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1

Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallizat...

A. L. Schiozer

1994-01-01

2

Quaternary liquid/liquid equilibria of sodium sulfate, sodium sulfite and water with two solvents: Acetone and 2-propanol  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium sulfite are produced from sodium carbonate in flue-gas scrubbers; recovery of these salts often requires multi-effect evaporators; however, a new energy-efficient unit operation called extractive crystallization has been shown to have reduced energy costs. In this process, an organic solvent is added to the aqueous salt solution to precipitate salt. Acetone is a suitable solvent for this process, better than 2-propanol. Liquid/liquid/solid equilibria for ternary systems containing a salt, water, and an organic solvent were measured. Systems investigated were sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfite/water/2-propanol. Experiments were conducted at salt saturation covering a temperature range between the lower consolute temperature and 48.6{degrees}C. In the attempt to improve the extractive crystallization process for recovery of sodium sulfate from flue-gas scrubbers, attention was given to a feed containing a mixture of sodium sulfite and sodium sulfate. Liquid-liquid equilibria for quaternary systems containing two salts, water, and an organic solvent were experimentally determined at 35{degrees}C. The systems investigated were sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/acetone and sodium sulfate/sodium sulfite/water/2propanol. The systems were studied at three salt ratios. For each salt ratio, experiments were conducted starting at saturation, water was then added until the one-phase region was reached. Mixtures of the two salts proved to have a small disadvantage relative to the 100 % sulfate feed process. Therefore, a sulfate-based extractive crystallization process is recommended.

Schiozer, A.L.

1994-03-01

3

Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.  

PubMed

Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were negative in mutagenicity studies. Sodium Bisulfite produced both positive and negative results. Clinical oral and ocular-exposure studies reported no adverse effects. Sodium Sulfite was not irritating or sensitizing in clinical tests. These ingredients, however, may produce positive reactions in dermatologic patients under patch test. In evaluating the positive genotoxicity data found with Sodium Bisulfite, the equilibrium chemistry of sulfurous acid, sulfur dioxide, bisulfite, sulfite, and metabisulfite was considered. This information, however, suggests that some bisulfite may have been present in genotoxicity tests involving the other ingredients and vice versa. On that basis, the genotoxicity data did not give a clear, consistent picture. In cosmetics, however, the bisulfite form is used at very low concentrations (0.03% to 0.7%) in most products except wave sets. In wave sets, the pH ranges from 8 to 9 where the sulfite form would predominate. Skin penetration would be low due to the highly charged nature of these particles and any sulfite that did penetrate would be converted to sulfate by the enzyme sulfate oxidase. As used in cosmetics, therefore, these ingredients would not present a genotoxicity risk. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. PMID:14555420

Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

2003-01-01

4

Recovery of anhydrous Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from SO{sub 2}-scrubbing liquor by extractive crystallization: Liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, and/or sulfite plus acetone, 2-propanol, or tert-butyl alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Sodium carbonate is a superior scrubbing agent for removing SO{sub 2} from combustion gases, but the resulting sodium sulfate (or sulfite) must be recovered for environmental reasons. Recovery by evaporative crystallization is energy-intensive; extractive crystallization provides an attractive alterative when technically feasible. Liquid/liquid equilibrium data were determined for two-phase mixtures containing aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, or sulfite and a polar organic solvent: acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol (i.e., tert-butyl alcohol). In the salt-saturated two-phase region, data were obtained between the lower consolute temperature and 60 C (50 C for acetone). data were also obtained at 35 C for liquid/liquid systems that were subsaturated with their respective salts and for liquid/liquid systems with overall molar ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium sulfate fixed at 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25. In the latter systems, it was found that the sulfite/sulfate ratios in the organic and aqueous phases were the same, i.e., there is no selectivity by these solvents for one salt relative to the other. The data show that any one of these solvents can be used to extract water from a concentrated solution of either sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate in a countercurrent extractor at 35 C, causing the anhydrous salt to crystallize. The wet solvent can be dried for recycle in a similar countercurrent operation at 35 C, using a saturated solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as the drying agent. The number of moles of carbonate required for drying does not exceed the number of moles of sulfite-plus-sulfate precipitated. The process energy is about 0% of that required for single-stage evaporative crystallization of the same liquor.

Lynn, S.; Cos, R.; Prausnitz, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Ept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Ept. of Chemical Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Schiozer, A.L. [Unilever, Valhinds (Brazil)] [Unilever, Valhinds (Brazil); Jaecksch, W.L. [Merck, West Point, PA (United States)] [Merck, West Point, PA (United States)

1996-11-01

5

Plant sulfur metabolism — the reduction of sulfate to sulfite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently the pathway by which plants reduce activated sulfate to sulfite was unresolved. Recent findings on two enzymes termed 5?-adenylylsulfate (APS) sulfotransferase and APS reductase have provided new information on this topic. On the basis of their similarities it is now proposed that these proteins are the same enzyme. These discoveries confirm that the sulfate assimilation pathway in plants

Julie Ann Bick; Thomas Leustek

1998-01-01

6

40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

7

40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

8

Sulfate formation via ATP sulfurylase in thiosulfate- and sulfite-disproportionating bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disproportionation of thiosulfate or sulfite to sulfate plus sulfide was found in several sulfate-reducing bacteria. Out of nineteen strains tested, eight disproportionated thiosulfate, and four sulfite. Growth with thiosulfate or sulfite as the sole energy source was obtained with three strains (Desulfovibrio sulfodismutans and the strains Bra02 and NTA3); additionally, D. desulfuricans strain CSN grew with sulfite but not with

Michael Kriimer; Heribert Cypionka

1989-01-01

9

Crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate and calcium sulfite hemihydrate from synthetic flue gas desulfurization solutions: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The precipitation of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO/sub 4/.2H/sub 2/O) and calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO/sub 3/.1/2H/sub 2/O) from high, up to 240,000 mg/L, total dissolved solids (TDS) solutions was studied at 50/sup 0/C. The solutions were selected to cover a range of solution compositions of magnesium, calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Precipitation rates along with crystal habit and size changes were measured to determine the effects of these dissolved species as compared to dilute solution conditions. Calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) precipitation rate was accelerated in the high TDS solutions, especially those containing chloride ion. Alternatively, calcium sulfite hemihydrate precipitation rate was found to be faster in high sulfate ion containing solutions. Sodium ion appears to produce gypsum crystals more columnar in habit while solutions containing high amounts of calcium produced very lamellar gypsum crystals. Solutions containing magnesium produced acicular gypsum crystals. Calcium sulfite hemihydrate solids precipitated from solutions containing high sulfate concentrations were rod shaped and globular as compared to the lamellar calcium sulfite hemihydrate crystals precipitated from high chloride and dilute solution liquors. Calcium sulfate-calcium sulfite solid solutions were characterized using infrared spectroscopy. Ion scavenging of Na, Mg, and Cl by gypsum and calcium sulfite solids precipitated from these high TDS solutions was also investigated. 10 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

Trofe, T.W.; Fishman, V.A.; Meserole, F.B.

1986-10-01

10

Sulfite-sulfide-sulfate-carbonate equilibria with applications to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars volcanic SO2 and H2S gas emissions are likely the dominant source of martian sulfate, and the source of sulfuric acid. Until this work, the FREZCHEM model lacked SO2 and H2S gases and associated sulfite and sulfide minerals. The specific objectives of this paper were to add these components and associated sulfite and sulfide minerals and phases into FREZCHEM, and to explore some possible roles of these chemistries on Mars. New solid phases added included the sulfites: Na2SO3·7H2O, K2SO3, (NH4)2SO3·H2O, MgSO3·6H2O, CaSO3·0.5H2O, and FeSO3·1.5H2O, and the sulfide: FeS2. The lowest eutectic of these minerals was K2SO3 (= 6.57 m) at 228 K. Because sulfurous acid is stronger than carbonic acid, this causes a much larger fraction of S(IV) to exist as sulfite (SO32-) at acidic to mildly alkaline pH, whereas almost none of the C is present as carbonate anion. Model calculations show that small quantities of SO2 in an early CO2-rich martian atmosphere suppressed formation of carbonates because SO2 is much more water soluble than CO2 and a stronger acid, which may be a major reason why sulfates are much more common than carbonates on Mars. Also, perhaps equally important are low temperatures that favor sulfite mineral precipitation, the oxidation of which leads to sulfate minerals. Another potentially important factor that favors sulfite/sulfide mineral formation is low pH values that cannot allow carbonate minerals, but can allow sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2). The presence of pyrite, highly insoluble, would lead to sulfate minerals when oxygen becomes available in acidic environments. Major cations for both sulfites (or sulfates) and carbonates (Ca and Mg) can limit carbonates. Sulfite-sulfide volcanism on a cold, lower pH, Mars are the primary causes of high sulfate minerals (e.g., Ca and Mg sulfates), compared to volcanism on a warm, higher pH, Earth that led to more abundant carbonate minerals (e.g., Ca and Mg carbonates).

Marion, G. M.; Kargel, J. S.; Crowley, J. K.; Catling, D. C.

2013-07-01

11

Removal of sulfide, sulfate and sulfite ions by electro coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of various species of sulfur from beamhouse of tannery wastewater and also from synthetic samples was studied by electro-flotation technique. Consumable anodes of iron and aluminum and insoluble anode of titanium were tested as anodes. It was found that iron and aluminum anodes were effective for the removal of suspended solids, sulfide, sulfite and sulfate. Progress of simultaneous

M. Murugananthan; G. Bhaskar Raju; S. Prabhakar

2004-01-01

12

The Rate of Crystallization of Calcium Sulfate in Sulfite Liquor in the Presence of Seeding (Skorost Kristallizatsii Sulfata Kaltsiya v Sulfitnom Shcheloke v Prisutstvii Zatravki).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sulfite liquor, obtained during boiling with acid and containing not only a calcium, but also a mixed calcium-sodium base, after preliminary concentration by evaporation is a supersaturated solution of calcium sulfate. Independently of the degree of repla...

Y. A. Sibirtsev S. A. Sapotnitskii

1970-01-01

13

Modification of the Sulfur Dioxide-Iodine Thermochemical Hydrogen Cycle with Lanthanum Sulfites and Sulfates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Variable composition, insoluble dilanthanum oxide-sulfite-sulfate-hydrates were prepared by reaction of lanthanum dioxymonosulfate with aqueous sulfur dioxide. These compositions reacted with iodine to yield sulfate in the solid phase, and hydrogen iodide...

E. I. Onstott M. G. Bowman M. F. Michnovicz C. M. Hollabaugh

1984-01-01

14

Synthesis of 3,6-anhydro sugars from cyclic sulfites and sulfates and their applications in the preparation of bicyclonucleoside analogues of ddC and ddA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic sulfates 21–23 and sulfite 27 derived from glucofuranose lead to the 3,6-anhydrosugar 28 in excellent yields when treated with sodium sulfite or in basic media. When treated with sodium sulfite, the 3-deoxy derivative 24 fails to give the intramolecular cyclization which leads to the anhydrosugars. Instead it gives the disulfonate derivative 26. 28 was used as starting material to

Joaquín Isac-García; Fernando Hernández-Mateo; Francisco G. Calvo-Flores; Francisco Santoyo-González

1999-01-01

15

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three companies produced natural sodium sulfate from a total of three plants in California, Texas, and Utah. The domestic natural sodium sulfate industry supplied about one-half of the total output of U.S. sodium sulfate. Because of the location of these ...

1993-01-01

16

Absorption of sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of absorption of pure sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulfite solutions with and without a surface active agent were measured at 25°C using a liquid jet column. For the sulfur dioxide-sodium hydroxide system, the rate of absorption into the solution without surface active agent was higher than that into the solution with surface

Haruo Hikita; Satoru Asai; Tadashi Tsuji

1977-01-01

17

Minerals Yearbook, 1993: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. sodium sulfate production increased 6% in 1993 to 651,000 tons according to preliminary statistics from the Bureau of the Census. Production of natural sodium sulfate from three domestic locations declined 5% to 327,000 tons, which was the lowest lev...

D. S. Kostick

1994-01-01

18

Modification of the sulfur dioxide-iodine thermochemical hydrogen cycle with lanthanum sulfites and sulfates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable composition, insoluble dilanthanum oxide-sulfite-sulfate-hydrates were prepared by reaction of lanthanum dioxymonosulfate with aqueous sulfur dioxide. These compositions reacted with iodine to yield sulfate in the solid phase, and hydrogen iodide and water in the gas phase. The highest yield of hydrogen iodide measured was 32% at 660 K for a few seconds reaction time of iodine with a reactant

E. I. Onstott; M. G. Bowman; M. F. Michnovicz; C. M. Hollabaugh

1984-01-01

19

Multiple Lateral Transfers of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes between Major Lineages of Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large fragment of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) was PCR amplified and fully sequenced from 30 reference strains representing all recognized lineages of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In addition, the sequence of the dsrAB gene homologs of the sulfite reducer Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans was determined. In contrast to previous reports, comparative analysis of all available DsrAB sequences produced a tree topology

MICHAEL KLEIN; MICHAEL FRIEDRICH; ANDREW J. ROGER; PHILIP HUGENHOLTZ; SUSAN FISHBAIN; HEIKE ABICHT; LINDA L. BLACKALL; DAVID A. STAHL; MICHAEL WAGNER

2001-01-01

20

The influence of oxygen exchange between sulfite and water on the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate does not exchange oxygen with the water under most environmental conditions. Therefore, its oxygen isotope composition serves as an archive of past oxidative sulfur cycling. Studies on the oxygen isotope signature of sulfate produced from reduced sulfur compounds show varying relative contributions of two possible oxygen sources; molecular oxygen and water, and variable isotope fractionations relative to these two compounds. These discrepancies could be due to differences in the production and consumption of sulfuroxy intermediates which exchange oxygen with water. Thereby, the rate of oxygen exchange as well as the rate of oxidation depends on the pH. Studies on the oxygen isotope exchange effects between sulfuroxy intermediates and water and on the oxygen isotope effects during the oxidation of sulfuroxy intermediates are scarce, severely limiting the interpretability of oxygen isotope signatures in sulfate. Sulfite is often considered to be the last/final sulfuroxy intermediate in the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds to sulfate and may, therefore, be pivotal in shaping the oxygen isotope signature of sulfate. We determined the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water and used the obtained equilibrium value to determine the oxygen isotope effects in abiotic sulfite oxidation experiments. Our results demonstrate that natural variations in the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate produced by oxidative processes can be explained by differences in the interplay of the sulfite oxidation rate and oxygen isotope exchange rate between sulfite and water which both depend on pH conditions and availability of oxidizing agents (e.g. molecular oxygen or ferric iron). Our findings contribute to a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and underline the importance of sulfite as the final sulfuroxy intermediate in oxidative sulfur cycling.

Müller, I. A.; Brunner, B.

2012-12-01

21

Minerals Yearbook, 1990: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium sulfate is produced from natural sources or recovered as a byproduct from various manufacturing processes and has several important and useful applications in various consumer products. In a survey of the top 50 basic organic and inorganic chemical...

D. S. Kostick

1990-01-01

22

Minerals Yearbook, 1991: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. natural and synthetic sodium sulfate production and consumption decreased 44% and 48%, respectively, from those of 1980 to 1991. The decreases were because of changes in the recovery operations of consuming industries mandated by environmental legisl...

D. S. Kostick

1992-01-01

23

Effects of sulfide, sulfite and sulfate on acidogenesis in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sulfide, sulfite and sulfate on the production of volatile fatty acid (VFA) in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process were investigated by using serum bottle assays. The seed sludges were acclimated with glucose by continuous feeding. It is known that the activity of acidogenic granular sludge is affected by the sulfur compounds. Inhibitions at high concentrations while

1997-01-01

24

Phylogeny of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductases Supports an Early Origin of Sulfate Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms that use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration play a central role in the global sulfur cycle. Here, we report the results of comparative sequence analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes from closely and distantly related sulfate-reducing organisms to infer the evolutionary history of DSR. A 1.9-kb DNA region encoding most of the a and

MICHAEL WAGNER; ANDREW J. ROGER; JODI L. FLAX; GREGORY A. BRUSSEAU; DAVID A. STAHL

1998-01-01

25

Metal sulfite\\/sulfate reactions in thermochemical hydrogen cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermochemical cycles which have been most extensively developed all involve the thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid which is corrosive. Metal sulfate cycles have been studied as a means of circumventing handling corrosive mixtures at high temperatures. However, these metal sulfate cycles still use an electrochemical step to produce Hâ. Alternate Hâ producing steps to be used in conjunction with

C. F. V. Mason; M. G. Bowman

1980-01-01

26

Minerals Yearbook, 1989: Sodium Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. sodium sulfate industry rebounded slightly in 1989 as demand increased in the detergent and pulp and paper sectors. After years of stagnant growth, domestic producers were encouraged at the positive trend but were aware the trend may be short liv...

D. S. Kostick

1989-01-01

27

Biodesulfurization of flue gases and other sulfate/sulfite waste streams using immobilized mixed sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

PubMed

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of the major pollutants in the atmosphere that cause acid rain. Microbial processes for reducing SO2 to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have previously been demonstrated by utilizing mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) with municipal sewage digest as the carbon and energy source. To maximize the productivity of the bioreactor for SO2 reduction in this study, various immobilized cell bioreactors were investigated: a stirred tank with SRB flocs and columnar reactors with cells immobilized in either potassium-carrageenan gel matrix or polymeric porous BIO-SEP beads. The maximum volumetric productivity for SO2 reduction in the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) with SRB flocs was 2.1 mmol of SO2/(h.L). The potassium-carrageenan gell matrix used for cell immobilization was not durable at feed sulfite concentrations greater than 2000 mg/L (1.7 mmol/(h.L)). A columnar reactor with mixed SRB cells that had been allowed to grow into highly stable BIO-SEP polymeric beads exhibited the highest sulfite conversion rates, in the range 16.5 mmol/(h.L) (with 100% conversion) to 20 mmol/(h.L) (with 95% conversion). The average specific activity for sulfite reduction in the column, in terms of dry weight of SRB biomass, was 9.5 mmol of sulfite/(h.g). In addition to flue gas desulfurization, potential applications of this microbial process include the treatment of sulfate/sulfite-laden wastewater from the pulp and paper, petroleum, mining, and chemical industries. PMID:9376112

Selvaraj, P T; Little, M H; Kaufman, E N

1997-01-01

28

Uptake of sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate by proton-anion symport in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

Microsoft Academic Search

pH changes and sulfide production upon addition of sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate to non-buffered H2-saturated cell suspensions of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were studied by means of electrodes. The addition of these electron acceptors resulted in a rapid alkalinization of the suspension which was accompanied by sulfide production. At-2° C, alkalinization without immediate sulfide production could be obtained. After addition of 35S-labelled

H. Cypionka

1987-01-01

29

Sulfate and sulfite translocation via the phosphate translocator of the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeability of the inner envelope membranes of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts to sulfite and sulfate was investigated in vitro, using the technique of silicone oil centrifugal filtration. The results show that there is a permeability towards both ions, resulting in rates of uptake of about 1.0 (SO32-) and 0.7 (SO42-) µmol mg chlorophyll-1 h-1 respectively (external concentration 2 mmol

Rfidiger Hampp; Irmgard Ziegler

1977-01-01

30

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) ...Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) ...free-formaldehyde in urea-formaldehyde resins. This method applies to samples...

2011-07-01

31

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) ...Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) ...free-formaldehyde in urea-formaldehyde resins. This method applies to samples...

2012-07-01

32

The Escherichia coli CysZ is a pH dependent sulfate transporter that can be inhibited by sulfite.  

PubMed

The Escherichia coli inner membrane protein CysZ mediates the sulfate uptake subsequently utilized for the synthesis of sulfur-containing compounds in cells. Here we report the purification and functional characterization of CysZ. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, we have observed interactions between CysZ and its putative substrate sulfate. Additional sulfur-containing compounds from the cysteine synthesis pathway have also been analyzed for their abilities to interact with CysZ. Our results suggest that CysZ is dedicated to a specific pathway that assimilates sulfate for the synthesis of cysteine. Sulfate uptake via CysZ into E. coli whole cells and proteoliposome offers direct evidence of CysZ being able to mediate sulfate uptake. In addition, the cysteine synthesis pathway intermediate sulfite can interact directly with CysZ with higher affinity than sulfate. The sulfate transport activity is inhibited in the presence of sulfite, suggesting the existence of a feedback inhibition mechanism in which sulfite regulates sulfate uptake by CysZ. Sulfate uptake assays performed at different extracellular pH and in the presence of a proton uncoupler indicate that this uptake is driven by the proton gradient. PMID:24657232

Zhang, Li; Jiang, Wangshu; Nan, Jie; Almqvist, Jonas; Huang, Yafei

2014-07-01

33

Decreased Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Binding to Cashew Allergens following Sodium Sulfite Treatment and Heating.  

PubMed

Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

2014-07-16

34

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

35

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

2013-04-01

36

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food...Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2009-04-01

37

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food...Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-01-01

38

21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food...Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

39

21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food...Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2009-04-01

40

Separation of sulfite, sulfate, and thiosulfate by ion chromatography with gradient elution  

SciTech Connect

A simple gradient apparatus, consisting of a peristaitic pump in addition to a standard high-pressure pump, is described. The device is used to make a single-run ion chromotographic separation of sulfite, sulfate, and thiosulfate in less than 15 min. This separation required a step gradient with 4.8 mM NaHCO/sub 3//4.7 mM Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ as start eluent and 6.9 mM NaHCO/sub 3//8.6 mM Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ is final eluent when two (4 x 50) mm Dionex anion precolumns in series were used as separator. The eluent compositions were simplex optimized.

Sunden, T. (Univ. of Umea, Sweden); Lindgren, M.; Cedergren, A.; Siemer, D.D.

1983-01-01

41

The oxygen isotope signature of sulfate derived from abiotic sulfite oxidation under different pH conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate serves as an archive of past oxidative sulfur cycling. It carries information about the oxidants as well as the biochemical pathway involved in the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, because oxygen sources can be traced by their distinct oxygen isotope composition. Studies on the aerobic oxidation of pyrite determined varying relative contributions of oxygen from dissolved molecular oxygen (O2) and water (H2O). These discrepancies were assumed to be due to slight differences in the production and consumption of sulfur intermediates which can exchange oxygen isotopes with water. Additionally, changing pH conditions influence the oxidation rate of sulfur intermediates to sulfate as well as the rate of oxygen exchange between sulfur intermediates and water. Consequently, this affects the oxygen isotope signature of produced sulfate. However, very little is known about the oxygen isotope effects during the oxidation of sulfur intermediates. We performed experiments to assess the abiotic oxidation of sulfite to sulfate under different pH conditions, as sulfite is assumed to be an intermediate during the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. Dissolved sulfite was oxidized with differently isotopically labeled O2, as well as in differently labeled H2O. The relative contribution of oxygen from O2 and water in produced sulfate was determined, along with the respective oxygen isotope fractionation. Our results provide a more detailed mechanistic understanding of the aerobic oxidation of reduced sulfur species.

Mueller, I.; Brunner, B.; Ferdelman, T. G.

2011-12-01

42

Crystallization of sodium sulfate salts in limestone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallization pressure of salt crystals growing in confined pores is found to be the main cause for damage to stone and\\u000a masonry. In this work, the crystallization of sodium sulfate salts in Cordova Cream and Indiana limestones is investigated\\u000a using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The DSC experiments indicate that sodium\\u000a heptahydrate always precipitates prior to

Rosa M. Espinosa Marzal; George W. Scherer

2008-01-01

43

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite...Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite...method of determining free-formaldehyde in urea-formaldehyde resins. This method...

2009-07-01

44

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite...Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite...method of determining free-formaldehyde in urea-formaldehyde resins. This method...

2010-07-01

45

Enhanced growth of methane–propane clathrate hydrate crystals with sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium tetradecyl sulfate, and sodium hexadecyl sulfate surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the effect of three commercially available anionic surfactants on the hydrate growth from a gas mixture of 90.5mol% methane\\/9.5mol% propane mixture was investigated. The surfactants used were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), and sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS). The morphology of the growing crystals and the gas consumption were observed during the experiments. The

Jeffry Yoslim; Praveen Linga; Peter Englezos

2010-01-01

46

Sulfite hypersensitivity. A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfiting agents (sulfur dioxide and the sodium and potassium salts of bisulfite, sulfite, and metabisulfite) are widely used as preservatives in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Within the past 5 years, there have been numerous reports of adverse reactions to sulfiting agents. This review presents a comprehensive compilation and discussion of reports describing reactions to ingested, inhaled, and parenterally administered sulfite.

Albert F. Gunnison; Donald W. Jacobsen; Howard J. Schwartz

1987-01-01

47

Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases from sulfate-reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mössbauer, EPR, and biochemical techniques were used to characterize two dissimilatory sulfite reductases: desulforubidin from Desulfovibrio baculatus strain DSM 1743 and desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio gigas. For each molecule of desulforubidin, there are two sirohemes and four [4Fe-4S] clusters. The [4Fe-4S] clusters are in the diamagnetic 2+ oxidation state. The sirohemes are high-spin ferric (S=5/2) and each siroheme is exchanged-coupled to a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster. Such an exchange-coupled siroheme-[4Fe-4S] unit has also been found in the assimilatory sulfite reductase from Escherichia coli/1/ and in a low-molecular weight sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris/2/. For each molecule of defulfoviridin, there are two tetrahydroporphyrin groups and four [4Fe-4S]2+ clusters. To our surprise, we discovered that about 80% of the tetrahydroporphyrin groups, however, do not bind iron.

Huynh, B. H.; Moura, I.; Lino, A. R.; Moura, J. J. G.; Legall, J.

1988-02-01

48

Enhanced generation of hydroxyl radical and sulfur trioxide anion radical from oxidation of sodium sulfite, nickel(II) sulfite, and nickel subsulfide in the presence of nickel(II) complexes.  

PubMed

Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping was utilized to investigate the generation of free radicals from oxidation of sodium sulfite, nickel(II) sulfite, and nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) by ambient oxygen or H2O2 at pH 7.4. The spin trap used was 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). Under ambient oxygen, a solution of sodium sulfite alone generated predominantly sulfur trioxide anion radical (.SO3-) due to the autoxidation of sulfite. Addition of nickel(II) chloride [Ni(II)] enhanced the .SO3- yield about 4-fold. Incubation of sulfite with Ni(II) in the presence of chelators such as tetraglycine, histidine, beta-alanyl-3-methyl-L-histidine (anserine), beta--L-histidine (carnosine), gamma-aminobutyryl-L-histidine (homocarnosine), glutathione, and penicillamine did not have any significant effect on that enhancement. In contrast, albumin, and especially glycylglycylhistidine (GlyGlyHis), augmented the enhancing effect of Ni(II) by factors of 1.4 and 4, respectively. Computer simulation analysis of the spin-adduct spectrum and formate scavenging experiment showed that the mixture of sodium sulfite, Ni(II), and GlyGlyHis generated both hydroxyl (.OH) radical and .SO3- radical, in the ratio of approximately 1:2. The free-radical spin adduct intensity reached its saturation level in about 5 min. The yield of the radical adducts could be slightly reduced by deferoxamine and very strongly reduced by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Aqueous suspensions of sparingly soluble nickel(II) sulfite in the presence of air and GlyGlyHis generated surface-located .SO3- and .OH radicals. The same radicals were generated in Ni3S2 suspension in the presence of GlyGlyHis and H2O2, indicating sulfite production by oxidation of the sulfide moiety of this compound.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7843142

Shi, X; Dalal, N; Kasprzak, K S

1994-09-01

49

Purification and some properties of sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

PubMed Central

Sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase in the plasma membrane of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans AP19-3 was purified to an electrophoretically homogeneous state. The enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 650,000 and was composed of two subunits (M(rs), 61,000 and 59,000) as estimated by sodium sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Michaelis constants of sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase for Fe3+ and sulfite ions were 1.0 and 0.071 mM, respectively. Sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase suffered from end product inhibition by 1 mM Fe2+. Images

Sugio, T; Hirose, T; Ye, L Z; Tano, T

1992-01-01

50

The Crystal Structure of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Bound to DsrC Provides Novel Insights into the Mechanism of Sulfate Respiration*S?  

PubMed Central

Sulfate reduction is one of the earliest types of energy metabolism used by ancestral organisms to sustain life. Despite extensive studies, many questions remain about the way respiratory sulfate reduction is associated with energy conservation. A crucial enzyme in this process is the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dSiR), which contains a unique siroheme-[4Fe4S] coupled cofactor. Here, we report the structure of desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, in which the dSiR DsrAB (sulfite reductase) subunits are bound to the DsrC protein. The ?2?2?2 assembly contains two siroheme-[4Fe4S] cofactors bound by DsrB, two sirohydrochlorins and two [4Fe4S] centers bound by DsrA, and another four [4Fe4S] centers in the ferredoxin domains. A sulfite molecule, coordinating the siroheme, is found at the active site. The DsrC protein is bound in a cleft between DsrA and DsrB with its conserved C-terminal cysteine reaching the distal side of the siroheme. We propose a novel mechanism for the process of sulfite reduction involving DsrAB, DsrC, and the DsrMKJOP membrane complex (a membrane complex with putative disulfide/thiol reductase activity), in which two of the six electrons for reduction of sulfite derive from the membrane quinone pool. These results show that DsrC is involved in sulfite reduction, which changes the mechanism of sulfate respiration. This has important implications for models used to date ancient sulfur metabolism based on sulfur isotope fractionations.

Oliveira, Tania F.; Vonrhein, Clemens; Matias, Pedro M.; Venceslau, Sofia S.; Pereira, Ines A. C.; Archer, Margarida

2008-01-01

51

Protective performances of two anti-graffiti treatments towards sulfite and sulfate formation in SO 2 polluted model environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific strategies for protection are being developed to counter both the staining and corrosive effects of polluted air in cities, as well as to allow for efficient removal of unwanted graffiti paintings. These protection strategies employ molecules with tailored functionalities, e.g. being hydrophobic, while maintaining porosity for molecular water vapour permeation. The present study employs SO 2 and water to probe the behaviors of two anti-graffiti treatments, a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane ("Protectosil Antigraffiti" marketed by Degussa) and an organically modified silicate (Ormosil) synthesized from a polymer chain (polydimethyl siloxane, PDMS) and two network forming alkoxides (Zr propoxide and methyl triethoxy silane, MTES) dissolved in n-propanol, on five building materials, comprising limestone, aged lime mortar, hydrated cement mortar, granite, and brick material. The materials were exposed to a synthetic atmosphere for 20 h in a climate chamber, 0.78 ± 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and 95% RH. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DR-FTIR) spectra were registered before and after exposure in the climate chamber in the cases of both treated and untreated samples. DR-FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, suggest the anti-graffiti Ormosil to suppress formation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate (the primary initial product of the reaction of calcium compounds with SO 2 and water) on carbonate materials (limestone and lime mortar). In case of the granite, brick and cement mortar, Ormosil has a negligible influence on the SO 2 capture. While no sulfite formation was detected by DR-FTIR, gypsum is inferred to form due to metal oxides and minority compounds catalysed oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. In case of brick, this understanding finds support from SEM images as well as EDX. A priori presence of gypsum in hydrated cement mortars prevents positive identification by SEM. However, support for sulfur accumulation in hydrated cement mortar is provided by means of EDX. In case of a second anti-graffiti considered, Protectosil, no influence of the anti-graffiti treatment on the SO 2 uptake of any of the building materials was observed.

Carmona-Quiroga, Paula María; Panas, Itai; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Johansson, Lars-Gunnar; Blanco-Varela, María Teresa; Martínez-Ramírez, Sagrario

52

Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxic and anoxic regions of a microbial mat characterized by comparative analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence analysis of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) was used to identify sulfate-reducing bacteria in a hypersaline microbial mat and to evaluate their distribution in relation to levels of oxygen. The most highly diverse DSR sequences, most related to those of the Desulfonema-like organisms within the δ-proteobacteria, were recovered from oxic regions of the mat. This observation extends those

DROR MINZ; JODI L. FLAX; STEFAN J. GREEN; GERARD MUYZER; YEHUDA COHEN; MICHAEL WAGNER; BRUCE E. RITTMANN; DAVID A. STAHL

1999-01-01

53

Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxic and anoxic regions of a microbial mat characterized by comparative analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes  

SciTech Connect

Sequence analysis of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) was used to identify sulfate-reducing bacteria in a hypersaline microbial mat and to evaluate their distribution in relation to levels of oxygen. The most highly diverse DSR sequences, most related to those of the Desulfonema-like organisms within the {delta}-proteobacteria, were recovered from oxic regions of the mat. This observation extends those of previous studies by the authors and others associating Desulfonema-like organisms with oxic habitats.

Minz, D.; Flax, J.L.; Green, S.J.; Muyzer, G.; Cohen, Y.; Wagner, M.; Rittmann, B.E.; Stahl, D.A.

1999-10-01

54

Assimilatory reduction of sulfate and sulfite by methanogenic bacteria. [Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus; Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum  

SciTech Connect

A variety of sulfur-containing compounds were investigated for use as medium reductants and sulfur sources for growth of four methanogenic bacteria. Sulfide (1 to 2 mM) served all methanogens investigated well. Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg and ..delta..H grew well with S/sup 0/, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, or thiosulfate as the sole sulfur source. Only Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus was able to grow with SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ as the sole sulfur source. 2-Mercaptoethanol at 20 mM was greatly inhibitory to growth of Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus on SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ or SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg on SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ but not to growth of strain ..delta..H on SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/. Sulfite was metabolized during growth by Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus. Sulfide was produced in cultures of Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus growing on SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, thiosulfate, and S/sup 0/. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg was successfully grown in a 10-liter fermentor with S/sup 0/, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, or thiosulfate as the sole sulfur source.

Daniels, L.; Belay, N.; Rajagopal, B.S.

1986-04-01

55

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not...

2010-01-01

56

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2013-04-01

57

21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions...present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol...exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the...

2009-04-01

58

Selective effects of sodium chlorate treatment on the sulfation of heparan sulfate.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the effect of sodium chlorate treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells on the structure of heparan sulfate (HS), to assess how the various sulfation reactions during HS biosynthesis are affected by decreased availability of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. Metabolically [(3)H]glucosamine-labeled HS was isolated from chlorate-treated and untreated Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and subjected to low pH nitrous acid cleavage. Saccharides representing (i) the N-sulfated domains, (ii) the domains of alternating N-acetylated and N-sulfated disaccharide units, and (iii) the N-acetylated domains were recovered and subjected to compositional disaccharide analysis. Upon treatment with 50 mM chlorate, overall O-sulfation of HS was inhibited by approximately 70%, whereas N-sulfation remained essentially unchanged. Low chlorate concentrations (5 or 20 mM) selectively reduced the 6-O-sulfation of HS, whereas treatment with 50 mM chlorate reduced both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. Analysis of saccharides representing the different domain types indicated that 6-O-sulfation was preferentially inhibited in the alternating domains. These data suggest that reduced 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate availability has distinct effects on the N- and O-sulfation of HS and that O-sulfation is affected in a domain-specific fashion. PMID:10593915

Safaiyan, F; Kolset, S O; Prydz, K; Gottfridsson, E; Lindahl, U; Salmivirta, M

1999-12-17

59

Industrial production of sodium sulfate using solar ponds  

SciTech Connect

An example of the use of a solar pond in the mining industry, the production of industrial grade sodium sulfate from a mineral consisting in a mixture of sulfate decahydrate, sodium chloride and clays, is described. The industrial solar process uses the solar pond as a basin where the mineral is dissolved at temperatures around 40{degree}C. The sodium sulfate is separated from the concentrated hot solution by fractional crystallization during the night, at low temperature. This design was tested successfully in a prototype with a 400 m{sup 2} pond. An industrial plant using this process has been working in a batch mode for several years. The plant is described and its operation and costs are analyzed. They compare favorably with the results obtained with a conventional plant because of lower initial investments and operational costs.

Lesino, G.; Saravia, L. (Universidad Nacional de Salta, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Galli, D. (Universidad Nacional de Jujuy, San Salvador de Jujuy (Argentina))

1990-01-01

60

Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods.  

PubMed

Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent. PMID:12374418

Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J

2002-01-01

61

Sodium sulfate - Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass spectrometer experiments were conducted to determine the thermodynamic properties of gaseous Na2SO4, and these data were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. The work is important in that sodium sulfate is the major phase recovered from turbine surfaces after instances of corrosion, due to the presence of sulfur in fuels and sodium chloride in intake air.

Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

1975-01-01

62

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A. B.

1984-01-01

63

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O...H...O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A.B.

1984-10-17

64

Synthesis and solid state properties of the 4-naphthyloxymethyl-2,2-dioxo-1,3,2-dioxathiolane, cyclic sulfate not available through sulfite oxidation procedure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chiral adrenoblocker propranolol precursor 4-naphthyloxymethyl-2,2-dioxo-1,3,2-dioxathiolane, 2, was obtained in racemic and scalemic form. It was found that sulfates 2 are practically unavailable through the standard Ru-catalyzed sulfite oxidation procedure, but could be obtained by the direct action of SO 2Cl 2 on the corresponding vicinal diols 3. The published properties of the sulfate were corrected. Thermodynamic characteristics and binary melting phase diagram were evaluated for compound 2 by DSC. The crystal structure of rac- and scal- 2 was established by single crystal X-ray analysis and the absolute configuration of scal- 2 was established by the Flack method. The flexible nature of the sulfur-containing cycle, and the sensitivity of the compound conformation to homo- and heterochiral crystal environment was demonstrated.

Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Bredikhin, Alexander A.

2010-12-01

65

21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1883 Section 524.1883...phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone...phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains prednisolone sodium...

2010-04-01

66

21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1883 Section 524.1883...phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone...phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains prednisolone sodium...

2009-04-01

67

Molecular Basis of Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency from the Structure of Sulfite Oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molybdenum-containing enzyme sulfite oxidase catalyzes the conversion of sulfite to sulfate, the terminal step in the oxidative degradation of cysteine and methionine. Deficiency of this enzyme in humans usually leads to major neurological abnormalities and early death. The crystal structure of chicken liver sulfite oxidase at 1.9 Å resolution reveals that each monomer of the dimeric enzyme consists of

Caroline Kisker; Hermann Schindelin; Andrew Pacheco; William A Wehbi; Robert M Garrett; K. V Rajagopalan; John H Enemark; D. C Rees

1997-01-01

68

Sodium-sulfate/carboxylate cotransporters (SLC13).  

PubMed

The SLC13 gene family is comprised of five sequence related proteins that are found in animals, plants, yeast and bacteria. Proteins encoded by the SLC13 genes are divided into the following two groups of transporters with distinct anion specificities: the Na(+)-sulfate (NaS) cotransporters and the Na(+)-carboxylate (NaC) cotransporters. Members of this gene family (in ascending order) are: SLC13A1 (NaS1), SLC13A2 (NaC1), SLC13A3 (NaC3), SLC13A4 (NaS2) and SLC13A5 (NaC2). SLC13 proteins encode plasma membrane polypeptides with 8-13 putative transmembrane domains, and are expressed in a variety of tissues. They are all Na(+)-coupled symporters with strong cation preference for Na(+), and insensitive to the stilbene 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Their Na(+):anion coupling ratio is 3:1, indicative of electrogenic properties. They have a substrate preference for divalent anions, which include tetra-oxyanions for the NaS cotransporters or Krebs cycle intermediates (including mono-, di- and tricarboxylates) for the NaC cotransporters. This review will describe the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the biochemical, physiological and structural properties of the SLC13 gene family. PMID:23177988

Markovich, Daniel

2012-01-01

69

Sodium sulfate - Deposition and dissolution of silica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot-corrosion process for SiO2-protected materials involves deposition of Na2SO4 and dissolution of the protective SiO2 scale. Dew points for Na2SO4 deposition are calculated as a function of pressure, sodium content, and sulfur content. Expected dissolution regimes for SiO2 are calculated as a function of Na2SO4 basicity. Controlled-condition burner-rig tests on quartz verify some of these predicted dissolution regimes. The basicity of Na2SO4 is not always a simple function of P(SO3). Electrochemical measurements of an (Na2O) show that carbon creates basic conditions in Na2SO4, which explains the extensive corrosion of SiO2-protected materials containing carbon, such as SiC.

Jacobson, Nathan S.

1989-01-01

70

Kinetics of leaching of lead sulfate in sodium chloride solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A powder dissolution method is used to study the kinetics of leaching of lead sulfate from a lead cake in the temperature range 298-353 K and the concentration range 50-270 g/l of a sodium chloride solution. The results obtained are used to calculate the apparent activation energy ( E a = 12.41 kJ/mol); its value indicates that the process of leaching of lead sulfate from a lead cake occurs in a diffusion zone. This process is shown to be described by a first-order kinetic equation.

Geidarov, A. A.; Akhmedov, M. M.; Karimov, M. A.; Valiev, B. S.; Efendieva, S. G.

2009-12-01

71

Raman spectra study of iron phosphate glasses with sodium sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glasses with nominal molar composition of xNa2SO4-(1 - x)(0.4Fe2O3-0.6P2O5) (0 ? x ? 0.45) were prepared, and the structure of the glasses was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. No crystalline phases were detected by XRD in all samples. From the sodium sulfate-free iron phosphate glass, Q0 (in the Qn terminology, n represents the number of bridging oxygens (BO) per PO4 tetrahedron), Q1 and Q2 groups were observed. But the Raman spectra imply that Q1 groups are the predominant structural units. Addition Na2SO4 content result in the conversion of Q1 to Q0 groups, indicating that depolymerization of the phosphate network with the addition of Na2SO4 content. The bands of sulfate vibrational modes increase with addition higher Na2SO4 content, indicating that sulfate is incorporated into the glass matrix.

Lai, Y. M.; Liang, X. F.; Yang, S. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Zhang, B. T.

2012-04-01

72

Thermodynamics of Lipid Membrane Solubilization by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a comprehensive thermodynamic description of lipid membrane dissolution by a charged detergent. To this end, we have studied the interactions between the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the zwitterionic phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) in dilute aqueous solution (10mM phosphate buffer, 154mM NaCl, pH 7.4). Thermodynamic parameters of vesicle solubilization and reconstitution, membrane partitioning, and micelle formation were

Sandro Keller; Heiko Heerklotz; Nadin Jahnke; Alfred Blume

2006-01-01

73

Lateral Gene Transfer of Dissimilatory (Bi)Sulfite Reductase Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase catalyzes the energy-gen- erating step during the anaerobic respiration of sulfite or sulfate and thus represents a key enzyme of all sulfite- and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (11, 22, 34). Recently, the genes encoding the alpha- and beta-subunits of this enzyme (dsrAB) have been used to infer the evolutionary history of dissimila- tory (bi)sulfite reductases. For this purpose, a

Vladimir Zverlov; Michael Klein; Sebastian Lucker; Michael W. Friedrich; Josef Kellermann; David A. Stahl; Alexander Loy; Michael Wagner

2005-01-01

74

Amorphous silica solubilities IV. Behavior in pure water and aqueous sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulfate solutions up to 350°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solubilities of amorphous silica were determined in separate aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulfate at temperatures up to 350°C. These salts, of strong interest in hydrothermal oceanography and geothermal energy, generally ranged in concentration from zero to saturation. Solubilities in the sodium chloride solutions followed closely earlier observed decreases in sodium nitrate solutions at high temperatures. Amorphous silica solubilities were depressed most by magnesium chloride, followed by magnesium sulfate, and less by sodium chloride. As the temperature rose the relative decrease in solubility caused by added salt became smaller. Surprisingly, sodium sulfate solutions, showing little effect at 25°C, sharply raised the solubility as the temperature increased to 350°C. Plots of the logarithms of derived activity coefficients against molalities of added salt gave approximately straight lines. These plots allow simple predictions of amorphous silica solubility in single salt solutions.

Chen, Chen-Tung A.; Marshall, William L.

1982-02-01

75

A new amphoteric superabsorbent hydrogel based on sodium starch sulfate.  

PubMed

A new amphoteric superabsorbent hydrogels were synthesized by graft copolymerization blending based on acrylamide (AM), diallydimethylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) and sodium starch sulfate (SSS). The effect of polymerization conditions on swelling capacity was investigated. The results showed that the swelling capacity was affected by various factors, such as polymerization temperature, concentration of initiator and crosslinker, and dose of AM. Additionally, the results testified that salt bond was a potential crosslinking factor in the amphoteric hydrogel. The maximum swelling capacity in distilled water and saline solution reached 1493.1 and 91.0 g/g, respectively. These results were compared with those obtained from original starch-based hydrogel. PMID:17360178

Peng, Gui; Xu, Shimei; Peng, Yang; Wang, Jide; Zheng, Liuchun

2008-01-01

76

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01

77

Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency in Man: Demonstration of the Enzymatic Defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infant who died with neurological abnormalities, mental retardation, and dislocated ocular lenses excreted in his urine abnormally large amounts of S-sulfo-L-cysteine, sulfite, and thiosulfate and virtually no inorganic sulfate. The present report establishes the occurrence of an enzymatic defect in this infant. His liver, brain, and kidney specifically lacked sulfite oxidase activity. Deficiency of sulfite oxidase, which has not

S. Harvey Mudd; Filadelfo Irreverre; Leonard Laster

1967-01-01

78

Physicochemical characterization of tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose and sodium lauryl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a novel tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with improved solubility, various solid dispersions were prepared with\\u000a various ratios of water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and carboxylmethylcellulose-Na using spray drying technique. The\\u000a physicochemical properties of solid dispersions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning\\u000a calorimetery and powder X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, their solubility and dissolution were evaluated compared to drug

Young-Joon Park; Dong-Sung Ryu; Dong Xun Li; Qi Zhe Quan; Dong Hoon Oh; Jong Oh Kim; Youn Gee Seo; Young-Im Lee; Chul Soon Yong; Jong Soo Woo; Han-Gon Choi

2009-01-01

79

Overexpression of a maize sulfite oxidase gene in tobacco enhances tolerance to sulfite stress via sulfite oxidation and CAT-mediated H2O2 scavenging.  

PubMed

Sulfite oxidase (SO) plays an important role in sulfite metabolism. To date, the molecular mechanisms of sulfite metabolism in plants are largely unknown. Previously, a full-length cDNA of the putative sulfite oxidase gene from maize (ZmSO) was cloned, and its response to SO(2)/sulfite stress at the transcriptional level was characterized. In this study, the recombinant ZmSO protein was purified from E. coli. It exhibited sulfite-dependent activity and had strong affinity for the substrate sulfite. Over-expression (OE) of ZmSO in tobacco plants enhanced their tolerance to sulfite stress. The plants showed much less damage, less sulfite accumulation, but greater amounts of sulfate. This suggests that tolerance of transgenic plants to sulfite was enhanced by increasing SO expression levels. Interestingly, H(2)O(2) accumulation levels by histochemical detection and quantitative determination in the OE plants were much less than those in the wild-type upon sulfite stress. Furthermore, reductions of catalase levels detected in the OE lines were considerably less than in the wild-type plants. This indicates that SO may play an important role in protecting CAT from inhibition by excess sulfite. Collectively, these data demonstrate that transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing ZmSO enhance tolerance to excess sulfite through sulfite oxidation and catalase-mediated hydrogen peroxide scavenging. This is the first SO gene from monocots to be functionally characterized. PMID:22693572

Xia, Zongliang; Sun, Kaile; Wang, Meiping; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Jianyu

2012-01-01

80

Growth of Enterobacter cloacae in the presence of 25% sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed Central

The growth of Enterobacter cloacae in 25% sodium dodecyl sulfate is described. The bacteria appeared to tolerate sodium dodecyl sulfate rather than metabolize it. The process was energy dependent, and cell lysis occurred during stationary phase. Extreme detergent resistance may be characteristic of the genus Enterobacter.

Kramer, V C; Calabrese, D M; Nickerson, K W

1980-01-01

81

Sodium sulfate heptahydrate I: The growth of single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium sulfate is one of the most damaging salts for porous building materials. In our quest to increase the durability of civil structures and cultural heritage we need to understand its crystallization behavior. In this paper we investigate the cooling-induced growth of the metastable heptahydrate crystal phase by combining nuclear magnetic resonance, for non-destructive measurement of the concentration, with time-lapse microscopy, to visualize the crystal growth. The growth rate is found to be controlled by interface attachment kinetics. The kinetic growth parameter Gk ranges from 0.001 to 0.007 mm/s for single crystals in a temperature range of 4.8-13 °C.

Derluyn, Hannelore; Saidov, Tamerlan A.; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M.; Pel, Leo; Scherer, George W.

2011-08-01

82

Corrosion of 5083 aluminum by aqueous sodium sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical techniques were used to determine the corrosion rate of 5083 aluminum in sodium sulfate solution, and correlated the results with findings from standard metallographic examination. The corrosion rate measured by linear polarization was low: less than 1 mil/y for temperatures ranging from 23 to 70/sup 0/C and deaerated concentrations from 1 to 30 g/l. The corrosion current varied over these ranges by about one order of magnitude. Increasing concentrations and temperatures produced increasing current, as expected; temperature had a stronger effect than concentration on the corrosion rate, however. Potentiodynamic polarization curves obtained at the above ranges of temperature and concentration showed the quasi-active-passive behavior typical of aluminum alloys in salt solutions. The curves were qualitatively similar for all of the experimental conditions. As the concentration and temperature increased, the rest potential became more active, and the average passive current similarly increased. As in the linear-polarization measurements, the current varied by about one order of magnitude over all conditions. In order to identify the mode of attack, we used a scanning electron microscope to examine samples anodically polarized for 1 h at 70/sup 0/C and 30 g/l. The attack was uniform, and there was no evidence to suggest localized attack. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis showed no less of magnesium as the alloy was increasingly anodically polarized. We conclude that the primary corrosion mechanism in sodium sulfate solution is uniform attack on the aluminum matrix, without preferential attack of the beta phase (Al/sub 2/Mg/sub 3/).

Chen, C.; Truhan, J.J.

1983-11-01

83

Micellization and synergistic interaction of binary surfactant mixtures based on sodium nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed micelle formation and synergistic interactions of binary surfactant combinations of sodium nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate (NPES) with typical surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X-100 (TX100), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) at 25?°C in the presence of NaCl have been investigated. The critical micelle concentration of the binary mixtures has been quantitatively

Zhong-Xiu Chen; Shao-Ping Deng; Xiao-Kui Li

2008-01-01

84

Thermoreversible gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate as a potential contraceptive device.  

PubMed

The contraceptive properties of a gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate were investigated in both in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that sodium lauryl sulfate inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the activity of sheep testicular hyaluronidase. Sodium lauryl sulfate also completely inhibited human sperm motility as evaluated by the 30-sec Sander-Cramer test. The acid-buffering capacity of gel formulations containing sodium lauryl sulfate increased with the molarity of the citrate buffers used for their preparations. Furthermore, experiments in which semen was mixed with undiluted gel formulations in different proportions confirmed their physiologically relevant buffering capacity. Intravaginal application of the gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate to rabbits before their artificial insemination with freshly ejaculated semen completely prevented egg fertilization. The gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate was fully compatible with nonlubricated latex condoms. Taken together, these results suggest that the gel formulation containing sodium lauryl sulfate could represent a potential candidate for use as a topical vaginal spermicidal formulation to provide fertility control in women. PMID:12724280

Haineault, Caroline; Gourde, Pierrette; Perron, Sylvie; Désormeaux, André; Piret, Jocelyne; Omar, Rabeea F; Tremblay, Roland R; Bergeron, Michel G

2003-08-01

85

Abiotic Oxygen Isotope Equilibrium Fractionation Between Sulfite and Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfite (SO32-) is an important intermediate in biochemical transformations of sulfur compounds. Biological pathways as diverse as sulfate reduction, disproportionation of elemental sulfur and thiosulfate and sulfide oxidation can involve sulfite as intermediate compound. Unlike sulfate, sulfite readily exchanges oxygen isotopes with water. Therefore, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate produced by the oxidation of sulfite may be controlled to a large extent by the oxygen isotope signature inherited from sulfite. While there is a lot of speculation in how far oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite and water controls the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate from seawater, interstitial waters and brines, the actual equilibrium isotope fractionation factor between sulfite and water has not yet been determined by a direct experiment. Here, we present the first results of experiments, where we equilibrated sulfite with water for several weeks at 4, 25 and 70 C at a pH of 7.2 and 8. Compared to water at pH 7.2, sulfite is enriched in 18O by 12.7±1‰ (4 C), 11.5±1‰ (23 C) and 10.3±1‰ (70 C). At pH 8, sulfite is enriched in 18O by 9.8±1‰ (4 C), 7.9±1‰ (23 C) and 6.0±1‰ (70 C) compared to water. The dependency of the fractionation on pH could either be due to an incomplete oxygen isotope exchange between water and sulfite at high pH or due to two different equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionations in the system water - bisulfite (HSO3-) - sulfite (SO32-). Our results imply that in biochemical pathways such as sulfate reduction and disproportionation, oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite and water is not the dominant factor controlling the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate.

Brunner, B.; Mielke, R. E.; Coleman, M.

2006-12-01

86

Dextran sulfate sodium inhibits alanine synthesis in caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

To understand and characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) has been used to induce acute and chronic colitis in animal models by causing intestinal epithelium damage. The mechanism of action of DSS in producing this outcome is not well understood. In an effort to understand how DSS might impact epithelial cell metabolism, we studied the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 incubated with 1% DSS over 56 hours using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We observed no difference in cell viability as compared to control cultures, and an approximately 1.5-fold increase in IL-6 production upon incubation with 1% DSS. The effect on Caco-2 cell metabolism as measured through changes in the concentration of metabolites in the cell supernatant included a three-fold decrease in the concentration of alanine. Given that the concentrations of other amino acids in the cell culture supernatant were not different between treated and control cultures over 56 hours suggest that DSS inhibits alanine synthesis, specifically alanine aminotransferase, without affecting other key metabolic pathways. The importance of alanine aminotransferase in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed. PMID:21731444

Ye, Zhong; Mishchuk, Darya O; Stephens, Natasha S; Slupsky, Carolyn M

2011-01-01

87

Durability of sodium sulfate-treated polylysine-alginate microcapsules.  

PubMed

Chelated hollow microcapsules are unstable under in vitro conditions because of their hygroscopic nature. Nongel inducing cations, such as Na+, stabilize the outer membrane of the alginate-polylysine-alginate microcapsules leading to more stable beads. We made different batches of empty capsules with a mean +/- SEM diameter of 607+/-11 microns, and found that within 1 week of incubating these capsules in normal saline at 37 degrees C, they increased to 718+/-10 microns (p < 0.05, n = 5). In initial experiments, we made different batches of capsules and divided them into two groups. One group was left untreated (control) whereas the other was treated with 6 mM Na2SO4 for 30 min, before incubation in saline at 37 degrees C. Control capsules increased in weight and size, before beginning to melt in less than 1 week. In contrast, treated capsules rapidly lost weight and remained intact during 1 month of follow-up. In perifusion experiments, we found no deleterious effect of sodium sulfate treatment on the function of islets enclosed in the capsules. PMID:11189046

Darrabie, M; Freeman, B K; Kendall, W F; Hobbs, H A; Opara, E C

2001-03-01

88

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced rapid gelation of silk fibroin.  

PubMed

The in situ formation of injectable silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels have potential advantages over various other biomaterials due to the minimal invasiveness during application. Biomaterials need to gel rapidly under physiological conditions after injection. In the current paper, a novel way to accelerate SF gelation using an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as a gelling agent is reported. The mechanism of SDS-induced rapid gelation was determined. At low surfactant concentrations, hydrophobic interactions among the SF chains played a dominant role in the association, leading to decreased gelation time. At higher concentrations of surfactant, electrostatic repulsive forces among micellar aggregates gradually became dominant and gelation was hindered. Gel formation involves the connection of clusters formed by the accumulation of nanoparticles. This process is accompanied by the rapid formation of ?-sheet structures due to hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. It is expected that the silk hydrogel with short gelation time will be used as an injectable hydrogel in drug delivery or cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:22406911

Wu, Xilong; Hou, Jing; Li, Mingzhong; Wang, Jiangnan; Kaplan, David L; Lu, Shenzhou

2012-07-01

89

Thermodynamics of Lipid Membrane Solubilization by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

PubMed Central

We provide a comprehensive thermodynamic description of lipid membrane dissolution by a charged detergent. To this end, we have studied the interactions between the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the zwitterionic phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) in dilute aqueous solution (10 mM phosphate buffer, 154 mM NaCl, pH 7.4). Thermodynamic parameters of vesicle solubilization and reconstitution, membrane partitioning, and micelle formation were assessed by right-angle light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry. Membrane translocation and dissolution proceed very slowly at 25°C but are considerably accelerated at 65°C. At this temperature, a simple SDS/POPC phase diagram (comprising vesicular, coexistence, and micellar ranges) and a complete set of partition coefficients and transfer enthalpies were obtained. Electrostatic repulsion effects at the membrane surface were implemented by combining Gouy-Chapman theory with a Langmuir adsorption isotherm to account for Na+ binding to membrane-incorporated DS?. This approach offered a quantitative understanding of solubilization and reconstitution processes, which were interpreted in terms of partition equilibria between and ideal mixing in all phases. More than any other property, the transbilayer flip-flop rate under given experimental conditions hence appears to dictate a detergent's suitability for thermodynamically controlled lipid membrane solubilization and reconstitution.

Keller, Sandro; Heerklotz, Heiko; Jahnke, Nadin; Blume, Alfred

2006-01-01

90

Effect of sulfite exposure on zinc, iron, and copper levels in rat liver and kidney tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfite is a potentially toxic molecule that might enter the body via ingestion, inhalation, or injection. For cellular detoxification,\\u000a mammalians rely on sulfite oxidase to convert sulfite to sulfate. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect\\u000a of sulfite on zinc, iron, and copper levels in rat liver and kidney tissues. Forty normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient male\\u000a albino

Vural Kucukatay; Sebahat Turgut; Erdogan Kocamaz; Gulten Emmungil; Melek Bor-Kucukatay; Gunfer Turgut; Hakan Akca; Huseyin Bagci

2006-01-01

91

Pilot Field Verification Studies of the Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Treatment Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In previous project, jar and dynamic testing showed that the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process was a viable method for reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from the Tinker AFB industrial wastewater with significant decrease in sludg...

D. F. Suciu D. S. Prescott F. S. Loyd P. M. Wiloff R. K. Schober

1988-01-01

92

SEPARATION OF SODIUM SULFATE AND p-TOLUENE SULFONIC ACID BY ELECTRODIALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrodialysis process is proposed to achieve efficient separation of sodium sulfate from its mixture with p-toluene sulfonic acid. In this process, interpolymer type ion-exchange membranes were used due to their higher chemical stability and durability. Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale electrodialysis unit with an effective area of 65 cm and 10 cell pairs, at different compositions of sodium sulfate

Vinod K. Shahi; S. K. Thampy; A. K. Siddhanta; R. Rangarajan

2002-01-01

93

Inactivation of Prions by Acidic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Prompted by the discovery that prions become protease-sensitive after exposure to branched polyamine dendrimers in acetic acid (AcOH) (S. Supattapone, H. Wille, L. Uyechi, J. Safar, P. Tremblay, F. C. Szoka, F. E. Cohen, S. B. Prusiner, and M. R. Scott, J. Virol. 75:3453-3461, 2001), we investigated the inactivation of prions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in weak acid. As judged by sensitivity to proteolytic digestion, the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc) was denatured at room temperature by SDS at pH values of ?4.5 or ?10. Exposure of Sc237 prions in Syrian hamster brain homogenates to 1% SDS and 0.5% AcOH at room temperature resulted in a reduction of prion titer by a factor of ca. 107; however, all of the bioassay hamsters eventually developed prion disease. When various concentrations of SDS and AcOH were tested, the duration and temperature of exposure acted synergistically to inactivate both hamster Sc237 prions and human sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions. The inactivation of prions in brain homogenates and those bound to stainless steel wires was evaluated by using bioassays in transgenic mice. sCJD prions were more than 100,000 times more resistant to inactivation than Sc237 prions, demonstrating that inactivation procedures validated on rodent prions cannot be extrapolated to inactivation of human prions. Some procedures that significantly reduced prion titers in brain homogenates had a limited effect on prions bound to the surface of stainless steel wires. Using acidic SDS combined with autoclaving for 15 min, human sCJD prions bound to stainless steel wires were eliminated. Our findings form the basis for a noncorrosive system that is suitable for inactivating prions on surgical instruments, as well as on other medical and dental equipment.

Peretz, David; Supattapone, Surachai; Giles, Kurt; Vergara, Julie; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Lessard, Pierre; Safar, Jiri G.; Glidden, David V.; McCulloch, Charles; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Scott, Michael; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

2006-01-01

94

Dominant conformation of valsartan in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle environment.  

PubMed

The interaction of valsartan (VST), a novel antihypertensive drug, with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles has been investigated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. VST has two conformations in solution, exchanging slowly on the NMR time scale via the trans/cis (conformer A/B) isomerization of the amide bond. It is suggested that drugs in the sartan class incorporate and diffuse into biological membranes before they interact with AT(1) receptors. SDS is used to mimic the membrane environment to characterize two VST conformers. (1)H NMR chemical shift analysis, proton relaxation rates, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements suggest that conformer A has a higher binding affinity to SDS and is the dominant conformer distributed in the SDS micelles. The location of VST in the micelles is determined by NOE measurements and by the MD simulation, showing that the butyl chain and biphenyl groups of VST interact with the alkyl group of SDS through hydrophobic interactions. Preferable binding free energy is found for conformer A by the MD simulation, which demonstrates that the relatively concentrated hydrophobic surface of conformer A is responsible for its higher affinity to the micelles. Our results are in good agreement with a recent simulation of VST bound onto the AT(1) receptor by Potamitis et. al (J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2009) who demonstrate that conformer A (trans conformation in their definition) is the one binding to the receptor. The results presented in our study suggest that the biological membrane plays an essential role in stabilization of the active state of VST. Thus, understanding the interactions between the sartan drugs and the membrane environment should facilitate the studies of the functional mechanism of these compounds with their receptor and provide insight on the development of new approaches for drug discovery. PMID:20131883

Li, Fang; Wang, Lingyun; Xiao, Nan; Yang, Minghui; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Maili

2010-03-01

95

Comparison of bamboo green, timber and yellow in sulfite, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide pretreatments for enzymatic saccharification.  

PubMed

The response and behavior of bamboo green, timber, and yellow of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) to three pretreatments, sulfite (SPORL), dilute acid (DA), and alkali (NaOH), were investigated and compared with varied chemical loadings at 180°C for 30 min with a 6.25:1 (v/w) liquor-to-bamboo ratio. All the pretreatments improved the enzymatic digestibility of bamboo substrates. Under the investigated conditions, the DA pretreatment achieved better enzymatic digestibility, but had lower sugar recovery yield, and formed more fermentation inhibitors. The results suggested that the SPORL pretreatment be able to generate more readily digestible bamboo substrate with higher sugar yield and fewer fermentation inhibitors than the corresponding DA pretreatment if hemicelluloses are sufficiently removed by adding more acid to bring down the pretreatment pH. Bamboo timber had higher sugar content and better enzymatic digestibility and therefore was a better feedstock for bioconversion than bamboo green and yellow. PMID:24212128

Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Zehui; Fei, Benhua; Cai, Zhiyong; Pan, Xuejun

2014-01-01

96

Comparison of Solubilization Capacity of Resveratrol in Sodium 3?,12?-Dihydroxy-7-oxo-5?-cholanoate and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigated resveratrol (trans-3,5,4?-trihydroxystilbene) solubilization with sodium 3?,12?-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5?-cholanoate (S7-OD) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The investigation was aimed at determining whether large spherical micelles (SDS) or small longitudinal micelles (S7-OD) are more convenient for incorporation of resveratrol. Also, we studied resveratrol behavior in mixed micelles with mentioned surfactants using spectroflourimetric method as well as the effects of sodium chloride and urea on resveratrol solubilization capacity in the applied surfactants. Resveratrol solubilization curve was different in the investigated surfactants. Resveratrol solubilization curve for sodium 3?,12?-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5?-cholanoate at concentration 0.9 CMC reached saturation level of 60% dissolved resveratrol. The curve for sodium dodecyl sulfate was linear within the whole range of the investigated concentration; resveratrol solubilization rate reached 13% at 2 CMC. In S7-OD, NaCl increased capacity of resveratrol solubilization up to 1.4 CMC surfactant concentration, whilst maximum level of dissolved resveratrol (90%) was observed at 0.9 CMC. In SDS, NaCl decreased resveratrol solubilization capacity. Urea reduced resveratrol solubilization rate in sodium 3?,12?-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5?-cholanoate, whereas it had inverse effect in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The obtained results strongly suggest that structure, that is, shape, of the surfactant micelles significantly affects their capacity of resveratrol solubilization. Also, presence of NaCl and urea influences solubilization capacities of investigated surfactants.

Cvejic, Jelena; Posa, Mihalj

2014-01-01

97

Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate suppresses the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice  

PubMed Central

Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. In the present study, the effects of PBA on a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were investigated. The therapeutic efficacy of PBA (150 mg/kg body weight) in DSS-induced colitis was assessed based on the disease activity index (DAI), colon length, the production of inflammatory cytokines and histopathological examination. The results showed an increase in the median survival time in the PBA-treated group compared with that of the untreated DSS control group. DAI scores were lower in the PBA-treated group than in the DSS control group during the 12 days of the experiment. Additionally, PBA treatment inhibited shortening of the colon and the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1? and IL-6, which were measured in the colonic lavage fluids. Histopathological examination of the DSS control group showed diffused clusters of chronic inflammatory cells infiltrating the lamina propria, partial exfoliation of the surface epithelium and decreased numbers of mature goblet cells. By contrast, in the PBA-treated group the histopathological findings were the same as those of the normal healthy controls. These results suggest that PBA strongly prevents DSS-induced colitis by suppressing the mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis.

ONO, KAZUHIKO; NIMURA, SATOSHI; NISHINAKAGAWA, TAKUYA; HIDESHIMA, YUKO; ENJYOJI, MUNECHIKA; NABESHIMA, KAZUKI; NAKASHIMA, MANABU

2014-01-01

98

Determination of free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide by ion chromatography through anion exchange column and conductivity detection.  

PubMed

A simple and effective anion ion chromatography (IC) method with anion exchange column and conductivity detector has been developed to determine free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide. No oxidation agent, such as hydrogen peroxide, is used to convert sulfites to sulfates for IC analysis. In addition, no stabilizing agent, such as formaldehyde, fructose or EDTA, is required during the sample extraction. This method uses aqueous 0.2 N NaOH as the solvent for standard preparation and sample extraction. The sulfites, either prepared from standard sodium sulfite powder or extracted from food samples, are presumed to be unbound SO3-2 in aqueous 0.2 N NaOH (pH > 13), because the bound sulfites in the sample matrix are released at pH > 10. In this study, sulfites in the standard solutions were stable at room temperature (i.e., 15-25 degrees C) for up to 12 days. The lowest standard of the linear calibration curve is set at 1.59 microg/mL SO3-2 (equivalent to 6.36 microg/g sample with no dilution) for analysis of processed dried fruits that would contain high levels (>1000 microg/g) of sulfites. As a consequence, this method typically requires significant dilution of the sample extract. Samples are prepared with a simple procedure of sample compositing, extraction with aqueous 0.2 N NaOH, centrifugation, dilution as needed, and filtration prior to IC. The sulfites in these sample extracts are stable at room temperature for up to 20 h. Using anion IC, the sulfites are eluted under isocratic conditions with 10 mM aqueous sodium carbonate solution as the mobile phase passing through an anion exchange column. The sulfites are easily separated, with an analysis run time of 18 min, regardless of the dried fruit matrix. Recoveries from samples spiked with sodium sulfites were demonstrated to be between 81 and 105% for five different fruit matrixes (apricot, golden grape, white peach, fig, and mango). Overall, this method is simple to perform and effective for the determination of high levels of sulfites in dried fruits. PMID:24282955

Liao, Benjamin S; Sram, Jacqueline C; Files, Darin J

2013-01-01

99

Time measurement-visual analysis of L-cysteine using the autocatalytic sodium sulfite/hydrogen peroxide reaction system and its application to length detection-flow analysis.  

PubMed

Trace amounts of L-cysteine can function as a trigger, i.e., reaction initiator, in the autocatalytic sodium sulfite/hydrogen peroxide reaction system. Rapidly changing of pH after induction time is visually confirmed by color changing of bromothymol blue in this autocatalytic reaction. Based on this finding, microg L(-1) levels of L-cysteine were measured over time using the autocatalytic reaction system. The determination range using the above method was 5.0 x 10(-8)-2.5 x 10(-6)M, the detection limit (3 sigma) was 1.8 x 10(-8)M (1.94 microg L(-1)), and the relative standard deviation was 2.41% at an l-cysteine concentration of 5 x 10(-7)M (n=5). This method was also applied to length detection-flow injection analysis. The determination range for the flow injection analysis was 2.0 x 10(-7)-1.0 x 10(-5)M. The detection limit (3 sigma) was 1.4 x 10(-7)M (17.0 microg L(-1)), and the relative standard deviation was 0.91% at an initial L-cysteine concentration of 10(-6)M (n=5). PMID:19615525

Kato, Jun; Chiba, Michihito; Igarashi, Shukuro

2009-09-15

100

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298.15 K  

SciTech Connect

New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l_brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r_brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rard, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1991-07-01

101

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298. 15 K  

SciTech Connect

New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Rard, J.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1991-07-01

102

Prevention of sodium lauryl sulfate irritant contact dermatitis by Pro-Q aerosol foam skin protectant.  

PubMed

Eczematous skin disease is a serious work-related illness. Since 1995, reimbursement by insurance companies for treatment of skin diseases has become the largest cost source in some countries. This study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 20) of the efficacy of Pro-Q, a skin protectant product, in the prevention of contact dermatitis from sodium lauryl sulfate and urushiol, the resinous sap of poison ivy and poison oak. Pro-Q was significantly effective in reducing the irritation from sodium lauryl sulfate but did not prevent the allergic reaction to urushiol. PMID:10321615

Patterson, S E; Williams, J V; Marks, J G

1999-05-01

103

Molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles with intrinsic sulfite oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Sulfite oxidase is a mitochondria-located molybdenum-containing enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate in the amino acid and lipid metabolism. Therefore, it plays a major role in detoxification processes, where defects in the enzyme cause a severe infant disease leading to early death with no efficient or cost-effective therapy in sight. Here we report that molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanoparticles display an intrinsic biomimetic sulfite oxidase activity under physiological conditions, and, functionalized with a customized bifunctional ligand containing dopamine as anchor group and triphenylphosphonium ion as targeting agent, they selectively target the mitochondria while being highly dispersible in aqueous solutions. Chemically induced sulfite oxidase knockdown cells treated with MoO3 nanoparticles recovered their sulfite oxidase activity in vitro, which makes MoO3 nanoparticles a potential therapeutic for sulfite oxidase deficiency and opens new avenues for cost-effective therapies for gene-induced deficiencies. PMID:24702461

Ragg, Ruben; Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Janssen, Henning; Kashyap, Anubha; Strand, Dennis; Strand, Susanne; Tremel, Wolfgang

2014-05-27

104

Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on the deposition of alkali-soluble fluoride on enamel in vitro.  

PubMed

There are indications that sodium lauryl sulfate may reduce the cariostatic effect of fluoride when present together with sodium monofluorophosphate during topical application. The aim of the present study was to examine the in vitro deposition of alkali soluble fluoride on enamel during topical application with sodium fluoride in combination with sodium lauryl sulfate. It was found that increasing amounts of lauryl sulfate decreased the amount of alkali soluble fluoride deposited on the enamel. The amount of fluoride deposited from toothpaste supernatants was less than that from aqueous solutions of NaF with the same concentration of fluoride. Enamel pieces, pretreated with sodium lauryl sulfate showed a reduced deposition of alkali-soluble fluoride after incubation in a fluoride solution. It was also observed that the presence of lauryl sulfate increased the solubility of CaF2 in water. PMID:3163519

Barkvoll, P; Rølla, G; Lagerlöf, F

1988-01-01

105

Sodium Sulfate Corrosion of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Calcium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hot corrosion effects of Sodium Sulfate (NaSO4) coated Calcium Aluminosilicate (CAS)/Silicon Carbide (SiC) reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and X-r...

P. J. Newton

1994-01-01

106

DETERMINATION OF SURFACTANT SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULFATE BY ION PAIRING CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY DETECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. CS-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. The main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)....

107

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate-Induced Irritation in the Human Face: Regional and Age-Related Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particular sensitivity of the human face to care products prompted us to study irritation induced by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) in its various regions. We examined regional and age-related differences, correlating basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and capacitance to SLS irritation. SLS (2% aq.) was applied under occlusion for 1 h to the forehead, cheek, nose, nasolabial and perioral

S. Marrakchi; H. I. Maibach

2006-01-01

108

A Comparison Study of Nonanoic Acid and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in Skin Irritation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cutaneous response to irritants can be influenced by various factors including the characteristic of irritants, the mode of exposure, environmental and host-related factors. It has been suggested that irritants can be divided into two types: corrosive and noncorrosive. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) has been considered as a typical corrosive irritant and nonanoic acid (NAA) an example of a noncorrosive

Cheol Heon Lee; Hyun Wook Kim; Hee Jin Han; Chun Wook Park

2004-01-01

109

Sodium Sulfate Corrosion of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Lithium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium sulfate hot corrosion of a SiC fiber-reinforced lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass-ceramic matrix composite was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Changes in the microstructural chemical composition of th...

L. C. Maldia

1993-01-01

110

Full-Scale Implementation of the Sodium Sulfide/Ferrous Sulfate Treatment Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Phase I, jar and dynamic testing showed that the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process was a viable method for reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from the Tinker AFB industrial wastewater with a significant decrease in sludge produ...

J. M. Beller G. S. Carpenter R. E. McAtee P. A. Pryfogle D. F. Suciu

1989-01-01

111

Cytokine release and cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts induced by phenols and sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds used in pharmaceutical and industrial products can cause irritant contact dermatitis. We studied the effects of resorcinol, phenol, 3,5-xylenol, chloroxylenol, and 4-hexyl-resorcinol on normal human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts for cytotoxicity and cytokine release, determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide methodology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. An inverse correlation between phenol concentrations causing a 50% reduction in keratinocyte and fibroblast viability at 24 h and their octanol water-partition coefficients (i.e., hydrophobicity) was observed. 3,5-xylenol, chloroxylenol, hexyl-resorcinol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but not resorcinol or phenol, induced release of interleukin-1alpha from keratinocytes at cytotoxic concentrations. Variable release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8 from keratinocytes occurred only at toxic threshold concentrations of the phenols or sodium dodecyl sulfate. Subtoxic concentrations of phenols or sodium dodecyl sulfate did not induce cytokine release from keratinocytes. Neither the phenols nor sodium dodecyl sulfate induced release of the chemokines interleukin-8, growth-related oncogene-alpha or monocyte chemotactic protein-1 from fibroblasts. Conditioned media from keratinocytes treated with cytotoxic concentrations of 3,5-xylenol, chloroxylenol, hexyl-resorcinol, or sodium dodecyl sulfate stimulated further release of the chemokines from fibroblasts above that obtained with control media. Rabbit anti-interleukin-1alpha serum inhibited keratinocyte-conditioned media induction of chemokine release. We have shown a structure-cytotoxicity relationship for a series of phenols as well as an association of interleukin-1alpha release with a cytotoxic effect. We demonstrated a cytokine cascade amplification step by the actions of stimulated keratinocyte media on cultured dermal fibroblasts, identifying interleukin-1alpha as the principal initiator of chemokine synthesis. PMID:10951249

Newby, C S; Barr, R M; Greaves, M W; Mallet, A I

2000-08-01

112

[Drying ability of anhydrous sodium sulfate on wet organic solvents after liquid-liquid partition].  

PubMed

Water concentration in organic solvents after liquid-liquid partition was determined by the Karl Fischer titration method. n-Hexane and petroleum ether showed quite low levels of water, such as 0.1 mg/mL. The water concentration in wet ethyl acetate was about 20-30 mg/mL and that in diethyl ether was about 8-10 mg/mL. Anhydrous sodium sulfate absorbed about 20-25% of the water after vigorous mixing with wet ethyl acetate or diethyl ether. Wet acetonitrile extract from wet food, which contained about 60 mg/mL water after salting out with sodium chloride, was not dried at all with anhyfrous sodium sulfate treatment. Spiking n-hexane into wet ethyl acetate or wet diethyl ether was effective to exclude water. Spiking toluene into salted acetonitrile drove out water and dissolved sodium chloride. It can be concluded that the drying ability of anhydrous sodium sulfate towards wet organic solvents is poor, but it is effective in removing suspended water in solvents. PMID:11486383

Obana, H; Okihashi, M; Akutsu, K; Taguchi, S; Hori, S

2001-04-01

113

The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (<5 mum). Complex phase assemblages including gypsum, ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

Clark, Boyd Arthur

114

Sulfate Flux in High Sodium Cat Red Cells  

PubMed Central

The transport of radioactive sulfate in cat red cells has been studied. The rate constant for 35SO4 inward movement under steady-state conditions is 0.24 ± 0.02/hr. This movement was found to be sensitive to osmotic changes in cell volume and to the nature of anions in the incubation medium; it increases with increasing cell volume and decreases with decreasing cell volume. The anions SCN, NO3, and I were found to inhibit the uptake of 35SO4. Furthermore, 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene at a concentration of 1 mM inhibits (>90%) this uptake. The inward movement of erythritol-14C shows qualitatively the same dependence on cell volume as 35SO4, but it is insensitive to the nature of the anion present in the bathing medium. It was also found that the usually observed inhibition of radioactive Na uptake by SCN in cat red cells can be reversed when cell volume is increased.

Sha'afi, R. I.; Pascoe, E.

1972-01-01

115

Sulfate flux in high sodium cat red cells.  

PubMed

The transport of radioactive sulfate in cat red cells has been studied. The rate constant for (35)SO(4) inward movement under steady-state conditions is 0.24 +/- 0.02/hr. This movement was found to be sensitive to osmotic changes in cell volume and to the nature of anions in the incubation medium; it increases with increasing cell volume and decreases with decreasing cell volume. The anions SCN, NO(3), and I were found to inhibit the uptake of (35)SO(4). Furthermore, 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene at a concentration of 1 mM inhibits (>90%) this uptake. The inward movement of erythritol-(14)C shows qualitatively the same dependence on cell volume as (35)SO(4), but it is insensitive to the nature of the anion present in the bathing medium. It was also found that the usually observed inhibition of radioactive Na uptake by SCN in cat red cells can be reversed when cell volume is increased. PMID:5058472

Sha'afi, R I; Pascoe, E

1972-02-01

116

Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack. 3: Sulfate-resisting Portland cement -- Reactions with sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions  

SciTech Connect

Cubes of a sulfate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) paste that had been stored for 6 months in solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or MgSO{sub 4} were examined by scanning electron microscopy using backscattered electron imaging and X-ray microanalysis. The changes observed were broadly similar to those which the authors have found with a normal Portland cement (PC), but cracking and loss of material were less marked, less ettringite was formed, and decalcification of the C-S-H was much reduced. At with the PC gypsum was formed, both in veins and mixed with the C-S-H. The differences are attributed to the low content of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the hydration products of the SRPC, and to the fact that some of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is already present as ettringite. The decreased formation of ettringite and decreased decalcification of the C-S-H in the SRPC together explain the superior resistance to sulfate attack.

Gollop, R.S.; Taylor, H.F.W. [Blue Circle Industries PLC, Kent (United Kingdom)] [Blue Circle Industries PLC, Kent (United Kingdom)

1995-10-01

117

Reaction cycle of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus.  

PubMed

A vital process in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway in which sulfate (SO??²) is converted to hydrogen sulfide (H?S). Dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dSir), its key enzyme, hosts a unique siroheme-[4Fe-4S] cofactor and catalyzes the six-electron reduction of sulfite (SO?²?) to H?S. To explore this reaction, we determined the X-ray structures of dSir from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus in complex with sulfite, sulfide (S²?) carbon monoxide (CO), cyanide (CN?), nitrite (NO??), nitrate (NO??), and phosphate (PO?³?). Activity measurements indicated that dSir of A. fulgidus reduces, besides sulfite and nitrite, thiosulfate (S?O?²?) and trithionate (S?O?²?) and produces the latter two compounds besides sulfide. On this basis, a three-step mechanism was proposed, each step consisting of a two-electron transfer, a two-proton uptake, and a dehydration event. In comparison, the related active site structures of the assimilatory sulfite reductase (aSir)- and dSir-SO?²?complexes reveal different conformations of Arg?170 and Lys?211 both interacting with the sulfite oxygens (its sulfur atom coordinates the siroheme iron), a sulfite rotation of ~60° relative to each other, and different access of solvent molecules to the sulfite oxygens from the active site cleft. Therefore, solely in dSir a further sulfite molecule can be placed in van der Waals contact with the siroheme-ligated sulfite or sulfur-oxygen intermediates necessary for forming thiosulfate and trithionate. Although reported for dSir from several sulfate-reducing bacteria, the in vivo relevance of their formation is questionable. PMID:20822098

Parey, Kristian; Warkentin, Eberhard; Kroneck, Peter M H; Ermler, Ulrich

2010-10-19

118

Water soluble sodium sulfate nanorods as a versatile template for the designing of copper sulfide nanotubes.  

PubMed

The present study reports the use of water soluble sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) nanorods as a versatile template for generation of tubular copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures. The Na2SO4 nanorods were synthesized from ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), under refluxing condition. The shape and morphology control of the Na2SO4 nanorods were studied with respect to nature of surfactant used and reactant mole ratio. While, PVP mole ratio was important to obtain homogeneous nanorods. Uniform and stable nanotubes of CuS were than obtained by the dissolution of the nanorods in water. The use of simple chemicals for synthesis of such nanotube templates opens the prospect for wide scale downstream applications. PMID:24738412

Das, Gautam; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Karak, Niranjan; Yoon, Young Soo

2014-06-01

119

Reactions in microemulsion formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and hexanol  

SciTech Connect

The reactions, oxidation of iodide by persulfate and basic hydrolysis of crystal violet, were investigated in the w/o microemulsion formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and hexanol. The second order rate constants were measured as a function of emulsion formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and hexanol. The second order rate constants were measured as a function of water to surfactant molar ratio and hexanol content. The increased rates were attributed to the smaller droplet size of the water pools. The rates are shown to be controlled by the water content as well as the hexanol content. It is shown that the manner in which the rate is affected applies to the catalyzed as well as the retarded reactions. This system is shown to be more effective than the AOT/water/decane system.

Valaulikar, B.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.)

1993-11-01

120

Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex\\u000a and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all\\u000a of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced\\u000a colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety

Lee Koetzner; Gary Grover; Jamie Boulet; Henry I. Jacoby

2010-01-01

121

Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formu- lations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term

Lee Koetzner; Gary Grover; Jamie Boulet; Henry I. Jacoby

2009-01-01

122

Changes in phosphatidylcholine liposomes caused by a mixture of Triton X-100 and sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms governing the interaction of equimolecular mixtures of Triton X-100 (TX-100) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with phosphatidylcholine liposomes were investigated. Permeability alterations were determined as a change in 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein released from the interior of vesicles and bilayer solubilization as a decrease in the static light-scattered by liposome suspensions. At subsolubilizing level, a maximum bilayer\\/water partitioning of surfactant mixture

Alfonso de la Maza; Jose Luis Parra

1996-01-01

123

1H NMR Study of Mixed Micellization of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Triton X-100  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (2D NOESY), 1H NMR chemical shift, and spin–lattice and spin–spin relaxation measurements of aqueous solution of various molar ratios of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to Triton X-100 (TX-100) from 0.27 to 8.0 give some detailed structure of the mixed micelles formed. The appearance of cross peaks between the protons of SDS and those of

Tian-Zhi Wang; Shi-Zhen Mao; Xia-Jia Miao; Sui Zhao; Jia-Yong Yu; You-Ru Du

2001-01-01

124

Microparticle formation of sodium cellulose sulfate using supercritical fluid assisted atomization introduced by hydrodynamic cavitation mixer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel micronization technique so-called supercritical fluid assisted atomization introduced by hydrodynamic cavitation mixer (SAA-HCM) was used to produce the sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) microparticles with well-defined spherical morphologies and controlled particle size distributions in aqueous solution. The process parameters such as mixer temperature and pressure, the mass flow ratio, precipitator temperature, solution concentration and the molecular weight of NaCS

Qi Wang; Yi-Xin Guan; Shan-Jing Yao; Zi-Qiang Zhu

2010-01-01

125

Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the characteristics of bovine serum albumin solutions and foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from surface tension measurements on mixed solutions of the protein bovine serum alburnin (BSA) and an anionic surfactant\\u000a (SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate) suggested that at an air-liquid interface, adsorption was affected by the protein-surfactant\\u000a interaction and by the relative concentration of each component in solution. Two plateaus corresponding to the critical aggregation\\u000a concentration (CAC) and the critical micelle concentration

Xiaofang Wei; Zhidong Chang; Huizhou Liu

2003-01-01

126

Structural transformations in a water- n -octane + chloroform-sodium dodecyl sulfate- n -pentanol microemulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductivity, viscosity, and water and oil solubilization are measured, and the parameter of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance\\u000a is calculated for stable water-n-octane + chloroform-n-pentanol-sodium dodecyl sulfate microemulsions (Winsor Type IV system) at a water content of 2.5–56 vol %. Domains of the\\u000a most probable existence of globular and bicontinuous structures and the boundaries of the transitions between the following\\u000a states of the

A. V. Sineva; D. S. Ermolat’ev; A. V. Pertsov

2007-01-01

127

Knock-Out of ?-Glucosidase 2 Has No Influence on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase, ?-glucosidase (Gba2), hydrolyzes glucosylceramide to glucose and ceramide (Cer). Cer is a potent second-messenger lipid that plays an important role in signaling cascades involved in apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Gba2 knock-out (Gba2–\\/–) affects the extent of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methods: Acute colitis was induced in wild-type

Michael Scharl; Katharina Leucht; Isabelle Frey-Wagner; Jonas Zeitz; Martin Hausmann; Anne Fischbeck; Gerhard Liebisch; Silvia Kellermeier; Theresa Pesch; Joba Arikkat; Gerd Schmitz; Michael Fried; Yildiz Yildiz; Gerhard Rogler

2011-01-01

128

ETTRINGITE FORMATION IN LOW C 3A PORTLAND CEMENT EXPOSED TO SODIUM SULFATE SOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four low-C3A Portland cements with different C3S content (40 to 74%) were stored for two years in sodium sulfate solution. Expansion and flexural strength were monitored as mechanical properties, while the microstructural changes were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy using X-ray microanalysis. For this cement type, the alteration processes can be described by three stages: induction, gypsum

M. A. González; E. F. Irassar

1997-01-01

129

Curcumin Prevents the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)Induced Experimental Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcumin is a phenolic natural product isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric). We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental\\u000a colitis. BALB\\/c mice were fed a chow containing either 3.5% (wt\\/wt) DSS or 3.5% DSS + 2.0% (wt\\/wt) curcumin. The body weight\\u000a loss was more apparent in DSS-treated mice than in

Yasuyuki Deguchi; Akira Andoh; Osamu Inatomi; Yuhki Yagi; Shigeki Bamba; Yoshio Araki; Kazunori Hata; Tomoyuki Tsujikawa; Yoshihide Fujiyama

2007-01-01

130

Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to

Jianzhong Xia; A. P. S. Kamps; Bernd Rumpf; Gerd Maurer

2000-01-01

131

Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa  

SciTech Connect

New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

2000-04-01

132

Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count.

Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie

2009-01-01

133

Plant-derived polysaccharide supplements inhibit dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in the rat.  

PubMed

Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count. PMID:19513840

Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie; Jacoby, Henry I

2010-05-01

134

Nucleation of sodium sulfate heptahydrate on mineral substrates studied by nuclear magnetic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous building materials are very susceptible to the aggressive action of salts, sodium sulfate being one of the most damaging. Laboratory and field experiments show that the intensity of damage depends on the structure of the porous material, as well as the type and amount of salt. In this paper we investigate the nucleation process of sodium sulfate on two kinds of substrates: calcite and quartz particles, the main components of calcitic and quartzitic stones, respectively, to assess the influence of the substrate chemistry on the crystalline phase being formed and on the nucleation process. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is used to investigate the cooling-induced crystallization of sodium sulfate in mixtures of solution with different amounts of substrate particles. Temperature and concentration are measured by NMR and used to calculate the crystallization rate. The phase that precipitates is the metastable heptahydrate. Our experiments show that nucleation is energetically more favorable on a calcitic substrate; that is, the required supersaturation is lower than on the quartzitic substrate. Under isothermal conditions, the precipitation rate is faster in the presence of calcite than quartz.

Saidov, Tamerlan A.; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M.; Pel, Leo; Scherer, George W.

2012-01-01

135

Nature of electronic states and optical functions of sodium oxyanionic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The band structure, the density of states, the partial electron densities, and optical functions (such as permittivity, refraction index, reflection and absorption coefficients) of sodium nitrite, nitrate, carbonate, chlorate, sulfite, perchlorate, and sulfate are calculated in a local approximation of the density-functional theory using the Troullier-Martins pseudopotentials in the basis of numerical pseudoatomic orbitals. The nature of the upper valence

Yu. N. Zhuravlev; D. V. Korabel'Nikov

2009-01-01

136

Isolation of Assimilatory- and Dissimilatory-Type Sulfite Reductases from Desulfovibrio vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Bisulfite reductase (desulfoviridin) and an assimilatory sulfite reductase have been purified from extracts of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The bisulfite reductase has absorption maxima at 628, 580, 408, 390, and 279 nm, and a molecular weight of 226,000 by sedimentation equilibrium, and was judged to be free of other proteins by disk electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. On gels, purified bisulfite reductase exhibited two green bands which coincided with activity and protein. The enzyme appears to be a tetramer but was shown to have two different types of subunits having molecular weights of 42,000 and 50,000. The chromophore did not form an alkaline ferrohemochromogen, was not reduced with dithionite or borohydride, and did not form a spectrally visible complex with CO. The assimilatory sulfite reductase has absorption maxima at 590, 545, 405 and 275 nm and a molecular weight of 26,800, and appears to consist of a single polypeptide chain as it is not dissociated into subunits by sodium dodecyl sulfate. By disk electrophoresis, purified sulfite reductase exhibited a single greenish-brown band which coincided with activity and protein. The sole product of the reduction was sulfide, and the chromophore was reduced by borohydride in the presence of sulfite. Carbon monoxide reacted with the reduced chromophore but it did not form a typical pyridine ferrohemochromogen. Thiosulfate, trithionate, and tetrathionate were not reduced by either enzyme preparation. In the presence of 8 M urea, the spectrum of bisulfite reductase resembles that of the sulfite reductase, thus suggesting a chemical relationship between the two chromophores. Images

Lee, Jin-Po; LeGall, Jean; Peck, Harry D.

1973-01-01

137

Sulfonates as Terminal Electron Acceptors for Growth of Sulfite-Reducing Bacteria (Desulfitobacterium spp.) and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Effects of Inhibitors of Sulfidogenesis  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates the ability of Desulfitobacterium spp. to utilize aliphatic sulfonates as terminal electron acceptors (TEA) for growth. Isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) reduction by Desulfitobacterium hafniense resulted in acetate as well as sulfide accumulation in accordance with the expectation that the carbon portion of isethionate was oxidized to acetate and the sulfur was reduced to sulfide. The presence of a polypeptide, approximately 97 kDa, was evident in isethionate-grown cells of Desulfitobacterium hafniense, Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE 1, and the two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)—Desulfovibrio desulfuricans IC1 (T. J. Lie, J. R. Leadbetter, and E. R. Leadbetter, Geomicrobiol. J. 15:135–149, 1998) and Desulfomicrobium norvegicum; this polypeptide was not detected when these bacteria were grown on TEA other than isethionate, suggesting involvement in its metabolism. The sulfate analogs molybdate and tungstate, effective in inhibiting sulfate reduction by SRB, were examined for their effects on sulfonate reduction. Molybdate effectively inhibited sulfonate reduction by strain IC1 and selectively inhibited isethionate (but not cysteate) reduction by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans and Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE 1. Desulfitobacterium hafniense, however, grew with both isethionate and cysteate in the presence of molybdate. In contrast, tungstate only partially inhibited sulfonate reduction by both SRB and Desulfitobacterium spp. Similarly, another inhibitor of sulfate reduction, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, effectively inhibited sulfate reduction by SRB but only partially inhibited sulfonate reduction by both SRB and Desulfitobacterium hafniense.

Lie, Thomas J.; Godchaux, Walter; Leadbetter, Edward R.

1999-01-01

138

Development and validation of a photometric titration method for the quantitation of sodium chondroitin sulfate (bovine) in Cosequin® DS chewable tablet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photometric titration method was developed and validated to quantitate sodium chondroitin sulfate in raw materials and Cosequin® DS chewable tablet11Cosequin® DS chewable tablet contains glucosamine HCl, sodium chondroitin sulfate, manganese ascorbate, and flavoring agents.. About 0.1% (w\\/v) cetylpyridinium chloride was used to titrate sodium chondroitin sulfate with photometric indication at wavelengh 420 nm. The standard curves for sodium chondroitin

Zhongming Liang; Corrine Bonneville; Terrin Senez; Todd Henderson

2002-01-01

139

Magnesium sulfate and sodium valproate block methylphenidate-induced hyperlocomotion, an animal model of mania.  

PubMed

Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used to treat and prevent eclamptic seizures, and several anticonvulsant drugs (e.g., sodium valproate) are clinically effective antimanic drugs. Psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion has been proposed as an animal model for the study of antimanic drugs. The present study evaluated the effects of MgSO4 and sodium valproate (as a positive control) on hyperlocomotion induced by methylphenidate in mice. Acute MgSO4 (300-400 mg/kg), but not sodium valproate (100-300 mg/kg), prevented the increase in locomotor activity induced by methylphenidate (5.0 mg/kg). In contrast, repeated treatment (14 days) with valproate (300 mg/kg), but not MgSO4 (400 mg/kg), blocked methylphenidate-induced hyperlocomotion. Thus, acute MgSO4 exerted antimanic-like effects in this animal model. PMID:21441612

Barbosa, Francisco J; Hesse, Bernardete; de Almeida, Rodrigo B; Baretta, Irinéia P; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli; Andreatini, Roberto

2011-01-01

140

Formation of Thiosulfate from Sulfite by Desulfovibrio vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Crude extracts of Desulfovibrio vulgaris reduced sulfite to sulfide. Ammonium sulfate fractionation of crude extracts separated a thiosulfate-forming system from sulfite- and thiosulfate-reductase activities. Further purification by sucrose density centrifugation separated the thiosulfate-forming system into two components, both of which were required for the reaction. In addition to these two components, cytochrome c3, ferredoxin, and hydrogenase were required to form thiosulfate from sulfite. By absorption spectra and from the effect of pH and substrate concentration, the ionic species acting as the substrate for thiosulfate-formation was concluded to be bisulfite.

Suh, Byungse; Akagi, J. M.

1969-01-01

141

The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite species and water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfite is an important sulfoxy intermediate in oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling in the marine and terrestrial environment. Different aqueous sulfite species exist, such as dissolved sulfur dioxide (SO2), bisulfite (HSO3-), pyrosulfite (S2O52-) and sulfite sensu stricto (SO32-), whereas their relative abundance in solution depends on the concentration and the pH. Conversion of one species into another is rapid and involves in many cases incorporation of oxygen from, or release of oxygen to, water (e.g. SO2 + H2O ? HSO3- + H+), resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite species and water. Consequently, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfite is strongly influenced by the oxygen isotope composition of water. Since sulfate does not exchange oxygen isotopes with water under most earth surface conditions, it can preserve the sulfite oxygen isotope signature that it inherits via oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling. Therefore, interpretation of ?O values strongly hinges on the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water which is poorly constrained. This is in large part due to technical difficulties in extraction of sulfite from solution for oxygen isotope analysis.

Müller, Inigo A.; Brunner, Benjamin; Breuer, Christian; Coleman, Max; Bach, Wolfgang

2013-11-01

142

Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation  

PubMed Central

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1.

Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

1993-01-01

143

Oral sodium phosphate versus sulfate-free polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution in outpatient preparation for colonoscopy: a prospective comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Biochemical abnormalities induced by oral sodium phosphate and the risk of cardiac arrhythmias as potential sequelae have yet to be investigated. Methods: We studied 98 outpatients scheduled to undergo diagnostic colonoscopy and prospectively randomized them to receive oral sodium phosphate or sulfate-free polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (SF-PEG-ELS) as recommended by the manufacturers. Results: Forty-nine patients received sodium phosphate

Wendell K. Clarkston; Tony N. Tsen; David F. Dies; C. Lynn Schratz; Surender K. Vaswani; Preben Bjerregaard

1996-01-01

144

The mechanism for the stability of graphene oxide membranes in a sodium sulfate solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of graphene oxide (GO) membranes in a sodium sulfate aqueous solution is reported. The mechanism for the stability was interpreted with the assistance of molecular dynamic (MD) simulations as follows: GO disperses uniformly in water because it is hydrated. However, the hydration of GO is weakened when Na2SO4 is present because the Na+ and SO42- ions are preferentially hydrated over GO. Thus the movement of GO in the Na2SO4 solution becomes restricted and it is difficult for the GO in a GO membrane to uniformly disperse in a Na2SO4 solution even with ultrasonic treatment.

Sun, Shuai; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming; Li, Mingwei

2013-03-01

145

Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersive ZnO nanoparticles with a primary particle size of about 70 nm and an average agglomerate size of about 2.0 ?m were\\u000a synthesized via the precipitation-thermal decomposition route using ZnSO4 and Na2CO3 as the reactants and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surface modification agent. The presence of minor amounts of SDS\\u000a in the formation of hydrozicite (Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6) precursor changed the agglomeration

Li-Zhao Zhang; Lan Xiang

2011-01-01

146

Standard state thermodynamic properties of completely ionized aqueous sodium sulfate using high dilution calorimetry up to 598.15 K.  

PubMed

Pabalan and Pitzer (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1988, 52, 2393-2404) reported a comprehensive set of thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate without using ion association or hydrolysis. However, there is now ample evidence available indicating that the ion association cannot be ignored at temperatures T>or=373 K. For example, even at the lowest concentration of their studies (m>or=0.05) and at 573.15 K, less than 20% of SO4(2-)(aq) is available as free ions. In the present study, the integral heats of solution of sodium sulfate were measured to very low concentrations (10(-4) m) up to 573.16 K. The data were analyzed correcting for the hydrolysis of SO4(2-)(aq) and the association of Na+(aq) with SO4(2-)(aq) and NaSO4-(aq) in order to obtain the final standard state thermodynamic properties of completely ionized aqueous sodium sulfate, Na2SO4(aq). From these and the available solubility data, the stoichiometric activity coefficients of saturated aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate were calculated up to 573.15 K and compared with literature data. The stoichiometric activity coefficients of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate, as a function of temperature at all concentrations (0

Djamali, Essmaiil; Chen, Keith; Cobble, James W

2009-08-27

147

Calcium effect on the solubility of sodium dodecyl sulfate in sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

Interactions between calcium ions and anionic surfactants have recently attracted increased interest, particularly because of the development of enhanced oil recovery through the use of micellar solutions. The brine in crude oil reservoirs always contains a certain amount of polyvalent ions, especially calcium ions, which have pronounced effects on the properties of micellar solutions, varying with electrolyte concentration and surfactant type. To date, the surfactants most often used are anionic. Precipitation of anionic surfactants with calcium ions was investigated. It was found that surfactant precipitation is governed by a given mechanism when the supernatant liquid is a micellar solution, and by another when it is not. This work discusses the results of a series of experiments which indicate that this difference is a function of sodium chloride concentration. 10 references.

Baviere, M.; Bazin, B.; Aude, R.

1983-04-01

148

Involvement of lymphocytes in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the roles of lymphocytes in the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. METHODS: Using various doses of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we induced colitis in wild-type B6 control and Rag-1 knockout (H-2b haplotype) mice, and evaluated the colitis in terms of symptomatic and histologic parameters, such as weight loss, survival, severity of diarrhea, shortage of colon length and histological changes. Symptomatic parameters were checked daily and histological changes were scored. RESULTS: Although development of colitis in Rag-1 knockout mice treated with high dose (5%) of DSS was comparable to that in B6 control mice, colitis progression was much more tolerable in Rag-1 knockout mice compared to than in B6 mice treated with low dose (1.5%) DSS. Symptomatic parameters as well as histopathologic changes were improved in Rag-1 knockout mice. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the presence of lymphocytes contributes to colitis progression at low dose of DSS stimulation. Lymphocytes may play roles as an aggravating factor in DSS-induced colitis.

Kim, Tae Woon; Seo, Jae Nam; Suh, Young Ho; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Kwon Ik

2006-01-01

149

Deliquescence and crystallization of ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the following, we report the deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and crystallization relative humidities (CRH) of mixed inorganic-organic particles, specifically ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles. Knowledge of the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic particles is crucial for predicting the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Our DRH results are in good agreement with previous measurements, but our CRH results are significantly lower than some of the previous measurements reported in the literature. Our studies show that the DRH and CRH of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride only decreased slightly when the mole fraction of the acid was less than 0.4. If other organics in the atmosphere behave in a similar manner, then the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic atmospheric particles will only be slightly less than the DRH and CRH of pure inorganic particles when the organic mole fraction is less than 0.4. Our results also show that if the particles contain a significant amount of organics (mole fraction > 0.5) the crystallization relative humidity decreases significantly and the particles are more likely to remain in the liquid state. Further work is needed to determine if other organics species of atmospheric importance have a similar effect.

Pant, Atul; Fok, Abel; Parsons, Matthew T.; Mak, Jackson; Bertram, Allan K.

2004-06-01

150

Dextran sulfate sodium induces pan-gastroenteritis in rodents: implications for studies of colitis.  

PubMed

Dextran sulfate sodium is widely used to induce colitis in rodents. Though given orally in drinking water, this agent is widely believed to produce injury through direct toxic effects on the epithelium, and it has been assumed to produce damage and inflammation only in the colon. Given the apparent toxic effects of dextran sodium sulfate on epithelial cells, its administration orally, and the anticoagulant properties of this agent, we hypothesized that significant damage and inflammation would be produced in regions of the digestive tract proximal to the colon. Groups of rats or mice received DSS (5%) in the drinking water for up to 7 days. Tissues were harvested at various time-points for blind evaluation of damage, and measurement of several markers of inflammation. In both rats and mice given DSS, significant damage and inflammation was produced in the stomach, small intestine and colon. Significant granulocyte infiltration was apparent in all tissues by day 3 of DSS ingestion. Bleeding was evident throughout the small intestine and colon. These studies clearly demonstrate that DSS, when administered orally in drinking water, produces a pan-gastroenteritis, rather than the damage and inflammation being limited to the colon. The damage and inflammation in the stomach and small intestine could contribute to changes in body weight, stool consistency and bleeding, all of which are commonly used as indices of severity of colitis. Beneficial or detrimental effects of therapeutic interventions could be attributable, at least in part, to modulation of injury and inflammation proximal to the colon. PMID:23211300

Elsheikh, W; Flannigan, K L; McKnight, W; Ferraz, J G P; Wallace, J L

2012-10-01

151

Evidence for sulfite induced oxidative reductive depolymerisation of starch polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of low levels of sodium sulfite on the viscosity of 0.90 g\\/100 mL dispersions of wheat and potato starch pasted at 95 °C has been studied. It is shown that, if pasting is carried out in 0.01 g\\/100 mL sulfite, the viscosity of the starch following solubilisation in 0.5 M KOH is lower than a control pasted in

Lorna Paterson; John R. Mitchell; Sandra E. Hill; John M. V. Blanshard

1996-01-01

152

Theoretical and experimental studies of the spin trapping of inorganic radicals by 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). 3. Sulfur dioxide, sulfite, and sulfate radical anions.  

PubMed

Radical forms of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), sulfite (SO(3)(2-)), sulfate (SO(4)(2-)), and their conjugate acids are known to be generated in vivo through various chemical and biochemical pathways. Oxides of sulfur are environmentally pervasive compounds and are associated with a number of health problems. There is growing evidence that their toxicity may be mediated by their radical forms. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping using the commonly used spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), has been employed in the detection of SO(3)(•-) and SO(4)(•-). The thermochemistries of SO(2)(•-), SO(3)(•-), SO(4)(•-), and their respective conjugate acids addition to DMPO were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level. No spin adduct was observed for SO(2)(•-) by EPR, but an S-centered adduct was observed for SO(3)(•-)and an O-centered adduct for SO(4)(•-). Determination of adducts as S- or O-centered was made via comparison based on qualitative trends of experimental hfcc's with theoretical values. The thermodynamics of the nonradical addition of SO(3)(2-) and HSO(3)(-) to DMPO followed by conversion to the corresponding radical adduct via the Forrester-Hepburn mechanism was also calculated. Adduct acidities and decomposition pathways were investigated as well, including an EPR experiment using H(2)(17)O to determine the site of hydrolysis of O-centered adducts. The mode of radical addition to DMPO is predicted to be governed by several factors, including spin population density, and geometries stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The thermodynamic data supports evidence for the radical addition pathway over the nucleophilic addition mechanism. PMID:22668066

Zamora, Pedro L; Villamena, Frederick A

2012-07-01

153

X-ray absorption spectroscopy of chicken sulfite oxidase crystals  

SciTech Connect

Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Recently, the crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase has been reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. In contrast to the information available from previous X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies, the active site indicated by crystallography was a mono-oxo species. Because of this the possibility that the crystals did in fact contain a reduced molybdenum species was considered in the crystallographic work. The authors report herein an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of polycrystalline sulfite oxidase prepared in the same manner as the previous single-crystal samples, and compare this with data for frozen solutions of oxidized and reduced enzyme.

George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.; Kisker, C. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences] [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences

1999-05-17

154

Triple oxygen isotope determination of oxygen exchange between sulfite and water preceding the aqueous oxidation of sulfite (pH=1-10)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of sulfate isotope compositions to interpret past surface conditions has highlighted the importance of understanding sulfur redox pathways. Both O2 and H2O are known to contribute oxygen to sulfate produced from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds. The results from a set of our recent experiments pointed to sulfite as a key intermediate in controlling the ?18OSO4. Sulfite is produced as a sulfoxyanion intermediate during both dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) and sulfide oxidation. The importance of sulfite is directly linked to its ability to readily exchange oxygen with water, resulting in a partial or total resetting of the oxygen isotope ratio in sulfite. We propose that during the production of sulfate via sulfide oxidation under Earth surface conditions, sulfate oxygen isotope composition is determined by rate competition between Fe (III)-shuttling (resulting in H2O oxygen incorporation) and direct O2 oxidation during both sulfide-sulfite and sulfite-sulfate oxidation as well as the rate of sulfite-water exchange. These competing rates are in direct control of: 1) the degree of preservation of the oxygen sources preceding sulfite formation, 2) the final SO42—oxygen source ratio, and 3) the ?18OSO4. In order to construct a unified, quantitative model, many rate efficiencies and isotope fractionation factors have to be determined. In this study, we focus on the competition between the rate of sulfite-water oxygen exchange and the rate of sulfite to sulfate oxidation. We set up a series of 50 ml (short term) and 150 ml (long term) D.D. and ?17O-labeled, H2O reactors in which we introduced NaHSO3 to a concentration of 0.25 M at variable pH (1-10). Sulfate formed in solution and was collected and precipitated as BaSO4 at time intervals from 10 sec to 24hours (short term) or 1 to 21weeks (long term). The rates of sulfite-water oxygen exchange and sulfite to sulfate oxidation were quantitatively evaluated over the time range 10 sec to 21 weeks for the variable pH reactors, based on the introduction of a ?17O label into precipitated sulfate (BaSO4). The %H2OSO4 ranged from 6-75% during the time intervals investigated and was shown to increase with time in all cases. This data shows an increased incorporation of H2O oxygen (indicating a greater degree of exchange occurred prior to oxidation) in sulfate produced at high pH, which supports that sulfite oxidation rate is more sensitive to changing pH than exchange rate. In low pH conditions there is a greater chance of preserving the original oxygen isotope signal from the reactions preceding sulfite formation, which will allow for a better understanding of the mechanisms of oxidation involved in sulfate production under a variety of conditions and geologic time intervals. We have constrained the effect of sulfite exchange and oxidation rate competition within sulfur oxidizing systems as is reflected in the oxygen source ratio, and resultant isotope composition for produced sulfate. The same rate competition between sulfite exchange and multiple oxidation paths will also apply to atmospheric oxidation of reduced sulfur gasses, where a different set of oxidants (i.e. O3, H2O2, OH radical, and metal-catalyzed O2) are involved.

Kohl, I. E.; Bao, H.

2010-12-01

155

Oral sustained delivery of diclofenac sodium using calcium chondroitin sulfate matrix.  

PubMed

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a potential candidate for colon-specific drug carriers. However, the readily water-soluble nature limits its application as a solid-state drug-delivery vehicle. In this study, the CS formation of a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) with Ca2+ (CS-Ca) was adapted to retain CS in a solid form for use in a drug-delivery system. Pre-treated CS with poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (EX-810) followed by complexation with Ca2+ was also tested (CS-Ca-EX). Diclofenac sodium was used as a drug probe to evaluate the performance of the drug-release behavior of the complexes. The amount of diclofenac sodium released was higher in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) than in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) due to the anionic groups on CS or the higher solubility of drug itself in PBS. The release profile of diclofenac sodium from CS-Ca-EX was most notably sustained when compared to other groups. Enzymatic degradation by chondroitinase ABC of CS, CS-Ca and CS-Ca-EX exhibited a similar degradation mechanism and GPC revealed the dissolution rate of CS from the three matrix types was, in decreasing order: CS, CS-Ca, CS-Ca-EX. The synergy of the anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac sodium in CS-based complexes was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced edema rat test. The percentage of swelling was lower for all experimental groups as compared to the control, untreated group. The anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac in the CS matrix gradually increased up to 9 h but CS-Ca or CS-Ca-EX matrices showed less potency than the CS matrix in reducing inflammation. PMID:16268256

Tsai, Ming-Fung; Chiang, Ya-Ling; Wang, Li-Fang; Huang, Gao-Wei; Wu, Pao-Chu

2005-01-01

156

Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Ge Substrate: The Effect of a Low-Polarity Solvent  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules in a low polar solvent on Ge substrate by using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The maximum SDS amount adsorbed is (5.0 ± 0.3) × 1014 molecules cm?2 in CHCl3, while with the use of CCl4 as subphase the ability of SDS adsorbed is 48% lower. AFM images show that depositions are highly disordered over the interface, and it was possible to establish that the size of the SDS deposition is around 30–40 nm over the Ge surface. A complete description of the infrared spectroscopic bands for the head and tail groups in the SDS molecule is also provided.

Viana, Rommel B.; da Silva, Alberico B. F.; Pimentel, Andre S.

2012-01-01

157

Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate on ge substrate: the effect of a low-polarity solvent.  

PubMed

This paper describes the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules in a low polar solvent on Ge substrate by using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The maximum SDS amount adsorbed is (5.0 ± 0.3) × 10(14) molecules cm(-2) in CHCl(3), while with the use of CCl(4) as subphase the ability of SDS adsorbed is 48% lower. AFM images show that depositions are highly disordered over the interface, and it was possible to establish that the size of the SDS deposition is around 30-40 nm over the Ge surface. A complete description of the infrared spectroscopic bands for the head and tail groups in the SDS molecule is also provided. PMID:22942685

Viana, Rommel B; da Silva, Albérico B F; Pimentel, André S

2012-01-01

158

Phosphoprotein staining for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using fluorescent reagent morin hydrate.  

PubMed

A fluorescence-based stain with 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (morin hydrate, MH) was designed to stain phosphoproteins in one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Al(3+) was applied as a "fixed bridge," providing an efficient energy transfer channel between phosphoprotein and MH, to produce a strong fluorescent complex for the determination of phosphoprotein. As little as 62.5ng of ?-casein (7 or 8 phosphates) and ?-casein (5 phosphates), 125ng of ovalbumin (2 phosphates), and ?-casein (1 phosphate) could be visualized with a wide linear dynamic range. In comparison with conventional methods, MH stain is a time-saving method that takes just 90min. It also has good compatibility with routine protein stainings such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue R (CBBR) and SYPRO Ruby for total protein analysis. PMID:23274386

Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

2013-04-01

159

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material  

PubMed Central

Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h) and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week) by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability.

Li, Li; Molin, Soeren; Yang, Liang; Ndoni, Sokol

2013-01-01

160

Characterization of a Disordered Protein During Micellation: Interactions of ?-Synuclein with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

PubMed Central

To better understand the interaction of ?-Synuclein (?Syn) with lipid membranes, we carried out self-assembly molecular dynamics simulations of ?Syn with monomeric and micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a widely used membrane mimic. We find that both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces contribute to the interactions of ?Syn with SDS. In the presence of ?Syn, our simulations suggest that SDS aggregates along the protein chain and forms small size micelles at very early times. Aggregation is followed by formation of a collapsed protein-SDS micelle complex, which is consistent with experimental results. Finally, interaction of ?Syn with preformed micelles induces alterations in the shape of the micelle, and the N-terminal helix (residues 3 through 37) tends to associate with micelles. Overall, our simulations provide an atomistic description of the early timescale ?Syn-SDS interaction during the self-assembly of SDS into micelles.

Tian, Jianhui; Sethi, Anurag; Anunciado, Divina; Vu, Dung M.

2012-01-01

161

Heterogeneous freezing of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions by long chain alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High molecular weight organic compounds emitted during biomass burning can be transported to high altitudes where they may affect ice processes through heterogeneous nucleation. We show that freezing of solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride catalyzed by long chain alcohols is roughly consistent with the hypothesis that the water activity at the mean freezing temperature is a constant offset from the water activity at the melting point of the solution, though films of the longer chain alcohols may undergo structural changes at higher salt concentrations which cause a deviation from the constant offset. The heterogeneous nucleation rate coefficient, averaged over all solutions, alcohols, and droplet sizes is 6.0 × 104 +/- 4.0 × 104 cm-2 s-1, with no dependence on any of those parameters.

Cantrell, Will; Robinson, Carly

2006-04-01

162

Nonspecific Precipitation of Serum Proteins by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate in Agar Diffusion and Immunoelectrophoresis  

PubMed Central

The anionic detergent sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), in a final concentration of 0.1% and greater, reacted with whole serum in agar diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis to form artifactual precipitin lines. These lines occurred when either Ionagar or agarose was used as the supporting gel and were not affected by the presence of urea and 2-mercaptoethanol. Analytic chemical tests confirmed that the precipitating agent is SLS, and staining techniques showed that the detergent precipitates both protein and lipoprotein components of whole serum. Multiple artifactual precipitin lines occurred with a wide variety of animal sera, and a single line formed with human 7S immunoglobulin. Hence, in agar diffusion studies in which SLS is present in the test system, these artifactual lines may be easily misinterpreted as true antigen-antibody precipitin reactions. Images

Palmer, E. L.; Martin, M. L.; Hierholzer, J. C.; Ziegler, D. W.

1971-01-01

163

Improving the performance of starch-based wood adhesive by using sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to improve the performance of starch-based wood adhesive. The effects of SDS on shear strength, viscosity and storage stability were investigated. It was shown that, although the addition of 1.5-2% (dry starch basis) SDS resulted in a slight decrease in shear strength, the mobility and storage stability of adhesive were significantly enhanced. Possible mechanisms regarding specific action of SDS were discussed. It was proved, using blue value or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, that the amylose-SDS complexes were formed in the adhesive. The complex formation or simple adsorption of SDS with starch molecules might hinder the aggregation of latex particles, as shown by scanning electron microscopy images, and inhibit starch retrogradation, as observed by DSC analysis. As a result, in the presence of SDS, the adhesive had higher mobility and storage stability, indicating that SDS could be used to prepare starch-based wood adhesives with high performance. PMID:24274546

Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Hong, Yan; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka

2014-01-01

164

Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Thiobacillus ferrooxidans promote indirect oxidation of pyrite through the catalysis of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is an effective oxidant of pyrite. These bacteria also may catalyze direct oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage microorganisms. In this study, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

Onysko, S.J.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

1984-07-01

165

Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.  

PubMed

Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives. PMID:23923788

Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

2013-04-01

166

Inhibitory Effects of Bifidobacterium longum on Experimental Ulcerative Colitis Induced in Mice by Synthetic Dextran Sulfate Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The relationship between alterations in intestinal microflora and ulcerative colitis is still not clear. Whether improvement in bacterial populations might be a new strategy for prevention or treatment needs to be tested. Methods: Ulcerative colitis was induced in mice by oral administration of synthetic dextran sulfate sodium (molecular weight 54,000). Inhibitory effects of concomitant treatment with Bifidobacterium longum were

Mutsunori Fujiwara; Tsutomu Kaneko; Hirokazu Iwana; Naoki Taketomo; Hajime Tsunoo; Jun Kanno; Toshifumi Ohkusa; Isao Okayasu

2003-01-01

167

Sorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate by polyaniline–cellulose acetate polymeric blends as seen by UV–vis spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a blend of polyaniline (PANi) and cellulose acetate (CA) is discussed. This interaction is shown to lead to a red shift of the maximum absorption wavelength in the visible spectrum. The behaviour, which is similar to what is seen on protonation of PANi at pH?3, may be due to alteration in the

Artur J. M. Valente; Hugh D. Burrows; Victor M. M. Lobo

2006-01-01

168

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of the Structure of Lipid Bilayers in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harshness (skin irritation) of personal cleansing products is related to surfactant interactions with proteins and lipids in the upper layers of skin (stratum corneum). Cleanser surfactants can damage stratum corneum lipids either by their solubilzation in surfactant micelles or by fluidization of the lipid bilayers by surfactant penetration. The mechanism of interaction of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with a model

Namita Deo; P. Somasundaran; K. Subramanyan; K. P. Ananthapadmanabhan

2002-01-01

169

Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume  

EPA Science Inventory

A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

170

Property Improvement of Fi sh Water Soluble Protein Films by Dialdehyde Starch (DAS) and \\/ or Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent biodegradable films were successfully prepared from fish water soluble proteins (FWSP) in our laboratory, but FWSP films generally have the inferior mechanical and water vapor barrier properties. The objective of this study was to improve physical properties of FWSP using treatments with dialdehyde starch (DAS ) and\\/or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Film forming solution containing 3% FWSP from blue

Patricia Yuca HAMAGUCHP; Yusuke SHIKU; Munehiko TANAKA

171

Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50%

SYLVIE ROY; PIERRETTE GOURDE; JOCELYNE PIRET; A. Desormeaux; J. Lamontagne; C. Haineault; R. F. Omar; M. G. Bergeron

2001-01-01

172

Clinical and histopathological features of dextran sulfate sodium induced acute and chronic colitis associated with dysplasia in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the clinical and histopathological features of the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced acute and chronic colitis in rats as a model for studying basic biology of the inflamed colonic mucosa. Acute colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by 4 days (AI) or 7 days (AII) of oral 5% (wt\\/vol) DSS (mol. wt. 54,000) in their drinking water.

Frank Kullmann; Helmut Messmann; Marianne Alt; Volker Gross; Tina Bocker; Jürgen Schölmerich; Josef Rüschoff

2001-01-01

173

WATER\\/SODIUM ALKYL-ETHER-SULFATE\\/SODIUH XYLENE-SULFONATE SYSTEMS: SPECIFIC REFRACTION, SPECIFIC VOLUME AND VISCOSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific refraction, specific volume, and viscosity of systems containing sodium alkyl-ether-sulfate(NaEOS)(10, 20, 25, 27.5, and 30% w\\/w)and sodium xylene-sulfonate(NaXS) (1, 2, and 3% w\\/w) has been studied in the temperature range of 278 to 313 K.From this study, the following conclusions may be drawn:All systems show Newtonian behavior for the shear-rate range 0 to 28.5 s-1.The addition of sodium

M. Galan Vallejo; M. A. Lopez Torres

1986-01-01

174

Enoxaparin Improves the Course of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Syndecan-1-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Syndecan-1 (Sdc1) plays a major role in wound healing and modulates inflammatory responses. Sdc1 expression is reduced in lesions of patients with ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Sdc1 in murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. DSS colitis was induced in Sdc1-deficient (knockout (KO)) and wild-type mice by oral administration of 3% DSS. KO mice exhibited a significantly increased lethality as compared with wild-type controls (61 versus 5%, P < 0.05). Impaired mucosal healing and prolonged recruitment of inflammatory cells in KO mice were accompanied by significant up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-?, CC chemokine ligand 3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, as determined by histological correlation between 0 and 15 days after colitis induction, TaqMan low-density array analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment from days 7 through 14 with enoxaparin, a functional analogue of the Sdc1 heparan sulfate chains, significantly reduced lethality of KO mice due to DSS-induced colitis, which was correlated with improved mucosal healing. In vitro, Sdc1-deficient polymorphonuclear cells displayed increased adhesion to endothelial cells and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and enoxaparin reverted adhesion to wild-type levels. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Sdc1 expression resulted in reduced basic fibroblast growth factor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and reduced Caco-2 cell proliferation. We conclude that Sdc1 has a protective effect during experimental colitis. The modification of missing Sdc1 function by heparin analogues may emerge as a promising anti-inflammatory approach.

Floer, Martin; Gotte, Martin; Wild, Martin K.; Heidemann, Jan; Gassar, Ezeddin Salem; Domschke, Wolfram; Kiesel, Ludwig; Luegering, Andreas; Kucharzik, Torsten

2010-01-01

175

Effects of proteoglycan on dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in rats.  

PubMed

Proteoglycans (PG) are macromolecules composed of glycosaminoglycan chains covalently attached to a protein core. In this study, we examined the effects of PG on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in rats. First, to examine whether PG may ameliorate acute established DSS colitis, PG was administered orally for 5 days to the model animals. We evaluated the effects of PG on the basis of clinical symptoms, hematological analysis, macroscopic observation, and microscopic examination. We then examined whether PG administered orally to rats was detectable in their colonic lumen. After administration of PG, the colonic contents were collected, and the molecular weight of PG in the sample was analyzed by gel filtration high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, we examined whether orally administered PG affected the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colonic feces. Orally administered PG ameliorated the clinical symptoms of bloody stools and diarrhea, and attenuated the increase in the white blood cell count in rats with established DSS colitis. Histologically, orally administered PG reduced the degree of mucosal erosion and inflammatory cell infiltration into the erosive area induced by DSS. Orally administered PG was detected in rat colon, although its molecular weight was slightly decreased. Orally administered PG significantly increased the concentration of total SCFAs and n-butyrate in rat colonic feces. This is the first study to indicate that exogenous PG ameliorates experimental colitis, suggesting the potential usefulness of PG for clinical treatment of colitis. PMID:18463979

Ota, Sakae; Yoshihara, Shuichi; Ishido, Keinosuke; Tanaka, Masanori; Takagaki, Keiichi; Sasaki, Mutsuo

2008-12-01

176

Thermodynamics of solubilization of pentanol in sodium dodecyl sulfate-dodecyldimethylamine oxide mixed micelles  

SciTech Connect

Heat capacity and density measurements of pentanol (PeOH)-sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDS)-dodecyldimethylamine oxide-water mixtures were carried out at 0.03 m PeOH as a function of the total surfactants concentration (m[sub t]) at different ratios (X). From experimental data, the apparent molar volumes (V) and heat capacities (C) of PeOH in the surfactants mixture solutions were calculated. As a general feature, at a given mixture composition, V increases monotonically with m[sub t] as observed in pure surfactants. In the cases of X = 0.1 and 0.3, V drops at about 0.1 and 0.15 m, respectively. The decreasing C vs m[sub t] curve shows peculiarities which were ascribed to the presence of a liquid crystalline phase for X = 0.1 and 0.3 and of a structural micellar transition for X = 0.6 and 0.9. At a given X, the dependence of the apparent molar property of PeOH on m[sub t] was rationalized in terms of the distribution constant of alcohol between the aqueous and the micellar phases (K) and its partial molar property in the aqueous and the micellar phases. The standard free energy, calculated from the K values, and the partial molar properties of PeOH in the surfactant-surfactant micelles change linearly with X according to the ideal behavior.

Milioto, S.; Crisantino, R.; De Lisi, R. (Univ. di Palermo (Italy). Dept. di Chimica Fisica)

1994-09-01

177

Comparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and restricted fragment length polymorphism among fenugreek accessions.  

PubMed

Protein and DNA polymorphismswere surveyed among seven accessions of wild fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecum L.) to estimate their genetic diversity and relationships. Samples were obtained from diverse ecogeographical areas in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of seed storage protein showed genetic variations among fenugreek germplasms, both quantitatively and qualitatively, generating a total of 168 polypeptide bands with different molecular weights ranging from 4.5 to 300 kDa. Twenty-six of these bands were polymorphic, with a considerable polymorphism value (80.00%). Furthermore, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was also employed, which was based on the ability of four restriction enzymes (EagI, EcoRI, FspI, and HindIII) to cleave genomic DNA of the plant materials at specific target nucleotide sequences into different numbers of DNA fragments. RFLP analysis revealed 166 fragments with known sequences and variable lengths ranging from 80 to 4000 bp with a highly degree of polymorphism (88.71%). Data derived from SDS-PAGE or RFLP analyses were used to produce dendrograms, which clustered the studied fenugreek accessions into different groups based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). The resulting relationships indicated that these two marker techniques were nearly equivalent, but not identical, with respect to phylogenetic information. In conclusion, SDS-PAGE analysis of seed proteins should be augmented with RFLP analysis of DNA for reliable estimates of genetic diversity among fenugreek germplasms. PMID:24338424

Haliem, E A; Al-Huqail, A A

2013-01-01

178

Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SRalpha promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes. PMID:16735026

Kanbe, Takamasa; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Shiota, Goshi

2006-07-14

179

Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice  

SciTech Connect

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.

Kanbe, Takamasa [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan)]|[Department of Internal Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago (Japan); Murai, Rie [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan); Mukoyama, Tomoyuki [Department of Internal Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago (Japan); Murawaki, Yoshiyuki [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan)]|[Division of Medicine and Clinical Science, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University (Japan); Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan); Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo [Division of Medicine and Clinical Science, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University (Japan); Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Kawasaki, Hironaka [Department of Internal Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago (Japan); Murawaki, Yoshikazu [Division of Medicine and Clinical Science, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University (Japan); Shiota, Goshi [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan)]. E-mail: gshiota@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp

2006-07-14

180

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Hypersensitivity of clpP and clpB Mutants of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

We studied the hypersensitivity of clpP and clpB mutants of Escherichia coli to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Both wild-type E. coli MC4100 and lon mutants grew in the presence of 10% SDS, whereas isogenic clpP and clpB single mutants could not grow above 0.5% SDS and clpA and clpX single mutants could not grow above 5.0% SDS. For wild-type E. coli, cellular ClpP levels as determined by Western immunoblot analysis increased ca. sixfold as the levels of added SDS increased from 0 to 2%. Capsular colanic acid, measured as uronic acid, increased ca. sixfold as the levels of added SDS increased from 2 to 10%. Based on these findings, 3 of the 19 previously identified SDS shock proteins (M. Adamowicz, P. M. Kelley, and K. W. Nickerson, J. Bacteriol. 173:229-233, 1991) are tentatively identified as ClpP, ClpX, and ClpB.

Rajagopal, Soumitra; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

2002-01-01

181

Oleuropein protects against dextran sodium sulfate-induced chronic colitis in mice.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effect of oleuropein (1), the major phenolic secoiridoid in Olea europaea, was evaluated in an experimental model of chronic colitis in mice. Animals were exposed to four repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water followed by a 7-day rest period. Animals receiving a standard diet supplemented with 0.25% of 1 (equivalent to 500 mg/kg/day) for 56 days exhibited a decrease of inflammatory symptoms, as reflected by improvement of disease activity index and histopathological changes. It was found that 1 decreased inflammatory cell recruitment and the release of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 with increased IL-10 levels in colon tissue. Colon expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase was reduced significantly by 1. The anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of 1 was associated with the suppression of the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and might be mediated by up-regulation of annexin A1. In addition, 1 ameliorated intestinal wound healing in IEC-18 monolayers. Therefore, oleuropein seems to be a promising active molecule in experimental ulcerative colitis. PMID:23758110

Giner, Elisa; Recio, María-Carmen; Ríos, José-Luis; Giner, Rosa-María

2013-06-28

182

Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 A? to 37.1 A? at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 A? in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 A? to 25.3 A? only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

2010-01-01

183

Dextran sulfate sodium leads to chronic colitis and pathological angiogenesis in Endoglin heterozygous mice  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological angiogenesis is an intrinsic component of chronic intestinal inflammation, which results in remodeling and expansion of the gut microvascular bed. Endoglin is essential for endothelial cell function and physiological angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated its potential role in the regulation of inflammation by testing the response of Endoglin heterozygous (Eng+/-) mice to experimental colitis. Methods C57BL/6 Eng+/- and littermate control mice drank water supplemented with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days and were monitored for up to 26 days for clinical signs of colitis. Inflammation, crypt damage and angiogenic index were scored on histological sections of distal colon. Levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietins were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction, ELISA and/or Western blots. Vascular permeability was assessed using Evans Blue. Results Eng+/- and control mice developed acute colitis, which peaked at day 9. While control mice recovered by days 19-26, Eng+/- mice progressed to chronic colitis and showed numerous vascular protrusions penetrating into the serosa of the inflamed distal colon. Prior to DSS induction, VEGF levels and vascular permeability were higher in the distal colon of Eng+/- mice, while angiopoietin 1 and 2 levels were unchanged. In the chronic phase of colitis, VEGF levels were increased in both groups of mice and remained significantly higher in the Eng+/- mice. Conclusions Higher VEGF levels and increased vascular permeability in the distal colon may predispose Eng+/- mice to progress to chronic and persistent bowel inflammation, associated with pathological angiogenesis.

Jerkic, Mirjana; Peter, Madonna; Ardelean, Daniela; Fine, Michael; Konerding, Moritz A; Letarte, Michelle

2010-01-01

184

Quasi-elastic light scattering study of intermicellar interactions in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions  

SciTech Connect

Quasi-elastic light scattering measurement have been performed on aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions in the 0.1 to 0.6 mole NaCl concentration range at 25 and 40 C. The aggregation number M, the hydrodynamic radius Rh, and the amphiphile concentration dependence of static and transport coefficients of micellar solutions are obtained from the experimental data. The micellar parameters M and Rh increase with salt concentration and slightly decrease with temperature. The concentration dependence of the apparent molecular weight and of the mass diffusion coefficient is interpreted on the basis of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory of colloid stability. The fit to the experimental data, performed with the assumption that the Hamaker constant for micellar attraction A and the micellar electric charge Q do not depend on the salt concentration, is satisfactory and gives A = 4.5 x 10/sup -20/ J and Q = 37 electronic charges. The electric potential at the shear surface of the micelle goes from 70 MV at 0.1 mole NaCl to approximately 30 MV at 0.5 to 0.6 mole NaCl. 45 references.

Corti, M.; Deglorgio, V.

1981-03-19

185

Metabolic pathway for the biodegradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate by Pseudomonas sp. C12B.  

PubMed

Metabolism of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by the detergent-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas C12B has been studied using a 14C radiotracer in combination with radio-respirometry, radio-TLC, and GLC. Metabolism was extensive with 70% of the radiolabel released as 14CO2 at completion. The remainder of the radiolabel was incorporated almost totally into cells. Ether extraction of cells indicated that 14C-labeled cellular material appearing early in the uptake process was predominantly ether-extractable (mainly 1-dodecanol) and was subsequently converted to more polar metabolites. Analysis of the extractable lipids established the sequential production from [1-14C]SDS of 1-dodecanol, dodecanal, and dodecanoic acid. At this point the pathway diverged leading either to formation of 14CO2 via beta-oxidation or to elongation to C14, C16, and C18 fatty acyl residues with rapid incorporation into lipid fractions such as phospholipids. The pathway was correlated with known long-chain alkylsulfatases and alcohol dehydrogenases in this isolate and indicated that hydrophobic metabolites of the alkyl chain of surfactants can be incorporated into cellular components such as membrane lipids without prior degradation by beta-oxidation. PMID:2503014

Thomas, O R; White, G F

1989-06-01

186

Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin [IL]-1?, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

2013-10-01

187

Panax notoginseng Attenuates Experimental Colitis in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Mouse Model.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease are at a high risk of developing colorectal cancer. To assess the anticancer potential of botanicals, in this study, we evaluated the effects of Panax notoginseng on azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. One week after A/J mice received azoxymethane, the animals received DSS for 8?days or were supplemented with P.?notoginseng extract, at 30 or 90?mg/kg. DSS-induced colitis was scored with the disease activity index. The severity of the inflammatory lesions was evaluated by a colon tissue histological assessment. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also explored. We observed that the effects of P.?notoginseng on the reduction of colon inflammation, expressed in disease activity index score, were in a dose-related manner (p?

Wen, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yu, Chunhao; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyu; Matin, Adiba; Wang, Yunwei; Li, Ping; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

2014-06-01

188

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate  

PubMed Central

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7?±?1.6?g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-?, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells.

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

189

Anti-inflammatory effects of Inonotus obliquus in colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate.  

PubMed

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 +/- 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-alpha, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

190

Allyl Isothiocyanate Ameliorates Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Colitis  

PubMed Central

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables that has known chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Thus far, the antiangiogenic activity of AITC has not been reported in in vivo studies. Herein, we investigated the effect of AITC on angiogenesis and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium via drinking water. To monitor the activity of AITC in this model, we measured body weight, disease activity indices, histopathological scores, microvascular density, myeloperoxidase activity, F4/80 staining, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression in the mice. We found that AITC-treated mice showed less weight loss, fewer clinical signs of colitis, and longer colons than vehicle-treated mice. AITC treatment also significantly lessened the disruption of colonic architecture that is normally associated with colitis and repressed the microvascularization response. Further, AITC treatment reduced both leukocyte recruitment and macrophage infiltration into the inflamed colon, and the mechanism these activities involved repressing iNOS and COX-2 expression. Finally, AITC attenuated the expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR2. Thus, AITC may have potential application in treating conditions marked by inflammatory-driven angiogenesis and mucosal inflammation.

Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, Jae Ho; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Wang, Shuaiyu; Sung, Mi Jeong

2014-01-01

191

Interactive forces between sodium dodecyl sulfate-suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes and agarose gels.  

PubMed

Selective adsorption onto agarose gels has become a powerful method to separate single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A better understanding of the nature of the interactive forces and specific sites responsible for adsorption should lead to significant improvements in the selectivity and yield of these separations. A combination of nonequilibrium and equilibrium studies are conducted to explore the potential role that van der Waals, ionic, hydrophobic, ?-?, and ion-dipole interactions have on the selective adsorption between agarose and SWCNTs suspended with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The results demonstrate that any modification to the agarose gel surface and, consequently, the permanent dipole moments of agarose drastically reduces the retention of SWCNTs. Because these permanent dipoles are critical to retention and the fact that SDS-SWCNTs function as macro-ions, it is proposed that ion-dipole forces are the primary interaction responsible for adsorption. The selectivity of adsorption may be attributed to variations in polarizability between nanotube types, which create differences in both the structure and mobility of surfactant. These differences affect the enthalpy and entropy of adsorption, and both play an integral part in the selectivity of adsorption. The overall adsorption process shows a complex behavior that is not well represented by the Langmuir model; therefore, calorimetric data should be used to extract thermodynamic information. PMID:24164680

Clar, Justin G; Silvera Batista, Carlos A; Youn, Sejin; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J; Ziegler, Kirk J

2013-11-27

192

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor anagliptin facilitates restoration of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic debilitating disease associated with severe damage to the intestinal mucosa. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a potent and specific gastrointestinal growth factor. GLP-2 released from enteroendocrine cells is inactivated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). The aim of this study was to examine whether the DPP-4 inhibitor anagliptin improves experimental murine colitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Male C57BL/6 mice aged 8 weeks were exposed to 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to induce experimental colitis. Anagliptin (0.1% in diet) was administrated from 2 days before the beginning of DSS to 7 days after the end of DSS. Changes in body weight and disease activity index were evaluated daily. Histological colitis severity, cellular proliferation and gene expression were determined in colonic tissues. RESULTS. Treatment with anagliptin clearly improved body weight loss and disease activity index in the recovery phase. Histological score in the DSS + anagliptin group at day 14 was significantly lower than that in the DSS alone group. Treatment with anagliptin increased the Ki67-positive rate at days 10 and 14, and tended to increase insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression in the DSS + anagliptin group. CONCLUSION. In this model of experimental colitis, the DPP-4 inhibitor anagliptin facilitated the restoration of mucosal damage, thereby resulting in the acceleration of healing. These findings suggest a new and novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of IBD. PMID:24047394

Mimura, Shunya; Ando, Takafumi; Ishiguro, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Osamu; Watanabe, Osamu; Ujihara, Masaki; Hirayama, Yutaka; Morise, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Keiko; Matsushita, Masanobu; Funasaka, Kohei; Nakamura, Masanao; Miyahara, Ryoji; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Goto, Hidemi

2013-10-01

193

Sucrose, sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, and 2-mercaptoethanol affect the thermal inactivation of R-phycoerythrin.  

PubMed

Thermal inactivation kinetics (D- and z-values) of the algal protein, R-phycoerythrin (R-PE), were studied under different buffer conditions (pH 4.0, 7.0, and 10.0) and concentrations of sucrose, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), urea, and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME). R-PE solutions were heated in capillary tubes at temperatures between 40 and 90 degrees C depending on buffer conditions. Thermal inactivation parameters for R-PE, calculated on the basis of fluorescence loss, were modified by addition of chemicals. Overall, sucrose and ME had a thermostabilizing effect, while SDS and urea decreased thermal stability of R-PE. The z-values ranged from 5.9 degrees C in 50 mM NaCl, 20 mM glycine buffer, pH 10.0, to 37.8 degrees C in 60% sucrose, 50 mM NaCl, 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. The z-values obtained for R-PE closely matched the z-values of some target microorganisms in food processes, suggesting R-PE might be used as a time-temperature integrator to verify thermal processing adequacy. PMID:11726163

Orta-Ramirez, A; Merrill, J E; Smith, D M

2001-11-01

194

[Determination of dextran sulfate sodium with ethyl violet by resonance Rayleigh scattering].  

PubMed

In the Britton Robinson buffer medium (pH 9.0-10.5), either dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or ethyl violet (EV) showed very faint resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectra. However, when DSS and EV were mixed together, the interaction between DSS and EV by virtue of electrostatic and hydrophobic forces occurred, which greatly enhanced the RRS intensity and a new RRS spectrum for the DSS-EV system appeared with three obvious scattering wavelengths at 348.0, 509.8 and 680.0 nm, respectively. All these RRS peaks increased with the increase in DSS concentration. The maximum scattering wavelength appeared at 509.8 nm; and therefore was selected as the determination wavelength for the system. The RRS intensity was directly proportional to the concentration of DSS in the range of 0.005-2.4 microg x mL(-1), and the detection limit was 3.25 ng x mL(-1). The characteristics of RRS and absorption spectra of the DSS-EV system, the influencing factors, such as solution pH, EV concentration, reaction time, temperature, and ion strength, and the optimum conditions for the reaction were investigated. The influence of foreign substances on the DSS-EV system was also studied. The method was sensitive and selective, and has been applied to the determination of DSS in synthetic samples with satisfactory results. A new method for the determination of trace amounts of DSS based on the RRS method has been developed. PMID:19271512

Wang, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Nian-Bing; Luo, Hong-Qun

2008-11-01

195

Determination of dextran sulfate sodium with crystal violet by triple-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A triple-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering (TWO-RRS) method was developed to detect dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) with crystal violet (CV). At pH 10.0 Britton Robinson buffer solution medium, the interaction of CV with DSS occurred which greatly enhanced the RRS intensity with the new RRS peaks appearing at 340, 501 and 671 nm and all these three peaks enhanced with the increase of DSS concentration in the range of 0.04-2.5 ?g ml -1 and the detection limit for the three single peaks was 0.024, 0.027, and 0.027 ?g ml -1, respectively, whereas that of the TWO-RRS method was 0.013 ?g ml -1. The TWO-RRS method was found to have much better flexibility and high sensitivity than the single-wavelength method. In this paper, the interaction conditions were optimized. The affecting factors and characteristics of RRS for the interaction of DSS with CV were investigated and a sensitive method for the determination of trace amounts of DSS using the TWO-RRS method was developed.

Hao, Xiu Li; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

2009-01-01

196

Determination of dextran sulfate sodium with crystal violet by triple-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering.  

PubMed

A triple-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering (TWO-RRS) method was developed to detect dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) with crystal violet (CV). At pH 10.0 Britton Robinson buffer solution medium, the interaction of CV with DSS occurred which greatly enhanced the RRS intensity with the new RRS peaks appearing at 340, 501 and 671 nm and all these three peaks enhanced with the increase of DSS concentration in the range of 0.04-2.5 microg ml(-1) and the detection limit for the three single peaks was 0.024, 0.027, and 0.027 microg ml(-1), respectively, whereas that of the TWO-RRS method was 0.013 microg ml(-1). The TWO-RRS method was found to have much better flexibility and high sensitivity than the single-wavelength method. In this paper, the interaction conditions were optimized. The affecting factors and characteristics of RRS for the interaction of DSS with CV were investigated and a sensitive method for the determination of trace amounts of DSS using the TWO-RRS method was developed. PMID:18674962

Hao, Xiu Li; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

2009-01-01

197

Mechanical properties of mouse lungs along organ decellularization by sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

Lung decellularization is based on the use of physical, chemical, or enzymatic methods to break down the integrity of the cells followed by a treatment to extract the cellular material from the lung scaffold. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical changes throughout the different steps of lung decellularization process. Four lungs from mice (C57BL/6) were decellularized by using a conventional protocol based on sodium dodecyl sulfate. Lungs resistance (RL) and elastance (EL) were measured along decellularization steps and were computed by linear regression fitting of tracheal pressure, flow, and volume during mechanical ventilation. Transients differences found were more distinct in an intermediate step after the lungs were rinsed with deionized water and treated with 1% SDS, whereupon the percentage of variation reached approximately 80% for resistance values and 30% for elastance values. In conclusion, although a variation in extracellular matrix stiffness was observed during the decellularization process, this variation can be considered negligible overall because the resistance and elastance returned to basal values at the final decellularization step. PMID:24837837

Nonaka, Paula N; Uriarte, Juan J; Campillo, Noelia; Melo, Esther; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon; Oliveira, Luis V F

2014-08-15

198

Simple Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Assisted Sample Preparation Method for LC-MS-based Proteomic Applications  

SciTech Connect

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most popular laboratory reagents used for highly efficient biological sample extraction; however, SDS presents a significant challenge to LC-MS-based proteomic analyses due to its severe interference with reversed-phase LC separations and electrospray ionization interfaces. This study reports a simple SDS-assisted proteomic sample preparation method facilitated by a novel peptide-level SDS removal protocol. After SDS-assisted protein extraction and digestion, SDS was effectively (>99.9%) removed from peptides through ion substitution-mediated DS- precipitation with potassium chloride (KCl) followed by {approx}10 min centrifugation. Excellent peptide recovery (>95%) was observed for less than 20 {mu}g of peptides. Further experiments demonstrated the compatibility of this protocol with LC-MS/MS analyses. The resulting proteome coverage from this SDS-assisted protocol was comparable to or better than those obtained from other standard proteomic preparation methods in both mammalian tissues and bacterial samples. These results suggest that this SDS-assisted protocol is a practical, simple, and broadly applicable proteomic sample processing method, which can be particularly useful when dealing with samples difficult to solubilize by other methods.

Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Shi, Tujin; Wang, Lu; Gao, Xiaoli; Su, Dian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

2012-03-10

199

Electrochemistry of Cytochrome P450 BM3 in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Films  

PubMed Central

Direct electrochemistry of the cytochrome P450 BM3 heme domain (BM3) was achieved by confining the protein within sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) films on the surface of basal-plane graphite (BPG) electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the heme FeIII/II redox couple at ?330 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl, pH 7.4). Up to 10 V/s, the peak current was linear with scan rate, allowing us to treat the system as surface-confined within this regime. The standard heterogeneous rate constant determined at 10 V/s was estimated to be 10 s?1. Voltammograms obtained for the BM3-SDS-BPG system in the presence of dioxygen exhibited catalytic waves at the onset of FeIII reduction. The altered heme reduction potential of the BM3-SDS-graphite system indicates that SDS is likely bound in the enzyme active-site region. Compared to other P450-surfactant systems, we find redox potentials and electron transfer rates that differ by ~ 100 mV and > 10-fold, respectively, indicating that the nature of the surfactant environment has a significant effect on the observed heme redox properties.

Udit, Andrew K.; Hill, Michael G.; Gray, Harry B.

2008-01-01

200

Are micelles needed to form methane hydrates in sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions?  

PubMed

The possibility that methane hydrates form in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) water solutions without the help of micelles formation has been investigated. To asses whether micelles are needed for the hydrate to form only one SDS molecule has been considered. To figure out the possible mechanism through which the SDS promotes the formation of methane clathrate the dynamics of CH(4) solvation in the presence and absence of the surfactant molecule is monitored. To carry out the dynamical calculations, the SDS-H(2)O, SDS-CH(4), and CH(4)-H(2)O interactions were described using a recently proposed model potential. The adopted model leverages both on the decomposition of the molecular polarizability in effective components associated with the interaction centers distributed on the molecular frame and on the use of an improved Lennard-Jones functional form to represent the effective pair interaction energies. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on such potential, contrary to some earlier assumptions, do not support mechanisms requiring the formation of micelles as suggested by the findings of more recent experiments. PMID:22448641

Albertí, M; Costantini, A; Laganá, A; Pirani, F

2012-04-12

201

Antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate in apple slices.  

PubMed

There are few available compounds that can both control browning and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut fruits. In the present study, the antibrowning ability of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) on "Granny Smith" apple slices was first investigated in terms of optimum concentration and treatment time. In a separate experiment, the apple slices were treated with water or 3% of SAS, calcium ascorbate, citric acid, or acidified calcium sulfate for 5 min. Total plate count, color, firmness, and tissue damage were assessed during a 21-d storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that the efficacy of SAS in inhibiting browning of apple slices increased with increasing concentration. A minimum 3% of SAS was needed to achieve 14 d of shelf life. Firmness was not significantly affected by SAS at 3% or lower concentrations. Antibrowning potential of SAS was similar for all treatment times ranging from 2 to 10 min. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. When cut surface of apple slices were stained with a fluorescein diacetate solution, tissue damage could be observed under a microscope even though visual damage was not evident. Among the antibrowning agents tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for the first 14 d. Total plate count of samples treated with 3% SAS was significantly lower than those treated with calcium ascorbate, a commonly used antibrowning agent. Our results suggested that it is possible to use SAS to control browning while inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the apple slices if the skin damage can be minimized. Practical Application: Fresh-cut apples have emerged as one of the popular products in restaurants, schools, and food service establishments as more consumers demand fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Processing of fresh-cut apples induces mechanical damage to the fruit and exposes apple tissue to air, resulting in the development of undesirable tissue browning. The fresh-cut industry currently uses antibrowning agents to prevent discoloration. However, the antibrowning solutions can become contaminated with human pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, and washing of apple slices with the contaminated solutions can result in the transfer of pathogens to the product. It would be ideal if an antibrowning compound prevented the proliferation of human pathogens in solutions and minimized the growth of pathogens during storage. The study was conducted to investigate antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) in comparison with other common antibrowning agents on Granny Smith apples. Results showed that among the antimicrobial agents we tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for 14 d at 4 degrees C. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. Overall, SAS can potentially be used to inhibit tissue browning while reducing the microbial growth on apple slices. The information is useful for the fresh-cut produce industry to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut apples while minimizing browning, thus increasing the consumption of the health benefiting fresh fruit. PMID:20492119

Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q

2009-01-01

202

Siroheme sulfite reductase isolated from Chromatium vinosum . Purification and investigation of some of its molecular and catalytic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of the phototrophic bacterium Chromatium vinosum strain D were shown to contain a siroheme sulfite reductase after autotrophic growth in a sulfide\\/bicarbonate medium. The enzyme could not be detected in cells grown heterotrophically in a malate\\/sulfate medium. Siroheme sulfite reductase was isolated from autotrophic cells and obtained in an about 80% pure preparation which was used to investigate some

Michael Schedel; Maria Vanselow; Hans G. Trüper

1979-01-01

203

Effect of n-pentanol on the solubility of ethane in micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been carried out to determine the effect that added n-pentanol has upon the solubility of ethane gas in micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The results show that when micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate is present, n-pentanol acts to enhance gas solubility. However, the degree to which the alcohol enhances gas solubility varies with concentration. At low concentrations, the incremental increase in ethane solubility per mole of alcohol is found to be numerically about equal to the solubility of ethane in ethanol. This incremental change in gas solubility increases with pentanol concentration and approaches the solubility of ethane in pure pentanol at high ratios of alcohol to surfactant. Unusual gas-induced gels are formed at moderate pressures (p is approx. 5 atm) with ethane and homogeneous solutions having compositions bordering those of the liquid crystal-solution phase boundary.

Hoskins, J.C.; King, A.D. Jr.

1981-07-01

204

Effects of various polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooils (Tweens) and sodium dodecyl sulfate on reflux synthesis of copper nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Size-controlled synthesis of phase pure Cu nanoparticles was carried out by using copper sulfate pentahydrate as a precursor, ascorbic acid as a reductant, Tweens and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as modifiers in an aqueous solution at 80 deg. C. The as-prepared Cu nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The stabilizing effects of SDS and Tweens on the Cu nanoparticles should be through the coordination between Cu nanoparticles and the respective sulfate group and oxygen-containing bond. The synergic effect of the composite SDS and Tweens on Cu nanoparticles was different from those arising from the individuals.

Zhang Xifeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Yin Hengbo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)]. E-mail: yin@ujs.edu.cn; Cheng Xiaonong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Hu Huifeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Yu Qi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Wang Aili [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

2006-11-09

205

21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...added to certain drug products to inhibit the oxidation of the active drug ingredient. Oxidation of the active drug ingredient may result...Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

2013-04-01

206

Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer from dimethylaniline to coumarin dyes in sodium dodecyl sulfate and triton X-100 micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary steps of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) to five coumarin dyes are studied in an anionic micelle [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)] and a neutral micelle [triton X-100 (TX-100)] using femtosecond upconversion. The rate of PET in micelle is found to be highly nonexponential. In both the micelles, PET displays components much faster (~10 ps) than the

Subhadip Ghosh; Sudip Kumar Mondal; Kalyanasis Sahu; Kankan Bhattacharyya

2007-01-01

207

Phase behaviour of aqueous mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate with a weakly cationically charged acrylamide-based copolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase behaviour at constant polymer concentration of aqueous mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with a weakly charged\\u000a cationic polymer (PAM6) based on an acrylamide backbone, containing 6 mol% cationic sites, is presented. Upon increasing the\\u000a SDS concentration, the known strongly hydrophilic character of the acrylamide polymer turns gradually to moderately hydrophobic.\\u000a Thus, although at room temperature the aqueous

G. Mylonas; G. Bokias; G. Staikos

208

Conformations of platypus venom C-type natriuretic peptide in aqueous solution and sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate the conformations of the platypus venom C-type natriuretic peptide A (OvCNPa) in aqueous solutions and in solutions containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. The chemically synthesized OvCNPa showed a substantial decrease in flexibility in aqueous solution at 10°C, allowing the observation of medium- and long-range nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) connectivities. Three-dimensional structures

Allan M. Torres; Dianne Alewood; Paul F. Alewood; Clifford H. Gallagher; Philip W. Kuchel

2002-01-01

209

Resveratrol and Piceatannol Inhibit iNOS Expression and NF-? B Activation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Mouse Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory tissue injury has been implicated in tumor promotion and progression. 3,5,4?-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene (resveratrol) and 3,4,3?, 5?-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene (piceatannol), 2 structurally related plant polyphenols, have been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. This study was aimed at investigating the possible protective effects of resveratrol and piceatannol against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation in mouse colonic mucosa. Administration of DSS (2.5%)

Jin Youn; Jeong-Sang Lee; Hye-Kyung Na; Joydeb Kumar Kundu; Young-Joon Surh

2009-01-01

210

Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway may ameliorate dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) recognizes numerous small xenobiotic and natural molecules, such as dioxin and natural chemicals, and is involved in the metabolism of these compounds. AhR also has a regulatory role in inflammatory responses. This study investigated whether the activation of the AhR pathway affects dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, an ulcerative colitis-like model, in mice. DSS-induced colitis

Takeyuki Takamura; Daisuke Harama; Shuji Matsuoka; Naomi Shimokawa; Yuki Nakamura; Ko Okumura; Hideoki Ogawa; Masanori Kitamura; Atsuhito Nakao; A Nakao

2010-01-01

211

Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

Santoro, G. J.

1979-01-01

212

The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium saccharin on morphology, hardness and wear behavior of Cr-WC nano composite coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of sodium saccharin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) additives on the amount of incorporated tungsten carbide (WC) particles and morphology of the coatings are investigated. The structure and morphology of the coatings are determined by scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). The hardness and tribological behavior of the coatings are studied by micro hardness and pin on disk methods. The experimental results show that with the addition of sodium saccharin and SDS the amount of WC particles in the coating decreases and the size of WC agglomerates reduces. The average size of WC particles is 70 nm. On the other hand the wear resistances of the coatings increase and the optimum wear resistance is 1 g/L.

Rezaei-Sameti, M.; Nadali, S.; Falahatpisheh, A.; Rakhshi, M.

2013-04-01

213

Transmission Electron Microscope Characterization of Sodium Sulfate Hot Corrosion of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Lithium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium Sulfate hot corrosion of a SiC/LAS composite was studied using conventional transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction. Changes in the morphology, composition and crystallography of the phases in the glass-ceramic matrix and the...

R. K. Hunt

1994-01-01

214

Sulfite Oxidation in Chlorobaculum Tepidum  

PubMed Central

The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum is proposed to oxidize sulfide and elemental sulfur via sulfite as an obligate intermediate. The sulfite pool is predicted to be contained in the cytoplasm and be oxidized by the concerted action of ApsBA, which directly oxidizes sulfite, and QmoABC, which transfers electrons from ApsBA to the quinone pool. Like other green sulfur bacteria, C. tepidum was unable to use exogenously provided sulfite as the sole electron donor. However, exogenous sulfite significantly stimulated the growth yield of sulfide limited batch cultures. The growth of C. tepidum mutant strains, CT0867/qmoB::TnOGm and CT0868/qmoC::TnOGm, was not increased by sulfite. Furthermore, these strains accumulated sulfite and displayed a growth yield decrease when grown on sulfide as the sole electron donor. These results support an obligate, cytoplasmic sulfite intermediate as part of the canonical sulfur oxidation pathway in C. tepidum that requires the Qmo complex for oxidation.

Rodriguez, Jesse; Hiras, Jennifer; Hanson, Thomas E.

2011-01-01

215

Combined sorption\\/transport of sodium dodecyl sulfate and hydrochloric acid in a blend of cellulose acetate butyrate with cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of hydrochloric acid (0.001–0.1 M) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.001–0.1 M) has been measured through a membrane consisting of a blend of cellulose acetate butyrate and cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate. The cellulose derivative blend is suggested to suffer an alteration in the degree of hydrophobicity when in equilibrium with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) through hemimicelle formation. An increase

Artur J. M. Valente; Hugh D. Burrows; Alexandre Ya. Polishchuk; Maria G. Miguel; Victor M. M. Lobo

2004-01-01

216

Nature of electronic states and optical functions of sodium oxyanionic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The band structure, the density of states, the partial electron densities, and optical functions (such as permittivity, refraction\\u000a index, reflection and absorption coefficients) of sodium nitrite, nitrate, carbonate, chlorate, sulfite, perchlorate, and\\u000a sulfate are calculated in a local approximation of the density-functional theory using the Troullier-Martins pseudopotentials\\u000a in the basis of numerical pseudoatomic orbitals. The nature of the upper valence

Yu. N. Zhuravlev; D. V. Korabel’nikov

2009-01-01

217

Dietary flaxseed intake exacerbates acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate.  

PubMed

Flaxseed (FS), a dietary oilseed, contains a variety of anti-inflammatory bioactives, including fermentable fiber, phenolic compounds (lignans), and the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ?-linolenic acid. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of FS and its n-3 PUFA-rich kernel or lignan- and soluble fiber-rich hull on colitis severity in a mouse model of acute colonic inflammation. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a basal diet (negative control) or a basal diet supplemented with 10% FS, 6% kernel, or 4% hull for 3 wk prior to and during colitis induction via 5 days of 2% (wt/vol) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in their drinking water (n = 12/group). An increase in anti-inflammatory metabolites (hepatic n-3 PUFAs, serum mammalian lignans, and cecal short-chain fatty acids) was associated with consumption of all FS-based diets, but not with anti-inflammatory effects in DSS-exposed mice. Dietary FS exacerbated DSS-induced acute colitis, as indicated by a heightened disease activity index and an increase in colonic injury and inflammatory biomarkers [histological damage, apoptosis, myeloperoxidase, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1?), and NF-?B signaling-related genes (Nfkb1, Ccl5, Bcl2a1a, Egfr, Relb, Birc3, and Atf1)]. Additionally, the adverse effect of the FS diet was extended systemically, as serum cytokines (IL-6, IFN?, and IL-1?) and hepatic cholesterol levels were increased. The adverse effects of FS were not associated with alterations in fecal microbial load or systemic bacterial translocation (endotoxemia). Collectively, this study demonstrates that although consumption of a 10% FS diet enhanced the levels of n-3 PUFAs, short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lignans in mice, it exacerbated DSS-induced colonic injury and inflammation. PMID:24763556

Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Zhang, Claire; Wu, Wenqing; Lepp, Dion; Robinson, Lindsay; Wanasundara, Janitha; Cui, Steve; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Fofana, Bourlaye; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Power, Krista A

2014-06-15

218

Dietary black raspberries modulate DNA methylation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon. During inflammation, NF-?B is increased in colonic epithelial cells and in immune cells, leading to increases in proinflammatory cytokines. These events then increase DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), which silence a subset of tumor suppressor genes by promoter methylation. Negative regulators of the Wnt pathway are frequently methylated in UC, leading to dysregulation of the pathway and, potentially, to colorectal cancer. We determined if black raspberries (BRBs) influence promoter methylation of suppressors in the Wnt pathway in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC. C57BL/6J mice received 1% DSS and were fed either control or 5% BRB diets. Mice were euthanized on days 7, 14 and 28, and their colons, spleen and bone marrow were collected. Berries reduced ulceration at day 28. This was accompanied by decreased staining of macrophages and neutrophils and decreased NF-?B p65 nuclear localization in the colon at all time points. At day 7, BRBs demethylated the promoter of dkk3, leading to its increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in colon, spleen and bone marrow. ?-Catenin nuclear localization, c-Myc staining as well as protein expression of DNMT3B, histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and methyl-binding domain 2 (MBD2) were all decreased in colon; mRNA expression of these four proteins was decreased in bone marrow cells by BRBs. These results suggest that BRBs suppress colonic ulceration by correcting promoter hypermethylation of suppressor genes in the colon, as well as in the spleen and bone marrow that systematically regulate inflammation. Summary: Our results suggest that dietary BRBs suppress colonic ulceration by correcting promoter hypermethylation of suppressor genes in the colon, as well as in the spleen and bone marrow that systematically regulate inflammation in DSS-induced UC. PMID:24067901

Wang, Li-Shu; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Stoner, Kristen; Yearsley, Martha; Oshima, Kiyoko; Yu, Jianhua; Huang, Tim H-M; Rosenberg, Daniel; Peiffer, Dan; Stoner, Gary; Huang, Yi-Wen

2013-12-01

219

Bifidobacterium breve Attenuates Murine Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases Regulatory T Cell Responses.  

PubMed

While some probiotics have shown beneficial effects on preventing or treating colitis development, others have shown no effects. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulating effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve) on T cell polarization in vitro, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and in vivo, using murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. With respect to the latter, the mRNA expression of T cell subset-associated transcription factors and cytokines in the colon was measured and the T helper type (Th) 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets were determined in the Peyer's patches. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve incubations in vitro reduced Th17 and increased Th2 cell subsets in human PBMCs. In addition, B. breve incubation was also able to reduce Th1 and increase Treg cell subsets in contrast to L. rhamnosus. In vivo intervention with B. breve, but not L. rhamnosus, significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice, intervention with B. breve increased the expression of mRNA encoding for Th2- and Treg-associated cytokines in the distal colon. In addition, intervention with B. breve led to increases of Treg and decreases of Th17 cell subsets in Peyer's patches of DSS-treated mice. B. breve modulates T cell polarization towards Th2 and Treg cell-associated responses in vitro and in vivo. In vivo B. breve intervention ameliorates DSS-induced colitis symptoms and this protective effect may mediated by its effects on the T-cell composition. PMID:24787575

Zheng, Bin; van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen; Overbeek, Saskia; van de Kant, Hendrik J G; Garssen, Johan; Folkerts, Gert; Vos, Paul; Morgan, Mary E; Kraneveld, Aletta D

2014-01-01

220

Bifidobacterium breve Attenuates Murine Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases Regulatory T Cell Responses  

PubMed Central

While some probiotics have shown beneficial effects on preventing or treating colitis development, others have shown no effects. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulating effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve) on T cell polarization in vitro, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and in vivo, using murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. With respect to the latter, the mRNA expression of T cell subset-associated transcription factors and cytokines in the colon was measured and the T helper type (Th) 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets were determined in the Peyer's patches. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve incubations in vitro reduced Th17 and increased Th2 cell subsets in human PBMCs. In addition, B. breve incubation was also able to reduce Th1 and increase Treg cell subsets in contrast to L. rhamnosus. In vivo intervention with B. breve, but not L. rhamnosus, significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice, intervention with B. breve increased the expression of mRNA encoding for Th2- and Treg-associated cytokines in the distal colon. In addition, intervention with B. breve led to increases of Treg and decreases of Th17 cell subsets in Peyer's patches of DSS-treated mice. B. breve modulates T cell polarization towards Th2 and Treg cell-associated responses in vitro and in vivo. In vivo B. breve intervention ameliorates DSS-induced colitis symptoms and this protective effect may mediated by its effects on the T-cell composition.

Zheng, Bin; van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen; Overbeek, Saskia; van de Kant, Hendrik J. G.; Garssen, Johan; Folkerts, Gert; Vos, Paul; Morgan, Mary E.; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

2014-01-01

221

Betaine reduces the irritating effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on human oral mucosa in vivo.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate whether betaine has a protective effect during exposure of the human oral mucosa in vivo to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or cocoamidopropylbetaine (CAPB) as measured with a multifrequency electrical impedance spectrometer (EI). Both detergents were used at the concentration of 2.0% w/v with and without 4.0% w/v betaine in distilled water in 20 volunteers, and 0.5% and 1.0% w/v SLS combined with 4.0% w/v betaine in 5 volunteers. EI measurements were taken before application of the test solutions, after their removal, and every 15 min up to 45 min. Both 0.5% and 1% SLS solutions showed a significant reduction in 3 of the 4 indices, indicating mucosal irritation after the 15-min exposure (P < 0.05), whereas 2% SLS did so in all 4 indices (P < 0.001). Betaine had no effect on the detergent-induced decline with either the 2% or the 0.5% SLS solutions. However, when combined with the 1% SLS solution, betaine significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal irritation by abolishing decreases in indices MIX (magnitude index) and IMIX (imaginary part index) and lowering it for PIX (phase index). The 2% CAPB solution showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all 4 indices after the 15-min exposure, but the effect was significantly weaker than that of 2% SLS (P < 0.05). Betaine did not reduce the irritating effect of 2% CAPB. These findings can be used in the development of less irritating products for oral health care. PMID:12418722

Rantanen, Irma; Nicander, Ingrid; Jutila, Kirsti; Ollmar, Stig; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

2002-10-01

222

L-arginine Supplementation Improves Responses to Injury and Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Colitis  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), results in substantial morbidity and is difficult to treat. New strategies for adjunct therapies are needed. One candidate is the semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg), a complementary medicine purported to be an enhancer of immunity and vitality in the lay media. Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as a murine colonic injury and repair model with similarities to human UC, we assessed the effect of L-Arg, as DSS induced increases in colonic expression of the y+ cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) and L-Arg uptake. L-Arg supplementation improved the clinical parameters of survival, body weight loss, and colon weight, and reduced colonic permeability and the number of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in DSS colitis. Luminex-based multi-analyte profiling demonstrated that there was a marked reduction in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression with L-Arg treatment. Genomic analysis by microarray demonstrated that DSS-treated mice supplemented with L-Arg clustered more closely with mice not exposed to DSS than to those receiving DSS alone, and revealed that multiple genes that were upregulated or downregulated with DSS alone exhibited normalization of expression with L-Arg supplementation. Additionally, L-Arg treatment of mice with DSS colitis resulted in increased ex vivo migration of colonic epithelial cells, suggestive of increased capacity for wound repair. Because CAT2 induction was sustained during L-Arg treatment and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) requires uptake of L-Arg for generation of NO, we tested the effect of L-Arg in iNOS?/? mice and found that its benefits in DSS colitis were eliminated. These preclinical studies indicate that L-Arg supplementation could be a potential therapy for IBD, and that one mechanism of action may be functional enhancement of iNOS activity.

Coburn, Lori A.; Gong, Xue; Singh, Kshipra; Asim, Mohammad; Scull, Brooks P.; Allaman, Margaret M.; Williams, Christopher S.; Rosen, Michael J.; Washington, M. Kay; Barry, Daniel P.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Casero, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Zhao, Zhongming; Wilson, Keith T.

2012-01-01

223

Transcatheter Foam Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Female Varicocele with Sodium-Tetradecyl-Sulfate Foam  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the efficacy of transcatheter foam sclerotherapy (TCFS) in pelvic varicocele using sodium-tetradecyl-sulfate foam (STSF), we conducted a retrospective study in 38 patients (mean age, 36.9 years; range, 22-44 years) with pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) treated between January 2000 and June 2005 by TCFS. Pelvic pain was associated with dyspareunia in 23 (60.5%) patients, urinary urgency in 9 (23.7%) patients, and worsening of pain during menstruation and at the end of a day of work in 7 (18.4%) and 38 (100%) patients, respectively. Diagnosis was made by pelvic and transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound examination, demonstrating ovarian or pelvic varices with a diameter >5 mm presenting venous reflux. TCFS was performed in all patients, using 3% STSF. Follow-up was performed by physical examination, pelvic and transvaginal Doppler ultrasound examination and by a questionnaire-based assessment of pain at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%). In three patients a pelvic colic-like pain occurred immediately after sclerotic agent injection, disappearing spontaneously after a few minutes. No recurrent varicoceles were observed during a 12-month follow-up. A statistically significant improvement in each category of specific symptoms was observed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. We conclude that TCFS of female varicocele using a 3% STSF is safe and effective for the treatment of PCS. It is associated with a significant reduction of symptoms and can be regarded as a valid alternative to other endovascular and surgical techniques.

Gandini, Roberto; Chiocchi, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.chiocchi@fastwebnet.it; Konda, Daniel; Pampana, Enrico; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Simonetti, Giovanni [Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology (Italy)

2008-07-15

224

Development of an electrochemical sulfite biosensor by immobilization of sulfite oxidase on conducting polyaniline film  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a biosensor was developed for the determination of sulfite. The bioelectrochemical response of the enzyme-modified electrode based on electrochemical incorporation of sulfite oxidase into polyaniline aluminum modified electrode was investigated. Electropolymerization of polyaniline and simultaneous immobilization of sulfite oxidase on the aluminum were performed in an aqueous solution containing sulfite oxidase. The sulfite biosensor constructed by cycling

Baharak Bahmani; Fathollah Moztarzadeh; Mohammad Rabiee; Mohammadreza Tahriri

2010-01-01

225

Free-radical chemistry of sulfite.  

PubMed Central

The free-radical chemistry of sulfite oxidation is reviewed. Chemical transformations of organic and biological molecules induced by sulfite oxidation are summarized. The kinetics of the free-radical oxidations of sulfite are discussed, as are the kinetics of the reactions of the sulfite-derived radicals SO3 and the peroxy derivative SO5 with organic compounds.

Neta, P; Huie, R E

1985-01-01

226

Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of sodium sulfite injection to remove flue gas NO prior to sodium bicarbonate injection.

Stein, Antoinette Weil

227

Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and carcinogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH(-/-) mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.62±20.91 mm(3) vs. 22.42±11.22 mm(3)), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (3±1.18 vs. 2±0.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH(-/-) mice (44.7%±24.9% vs. 20.2%±16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1? and TNF-? expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/ dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis. PMID:24324059

Zhang, Wanying; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Liao, Jie; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

2013-12-01

228

Global gene expression analysis of the mouse colonic mucosa treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation is well known to be a risk factor for colon cancer. Previously we established a novel mouse model of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, which is useful to examine the involvement of inflammation in colon carcinogenesis. To shed light on the alterations in global gene expression in the background of inflammation-related colon cancer and gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis, we conducted a comprehensive DNA microarray analysis using our model. Methods Male ICR mice were given a single ip injection of azoxymethane (AOM, 10 mg/kg body weight), followed by the addition of 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to their drinking water for 7 days, starting 1 week after the AOM injection. We performed DNA microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip) on non-tumorous mucosa obtained from mice that received AOM/DSS, AOM alone, and DSS alone, and untreated mice at wks 5 and 10. Results Markedly up-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa given AOM/DSS at wk 5 or 10 included Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5 and 5.7-fold increase at wk 10) and plasminogen activator, tissue (Plat, 48.5-fold increase at wk 5), myelocytomatosis oncogene (Myc, 3.0-fold increase at wk 5), and phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid) (Plscr2, 8.0-fold increase at wk 10). The notable down-regulated genes in the colonic mucosa of mice treated with AOM/DSS were the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding protein (Pparbp, 0.06-fold decrease at wk 10) and the transforming growth factor, beta 3 (Tgfb3, 0.14-fold decrease at wk 10). The inflammation-related gene, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (Ppar? 0.38-fold decrease at wk 5), was also down-regulated in the colonic mucosa of mice that received AOM/DSS. Conclusion This is the first report describing global gene expression analysis of an AOM/DSS-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis model, and our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies against carcinogenesis.

Suzuki, Rikako; Miyamoto, Shingo; Yasui, Yumiko; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Takuji

2007-01-01

229

Modifying effects of polyethylene glycols and sodium dodecyl sulfate on synthesis of Ni nanocrystals in 1,2-propanediol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphology-controlled synthesis of nickel (Ni) nanocrystals has been carried out from nickel acetate tetrahydrate with 1,2-propanediol as both solvent and reductant in the presence of modifiers. The as-prepared nanostructured Ni samples have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The presence of modifiers plays an important role in morphology-controlled synthesis of Ni nanocrystals. The modifying and stabilizing effects of single modifiers such as polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and their composites have been investigated.

Zhang, Xifeng; Yin, Hengbo; Cheng, Xiaonong; Jiang, Zhonggui; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Aili

2006-09-01

230

Changes in the state of ionization of carboxyl groups in elastin in response to the binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

The interaction of sodium dodecyl sulfate with elastin has been studied by complexometric titration. Approximately 1.2 mumoles of protons with a pKapp of 5.45 are taken up by 10 milligrams of insoluble elastin upon the binding of detergent, apparently due to the protonation of normally ionized carboxylate functions in this protein. Since ionized carboxylate functions of elastin are essential for its interaction with elastase and, possibly, metallic cations, these results may have physiological significance in view of the affinity of elastin for lipid-like ligands. PMID:34500

Kagan, H M

1978-01-01

231

Study of chemical selectivity of molecular binary mixed micelles of sodium 10-undecenyl sulfate and sodium N-undecenyl leucinate using linear solvation energy relationships model.  

PubMed

Poly(sodium 10-undecenyl sulfate) (poly-SUS), poly(sodium N-undecenyl leucinate) (poly-SUL) and their five molecular binary mixed micelles with varied SUS:SUL composition were prepared and used as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) model and free energy of transfer studies were used to characterize the retention behavior and the selectivity differences among the seven surfactant systems. System constant differences and regression models for varied benzene derivative compounds are used to establish the selectivity differences of the seven pseudostationary phases. The cavity formation and dispersion interaction (the v system constant) and the hydrogen-bonding acidity (the b system constant) of the surfactant systems were found to have the most significant influence on selectivity and MEKC retention. The molecular micelle with sulfate head group, poly-SUS, was found to be more hydrogen-bond acidic than the molecular micelle with leucinate head group, poly-SUL. The other system constants (a, s and e) have modest effect on the retention and selectivity of the benzene derivatives. The model intercept coefficients (c system constants), which are negative for all surfactant systems have unusually large values. The free energy changes of transfer for the functional groups studied have all negative values except phenol and benzyl alcohol. Selectivity differences between pseudostationary phases were also compared by plotting the log k values against each other and were found to agree well with LSER results. PMID:22446078

Ahmed, Hamid H; Ahlstrom, David M; Arslan, Hakan; Guzel, Mustafa; Akbay, Cevdet

2012-05-01

232

The effects of sodium sulfate in the water of nursery pigs and the efficacy of nonnutritive feed additives to mitigate those effects.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of sodium sulfate water and the efficacy of nonnutritive feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 320 barrows (5.4 ± 0.1 kg BW and 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 8 treatments for 24 d in a 2 × 4 factorial with 2 levels of sodium sulfate water (control or 3,000 mg sodium sulfate/L added), and 4 dietary zeolite (clinoptilolite) levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, or 1%). Fecal samples were collected on d 5, 9, 16, and 23; visually scored for consistency (1 = firm and 5 = watery); and analyzed for DM. No interactions of sodium sulfate × zeolite were observed for any response criteria. Overall (d 0 to 24), pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F compared with pigs drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water also had increased (P < 0.01) fecal scores and lower (P < 0.04) fecal DM on d 5, 9, and 16 compared with pigs drinking control water. Increasing dietary zeolite increased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI but had no effect on G:F. In Exp. 2, 350 barrows (5.7 ± 0.1 kg BW and 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments in a 2 × 5 factorial for 21 d with 2 levels of sodium sulfate water (control or 2,000 mg sodium sulfate/L added) and 5 dietary treatments (control, 1 or 2% zeolite, 1% humic acid substance [HA], and 1% humic and fulvic acid substance [HFB]). Fecal samples were collected on d 5, 8, 15, and 21; visually scored for consistency (1 = firm and 5 = watery); and analyzed for DM. Overall (d 0 to 21), a water source × diet interaction was observed for ADG and G:F because pigs fed the 1% HA had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F when drinking sodium sulfate water compared with other treatments but increased ADG and G:F when drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F and tended (P < 0.08) to have decreased ADFI compared with pigs drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had increased (P < 0.01) fecal scores and decreased (P < 0.01) fecal DM on d 5 and 8. In conclusion, water high in sodium sulfate concentrations decreased growth performance and increased fecal moisture in newly weaned pigs. Although zeolite improved growth performance in the first experiment, it did not influence growth in the second study. The nonnutritive feed additives used in both experiments were unsuccessful in ameliorating the increased osmotic diarrhea observed from high sodium sulfate water. PMID:24981569

Flohr, J R; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

2014-08-01

233

Formation of Reactive Sulfite-Derived Free Radicals by the Activation of Human Neutrophils: An ESR Study  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study is to determine the effect of (bi)sulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide) on human neutrophils and the ability of these immune cells to produce reactive free radicals due to (bi)sulfite oxidation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an abundant heme protein in neutrophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma and inflammatory disorders. In the present study sulfite (•SO3?) and sulfate (SO4•?) anion radicals are characterized with the ESR spin-trapping technique using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) in the reaction of (bi)sulfite oxidation by human MPO and human neutrophils via sulfite radical chain reaction chemistry. After treatment with (bi)sulfite, PMA-stimulated neutrophils produced DMPO-sulfite anion radical, -superoxide, and -hydroxyl radical adducts. The latter adduct probably resulted, in part, from the conversion of DMPO-sulfate to DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct via a nucleophilic substitution reaction of the radical adduct. This anion radical (SO4•?) is highly reactive and, presumably, can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. Therefore, we propose that the potential toxicity of (bi)sulfite during pulmonary inflammation or lung-associated diseases such as asthma may be related to free radical formation.

Ranguelova, Kalina; Rice, Annette B.; Khajo, Abdelahad; Triquigneaux, Mathilde; Garantziotis, Stavros; Magliozzo, Richard S.; Mason, Ronald P.

2012-01-01

234

Electron spin echo modulation of doxylstearic acid probes of the surface and internal structure of lithium dodecyl sulfate micelles: comparison with sodium dodecyl sulfate and tetramethylammonium dodecyl sulfate micelles  

SciTech Connect

Two-pulse electron spin echo modulation analyses of x-doxylstearic acid spin probes (x = 5, 7, 10, 12, and 16) in frozen lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) micelles in D/sub 2/O and lithium dodecyl-12,12,12-d/sub 3/ sulfate micelles in H/sub 2/O have been carried out. The results give information on the average conformation of the stearic acid chains and the distribution of D/sub 2/O and the -CD/sub 3/ end groups in the micellar aggregates. These are compared to data from dodecyl sulfate micelles with sodium or tetramethylammonium counterions (SDS and TMADS, respectively) which were studied previously in a similar fashion. The LDS micelles show a less compact and more hydrated headgroup region than SDS micelles. The -CD/sub 3/ surfactant end groups in LDS micelles are not concentrated at the micelle center but are broadly distributed throughout the micellar volume. The surface and internal structure of LDS micelles is quite comparable to that of TMADS micelles and is different from that of SDS micelles. 23 references, 2 figures.

Jones, R.R.M.; Maldonado, R.; Szajdzinska-Pietek, E.; Kevan, L.

1986-03-13

235

Disposition, accumulation and toxicity of iron fed as iron (II) sulfate or as sodium iron EDTA in rats.  

PubMed

A study was performed to provide data on the disposition, accumulation and toxicity of sodium iron EDTA in comparison with iron (II) sulfate in rats on administration via the diet for 31 and 61 days. Clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, food conversion efficiency, hematology, clinical chemistry and pathology of selected organs were used as criteria for disclosing possible harmful effects. Determination of iron and total iron binding capacity in blood plasma and non-heme iron analysis in liver, spleen and kidneys were used to assess the disposition and accumulation of iron originating from sodium iron EDTA or iron (II) sulfate. It was concluded that, under the conditions of the present study, iron is accumulated from the diet in liver, spleen and kidneys in a dose-dependent manner, and iron derived from FeEDTA is taken up and/or accumulated less efficiently in liver and spleen than iron from FeSO(4). Moreover, feeding iron up to 11.5 and 11.2 mg/kg body weight/day, derived from FeSO(4) and FeEDTA, respectively, did not result in tissue iron excess nor in any other toxicologically significant effects. PMID:11278058

Appel, M J; Kuper, C F; Woutersen, R A

2001-03-01

236

Elucidating the Catalytic Mechanism of Sulfite Oxidizing Enzymes using Structural, Spectroscopic and Kinetic Analyses  

PubMed Central

Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs) are molybdenum cofactor dependent enzymes that are found in plants, animals and bacteria. Sulfite oxidase (SO) is found in animals and plants, while sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH) is found in bacteria. In animals, SO catalyzes the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate as the final step in the catabolism of the sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. In humans, sulfite oxidase deficiency is an inherited recessive disorder that produces severe neonatal neurological problems that lead to early death. Plant SO (PSO) also plays an important role in sulfite detoxification, but in addition serves as an intermediate enzyme in the assimilatory reduction of sulfate. In vertebrates the proposed catalytic mechanism of SO involves two intramolecular one-electron transfer (IET) steps from the molybdenum cofactor to the iron of the integral b-type heme. A similar mechanism is proposed for SDH, involving its molybdenum cofactor and c-type heme. However, PSO, which lacks an integral heme cofactor, uses molecular oxygen as its electron acceptor. Here we review recent results for SOEs from kinetic measurements, computational studies, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, electrochemical measurements, and site-directed mutagenesis on active site residues of SOEs and of the flexible polypepetide tether that connects the heme and molybdenum domains of human SO. Rapid-kinetic studies of PSO are also discussed.

Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H.

2010-01-01

237

Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials. Final Technical Report. Reporting Period, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by ab...

V. M. Malhotra

2006-01-01

238

DISSOLUTION AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM SULFITE PLATELETS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the dissolution and crystallization of calcium sulfite platelets. The rates of calcium sulfite dissolution and crystallization are important in slurry scrubbing processes for flue gas desulfurization. The rates affect the scrubber solution composition, SO2 abs...

239

21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or explanation. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1...

2013-04-01

240

21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in accordance with good manufacturing practice, except that it is not used in meats; in food recognized as a source of vitamin B1 ; on fruits or vegetables intended to be served raw to consumers or sold raw to consumers, or to be presented to...

2013-04-01

241

Solid-surface room-temperature phosphorescence detection of serotonin, tryptamine, and gramine enhanced by inorganic salts and sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room-temperature phosphorescence characteristics of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), typtamine, and gramine ([3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole]) were studied on low-background paper substrates. Several experimental parameters were optimized for maximum signal intensity. Sodium iodide, thallium(I) nitrate, silver(I) nitrate, and lead(II) nitrate were tested as phosphorescence enhancers. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the enhancement efficiency of these inorganic salts was also studied. The pH values of

José de Ribamar; F. Júnior; A. D. Campiglia

1995-01-01

242

Simultaneous determination of chondroitin sulfate sodium, allantoin and pyridoxine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical eye drops by an ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of chondroitin sulfate sodium (CSS), allantoin and pyridoxine hydrochloride (VB6) in a commercial eye drops dosage form. An Alltima C18 column (250mm×4.6mm i.d., 5?m) was used for the separation at room temperature, with 25mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (containing 0.01% heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt) and acetonitrile (95:5,

Pengfei Jin; Jie Ma; Xuejun Wu; Ding Zou; Chunhua Sun; Xin Hu

2009-01-01

243

Characterization and application of molecular binary mixed molecular micelles of sodium 10-undecenyl sulfate and sodium N-undecenyl leucinate as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

Poly (sodium 10-undecenyl sulfate) (poly SUS), poly (sodium 10-undecenyl leucinate) (poly SUL), and their five molecular binary mixed micelles with varied SUS:SUL composition were prepared. The purity of these molecular micelles was confirmed by elemental analysis. Their partial specific volume, aggregation number, methylene selectivity, polarity, phase ratio, mobility, and elution window values were determined using a variety of analytical techniques. These molecular micelles were then evaluated as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for separation of benzene derivatives with a wide range of chemical properties. Elemental analysis results reveal that the ratio of the two surfactants in the binary mixture does not change significantly during the polymerization process. Poly SUS was found to have the lowest partial specific volume and it increases gradually with an increase of SUL mole fraction. Poly SUL was found to provide the most hydrophobic environment for test solutes. Based on the retention results, the strength of interaction between the molecular micelles and the analytes was found to follow the following order: NHB>HBA>HBD. This order indicates that the hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in retention of benzene derivatives. PMID:22967577

Akbay, Cevdet; Ahmed, Hamid H; Arslan, Hakan; Graham, Brittany; Guzel, Mustafa

2012-09-15

244

Protective effect of 4-methoxy-5-hydroxycanthin-6-one, a natural alkaloid, on dextran sulfate sodium-induced rat colitis.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 4-methoxy-5-hydroxycanthin-6-one (CAN), a natural alkaloid isolated from Picrasma quassioides (D.Don) Benn., on ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats in comparison with the positive control drug, sulfasalazine (SASP). Given orally for several days, CAN significantly reduced the severity of colitis and mitigated changes in colon length, colon mucosa myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in serum. The effect of CAN was similar to that of SASP. These results suggest that CAN treatment might be an effective therapeutic intervention against ulcerative colitis induced by DSS. PMID:19085815

Liu, Jun-Feng; Shao, Meng; Zhai, Da-Wei; Liu, Ke; Wu, Li-Jun

2009-02-01

245

Molecular dynamics study of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC)/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/decanol/water systems.  

PubMed

We have performed a 50 ns of molecular dynamics study of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC)/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/decanol/water systems. The influence of the cationic polyelectrolyte on the anionic SDS-based lamellar liquid crystalline system was investigated. The main structural parameters have been calculated and compared with experimental data. We obtain two types of PDADMAC conformation, a more folded structure A and a structure B where the PDADMAC molecule is adsorbed at the anionic head groups of the surfactant molecules. The polyelectrolyte-induced coexistence of two lamellar phases at a concentration of 2-3% of PDADMAC is observed, which is in agreement with experimental findings. PMID:19175342

Poghosyan, Armen H; Arsenyan, Levon H; Gharabekyan, Hrant H; Koetz, Joachim; Shahinyan, Aram A

2009-02-01

246

Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway may ameliorate dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) recognizes numerous small xenobiotic and natural molecules, such as dioxin and natural chemicals, and is involved in the metabolism of these compounds. AhR also has a regulatory role in inflammatory responses. This study investigated whether the activation of the AhR pathway affects dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, an ulcerative colitis-like model, in mice. DSS-induced colitis was ameliorated by pretreatment with a potent AhR activator, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), in mice. In addition, the mice pretreated with TCDD showed increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the colon, and inhibition of PGE2 production by indomethacin abrogated the inhibitory effects of TCDD on DSS-induced colitis. Collectively, the activation of the AhR pathway by TCDD may ameliorate DSS-induced colitis, at least in part, through PGE2 production. PMID:20231854

Takamura, Takeyuki; Harama, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Shuji; Shimokawa, Naomi; Nakamura, Yuki; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Kitamura, Masanori; Nakao, Atsuhito

2010-08-01

247

The effect of caffeine on the reactions of the excited singlet state of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of caffeine on a few photo-induced reactions of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) has been studied. In these systems caffeine complexes with the pyrene (K asso = 85 ± 10 M -1 and also with the other reactants, e.g. Cu 2+ or TI +. The efficiencies of reactions which involve contact, i.e. pyrene excimer formation, and quenching by TI + ions to give the triplet state of pyrene, are significantly reduced in the presence of caffeine, due to geometric inhibitions formed by the complexation processes. The kinetics of photo-induced electron transfer, e.g. between excited pyrene and Cu 2+, are not affected. However, the subsequent reactions of the products are modified and the yield of ionic products is markedly increased.

Hashimoto, Shuichi; Thomas, J. Kerry

1984-08-01

248

Human cytomegalovirus-induced immediate early antigens: analysis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after immunoprecipitation.  

PubMed Central

Immediate early antigen (IEA) induced in human lung fibroblasts by human cytomegalovirus was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis after immunoprecipitation with IEA-positive human sera. Two polypeptides of 76,000 daltons (76K) and 82K were detectable within 90 min after infection. Polypeptides of similar molecular weight were also found in immunoprecipitates of human cytomegalovirus-infected cells nonpermissive for virus replication. IEA is located within the nucleus, although some of the 76K material appears to be located on the outer nuclear membrane. Raising salt concentrations in the extraction buffer increased antigen extraction. The contribution of these IEA polypeptides to IEA nuclear fluorescent staining is discussed. Images

Michelson, S; Horodniceanu, F; Kress, M; Tardy-Panit, M

1979-01-01

249

Comparative study of photoluminescence of single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapped with sodium dodecyl sulfate, surfactin and polyvinylpyrrolidone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been dispersed with three types of amphiphilic materials in aqueous solutions: (i) an anionic aliphatic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), (ii) a cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactant, surfactin, and (iii) a water-soluble polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Solution photoluminescence (PL) studies suggest that SDS wrapping is very sensitive to the temperature whereas the other two give relatively robust wrapping around the SWCNTs. Low temperature PL spectra from both surfactin and PVP dispersed SWCNTs show that peak shifts are strongly dependent on their chiralities, which can be explained by the bandgap modulations with the environmental strain. The uniaxial and torsional strains deduced from their bandgap shifts were similar, indicating the strains are mainly due to the different rates of thermal expansion in SWCNTs and ice.

Li, Lain-Jong; Nicholas, R. J.; Chen, Chien-Yen; Darton, R. C.; Baker, S. C.

2005-05-01

250

Adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide in water under the effect of the potassium persulfate-sodium metabisulfite-copper sulfate system  

SciTech Connect

Since adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide (AA) has been studied very little and the information on the effect of copper ions on polymerization of AA prepared in dilute aqueous solutions is very limited, the features of adiabatic polymerization of AA in concentrated aqueous solutions in the presence of the potassium persulfate-sodium metabisulfite-copper sulfate redox initiating system were investigated in this study. The empirical equation for the overall rate of adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide in concentrated aqueous solutions was found, and the effective total activation energy, which decreases with an increase in the concentration of CuSO/sub 4/, was determined. An increase in the molecular weight of the polymer with an increase in the concentration of the monomer and a decrease in the concentration of the components of the initiating system was demonstrated.

Kurenkov, V.F.; Baiburdov, T.A.; Stupen'kova, L.L.

1988-04-10

251

Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours.

Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

2011-01-01

252

Electrochemical behavior of sodium azide at Pt and Au electrodes in sodium sulfate electrolyte: A DEMS study  

SciTech Connect

Azides are widely used in chemical technology for a large variety of applications, such as detonators (Pb(N{sub 3}){sub 2}), getters in electric discharge tubes, anticorrosive agents, or additives for the production of foam rubber. The electro-oxidation and -reduction of sodium azide at porous painted platinum and gold electrodes was studied using the multipurpose electrochemical mass spectrometry (MPEMS) which was operated in the differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) mode. The platinum electrode was found to be active for electro-oxidation as well as for electroreduction. Above 0.3 V vs. Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, azide is oxidized to give N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O. Reduction of azide takes place below {minus}0.9 V forming N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and possibly NH{sub 3}. In contrast to platinum, gold showed only activity for the electro-oxidation of azide leading to the formation of N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O above 0.5 V. Evidence for a reaction without evolution of volatile products was also found taking place above 0.1 V. A reaction mechanism is discussed emphasizing the role of adsorbed hydrogen and oxygen.

Dalmia, A.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F.; Liu, C.C. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1995-11-01

253

Oxygen and sulfur isotope composition of sulfate-rich evaporite mounds at the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the O and S isotope compositions of massive localized deposits of sodium sulfate composed nearly entirely of the mineral thenardite (Na2SO4) and its hydrate, mirabilite (Na2SO4.10H2O) collected from evaporite mounds occurring on the glacial end moraine of the Lewis Cliff Ice Tongue, Antarctica. Mounds are typically situated near the edges of small evaporative brine lakes of unknown depths. Sulfate-rich evaporite mounds at Lewis Cliff Ice Tongue have low ?18O values (average value = -17.2‰ (VSMOW)) and anomalously high ?34S values (average value = +49.1‰ (VCDT)). O and D isotope compositions of these brine lake waters confirm that they are derived from a mixture of glacial ice and snow that underwent evaporation. The highly negative ?18O water values (-30.8‰ to -64.2‰ (VSMOW)) imply the incorporation of this water oxygen into the hydrated sulfate minerals. When coupled with the enriched 34S values, these data point to mirabilite-thenardite mound formation processes involving bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR), followed by precipitation due to evaporation of the concentrated brines. We suggest that sulfate reduction occurs either at the bottom of the evaporative brine lakes, or sub-glacially, as a result of aqueous basal glacial conditions (Alpine-style) or possibly in an as yet unidentified sub-glacial lake. Sulfate 18O is ~30‰ more positive than that of the brine lake water and implies that either 1) sulfate formed directly from the oxidation of reduced sulfur within the brine lakes below ~0°C, during which a ~30‰ fractionation of oxygen isotopes could occur between water and the produced sulfate, or 2) sulfate is derived from the residue of the BSR, but with contribution from the re-oxidation of the intermediate product of BSR, sulfite. Oxygen isotopic exchange occurs between sulfite and ambient water rapidly, which also could introduce ~30‰ fractionation between the water and the sulfite. In turn, the observed sulfate will carry a similar ?18O as the sulfite (~-17‰).

Socki, R. A.; Sun, T.; Bish, D. L.; Harvey, R. P.; Tonui, E.; Bao, H.

2009-12-01

254

Energy transfer in the gamma radiolytic decomposition of sodium and potassium nitrates dispersed in phosphate, sulfate and carbonate matrices in solid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma radiolytic decomposition of sodium and potassium nitrates dispersed in respective phosphate, sulfate and carbonate matrices has been studied over a wide absorbed dose range upto 300 kGy. Decomposition of nitrates increases with the concentration of the additive in the admixtures. G(NO 2) values, calculated on the basis of electron fraction of the nitrate decreases with the absorbed dose and

N. G. Joshi; A. N. Garg

1994-01-01

255

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Increases the Efficacy of a Topical Formulation of Foscarnet against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Cutaneous Lesions in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on the efficacies of topical gel formulations of foscarnet against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cutaneous infection has been evaluated in mice. A single application of the gel formulation containing 3% foscarnet given 24 h postinfection exerted only a modest effect on the develop- ment of herpetic skin lesions. Of prime interest,

JOCELYNE PIRET; A. Desormeaux; H. Cormier; J. Lamontagne; P. Gourde; J. Juhasz; M. G. Bergeron

2000-01-01

256

Energy transfer in the gamma radiolytic decomposition of sodium and potassium nitrates dispersed in phosphate, sulfate and carbonate matrices in solid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma radiolytic decomposition of sodium and potassium nitrates dispersed in respective phosphate, sulfate and carbonate matrices has been studied over a wide absorbed dose range upto 300 kGy. Decomposition of nitrates increases with the concentration of the additive in the admixtures. G(NO? 2) values, calculated on the basis of electron fraction of the nitrate decreases with the absorbed dose and

N. G. Joshi; A. N. Garg

1994-01-01

257

TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

258

Impact of AlCl3 on the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium polyethylene glycol monoalkyl ether sulfate in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to study the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium polyethylene glycol monoalkyl ether sulfate in aqueous solution and in the presence of Al(3+) multivalent counterions in the form of AlCl3. The addition of the Al(3+) ions promotes significant micellar growth of the initially globular micelles into highly elongated structures until ultimately lamellar structures form. Increasing the size of the polyethylene oxide, EO, group progressively suppresses micellar growth before lamellar formation. Reducing the alkyl chain length has a similar effect on the structural evolution. Both trends are associated with increased solubility with increasing EO group size and decreasing alkyl chain length. Both the size of the EO group and the length of the alkyl chain affect sodium diethylene glycol monododecyl ether sulfate/Al(3+) complex formation and drive lamellar formation to progressively higher AlCl3 concentrations. PMID:24093727

Xu, Hui; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Petkov, Jordan T; Tucker, Ian; Grillo, I; Terry, A

2013-11-01

259

Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase  

SciTech Connect

Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. (Univ. South Florida College, Tampa (United States))

1991-03-11

260

Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite  

SciTech Connect

In bacterial cultures the authors measured sulfur isotope fractionation during transformations of thiosulfate and sulfite, pathways which may be of considerable importance in the cycling of sulfur in marine sediments and euxinic waters. They documented isotope fractionations during the reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite by bacterial enrichments and pure bacterial cultures from marine and freshwater environments. They also measured the isotope fractionation associated with the anoxygenic phototrophic oxidation of H{sub 2}S to thiosulfate by cyanobacteria. Except for sulfite reduction, isotope fractionations for these processes have not been previously reported. During the dissimilatory reduction of sulfite, H{sub 2}S was depleted in {sup 34}S by 6%, and during the reduction of thiosulfate to H{sub 2}S, depletions were between 7% and 11%. The largest observed isotope fractionation was associated with the bacterial disproportionation of sulfite which caused a {sup 34}S depletion in H{sub 2}S of 20--37% and a {sup 34}S enrichment in sulfate of 7--12%. During the bacterial disproportionation of thiosulfate, isotope fractionations between the outer sulfane sulfur and H{sub 2}S and between the inner sulfonate sulfur and sulfate were <4%. The authors observed isotope exchange between the two sulfur atoms of thiosulfate leading to a depletion of {sup 34}S in H{sub 2}S by up to 12% with a comparable enrichment of {sup 34}S in sulfate. No isotope fractionation was associated with the anoxygenic phototrophic oxidation of H{sub 2}S to thiosulfate. The depletion of {sup 34}S into H{sub 2}S during the bacterial reduction and disproportionation of thiosulfate and sulfite may, in addition to sulfate reduction and the bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur, contribute to the generation of {sup 34}S-depleted sedimentary sulfides.

Habicht, K.S.; Canfield, D.E. [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany)] [Max Planck Inst. for Marine Microbiology, Bremen (Germany); Rethmeier, J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)] [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

1998-08-01

261

Surfactant concentration dependent spectral effects of oxygen and depletion interactions in sodium dodecyl sulfate dispersions of carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Quenching of optical absorbance spectra for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been observed to be more pronounced at higher concentrations of the surfactant. The protonation-based quenching behavior displays wavelength dependence, affecting larger diameter nanotube species preferentially. Although absorbance may be recovered by hydroxide addition, pH measurements suggest that hydrolysis of SDS does not play a major role in the short term quenching behavior at high SDS concentrations. The degree of quenching is observed to correlate well with an increase in attractive depletion as SDS concentration is increased, while the extent of depletion is found to depend heavily on the concentration of preparation in comparison to the final SDS concentration. Attractive depletion in SDS is also found to be preferential for CNTs of larger diameter. It is proposed that depletion enhances the quenching effect due to close association of CNT-SDS complexes providing higher SDS densities on the CNT surface, leading to further oxidation. In addition, the quenching behavior in SDS is found to strongly suppress the optical and Raman signal from metallic nanotube species even at high pH. Displacement of SDS by sodium deoxycholate as a secondary surfactant is able to reverse the effects of protonation of metallic species, whereas hydroxide addition is only partially effective. PMID:24861777

Blanch, Adam J; Shapter, Joe G

2014-06-12

262

Combined intravesical sodium hyaluronate/chondroitin sulfate therapy for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy and safety of intravesical treatment combining sodium hyaluronate (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Methods: Between February 2010 and May 2011, 20 consecutive women with IC/BPS were treated with intravesical instillations containing sodium HA (1.6%; 800 mg/50 ml) and sodium CS (2%; 1 g/50 ml) weekly for the first month, biweekly for the second month, and then monthly for at least 3 months. Before and after treatment, all patients filled in the Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index and Problem Index (ICSI/ICPI), the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and the Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency Patient Symptom Scale (PUF). Treatment efficacy was assessed by comparing the pre- and post-treatment mean scores of the three questionnaires using Student’s t test (p value <0.05 was considered significant). Results: Statistically significant mean decreases in ICSI (from 13.0 to 9.3; p = 0.0003), ICPI (from 11.35 to 8.85; p = 0.0078) and PUF (from 20.0 to 15.75; p = 0.0007) questionnaire scores were seen. No cases of side effects or complications were observed. The mean follow up was 5 months. Conclusions: Despite the limitations of this study, the outcomes confirmed the role of combination therapy with HA and CS as a safe and effective option for the treatment of IC/BPS. Further randomized controlled studies with a higher number of patients and a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these results.

Giberti, Claudio; Cortese, Pierluigi; Schenone, Maurizio

2013-01-01

263

The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

1976-01-01

264

Adhesion of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant monolayers with TiO2 (rutile and anatase) surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Surfactants are widely used as templates to control the nucleation and growth of nanostructured metal oxides such as titania. To gain insight into the origin of surfactant-titania interactions responsible for polymorph and orientation selection, we simulate the self-assembly of an anionic surfactant monolayer on various low-index titania surfaces and for a range of densities. We characterize the binding in each case and compute the adhesion energies, finding anatase (100) and rutile (110) to be the strongest-binding surfaces. The sodium counterions in the monolayer are found to dominate the adhesion. It is also observed that the assembly is directed predominantly by surface-monolayer electrostatic complementarity.

Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M.

2013-09-17

265

Sulfite (SPORL) pretreatment of switchgrass for enzymatic saccharification.  

PubMed

SPORL (Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocellulose) pretreatment was applied to switchgrass and optimized through an experimental design using Response Surface Methodology within the range of temperature (163-197 °C), time (3-37 min), sulfuric acid dosage (0.8-4.2% on switchgrass), and sodium sulfite dosage (0.6-7.4% on switchgrass). Performance of SPORL was compared with that of dilute acid (DA) and alkali (AL) in switchgrass pretreatment. Results indicated that SPORL pretreatment improved the digestibility of switchgrass through sufficiently removing hemicellulose, partially dissolving lignin, and reducing hydrophobicity of lignin by sulfonation. The removal of hemicellulose was more critical to substrate digestibility than the removal of lignin during SPORL pretreatment. SPORL pretreated switchgrass had better enzymatic digestibility than DA and AL pretreated ones. The SPORL pretreated switchgrass could be hydrolyzed by 83% within 48 h with 15 FPU (filter paper unit) cellulase and 30 CBU (cellobiose unit) ?-glucosidase/g cellulose. PMID:23232228

Zhang, D S; Yang, Q; Zhu, J Y; Pan, X J

2013-02-01

266

Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organic species and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) ≥ 0.8 and was always observed for O : C < 0.5. For 0.5 ≤ O : C < 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organic species investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ≥ NH4HSO4 ≥ NaCl ≥ NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O : C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

2013-12-01

267

Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organics and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O:C) was ? 0.8 and was always observed for O:C<0.5. For 0.5 ? O:C< 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organics investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ? NH4HSO4 ? NaCl ? NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting-out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O:C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

2013-07-01

268

Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

Onysko, S.J.

1984-07-01

269

Sulfite radicals in banded coral  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare records of stable oxygen ratio (?18O) and SO3?\\/CO2? ratio in an 8 yr long modern coral skeleton from a small volcanic island in the Banda Islands, eastern Indonesia. The SO3?\\/CO2? ratio in ESR signal intensity reflects the skeletal SO32?\\/CO32? ratio, which is the degree of sulfite incorporation. The resulting ?18O and SO3?\\/CO2? records correlate well for the most

S. Tsukamoto; J. M. Heikoop

1996-01-01

270

Physicochemistry of interaction between the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate in water and isopropyl alcohol-water media.  

PubMed

The physicochemistry of interaction of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate was studied in detail using tensiometry, turbidimetry, calorimetry, viscometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fair interaction initially formed induced small micelles of the surfactants and later on produced free normal micelles in solution. The interaction process yielded coacervates that initially grew by aggregation in the aqueous medium and disintegrated into smaller species at higher surfactant concentration. The phenomena observed were affected by the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IP) in the medium. The hydrodynamic sizes of the dispersed polymer and its surfactant-interacted species were determined by DLS measurements. The surface morphologies of the solvent-removed PDADMAC and its surfactant-interacted complexes from water and IP-water media were examined by the SEM technique. The morphologies witnessed different patterns depending on the composition and the solvent environment. The head groups of the dodecyl chain containing surfactants made differences in the interaction process. PMID:21466231

Mukherjee, Suvasree; Dan, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Panda, Amiya K; Moulik, Satya P

2011-05-01

271

Kinetics and equilibria of the interaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline with gallium(III) in water and sodium dodecyl sulfate solution.  

PubMed

The kinetics and equilibria of binding of gallium(III) to the 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) have been investigated in water and in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. Moreover, the pKA1 and pKA2 of HQ and first hydrolysis constant of Ga3+ ion have been measured in water and SDS solution. The analysis of the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior reveals that the reactive form of Ga(III) is GaOH2+ in both cases. Although in water the only bound form of Ga(III) appears to be the deprotonated complex GaL, evidence for stabilization of the protonated form, GaHL on the micelle surface and stabilization of Ga3+ with respect to GaOH2+ is provided by the kinetic behavior in SDS. The addition of SDS at concentrations around the critical micellar concentration, results in a large enhancement of the rate of complex formation. The large catalytic effect produced by the SDS micellar solution provides a promising basis for the extraction of gallium from water using the HQ/SDS system. A procedure for gallium(III) extraction and recovery based on ligand modified-micellar enhanced ultrafiltration method, using the HQ/SDS system, is described. PMID:19146470

Biver, Tarita; Ghezzi, Lisa; Malvaldi, Veronica; Secco, Fernando; Tiné, Maria Rosaria; Venturini, Marcella

2009-02-12

272

Modifying effect of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on surface activity and self-assembled nanostructures of sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

The effect of four cationic ionic liquids (ILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMImCl), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BMImBr), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (HMImCl), and 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide (HMImBr) on surface activity and micellization of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), is studied. The thermodynamic data on micellization and surface adsorption are obtained from tensiometry and conductometry. The applicability of UV-visible spectroscopy to study of SDS/IL systems is also investigated using Crystal Violet as the probe. Cyclic voltammetry, dynamic light scattering, and TEM imaging are employed to investigate the size and morphology of aggregates. According to the findings, addition of butyl-chained ILs to aqueous SDS results in only a slight gradual increase in average aggregate size whereas the size of SDS assemblies are dramatically increased upon addition of hexyl-chained ILs. It is proposed that BMIm(+) cations of the IL undergo Coulombic attractive interactions with anionic headgroups adsorbed at the micellar surface in aqueous SDS whereas HMIm(+) interact through hydrophobic chain-chain attractions as well. Thus, mixed micellization results in formation of vesicles. A micellar phase change from vesicles to micelles takes place at higher [SDS]/[IL] ratios. All of these processes are successfully tracked by the employed techniques. PMID:24635046

Javadian, Soheila; Nasiri, Fayezeh; Heydari, Akbar; Yousefi, Ali; Shahir, Afshin Asadzadeh

2014-04-17

273

Quantification of AAV Particle Titers by Infrared Fluorescence Scanning of Coomassie-Stained Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gels  

PubMed Central

Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors have gained increasing attention as gene delivery vehicles in basic and preclinical studies as well as in human gene therapy trials. Especially for the latter two—for both safety and therapeutic efficacy reasons—a detailed characterization of all relevant parameters of the vector preparation is essential. Two important parameters that are routinely used to analyze recombinant AAV vectors are (1) the titer of viral particles containing a (recombinant) viral genome and (2) the purity of the vector preparation, most commonly assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) followed by silver staining. An important, third parameter, the titer of total viral particles, that is, the combined titer of both genome-containing and empty viral capsids, is rarely determined. Here, we describe a simple and inexpensive method that allows the simultaneous assessment of both vector purity and the determination of the total viral particle titer. This method, which was validated by comparison with established methods to determine viral particle titers, is based on the fact that Coomassie Brilliant Blue, when bound to proteins, fluoresces in the infrared spectrum. Viral samples are separated by SDS–PAGE followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and gel analysis with an infrared laser-scanning device. In combination with a protein standard, our method allows the rapid and accurate determination of viral particle titers simultaneously with the assessment of vector purity.

Kohlbrenner, Erik; Henckaerts, Els; Rapti, Kleopatra; Gordon, Ronald E.; Linden, R. Michael; Hajjar, Roger J.

2012-01-01

274

Inhibition of Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) Induces Resistance to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

VIP is highly expressed in the colon and regulates motility, vasodilatation, and sphincter relaxation. However, its role in the development and progress of colitis is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the participation of VIP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic mucosal inflammation using VIP?/? and WT mice treated with VIP antagonists. Colitis was induced in 32 adult VIP?/? and 14 age-matched WT litter-mates by giving 2.5 % DSS in the drinking water. DSS-treated WT mice were injected daily with VIP antagonists, VIPHyb (n=22), PG 97–269 (n=9), or vehicle (n=31). After euthanasia, colons were examined; colonic cytokines mRNA were quantified. VIP?/? mice were remarkably resistant to DSS-induced colitis compared to WT. Similarly, DSS-treated WT mice injected with VIPHyb (1 ?M) or PG 97–269 (1 nM) had significantly reduced clinical signs of colitis. Furthermore, colonic expression of IL-1, TNF-?, and IL-6 was significantly lower in VIP?/? and VIPHyb or PG 97–269 compared to vehicle-treated WT. Genetic deletion of VIP or pharmacological inhibition of VIP receptors resulted in resistance to colitis. These data demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role for VIP in murine colitis and suggest that VIP antagonists may be an effective clinical treatment for human inflammatory bowel diseases.

Vu, John P.; Million, Mulugeta; Larauche, Muriel; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Waschek, James A.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Pisegna, Joseph R.

2014-01-01

275

Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption study of VO2+-doped sodium zinc sulfate tetrahydrate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of VO2+ doped in sodium zinc sulfate tetrahydrate (Na2Zn(SO4)2·4H2O) have been carried out at room temperature. The results show the presence of three magnetically inequivalent VO2+ sites with different populations. The VO2+ impurity ions take up substitutional positions in the host lattice replacing Zn2+ ions. The angular variation of EPR spectra in three mutually orthogonal planes, bc, a*c and ba*, are used to determine the spin-Hamiltonian parameters. The optical absorption spectrum of VO2+ ions doped in the crystal lattice is also recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 325-1100 nm. This is utilized to study the energy level structure of the VO2+ ion. By correlating the EPR and optical data, various molecular orbital coefficients of the VO2+ ion with its ligands are evaluated and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed.

Kripal, Ram; Shukla, Santwana

2012-01-01

276

Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to mo-blue by a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-degrading Klebsiella oxytoca strain DRY14.  

PubMed

Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30?mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5?mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700?nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3?g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

Halmi, M I E; Zuhainis, S W; Yusof, M T; Shaharuddin, N A; Helmi, W; Shukor, Y; Syed, M A; Ahmad, S A

2013-01-01

277

Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

1997-07-01

278

Interfacial and bulk behavior of sodium dodecyl sulfate in isopropanol-water and in isopropanol-poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-water media.  

PubMed

The surface activity of isopropanol (IP) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) at the air/water interface has been studied. The self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in IP-water as well as in IP-PVP-water media has been investigated using physical methods, viz., tensiometry, conductometry, calorimetry, and viscometry. The interaction of SDS with PVP in IP-water medium as well as its self-aggregation (or micellization) in the presence of PVP has been assessed. The results reveal a fair degree of surface activity of IP in aqueous medium, which is only moderate for PVP. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) of SDS passes through a minimum at (v/v) % IP = 6.62. SDS interacts with PVP, yielding a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) at a low [SDS], independent of IP content in the medium. At a higher [SDS], free micelle formation takes place in solution, which is lower in mixed solvent than in water and is independent of solvent composition by tensiometry, but not by conductometry and calorimetry. The viscosity of micelle-interacted PVP in solution takes a long time to stabilize, whereas, for non-interacting additives, such as NaCl and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), it is time independent. PMID:17547430

Dan, Abhijit; Chakraborty, Indranil; Ghosh, Soumen; Moulik, Satya P

2007-07-01

279

Beneficial effect of shikonin on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

The naphthoquinone shikonin, a major component of the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, now is studied as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Acute UC was induced in Balb/C mice by oral administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The disease activity index was evaluated, and a histologic study was carried out. Orally administered shikonin reduces induced UC in a dose-dependent manner, preventing the shortening of the colorectum and decreasing weight loss by 5% while improving the appearance of feces and preventing bloody stools. The disease activity index score was much lower in shikonin-treated mice than in the colitic group, as well as the myeloperoxidase activity. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was reduced by 75%, activation of NF-?B was reduced by 44%, and that of pSTAT-3 by 47%, as well as TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 production. Similar results were obtained in primary macrophages culture. This is the first report of shikonin's ability to attenuate acute UC induced by DSS. Shikonin acts by blocking the activation of two major targets: NF-?B and STAT-3, and thus constitutes a promising potential therapeutic agent for the management of the inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23346196

Andújar, Isabel; Ríos, José Luis; Giner, Rosa María; Miguel Cerdá, José; Recio, María Del Carmen

2012-01-01

280

Inhibition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) induces resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

VIP is highly expressed in the colon and regulates motility, vasodilatation, and sphincter relaxation. However, its role in the development and progress of colitis is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the participation of VIP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic mucosal inflammation using VIP(-/-) and WT mice treated with VIP antagonists. Colitis was induced in 32 adult VIP(-/-) and 14 age-matched WT litter-mates by giving 2.5 % DSS in the drinking water. DSS-treated WT mice were injected daily with VIP antagonists, VIPHyb (n?=?22), PG 97-269 (n?=?9), or vehicle (n?=?31). After euthanasia, colons were examined; colonic cytokines mRNA were quantified. VIP(-/-) mice were remarkably resistant to DSS-induced colitis compared to WT. Similarly, DSS-treated WT mice injected with VIPHyb (1 ?M) or PG 97-269 (1 nM) had significantly reduced clinical signs of colitis. Furthermore, colonic expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 was significantly lower in VIP(-/-) and VIPHyb or PG 97-269 compared to vehicle-treated WT. Genetic deletion of VIP or pharmacological inhibition of VIP receptors resulted in resistance to colitis. These data demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role for VIP in murine colitis and suggest that VIP antagonists may be an effective clinical treatment for human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24395090

Vu, John P; Million, Mulugeta; Larauche, Muriel; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Waschek, James A; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

2014-01-01

281

Adsorption of Mixtures of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate at the Air-Water Interface.  

PubMed

We relate the adsorption from mixtures of well-defined poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers of generations 4 and 8 with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at the air-water interface to the bulk solution properties. The anionic surfactant shows strong attractive interactions with the cationic dendrimers at pH 7, and electrophoretic mobility measurements indicate that the association is primarily driven by electrostatic interactions. Optical density measurements highlight the lack of colloidal stability of the formed bulk aggregates at compositions close to charge neutrality, the time scale of which is dependent on the dendrimer generation. Adsorption at the air-water interface was followed from samples immediately after mixing using a combination of surface tension, neutron reflectometry, and ellipsometry measurements. In the phase separation region for dendrimers of generation 4, we observed high surface tension corresponding to a depleted surfactant solution but only when the aggregates carried an excess of surfactant. Interestingly, these depleted adsorption layers contained spontaneously adsorbed macroscopic aggregates, and these embedded particles do not rearrange to spread monomeric material at the interface. These findings are discussed in relation to the interfacial properties of mixtures involving dendrimers of generation 8 as well as polydisperse linear and hyperbranched polyelectrolytes where there is polyelectrolyte bound to a surfactant monolayer. The results presented here demonstrate the capability of dendrimers to sequester anionic surfactants in a controllable manner, with potential applications as demulsification and antifoaming agents. PMID:24785641

Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Campbell, Richard A; Nylander, Tommy

2014-05-27

282

Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants.  

PubMed

The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between approximately 1 and 100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3-5 min following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:19615738

Nichols, Michael D; Scott, Evan A; Elbert, Donald L

2009-10-01

283

Monocolonization of Germ-Free Mice with Bacteroides fragilis Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis is inflammatory conditions of the colon caused by interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies indicated that the gut microflora may be involved in the colonic inflammation. Bacteroides fragilis (BF) is a Gram-negative anaerobe belonging to the colonic symbiotic. We aimed to investigate the protective role of BF in a colitis model induced in germ-free (GF) mice by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). GF C57BL/6JNarl mice were colonized with BF for 28 days before acute colitis was induced by DSS. BF colonization significantly increased animal survival by 40%, with less reduction in colon length, and decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils) in colon mucosa following challenge with DSS. In addition, BF could enhance the mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory-related cytokine such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) with polymorphism cytokine IL-17 and diminish that of proinflammatory-related tumor necrosis factor ? with inducible nitric oxide synthase in the ulcerated colon. Myeloperoxidase activity was also decreased in BF-DSS mice. Taking these together, the BF colonization significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by suppressing the activity of inflammatory-related molecules and inducing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. BF may play an important role in maintaining intestinal immune system homeostasis and regulate inflammatory responses.

Liu, Ju-Yun; Li, Yen-Peng; Huang, Yen-Te; Chuang, Hsiao-Li

2014-01-01

284

Rapid induction of colorectal tumors in rats initiated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine followed by dextran sodium sulfate treatment.  

PubMed

To establish a rapid bioassay system with neoplastic end-points for detection of colorectal carcinogenesis modifiers, we evaluated the effects of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment on the different stages of carcinogenesis in rats initiated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). F344 male rats were given three subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg body weight) in a week, and were administered drinking water containing 1.0% DSS ad libitum either during or after the initiation period for a week, or both during and after initiation periods for 2 weeks. At the 10th week of the experiment, although the numbers of aberrant crypt foci were significantly decreased in all groups treated with DSS and given DMH-initiation as compared with DMH alone, dysplastic foci/adenomas/adenocarcinomas were increased. The incidences and multiplicities of these lesions were highest in rats treated with DSS after DMH-initiation period. At the 26th week, the incidences of adenocarcinomas (100 vs. 20% in DMH alone) and their multiplicities (6.6 +/- 0.8/rat vs. 0.2 +/- 0.4/rat in DMH alone) were also highest in this group. These results indicate that short-term DSS-treatment in the post-initiation period significantly accelerates DMH-induced colorectal tumor development in rats, so that this protocol may effective for establishment of a rapid bioassay system with neoplastic end-points. PMID:12957352

Onose, Jun-ichi; Imai, Toshio; Hasumura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Hirose, Masao

2003-08-20

285

Effect of salt additives on protein partition in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems.  

PubMed

Partitioning of 15 proteins in polyethylene glycol (PEG)-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) formed by PEG of two different molecular weights, PEG-600 and PEG-8000 in the presence of different buffers at pH7.4 was studied. The effect of two salt additives (NaCl and NaSCN) on the protein partition behavior was examined. The salt effects on protein partitioning were analyzed by using the Collander solvent regression relationship between the proteins partition coefficients in ATPS with and without salt additives. The results obtained show that the concentration of buffer as well as the presence and concentration of salt additives affects the protein partition behavior. Analysis of ATPS in terms of the differences between the relative hydrophobicity and electrostatic properties of the phases does not explain the protein partition behavior. The differences between protein partitioning in PEG-600-salt and PEG-8000-salt ATPS cannot be explained by the protein size or polymer excluded volume effect. It is suggested that the protein-ion and protein-solvent interactions in the phases of ATPS are primarily important for protein partitioning. PMID:23920121

Ferreira, Luisa; Madeira, Pedro P; Mikheeva, Larissa; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris

2013-12-01

286

Diallyl trisulfide suppresses dextran sodium sulfate-induced mouse colitis: NF-?B and STAT3 as potential targets.  

PubMed

Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), one of the volatile constituents of garlic oil, has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. In this study, DATS (10?mol) given orally for 7days before and for another 7days after starting administration of 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water protected against colitis induced by DSS in male ICR mice. DATS significantly inhibited the DSS-induced DNA binding of NF-?B, phosphorylation of I?B? and the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins, such as cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which are major target proteins of NF-?B. The DSS-induced DNA binding and phosphorylation at the Tyr 705 residue of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and expression of its major target protein cyclin D1 in mouse colonic mucosa were also attenuated by DATS administration. Likewise, DSS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 was suppressed by DATS treatment. In conclusion, DATS ameliorates the DSS-induced mouse colitis presumably by blocking inflammatory signaling mediated by NF-?B and STAT3. PMID:23811270

Lee, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Hee Geum; Choi, Ki-Seok; Surh, Young-Joon; Na, Hye-Kyung

2013-07-26

287

Inhibitory Effect of Recombinant IL-25 on the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Experimental Colitis in Mice  

PubMed Central

The role of interleukin 25 (IL-25) in a number of human diseases still has not been extensively studied, here we attempt to evaluate the role of recombinant IL-25 (rIL-25) in the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. Acute colitis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by oral administration of 2.5% DSS in drinking water ad libitum. At the same time as the start of DSS exposure, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.4 µg of rIL-25 or PBS. Then disease activity index (DAI), histological changes and survival rate were observed. The levels of IL-17, IL-23, and TGF-?1 in colon tissues were determined by ELISA, and the production of IL-17 by CD4+/CD8+ T cells was detected by intracellular flow cytometry. In contrast to the DSS treated mice, DSS + rIL-25 treated mice displayed a lower DAI, limited histological changes and prolonged survival. The levels of IL-23 and TGF-?1 were significantly elevated in the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice compared to the DSS treated mice. There was no significant difference in the production of IL-17 in colon tissues and CD4+/CD8+ T cells between the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice and DSS treated mice. Our findings suggest the role of IL-25 in inhibiting development and progression of acute colitis in DSS-induced mouse colitis model.

Mchenga, S S Salum; Wang, Danan; Li, Cheng; Shan, Fengping; Lu, Changlong

2008-01-01

288

Interaction of poly(ethylene oxide) with the sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle interface studied with nitroxide spin probes  

SciTech Connect

Electron spin resonance (ESR) line widths of 5-, 7-, 12-, and 16-doxylstearic acid (x-DSA) and tempo nitroxides versus the concentration of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles show different trends. The ESR line widths of 5-, 7-, and 16-DSA increase with increasing concentration of PEO, which is interpreted as due to increasing viscosity in the environment of the nitroxide spin probe. The tempo and 12-DSA line widths were independent of the concentration of PEO. The line width showed the highest value for 5-DSA and the lowest value of tempo. The line width of x-DSA decreases from 5-DSA to a minimum value for 12-DSA and then increases somewhat for 16-DSA. This is interpreted as bending of the alkyl chain to provide different locations for the nitroxide moiety relative to the micelle interface. The relative distances of the nitroxide moiety of [chi]-DSA from deuterated water at the SDS micelle interface was measured by deuterium electron spin echo modulation. The distances increased from 5-DSA to 12-DSA and then decreased for 16-DSA. The interpretation of the DSR line width trend is supported by the deuterium modulation depth trend. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Kang, Y.S.; Kevan, L. (Univ. of Houston, TX (United States))

1994-08-04

289

Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1 (PSG1) activates TGF-? and prevents dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-?s (TGF-?s) are secreted from cells as latent complexes and the activity of TGF-?s is controlled predominantly through activation of these complexes. Tolerance to the fetal allograft is essential for pregnancy success; TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 play important roles in regulating these processes. Pregnancy-specific ?-glycoproteins (PSGs) are present in the maternal circulation at a high concentration throughout pregnancy and have been proposed to have anti-inflammatory functions. We found that recombinant and native PSG1 activate TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 in vitro. Consistent with these findings, administration of PSG1 protected mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased the number of T regulatory cells. The PSG1-mediated protection was greatly inhibited by the coadministration of neutralizing anti-TGF-? antibody. Our results indicate that proteins secreted by the placenta directly contribute to the generation of active TGF-? and identify PSG1 as one of the few known biological activators of TGF-?2. PMID:23945545

Blois, S M; Sulkowski, G; Tirado-González, I; Warren, J; Freitag, N; Klapp, B F; Rifkin, D; Fuss, I; Strober, W; Dveksler, G S

2014-03-01

290

Analysis of cell wall extracts of Candida albicans by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot techniques.  

PubMed Central

Cell walls of intact yeast- and mycelial-phase Candida albicans B311 were extracted with different compounds: dithiothreitol, dithiothreitol with protease, dithiothreitol with lyticase, and dithiothreitol with protease followed by beta-glucuronidase with chitinase. Extracts were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot techniques. Dithiothreitol extracts contained the most satisfactory array of components for study. Analysis of these extracts demonstrated that the outer cell wall layers of Candida blastoconidia and germ tubes contained a complex array of polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and proteins. The proteins contributed to a latticework stabilized by covalent bonds that was important in determining the porosity of the outer cell wall layers. When equivalent weights were analyzed, mycelial-phase extract contained a more varied array of proteins than did yeast-phase extract. Only a portion of proteins in mycelial-phase extract elicited antibody responses in hyperimmunized rabbits or infected humans. A polysaccharide-rich, high-molecular-weight component (migrating at a position that would correspond to proteins having molecular weights of 235,000 to 250,000) and a protein component (molecular weight, 19,000) were readily demonstrable in the mycelial-phase extract but could not be identified in the yeast-phase extract. Images

Ponton, J; Jones, J M

1986-01-01

291

Role of sol with iron oxyhydroxide/sodium dodecyl sulfate composites on Fenton oxidation of sorbed phenanthrene in sand.  

PubMed

In situ Fenton oxidation has been recently used to oxidize sorbed organic contaminants in soil. The objective of present contribution was to study the role of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as anionic surfactant and sol with iron oxyhydroxide/SDS for Fenton oxidation of sorbed phenanthrene in sand. The most effective experimental condition for phenanthrene oxidation was the Fenton-like reaction system with 0.35% H2O2, 30 mM SDS, and 4 mM FeCl2. The Fenton-like reactions under these experimental conditions resulted in the production and sustenance of a stable sol with iron oxyhydroxide/SDS composites over 24 h. The formation of iron oxyhydroxide/SDS composites resulted in stabilization of H2O2, and then the Fenton-like reactions were sustained over 24 h. Furthermore, the sol of iron oxyhydroxide/SDS composites gave suitable sites to sustain oxidations of dissolved phenanthrene over a prolonged reaction span, which is required for in situ chemical oxidation. PMID:23666072

Park, Joo-Yang; Kim, Jung-Hwan

2013-09-15

292

Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants  

PubMed Central

The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between ?1–100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3–5 minutes following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering.

Nichols, Michael D.; Scott, Evan A.; Elbert, Donald L.

2009-01-01

293

Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: an alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals.  

PubMed

A simple and relatively fast approach for developing a solid phase extraction has been described and used for determination of trace quantities of some heavy and transition metal ions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated poly vinyl chloride (PVC) modified with bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1,4-butanediimine (BHABDI) ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 10 mL of 3M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed for metals content (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors such as pH, amount of ligand and PVC, amount and type of surfactant, and condition of eluting solutions on the sorption recovery of metal ions have been investigated in detail. The relative standard deviation was found in the range of 1.0-3.2% for 0.2 microg mL(-1)of metals ions. After optimization of the extraction condition and the instrumental parameters, a detection limit was found to be in the range of 1.2-3.1 microg L(-1), with enrichment factor of 50 was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these metals contents in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:19027140

Marahel, Farzaneh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Montazerozohori, Morteza; Davoodi, Shahnaz

2009-01-01

294

An optimized procedure for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of hydrophobic peptides from an integral membrane protein.  

PubMed

A procedure for successful analysis of the hydrophobic tryptic peptides of the Neurospora crassa plasma membrane H+-ATPase by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is described. The features of this procedure that are essential for the best results include (i) treatment of the hydrophobic peptide samples with neat trifluoroacetic acid, (ii) dissolution and disaggregation of the hydrophobic peptide samples with SDS at 0 degrees C, (iii) SDS-PAGE of the hydrophobic peptide samples in gels containing a 200:1 ratio of acrylamide to bisacrylamide and a 5-20% convex acrylamide gradient, and (iv) silver-staining of the gels after electrophoresis. This method results in the reproducible resolution and visualization of the H+-ATPase hydrophobic tryptic peptides, which range in size from ca. 5 to 21 kDa, as well as other peptides and proteins ranging in size from ca. 2.5 to 150 kDa. The methods described should also prove useful in other studies where resolution and visualization of hydrophobic peptides of integral membrane proteins are required. PMID:2525882

Hennessey, J P; Scarborough, G A

1989-02-01

295

Increased Susceptibility to Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Transducer OASIS Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

OASIS is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transmembrane transcription factor that is activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Previously, we showed that OASIS regulates final maturation of goblet cells in the large intestine. In the present study, to elucidate the roles of OASIS under pathophysiological conditions, we examined the stress response and inflammatory responses in Oasis deficient (Oasis?/?) mice exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis. A significant loss of body weight and an increase of mortality were observed in Oasis?/? mice with DSS-induced colitis compared with those in WT mice. The mucosa of the large intestine in Oasis?/? mice exhibited severe damage involving inflammatory cell infiltration. The expression levels of ER stress and apoptosis markers in intestinal epithelial cells were upregulated in Oasis?/? mice. These abnormalities were improved by treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a chemical chaperone that facilitates protein folding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that OASIS plays important roles in protection of the large intestinal mucosa in DSS-induced colitis through attenuation of ER stress and inflammation.

Hino, Kenta; Saito, Atsushi; Asada, Rie; Kanemoto, Soshi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

2014-01-01

296

Rapid protein separations in ultra-short microchannels: microchip sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.  

PubMed

We have developed novel protein gel electrophoresis techniques, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF) in short microchannels (approximately millimeters) that take less than a minute. A photopatterning technique was used to cast in situ crosslinked polyacrylamide gel in a microchannel to perform SDS-PAGE. A fluorescent protein marker sample (Mr range of 20,000-200,000) was separated in less than 30 s in less than 2 mm of channel length. Crosslinked polyacrylamide gel, patterned in channels using UV light, provides higher sieving power and sample stacking effect, therefore yielding faster and higher-resolution separation in a chip. IEF of proteins was also achieved in a microchannel, and several proteins were focussed within tens of seconds in mm-length channels. As resolution in IEF is independent of separation distance, focusing in ultra-short channels results in not only faster separation but also more concentrated bands potentially allowing detection of low-concentration species. PMID:15499934

Han, Jongyoon; Singh, Anup K

2004-09-17

297

Sulfite-Mediated Oxidation of Myeloperoxidase to a Free Radical: Immuno-Spin Trapping Detection in Human Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Previous studies focused on catalyzed oxidation of (bi)sulfite, leading to the formation of reactive sulfur trioxide (•SO3?), peroxymonosulfate (?O3SOO•) and sulfate (SO4•?) anion radicals, which can damage target proteins and oxidize them to protein radicals. It is known that these very reactive sulfur- and oxygen-centered radicals can be formed by oxidation of (bi)sulfite by peroxidases. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme protein secreted from activated neutrophils that play a central role in host defense mechanisms, allergic reactions and asthma, is a likely candidate for initiating the respiratory damage caused by sulfur dioxide. The objective of the present study is to examine the oxidative damage caused by (bi)sulfite-derived free radicals in human neutrophils through formation of protein radicals. We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study the protein oxidations driven by sulfite-derived radicals. We found that the presence of sulfite can cause MPO-catalyzed oxidation of MPO to a protein radical in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated human neutrophils. We trapped the MPO-derived radicals in situ using the nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and detected them immunologically as nitrone adducts in cells. Our present study demonstrates that myeloperoxidase initiates (bi)sulfite oxidation leading to MPO radical damage possibly leading to (bi)sulfite-exacerbated allergic reactions.

Ranguelova, Kalina; Rice, Annette B.; Lardinois, Olivier M.; Triquigneaux, Mathilde; Steinckwich, Natacha; Deterding, Leesa J.; Garantziotis, Stavros; Mason, Ronald P.

2013-01-01

298

Exogenous expression of human SGLT1 exhibits aggregations in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1), which actively and energy-dependently uptakes glucose, plays critical roles in the development of various diseases including diabetes mellitus and cancer, and has been viewed as a promising therapeutic target for these diseases. Protein-protein interaction with EGFR has been shown to regulate the expression and activity of SGLT1. Exogenous expression of SGLT1 is one of the essential approaches to characterize its functions; however, exogenously expressed SGLT1 is not firmly detectable by Western blot at its calculated molecular weight, which creates a hurdle for further understanding the molecular events by which SGLT1 is regulated. In this study, we demonstrated that exogenous SGLT1 functions in glucose-uptake normally but is consistently detected near the interface between stacking gel and running gel rather than at the calculated molecular weight in Western blot analysis, suggesting that the overexpressed SGLT1 forms SDS-resistant aggregates, which cannot be denatured and effectively separated on SDS-PAGE. Co-expression of EGFR enhances both the glucose-uptake activity and protein level of the SGLT1. However, fusion with Flag or HA tag at its carboxy- but not its amino-terminus abolished the glucose-uptake activity of exogenous SGLT1 without affecting its protein level. Furthermore, the solubility of SGLT1 aggregates was not affected by other detergents but was partially improved by inhibition of o-link glycosylation. These findings suggested exogenous overexpression of SGLT1 can function normally but may not be consistently detectable at its formula weight due to its gel-shift behavior by forming the SDS-resistant aggregates.

Huang, Wei-Chien; Hsu, Sheng-Chie; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Chen, Yun-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Weihua; Fidler, Isaiah J; Hung, Mien-Chie

2013-01-01

299

Oxidation of metal sulfites by iodine for use in thermochemical hydrogen cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that thermochemical hydrogen cycles involving metal sulfates offer an alternative to sulfuric acid which is corrosive and has high energy requirements for drying prior to its thermal decomposition. The formation of such metal sulfates in conjunction with a low temperature hydrogen formation step is discussed. The following reaction was studied: MgSO3(c) + MgO(c) + I2(g) yields MgSO4(c) + MgI2(c). Although magnesium sulfite appears promising for this oxidation, a search was conducted for alternative metal sulfites which fit the following criteria for use: (1) sulfate must decompose in the temperature range available ( 1400 K); (2) iodide must hydrolyze easily; and (3) salts must not be rare, toxic, or expensive. Lanthanum and titanium fit these criteria.

Mason, C. F. V.; Bowman, M. G.

1981-09-01

300

A digitized fluorescence imaging study of intracellular Ca 2+ , pH, and mitochondrial function in primary cultures of rabbit corneal epithelial cells exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Primary cultures of rabbit corneal epithelial cells have been developed as an in vitro system to predict irritancy potential\\u000a and delayed cytotoxicity of surfactants in our laboratory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the\\u000a surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a common ingredient in consumer products, on intracellular Ca2+, pH, and mitochondrial function in this culture

Wei Yang; Daniel Acosta

1995-01-01

301

Determination of rutin deca(H-) sulfate sodium in rat plasma using ion-pairing liquid chromatography after ion-pairing solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rutin deca(H-) sulfate sodium (RDS) is one of the most important drug candidates, which possesses very good activity as inhibitor of the complement system of warm-blooded animals and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to understand RDS metabolism and disposition, an ion-pairing coupled with solid-phase extraction technique (IP-SPE) was developed to extract RDS from rat plasma sample. Tetrabutyl ammonium bromide

Xiang-Jun Wang; Yin-Xiu Jin; Jing-Yan Ying; Su Zeng; Tong-Wei Yao

2006-01-01

302

Archive of SID Isolation and characterization of thermophilic alkaline proteases resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl- ene diamine tetraacetic acid from Bacillus sp. GUS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic Bacillus sp. GUS1, isolated from a soil sample obtained from citrus garden, produced at least three proteases as detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and zymogram analysis. The enzymes were stable in the alkaline pH range (8.0-12.0), with the optimum temper- ature and pH range of the proteases being 70ºC and 6.0-12.0, respectively. All three proteases

Sara Seifzadeh; Reza Hassan Sajedi; Reyhaneh Sariri

2008-01-01

303

Mice deficient in the CXCR2 ligand, CXCL1 (KC\\/GRO-?), exhibit increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of TLRs and MyD88 in the maintenance of gut integrity in response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was demonstrated recently and led to the conclusion that the innate immune response to luminal commensal flora provides necessary signals that facilitate epithelial repair and permits a return to homeostasis after colonic injury. In this report, we demonstrate that a

Terez Shea-Donohue; Karen Thomas; M. Joshua Cody; Aiping Zhao; Louis J. DeTolla; Karen M. Kopydlowski; Masayuki Fukata; Sergio A. Lira; Stefanie N. Vogel

2008-01-01

304

Spatial-dependent electron scavenging by stearic acid nitroxide spin-labels in the photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles  

SciTech Connect

Various n-doxylstearic acids are used as electron acceptors for electrons produced by photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in order to probe the location of TMB in the micelle. The results indicate that TMB is solubilized in an asymmetric location near one side of the approximately spherical micelle in the liquid phase. 1 figure, 2 tables.

Bales, B.L. (California State Univ., Northridge); Kevan, L.

1982-09-16

305

Tomato Lycopene Extract Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced NF-?B Signaling but Worsens Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in NF-?BEGFP Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe impact of tomato lycopene extract (TLE) on intestinal inflammation is currently unknown. We investigated the effect of TLE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate signaling and experimental colitis.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsMice were fed a diet containing 0.5 and 2% TLE or isoflavone free control (AIN-76). The therapeutic efficacy of TLE diet was assessed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) exposed mice and IL-10?\\/?;NF-?BEGFP mice,

Young-Eun Joo; Thomas Karrasch; Marcus Mühlbauer; Brigitte Allard; Acharan Narula; Hans H. Herfarth; Christian Jobin

2009-01-01

306

Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of Leukocyte Apheresis with a Fiber Filter in a Rat Model of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While several clinical trials have suggested that leukocytapheresis (LCAP) by filtration can benefit patients with active\\u000a ulcerative colitis, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to address the\\u000a mechanisms that may underlie the therapeutic effects of LCAP using a dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis model in rats.\\u000a Treatment with the active column, but not

Hiroshi Yamasaki; Keiichi Mitsuyama; Junya Masuda; Nobuo Tomiyasu; Hiroko Takedatsu; Hirotada Akashi; Satoshi Matsumoto; Hidetoshi Takedatsu; Kotaro Kuwaki; Osamu Tsuruta; Michio Sata

2010-01-01

307

Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous titanium dioxide using self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate and benzyl alcohol systems as templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous TiO2 materials have been synthesized with the aid of benzyl alcohol (BA) as cosurfactant along with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the template\\/structure directing agent (SDA). The synthesis was carried out both with and without the use of BA in the presence of an anionic surfactant (SDS) or cationic (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB) to optimize the

Atanu Mitra; Asim Bhaumik; Bidyut Kumar Paul

2008-01-01

308

Dietary rutin, but not its aglycone quercetin, ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice: attenuation of pro-inflammatory gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress has been shown to play a pivotal role in the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and carcinogenesis. We evaluated the effects of two dietary anti-oxidants, rutin and its aglycone quercetin, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice. Female ICR mice were fed a diet containing 0.1% rutin or 0.1% quercetin for 2 weeks, and given

Ki Han Kwon; Akira Murakami; Takuji Tanaka; Hajime Ohigashi

2005-01-01

309

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis of smooth-lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity among Brucella biovars related to A and M specificities.  

PubMed Central

Smooth (S)-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from reference and field strains of several biovars of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis were prepared by (i) the hot phenol-water method, (ii) hot sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction and proteinase K digestion, or (iii) dimethyl sulfoxide extraction. These S-LPS-enriched fractions were further analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining after periodate oxidation. Immunoblots were developed by using either monoclonal antibodies specific for Brucella A or M antigens or polyclonal polyspecific or monospecific sera from rabbits, cattle, and goats. The specificity of monoclonal antibodies reactive with Brucella unique (A or M) epitopes was demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, LPS latex agglutination, or agglutination inhibition. The most-represented subunits of S-LPS ranged in Mr from 30,000 to 70,000 relative to marker proteins. According to A or M immunodominance, two sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis banding patterns were clearly distinguished among biovars, whatever the fraction tested: a close succession of regularly spaced narrow bands for A greater than M strains and regularly spaced triplets of bands including either (i) a first thin band followed by two thick bands for B. abortus M greater than A strains or (ii) one thick band between two thin bands for B. melitensis or B. suis M greater than A strains. Moreover, A and M specificities were reaffirmed by sandwich enzyme immunoassay and latex agglutination inhibition with monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera. Images

Garin-Bastuji, B; Bowden, R A; Dubray, G; Limet, J N

1990-01-01

310

Risk analysis of sulfites used as food additives in china.  

PubMed

This study was to analyze the risk of sulfites in food consumed by the Chinese people and assess the health protection capability of maximum-permitted level (MPL) of sulfites in GB 2760-2011. Sulfites as food additives are overused or abused in many food categories. When the MPL in GB 2760-2011 was used as sulfites content in food, the intake of sulfites in most surveyed populations was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Excess intake of sulfites was found in all the surveyed groups when a high percentile of sulfites in food was in taken. Moreover, children aged 1-6 years are at a high risk to intake excess sulfites. The primary cause for the excess intake of sulfites in Chinese people is the overuse and abuse of sulfites by the food industry. The current MPL of sulfites in GB 2760-2011 protects the health of most populations. PMID:24625409

Zhang, Jian Bo; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua Li; Zhang, Ji Yue; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian

2014-02-01

311

Determination of sulfite in Oriental herbal medicines.  

PubMed

Sulfite was detected in 7 varieties of Oriental herbal medicines (Pueraria radix, Zingiberis rhizoma, Platycodon radix, Adenophora radix, Pinellia tuber, Astragalus radix, and Paeonia radix) on the Korean market. Sulfiting of commercial Oriental herbal medicines by fumigation with burning bituminous coal was simulated, and the accumulation of sulfite was investigated by using fresh Platycodon radix roots obtained from a growing field. The sulfite level reached a plateau in 9 h, and the maximum sulfite level found by the Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC 990.28) was 1020 ppm. The sulfite content in the simulated Platycodon radix sample determined by alkali extraction followed by ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection (AOAC 990.31) was approximately 17% lower on average than the MW results. Free-sulfite levels determined by acid extraction and ion-exclusion chromatography with electrochemical detection were between 19 and 49% of the MW results. The advantages of different methods for sulfite determination and the significance of the results are discussed. PMID:11048856

Kim, Y K; Koh, E; Park, S Y; Chang, S Y; Park, S J; Na, W I; Kim, H J

2000-01-01

312

How are "Atypical" Sulfite Dehydrogenases Linked to Cell Metabolism? Interactions between the SorT Sulfite Dehydrogenase and Small Redox Proteins.  

PubMed

Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of the toxic and mutagenic compound sulfite to sulfate, thereby protecting cells from adverse effects associated with sulfite exposure. While some bacterial SDHs that have been characterized to date are able to use cytochrome c as an electron acceptor, the majority of these enzymes prefer ferricyanide as an electron acceptor and have therefore been termed "atypical" SDHs. Identifying the natural electron acceptor of these enzymes, however, is crucial for understanding how the "atypical" SDHs are integrated into cell metabolism. The SorT sulfite dehydrogenase from Sinorhizobium meliloti is a representative of this enzyme type and we have investigated the interactions of SorT with two small redox proteins, a cytochrome c and a Cu containing pseudoazurin, that are encoded in the same operon and are co-transcribed with the sorT gene. Both potential acceptor proteins have been purified and characterized in terms of their biochemical and electrochemical properties, and interactions and enzymatic studies with both the purified SorT sulfite dehydrogenase and components of the respiratory chain have been carried out. We were able to show for the first time that an "atypical" sulfite dehydrogenase can couple efficiently to a cytochrome c isolated from the same organism despite being unable to efficiently reduce horse heart cytochrome c, however, at present the role of the pseudoazurin in SorT electron transfer is unclear, but it is possible that it acts as an intermediate electron shuttle between. The SorT system appears to couple directly to the respiratory chain, most likely to a cytochrome oxidase. PMID:21833314

Low, Louie; Ryan Kilmartin, James; Paul V, Bernhardt; Ulrike, Kappler

2011-01-01

313

How are "Atypical" Sulfite Dehydrogenases Linked to Cell Metabolism? Interactions between the SorT Sulfite Dehydrogenase and Small Redox Proteins  

PubMed Central

Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of the toxic and mutagenic compound sulfite to sulfate, thereby protecting cells from adverse effects associated with sulfite exposure. While some bacterial SDHs that have been characterized to date are able to use cytochrome c as an electron acceptor, the majority of these enzymes prefer ferricyanide as an electron acceptor and have therefore been termed “atypical” SDHs. Identifying the natural electron acceptor of these enzymes, however, is crucial for understanding how the “atypical” SDHs are integrated into cell metabolism. The SorT sulfite dehydrogenase from Sinorhizobium meliloti is a representative of this enzyme type and we have investigated the interactions of SorT with two small redox proteins, a cytochrome c and a Cu containing pseudoazurin, that are encoded in the same operon and are co-transcribed with the sorT gene. Both potential acceptor proteins have been purified and characterized in terms of their biochemical and electrochemical properties, and interactions and enzymatic studies with both the purified SorT sulfite dehydrogenase and components of the respiratory chain have been carried out. We were able to show for the first time that an “atypical” sulfite dehydrogenase can couple efficiently to a cytochrome c isolated from the same organism despite being unable to efficiently reduce horse heart cytochrome c, however, at present the role of the pseudoazurin in SorT electron transfer is unclear, but it is possible that it acts as an intermediate electron shuttle between. The SorT system appears to couple directly to the respiratory chain, most likely to a cytochrome oxidase.

Ulrike, Kappler

2011-01-01

314

Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Gut Microbiota, Especially Akkermansia muciniphila, Protect the Progression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis.

Kang, Chil-sung; Ban, Mingi; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jeon, Jun-Sung; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Soo-Kyung; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Roh, Tae-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

2013-01-01

315

Murine Model of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis Reveals Candida glabrata Virulence and Contribution of ?-Mannosyltransferases*  

PubMed Central

Candida glabrata, like Candida albicans, is an opportunistic yeast pathogen that has adapted to colonize all segments of the human gastrointestinal tract and vagina. The C. albicans cell wall expresses ?-1,2-linked mannosides (?-Mans), promoting its adherence to host cells and tissues. Because ?-Mans are also present in C. glabrata, their role in C. glabrata colonization and virulence was investigated in a murine model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Five clustered genes of C. glabrata encoding ?-mannosyltransferases, BMT2–BMT6, were deleted simultaneously. ?-Man expression was studied by Western blotting, flow cytometry, and NMR analysis. Mortality, clinical, histologic, and colonization scores were determined in mice receiving DSS and different C. glabrata strains. The results show that C. glabrata bmt2–6 strains had a significant reduction in ?-1,2-Man expression and a disappearance of ?-1,2-mannobiose in the acid-stable domain. A single gavage of C. glabrata wild-type strain in mice with DSS-induced colitis caused a loss of body weight, colonic inflammation, and mortality. Mice receiving C. glabrata bmt2–6 mutant strains had normal body weight and reduced colonic inflammation. Lower numbers of colonies of C. glabrata bmt2–6 were recovered from stools and different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Histopathologic examination revealed that the wild-type strain had a greater ability to colonize tissue and cause tissue damage. These results showed that C. glabrata has a high pathogenic potential in DSS-induced colitis, where ?-Mans contribute to colonization and virulence.

Jawhara, Samir; Mogensen, Estelle; Maggiotto, Francois; Fradin, Chantal; Sarazin, Aurore; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Maes, Emmanuel; Guerardel, Yann; Janbon, Guilhem; Poulain, Daniel

2012-01-01

316

Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and C31G as Microbicidal Alternatives to Nonoxynol 9: Comparative Sensitivity of Primary Human Vaginal Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

A broad-spectrum vaginal microbicide must be effective against a variety of sexually transmitted disease pathogens and be minimally toxic to the cell types found within the vaginal epithelium, including vaginal keratinocytes. We assessed the sensitivity of primary human vaginal keratinocytes to potential topical vaginal microbicides nonoxynol-9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Direct immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses demonstrated that primary vaginal keratinocytes expressed epithelial cell-specific keratin proteins. Experiments that compared vaginal keratinocyte sensitivity to each agent during a continuous, 48-h exposure demonstrated that primary vaginal keratinocytes were almost five times more sensitive to N-9 than to either C31G or SDS. To evaluate the effect of multiple microbicide exposures on cell viability, primary vaginal keratinocytes were exposed to N-9, C31G, or SDS three times during a 78-h period. In these experiments, cells were considerably more sensitive to C31G than to N-9 or SDS at lower concentrations within the range tested. When agent concentrations were chosen to result in an endpoint of 25% viability after three daily exposures, each exposure decreased cell viability at the same constant rate. When time-dependent sensitivity during a continuous 48-h exposure was examined, exposure to C31G for 18 h resulted in losses in cell viability not caused by either N-9 or SDS until at least 24 to 48 h. Cumulatively, these results reveal important variations in time- and concentration-dependent sensitivity to N-9, C31G, or SDS within populations of primary human vaginal keratinocytes cultured in vitro. These investigations represent initial steps toward both in vitro modeling of the vaginal microenvironment and studies of factors that impact the in vivo efficacy of vaginal topical microbicides.

Krebs, Fred C.; Miller, Shendra R.; Catalone, Bradley J.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Malamud, Daniel; Howett, Mary K.; Wigdahl, Brian

2000-01-01

317

Evaluation of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate as a sanitizer for use in processing Georgia-grown cantaloupes.  

PubMed

Freshly harvested Georgia-grown cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus cv. Athena and Atlantis) were spot inoculated with 100 ?l of a five-strain mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Poona (9 log CFU/ml) at the stem scar and on the netted rind and then subjected to no treatment (control) or a 6-min treatment (tank only) in water, 120 ppm of chlorine (pH 7.0), 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; pH 3.0), or 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS (pH 3.0). The log reduction for the tank-only treatments was 0.31, 0.59, 1.32, and 1.37 log CFU/g at the stem scar and 0.97, 1.59, 2.06. and 3.37 log CFU/g on the netted rind for water, chlorine, 1% levulinic acid plus 0.1% SDS, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. A greater log reduction was observed for the cantaloupe surface tissue with the water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS treatments when additional sanitizer (2 ml) and brushing (to simulate cantaloupes tumbling over brushes on the processing line) were added to the dump tank treatment. The stem scar tissue reductions were 0.90, 1.69, and 1.53 log CFU/g, whereas the netted rind reductions were 1.56, 2.50, and 4.47 log CFU/g after treatment with water, chlorine, and 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS, respectively. These data suggest that 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS is effective for reducing Salmonella on the netted rind surface of cantaloupes. However, neither 2% levulinic acid plus 0.2% SDS nor 120 ppm of chlorine substantially reduced Salmonella on stem scar tissue. PMID:24112578

Webb, Cathy C; Davey, Lindsey E; Erickson, Marilyn C; Doyle, Michael P

2013-10-01

318

Intramuscular injection of adenoviral hepatocyte growth factor at a distal site ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) severely affects the quality of life of patients. At present, there is no clinical solution for this condition; therefore, there is a need for innovative therapies for IBD. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) exerts various biological activities in various organs. However, a clinically applicable and effective HGF-based therapy for IBD has yet to be developed. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effect of injecting an adenoviral vector encoding the human HGF gene (Ad.HGF) into the hindlimbs of mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Plasma levels of circulating human HGF (hHGF) were measured in injected mice. The results showed that weight loss and colon shortening were significantly lower in Ad.HGF-infected mice as compared to control (Ad.LacZ-infected) colitic mice. Additionally, inflammation and crypt scores were significantly reduced in the entire length of the colon, particularly in the distal section. This therapeutic effect was associated with increased cell proliferation and an antiapoptotic effect, as well as a reduction in the number of CD4+ cells and a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio. The levels of inflammatory, as well as Th1 and Th2 cytokines were higher in Ad.HGF-infected mice as compared to the control colitic mice. Thus, systemically circulating hHGF protein, produced by an adenovirally transduced hHGF gene introduced at distal sites in the limbs, significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by promoting cell proliferation (i.e., regeneration), preventing apoptosis, and immunomodulation. Owing to its clinical feasibility and potent therapeutic effects, this method may be developed into a clinical therapy for treating IBD.

YUGE, KENTARO; TAKAHASHI, TOMOYUKI; KHAI, NGIN CIN; GOTO, KAZUKO; FUJIWARA, TAKAKO; FUJIWARA, HISAYOSHI; KOSAI, KEN-ICHIRO

2014-01-01

319

Determination and application of the equilibrium oxygen isotope effect between water and sulfite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information encoded by the two stable isotope systems in sulfate (?S and ?O) has been widely applied to aid reconstructions of both modern and ancient environments. Interpretation of ?O records has been complicated by rapid oxygen isotope equilibration between sulfoxyanions and water. Specifically, the apparent relationship that develops between ?O and ?18Owater during microbial sulfate reduction is thought to result from rapid oxygen isotope equilibrium between intracellular water and aqueous sulfite - a reactive intermediate of the sulfate reduction network that can back-react to produce sulfate. Here, we describe the oxygen equilibrium isotope effect between water and sulfite (referring to all the sum of all S(IV)-oxyanions including sulfite and both isomers and the dimer of bisulfite). Based on experiments conducted over a range of pH (4.5-9.8) and temperature (2-95 °C), where ? = 1000 * (? - 1), we find ?-HO=13.61-0.299?pH-0.081?T°C.

Wankel, Scott D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Eldridge, Daniel L.; Johnston, David T.

2014-01-01

320

Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY  

SciTech Connect

Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

2008-11-10

321

Isotope effects associated with the anaerobic oxidation of sulfite and thiosulfate by the photosynthetic bacterium, Chromatium vinosum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purple photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium vinosum, strain D, catalyzes several oxidations of reduced sulfur compounds under anaerobic conditions in the light: e.g., sulfide --> sulfur --> sulfate, sulfite --> sulfate, and thiosulfate --> sulfur + sulfate. Here it is shown that no sulfur isotope effect is associated with the last of these processes; isotopic compositions of the sulfur and sulfate produced can differ, however, if the sulfane and sulfonate positions within the thiosulfate have different isotopic compositions. In the second process, an observed change from an inverse to a normal isotope effect during oxidation of sulfite may indicate the operation of 2 enzymatic pathways. In contrast to heterotrophic anaerobic reduction of oxidized sulfur compounds, anaerobic oxidations of inorganic sulfur compounds by photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by relatively small isotope effects.

Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

1985-01-01

322

21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. 201...201.22 Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. (a) Sulfites are chemical substances that are...

2009-04-01

323

21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. 201...201.22 Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. (a) Sulfites are chemical substances that are...

2010-04-01

324

Compatibility and stability of ondansetron hydrochloride with morphine sulfate and with hydromorphone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C.  

PubMed

The physical compatibility and chemical stability of ondansetron hydrochloride 0.1 and 1 mg/mL with morphine sulfate 1 mg/mL and with hydromorphone hydrochloride 0.5 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were studied. Test solutions of the drugs in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared in triplicate and stored at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C. Samples were removed immediately and at various time points over 31 days and stored at -70 degrees C until analyzed. Physical compatibility was assessed visually and by measuring turbidity with a color-correcting turbidimeter and particle content with a light-obscuration particle sizer and counter. Chemical stability was determined by measuring the concentration of each drug in duplicate with stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. There were no visual or subvisual changes in turbidity or particle content in any of the test solutions at any of the time points. There was little or no loss of any of the drugs. When admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, ondansetron hydrochloride 0.1 and 1 mg/mL plus morphine sulfate 1 mg/mL or hydromorphone hydrochloride 0.5 mg/mL were compatible and stable for at least 7 days at 32 degrees C and for at least 31 days at 4 and 22 degrees C. PMID:7527184

Trissel, L A; Xu, Q; Martinez, J F; Fox, J L

1994-09-01

325

Secondary structure and interfacial aggregation of amyloid-beta(1-40) on sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of large numbers of fibrillar amyloid deposits in the form of senile plaques in the brain. The fibrils in senile plaques are composed of 40- and 42-residue amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides. Several lines of evidence indicate that fibrillar Abeta and especially soluble Abeta aggregates are important in the pathogenesis of AD, and many laboratories have investigated soluble Abeta aggregates generated from monomeric Abeta in vitro. Of these in vitro aggregates, the best characterized are called protofibrils. They are composed of globules and short rods, show primarily beta-structure by circular dichroism (CD), enhance the fluorescence of bound thioflavin T, and readily seed the growth of long fibrils. However, one difficulty in correlating soluble Abeta aggregates formed in vitro with those in vivo is the high probability that cellular interfaces affect the aggregation rates and even the aggregate structures. Reports that focus on the features of interfaces that are important in Abeta aggregation have found that amphiphilic interactions and micellar-like Abeta structures may play a role. We previously described the formation of Abeta(1-40) aggregates at polar-nonpolar interfaces, including those generated at microdroplets formed in dilute hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP). Here we compared the Abeta(1-40) aggregates produced on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles, which may be a better model of biological membranes with phospholipids that have anionic headgroups. At both HFIP and SDS interfaces, changes in peptide secondary structure were observed by CD immediately when Abeta(1-40) was introduced. With HFIP, the change involved an increase in predominant beta-structure content and in fluorescence with thioflavin T, while with SDS, a partial alpha-helical conformation was adopted that gave no fluorescence. However, in both systems, initial amorphous clustered aggregates progressed to soluble fibers rich in beta-structure over a roughly 2 day period. Fiber formation was much faster than in the absence of an interface, presumably because of the close intermolecular proximity of peptides at the interfaces. While these fibers resembled protofibrils, they failed to seed the aggregation of Abeta(1-40) monomers effectively. PMID:16834338

Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan; Reed, Dana Kim; Moore, Brenda D; Rosenberry, Terrone L

2006-07-18

326

Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mineralization and mobility of nonylphenol and sodium dodecyl sulfate in agricultural soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is one of the major scientific research fields in this decade. One of the most wide-spread nanomaterials are carbon based nanoparticles (CNPs) which are increasingly be used in industry. Several studies shows that CNPs are interacting with other chemical compounds and organic pollutants in the environment. It is assumed that the interactions between CNPs and organic pollutants are affected by solution and aggregate behavior. Based on the knowledge of the behavior of CNPs and organic pollutants in aquatic systems the interactions of CNPs and organic pollutants in agricultural soils have to be studied. As organic pollutants two environmental substances, nonylphenol (NP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected as model substances. They occur frequently in aqueous systems and also show different solubility behavior. As CNP representatives, two different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were selected. They differed either in length or outer diameter. Conclusions therefrom are to be closed the influence of length and diameter of the sorption capacity of different organic pollutants. In addition, two agricultural soils (sandy and silty soil) and one forest soil (sandy soil) were chosen. Mineralization and sorption experiments were conducted to provide information about the degradation of organic pollutants in presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils. To analyze the CNPs mineralization potential, peroxidase activity was measured. Further extraction experiments were conducted to detect the extractable part of organic pollutants. The results show that the surface area of the MWNT has a significant impact on the sorption behav-ior of NP and SDS in soils. The sorption of NP and SDS is much higher than without MWNT. However, the properties of the organic pollutants (different water solubility and hydrophobicity) are equally important and should be noted. The degradation of both pollutants is influenced by MWNT. Due to the strong sorption of NP and SDS on the MWNT, the degradation of these pollutants in soils, is slower than without MWNT. The peroxidase activity did not contribute to NP and SDS degradation. But the peroxidase activity in agricultural soils is higher than in forest soils. The extractable fraction of NP and SDS is very low and amounts to a maximum of 2 %. Due to the lower degradation of NP and SDS in the presence of MWNT a longer retention of the substances in the soils and potential toxic effects for humans and animals, as a result of plant uptake may be taken into account.

Lillotte, Julia; Marschner, Bernd; Stumpe, Britta

2014-05-01

327

Three-dimensional structure of the ion-channel forming peptide trichorzianin TA VII bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.  

PubMed

Trichorzianin TA VII, Ac0 U1 A2 A3 U4 J5 Q6 U7 U8 U9 S10 L11 U12 P13 V14 U15 I16 Q17 Q18 Fol19, is a nonadecapeptide member of the peptaibol antibiotics biosynthesized by Trichoderma soil fungi, which is characterized by a high proportion of the alpha, alpha-dialkylated amino acids, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib, U) and isovaline (Iva, J), an acetylated N-terminus and a C-terminal phenylalaninol (Pheol, Fol). The main interest in such peptides stems from their ability to interact with phospholipid bilayers and form voltage-dependent transmembrane channels in planar lipid bilayers. In order to provide insights into the lipid-peptide interaction promoting the voltage gating, the conformational study of TA VII in the presence of perdeuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-d25) micelles has been carried out. 1H sequential assignment have been performed with the use of two-dimensional homo- and -heteronuclear nmr techniques including double quantum filtered correlated spectroscopy, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, 1H-13C heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation. Conformational parameters, such as 3JNHC alpha H coupling constants, temperature coefficients of amide protons (delta gamma/delta TNH) and quantitative nuclear Overhauser enhancement data, lead to detailed structural information. Ninety-eight three-dimensional structures consistent with the nmr data were generated from 231 interproton distances six phi dihedral angle restraints, using restrained molecular dynamics and energy minimization calculations. The average rms deviation between the 98 refined structures and the energy-minimized average structure is 0.59 A for the backbone atoms. The structure of trichorzianin TA VII associated with SDS micelles, as determined by these methods, is characterized by two right-handed helical segments involving residues 1-8 and 11-19, linked by a beta-turn that leads to an angle about 90 degrees-100 degrees between the two helix axes; residues 18 and 19 at the end of the C-terminal helix exhibit multiple conformations. PMID:9729066

Condamine, E; Rebuffat, S; Prigent, Y; Ségalas, I; Bodo, B; Davoust, D

1998-08-01

328

Stacking of unlabeled sodium dodecyl sulfate-proteins within a fluorimetrically detected moving boundary, electroelution and mass spectrometric identification.  

PubMed

The previously reported fluorimetric detection of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein in the presence of cascade blue in agarose gel electrophoresis using barbital buffer was found to be equally feasible in the absence of the fluorescent marker and using Tris-Tricinate buffer, provided that SDS was loaded with the sample but not contained in the catholyte. That fluorescent detection is thought to be due to the formation of a moving boundary between leading SDS and trailing barbital, or Tricinate buffer. This hypothesis is supported by the following evidence: (i) The fluorometrically detected band disappears with addition of SDS to the catholyte; (ii) band area is proportional to protein and/or SDS load; (iii) mobility of SDS-proteins differing in mass is the same at agarose concentrations up to 3%; (iv) lowering of protein mobility by increase in gel concentration and/or increase in the size of the SDS-protein leads to band disappearance. Fluorescent detection of the band is like to be nonspecific and due to the light scattering properties of a stack comprising moving boundaries of any analytes with net mobilities intermediate between SDS (or micellar SDS) and the trailing buffer constituent at their regulated very high concentrations. The steady-state stack of SDS-proteins in the size range of 14.4-45.0 kDa, and the transient stack of an SDS-protein of 66.2 kDa have lent themselves to electroelution and characterization by mass of the proteins after removal of SDS and buffer exchange using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry. The possibility to form a stack of protein between leading SDS and trailing buffer anions under conditions of weak molecular sieving (open-pore gel and small-sized protein) contributes to the understanding of moving boundaries in gel electrophoresis, but in view of the narrowly defined conditions, under which this stack forms, is of limited practical significance for the gel electrophoresis of SDS-proteins. PMID:11358154

Yefimov, S; Sjomeling, C; Yergey, A L; Chrambach, A

2001-04-01

329

Acid-base equilibria and dynamics in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles: geminate recombination and effect of charge stabilization.  

PubMed

The synthetic flavylium salt 4-carboxy-7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavylium chloride (CHMF) exhibits two acid-base equilibria in the range of pH 1-8 in both aqueous and micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The values of pK(a1) and pK(a2) for the cation-zwitterion (AH(2)(+) <--> Z + H(+)) and the zwitterion-base (Z <--> A(-) + H(+)) equilibria increase from 0.73 and 4.84 in water to 2.77 and 5.64 in SDS micelles, respectively. The kinetic study of the Z <--> A(-) + H(+) ground-state reactions in SDS points to the diffusion-controlled protonation of A(-) in the aqueous phase (k(p2w) = 4.2 x 10(10) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and in the micelle (k(p2m) = 2.3 x 10(11) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). The deprotonation rate of Z did not significantly change upon going from water (k(d2) = 6.3 x 10(5) s(-)(1)) to SDS (k(d2) = 5.2 x 10(5) s(-)(1)), in contrast with the behavior of ordinary cationic flavylium salts, for which k(d2) strongly decreases in SDS micelles. These results suggest that deprotonation of the zwitterionic acid is not substantially perturbed by the micellar charge. Electronic excitation of the Z form of CHMF induces fast adiabatic deprotonation of the hydroxyl group of Z() (2.9 x 10(10) s(-)(1) in water and 8.4 x 10(9) s(-)(1) in 0.1 M SDS), followed by geminate recombination on the picosecond time scale. Interestingly, while recombination in water (k(rec) = 1.7 x 10(9) s(-)(1)) occurs preferentially at the carboxylate group, at the SDS micelle surface, recombination (k(rec) = 9.2 x 10(9) s(-)(1)) occurs at the hydroxyl group. The important conclusion is that proton mobility at the SDS micelle surface is substantially reduced with respect to the mobility in water, which implies that geminate recombination should be a general phenomenon in SDS micelles. PMID:16952232

Freitas, Adilson A; Paulo, Luisa; Maçanita, Antonio L; Quina, Frank H

2006-09-12

330

Effect of Long Chain Alcohols on Micellar Relaxation Time and Foaming Properties of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions.  

PubMed

The effect of long chain alcohols (5 mol% CnOH for n = 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16) on the micellar stability of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions (SDS concentration ranging from 25 to 200 mM) was investigated and related to foaming properties, such as foamability, dynamic and equilibrium surface tension, and surface viscosity. The slow micellar relaxation time tau2, which is directly related to micellar stability, was determined by the pressure-jump technique. It was found that below 150 mM all the long chain alcohols investigated in this study cause an increase in tau2 and, hence, micellar stability, due to the strong ion-dipole interaction between the SDS and the alkyl alcohol. However, above approximately 150 mM SDS, all alcohols except C12OH decrease the micellar stability due to mismatching of the alkyl chains. When the chain length of the alcohol and SDS are not equal, the excess hydrocarbon chain exhibits thermal motion, thereby increasing the area per molecule in micelles as well as at the air/water interface. Foamability was determined by two methods: air blowing through a single capillary submerged in the surfactant solution or vigorous hand shaking. When enough time is allowed for the interface to form (in case of single bubble foam generation), the dynamic surface tension approaches the equilibrium surface tension. Since the equilibrium surface tension for the SDS/C12OH mixture is significantly lower (approximately 7 mN/m) than that for the pure SDS solution, more foam is generated with the mixed surfactant system. However, in very high shear rate processes (e.g., vigorous hand shaking), the break up time of micelles determines the flux of surfactant molecules to the interface and hence the foamability. Since the mixed SDS/C12OH micelles are more stable (longer relaxation time, tau2) than pure SDS micelles, higher dynamic surface tensions are attained and thus less foam is generated with the surfactant/alcohol mixture by the shaking method. In conclusion, we show that the foamability can exhibit opposite behavior depending upon the rate of foam generation (i.e., specific method used for foaming). Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9820772

Patist; Axelberd; Shah

1998-12-01

331

Dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Archaeoglobus profundus and Desulfotomaculum thermocisternum : phylogenetic and structural implications from gene sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes encoding the ?- and ?-subunits of dissimilatory sulfite reductase, dsrAB, from the hyper-thermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus profundus and the thermophilic gram-positive bacterium Desulfotomaculum thermocisternum were cloned and sequenced. The dsrAB genes are contiguous, and most probably comprise an operon also including a dsrD homolog, a conserved gene of unknown function located downstream of dsrAB in all four sulfate reducers

Øivind Larsen; Torleiv Lien; Nils-Kåre Birkeland

1999-01-01

332

Volatile Component Recovery from Sulfite Evaporator Condensate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is on the operation and modification of a demonstration unit to remove sulfur dioxide, methanol, furfural, and acetic acid from its sulfite evaporator condensate. This unit consisted of a steam stripper, vent tank SO2 recovery, activated carbon...

W. A. Sherman W. A. Dryer J. D. Michna

1979-01-01

333

Intramolecular and intermolecular ion–dipole interactions in sodium lauryl ether sulfates (SLES) self-aggregation and mixed micellization with Triton X-100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micellization of a series of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), C12H25(OCH2CH2)xOSO3Na, where x=1 (CS130), 2 (CS230), and 3 (CS330) and their interaction with Triton X-100 in aqueous media were investigated by fluorescence quenching of (Ru(bipy)32+, 2Cl?) by 9-methylanthracene, conductivity, and surface tension measurements at room temperature. A similar critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 0.80mM was found for the three

Mohamed Aoudia; Thurayia Al-Maamari; Fathiya Al-Salmi

2009-01-01

334

Optimization of spent sulfite liquor fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemicellulose-derived sugars in spent sulfite liquor (SSL), a process stream of the sulfite pulping process, may be fermented to ethanol. Low nutrient concentration, the presence of inhibitors, and a large proportion of xylose limit fermentation of the sugars in SSL. Factorial design experiments were used to find optimum conditions for hexose and xylose fermentation using a robust SSL-adapted (non-xylose

Steve S. Helle; Tony Lin; Sheldon J. B. Duff

2008-01-01

335

Bio/organic compound detection using sodium sulfate minerals: Implications in the search for life on Mars and Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the discovery of Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) on Mars and Europa, recent studies using these minerals have focused on their ability to assist in the detection of biosignatures. On Earth, biotic and biotic processes can assist in the formation and deposition of these minerals. A primary objective of these studies is the detection of bio/organic compounds that may be associated with the mineral. These biosignatures would imply biological involvement during mineral formation. The following research presents a series of natural and synthetic investigations to determine if biological activity is associated with Na-sulfate mineralization, and if these minerals can assist in detecting bio/organic compounds. Biological activity associated with the formation of Na-sulfate deposits in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho was examined by laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LD-FTMS), infrared spectroscopy and sulfur isotopic fractionation. These experiments conclude that bio/organic compounds are associated with the secondary Na-sulfate minerals, giving evidence of biological involvement in the mineralization of these deposits. LD-FTMS results of the synthetic bio/organic-mineral combinations show the potential of Na-sulfate minerals to assist in the detection and identification of bio/organic compounds. These results prove the importance of Na-sulfate minerals for future exploration missions that are likely to use LDMS to search for signs of life in the solar system.

Richardson, Charles Doc

336

Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate-Fumaric Acid Coupled Addition on the In Vitro Rumen Fermentation with Special Regard to Methanogenesis  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric acid coupled addition on in vitro methangenesis and rumen fermentation. Evaluation was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Ruminal contents were collected from five steers immediately after slaughtering and used for preparation of inoculums of mixed rumen microorganisms. Rumen fluid was then mixed with the basal diet of steers and used to generate four treatments, negative control (no additives), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treated, fumaric acid treated, and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition treated. The results revealed that, relative to control, efficiency in reduction of methanogenesis was as follows: coupled addition > SLS-addition > fumaric acid addition. Both SLS-addition and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition demonstrated a decremental effect on ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N), total short chain volatile fatty acids (SCVFAs) concentrations and the amount of substrate degraded, and an increment effect on microbial mass and microbial yield (YATP). Nevertheless, fumaric acid did not alter any of the previously mentioned parameters but induced a decremental effect on NH3–N. Furthermore, both fumaric acid and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition increased propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate, while, defaunation increased acetate at the expense of propionate and butyrate. The pH value was decreased by all treatments relative to control, while, cellulase activity did not differ by different treatments. The current study can be promising strategies for suppressing ruminal methane emissions and improving ruminants feed efficiency.

Abdl-Rahman, M. A.; Sawiress, F. A. R.; Abd El-Aty, A. M.

2010-01-01

337

Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.  

PubMed

The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (P<0.05; 0.70 log CFU/g) of Salmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (P<0.05) psychrotrophic growth. SDLA patties had more purge (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) subjective color scores. There were not large differences in sensory characteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05). PMID:23639886

Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

2013-09-01

338

Applications of pulsed EPR spectroscopy to structural studies of sulfite oxidizing enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), including sulfite oxidase (SO) and bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), catalyze the oxidation of sulfite (SO32?) to sulfate (SO42?). The active sites of SO and SDH are nearly identical, each having a 5-coordinate, pseudo-square-pyramidal Mo with an axial oxo ligand and three equatorial sulfur donor atoms. One sulfur is from a conserved Cys residue and two are from a pyranopterindithiolene (molybdopterin, MPT) cofactor. The identity of the remaining equatorial ligand, which is solvent-exposed, varies during the catalytic cycle. Numerous in vitro studies, particularly those involving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the Mo(V) states of SOEs, have shown that the identity and orientation of this exchangeable equatorial ligand depends on the buffer pH, the presence and concentration of certain anions in the buffer, as well as specific point mutations in the protein. Until very recently, however, EPR has not been a practical technique for directly probing specific structures in which the solvent-exposed, exchangeable ligand is an O, OH?, H2O, SO32?, or SO42? group, because the primary O and S isotopes (16O and 32S) are magnetically silent (I = 0). This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of isotopic labeling, variable-frequency high resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, synthetic model compounds, and DFT calculations to elucidate the roles of various anions, point mutations, and steric factors in the formation, stabilization, and transformation of SOE active site structures.

Klein, Eric L.; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Raitsimring, Arnold; Enemark, John H.

2013-01-01

339

Applications of pulsed EPR spectroscopy to structural studies of sulfite oxidizing enzymes?  

PubMed Central

Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), including sulfite oxidase (SO) and bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), catalyze the oxidation of sulfite (SO32?) to sulfate (SO42?). The active sites of SO and SDH are nearly identical, each having a 5-coordinate, pseudo-square-pyramidal Mo with an axial oxo ligand and three equatorial sulfur donor atoms. One sulfur is from a conserved Cys residue and two are from a pyranopterindithiolene (molybdopterin, MPT) cofactor. The identity of the remaining equatorial ligand, which is solvent-exposed, varies during the catalytic cycle. Numerous in vitro studies, particularly those involving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the Mo(V) states of SOEs, have shown that the identity and orientation of this exchangeable equatorial ligand depends on the buffer pH, the presence and concentration of certain anions in the buffer, as well as specific point mutations in the protein. Until very recently, however, EPR has not been a practical technique for directly probing specific structures in which the solvent-exposed, exchangeable ligand is an O, OH?, H2O, SO32?, or SO42? group, because the primary O and S isotopes (16O and 32S) are magnetically silent (I = 0). This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of isotopic labeling, variable-frequency high resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, synthetic model compounds, and DFT calculations to elucidate the roles of various anions, point mutations, and steric factors in the formation, stabilization, and transformation of SOE active site structures.

Klein, Eric L.; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Raitsimring, Arnold M.; Enemark, John H.

2012-01-01

340

Zinc absorption from zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when added as fortificants to maize tortillas.  

PubMed

The fortification of staple foods with zinc may play an important role in achieving adequate zinc intakes in countries at risk of zinc deficiency. However, little is known about the relative bioavailability of different zinc compounds that may be used in food fortification. The objective of this study was to measure and compare fractional zinc absorption from a test meal that included a maize tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA. A double isotopic tracer ratio method ((67)Zn as oral tracer and (70)Zn as intravenous tracer) was used to estimate zinc absorption in 42 Mexican women living in a periurban community of Puebla State, Mexico. The test meal consisted of maize tortillas, yellow beans, chili sauce, and milk with instant coffee; it contained 3.3 mg zinc and had a phytate:zinc molar ratio of 17. Fractional zinc absorption did not differ significantly between the test groups (ANOVA; P > 0.05). Percent absorptions were (mean +/- SD) zinc oxide, 10.8 +/- 0.9; zinc sulfate, 10.0 +/- 0.02; zinc oxide + EDTA, 12.7 +/- 1.5; and sodium-zinc EDTA, 11.1 +/- 0.7. We conclude that there was no difference in zinc absorption from ZnO and ZnSO(4) when added as fortificants to maize tortillas and consumed with beans and milk. The addition of EDTA with zinc oxide or the use of prechelated sodium-zinc EDTA as fortificants did not result in higher zinc absorption from the test meal. PMID:15867288

Hotz, Christine; DeHaene, Jessica; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Villalpando, Salvador; Rivera, Juan A; King, Janet C

2005-05-01

341

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses

Shiyuan Yu; Morris Wayman; Sarad K. Parekh

1987-01-01

342

Dispersion of optical activity of magnesium sulfite hexahydrate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnesium sulfite hexahydrate (MgSO3.6H2O) crystals are unique because they are the only representative (with sodium periodate) of the crystallographic class C3 (without a center of symmetry). The crystal symmetry suggests presence of nonlinearity, piezo- and pyro-electric properties and gyrotropy as well. Single crystals of MgSO3.6H2O (pure and doped with Ni, Co and Zn) for the time being are grown only by the original method developed in the Laboratory for Crystal growth at the Faculty of Physics in Sofia University. The first results of optical activity of pure MgSO3.6H2O and Zn doped MgSO3.6H2O crystals are described and analyzed in a wide spectral range. The optical activity manifests itself in the direction (0001) as a rotation of the polarization plane.

Dimov, T.; Bunzarov, Zh; Iliev, I.; Petkova, P.; Tzoukrovski, Y.

2010-11-01

343

Removal of Adsorbed Toxin Fragments That Modify Bacillus thuringiensis CryIC ?-Endotoxin Iodination and Binding by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Treatment and Renaturation  

PubMed Central

We report that 10- and 25-kDa toxin fragments adhere to CryIC prepared from Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystals, block iodination, and alter membrane binding. There is no apparent affect on CryIC toxicity against Spodoptera exigua. Associated peptides remained bound to CryIC in the presence of 50 mM dithiothreitol or 6 M urea. A novel detergent-renaturation procedure was developed for the purification of B. thuringiensis CryIC toxin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatment followed by gel filtration chromatography yielded a homogeneous 62-kDa CryIC toxin. After removal of SDS and renaturation, the purified CryIC toxin was fully insecticidal to S. exigua larvae. 125I-labeled CryIC bound with high affinity to brush border membrane vesicles from S. exigua larvae. Images

Luo, Ke; Adang, Michael J.

1994-01-01

344

Molecular dynamics simulations of inverse sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in a mixed toluene/pentanol solvent in the absence and presence of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC).  

PubMed

We have performed a 15 ns molecular dynamics simulation of inverse sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in a mixed toluene/pentanol solvent in the absence and presence of a cationic polyelectrolyte, i.e. poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC). The NAMD code and CHARMM force field were used. During the simulation time, the radii of SDS inverse micelles changed and the radii of the water droplets have been calculated. The behavior of SDS hydrocarbon chains has been characterized by calculating the orientation order parameter and the chain average length. The water droplet properties (water flow, water molecules displacement) have been examined. In summary the MD simulations indicate a more rigid and ordered surfactant film due to the formation of a polyelectrolyte palisade layer in full agreement with the experimental findings, e.g. the viscosity increase and shift of the percolation boundary. PMID:21334633

Poghosyan, Armen H; Arsenyan, Levon H; Gharabekyan, Hrant H; Falkenhagen, Sandra; Koetz, Joachim; Shahinyan, Aram A

2011-06-01

345

Efficient analysis of egg yolk proteins and their thermal sensitivity using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions.  

PubMed

The multiple functional properties of egg yolk are mostly influenced by its complex protein composition. The high lipid content of egg yolk as well as the low solubility of delipidated egg yolk lipoproteins make analysis by conventional chromatographic or electrophoretic techniques a difficult task. This work describes a method to profile egg yolk proteins after delipidation with acetone using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on precast 8-18% T polyacrylamide gradient gels. Twenty bands were obtained for the whole egg yolk profile with molecular weights ranging between 5 and 221 kDa. The bands were identified based on their molecular weight and by comparison with isolated egg yolk subfractions. The dissociation behavior under reducing and nonreducing conditions provided additionally helpful information for identification and characterization of the yolk proteins. The method presented is very well suited for assaying the thermal sensitivity of whole yolk and its components and thus for the characterization of heat treatment processes. PMID:16302743

Guilmineau, Fabien; Krause, Ingolf; Kulozik, Ulrich

2005-11-30

346

Influence of the polyelectrolyte poly(ethyleneimine) on the adsorption of surfactant mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and monododecyl hexaethylene glycol at the air-solution interface.  

PubMed

The polyelectrolyte poly(ethylenenimine), PEI, is shown to strongly influence the adsorption of the anionic-nonionic surfactant mixture of sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, and monododecyl hexaethylene glycol, C(12)E(6), at the air-solution interface. In the presence of PEI, the partitioning of the mixed surfactants to the interface is highly pH-dependent. The adsorption is more strongly biased to the SDS as the pH increases, as the PEI becomes a weaker polyelectrolyte. At surfactant concentrations >10(-4) M, the strong interaction and adsorption result in multilayer formation at the interface, and this covers a more extensive range of surfactant concentrations at higher pH values. The results are consistent with a strong interaction between SDS and PEI at the surface that is not predominantly electrostatic in origin. It provides an attractive route to selectively manipulate the adsorption and composition of surfactant mixtures at interfaces. PMID:17014126

Penfold, J; Tucker, I; Thomas, R K; Taylor, D J F; Zhang, J; Bell, C

2006-10-10

347

A fluorescent sensor to detect sodium dodecyl sulfate based on the glutathione-stabilized gold nanoclusters/poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride system.  

PubMed

A simple method for the detection of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was developed based on glutathione-stabilized gold nanoclusters (GSH-AuNCs) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium)chloride (PDDA) enhanced fluorescent system. Fluorescent Au NCs were synthesized by a one-step approach employing GSH as reducing/protecting reagent. The electrostatic group repulsions between GSH-Au NCs and PDDA resulted in strong fluorescence enhancement from the GSH-Au NCs. Moreover, the addition of SDS was able to cause a significant fluorescence recovery due to the strong affinity of PDDA and SDS. Thus the SDS can be detected. Under optimized conditions, the linear response to detect SDS ranges from 0.2 to 12 µg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.02 µg mL(-1). PMID:24862984

Zheng, Chun-Lan; Ji, Zhong-Xiang; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Shou-Nian

2014-07-01

348

The Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) on the Properties of ZnO Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method  

PubMed Central

ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed.

Ramimoghadam, Donya; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

2012-01-01

349

Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package.  

PubMed

Recent studies showed that sodium acid sulfate (SAS) and levulinic acid (LA) in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was effective in inactivating human pathogens on Romaine lettuce. The present study investigated the effects of LA and SAS in combination with SDS (as compared with citric acid and chlorine) on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and sensory quality of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce in modified atmosphere packages during storage at 4 °C. Results showed that LA (0.5% to 3%) and SAS (0.25% to 0.75%) with 0.05% SDS caused detrimental effects on visual quality and texture of lettuce. LA- and SAS-treated samples were sensorially unacceptable due to development of sogginess and softening after 7 and 14 d storage. It appears that the combined treatments caused an increase in the respiration rate of fresh-cut lettuce as indicated by higher CO(2) and lower O(2) in modified atmosphere packages. On the positive side, the acid treatments inhibited cut edge browning of lettuce pieces developed during storage. LA (0.5%), SAS (0.25%), and citric acid (approximately 0.25%) in combination with SDS reduced population of E. coli OH157:H7 by 0.41, 0.87, and 0.58 log CFU/g, respectively, while chlorine achieved a reduction of 0.94 log CFU/g without damage to the lettuce. Therefore, compared to chlorine, LA and SAS in combination with SDS have limited commercial value for fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce due to quality deterioration during storage. PMID:21535517

Guan, Wenqiang; Huang, Lihan; Fan, Xuetong

2010-10-01

350

Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

2013-03-01

351

Determination of sulfite ion by using microbial sensor  

SciTech Connect

Chemoautotrophic and aerobic bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m, which has sulfite oxidation pathways, was used for the development of sulfite ion sensor. The sensor consists of an oxygen electrode and T.thioparus immobilized between two nitrocellulose membranes. Since T.thioparus could not be cultivated in the medium containing sulfite as sulfur source, T.thiparus grown in the thiosulfate containing medium was used for the experiment. The selectivity for sulfite was gradually increased during the use as sulfite sensor. After 6 days, the response to thiosulfate became approximately 10% of that of sulfite. When the sensor was applied to the sulfite determination in batch system, calibration curve showed the linearity in the concentration range between 4 {mu}M and 280 {mu}M.

Suzuki, Masayasu; Lee, Soomi; Karube, Isao (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Fujii, Keiko; Arikawa, Yoshiko (Japan Women's Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Kubo, Izumi (Soka Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Kanagawa, Takahiro; Mikami, Eiichi (Agency of Industrial Science, Ibaraki (Japan))

1992-06-01

352

VOLATILE COMPONENT RECOVERY FROM SULFITE EVAPORATOR CONDENSATE  

EPA Science Inventory

This study is on the operation and modification of a demonstration unit to remove sulfur dioxide, methanol, furfural, and acetic acid from its sulfite evaporator condensate. This unit consisted of a steam stripper, vent tank SO2 recovery, activated carbon adsorption columns, and ...

353

A critical evaluation of fasted state simulating gastric fluid (FaSSGF) that contains sodium lauryl sulfate and proposal of a modified recipe.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to evaluate one of the most commonly used fasted state simulating gastric fluids (FaSSGFs), which contains sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (FaSSGF(SLS)), and propose a more appropriate surfactant concentration. Surface tension studies clearly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SLS in the relevant media (a media whose pH and sodium chloride concentration are representative of physiological conditions) is significantly lower (p<0.05) than 8.67 mM, which is the SLS concentration in FaSSGF(SLS). The CMC of SLS in the relevant media was determined to be 1.75 mM. Based on this a modified recipe is proposed in which the concentration of SLS is sufficient to achieve a surface tension similar to that in vivo without causing artificial micellar solubilization. Solubility, intrinsic dissolution, and GastroPlus modeling studies are presented to support and give rationale for the modified recipe. In addition, a comparison between the modified recipe and other FaSSGFs reported in the literature is made. PMID:17656053

Aburub, Aktham; Risley, Donald S; Mishra, Dinesh

2008-01-22

354

Pattern formation in the thiourea-iodate-sulfite system: Spatial bistability, waves, and stationary patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed study of the reaction-diffusion patterns observed in the thiourea-iodate-sulfite (TuIS) reaction, operated in open one-side-fed reactors. Besides spatial bistability and spatio-temporal oscillatory dynamics, this proton autoactivated reaction shows stationary patterns, as a result of two back-to-back Turing bifurcations, in the presence of a low-mobility proton binding agent (sodium polyacrylate). This is the third aqueous solution system to produce stationary patterns and the second to do this through a Turing bifurcation. The stationary pattern forming capacities of the reaction are explored through a systematic design method, which is applicable to other bistable and oscillatory reactions. The spatio-temporal dynamics of this reaction is compared with that of the previous ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite mixed Landolt system.

Horváth, Judit; Szalai, István; De Kepper, Patrick

2010-06-01

355

Screening and partial immunochemical characterization of sulfite oxidase from plant source.  

PubMed

Sulfite oxidase [SO; EC 1.8.3.1] catalyses the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, the terminal reaction in degradation of sulfur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Sulfite oxidase from vertebrate sources is among the best studied molybdenum enzymes. Existence of SO in plants has been established recently by identification of a cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding a functional SO. The present study was undertaken to identify herbaceous and woody plants (viz., Azardirachta indica L., Cassia fistula L., Saraca indica L., Spinacea oleracea L., and Syzyzium cumini L.), a relatively less explored source, having significant SO activity and to characterize some of its immuno-biochemical properties. The Syzyzium cumini was chosen to characterize SO as it showed maximum enzyme activity in the crude extract as compared to other plants. Absorption spectra of SO revealed two peaks at 235 and 277 nm, but no distinct peak in the visible region could be observed. Crude extract of all the plants were taken into considerations for immuno-biochemical studies. Despite of significant protein structure-functional similarities between plant and animal SO, no cross-reactivity could be established between the two sources of SO. These data suggested that plants SO, however, differed with regards to their immunobiochemical properties. PMID:20358871

Ahmad, Ausaf; Sarfraz, Ahmad

2010-01-01

356

Labile sulfide and sulfite in phytochelatin complexes  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals such as cadmium induce tomato cell cultures to synthesize the metal binding polypeptides ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 3} and ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly (phytochelatins). Tomato cells selected for growth on normally lethal concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} synthesize higher quantities of these polypeptides. Cd{sup r} cells are not cross-resistant to other heavy metals, and recent work suggests that metal detoxification by these peptides may be Cd-specific. The occurrence of labile sulfur as a component of the metal complex raises questions concerning possible functions of phytochelatins besides that of Cd binding. The presence of acid-labile sulfide ion in phytochelatin complexes has been reported by several groups. We report the additional finding that labile sulfite is also present in these complexes and in higher amounts than sulfide. Sulfide and sulfite are both released from the metal binding complex by acidification or by treatment with EDTA.

Eannetta, N.T.; Steffens, J.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1989-04-01

357

40 CFR 430.50 - Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory. 430.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Papergrade Sulfite Subcategory § 430.50 Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

358

40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The provisions...

2009-01-01

359

40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The provisions...

2010-07-01

360

40 CFR 430.50 - Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory. 430.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Papergrade Sulfite Subcategory § 430.50 Applicability; description of the papergrade sulfite subcategory. The...

2009-01-01

361

Degradation of yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings by vanadium pentoxide, phosphorous pentoxide, and sodium sulfate  

SciTech Connect

The presence of vanadium, phosphorus, and sodium impurities in petcoke and coal/petcoke blends used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants warrants a clear understanding of high-temperature material degradation for the development of fuel-flexible gas turbines. In this study, degradation reactions of free-standing air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in contact with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were investigated at temperatures up to 1200{sup o}C. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Molten V{sub 2}O{sub 5} reacted with solid YSZ to form ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} at temperatures below 747{sup o}C. However, at temperatures above 747{sup o}C, molten V{sub 2}O{sub 5} reacted with YSZ to form yttrium vanadate (YVO{sub 4}). The formation of YVO{sub 4} led to the depletion of the Y2O{sub 3} stabilizer and deleterious transformation to the monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} phase. In addition, studies on YSZ degradation by Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and a Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+V{sub 2}O{sub 5} mixture (50-50 mol%) showed that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} itself had no effect on the degradation of YSZ. However, in the presence of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at high temperatures, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} forms vanadate compounds having a lower melting point such as sodium metavanadate (610{sup o}C), which was found to degrade YSZ by the formation of YVO{sub 4} at a relatively lower temperature of 700{sup o}C. P{sub 2}O{sub 5} was found to react with APS YSZ by the formation of ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} at all the temperatures studied. At temperatures as low as 200{sup o}C and as high as 1200{sup o}C, molten P{sub 2}O{sub 5} was observed to react with solid YSZ to yield ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which led to the depletion of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ that promoted the formation of the fluorite-cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase.

Mohan, P.; Yuan, B.; Patterson, T.; Desai, V.H.; Sohn, Y.H. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2007-11-15

362

Detection of antibodies to Anaplasma marginale by an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with sodium dodecyl sulfate-disrupted antigen.  

PubMed Central

Sensitivities of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with particulate and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-disrupted Anaplasma marginale antigen were compared. The quotient of positive reference sera divided by the absorbance quotient of a negative reference serum at identical dilution was termed the signal-to-noise ratio. Optimal signal-to-noise ratios were dependent on both pretreatment of antigen and antigen concentration. SDS disruption of anaplasmal antigen resulted in a markedly improved signal-to-noise ratio of ELISA compared with ELISA with untreated antigen at identical antigen and serum dilutions. This represented higher sensitivity and lower background absorbance of the ELISA with disrupted antigen. SDS-disrupted A. marginale antigen was standardized by protein determination, and antigen, as well as precoated microtiter wells, was stored frozen without apparent loss of antigenic properties. ELISA results were in agreement with results of positive and negative control sera tested by the complement fixation test or by light microscopy Anaplasma diagnosis in Giemsa-stained blood films.

Winkler, G C; Brown, G M; Lutz, H

1987-01-01

363

Role of ?-lipoic acid in dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice: studies on inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage and fibrosis.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis affects many people worldwide. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in its pathogenesis. Previously, we reported that ulcerative colitis leads to systemic genotoxicity in mice. The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of ?-lipoic acid in ulcerative colitis-associated local and systemic damage in mice. Experimental colitis was induced using 3%w/v dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 2 cycles. ?-Lipoic acid was administered in a co-treatment (20, 40, 80 mg/kg bw) and post-treatment (80 mg/kg bw) schedule. Various biochemical parameters, histological evaluation, comet and micronucleus assays, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were employed to evaluate the effect of ?-lipoic acid in mice with ulcerative colitis. The protective effect of ?-lipoic acid was mediated through the modulation of nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 17, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2, NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and connective tissue growth factor. Further, ulcerative colitis led to an increased gut permeability, plasma lipopolysaccharide level, systemic inflammation and genotoxicity in mice, which was reduced with ?-lipoic acid treatment. The present study identifies the underlying mechanisms involved in ?-lipoic acid-mediated protection against ulcerative colitis and the associated systemic damage in mice. PMID:23793040

Trivedi, P P; Jena, G B

2013-09-01

364

Augmented activity of the pelvic nerve afferent mediated by TRP channels in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis of rats.  

PubMed

Enteritis has been recognized as a major symptom in domestic animals and human patients suffering from feed and food poisonings. The aim of the present study was to clarify the excitatory mechanism of the pelvic nerve afferent which may influence the occurrence of enteritis in response to nociceptive chemical stimuli of the colon in normal and abnormal rats with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The pelvic nerve afferent activity was markedly increased by colonic instillation of solution (0.5 ml) of acetic acid (5-25%) and capsaicin (100 ?g/ml). The nerve activity was augmented by colonic instillation of capsaicin to a greater extent in rats with DSS-induced colitis than in normal control rats. This augmented activity by capsaicin was more prominent at one day (DSS-1) than at 8 day (DSS-8) after the administration of DSS. The increased nerve activity caused by capsaicin in DSS-1 and DSS-8 was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with ruthenium red, which is a nonselective inhibitor of TRP channels of unmyelinated C-fibers (nociceptors). In conclusion, it was elucidated that the nociceptive function of the pelvic nerve was largely elevated at one day after DSS-induced colitis and such increased function was mostly mediated by TRP channels. PMID:22498929

Makimura, Yukitoshi; Ito, Koichi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

2012-08-01

365

Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration of copper ions using sodium dodecyl sulfate and its mixture with Brij 35, Tween 80 and Triton X-100.  

PubMed

The performance of copper ion removal using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and its mixtures with Brij 35, Tween 80 (TW80) and Triton X-100 (TX100) by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) was investigated. The effects of the molar ratio of nonionic surfactant to SDS on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SDS/Brij 35, SDS/TW80 and SDS/TX100, the removal efficiency of Cu(2+), the residual concentration of SDS in the permeate solution and the permeate flux were tested. The results showed that the CMCs of the mixed surfactants were sharply less than that of pure SDS. The removal efficiencies of Cu(2+) were up to the maximum values 98.3 and 95.8% when the molar ratios of Brij 35 and TW80 to SDS were 0.3, and it was 93.5% given 0.7 molar ratio of TX100 to SDS. The concentration of SDS in the permeate decreased dramatically with the addition of nonionic surfactant, and the permeate flux decreased slightly as the molar ratio increased. Compared with the performance by single SDS, the mixed SDS/Brij 35, SDS/TW80 and SDS/TX100 at an optimum composition could result in not only higher rejection of Cu(2+) but also much less dosage of surfactant and concentration of SDS in the permeate. PMID:23676382

Zhao, Baowei; Li, Ruirui; Zhong, Jinkui; Zhang, Li

2013-01-01

366

Sodium sulfate-induced corrosion of pure nickel and superalloy Udimet 700 in a high velocity burner rig at 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium sulfate-induced corrosion of pure nickel and a commercial nickel-base superalloy, Udimet 700 (U-700), were studied at 900 C in a Mach 0.3 burner rig with different Na levels in the combustor. The corrosion rate of Ni was independent of the Na level in the combustor and considerably lower than that measured in laboratory salt spray tests. The lower rates are associated with the deposition of only a small amount of Na2SO4 on the surface of the NiO scale. Corrosion of U-700 was observed to occur in two stages. During the first stage, the corrosion proceeds by reaction of Cr2O3 scale with the Na2SO4 and evaporation of the Na2CrO4 reaction product from the surface of the corroding sample. Cr depletion in the alloy occurs and small sulfide particles are formed in the Cr depletion zone. Extensive sulfidation occurs during the second state of corrosion, and a thick scale forms. The relationship between the corrosion rate of U-700 and the Na level in the combustor gives a good correlation in the range of 0.3 to 1.5 ppm by weight Na. Very low levels of Na in the combustor cause accelerated oxidation of U-700 without producing the typical hot corrosion morphology.

Misra, A. K.

1987-01-01

367

Application of the Aqueous Porous Pathway Model to Quantify the Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate on Ultrasound-Induced Skin Structural Perturbation  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on skin structural perturbation when utilized simultaneously with low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS). Pig full-thickness skin (FTS) and pig split-thickness skin (STS) treated with LFS/SLS and LFS were analyzed in the context of the aqueous porous pathway model to quantify skin perturbation through changes in skin pore radius and porosity-to-tortuosity ratio (?/?). In addition, skin treatment times required to attain specific levels of skin electrical resistivity were analyzed to draw conclusions about the effect of SLS on reproducibility and predictability of skin perturbation. We found that LFS/SLS-treated FTS, LFS/SLS-treated STS, and LFS-treated FTS exhibited similar skin perturbation. However, LFS-treated STS exhibited significantly higher skin perturbation, suggesting greater structural changes to the less robust STS induced by the purely physical enhancement mechanism of LFS. Evaluation of ?/? values revealed that LFS/SLS-treated FTS and STS have similar transport pathways, while LFS-treated FTS and STS have lower ?/? values. In addition, LFS/SLS treatment times were much shorter than LFS treatment times for both FTS and STS. Moreover, the simultaneous use of SLS and LFS not only results in synergistic enhancement, as reflected in the shorter skin treatment times, but also in more predictable and reproducible skin perturbation.

Polat, Baris E.; Seto, Jennifer E.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

2011-01-01

368

Mono(adenosine diphosphate ribosyl) transferase in Xenopus tissues. Direct demonstration by a zymographic localization in sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gels.  

PubMed

A semiquantitative method to measure mono(adenosine diphosphate ribosyl) transferase activity [mADPRT] in tissue extracts is described. After electrophoretic separation in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)--polyacrylamide gels, renatured enzymatic activity is demonstrated in situ by incubation of the slab gels with radiolabeled NAD+ and histones. Precipitation of the radiolabeled product in the gel allows localization of the enzyme by autoradiography. This method is suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, whereby proteins are electrofocused in the presence of 9 M urea and subsequently subjected to electrophoresis in SDS. A single major band showing mADPRT activity of Mr approximately 30 Kda was observed in all crude extracts of Xenopus tissues examined. Accumulation of acid-insoluble radiolabeled products was dependent on added histones and was specifically inhibited by agmatine. The ADPRT activity of cholera toxin A fragment could also be demonstrated by this technique. Reducing agents stimulated the activity of cholera toxin A fragment while depressing that of Xenopus mADPRT. PMID:6329028

Godeau, F; Belin, D; Koide, S S

1984-03-01

369

Routine diagnosis with PhastSystem compared to conventional electrophoresis: automated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining and western blotting of urinary proteins.  

PubMed

The recent introduction of the PhastSystem, an automatic electrophoresis and staining system with precast gradient-gels, allows rapid and reproducible analysis of proteinuria in patients suffering from renal injury. A routine method for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and silver staining of unconcentrated urine specimens in the PhastSystem is described and compared to our conventional "macro"-method with self-cast SDS-polyacrylamide gradient gels. The method described for the PhastSystem using 0.3 microL sample volumes and an 8-25% polyacrylamide gradient gel leads to highly reproducible results within 1.5 h. Before electrophoresis urine specimens were neither concentrated nor dialyzed. Samples with a protein concentration exceeding 5 mg/mL had to be diluted 1:5 (v/v). Analysis and documentation of PhastGels appeared as easy as with our conventional SDS-PAGE. Protein bands could reliably be identified by Western blotting. Urine and serum proteins, separated in PhastGels, were electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose and detected with specific antibodies against human albumin, transferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and IgG. Comparison of several standard kits for molecular weight determination revealed considerable differences concerning the quality of protein separation patterns. Availability of precast gels and automatization of SDS-PAGE and staining allows easy standardization of urine SDS-PAGE among clinical routine laboratories. PMID:2469571

Scherberich, J E; Fischer, P; Bigalke, A; Stangl, P; Wolf, G B; Haimerl, M; Schoeppe, W

1989-01-01

370

Bifidobacterium longum alleviates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by suppressing IL-17A response: involvement of intestinal epithelial costimulatory molecules.  

PubMed

Although some bacterial strains show potential to prevent colitis, their mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the anti-colitic mechanisms of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis JCM 1222(T), focusing on the relationship between interleukin (IL)-17A secreting CD4(+) T cells and intestinal epithelial costimulatory molecules in mice. Oral administration of JCM 1222(T) to mice alleviated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. The expression of type 1 helper T (Th1)- and IL-17 producing helper T (Th17)-specific cytokines and transcriptional factors was suppressed by JCM 1222(T) treatment. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from colitic mice induced IL-17A production from CD4(+) T cells in a cell-cell contact-dependent manner, and this was suppressed by oral treatment with JCM 1222(T). Using blocking antibodies for costimulatory molecules, we revealed that epithelial costimulatory molecules including CD80 and CD40, which were highly expressed in IECs from colitic mice, were involved in IEC-induced IL-17A response. Treatment of mice and intestinal epithelial cell line Colon-26 cells with JCM 1222(T) decreased the expression of CD80 and CD40. Collectively, these data indicate that JCM 1222(T) negatively regulate epithelial costimulatory molecules, and this effect might be attributed, at least in part, to suppression of IL-17A in DSS-induced colitis. PMID:24255712

Miyauchi, Eiji; Ogita, Tasuku; Miyamoto, Junki; Kawamoto, Seiji; Morita, Hidetoshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takuya; Tanabe, Soichi

2013-01-01

371

Detection of possible DNA repair enzymes on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels by protein blotting to damaged DNA-fixed membranes  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for detecting possible DNA repair enzymes on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels by blotting them onto a damaged DNA-fixed membrane is presented. To prepare the membrane, highly polymerized calf thymus DNA immobilized on a nylon membrane is damaged chemically. Enzymes, either homogeneous or crude, that are possibly involved in the priming step of DNA repair are fractionated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and are renatured to active form by incubating the gel in an appropriate buffer. The renatured enzyme is then blotted onto the damaged DNA-fixed membrane, a process during which incision and/or excision are introduced to the damaged DNA by the enzymes. The incision and/or excision provide priming sites for repair DNA synthesis in the subsequent step in which the membrane is incubated with DNA polymerase in the presence of alpha-{sup 32}P-labeled substrate. The site of substrate incorporation on the membrane reflecting the molecular weight of the repair enzyme is finally visualized by autoradiography. The present technique is established using Escherichia coli exonuclease III and a DNA-fixed membrane treated with bleomycin or acid-depurinated. By application of this method, a priming factor (an exonuclease) involved in the initiation of bleomycin-induced DNA repair is detected in the extract of mouse ascites sarcoma cells, and thus the molecular weight of the enzyme is estimated. Some apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases of mammals are also detected by the present procedure.

Ikeda, S.; Seki, S.; Watanabe, S.; Hatsushika, M.; Tsutsui, K. (Department of Biochemistry, Okayama University Medical School (Japan))

1991-01-01

372

Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (rpore) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 – 18.5 Å, but significantly larger than rpore of native skin samples (13.6 Å). Conversely, rpore within LTRs increases significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 Å, to 276 Å, and to ? (>300Å) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60 kHz, 40 kHz, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, while the increased rpore values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming.

Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

2011-01-01

373

Oral administration of the anti-proliferative substance taurolidine has no impact on dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice  

PubMed Central

Background: New chemopreventive strategies for ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and cancer have to be evaluated. Taurolidine (TRD) has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-neoplastic properties with almost absent toxicity. The aim of the study was to determine whether TRD decreases dysplasia in the well-characterized Dextran Sulfate Sodium – Azoxymethane (DSS-AOM) animal model for UC-associated carcinogenesis. Material and Methods: The DSS-AOM model of carcinogenesis was induced in female inbred C57BL/6 mice. Half of the mice were treated with TRD, the other served as control. After 100 days macroscopic, histological and immunhistochemical (?-Catenin, E-Cadherin, SOX9, Ki-67, Cyclin-D1) examination of the colon was performed. Results: Incidence, multiplicity, grading and growth pattern of adenomas did not differ significantly between TRD and control group. In all animals, inflammatory changes were absent. Immunhistochemistry revealed increased expression of Ki-67, ?-catenin, SOX9 and Cyclin-D1 in adenomas compared to normal mucosa – without significant difference between TRD and control treatment. Conclusion: Oral administration of TRD has no impact on DSS-induced colitis-associated carcinogenesis. However, SOX9 and Cyclin-D1 representing key members of the Wnt pathway have not yet been described in the DSS-AOM model of carcinogenesis – underlining the importance of this oncogenic pathway in this setting.

Huss, Sebastian; Osseili, Hayssam; Daigeler, Adrien; Kersting, Sabine; Sulberg, Dominique; Mittelkotter, Ulrich; Herdegen, Thomas; Uhl, Waldemar; Muller, Annette M.

2010-01-01

374

Puberty Is Delayed in Male Mice With Dextran Sodium Sulfate Colitis Out of Proportion to Changes in Food Intake, Body Weight, and Serum Levels of Leptin  

PubMed Central

In boys, inflammatory bowel disease often results in delayed puberty associated with decreased bone mineral density and decreased linear growth. Our goal was to investigate whether pubertal timing and levels of leptin differed between prepubertal male mice with colitis and food-restricted (FR) mice maintained at a similar weight. We induced colitis in 32-d-old male mice using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), resulting in 10 d of worsening colitis. We followed up these mice for separation of the prepuce from the glans penis as a marker of pubertal progression. Compared with free-feeding control mice, DSS and FR mice had significantly lower weight on d 7–10 of treatment. DSS mice had later puberty than control and FR mice. DSS mice also had smaller testes, lower FSH levels, increased systemic cytokines, and increased colonic inflammation by histology. Leptin levels were similar between DSS and FR mice, whereas both had decreases in leptin compared with controls. We conclude that DSS colitis causes delayed puberty in sexually immature male mice beyond what is seen among FR mice of similar weight, food intake, and leptin levels. These experiments provide support for the hypothesis that pubertal delay in colitis is influenced by factors beyond poor weight gain alone.

DEBOER, MARK D.; LI, YONGLI

2011-01-01

375

Skin barrier disruption by sodium lauryl sulfate-exposure alters the expressions of involucrin, transglutaminase 1, profilaggrin, and kallikreins during the repair phase in human skin in vivo.  

PubMed

Detergents are skin irritants affecting keratinocytes. In this study, healthy volunteers were exposed to water (vehicle) and 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) under occlusive patch tests for 24 hours. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers and of enzymes involved in corneodesmosome degradation was examined in skin biopsies (n=8) during the repair phase (6 hours to 7 days postexposure) using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. It was found that the expression of involucrin was increased at 6 hours, but then rapidly normalized. The expression of transglutaminase 1 exhibited a twofold increase after 24 hours in the SLS-exposed skin. Profilaggrin was decreased after 6 hours. Later (4-7 days), the expression in SLS-exposed areas was >50% above than in control areas. An increased and altered immunofluorescence pattern of involucrin, transglutaminase 1, and filaggrin was also found (n=4). At 6 hours post-SLS exposure, the mRNA expression of kallikrein-7 (KLK-7) and kallikrein-5 (KLK-5) was decreased by 50 and 75%, respectively, as compared with control and water-exposed areas. Thereafter, the expression pattern of KLK-7 and KLK-5 was normalized. Changes in protein expression of KLK-5 were also found. In conclusion, SLS-induced skin barrier defects induce altered mRNA expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers and enzymes degrading corneodesmosomes. PMID:18007579

Törmä, Hans; Lindberg, Magnus; Berne, Berit

2008-05-01

376

Artemisinin protects against dextran sulfate-sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease, which is associated with activation of the pregnane X receptor.  

PubMed

Artemisinin has been used to treat malaria for centuries in the context of traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, the effects of artemisinin on pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A expression and its therapeutic role in inflammatory bowel disease were investigated. LS174T cells exposed to artemisinin at various concentrations and for different periods of time were examined with respect to the specific induction of CYP3A4 and PXR mRNA expression. Transient transfection experiments showed transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene through artemisinin to be PXR-dependent. An electrophoretic-mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that artemisinin activates the DNA-binding capacity of the PXR for the CYP3A4 element. These results indicate that the induction of CYP3A4 by artemisinin is mediated through the activation of PXR. Using animal models, it was demonstrated that artemisinin abrogates dextran sulfate sodium (DDS)-induced intestinal inflammation. Preadministration of artemisinin ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis in DSS-treated mice as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, rectal bleeding, colon length, and histology. Artemisinin was found to prevent or reduce the severity of colonic inflammation by inducing CYP3A expression by activation of PXR. PMID:24886881

Hu, Donghua; Wang, Yuguang; Chen, Zhiwu; Ma, Zengchun; You, Qing; Zhang, Xianxie; Zhou, Tao; Xiao, Yong; Liang, Qiande; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Tang, Xianglin; Zhang, Boli; Gao, Yue

2014-09-01

377

Bifidobacterium longum Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing IL-17A Response: Involvement of Intestinal Epithelial Costimulatory Molecules  

PubMed Central

Although some bacterial strains show potential to prevent colitis, their mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the anti-colitic mechanisms of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis JCM 1222T, focusing on the relationship between interleukin (IL)-17A secreting CD4+ T cells and intestinal epithelial costimulatory molecules in mice. Oral administration of JCM 1222T to mice alleviated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. The expression of type 1 helper T (Th1)- and IL-17 producing helper T (Th17)-specific cytokines and transcriptional factors was suppressed by JCM 1222T treatment. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from colitic mice induced IL-17A production from CD4+ T cells in a cell-cell contact-dependent manner, and this was suppressed by oral treatment with JCM 1222T. Using blocking antibodies for costimulatory molecules, we revealed that epithelial costimulatory molecules including CD80 and CD40, which were highly expressed in IECs from colitic mice, were involved in IEC-induced IL-17A response. Treatment of mice and intestinal epithelial cell line Colon-26 cells with JCM 1222T decreased the expression of CD80 and CD40. Collectively, these data indicate that JCM 1222T negatively regulate epithelial costimulatory molecules, and this effect might be attributed, at least in part, to suppression of IL-17A in DSS-induced colitis.

Miyauchi, Eiji; Ogita, Tasuku; Miyamoto, Junki; Kawamoto, Seiji; Morita, Hidetoshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takuya; Tanabe, Soichi

2013-01-01

378

Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor and nitrosative/oxidative stresses by Ziziphora clinopoides (Kahlioti); a molecular mechanism of protection against dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition of the intestine with unknown etiology involving multiple immune genetic and environmental factors. The authors were interested in examining the protective effect of Ziziphora clinopoides methanolic extract, an Iranian folk herbal medicine, on inflammatory mediators in experimental colitis. Colitis in NMRI mice was induced by oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 3%). Z. clinopoides was administrated orally at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days. The level of lipid peroxidation (LP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules (TTM), antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and nitric oxide (NO) as a marker of nitrosative stress, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) as a mediator of inflammation and apoptosis were measured in the colon homogenate. Treatment by DSS increased bowel LP, NO, and TNF-alpha while decreasing TAC, SOD, CAT, and TTM. All measured parameters were improved by Z. clinopoides treatment and reached close to normal levels. The present study further supports the role of oxidative/nitrosative stresses and TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of colitis and protective effects of this herb. The data are promising for further preclinical studies directed towards understanding mechanism of action and cross-species and cross-model comparisons for potential protective effects. PMID:19778264

Amini-Shirazi, Noushin; Hoseini, Asieh; Ranjbar, Akram; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Khoshakhlagh, Pooneh; Yasa, Nargues; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2009-02-01

379

Electron spin echo modulation study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide micellar solutions in the presence of urea: Evidence for urea interaction at the micellar surface  

SciTech Connect

Electron spin echo studies have been carried out for a series of x-doxylstearic acid (x-DSA, x = 5,7,10,12,16) and 4-octanoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy (C{sub 8}-TEMPO) spin probes in micellar solutions of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) in D{sub 2}O and in the presence of 2 or 6 M urea or urea-d{sub 4}. Modulation effects due to the interaction of the unpaired electron with urea and water deuteriums show that urea does not affect the bent conformation of the x-DSA probe in the micelle. The analysis of the deuterium modulation depth and the Fourier transformation of the two-pulse electron spin echo spectra show that urea interacts with the surfactant polar headgroups at the micelle surface. These results support recent molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo calculations of micellar systems and are in agreement with direct interaction of urea at micellar surfaces in which it replaces some water molecules in the surface region.

Baglioni, P. (Univ. of Udine (Italy)); Ferroni, E. (Univ. of Florence (Italy)); Kevan, L. (Univ. of Houston, TX (USA))

1990-05-17

380

Ion specific effects in trivalent counterion induced surface and solution self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium polyethylene glycol monododecyl ether sulfate.  

PubMed

The effect of different trivalent counterions, Al(3+), Cr(3+), Sc(3+), Gd(3+), and La(3+), on the surface adsorption and Al(3+), Cr(3+), and Sc(3+) for solution self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium polyethylene glycol monododecyl ether sulfate has been studied by neutron reflectivity and small angle neutron scattering. The strong binding and complexation between the trivalent counterions and the anionic surfactant result in significant micellar growth and the formation of surface multilayer structures at the air-water interface at relatively low counterion concentrations. Broadly similar surface and solution behaviors are observed for the different trivalent counterions. The evolution in the surface and solution structures in detail depends upon the nature of the counterion, its hydrated radius and its strength of binding. Exceptionally the addition of Cr(3+) counterions have a less pronounced effect. This is attributed to a greater reluctance for exchange within the primary hydration shell for Cr(3+) ions, which results in a shielding of the electrostatic interactions and a reduced surfactant-counterion binding. PMID:24738889

Xu, Hui; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Petkov, Jordan T; Tucker, Ian; Webster, John R P; Grillo, I; Terry, A

2014-04-29

381

A novel sensor of cysteine self-assembled monolayers over gold nanoparticles for the selective determination of epinephrine in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

A novel sensor of cysteine self-assembled monolayers over gold nanoparticles modified gold electrode has been constructed for the determination of epinephrine in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (Au/Au(nano)-CysSDS). Electrochemical investigation and characterization of the modified electrode are achieved using cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The Au/Au(nano)-CysSDS electrode current signal is remarkably stable via repeated cycles and long term stability, due to the strong Au-S bond, compared to the Au/Au(nano) electrode. The catalytic oxidation peak currents obtained from linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) increased linearly with increasing epinephrine concentrations in the range of 2 to 30 ?mol L(-1) and 35 to 200 ?mol L(-1) with correlation coefficients of 0.9981 and 0.9999 and a limit of detection of 0.294 nmol L(-1) and 1.49 nmol L(-1), respectively. The results showed that Au/Au(nano)-CysSDS can selectively determine epinephrine in the coexistence of a large amount of uric acid and glucose. In addition, a highly selective and simultaneous determination of tertiary mixture of ascorbic acid, epinephrine, and acetaminophen is explored at this modified electrode. Excellent recovery results were obtained for determination of epinephrine in spiked urine samples at the modified electrode. Au/Au(nano)-CysSDS can be used as a sensor with excellent reproducibility, sensitivity, and long term stability. PMID:22531152

Atta, Nada F; Galal, Ahmed; El-Ads, Ekram H

2012-06-01

382

Inhibitory effects of resistant starch (RS3) as a carrier for stachyose on dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6 mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistant starch 3 (RS3) as a carrier for stachyose on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. RS3 microspheres carrying stachyose (RS3 + stachyose) were produced and evaluated as a potentially improved colitis therapy for this study. The body weights of the mice treated with RS3 + stachyose were higher compared with those of DSS-treated control mice. RS3 + stachyose reduced the levels of the serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? to a greater extent compared with the same concentration of stachyose combined with ordinary starch (stachyose + starch). Histopathological examination of sections of colon tissues showed that the RS3 + stachyose group recovered well from colitis; however, the tissue sections of the stachyose + starch group presented necrosis to a more serious degree. These results suggest that stachyose with an RS3 carrier has better preventative effects on colitis than stachyose alone in mice.

QIAN, YU; ZHAO, XIN; SONG, JIA-LE; ZHU, KAI; SUN, PENG; LI, GUI-JIE; WANG, RUI; KAN, JIAN-QUAN

2013-01-01

383

Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduces the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases the Formation of Anti-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators  

PubMed Central

The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

Kohnke, Thomas; Bilal, Suleyman; Zhou, Xiangzhi; Rothe, Michael; Baumgart, Daniel C.; Weylandt, Karsten H.

2013-01-01

384

Interaction between Hydrophobically Modified 2-Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Studied by Viscometry and Two-Dimensional NOE NMR Spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Interaction between an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a nonionic polymer, 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) hydrophobically modified with benzoyl chloride (bmHEC), is studied by viscometry and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect NMR spectroscopy (2D NOESY) in a semidilute regime of bmHEC. The hydrophobicity of bmHEC was varied with different substitution of benzoyl group to HEC macromolecules. In general, the low-shear viscosity of 1 wt % bmHEC aqueous solution is increased with added SDS surfactant having concentration from 0 to 0.5 wt %, and then decreased significantly with a further addition of surfactant to 3 wt %. The activation energy of transient network formation in 1 wt % bmHEC aqueous solution present with SDS surfactant is found to be dependent with SDS concentration, which varies from 32.7 to 69.80 kJ/mol. The maximum activation energy takes place when 0.5 wt % SDS is added, which coincides with that of the maximal viscosity. The 2D NOESY displays that the surfactants actually interact with bmHEC not only on the hydrophobes, namely benzoyl groups, but also the polymer backbone, i.e., glucose units. In contrast, no interaction is revealed by 2D NOESY in the aqueous system containing SDS surfactant and HEC polymer. PMID:24852815

Lo, Jen-Ting; Yen, Hsiao-Ting; Tsai, Chih-Chang; Chen, Bing-Hung; Hou, Sheng-Shu

2014-06-19

385

Purification and characterization of a novel peptide with inhibitory effects on colitis induced mice by dextran sulfate sodium from enzymatic hydrolysates of Crassostrea gigas.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of purified peptides from Crassostrea gigas (C. gigas) hydrolysates was studied. To prepare hydrolysates from C. gigas, we used eight different proteinases and the anti-inflammatory activities were determined using a nitric oxide (NO) assay in RAW264.7 cells. Among the hydrolysates, Protamex hydrolysates showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. We separated and purified the total hydrolysate using an ultrafiltration membrane system and consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, we obtained a peptide with the following sequence: Gln-Cys-Gln-Cys-Ala-Val-Glu-Gly-Gly-Leu at N-terminal position. The anti-inflammatory peptide purified from C. gigas inhibited NO production by 72.2% compared to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated group. In addition, the Protamex hydrolysates from C. gigas showed decreased serum IgE levels and increased spleen CD4(+)/CD8(+) levels on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice. These results suggest the peptide and hydrolysate from C. gigas possess potent anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:22960100

Hwang, Jin-Woo; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Jeon, You-Jin; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

2012-10-01

386

Evaluation of chemical mediators and cellular response during acute and chronic gut inflammatory response induced by dextran sodium sulfate in mice.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects millions of people worldwide but its pathophysiology remains unclear. Therefore, experimental models of colitis have contributed crucially for the understanding of IBD, and also in the investigations for effective therapies. Herein we investigated the kinetics of inflammatory mediator production and cell infiltration during acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The induction phases with DSS were characterized by severe disease activity with massive colonic polymorphonuclear infiltration and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (CXCL1/KC), interleukin (IL)-17 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Interestingly, in the recovery periods, we found marked increase of anti-inflammatory mediators IL-10, IL-4, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) that seems be essential for the resolution of intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) and regulatory T cell marker forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) were increased gradually during experimental colitis, demonstrating a discrepant profile response and evident immune disbalance in the chronic phase of intestinal mucosal inflammation. Taken together, these results provide valuable information for studies on DSS-induced colitis and especially for the identification of biomarkers that predict disease course and possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:23000912

Bento, Allisson Freire; Leite, Daniela Ferraz Pereira; Marcon, Rodrigo; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Cola, Maíra; Martini, Alessandra Cadete; Calixto, João B

2012-12-01

387

40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite...applicable to discharges resulting from the production of pulp at dissolving sulfite...

2013-07-01

388

Gene Expression in the Pulp of Ripening Bananas' Two-Dimensional Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of in Vitro Translation Products and cDNA Cloning of 25 Different Ripening-Related mRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

~ mRNA was extracted from the pulp and peel of preclimacteric (d O) bananas (Musa AAA group, cv Crand Nain) and those exposed to ethylene gas for 24 h and stored in air alone for a further 1 (d 2) and 4 d (d 5). Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of in vitro translation products from the pulp and

Rosybel Medina-Suárez; Kenneth Manning; Jonathan Fletcher; Julia Aked; Colin R. Bird; Craham B. Seymour

389

Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, covering

D. Rose; S. S. Gunthe; E. Mikhailov; G. P. Frank; U. Dusek; M. O. Andreae; U. Pöschl

2008-01-01

390

High-dose green tea polyphenols induce nephrotoxicity in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice by down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and heat-shock protein expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported that oral feeding of 1% green tea polyphenols (GTPs) aggravated the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced\\u000a colitis in mice. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of 1% GTPs in several organs from normal and DSS-exposed mice.\\u000a Sixty-two male ICR mice were initially divided into four groups. Non-treated group (group 1, n?=?15) was given standard diet and

Hirofumi Inoue; Satoko Akiyama; Mari Maeda-Yamamoto; Atsushi Nesumi; Takuji Tanaka; Akira Murakami

391

Purification of prosthetically intact sulfite oxidase from chicken liver using a modified procedure.  

PubMed

A modified procedure was used to purify sulfite oxidase (sulfite:O2 oxidoreductase; EC 1.8.3.1) from chicken liver in high yield. The modifications included dialysis of the enzyme against a buffered solution containing sodium molybdate (prior to ion-exchange chromatography), which apparently reconstituted any demolybdo enzyme present in the extract, and phenyl-Sepharose column chromatography. Analysis showed that the purified enzyme contained Mo and heme in a 1.03:1.00 ratio, indicating that the enzyme was prosthetically intact; exogenous heme and other colored proteins were absent from the final pool. Treatment of the sulfite-reduced enzyme with 50 mM cyanide at pH 8.5 resulted in a gradual loss of catalytic activity with a half-life of 19.7 min. Analysis of the cyanide-inactivated enzyme gave a Mo:heme ratio of 1.02:1.00, providing the first direct evidence that the enzyme does not lose molybdenum when inactivated with cyanide. This modified purification procedure provides enzyme in high yield which is well-suited for experiments requiring prosthetically intact enzyme and which is not contaminated with extraneous heme or with other redox active proteins. PMID:2930196

Kipke, C A; Enemark, J H; Sunde, R A

1989-04-01

392

The effect of sulfite on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a short period of tolerance, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irreversibly damaged by low concentrations of sulfite. The length of the period of tolerance and the rate of the damaging effect depended on the concentration on sulfite, pH-value, temperature, the physiological state of the cells, and incubation time.

Karl-Ludwig Schimz

1980-01-01

393

Oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite catalyzed by cobalt ions.  

PubMed

Oxidation of magnesium sulfite is important for recycle of byproduct in the magnesium desulfurization. The oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite, prepared by vacuum evaporation method, was investigated in a bubbling tank in presence of transition metal catalysts, which shows cobalt is the most effective. The general reaction orders with respect to cobalt, magnesium sulfite, and oxygen are 0.44, 0, and 0.46, respectively, and the apparent activity energy is 17.43 KJ·mol. The catalytic performance of cobalt compared with other metals was also analyzed employing the ion potential theory. Integrated with the three-phase reaction model, we inferred that the general oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite is controlled by mass transfer of oxygen. Further, the intrinsic kinetics was predicted, indicating that the reaction orders with respect to cobalt and oxygen are 1.0 and 0, respectively. The results are helpful for the recycle of magnesium sulfite in magnesia desulfurization. PMID:24588305

Qiangwei, Li; Lidong, Wang; Yi, Zhao; Yongliang, Ma; Shuai, Cui; Shuang, Liu; Peiyao, Xu; Jiming, Hao

2014-04-01

394

Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on visual evoked potentials in rats exposed to sulfite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) administration on sulfite-induced alterations in visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Fifty two male albino Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups as follows; control (C), LA treated (L), sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) treated (S), Na2S2O5+LA treated (SL). Na2S2O5 (260 mg\\/kg\\/day) and LA (100 mg\\/kg\\/day) were given by intragastric intubation for 5 weeks. The

Narin Derin; Deniz Akpinar; Piraye Yargicoglu; Aysel Agar; Mutay Aslan

2009-01-01

395

Ginsenoside metabolite compound K promotes recovery of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and inhibits inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B activation.  

PubMed

Phytogenic compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK) or berberine (BBR), are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation. The latest study showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites could inhibit TNBS-induced colitis injury. However, the functional mechanisms of anti-inflammation effects of ginsenoside, particularly its metabolite CK are still not clear. Here, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and signaling pathways in colonic tissues were determined. In mild and sever colitis mice, CK and BBR (as a positive agent) alleviated colitis histopathology injury, ameliorated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, such as, IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in both mice colon tissues and blood. Nevertheless, the results revealed that CK and BBR inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, downregulated p-I?B? and upregulated I?B?, indicating that CK, as well as BBR, suppressed the activation of the NF-?B pathway in the progression of colitis with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, CK inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-activated macrophages via down-regulation of NF-?B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results not only reveal that CK promotes the recovery of the progression of colitis and inhibits the inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B activation, but also suggest that CK downregulates intestinal inflammation through regulating the activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:24504372

Li, Juan; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoping; Yuan, Jiahui; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Tianhui; Song, Gang

2014-01-01

396

Effects of aggregates on mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface.  

PubMed

We have exploited the spatial and kinetic resolution of ellipsometry to monitor the lateral movement of inhomogeneous patches of material in mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface. We show that the choice of sample preparation methods can have a profound effect on the state of the interface for chemically equivalent samples. The extent of aggregation in the bulk solution on relevant time scales is affected by specific details of the polymer/surfactant mixing process, which produces varying numbers of aggregates that can become trapped in the interfacial layer, resulting in an enhanced and fluctuating ellipsometry signal. It can be beneficial to apply the surface-cleaning method of aspiration prior to physical measurements to remove trapped aggregates through the creation of a fresh interface. At low pH, the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning is remarkably constant over a factor of >500 in the bulk composition below charge equivalence, which is discussed in terms of possible adsorption mechanisms. At high pH, through observing temporal fluctuations in the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning, we reveal two important processes: there is the spontaneous adsorption of aggregates > 0.2 microm in diameter into the interfacial layer, and with time there is the fusion of smaller aggregates to generate new large surface aggregates. We attribute the favorability of the adsorption and fusion processes at high pH to reduced electrostatic barriers resulting from the low surface charge density of the aggregates. It is inappropriate in this case to consider the interface to comprise a homogeneous adsorption layer that is in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk solution. Our work shows that it can be helpful to consider whether there are macroscopic particles embedded in molecular layers at the air/liquid interface for systems where there is prior knowledge of aggregation in the bulk phase. PMID:19714890

Tonigold, Katrin; Varga, Imre; Nylander, Tommy; Campbell, Richard A

2009-04-01

397

Tomato Lycopene Extract Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced NF-?B Signaling but Worsens Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in NF-?BEGFP Mice  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of tomato lycopene extract (TLE) on intestinal inflammation is currently unknown. We investigated the effect of TLE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate signaling and experimental colitis. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were fed a diet containing 0.5 and 2% TLE or isoflavone free control (AIN-76). The therapeutic efficacy of TLE diet was assessed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) exposed mice and IL-10?/?;NF-?BEGFP mice, representing an acute and spontaneous chronic colitis model respectively. A mini-endoscope was used to determine the extent of macroscopic mucosal lesions. Murine splenocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were used to determine the in vitro impact of TLE on LPS-induced NF-?B signaling. In vitro, TLE blocked LPS-induced I?B? degradation, RelA translocation, NF-?B transcriptional activity and MIP-2 mRNA accumulation in IEC-18 cells. Moreover, LPS-induced IL-12p40 gene expression was dose-dependently inhibited in TLE-treated splenocytes. Interestingly, DSS-induced acute colitis worsened in TLE-fed NF-?BEGFP mice compared to control diet as measured by weight loss, colonoscopic analysis and histological scores. In contrast, TLE-fed IL-10?/?;NF-?BEGFP mice displayed decreased colonic EGFP expression compared to control diet. IL-6, TNF?, and MCP-1 mRNA expression were increased in the colon of TLE-fed, DSS-exposed NF-?BEGFP mice compared to the control diet. Additionally, caspase-3 activation and TUNEL positive cells were enhanced in TLE diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice as compared to DSS control mice. Conclusions/ Significance These results indicate that TLE prevents LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression by blocking of NF-?B signaling, but aggravates DSS-induced colitis by enhancing epithelial cell apoptosis.

Joo, Young-Eun; Karrasch, Thomas; Muhlbauer, Marcus; Allard, Brigitte; Narula, Acharan; Herfarth, Hans H.; Jobin, Christian

2009-01-01

398

Ginsenoside Metabolite Compound K Promotes Recovery of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Inhibits Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-?B Activation  

PubMed Central

Phytogenic compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK) or berberine (BBR), are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation. The latest study showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites could inhibit TNBS-induced colitis injury. However, the functional mechanisms of anti-inflammation effects of ginsenoside, particularly its metabolite CK are still not clear. Here, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and signaling pathways in colonic tissues were determined. In mild and sever colitis mice, CK and BBR (as a positive agent) alleviated colitis histopathology injury, ameliorated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, such as, IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in both mice colon tissues and blood. Nevertheless, the results revealed that CK and BBR inhibited NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation, downregulated p-I?B? and upregulated I?B?, indicating that CK, as well as BBR, suppressed the activation of the NF-?B pathway in the progression of colitis with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, CK inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-activated macrophages via down-regulation of NF-?B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results not only reveal that CK promotes the recovery of the progression of colitis and inhibits the inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B activation, but also suggest that CK downregulates intestinal inflammation through regulating the activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines production.

Li, Juan; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoping; Yuan, Jiahui; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Tianhui; Song, Gang

2014-01-01

399

Chromatographic analysis of phenethylamine-antihistamine combinations using C8, C18 or cyano columns and micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate-pentanol mixtures.  

PubMed

The chromatographic behaviour of binary and ternary mixtures of several phenethylamines (phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and methoxyphenamine) and antihistamines (pheniramine, carbinoxamine, doxylamine, chlorpheniramine, dexchlorpheniramine, dexbrompheniramine, diphenhydramine, tripolidine, azatadine and phenyltoloxamine), found in cough-cold pharmaceutical preparations, was studied using C8, C18 and cyano columns, micellar mobile phases of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and pentanol and UV detection. Using a C8 column and mobile phases of 0.05 mol l-1 SDS-6% v/v pentanol or 0.15 mol l-1 SDS-2% v/v pentanol at pH 7, more than 30 different phenethylamine-antihistamine combinations can be resolved in < 15 min. Intra- and inter-day repeatabilities and reproducibilities evaluated at three different drug concentrations (0.5, 5 and 25 micrograms ml-1, n = 10) were below 1.6, 2.5 and 2.4%, respectively. The drug amounts found in 18 formulations agreed with those declared by the manufacturers within the tolerance limits, and with those obtained using a mobile phase of 55% v/v methanol at pH 7. No interference was observed from other accompanying drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid, ascorbic acid, betamethasone, bromhexine, caffeine, codeine, dextromethorphan, paracetamol, prednisolone, salicylamide and tartrazine. The proposed procedure has the advantage over the conventional aqueous-organic procedure of using a small amount of organic solvent, which is highly retained in the SDS solution. The efficiencies are also greater. On the other hand, in the micellar system, the retentions of phenethylamines and antihistamines are similar, although the compounds can be easily resolved. In contrast, using the methanol-water mobile phase, the phenethylamines are weakly retained, whereas the antihistamines usually show a high retention. PMID:11340978

Gil-Agustí, M; Capella-Peiró, E; Monferrer-Pons, L; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C; Esteve-Romero, J

2001-04-01

400

Monocolonization with Bacteroides ovatus protects immunodeficient SCID mice from mortality in chronic intestinal inflammation caused by long-lasting dextran sodium sulfate treatment.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the role of commensal Gram-negative bacterium Bacteroides ovatus in murine model of chronic intestinal inflammation. The attempt to induce chronic colitis was done in Bacteroides ovatus-monoassociated, germ-free and conventional mice either in immunocompetent (BALB/c) mice or in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), using 2.5 % dextran-sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water (7 days DSS, 7 days water, 7 days DSS). Conventional mice developed chronic colitis. Some of germ-free BALB/c and the majority of germ-free SCID mice did not survive the long-term treatment with DSS due to massive bleeding into the intestinal lumen. However, monocolonization of germ-free mice of both strains with Bacteroides ovatus prior to long-term treatment with DSS protected mice from bleeding, development of intestinal inflammation and precocious death. We observed that though DSS-treated Bacteroides ovatus-colonized SCID mice showed minor morphological changes in colon tissue, jejunal brush-border enzyme activities such as gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, lactase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly reduced in comparison with DSS-untreated Bacteroides ovatus-colonized mice. This modulation of the enterocyte gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase localized to the brush border membrane has been described for the first time. This enzyme is known to reflect an imbalance between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant mechanisms, which could be involved in protective effects of colonization of germ-free mice with Bacteroides ovatus against DSS injury. PMID:18198984

Hudcovic, T; Kozáková, H; Kolínská, J; Stepánková, R; Hrncír, T; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

2009-01-01

401

The impact of JNK inhibitor D-JNKI-1 in a murine model of chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are involved in the activation of T cells and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Several studies have established the relevance of the JNK pathway in inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study analyzed the therapeutic effect of D-JNKI-1, a specific JNK-inhibiting peptide, in a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of chronic colitis. Methods: DSS colitis was induced in female C57/BL6 mice by cyclic administration using different concentrations of DSS (1.0% and 1.5%). Mice in the intervention groups received subcutaneous administration of 1 ?g/kg D-JNKI-1 on days 2, 12, and 22. They were monitored daily to assess the severity of colitis, body weight, stool consistency, and the occurrence of occult blood or gross rectal bleeding using evaluation of the disease activity index. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days, and the inflamed intestine was histologically evaluated using a crypt damage score. Immunohistochemical quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was also carried out. Results: Administration of 1 ?g/kg D-JNKI-1 resulted in a significant decrease in the disease activity index (P = 0.013 for 1.0% DSS; P = 0.007 for 1.5% DSS). As a mild form of colitis was induced, histological examination did not show any distinct damage to the mucosa and crypts. However, expression of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was reduced in mice treated with D-JNKI-1 (not significant). Conclusion: Administration of D-JNKI-1 resulted in a clinical attenuation of chronic DSS colitis, and a therapeutic effect of D-JNKI-1 must therefore be assumed. The decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ cells may reflect the influence of D-JNKI-1 on T-cell activation, differentiation, and migration.

Kersting, Sabine; Behrendt, Volker; Kersting, Jonas; Reinecke, Kirstin; Hilgert, Christoph; Stricker, Ingo; Herdegen, Thomas; Janot, Monika S; Uhl, Waldemar; Chromik, Ansgar M

2013-01-01

402

EGFR is required for Colonic Tumor Promotion by Dietary Fat in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Model: Roles of TGF-? and PTGS2  

PubMed Central

Purpose Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer-deaths. Dietary factors contribute substantially to the risk of this malignancy. Western style diets promote development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer. While we showed that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) controlled AOM tumorigenesis in standard fat conditions, the role of EGFR in tumor promotion by high dietary fat has not been examined. Experimental Design A/JxC57BL6/J mice with wild type Egfr (Egfrwt) or loss-of-function waved-2 Egfr (Egfrwa2) received AOM followed by standard (std 5% fat) or Western style (20% fat) diet. As F1 mice were resistant to AOM, we treated mice with AOM followed by one cycle of inflammation-inducing dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce tumorigenesis. Mice were sacrificed 12 wks after DSS. Tumors were graded for histology and assessed for EGFR ligands and proto-oncogenes by immunostaining, Western blotting and real time PCR. Results Egfrwt mice gained significantly more weight and had exaggerated insulin resistance compared to Egfrwa2 mice on high fat diet. Dietary fat promoted tumor (71.2% vs. 36.7%, p<0.05) and cancer incidence (43.9% vs. 16.7%, p<0.05) only in Egfrwt mice. The lipid-rich diet also significantly increased tumor and cancer multiplicity only in Egfrwt mice. In tumors, dietary fat and Egfrwt up-regulated TGF??, amphiregulin, CTNNB1, MYC, and CCND1, whereas PTGS2 was only increased in Egfrwt mice and further up-regulated by dietary fat. Notably, dietary fat increased TGF-? in normal colon. Conclusions EGFR is required for dietary fat-induced weight gain and tumor promotion. EGFR-dependent increases in receptor ligands and PTGS2 likely drive diet-related tumor promotion.

Dougherty, Urszula; Cerasi, Dario; Taylor, Ieva; Kocherginsky, Masha; Tekin, Ummuhan; Badal, Shamiram; Aluri, Lata; Sehdev, Amikar; Cerda, Sonia; Mustafi, Reba; Delgado, Jorge; Joseph, Loren; Zhu, Hongyan; Hart, John; Threadgill, David; Fichera, Alessandro; Bissonnette, Marc

2009-01-01

403

Genetic Deletion of Klf4 in the Mouse Intestinal Epithelium Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Colitis by Modulating the NF-?B Pathway Inflammatory Response  

PubMed Central

Background Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in the differentiated epithelial cells lining of the intestine. Under physiological conditions, KLF4 inhibits cell proliferation. Conversely, KLF4 mediates proinflammatory signaling in macrophages and its overexpression in the esophageal epithelium activates cytokines, leading to inflammation-mediated esophageal squamous cell cancer formation in mice. Here, we tested whether KLF4 has a proinflammatory activity in experimental colitis in mice. Methods Villin-Cre;Klf4fl/fl mice with intestine-specific Klf4 deletion (Klf4?IS) and control mice with floxed Klf4 gene (Klf4fl/fl) were treated or not with 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 days to induce colitis. Additionally, WT mice were administered or not, nanoparticles loaded with scrambled or Klf4-siRNA, and concomitantly given DSS. Results Compared with DSS-treated Klf4fl/fl mice, DSS-treated Klf4?IS mice were significantly less sensitive to DSS-induced colitis. DSS treatment of Klf4fl/fl mice induced Klf4 expression in the crypt zone of the colonic epithelium. DSS-treated Klf4?IS mice had increased proliferation relative to DSS-treated control mice. DSS treatment induced NF-?B signaling pathway in Klf4fl/fl mice colon but not Klf4?IS mice. Additionally, WT mice given DSS and nanoparticle/Klf4-siRNA were less sensitive to colitis and had reduced Klf4 expression and while maintaining the proliferative response in the colonic epithelium. Conclusions Our results indicate that Klf4 is an important mediator of DSS-induced colonic inflammation by modulating NF-?B signaling pathway and could be involved in the pathogenesis and/or propagation of inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, Klf4 may represent a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease.

Ghaleb, Amr M.; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Yang, Vincent W.

2014-01-01

404

Increased CYP4B1 mRNA Is Associated with the Inhibition of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Caffeic Acid in Mice  

PubMed Central

Susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases depends upon interactions between the genetics of the individual and induction of chronic mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that administration of dietary phenolics, caffeic acid and rutin, would suppress upregulation of inflammatory markers and intestinal damage in a mouse model of colitis. Colitis was induced in C3H/HeOuJ mice (8 wk old, 6 male/6 female per treatment) with 1.25% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 6 d in their drinking water. Rutin (1.0 mmol (524 mg)/kg in diet), caffeic acid (1.0 mmol (179 mg)/kg in diet), and hypoxoside extract (15 mg/d, an anticolitic phenolic control) were fed for 7 d before and during DSS treatment, as well as without DSS treatment. Body weight loss was prevented by rutin and caffeic acid during DSS treatment. Colon lengths in mice fed caffeic acid and hypoxoside during DSS treatment were similar to DSS-negative control. Food intake was improved and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was decreased with each phenolic treatment in DSS-treated mice compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic mRNA expression of IL-17 and iNOS were inhibited when IL-4 was increased by each phenolic treatment combined with DSS, whereas CYP4B1 mRNA was increased only by caffeic acid in DSS-treated mice, compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic and cecal histopathology scores of DSS-treated mice were significantly more severe (P< 0.01) than in mice fed caffeic acid before and during DSS treatment based on mucosal height, necrosis, edema, erosion, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Although both rutin and caffeic acid suppressed the expression of selected inflammatory markers, only caffeic acid protected against DSS induced colitis, in association with normalization of CYP4B1 expression. The inhibition of DSS-induced colitic pathology by caffeic acid was mediated by mechanisms in addition to anti-inflammatory effects that deserve further study.

Ye, Zhong; Liu, Zhiping; Henderson, Abigail; Lee, Kwangwon; Hostetter, Jesse; Wannemuehler, Michael; Hendrich, Suzanne

2013-01-01

405

Preventive and therapeutic oral administration of the pentacyclic triterpene ?,?-amyrin ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice: the relevance of cannabinoid system.  

PubMed

The pentacyclic triterpene ?,?-amyrin has been previously reported as an effective compound in the treatment of several inflammatory conditions. Recent evidence indicates that ?,?-amyrin displayed its effects through interaction with the cannabinoid pathway. We assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of the ?,?-amyrin in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and investigated whether its effects were associated with the interaction with the cannabinoid system. Our results showed that the oral preventive or therapeutic treatment with ?,?-amyrin significantly reduced disease activity, body weight loss, colonic damage, as well as colonic myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. Moreover, ?,?-amyrin decreases the colonic pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (CXCL1/KC), while up-regulating the IL-4 levels. Additionally, we also observed that the ?,?-amyrin caused a significant reduction of the adhesion molecules mRNA expression for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), platelet cell adhesion molecule 1 (PCAM-1), ?(2)-integrin and protein expression for proliferation marker Ki67, the macrophage molecule CD68 and for adhesion molecule P-selectin. Interestingly, our results also showed that the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)), but not CB(2), pharmacological blockade significantly reversed the beneficial effects of ?,?-amyrin in DSS-induced colitis. Besides, our data demonstrated that mRNA expression for both the endocannabinoid hydrolase monoglyceride lipase 1 (MGL1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) were significantly reduced in the colon of ?,?-amyrin-treated mice. Altogether, these results suggest that the ?,?-amyrin might possess potential therapeutic interest for the treatment of IBD, and also provide new insights for the underlying mechanisms. PMID:23454360

Matos, Israel; Bento, Allisson Freire; Marcon, Rodrigo; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Calixto, João B

2013-07-01

406

Sulfite oxidase biosensors based on tetrathiafulvalene modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for sulfite determination in wine.  

PubMed

Screen-printed carbon electrodes have been modified with tetrathiafulvalene and sulfite oxidase enzyme for the sensitive and selective detection of sulfite. Amperometric experimental conditions were optimized taking into account the importance of quantifying sulfite in wine samples and the inherent complexity of these samples, particularly red wine. The biosensor responds to sulfite giving a cathodic current (at +200 mV vs screen-printed Ag/AgCl electrode and pH 6) in a wide concentration range, with a capability of detection of 6 ?M (?=?=0.05) at 60°C. The method has been applied to the determination of sulfite in white and red samples, with averages recoveries of 101.5% to 101.8%, respectively. PMID:24491762

Molinero-Abad, Begoña; Alonso-Lomillo, M Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

2014-02-17

407

Role of sulfite additives in wine induced asthma: single dose and cumulative dose studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDWine appears to be a significant trigger for asthma. Although sulfite additives have been implicated as a major cause of wine induced asthma, direct evidence is limited. Two studies were undertaken to assess sulfite reactivity in wine sensitive asthmatics. The first study assessed sensitivity to sulfites in wine using a single dose sulfited wine challenge protocol followed by a double

H Vally; P J Thompson

2001-01-01

408

Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in

1988-01-01

409

Macrokinetics of magnesium sulfite oxidation inhibited by ascorbic acid.  

PubMed

Magnesia flue gas desulfurization is a promising process for small to medium scale industrial coal-fired boilers in order to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, in which oxidation control of magnesium sulfite is of great importance for the recycling of products. Effects of four inhibitors were compared by kinetic experiments indicating that ascorbic acid is the best additive, which retards the oxidation process of magnesium sulfite in trace presence. The macrokinetics of magnesium sulfite oxidation inhibited by ascorbic acid were studied. Effects of the factors, including ascorbic acid concentration, magnesium sulfite concentration, oxygen partial pressure, pH, and temperature, were investigated in a stirred reactor with bubbling. The results show that the reaction rate is -0.55 order in ascorbic acid, 0.77 in oxygen partial pressure, and zero in magnesium sulfite concentration, respectively. The apparent activation energy is 88.0 kJ mol(-1). Integrated with the kinetic model, it is concluded that the oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite