with further MDPF staining and fluorescent detection of these bands transferred to PVDF membranes. Thus, Nile red and MDPF staining can be performed sequentially, allowing the rapid monitoring of total protein patterns on both the electrophoretic gel and Western blot. Using the conditions described in this study, MDPF staining does not preclude further N-terminal microsequencing and immunodetection of specific bands with polyclonal antibodies. PMID:9820958

Alba, F J; Daban, J R

1998-10-01

418

Extraction of fluoxetine from aquatic and urine samples using sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles followed by spectrofluorimetric determination.  

PubMed

A new method based on the combination of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and spectrofluorimetric determination was developed for isolation and preconcentration of fluoxetine form aquatic and biological samples using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) as a sorbent. The unique properties of Fe(3)O(4) NPs including high surface area and strong magnetism were utilized effectively in the MSPE process. Effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of fluoxetine including the amount of Fe(3)O(4) and SDS, pH value, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent and time were optimized. Under optimized condition, the method was successfully applied to the extraction of fluoxetine from water and urine samples and absolute recovery amount of 85%, detection limit of 20 ?g L(-1) and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.4% were obtained. The method linear response was over a range of 50-1000 ?g L(-1) with R(2)=0.9968. The relative recovery in different aquatic and urine matrices were investigated and values of 80% to 104% were obtained. The whole procedure showed to be conveniently fast, efficient and economical for extraction of fluoxetine from environmental and biological samples. PMID:21501715

Bagheri, Habib; Zandi, Omid; Aghakhani, Ali

2011-03-05

419

Electrophoretic analysis of proteinases in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing copolymerized radiolabeled protein substrates: Application to proenkephalin processing enzymes  

SciTech Connect

A novel method is described for the zymographic analysis of proteinases in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels containing copolymerized radiolabeled protein substrates such as ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled proenkephalin or {sup 125}I-labeled proinsulin. After electrophoresis the enzyme is reactivated and cleaves the radiolabeled in situ substrate into smaller peptides. These small peptides are able to diffuse out of the gel, leaving clear areas against a dark background when visualized by autoradiography. The technique can be used to detect as little as 200 fg of trypsin using only 50 ng (1.25 microCi) of ({sup 35}S)proenkephalin. Soluble- and membrane-bound adrenal trypsin-like enzyme were isolated from bovine adrenal chromaffin granules. Both proteinases cleaved ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled proenkephalin but not {sup 125}I-labeled proinsulin. Moreover, both had a Mr of approximately 30,000. The potential of this technique for general use is discussed. An additional method using the synthetic fluorogenic substrate t-butoxycarbonyl Glu-Lys-Lys aminomethylcoumarin is also described.

Irvine, J.W.; Roberts, S.F.; Lindberg, I. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans (USA))

1990-10-01

420

Arvelexin Inhibits Colonic Inflammation by Suppression of NF-?B Activation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Mice and TNF-?-Induced Colonic Epithelial Cells.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported the anti-inflammatory effects of arvelexin isolated from Brassica rapa in macrophages. In the present study, the effects of arvelexin were investigated in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model and in a cellular model. In the DSS-induced colitis model, arvelexin significantly reduced the severity of colitis, as assessed by disease activity, colonic damage, neutrophil infiltration, and levels of colonic iNOS. Moreover, arvelexin inhibited the expressions of IL-8, IP-10, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. Arvelexin also inhibited the TNF-?-induced adhesion of U937 monocytic cells to HT-29 cells. Furthermore, arvelexin reduced p65 NF-?B subunit translocation to the nucleus and I?B? degradation in the colonic tissues and in TNF-?-induced HT-29 cells. These results demonstrate that the ameliorative effects of arvelexin on colonic injury are mainly related to its ability to inhibit the inflammatory responses via NF-?B inactivation, and support its possible therapeutic role in colitis. PMID:22794033

Cho, Eu-Jin; Shin, Ji-Sun; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Yong Sup; Cho, Young-Wuk; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Hae-Gon; Lee, Kyung-Tae

2012-07-23

421

The solution behavior of poly(vinylpyrrolidone): its clouding in salt solution, solvation by water and isopropanol, and interaction with sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

This article deals with the solution properties of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in salt and surfactant environment. The cloud point (CP) of PVP has been found to be induced by the salts NaCl, KCl, KBr, Na2SO4, MgSO4, and Na3PO4. On the basis of CP values for a salt at different [PVP], the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated. The effect of the surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), on the salt-induced CP has also been studied, and reduction in CP at low [SDS] and increase in CP at high [SDS] have been observed. The water vapor adsorption of PVP has been determined by isopiestic method. The results display a BET Type III isotherm whose analysis has helped to obtain the monolayer capacity of PVP and formation of multilayer on it. The solvation of PVP in a solution of water and a water-isopropanol mixture has been determined by conductometry from which contribution of the individual components were estimated. The interaction of PVP with SDS in solution led to formation of a complex entity, which has been studied also by conductometry adopting a binding-equilibrium scheme. SDS has been found to undergo two types of binding as monomers in the pre- critical aggregation concentration (CAC) range and as small clusters in the post CAC region. The stoichiometries of binding and binding constant were evaluated. PMID:18307336

Dan, Abhijit; Ghosh, Soumen; Moulik, Satya P

2008-02-29

422

Puberty Is Delayed in Male Mice With Dextran Sodium Sulfate Colitis Out of Proportion to Changes in Food Intake, Body Weight, and Serum Levels of Leptin  

PubMed Central

In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the prepuce from the glans penis as a marker of pubertal progression. Compared with free-feeding control mice, DSS and FR mice had significantly lower weight on d 710 of treatment. DSS mice had later puberty than control and FR mice. DSS mice also had smaller testes, lower FSH levels, increased systemic cytokines, and increased colonic inflammation by histology. Leptin levels were similar between DSS and FR mice, whereas both had decreases in leptin compared with controls. We conclude that DSS colitis causes delayed puberty in sexually immature male mice beyond what is seen among FR mice of similar weight, food intake, and leptin levels. These experiments provide support for the hypothesis that pubertal delay in colitis is influenced by factors beyond poor weight gain alone.

DEBOER, MARK D.; LI, YONGLI

2011-01-01

423

Separation of neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody activities and specificity of antisera to sodium dodecyl sulfate-derived polypeptides of polyoma virions.  

PubMed Central

Antisera to the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel-derived polyoma virion polypeptides were used in immunoprecipitation experiments with ethylene glycol-bis-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-dissociated polyoma virions and capsids to determine the specificity of the antipolyoma polypeptide sera. Additionally, a technique for applying 125I-labeled immunoglobulins to SDS-polyacrylamide gels was used to explore the antigenic specificities of the antisera. The results demonstrated that antisera directed against the SDS-gel-derived VP1, VP2, and VP3 did not react with native polyoma proteins, but would react with the appropriate antigens on denatured polyoma proteins. Antisera against the histone region of such gels reacted with native and denatured polyoma VP1. Separation of neutralizing antibodies from hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies to polyoma in antisera directed against the histone region of polyacrylamide gels was done by using a polyoma capsid affinity column. The antibodies eluted from this column which did not react with capsids possessed only neutralizing activity, whereas antibodies which bound to capsids possessed only HAI activity. These isolated immunoglobulin G fractions were then used in immunoprecipitation experiments to demonstrate that the antigenic determinants responsible for the HAI activity of the serum were contained on a 16,000-dalton polypeptide, whereas those antigenic determinants responsible for neutralizing activity were contained on a 14,000-dalton polypeptide. Both of these polypeptides present in the histone region of the SDS-gels appeared to be derived from the major virion protein VP1.

Bolen, J B; Consigli, R A

1980-01-01

424