Sample records for sulfate sodium sulfite

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.

    PubMed

    Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were negative in mutagenicity studies. Sodium Bisulfite produced both positive and negative results. Clinical oral and ocular-exposure studies reported no adverse effects. Sodium Sulfite was not irritating or sensitizing in clinical tests. These ingredients, however, may produce positive reactions in dermatologic patients under patch test. In evaluating the positive genotoxicity data found with Sodium Bisulfite, the equilibrium chemistry of sulfurous acid, sulfur dioxide, bisulfite, sulfite, and metabisulfite was considered. This information, however, suggests that some bisulfite may have been present in genotoxicity tests involving the other ingredients and vice versa. On that basis, the genotoxicity data did not give a clear, consistent picture. In cosmetics, however, the bisulfite form is used at very low concentrations (0.03% to 0.7%) in most products except wave sets. In wave sets, the pH ranges from 8 to 9 where the sulfite form would predominate. Skin penetration would be low due to the highly charged nature of these particles and any sulfite that did penetrate would be converted to sulfate by the enzyme sulfate oxidase. As used in cosmetics, therefore, these ingredients would not present a genotoxicity risk. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. PMID:14555420

  2. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions...to discharges resulting from the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium...

  3. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions...to discharges resulting from the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium...

  4. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions...to discharges resulting from the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium...

  5. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions...to discharges resulting from the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium...

  6. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. The provisions...to discharges resulting from the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium...

  7. Removal of sulfide, sulfate and sulfite ions by electro coagulation.

    PubMed

    Murugananthan, M; Raju, G Bhaskar; Prabhakar, S

    2004-06-18

    The removal of various species of sulfur from beamhouse of tannery wastewater and also from synthetic samples was studied by electro-flotation technique. Consumable anodes of iron and aluminum and insoluble anode of titanium were tested as anodes. It was found that iron and aluminum anodes were effective for the removal of suspended solids, sulfide, sulfite and sulfate. Progress of simultaneous coagulation of suspended solids during electro-flotation was measured using particle size analysis. Coagulation was found to be essential for effective flotation of suspended solids. Metal ions generated in situ by electrolytic oxidation of anode were found to react with dissolved sulfide ions. Metal sulfides thus formed as colloidal suspension were coagulated and floated simultaneously by hydrogen bubbles generated from cathode. Simultaneous occurrence of precipitation, coagulation and flotation was observed during electro-flotation. X-ray diffraction studies were conducted to identify the nature of sulfide phase formed during electrolytic precipitation. The effect of pH, current density and initial concentration of pollutants was studied and the results are discussed. The removal of sulfite and sulfate ions is explained by zeta-potential measurements. PMID:15177743

  8. Generation and characterization of sodium sulfite aerosols for applications in inhalation toxicologic research

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Raabe, O.G.; Duvall, T.R.; Tarkington, B.K.

    1980-09-01

    A method was developed for generation of submicrometer aerosols of sodium sulfite suitable for use in inhalation toxicologic research. Concentrations ranging up to about 30 mg/m/sup 3/Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ were achieved in a 0.44 m/sup 3/ exposure chamber with an air flow rate of 0.20 m/sup 3//min for periods up to 16 days. The coefficient of variation of the sulfite aerosol mass concentration was about 4% during a typical exposure period. The measured mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD/sub ar/) of the generated aerosols were 1.2 (+-0.2SD) ..mu..m with a geometric standard deviation (sigma g) of 1.9 (+-0.3SD). The chamber was sampled for gas phase SO/sub 2/ concentration, and aerosol samples were analyzed for particulate sulfite and sulfate. The fraction of sulfur as sulfite in the aerosol was usually 95% and was always greater than 90%. Gas phase SO/sub 2/ amounted to less than 2% of the total S(IV) present in the chamber.

  9. Absorption of sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruo Hikita; Satoru Asai; Tadashi Tsuji

    1977-01-01

    The rates of absorption of pure sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium bisulfite, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulfite solutions with and without a surface active agent were measured at 25°C using a liquid jet column. For the sulfur dioxide-sodium hydroxide system, the rate of absorption into the solution without surface active agent was higher than that into the solution with surface

  10. Phylogeny of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductases Supports an Early Origin of Sulfate Respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL WAGNER; ANDREW J. ROGER; JODI L. FLAX; GREGORY A. BRUSSEAU; DAVID A. STAHL

    1998-01-01

    Microorganisms that use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration play a central role in the global sulfur cycle. Here, we report the results of comparative sequence analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes from closely and distantly related sulfate-reducing organisms to infer the evolutionary history of DSR. A 1.9-kb DNA region encoding most of the a and

  11. THE REACTION RATE OF SODIUM SULFITE WITH DISSOLVED OXYGEN. Technical Report No. 73

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1960-01-01

    The reaction rate of sodium sulfite was studied as a function of oxygen ;\\u000a concentration, NaâSOâ\\/Oâ ratio, temperature, catalyst, pH and ;\\u000a surface\\/volume ratio.The reaction rate of hydrazine with dissolved oxygen was ;\\u000a also studied. Oxygen removal is incomplete when the sulfite to oxygen ratio is ;\\u000a leas than the stoichiometric quantity. With the stoichiometric quantities of ;\\u000a oxygen and

  12. Diversity and composition of sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes as affected by marine-freshwater gradient and sulfate availability.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lan-Feng; Tang, Sen-Lin; Chen, Chang-Po; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian

    2012-01-01

    Sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SSRP) communities play a key role in both sulfur and carbon cycles. In estuarine ecosystems, sulfate concentrations change with tides and could be limited in tidal freshwater reach or deep sediments. In a subtropical estuary of northern Taiwan in December 2007, we examined the compositional changes of SSRP communities. We examined three sites: from the lower estuarine brackish-water reach (site GR and mangrove vegetation site, GM) to the upper estuarine tidal freshwater reach (site HR), as well as from surface to a 50-cm depth. The partial sequence of sulfite reductase (dsrB) genes was used as a molecular marker of SSRP, linked to polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. SSRP communities of the DGGE profiles varied with sites according to one-way analyses of similarities (Global R?=?0.69, P?=?0.001). Using cluster analysis, the DGGE profile was found to show site-specific clusters and a distinct depth zonation (five, six, and two SSRP communities at the GM, GR, and HR sites, respectively). SSRP composition was highly correlated to the combination of salinity, reduced sulfur, and total organic carbon contents (BIO-ENV analysis, r ( s )?=?0.56). After analyzing a total of 35 dsrB sequences in the DGGE gel, six groups with 15 phylotypes were found, which were closely related to marine-freshwater gradient. Moreover, sequences neighboring sulfite-reducing prokaryotes were observed, in addition to those affiliated to sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Four phylotypes harvested in HR resembled the genus Desulfitobacterium, a sulfite-reducing prokaryote, which failed to use sulfate as an electron acceptor and were active in freshwater and sulfate-limited habitat. The other five phylotypes in the HR reach belonged to the sulfate-reducing prokaryotes of the genera Desulfatiferula, Desulfosarcina, Desulfovibrio, and Desulfotomaculum, which appeared to tolerate low salinity and low sulfate supply. SSRP phylotypes at the mangrove-vegetated GM site (five phylotypes in two groups) were phylogenetically less diverse, when compared with those at the non-mangrove-vegetated GR site (three phylotypes in three groups) and the tidally influenced freshwater HR site (nine phylotypes in five groups). Phylotypes found at GR and GM were all affiliated to marine sulfate-reducing prokaryote strains of the genera Desulfofaba, Desulfobotulus, Desulfatiferula, Desulfosarcina, and Desulfotomaculum. Notably, a phylotype recorded in the surface sediment at GR resembled the genus Desulfobulbus, which was recorded from freshwater environment consisting of the freshwater input at GR during ebb tides. PMID:21785985

  13. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6...prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a...

  17. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

  18. Sodium sulfite-formaldehyde pretreatment of mixed hardwoods and its effect on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yongcan; Yang, Linfeng; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-min; Phillips, Richard

    2013-05-01

    In this work, mixed hardwoods were pretreated by sodium sulfite-formaldehyde (SF). The effects of SF pretreatment on the chemical compositions and enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed hardwoods were investigated. SF pretreatment temperature had a significant effect on pulp yield and delignification, resulting in an increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. After 96 h of enzymatic hydrolysis at the cellulase loading of 40 FPU/g substrate, the yields of glucan and xylan on the basis of original wood were 37% and 11% for the pulp produced with 12% sulfite charge at 170 °C for 2 h. The total sugar recovery based on the sugar in original wood was 74%. These results indicate that sulfite-formaldehyde cooking is of great potential to be a pretreatment method for a greenfield mill to produce fuel ethanol from hardwood. PMID:23127844

  19. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. Kinetics of manganese reduction leaching from weathered rare-earth mud with sodium sulfite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chi; G. Zhu; S. Xu; J. Tian; J. Liu; Z. Xu

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of manganese reduction leaching in an acidic medium from a weathered rare-earth mud (WREM) were investigated.\\u000a Using sodium sulfite as a reductant, the effect of reaction temperature, mechanical agitation rate, sulfuric acid dosage,\\u000a and feed particle size on leaching kinetics were examined. The leaching process can be described by the shrinking-core model.\\u000a An apparent activation energy of 11.5

  10. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

  11. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

  12. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

  13. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

  14. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance...and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent...

  15. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled...of Part 63—Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 true Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled...of Part 63—Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled...of Part 63—Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled...of Part 63—Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled...of Part 63—Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium...

  1. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. PMID:25047093

  2. Multiple sulfur isotope signatures of sulfite and thiosulfate reduction by the model dissimilatory sulfate-reducer, Desulfovibrio alaskensis str. G20

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, William D.; Cummins, Renata; Schmidt, Marian L.; Sim, Min S.; Ono, Shuhei; Bradley, Alexander S.; Johnston, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction serves as a key metabolic carbon remineralization process in anoxic marine environments. Sulfate reducing microorganisms can impart a wide range in mass-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation. As such, the presence and relative activity of these organisms is identifiable from geological materials. By extension, sulfur isotope records are used to infer the redox balance of marine sedimentary environments, and the oxidation state of Earth's oceans and atmosphere. However, recent work suggests that our understanding of microbial sulfate reduction (MSRs) may be missing complexity associated with the presence and role of key chemical intermediates in the reductive process. This study provides a test of proposed metabolic models of sulfate reduction by growing an axenic culture of the well-studied MSRs, Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain G20, under electron donor limited conditions on the terminal electron acceptors sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate, and tracking the multiple S isotopic consequences of each condition set. The dissimilatory reduction of thiosulfate and sulfite produce unique minor isotope effects, as compared to the reduction of sulfate. Further, these experiments reveal a complex biochemistry associated with sulfite reduction. That is, under high sulfite concentrations, sulfur is shuttled to an intermediate pool of thiosulfate. Site-specific isotope fractionation (within thiosulfate) is very large (34? ~ 30‰) while terminal product sulfide carries only a small fractionation from the initial sulfite (34? < 10‰): a signature similar in magnitude to sulfate and thiosulfate reduction. Together these findings show that microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) is highly sensitive to the concentration of environmentally important sulfur-cycle intermediates (sulfite and thiosulfate), especially when thiosulfate and the large site-specific isotope effects are involved. PMID:25505449

  3. Sulfite hypersensitivity. A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnison, A.F.; Jacobsen, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfiting agents (sulfur dioxide and the sodium and potassium salts of bisulfite, sulfite, and metabisulfite) are widely used as preservatives in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Within the past 5 years, there have been numerous reports of adverse reactions to sulfiting agents. This review presents a comprehensive compilation and discussion of reports describing reactions to ingested, inhaled, and parenterally administered sulfite. Sulfite hypersensitivity is usually, but not exclusively, found within the chronic asthmatic population. Although there is some disagreement on its prevalence, a number of studies have indicated that 5 to 10% of all chronic asthmatics are sulfite hypersensitive. This review also describes respiratory sulfur dioxide sensitivity which essentially all asthmatics experience. Possible mechanisms of sulfite hypersensitivity and sulfur dioxide sensitivity are discussed in detail. Sulfite metabolism and the role of sulfite oxidase in the detoxification of exogenous sulfite are reviewed in relationship to the etiology of sulfite hypersensitivity. 147 references.

  4. Enhanced generation of hydroxyl radical and sulfur trioxide anion radical from oxidation of sodium sulfite, nickel(II) sulfite, and nickel subsulfide in the presence of nickel(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Shi, X; Dalal, N; Kasprzak, K S

    1994-09-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping was utilized to investigate the generation of free radicals from oxidation of sodium sulfite, nickel(II) sulfite, and nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) by ambient oxygen or H2O2 at pH 7.4. The spin trap used was 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). Under ambient oxygen, a solution of sodium sulfite alone generated predominantly sulfur trioxide anion radical (.SO3-) due to the autoxidation of sulfite. Addition of nickel(II) chloride [Ni(II)] enhanced the .SO3- yield about 4-fold. Incubation of sulfite with Ni(II) in the presence of chelators such as tetraglycine, histidine, beta-alanyl-3-methyl-L-histidine (anserine), beta--L-histidine (carnosine), gamma-aminobutyryl-L-histidine (homocarnosine), glutathione, and penicillamine did not have any significant effect on that enhancement. In contrast, albumin, and especially glycylglycylhistidine (GlyGlyHis), augmented the enhancing effect of Ni(II) by factors of 1.4 and 4, respectively. Computer simulation analysis of the spin-adduct spectrum and formate scavenging experiment showed that the mixture of sodium sulfite, Ni(II), and GlyGlyHis generated both hydroxyl (.OH) radical and .SO3- radical, in the ratio of approximately 1:2. The free-radical spin adduct intensity reached its saturation level in about 5 min. The yield of the radical adducts could be slightly reduced by deferoxamine and very strongly reduced by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Aqueous suspensions of sparingly soluble nickel(II) sulfite in the presence of air and GlyGlyHis generated surface-located .SO3- and .OH radicals. The same radicals were generated in Ni3S2 suspension in the presence of GlyGlyHis and H2O2, indicating sulfite production by oxidation of the sulfide moiety of this compound.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7843142

  5. Acid/Base Recovery From Sodium Sulfate

    E-print Network

    Niksa, M. J.

    of this material is recycled internally. Some Is upgraded and sold as a product. Most is disposed of as waste In landfills, or discharged to deep-wells, or bodies of water. Electrolytic regeneration of by-product sodium sulfate can prof~ably exploij...-s~e costs can be Inslgn~lcant but outside and fill expense is rising exponentially as our landfills run out of room. Even "no-eost" disposal represems a waste of purchased resources. Current chemical costs (caustic soda and sulfuric acid) to make...

  6. The Crystal Structure of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Bound to DsrC Provides Novel Insights into the Mechanism of Sulfate Respiration*S?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tânia F.; Vonrhein, Clemens; Matias, Pedro M.; Venceslau, Sofia S.; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Archer, Margarida

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction is one of the earliest types of energy metabolism used by ancestral organisms to sustain life. Despite extensive studies, many questions remain about the way respiratory sulfate reduction is associated with energy conservation. A crucial enzyme in this process is the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dSiR), which contains a unique siroheme-[4Fe4S] coupled cofactor. Here, we report the structure of desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, in which the dSiR DsrAB (sulfite reductase) subunits are bound to the DsrC protein. The ?2?2?2 assembly contains two siroheme-[4Fe4S] cofactors bound by DsrB, two sirohydrochlorins and two [4Fe4S] centers bound by DsrA, and another four [4Fe4S] centers in the ferredoxin domains. A sulfite molecule, coordinating the siroheme, is found at the active site. The DsrC protein is bound in a cleft between DsrA and DsrB with its conserved C-terminal cysteine reaching the distal side of the siroheme. We propose a novel mechanism for the process of sulfite reduction involving DsrAB, DsrC, and the DsrMKJOP membrane complex (a membrane complex with putative disulfide/thiol reductase activity), in which two of the six electrons for reduction of sulfite derive from the membrane quinone pool. These results show that DsrC is involved in sulfite reduction, which changes the mechanism of sulfate respiration. This has important implications for models used to date ancient sulfur metabolism based on sulfur isotope fractionations. PMID:18829451

  7. The crystal structure of Desulfovibrio vulgaris dissimilatory sulfite reductase bound to DsrC provides novel insights into the mechanism of sulfate respiration.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tânia F; Vonrhein, Clemens; Matias, Pedro M; Venceslau, Sofia S; Pereira, Inês A C; Archer, Margarida

    2008-12-01

    Sulfate reduction is one of the earliest types of energy metabolism used by ancestral organisms to sustain life. Despite extensive studies, many questions remain about the way respiratory sulfate reduction is associated with energy conservation. A crucial enzyme in this process is the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dSiR), which contains a unique siroheme-[4Fe4S] coupled cofactor. Here, we report the structure of desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris, in which the dSiR DsrAB (sulfite reductase) subunits are bound to the DsrC protein. The alpha(2)beta(2)gamma(2) assembly contains two siroheme-[4Fe4S] cofactors bound by DsrB, two sirohydrochlorins and two [4Fe4S] centers bound by DsrA, and another four [4Fe4S] centers in the ferredoxin domains. A sulfite molecule, coordinating the siroheme, is found at the active site. The DsrC protein is bound in a cleft between DsrA and DsrB with its conserved C-terminal cysteine reaching the distal side of the siroheme. We propose a novel mechanism for the process of sulfite reduction involving DsrAB, DsrC, and the DsrMKJOP membrane complex (a membrane complex with putative disulfide/thiol reductase activity), in which two of the six electrons for reduction of sulfite derive from the membrane quinone pool. These results show that DsrC is involved in sulfite reduction, which changes the mechanism of sulfate respiration. This has important implications for models used to date ancient sulfur metabolism based on sulfur isotope fractionations. PMID:18829451

  8. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-print Network

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by the addition of methanol at >400 °C (1) or by the addition of ozone (2, 3) or hydrogen peroxide (4). Therefore absorption into aqueous sodium sulfite and bisulfite solutions, both in a gas liquid contactor and a spray

  9. Durability of geopolymer materials in sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bakharev

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the durability of geopolymer materials manufactured using class F fly ash and alkaline activators when exposed to a sulfate environment. Three tests were used to determine resistance of geopolymer materials. The tests involved immersions for a period of 5 months into 5% solutions of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, and a solution of 5%

  10. Protective performances of two anti-graffiti treatments towards sulfite and sulfate formation in SO 2 polluted model environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, Paula María; Panas, Itai; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Johansson, Lars-Gunnar; Blanco-Varela, María Teresa; Martínez-Ramírez, Sagrario

    2010-11-01

    Specific strategies for protection are being developed to counter both the staining and corrosive effects of polluted air in cities, as well as to allow for efficient removal of unwanted graffiti paintings. These protection strategies employ molecules with tailored functionalities, e.g. being hydrophobic, while maintaining porosity for molecular water vapour permeation. The present study employs SO 2 and water to probe the behaviors of two anti-graffiti treatments, a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane ("Protectosil Antigraffiti" marketed by Degussa) and an organically modified silicate (Ormosil) synthesized from a polymer chain (polydimethyl siloxane, PDMS) and two network forming alkoxides (Zr propoxide and methyl triethoxy silane, MTES) dissolved in n-propanol, on five building materials, comprising limestone, aged lime mortar, hydrated cement mortar, granite, and brick material. The materials were exposed to a synthetic atmosphere for 20 h in a climate chamber, 0.78 ± 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and 95% RH. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DR-FTIR) spectra were registered before and after exposure in the climate chamber in the cases of both treated and untreated samples. DR-FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, suggest the anti-graffiti Ormosil to suppress formation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate (the primary initial product of the reaction of calcium compounds with SO 2 and water) on carbonate materials (limestone and lime mortar). In case of the granite, brick and cement mortar, Ormosil has a negligible influence on the SO 2 capture. While no sulfite formation was detected by DR-FTIR, gypsum is inferred to form due to metal oxides and minority compounds catalysed oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. In case of brick, this understanding finds support from SEM images as well as EDX. A priori presence of gypsum in hydrated cement mortars prevents positive identification by SEM. However, support for sulfur accumulation in hydrated cement mortar is provided by means of EDX. In case of a second anti-graffiti considered, Protectosil, no influence of the anti-graffiti treatment on the SO 2 uptake of any of the building materials was observed.

  11. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxic and anoxic regions of a microbial mat characterized by comparative analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Minz, D.; Flax, J.L.; Green, S.J.; Muyzer, G.; Cohen, Y.; Wagner, M.; Rittmann, B.E.; Stahl, D.A.

    1999-10-01

    Sequence analysis of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) was used to identify sulfate-reducing bacteria in a hypersaline microbial mat and to evaluate their distribution in relation to levels of oxygen. The most highly diverse DSR sequences, most related to those of the Desulfonema-like organisms within the {delta}-proteobacteria, were recovered from oxic regions of the mat. This observation extends those of previous studies by the authors and others associating Desulfonema-like organisms with oxic habitats.

  12. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxic and anoxic regions of a microbial mat characterized by comparative analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DROR MINZ; JODI L. FLAX; STEFAN J. GREEN; GERARD MUYZER; YEHUDA COHEN; MICHAEL WAGNER; BRUCE E. RITTMANN; DAVID A. STAHL

    1999-01-01

    Sequence analysis of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) was used to identify sulfate-reducing bacteria in a hypersaline microbial mat and to evaluate their distribution in relation to levels of oxygen. The most highly diverse DSR sequences, most related to those of the Desulfonema-like organisms within the δ-proteobacteria, were recovered from oxic regions of the mat. This observation extends those

  13. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate...ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used...

  15. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and ?-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%. PMID:25773993

  16. Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

  17. Evaluation of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate as a Blackbird Wetting Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Byrd; John Cummings; Shelagh Tupper; John Eisemann

    2009-01-01

    New and improved strategies are needed for managing overabundant blackbird (Icteridae spp.) populations in some areas of the United States. From 2004 to 2007, we evaluated sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as a wetting agent during controlled outdoor cage and flight pen tests in Colorado and small-scale field tests at urban blackbird roosts in Missouri. In the outdoor cage tests (ambient

  18. Dispersion Stability of Functionalized Graphene in Aqueous Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Dispersion Stability of Functionalized Graphene in Aqueous Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Solutions Andrew (FGSs) in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions of different concentrations was studied batteries, for example, the inclusion of electrically conducting FGSs in metal oxide electrodes increases

  19. Sodium-sulfate/carboxylate cotransporters (SLC13).

    PubMed

    Markovich, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The SLC13 gene family is comprised of five sequence related proteins that are found in animals, plants, yeast and bacteria. Proteins encoded by the SLC13 genes are divided into the following two groups of transporters with distinct anion specificities: the Na(+)-sulfate (NaS) cotransporters and the Na(+)-carboxylate (NaC) cotransporters. Members of this gene family (in ascending order) are: SLC13A1 (NaS1), SLC13A2 (NaC1), SLC13A3 (NaC3), SLC13A4 (NaS2) and SLC13A5 (NaC2). SLC13 proteins encode plasma membrane polypeptides with 8-13 putative transmembrane domains, and are expressed in a variety of tissues. They are all Na(+)-coupled symporters with strong cation preference for Na(+), and insensitive to the stilbene 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Their Na(+):anion coupling ratio is 3:1, indicative of electrogenic properties. They have a substrate preference for divalent anions, which include tetra-oxyanions for the NaS cotransporters or Krebs cycle intermediates (including mono-, di- and tricarboxylates) for the NaC cotransporters. This review will describe the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the biochemical, physiological and structural properties of the SLC13 gene family. PMID:23177988

  20. Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases (desulforubidin and desulfoviridin) from the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Moessbauer and EPR studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, I.; LeGall, J.; Lino, A.R.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; Fauque, G.; Xavier, A.V.; DerVartanian, D.V.; Moura, J.J.G.; Huynh, B.H.

    1988-02-17

    In this paper, the authors report a detailed Moessbauer investigation of two different sulfite reductases, namely, desulforubidin from D. baculatus and desulfoviridin from D. gigas. In order to better characterize the prosthetic groups, they have also studied the EPR spectra and determined the iron and heme contents of the /sup 57/Fe-enriched enzymes. They found that desulforubidin contains exchange-coupled siroheme-(4Fe-4S) units which are similar to those found in the hemoprotein subunit of E. coli sulfite reductase. To their surprise, they discovered that the majority of the purified desulfoviridin contains demetalized sirohydrochlorin, with only a minor portion of the sample containing siroheme. The siroheme in desulfoviridin was also found to be coupled with a (4Fe-4S) cluster.

  1. Raman spectra study of iron phosphate glasses with sodium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. M.; Liang, X. F.; Yang, S. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Zhang, B. T.

    2012-04-01

    Glasses with nominal molar composition of xNa2SO4-(1 - x)(0.4Fe2O3-0.6P2O5) (0 ? x ? 0.45) were prepared, and the structure of the glasses was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. No crystalline phases were detected by XRD in all samples. From the sodium sulfate-free iron phosphate glass, Q0 (in the Qn terminology, n represents the number of bridging oxygens (BO) per PO4 tetrahedron), Q1 and Q2 groups were observed. But the Raman spectra imply that Q1 groups are the predominant structural units. Addition Na2SO4 content result in the conversion of Q1 to Q0 groups, indicating that depolymerization of the phosphate network with the addition of Na2SO4 content. The bands of sulfate vibrational modes increase with addition higher Na2SO4 content, indicating that sulfate is incorporated into the glass matrix.

  2. Induction of Colitis in Young Rats by Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Vicario; Mar Crespí; Àngels Franch; Concepció Amat; Carme Pelegrí; Miquel Moretó

    2005-01-01

    Models using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce experimental colitis in rodents have been performed mostly in adult animals. For this reason, we aimed to develop a model of colitis in young rats. DSS was administered to 30-day-old rats at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5% in drinking water. Young rats were remarkably sensitive to DSS since clinical symptoms rapidly

  3. Thermal energy storage using sodium sulfate decahydrate and water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D BISWAS

    1977-01-01

    It appears that the major problem preventing use of sodium sulfate decahydrate for thermal energy storage can be avoided by using the composition which is at or slightly to the water-rich side of the invariant point in the phase diagram. A mixture of 68.2 w\\/o NaâSOâ x 10HâO and 31.8 w\\/o HâO is suggested for a TES material. (WDM)

  4. Physicochemical effects on sulfite transformation in a lipid-rich Chlorella sp. strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fang; Wen, Xiaobin; Luo, Liming; Geng, Yahong; Li, Yeguang

    2014-11-01

    SO2 is very rapidly hydrated to sulfurous acid in water solution at pH value above 6.0, whereby sulfite is yielded from the disassociation of protons. We aimed to improve the sulfite transformation efficiency and provide a basis for the direct utilization of SO2 from flue gas by a microalgal suspension. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 was cultured in a medium with 20 mmol/L sodium sulfite under different physicochemical conditions. Under light conditions, sulfite concentration in the algal suspension reduced linearly over time, and was completely converted into sulfate within 8 h. The highest sulfite transformation rate (3.25 mmol/(L·h)) was obtained under the following conditions: 35°C, light intensity of 300 ?mol/(m2·s), NaHCO3 concentration of 6 g/L, initial cell density (OD540) of 0.8 and pH of 9-10. There was a positive correlation between sulfite transformation rate and the growth of Chlorella, with the conditions favorable to algal growth giving better sulfite transformation. Although oxygen in the air plays a role in the transformation of SO2- 3 to SO2- 4, the transformation is mainly dependent on the metabolic activity of algal cells. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 is capable of tolerating high sulfite concentration, and can utilize sulfite as the sole sulfur source for maintaining healthy growth. We found that sulfite ?20 mmol/L had no obvious effect on the total lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the algae. Thus, the results suggest it is feasible to use flue gas for the mass production of feedstock for biodiesel using Chlorella sp. XQ-20044, without preliminary removal of SO2, assuming there is adequate control of the pH.

  5. Sodium dodecyl sulfate promoting a cooperative association process of sodium cholate with bovine serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bianca Schweitzer; Arlindo C. Felippe; Alexandre Dal Bó; Edson Minatti; Dino Zanette; Antonio Lopes

    2006-01-01

    Sodium cholate (NaC) was used as a representative bile salt in the process of cooperative binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a mixture with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The experiments were performed in 0.02 M Tris–HCl buffer solution (pH 7.50), in the presence of 0.1% BSA and at 25?°C. The aim of this study is to provide information on

  6. Microorganisms with Novel Dissimilatory (Bi)Sulfite Reductase Genes Are Widespread and Part of the Core Microbiota in Low-Sulfate Peatlands ? †

    PubMed Central

    Steger, Doris; Wentrup, Cecilia; Braunegger, Christina; Deevong, Pinsurang; Hofer, Manuel; Richter, Andreas; Baranyi, Christian; Pester, Michael; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Peatlands of the Lehstenbach catchment (Germany) house as-yet-unidentified microorganisms with phylogenetically novel variants of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes dsrAB. These genes are characteristic of microorganisms that reduce sulfate, sulfite, or some organosulfonates for energy conservation but can also be present in anaerobic syntrophs. However, nothing is currently known regarding the abundance, community dynamics, and biogeography of these dsrAB-carrying microorganisms in peatlands. To tackle these issues, soils from a Lehstenbach catchment site (Schlöppnerbrunnen II fen) from different depths were sampled at three time points over a 6-year period to analyze the diversity and distribution of dsrAB-containing microorganisms by a newly developed functional gene microarray and quantitative PCR assays. Members of novel, uncultivated dsrAB lineages (approximately representing species-level groups) (i) dominated a temporally stable but spatially structured dsrAB community and (ii) represented “core” members (up to 1% to 1.7% relative abundance) of the autochthonous microbial community in this fen. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)- and clone library-based comparisons of the dsrAB diversity in soils from a wet meadow, three bogs, and five fens of various geographic locations (distance of ?1 to 400 km) identified that one Syntrophobacter-related and nine novel dsrAB lineages are widespread in low-sulfate peatlands. Signatures of biogeography in dsrB-based DGGE data were not correlated with geographic distance but could be explained largely by soil pH and wetland type, implying that the distribution of dsrAB-carrying microorganisms in wetlands on the scale of a few hundred kilometers is not limited by dispersal but determined by local environmental conditions. PMID:21169452

  7. Destabilization of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by molten sodium vanadate-sodium sulfate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagelberg, A. S.; Hamilton, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The extent of surface destabilization of ZrO2 - 8 wt percent Y2O3 ceramic disks was determined after exposure to molten salt mixtures of sodium sulfate containing up to 15 mole percent sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) at 1173 K. The ceramic surface was observed to transform from the cubic/tetragonal to monoclinic phase, concurrent with chemical changes in the molten salt layer in contact with the ceramic. Significant attack rates were observed in both pure sulfate and metavanadate sulfate melts. The rate of attack was found to be quite sensitive to the mole fraction of vanadate in the molten salt solution and the partial pressure of sulfur trioxide in equilibrium with the salt melt. The observed parabolic rate of attack is interpreted to be caused by a reaction controlled by diffusion in the salt that penetrates into the porous layer formed by the destabilization. The parabolic rate constant in mixed sodium metavanadate - sodium sulfate melts was found to be proportional to the SO3 partial pressure and the square of the metavanadate concentration. In-situ Raman spectroscopic measurements allowed simultaneous observations of the ceramic phases and salt chemistry during the attack process.

  8. Flow-injection analysis of two fluoquinolones by the sensitizing effect of terbium(III) on chemiluminescence of the potassium permanganate–sodium sulfite system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Yi; Huichun Zhao; Shilv Chen; Linpei Jin; Dongdong Zheng; Zhenglong Wu

    2003-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of two fluoquinolones (FQs), enoxacin (ENX) and ofloxacin (OFLX) is described by using flow injection analysis with potassium permanganate–sodium sulfite chemiluminescence detection. The calibration graphs for ENX and OFLX are linear in the range of 8.0×10?10–1.0×10?5 and 1.0×10?9–1.0×10?6 mol l?1, respectively. The 3? limits of detection are 2.4×10?10 mol l?1 for

  9. Overexpression of a Maize Sulfite Oxidase Gene in Tobacco Enhances Tolerance to Sulfite Stress via Sulfite Oxidation and CAT-Mediated H2O2 Scavenging

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zongliang; Sun, Kaile; Wang, Meiping; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Jianyu

    2012-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase (SO) plays an important role in sulfite metabolism. To date, the molecular mechanisms of sulfite metabolism in plants are largely unknown. Previously, a full-length cDNA of the putative sulfite oxidase gene from maize (ZmSO) was cloned, and its response to SO2/sulfite stress at the transcriptional level was characterized. In this study, the recombinant ZmSO protein was purified from E.coli. It exhibited sulfite-dependent activity and had strong affinity for the substrate sulfite. Over-expression (OE) of ZmSO in tobacco plants enhanced their tolerance to sulfite stress. The plants showed much less damage, less sulfite accumulation, but greater amounts of sulfate. This suggests that tolerance of transgenic plants to sulfite was enhanced by increasing SO expression levels. Interestingly, H2O2 accumulation levels by histochemical detection and quantitative determination in the OE plants were much less than those in the wild-type upon sulfite stress. Furthermore, reductions of catalase levels detected in the OE lines were considerably less than in the wild-type plants. This indicates that SO may play an important role in protecting CAT from inhibition by excess sulfite. Collectively, these data demonstrate that transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing ZmSO enhance tolerance to excess sulfite through sulfite oxidation and catalase-mediated hydrogen peroxide scavenging. This is the first SO gene from monocots to be functionally characterized. PMID:22693572

  10. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  11. Unlike surfactant–polymer interactions of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate with water-soluble polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mandeep S. Bakshi; Rajinderpal Kaur; Ishpinder Kaur; Rakesh Kumar Mahajan; Pankaj Sehgal; Hidekazu Doe

    2003-01-01

    Single and mixed micelle formation by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and their mixtures in pure water and in the presence of water-soluble polymers such as Synperonic 85 (triblock polymer, TBP), hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) were studied with the help of conductivity, pyrene fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, and viscosity measurements. Conductivity measurements showed a

  12. Sulfite contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Vena, G A; Foti, C; Angelini, G

    1994-09-01

    In the last 2 years, 2,894 consecutive eczematous patients were patch tested with sodium metabisulfite 1% pet. Positive reactions were elicited in 50 subjects (1.7%). All 50 patients were also positive to potassium metabisulfite 1% pet. and sodium bisulfite 1% and 5% pet., while only 2 of them were positive to sodium sulfite 1% pet. Prick tests and intradermal tests with a sodium metabisulfite solution (10 mg/ml) were negative. No flare-ups of dermatitis or patch test were provoked by oral challenge with 30 mg and 50 mg of sodium metabisulfite. The dermatitis was taken to be occupational in 7 cases. In only 5 out of 43 non-occupational cases was the positive reaction considered relevant. PMID:7821011

  13. Growth of Enterobacter cloacae in the presence of 25% sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, V C; Calabrese, D M; Nickerson, K W

    1980-01-01

    The growth of Enterobacter cloacae in 25% sodium dodecyl sulfate is described. The bacteria appeared to tolerate sodium dodecyl sulfate rather than metabolize it. The process was energy dependent, and cell lysis occurred during stationary phase. Extreme detergent resistance may be characteristic of the genus Enterobacter. PMID:7447446

  14. Interactions of aminoalkylcarbamoyl cellulose derivatives and sodium dodecyl sulfate. 2. Foam stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Manuszak Guerrini; Robert Y. Lochhead; William H. Daly

    1999-01-01

    We have compared the interactions between polyquaternium 10 and sodium dodecyl sulfate with similar complexes of mono and diquaternary ammoniumalkylcarbamoyl cellulose derivatives by measuring the foaming efficiency and foam stability of their aqueous solutions. At approximately a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to quaternary groups, an insoluble precipitate began to form. Maximum foamability and foam stabilization were

  15. Instrumental methods of analysis of sulfur compounds in synfuel process streams. Quarterly technical progress report for April-June 1984. [Sulfidic, polysulfidic, thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfate, thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.; Sexton, E.; Talbott, J.; Yakupkovic, J.

    1984-07-01

    Task 1: methods development for the speciation of the polysulfides. Work on this task has been completed in December 1983 and reported accordingly in DOE/PC/40783-T13. Task 2: methods development for the speciation of dithionite and polythionates. Electrochemical reduction of tetrathionate and pentathionate at the dropping mercury electrode (DME) proceeds through a mechanism involving specific adsorption of the reactant at the DME surface and yielding polarographic waves at -0.2 volt (versus the saturated calomel electrode) in aqueous solution. Ethanol interferes with the specific adsorption of tetrathionate and pentathionate in a range of potentials between 0.0 and -1.1 volt, because EtOH is preferentially adsorbed. This results in a shift of the polarographic half-wave potentials of tetrathionate and pentathionate, which facilitates their determination in polythionate mixtures. On the other hand, the polarographic reduction of trithionate is unaffected by ethanol, because it occurs at -1.5 volt where ethanol is not adsorbed at the surface of the DME. Task 3: total accounting of the sulfur balance in representative samples of synfuel process streams. Analyses of two aqueous gasifier effluents from Grand Forks, ND, were performed. An untreated specimen contained sulfidic and polysulfidic sulfur, thiosulfate and thiocyanate. On the other hand, sulfite, sulfate, and thiocyanate were the only sulfur moieties observed in the Grand Forks sample which had been stripped at PETC. 7 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  16. Detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate) shock proteins in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Adamowicz, M.; Kelley, P.M.; Nickerson, K.W. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The protein composition of Escherichia coli W3110 grown in the presence and absence of 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In SDS-grown cells, at least 4 proteins were turned on, 13 were turned off, 15 were elevated, and 15 were depressed. The 19 unique and elevated SDS-induced spots constituted 7.91% of the total 35S-labeled protein. There was no apparent overlap between these 19 detergent (SDS) stress proteins and those of other known bacterial stress responses. The detergent stress stimulon is a distinct and independent stimulon. Its physiological relevance probably derives from the presence of bile salts in animal gastrointestinal tracts.

  17. Recovery of sodium sulfate from farm drainage salt for use in reactive dyeing of cotton.

    PubMed

    Jung, J; Sun, G

    2001-08-15

    Agricultural drainage salt generated during irrigation of crops in San Joaquin Valley, California, exceeds 600,000 tons annually and cumulates in the field at a rapid rate. As a result, the waste is occupying more farmland for salt storage and disposal, thus causing serious concern to the environment and the local agricultural industry. In searching for a potential solution to reduce or eliminate the waste, the research describe herein explored the feasibility of producing a value-added product, sodium sulfate, from the waste and utilizing the product in textile dyeing. The results indicated that sodium sulfate could be produced from the salt and could be purified by a recrystalization method in a temperature range within the highest and lowest daily temperatures during summer in the valley. The recovered sodium sulfate samples, with purities ranging from 67 to 99.91%, were compared with commercially available sodium sulfate used in reactive dyeing of cotton fabrics. The salt samples recovered from Mendota, California (>98.8% sodium sulfate), cause little color difference in the dyeing with selected reactive dyes. The purified salt (III) (99.91% sodium sulfate) is more applicable for reactive dyeing of cotton fabrics since it has no deleterious effect. The recovered sodium sulfate from certain areas in the valley could not be employed in reactive dyeing due to the high level of impurities present. PMID:11529583

  18. Sulfate resistance of plain and blended cements exposed to varying concentrations of sodium sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. U. Al-Dulaijan; M. Maslehuddin; M. M. Al-Zahrani; A. M. Sharif; M. Shameem; M. Ibrahim

    2003-01-01

    Concrete deterioration due to sulfate attack is the second major durability problem, after reinforcement corrosion. This type of deterioration is noted in the structures exposed to sulfate-bearing soils and groundwater. Though concrete deterioration due to sulfate attack is reported from many countries, the mechanisms of sulfate attack have not been thoroughly investigated, particularly the effect of sulfate concentration and the

  19. Phylogeography of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria among Disturbed Sediments, Disclosed by Analysis of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes (dsrAB)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, J. R.; Kerkhof, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected worldwide from 16 locations on four continents (in New York, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Italy, Latvia, and South Korea) to assess the extent of the diversity and the distribution patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated sediments. The SRB communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) with NdeII digests. The fingerprints of dsrAB genes contained a total of 369 fluorescent TRFs, of which <20% were present in the GenBank database. The global sulfidogenic communities appeared to be significantly different among the anthropogenically impacted (petroleum-contaminated) sites, but nearly all were less diverse than pristine habitats, such as mangroves. A global SRB indicator species of petroleum pollution was not identified. However, several dsrAB gene sequences corresponding to hydrocarbon-degrading isolates or consortium members were detected in geographically widely separated polluted sites. Finally, a cluster analysis of the TRFLP fingerprints indicated that many SRB microbial communities were most similar on the basis of close geographic proximity (tens of kilometers). Yet, on larger scales (hundreds to thousands of kilometers) SRB communities could cluster with geographically widely separated sites and not necessarily with the site with the closest proximity. These data demonstrate that SRB populations do not adhere to a biogeographic distribution pattern similar to that of larger eukaryotic organisms, with the greatest species diversity radiating from the Indo-Pacific region. Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time. PMID:15691959

  20. Phylogeography of sulfate-reducing bacteria among disturbed sediments, disclosed by analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, J R; Kerkhof, L J

    2005-02-01

    Sediment samples were collected worldwide from 16 locations on four continents (in New York, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Italy, Latvia, and South Korea) to assess the extent of the diversity and the distribution patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated sediments. The SRB communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) with NdeII digests. The fingerprints of dsrAB genes contained a total of 369 fluorescent TRFs, of which <20% were present in the GenBank database. The global sulfidogenic communities appeared to be significantly different among the anthropogenically impacted (petroleum-contaminated) sites, but nearly all were less diverse than pristine habitats, such as mangroves. A global SRB indicator species of petroleum pollution was not identified. However, several dsrAB gene sequences corresponding to hydrocarbon-degrading isolates or consortium members were detected in geographically widely separated polluted sites. Finally, a cluster analysis of the TRFLP fingerprints indicated that many SRB microbial communities were most similar on the basis of close geographic proximity (tens of kilometers). Yet, on larger scales (hundreds to thousands of kilometers) SRB communities could cluster with geographically widely separated sites and not necessarily with the site with the closest proximity. These data demonstrate that SRB populations do not adhere to a biogeographic distribution pattern similar to that of larger eukaryotic organisms, with the greatest species diversity radiating from the Indo-Pacific region. Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time. PMID:15691959

  1. Durability of sodium sulfate-treated polylysine-alginate microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Darrabie, M; Freeman, B K; Kendall, W F; Hobbs, H A; Opara, E C

    2001-03-01

    Chelated hollow microcapsules are unstable under in vitro conditions because of their hygroscopic nature. Nongel inducing cations, such as Na+, stabilize the outer membrane of the alginate-polylysine-alginate microcapsules leading to more stable beads. We made different batches of empty capsules with a mean +/- SEM diameter of 607+/-11 microns, and found that within 1 week of incubating these capsules in normal saline at 37 degrees C, they increased to 718+/-10 microns (p < 0.05, n = 5). In initial experiments, we made different batches of capsules and divided them into two groups. One group was left untreated (control) whereas the other was treated with 6 mM Na2SO4 for 30 min, before incubation in saline at 37 degrees C. Control capsules increased in weight and size, before beginning to melt in less than 1 week. In contrast, treated capsules rapidly lost weight and remained intact during 1 month of follow-up. In perifusion experiments, we found no deleterious effect of sodium sulfate treatment on the function of islets enclosed in the capsules. PMID:11189046

  2. Structural Insights into Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas,E.; Wilson, H.; Graf, T.; Xiang, S.; Jaramillo-Busquets, S.; Rajagopalan, K.; Kisker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is a lethal genetic disease that results from defects either in the genes encoding proteins involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis or in the sulfite oxidase gene itself. Several point mutations in the sulfite oxidase gene have been identified from patients suffering from this disease worldwide. Although detailed biochemical analyses have been carried out on these mutations, no structural data could be obtained because of problems in crystallizing recombinant human and rat sulfite oxidases and the failure to clone the chicken sulfite oxidase gene. We synthesized the gene for chicken sulfite oxidase de novo, working backward from the amino acid sequence of the native chicken liver enzyme by PCR amplification of a series of 72 overlapping primers. The recombinant protein displayed the characteristic absorption spectrum of sulfite oxidase and exhibited steady state and rapid kinetic parameters comparable with those of the tissue-derived enzyme. We solved the crystal structures of the wild type and the sulfite oxidase deficiency-causing R138Q (R160Q in humans) variant of recombinant chicken sulfite oxidase in the resting and sulfate-bound forms. Significant alterations in the substrate-binding pocket were detected in the structure of the mutant, and a comparison between the wild type and mutant protein revealed that the active site residue Arg-450 adopts different conformations in the presence and absence of bound sulfate. The size of the binding pocket is thereby considerably reduced, and its position relative to the cofactor is shifted, causing an increase in the distance of the sulfur atom of the bound sulfate to the molybdenum.

  3. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: a synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of an elusive metastable hydrated salt 

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We describe an unusual application of synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction with hard X-rays to obtain structural information on metastable sodium sulfate heptahydrate. This hydrate was often mentioned in nineteenth ...

  4. Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

  5. Interaction of lead sulfate and sodium hydroxide solution in processing of recoverable lead materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Morachevskii; M. S. Kogan; A. I. Demidov; Z. I. Vaisgant

    1994-01-01

    Removal of sulfate ions from PbO+PbSOâ and PbOâ+PbSOâ mixtures by their interaction with aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide has been studied. The optimum conditions for the process have been found.

  6. How does sodium sulfate crystallize? Implications for the decay and testing of building materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro; Eric Doehne; Eduardo Sebastian

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental behavior of sodium sulfate crystallization and induced decay in concrete and other building materials is still poorly understood, resulting in some misinterpretation and controversy. We experimentally show that under real world conditions, both thenardite (Na2SO4) and mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) precipitate directly from a saturated sodium sulfate solution at room temperature (20°C). With decreasing relative humidity (RH) and increasing evaporation

  7. Mechanism of sulfite cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Niknahad, Hossein; O'Brien, Peter J

    2008-08-11

    Sulfite (SO(3)(2-)) has been widely used as preservative and antimicrobial in preventing browning of foods and beverages. SO(2), a common air pollutant, also is capable of producing sulfite and bisulfite depending on the pH of solutions. A molybdenum-dependent mitochondrial enzyme, sulfite oxidase, oxidizes sulfite to inorganic sulfate and prevents its toxic effects. In the present study, sulfite toxicity towards isolated rat hepatocytes was markedly increased by partial inhibition of cytochrome a/a(3) by cyanide or by putting rats on a high-tungsten/low-molybdenum diet, which result in inactivation of sulfite oxidase. Sulfite cytotoxicity was accompanied by a rapid disappearance of GSSG followed by a slow depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH). Depleting hepatocyte GSH beforehand increased cytotoxicity of sulfite. On the other hand, dithiothreitol (DTT), a thiol reductant, added even 1h after the addition of sulfite to hepatocytes, prevented cell death and restored hepatocyte GSH levels. Sulfite cytotoxicity was also accompanied by an increase of oxygen uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation. Cytochrome P450 inhibitors, metyrapone and piperonyl butoxide also prevented sulfite-induced cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation. Desferroxamine and antioxidants also protected the cells against sulfite toxicity. These findings suggest that cytotoxicity of sulfite is mediated by free radicals as ROS formation increases by sulfite and antioxidants prevent its toxicity. Reaction of sulfite or its free radical metabolite with disulfide bonds of GSSG and GSH results in the compromise of GSH/GSSG antioxidant system leaving the cell susceptible to oxidative stress. Restoring GSH content of the cell or protein-SH groups by DTT can prevent sulfite cytotoxicity. PMID:18579106

  8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate promoting a cooperative association process of sodium cholate with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Bianca; Felippe, Arlindo C; Dal Bó, Alexandre; Minatti, Edson; Zanette, Dino; Lopes, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    Sodium cholate (NaC) was used as a representative bile salt in the process of cooperative binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a mixture with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The experiments were performed in 0.02 M Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 7.50), in the presence of 0.1% BSA and at 25 degrees C. The aim of this study is to provide information on the performance of the BSA in the promotion of cooperative binding of sodium cholate promoted by the presence of SDS. The method used to monitor the binding was based on the analysis of the effect of SDS and NaC concentrations and their mixtures upon the fluorescence intensity of the BSA tryptophan residues. Plots of the fluorescence emission bands in terms of the A0/A ratio vs surfactant concentrations, where A0 and A represent the areas of emission bands in the presence and absence of the surfactants, respectively, were drawn in order to investigate the surfactant interaction with the protein. An alternative methodology, the specific conductivity vs surfactant concentration plots, was used, which involves mixtures of SDS and NaC to investigate the association processes, through the determination of the critical aggregation concentration (cac, when in the presence of protein) and the critical micellar concentration (cmc). The results led to a general conclusion that as the mixed micellar aggregates become richer in the bile salt monomer, the tendency to lose the reactivity with the protein increases. According to our results, a clear evidence of the predomination of BSA-SDS-NaC complexes is found only for the SDS molar fraction above approximately 0.6, and below this fraction a tendency toward free mixed micelles starts to predominate. PMID:16457837

  9. Separation and estimation of anionic surfactants by thin layer chromatography: i. Mixtures of sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate, sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecanesulfonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chizuo Yonese; Takeshi Shishido; Takahide Kaneko; Kazushige Maruyama

    1982-01-01

    The conditions for separation and quantitative determination of anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate,\\u000a sodium dodecanesulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate by thin layer chromatography (TLC) were investigated. Analytical results\\u000a for mixtures of 2 or 3 components under optimal TLC conditions were in satisfactory agreement with known values. The absolute\\u000a errors and variation coefficients both were within ca. 4%.

  10. Self-association of sodium cholate with poly(ethylene oxide) cooperatively induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlindo Cristiano Felippe; Bianca Schweitzer; Alexandre Gonçalves Dal Bó; Renato Eising; Edson Minatti; Dino Zanette

    2007-01-01

    The properties of mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and mixed micelles formed from sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in tris\\/HCl buffer solutions, pH 9.00, were investigated by means of electrical conductivity and steady-state fluorescence of pyrene. The I1\\/I3 pyrene ratio-surfactant concentration plots were used as a technique to follow the behavior of the mixed micelles in the

  11. Effects of increasing concentrations of sodium sulfite on deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol sulfonate concentrations of maize kernels and maize meal preserved at various moisture content.

    PubMed

    Paulick, Marleen; Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction. PMID:25760079

  12. Structure-Based Alteration of Substrate Specificity and Catalytic Activity of Sulfite Oxidase from Sulfite Oxidation to Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, James A.; Wilson, Heather L.; Rajagopalan, K.V. (Duke)

    2012-04-18

    Eukaryotic sulfite oxidase is a dimeric protein that contains the molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the metabolically essential conversion of sulfite to sulfate as the terminal step in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine. Nitrate reductase is an evolutionarily related molybdoprotein in lower organisms that is essential for growth on nitrate. In this study, we describe human and chicken sulfite oxidase variants in which the active site has been modified to alter substrate specificity and activity from sulfite oxidation to nitrate reduction. On the basis of sequence alignments and the known crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase, two residues are conserved in nitrate reductases that align with residues in the active site of sulfite oxidase. On the basis of the crystal structure of yeast nitrate reductase, both positions were mutated in human sulfite oxidase and chicken sulfite oxidase. The resulting double-mutant variants demonstrated a marked decrease in sulfite oxidase activity but gained nitrate reductase activity. An additional methionine residue in the active site was proposed to be important in nitrate catalysis, and therefore, the triple variant was also produced. The nitrate reducing ability of the human sulfite oxidase triple mutant was nearly 3-fold greater than that of the double mutant. To obtain detailed structural data for the active site of these variants, we introduced the analogous mutations into chicken sulfite oxidase to perform crystallographic analysis. The crystal structures of the Mo domains of the double and triple mutants were determined to 2.4 and 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, respectively.

  13. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rard, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-07-01

    New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l_brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r_brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298. 15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Rard, J.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-07-01

    New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Multiple sulfur isotope signatures of sulfite and thiosulfate reduction by the model dissimilatory sulfate-reducer, Desulfovibrio alaskensis str. G20

    E-print Network

    Leavitt, William D.

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction serves as a key metabolic carbon remineralization process in anoxic marine environments. Sulfate reducing microorganisms can impart a wide range in mass-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation. ...

  16. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE (SDS) SEDIMENTATION TEST FOR WHEAT MEALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sedimentation tests have long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. However, the use of the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation test AACC International Approved Method 56-70 for durum wheat has not been characterized...

  17. Temperature-Controlled Vesicle Aggregation in the Mixed System of Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate/

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    Temperature-Controlled Vesicle Aggregation in the Mixed System of Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate/ n. In Final Form: January 27, 2005 Temperature-controlled vesicle aggregation was investigated in a catanionic place as the temperature reached the critical value (Tc). Tc can be adjusted by the variations

  18. Preclinical Evaluation of Sodium Cellulose Sulfate (Ushercell) as a Contraceptive Antimicrobial Agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT A. ANDERSON; KENNETH A. FEATHERGILL; XAIO-HUI DIAO; MORRIS D. COOPER; RISA KIRKPATRICK; BETSY C. HEROLD; GUSTAVO F. DONCEL; CALVIN J. CHANY; DONALD P. WALLER; WILLIAM F. RENCHER; LOURENS J. D. ZANEVELD

    The spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and limited methods for control of pregnancies presents high risks to the reproductive health of women. Methods con- trolled by women and directed toward disease prevention and contraception are needed. We report on preclinical studies of the biological properties of sodium cellulose sulfate (Ushercell) cur- rently being developed for use as a topical

  19. DETERMINATION OF SURFACTANT SODIUM LAURYL ESTHER SULFATE BY ION PAIRING CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESED CONDUCTIVITY DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. S-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. he main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES). i...

  20. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  1. DETERMINATION OF SURFACTANT SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULFATE BY ION PAIRING CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. CS-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. The main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)....

  2. Denaturation behavior of phaseolin in urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, S S; Damodaran, S

    1991-02-01

    The denaturation behavior of phaseolin in urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions was examined by monitoring changes in the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan and tyrosyl residues. Changes in various fluorescence parameters, such as quantum yield, emission maximum, spectral half-width, fluorescence depolarization, and fluorescence quenching by acrylamide, have indicated that while phaseolin is relatively stable up to 8 M urea, it is completely destabilized in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride and 6 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. Furthermore, while the denaturation of phaseolin in urea solutions followed a two-step process, that in guanidine hydrochloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate followed a single-step process. While the accessibility of tryptophan residues to the nonionic acrylamide quencher is almost 100% in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride and 6 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, only about 72% was accessible in 8 M urea compared to 52% in native phaseolin. The results presented here suggest that the protomeric structure of phaseolin is quite stable to changes in the environment. This structural stability may be partly responsible for its resistance to proteolysis by various proteinases. PMID:2054055

  3. Denaturation behavior of phaseolin in urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Deshpande; Srinivasan Damodaran

    1991-01-01

    The denaturation behavior of phaseolin in urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions was examined by monitoring changes in the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan and tyrosyl residues. Changes in various fluorescence parameters, such as quantum yield, emission maximum, spectral half-width, fluorescence depolarization, and fluorescence quenching by acrylamide, have indicated that while phaseolin is relatively stable up to 8 M

  4. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.Y.G. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada); Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility.

  5. The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Boyd Arthur

    Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (<5 mum). Complex phase assemblages including gypsum, ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

  6. Reactions in microemulsion formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and hexanol

    SciTech Connect

    Valaulikar, B.S. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Chemistry Div.)

    1993-11-01

    The reactions, oxidation of iodide by persulfate and basic hydrolysis of crystal violet, were investigated in the w/o microemulsion formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and hexanol. The second order rate constants were measured as a function of emulsion formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and hexanol. The second order rate constants were measured as a function of water to surfactant molar ratio and hexanol content. The increased rates were attributed to the smaller droplet size of the water pools. The rates are shown to be controlled by the water content as well as the hexanol content. It is shown that the manner in which the rate is affected applies to the catalyzed as well as the retarded reactions. This system is shown to be more effective than the AOT/water/decane system.

  7. Water soluble sodium sulfate nanorods as a versatile template for the designing of copper sulfide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Das, Gautam; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Karak, Niranjan; Yoon, Young Soo

    2014-06-01

    The present study reports the use of water soluble sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) nanorods as a versatile template for generation of tubular copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures. The Na2SO4 nanorods were synthesized from ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), under refluxing condition. The shape and morphology control of the Na2SO4 nanorods were studied with respect to nature of surfactant used and reactant mole ratio. While, PVP mole ratio was important to obtain homogeneous nanorods. Uniform and stable nanotubes of CuS were than obtained by the dissolution of the nanorods in water. The use of simple chemicals for synthesis of such nanotube templates opens the prospect for wide scale downstream applications. PMID:24738412

  8. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

    2000-04-01

    New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

  9. Ortho-Tolidine and Sodium Hypochlorite for the Determination of Carrageenan and Other Ester Sulfates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horace D. Graham

    1972-01-01

    Carrageenan and other sulfated poly- saecharides react with o-tolidine and sodium hypochlorite in a buffered me- dium to produce a purple or purplish- green color with maximum absorption at 545 to 550 nm, pH 1.4; 550 urn, pH 2.0; 565 to 570 urn, pI-I 2.5; and 590 to 595 nm, pH 3.0. Proteins, carboxylie, phos- phorylated and neutral polysaccharides do

  10. Healing Impairment Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryoichi Tsubouchi; Shusaku Hayashi; Yoko Aoi; Hikaru Nishio; Shun Terashima; Shinichi Kato; Koji Takeuchi

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of various cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors on the healing of colonic lesions induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the rat. Colonic lesions were induced by 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, and then the animals were fed with tap water for subsequent 7 days. Indomethacin (a nonselective COX inhibitor), SC-560 (a selective COX-1

  11. The reproducibility of the three brood Ceriodaphnia test using the reference toxicant sodium lauryl sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. M. Cowgill; D. P. Milazzo; B. D. Landenberger

    1990-01-01

    The three broodCeriodaphnia dubia test was carried out three nonconsecutive times, each period being separated by the previous one by three weeks. The toxicant studied was sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) which bacterially degrades completely by the end of the third day of the test. The mean LC50 based on survival was 41±3.2 (CV = 7.8%) mg\\/L for day 3 through

  12. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–agarose gel electrophoresis for the detection and isolation of amyloid curli fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Sitaras; Mahsa Naghavi; Muriel B. Herrington

    2011-01-01

    Curli are amyloid-like fibers on the surface of some strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. We tested the use of horizontal sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)–agarose gel electrophoresis to detect, isolate, and quantitate curli. Cell extracts fractionated in SDS–agarose gels and stained with Coomassie blue exhibited a soluble fraction that entered the gel and an insoluble fraction that remained in

  13. A role for sphingosine kinase 1 in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Ashley J.; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Bradshaw, Sarah G.; Orr, K. Alexa; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Obeid, Lina M.

    2009-01-01

    The bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is emerging as an important mediator of immune and inflammatory responses. S1P formation is catalyzed by sphingosine kinase (SK), of which the SK1 isoenzyme is activated by tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-?). SK1 has been shown to be required for mediating TNF-? inflammatory responses in cells, including induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Because TNF-? and COX-2 are increased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we investigated the role of SK1 in a murine model of colitis. SK1?/? mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) had significantly less blood loss, weight loss, colon shortening, colon histological damage, and splenomegaly than did wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, SK1?/? mice had no systemic inflammatory response. Moreover, WT but not SK1?/? mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium had significant increases in blood S1P levels, colon SK1 message and activity, and colon neutrophilic infiltrate. Unlike WT mice, SK1?/? mice failed to show colonic COX-2 induction despite an exaggerated TNF-? response; thus implicating for the first time SK1 in TNF-?-mediated COX-2 induction in vivo. Inhibition of SK1 may prove to be a valuable therapeutic target by inhibiting systemic and local inflammation in IBD.—Snider, A. J., Kawamori, T., Bradshaw, S. G., Orr, K. A., Gilkeson, G. S., Hannun, Y. A., Obeid, L. M. A role for sphingosine kinase 1 in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. PMID:18815359

  14. Plant-derived polysaccharide supplements inhibit dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie; Jacoby, Henry I

    2010-05-01

    Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count. PMID:19513840

  15. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Enemark, John H.; Kappler, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2–3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (?60 and 200 s–1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH. PMID:19004819

  16. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingyan Zhang; Zhishen Ge; Xiaoze Jiang; P. A. Hassan; Shiyong Liu

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]\\/[SDS], ?PTHC=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light

  17. 17028 J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 17028-17031 Growth of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles with Detergent Concentration

    E-print Network

    Bales, Barney

    17028 J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 17028-17031 Growth of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles with Detergent by changing the concentrations of the detergent, the added counterion salt, or both. Values of ~2 and y' that sodiumdodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles grow slowly as a function of the detergent concentration. This growth has

  18. Oxidation kinetics of by-product calcium sulfite

    E-print Network

    Othman, Hasliza

    1992-01-01

    . It is easier to dewater calcium sulfate wastes. Gypsum is pumped to the disposal area in the slurry form and settles by gravity. It can be stacked and stored in smaller volumes than that required for calcium sulfite sludge. A relatively uncontaminated gypsum... on a predetermined range and a specific surface area based on the assumption that the particles are perfect spheres can be generated. 4. Chemical Analysis Iodometric titration was used to determine the concentration of sulfite in the slurry. Iodine...

  19. Ab Initio Study of Thermodynamic Properties of Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium Sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, Yu. N.; Bugaeva, I. A.; Zhuravleva, L. V.

    2013-11-01

    The thermodynamic parameters of lithium, sodium, and potassium single and double sulfate crystals are determined by the method of ab initio calculation of a linear combination of atomic orbitals in the gradient approximation of density functional theory using the software package CRYSTAL09 within the framework of the quasi-harmonic approximation of the Debye theory. It is demonstrated that the standard entropies and heat capacities as well as the temperature dependences are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data. The average frequency, Debye temperature, and thermal conductivity coefficient increase with external pressure, whereas the Gruneisen parameter decreases. The dependences of the potentials of free and internal energies on the temperature and volume are expressed through the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a square-law dependence on these parameters of their vibrational components. The thermodynamic parameters of lithium-potassium sulfate appear closer to potassium sulfate, whereas for sodium-potassium, they lie between the corresponding parameters for single compounds.

  20. Synthesis and surface properties of chemodegradable anionic surfactants: Sodium (2- n -alkyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl)sulfates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Piasecki; Adam Soko?owski; Bogdan Burczyk; Urszula Kotlewska

    1997-01-01

    In the reaction of cis- and trans-2-n-alky-5-hydroxyl-1,3-dioxane mixtures with SO3 pyridine complex, followed by neutralization with sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate, a new group of anionic surfactants,\\u000a i.e., sodium cis- and trans-(2-n-alkyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl)sulfates were obtained. The hydrophobic intermediates used in the sulfation reaction were obtained\\u000a in high yields from four-component glycerol acetals by the process of transacetalization and selective crystallization of

  1. Oral sodium phosphate versus sulfate-free polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution in outpatient preparation for colonoscopy: a prospective comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendell K. Clarkston; Tony N. Tsen; David F. Dies; C. Lynn Schratz; Surender K. Vaswani; Preben Bjerregaard

    1996-01-01

    Background: Biochemical abnormalities induced by oral sodium phosphate and the risk of cardiac arrhythmias as potential sequelae have yet to be investigated. Methods: We studied 98 outpatients scheduled to undergo diagnostic colonoscopy and prospectively randomized them to receive oral sodium phosphate or sulfate-free polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (SF-PEG-ELS) as recommended by the manufacturers. Results: Forty-nine patients received sodium phosphate

  2. A novel model of inflammatory pain in human skin involving topical application of sodium lauryl sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Petersen; A. M. Lyngholm; L. Arendt-Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Objective and design  Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a known irritant. It releases pro-inflammatory mediators considered pivotal in inflammatory\\u000a pain. The sensory effects of SLS in the skin remain largely unexplored. In this study, SLS was evaluated for its effect on\\u000a skin sensory functions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects  Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Treatment  Skin sites were randomized to topical SLS 0.25, 0.5,

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of chicken sulfite oxidase crystals

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.; Kisker, C. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences] [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences

    1999-05-17

    Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Recently, the crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase has been reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. In contrast to the information available from previous X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies, the active site indicated by crystallography was a mono-oxo species. Because of this the possibility that the crystals did in fact contain a reduced molybdenum species was considered in the crystallographic work. The authors report herein an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of polycrystalline sulfite oxidase prepared in the same manner as the previous single-crystal samples, and compare this with data for frozen solutions of oxidized and reduced enzyme.

  4. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Spin Trapping of Inorganic Radicals by 5,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrroline N-Oxide (DMPO). 3. Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfite and Sulfate Radical Anions

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Pedro L.; Villamena, Frederick A.

    2012-01-01

    Radical forms of sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfite (SO32?), sulfate (SO42?), and their conjugate acids are known to be generated in vivo through various chemical and biochemical pathways. Oxides of sulfur are environmentally pervasive compounds and are associated with a number of health problems. There is growing evidence that their toxicity may be mediated by their radical forms. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping using the commonly used spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), has been employed in the detection of SO3•? and SO4•?. The thermochemistries of SO2•?, SO3•?, SO4•?, and their respective conjugate acids addition to DMPO were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) at the PCM/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level. No spin adduct was observed for SO2•? by EPR but an S-centered adduct was observed for SO3•? and an O-centered adduct for SO4•?. Determination of adducts as S- or O-centered was made via comparison based on qualitative trends of experimental hfcc’s with theoretically calculated ones. The thermodynamics of the non-radical addition of SO32? and HSO3? to DMPO followed by conversion to the corresponding radical adduct via the Forrester-Hepburn mechanism was also calculated. Adduct acidities and decomposition pathways were investigated as well, including an EPR experiment using H217O to determine the site of hydrolysis of O-centered adducts. The mode of radical addition to DMPO is predicted to be governed by several factors, including spin population density, and geometries stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The thermodynamic data supports evidence for the radical addition pathway over the nucleophilic addition mechanism. PMID:22668066

  6. A novel solubilization of phenanthrene using Winsor I microemulsion-based sodium castor oil sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baowei; Zhu, Lizhong; Gao, Yanzheng

    2005-03-17

    Problems associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. Ex situ soil washing is commonly used for treating contaminated soils by separating the most contaminated fraction of the soil for disposal. Surfactant-enhanced soil washing is being considered with increasing frequency to actually achieve soil-contaminant separation. In this research, a novel solubilization of phenanthrene and extraction of phenanthrene from spiked soil by sodium castor oil sulfate (SCOS) microemulsion was presented and compared with the conventional surfactants, Triton X-100 (TX100), Tween 80 (TW80), Brij35, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Unlike conventional surfactants, SCOS forms stable microemulsion in water and thus behaves much like a separate bulk phase in concentrating organic solutes. The extent of solubility enhancement is linearly proportional to the concentration of SCOS microemulsion, in contrast with the effect of a conventional surfactant in which a sharp inflection occurs in the vicinity of the measured critical micelle concentration. SCOS microemulsion exhibits the largest mass solubilization ratio among the selected surface active agents (SAAs) in both soil-free system and soil-water system. The partitioning coefficients of phenanthrene between the emulsified phase and the aqueous phase, Kem, is slightly larger than those between the micellar pseudo phase and the aqueous phase, Kmc. The extraction experiments demonstrate high and fast desorption of phenanthrene from spiked soil by SCOS microemulsion perhaps due to its high solubilization capacity compared with the conventional surfactant solutions. The results show that SCOS could be an attractive alternative to synthetic surfactants in ex situ washing for PAH-contaminated soils. PMID:15752867

  7. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kappler, Ulrike; Enemark, John H

    2015-03-01

    Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes (SOEs) are molybdenum enzymes that exist in almost all forms of life where they carry out important functions in protecting cells and organisms against sulfite-induced damage. Due to their nearly ubiquitous presence in living cells, these enzymes can be assumed to be evolutionarily ancient, and this is reflected in the fact that the basic domain architecture and fold structure of all sulfite-oxidizing enzymes studied so far are similar. The Mo centers of all SOEs have five-coordinate square pyramidal coordination geometry, which incorporates a pyranopterin dithiolene cofactor. However, significant differences exist in the quaternary structure of the enzymes, as well as in the kinetic properties and the nature of the electron acceptors used. In addition, some SOEs also contain an integral heme group that participates in the overall catalytic cycle. Catalytic turnover involves the paramagnetic Mo(V) oxidation state, and EPR spectroscopy, especially high-resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, provides detailed information about the molecular and electronic structure of the Mo center and the Mo-based sulfite oxidation reaction. PMID:25261289

  8. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    PubMed

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these adulterants in CS and procedures to isolate ASD from CS matrixes containing these adulterants. The authors describe in this paper utilization of an orthogonal approach to establish the identity of Z1 as sodium hexametaphosphate and to confirm the identity of ASD, including ethanol fractionation, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and NMR spectroscopy. The authors suggest that CAME is a cost-effective and easy to use methodfor detecting certain impurities in CS raw ingredients and recommend that CPC and CAME be used in combination by QC laboratories as a means of effectively deterring the practice of adulterating CS raw materials with the known adulterants ASD and Z1 and/or other non-chondroitin substances that can be separated from CSby CAME and that exhibit CPC titration behavior similar to CS. PMID:25372663

  9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(amidoamine) interactions studied by AFM imaging, conductivity, and Krafft temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Kaura, Aman; Miller, J D; Paruchuri, V K

    2004-10-15

    The conductivity, kappa, and Krafft temperature, TK, of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) of 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 generations (G) have been determined at different surfactant as well as PAMAM concentrations. The critical micelle concentration of SDS increases with the increase in the amount of each generation and the additive effect of 0.5G is maximum. TK of SDS shows a systematic decrease with maximum reduction in the presence of 0.5G. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) captures a layered pattern of 1.0G in the form of nanorods and no AFM images are detected for 1.0G in the presence of SDS. All results demonstrate that SDS has favorable interactions with ester-terminated 0.5G PAMAM rather than amine-terminated 0.0G and 1.0G. PMID:15450469

  10. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Molin, Soeren; Yang, Liang; Ndoni, Sokol

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h) and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week) by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability. PMID:23377015

  11. Peracetylated Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase (BCA-Ac18) Is Kinetically More Stable than Native BCA to Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Peracetylated Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase (BCA-Ac18) Is Kinetically More Stable than Native BCA to Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Irina Gitlin, Katherine L. Gudiksen, and George M. Whitesides* DepartmentVed: October 6, 2005; In Final Form: NoVember 30, 2005 Bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and its derivative

  12. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A Hassan; Gerhard Fritz; Eric W Kaler

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the

  13. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  14. Determination of Tyrosine in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Using a Gold Nanoparticle Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sayed Mehdi Ghoreishi; Mohsen Behpour; Nafise Jafari; Asma Khoobi

    2012-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode modified with gold nanoparticles (AuMCPE) was used as a highly sensitive sensor for determination of Tyrosine (Tyr), in the presence of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), in aqueous solution. The measurements were carried out by using of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry and chronoamperometry methods. The prepared electrode shows voltammetric responses

  15. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated neoplasia: a promising model for the development of chemopreventive interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margie Lee Clapper; Harry Stanley Cooper; Wen-Chi Lee Chang

    2007-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with ulcerative colitis face a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal dysplasia and cancer during their lifetime. To date, little attention has been given to the development of a chemopreventive intervention for this high-risk population. The mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis represents an excellent preclinical system in which to both characterize the molecular events

  16. Modified Calcium Alginate Beads with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Clay as Adsorbent for Removal of Methylene Blue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paresh Parekh; Arpan Parmar; Suresh Chavda; Pratap Bahadur

    2011-01-01

    In present study, we have investigated the effect of an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and clay on calcium alginate beads was studied to remove methylene blue (MB) and to to improve the adsorption capacity. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as shaking rate, initial dye concentration, temperature and pH on the adsorption rate have been studied. Equilibrium

  17. Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

  18. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of fluorescence labeled propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengli; Li, Chunxia; Xue, Yiting; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hongbing; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence labeling method was developed and validated for the microanalysis of a sulfated polysaccharide drug,namely propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), in rat plasma. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was selected to label PSS, and 1, 6-diaminohexane was used to link PSS and FITC in order to prepare FITC-labeled PSS (F-PSS) through a reductive amination reaction. F-PSS was identified by UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectrum. The cell stability and cytotoxicity of F-PSS were tested in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The results indicated that the labeling efficiency of F-PSS was 0.522% ± 0.0248% and the absolute bioavailability was 8.39%. F-PSS was stable in MDCK cells without obvious cytotoxicity. The method was sensitive and reliable; it showed a good linearity, precision, recovery and stability. The FITC labeling method can be applied to investigating the absorption and metabolism of PSS and other polysaccharides in biological samples.

  19. Sulfite Oxidation in Chlorobaculum Tepidum

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jesse; Hiras, Jennifer; Hanson, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum is proposed to oxidize sulfide and elemental sulfur via sulfite as an obligate intermediate. The sulfite pool is predicted to be contained in the cytoplasm and be oxidized by the concerted action of ApsBA, which directly oxidizes sulfite, and QmoABC, which transfers electrons from ApsBA to the quinone pool. Like other green sulfur bacteria, C. tepidum was unable to use exogenously provided sulfite as the sole electron donor. However, exogenous sulfite significantly stimulated the growth yield of sulfide limited batch cultures. The growth of C. tepidum mutant strains, CT0867/qmoB::TnOGm and CT0868/qmoC::TnOGm, was not increased by sulfite. Furthermore, these strains accumulated sulfite and displayed a growth yield decrease when grown on sulfide as the sole electron donor. These results support an obligate, cytoplasmic sulfite intermediate as part of the canonical sulfur oxidation pathway in C. tepidum that requires the Qmo complex for oxidation. PMID:21747809

  20. A novel sulfite alternative scavenger and benefits for the use of traced oxygen scavengers

    SciTech Connect

    Batton, C.B.; Riede, R.F. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Dissolved oxygen in boiler systems is known to cause corrosion. Mechanical deaeration removes the majority of the dissolved oxygen while oxygen scavengers remove the remaining trace level. Sodium sulfate is a commonly used scavenger, but has several use limitations, such as high solids contribution to boiler water and decomposition products that are corrosive gases which can cause downstream equipment problems. A novel sulfite replacement oxygen scavenger has been developed which addresses the limitations of sulfite. Identification and demonstrated performance of the new scavenger is presented using both research and field data. In addition to oxygen scavenger performance, the success of a boiler water treatment program is dependent upon the correct dosage added to the feedwater. Plant managers and operators often struggle with indirect or inaccurate methods to determine what is occurring within their system. An oxygen scavenger product containing a proprietary fluorescent tracer has been developed. This technology for boilers provides a breakthrough in measurement capability for monitoring the dynamics of a boiler system. These two oxygen scavenger developments represent the result of maintaining desirable performance characteristics and significantly improving current technology. Laboratory and field data supporting these results are presented.

  1. Response to thermal stimuli in skin pretreated with sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Löffler, H; Aramaki, J; Effendy, I

    2001-01-01

    Skin irritation is mostly a multifactorial process. Competitive effects of different chemical irritants are well known. This study investigates the influence of a thermal stimulus on skin pre-irritated with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Seventy-seven volunteers were patch-tested with SLS 0.25% and 0.5% for 48 h. Water served as control. Skin reaction was evaluated by measurement of transepidermal water loss, skin blood flow and skin color. After measurement, a thermal stimulus was applied on the test area. The increase in skin blood flow was measured. There was a significant correlation between the degree of irritation and the increase in skin blood flow after thermal stimulus. Pre-irritated skin reacted to thermal stimulus with a shorter and sharper increase in skin blood flow. This increase was dependent on the SLS concentration. Hence, the thermally stimulated blood flow may be a model of non-chemical irritation and seems to be a relevant co-factor in the pathogenesis of irritant dermatitis. PMID:11859939

  2. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  3. Evaluation of toxicity reduction of sodium dodecyl sulfate submitted to electron beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, M. F.; Moraes, M. C. F.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Surfactants, as detergent active substances, are an important source of pollution causing biological adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Several data have been showing ecological disturbance due to the high concentration of surfactants on receiving waters and on wastewater treatment plants. Ionizing radiation has been proved as an effective technology to decompose organic substances and few papers have included ecotoxicological aspects. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity of a specific surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), when diluted in distilled water and submitted to electron beam radiation. The study included two test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. Radiation processing resulted in an important acute toxicity removal for both assays, which can be summarized between 70% and 96%, using 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 kGy as radiation doses. Nevertheless, lower doses demonstrated better effect than 9.0 and 12.0 kGy and the bacterium assay was more sensitive to SDS than crustacean assay.

  4. Effect of europium(III) chloride on the aggregation behavior of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Valente, A J M; Burrows, H D; Pereira, R F; Ribeiro, A C F; Costa Pereira, J L G; Lobo, V M M

    2006-06-20

    The effect of EuCl3 on the aggregation processes of sodium dodecyl sulfate was investigated. Electrical conductivity data, combined with Eu(III) luminescence measurements, suggest that the formation of micelles involving EuCl3 and SDS occurs at low SDS concentration; the formation of these mixed aggregates was also monitored by light scattering, which indicates that the addition of EuCl3 to SDS concentration at values below the critical micelle concentration of the pure surfactant results in a much higher light scattering than that found just with SDS micelles. It was also found that the Eu(III)/DS- complexes are formed with a binding ratio which varies between 20 and 4, depending on the initial concentration of Eu(III). As the concentration increases, turbidity occurs initially, but solutions become clear subsequently. In contrast to the behavior of SDS in the presence of aluminum(III), no flocculation was observed. From the analysis of electrical conductivity data and comparison with other systems, it is suggested that growth of aggregates happens, probably with formation of nonspherical systems. At the highest concentrations these may involve just Eu(III) and DS- ions. The effect of temperature on the SDS micellization process was studied. The calculated free energy of SDS micellization is not dependent on the initial EuCl3 but is dependent on the final balance between the presence of counterions in solution (ionic strength) and the temperature. PMID:16768486

  5. Suppression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Radon Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils plays important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in various organs of mice. In this study, we examined the protective effects of radon inhalation on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS) induced colitis in mice which were subjected to DSS for 7 days. Mice were continuously treated with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of 2000?Bq/m3 from a day before DSS administration to the end of colitis induction. In the results, radon inhalation suppressed the elevation of the disease activity index score and histological damage score induced by DSS. Based on the changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon, it was shown that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammation. Moreover, radon inhalation suppressed lipid peroxidation of the colon induced by DSS. The antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase and total glutathione) in the colon after DSS administration was significantly higher in mice treated with radon than with the sham. These results suggested that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colitis through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the colon. PMID:23365486

  6. Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rashad, A.M., E-mail: alaarashad@yahoo.com [Housing and Building National Research Center, HBRC, 87 El-Tahrir St., Dokki, Giza 11511, P.O. Box: 1770, Cairo (Egypt); Bai, Y., E-mail: y.bai@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Basheer, P.A.M. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

  7. Fabrication and surface properties of hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates based on sodium cocoate modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Linna; Wang, Guangxiu; Cao, Rong; Yang, Chun; Chen, Xi

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates were fabricated by the direction of cocoate anions. At 30 °C, when the weight ratio of sodium cocoate to BaSO4 particles was 2.0 wt.%, the active ratio of the product reached 99.43% and the contact angle was greater than 120°. This method could not only simplify the complex modification process, but reduce energy consumption. The surface morphology, chemical structure and composition of BaSO4 aggregates were characterized by SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The results indicated that the as-synthesized BaSO4 particles were almond-liked and were composed of many interconnected nanoballs and that their surfaces were affected by cocoate anions. The adsorption of cocoate anions reversed the charge and weakened the surface polarity of BaSO4 particles, driving the formation of aggregates. And cocoate anions induced a change of the BaSO4 particles surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by a self-assembly and transformation process. Due to the self-assembled structure and the surface hydrophobicity, when adding the hydrophobic BaSO4 into PVC, the mechanical properties of PVC composite materials were significantly improved.

  8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate at water-hydrophobic interfaces: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Vácha, Robert; Roke, Sylvie

    2012-10-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the water-vapor and water-oil (decane) interfaces of aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The water-vapor interface is often used as a model for water-oil (hydrophobic) interfaces, yet we observe that the behavior of amphiphilic DS(-) ions at these two interfaces is very different. Specifically, on a water-vapor interface, SDS forms aggregates at low coverages, while it is homogeneously distributed on the water-oil interface. Two decane parametrizations resulted in dramatically different conformations: decane parametrized based on a GROMOS force field "froze", while decane parametrized with a TraPPE force field remained liquid at 300 K. The calculated effective second-order susceptibilities and nonlinear sum frequency scattering intensities of DS(-) ions at the "frozen" decane-water agree well with experimental data of DS(-) ions at the hexadecane droplet-water interface. This suggests that the orientation of longer alkane molecules is predominantly parallel to the interface and that, at low coverages, DS(-) ions follow the orientation of oil molecules. PMID:22998553

  9. Allyl Isothiocyanate Ameliorates Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, Jae Ho; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Wang, Shuaiyu; Sung, Mi Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables that has known chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Thus far, the antiangiogenic activity of AITC has not been reported in in vivo studies. Herein, we investigated the effect of AITC on angiogenesis and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium via drinking water. To monitor the activity of AITC in this model, we measured body weight, disease activity indices, histopathological scores, microvascular density, myeloperoxidase activity, F4/80 staining, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression in the mice. We found that AITC-treated mice showed less weight loss, fewer clinical signs of colitis, and longer colons than vehicle-treated mice. AITC treatment also significantly lessened the disruption of colonic architecture that is normally associated with colitis and repressed the microvascularization response. Further, AITC treatment reduced both leukocyte recruitment and macrophage infiltration into the inflamed colon, and the mechanism these activities involved repressing iNOS and COX-2 expression. Finally, AITC attenuated the expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR2. Thus, AITC may have potential application in treating conditions marked by inflammatory-driven angiogenesis and mucosal inflammation. PMID:25051185

  10. Simple Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Assisted Sample Preparation Method for LC-MS-based Proteomic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Shi, Tujin; Wang, Lu; Gao, Xiaoli; Su, Dian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-03-10

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most popular laboratory reagents used for highly efficient biological sample extraction; however, SDS presents a significant challenge to LC-MS-based proteomic analyses due to its severe interference with reversed-phase LC separations and electrospray ionization interfaces. This study reports a simple SDS-assisted proteomic sample preparation method facilitated by a novel peptide-level SDS removal protocol. After SDS-assisted protein extraction and digestion, SDS was effectively (>99.9%) removed from peptides through ion substitution-mediated DS- precipitation with potassium chloride (KCl) followed by {approx}10 min centrifugation. Excellent peptide recovery (>95%) was observed for less than 20 {mu}g of peptides. Further experiments demonstrated the compatibility of this protocol with LC-MS/MS analyses. The resulting proteome coverage from this SDS-assisted protocol was comparable to or better than those obtained from other standard proteomic preparation methods in both mammalian tissues and bacterial samples. These results suggest that this SDS-assisted protocol is a practical, simple, and broadly applicable proteomic sample processing method, which can be particularly useful when dealing with samples difficult to solubilize by other methods.

  11. The reproducibility of the three brood Ceriodaphnia test using the reference toxicant sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cowgill, U M; Milazzo, D P; Landenberger, B D

    1990-01-01

    The three brood Ceriodaphnia dubia test was carried out three nonconsecutive times, each period being separated by the previous one by three weeks. The toxicant studied was sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) which bacterially degrades completely by the end of the third day of the test. The mean LC50 based on survival was 41 +/- 3.2 (CV = 7.8%) mg/L for day 3 through day 6. The mean EC50 based on progeny confirmed the LC50 and was 36 +/- 0.49 (CV = 1.4%) mg/L for the ultimate day of the test. The close reproducibility among successive tests is due in part to the use of pure SLS, the use of a mixed algal diet and in part to reducing handling to a minimum. Data failed to indicate any chronic effect exhibited by C. dubia populations since no statistically significant differences were noted between 48 hr (acute) and 144 hr values (chronic). Calculations of brood size for the first four broods clearly indicate a chronic effect of SLS on C. dubia by showing a progressively greater spread between the highest mean brood size and the lowest mean brood size as the brood number increases. It is suggested that calculations of this kind become part of the Ceriodaphnia test methodology so that any chronicity can be better identified. PMID:2386407

  12. Self-assembly of ionic detergents: a simulation study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammalkorpi, Maria; Karttunen, Mikko; Haataja, Mikko

    2007-03-01

    Detergents, amphiphilic molecules used to separate and dissolve molecular aggregates and also as cleaning agents, consist of a polar head group and one or more hydrophobic tails. Above a critical concentration, they self-aggregate in an aqueous solution to form micelles. While industrially extremely important, surprisingly little is known about molecular details of the self-assembly of detergents. Here we extend our previous work of modeling and model construction of charged soft-matter systems [1] by a description of an anionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) [2]. We present the results of large-scale Molecular Dynamics simulations of the formation dynamics and structure of SDS micelles. We demonstrate that temperature affects micelle morphologies through the packing and discuss the effect of SDS concentration on the micellization. [1] M. Patra et al., Biophys. J. 84, 3636 (2003); A. A. Gurtovenko et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 21126 (2005); A. A. Gurtovenko et al., Biophys. J. 86, 3461 (2004). [2] The SDS parameters are available at www.softsimu.org.

  13. Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-11-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:25314953

  14. Irsogladine maleate ameliorates inflammation and fibrosis in mice with chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hana; Suzuki, Kenji; Nagata, Masaki; Kawase, Tomoyuki; Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Kawauchi, Yusuke; Yokoyama, Junji; Tomita, Masayuki; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Asakura, Hitoshi; Takagi, Ritsuo

    2012-06-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a common and severe complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially Crohn's disease (CD). To investigate the therapeutic approach to intestinal fibrosis, we have developed a mouse model of intestinal fibrosis by administering dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and examining the effects of irsogladine maleate (IM) [2,4-diamino-6-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)-s-triazine maleate], which has been widely used as an antiulcer drug for gastric mucosa in Japan, on DDS-induced chronic colitis. In this experimental colitis lesion, several pathognomonic changes were found: increased deposition of collagen, increased number of profibrogenic mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts (vimentin(+), ?-SMA(-)) and myofibroblasts (vimentin(+), ?-SMA(+)) in both mucosa and submucosa of the colon with infiltrating inflammatory cells, and increased mRNA expressions of collagen type I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. When IM was administered intrarectally to this colitis, all these pathological changes were significantly decreased or suppressed, suggesting a potential adjunctive therapy for intestinal fibrosis. IM could consequently reduce fibrosis in DSS colitis by direct or indirect effect on profibrogenic factors or fibroblasts. Therefore, the precise effect of IM on intestinal fibrosis should be investigated further. PMID:23001296

  15. Mass and surface fractal in supercritical dried silica aerogels prepared with additions of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Perissinotto, Amanda P; Awano, Carlos M; Donatti, Dario A; de Vicente, Fabio S; Vollet, Dimas R

    2015-01-13

    Silica wet gels were prepared from hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) with additions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The surfactant was removed after gelation. Wet gels exhibited mass-fractal structure with mass-fractal dimension D (typically around 2.25) in a length scale extending from a characteristic size ? (typically about 10 nm) of the mass-fractal domains to a characteristic size a0 (typically between 0.3 and 0.4 nm) of the primary particles building up the fractal domains. ? increased while D and a0 diminished slightly as the SDS quantity increased. Aerogels with typical specific surface of 1000 m(2)/g and density of 0.20 g/cm(3) were obtained by supercritical drying of the wet gels after washing with ethanol and n-hexane. The pore volume and the mean pore size increased with the increase of the SDS quantity. The aerogels presented most of the mass-fractal characteristics of the original wet gels at large length scales and exhibited at a higher resolution level at about 0.7 nm a crossover to a mass-surface fractal structure, with apparent mass-fractal dimension Dm ? 2.4 and surface-fractal dimension Ds ? 2.6, as inferred from small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption data. PMID:25513729

  16. Opposite Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Guijun; Wang, Renxi; Xiao, He; Li, Xinying; Hou, Chunmei; Shen, Beifen; Guo, Renfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Yanchun; Chen, Guojiang

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is a key factor for the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), whose function is known to be mediated by TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) or 2. However, the precise role of the two receptors in IBD remains poorly understood. Herein, acute colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) instillation in TNFR1 or 2?/? mice. TNFR1 ablation led to exacerbation of signs of colitis, including more weight loss, increased mortality, colon shortening and oedema, severe intestinal damage, and higher levels of myeloperoxidase compared to wild-type counterparts. While, TNFR2 deficiency had opposite effects. This discrepancy was reflected by alteration of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the colons. Importantly, TNFR1 ablation rendered enhanced apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells and TNFR2 deficiency conferred pro-apoptotic effects of lamina propria (LP)-immune cells, as shown by the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and enhanced nuclear factor (NF)-?B activity. PMID:23285227

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of Inonotus obliquus in colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

    2010-01-01

    A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 +/- 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-alpha, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

    2010-01-01

    A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7?±?1.6?g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-?, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

  19. Feeding with olive oil attenuates inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rat.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Toru; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Shiraishi, Ryosuke; Oda, Yasutomo; Inoue, Norie; Nakayama, Atsushi; Toda, Shuji; Fujimoto, Kazuma

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation of long-term ulcerative colitis contributes to an increased risk of colon cancer. Few studies address whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) intake suppresses inflammation, cell proliferation and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) in the experimental colitis model. The aim of this study was to assess whether a 5% EVOO suppressed inflammation, increased cell proliferation and the expressions of STAT3 and STAT3 phosphorylation (pSTAT3) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Rats were administered DSS via drinking water (weight percentage: 4%) for 1 week with a 1-week recovery period for three cycles. Rats were divided into three groups: control group, standard diet without DSS; DSS group, standard diet+DSS; and DSS+EVOO group, EVOO diet (weight percentage: 5%)+DSS. Rats were sacrificed 5 weeks after DSS was first administered, and colonic damage was histologically and biochemically evaluated. As a result, chronic feeding of 5% EVOO attenuated inflammation. This was evaluated using a disease activity index, body weight loss and a histological score. Enhanced expressions of STAT3, pSTAT3, COX-2 and iNOS by DSS was attenuated by EVOO. In addition, EVOO attenuated increases in cell proliferation (PCNA) caused by DSS and recovered decreases in apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3). In conclusion, the study indicated that chronic feeding of 5% EVOO inhibited chronic inflammation in DSS-induced colitis in rats and also attenuated cell proliferation and recovered apoptosis in DSS colitis. PMID:24445043

  20. American ginseng attenuates azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunhao; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Martin, Adiba; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for this malignancy. We previously reported colon cancer chemoprevention potential using American ginseng (AG) in a xenograft mice model. However, the nude mouse model is not a gut-specific colon carcinogenesis animal model. Methods In this study, an experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, chemically induced by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was established and the effects of oral AG were evaluated. The contents of representative ginseng saponins in the extract were determined. Results AG significantly reduced experimental colitis measured by the disease activity index scores. This suppression of the experimental colitis was not only evident during DSS treatment, but also very obvious after the cessation of DSS, suggesting that the ginseng significantly promoted recovery from the colitis. Consistent with the anti-inflammation data, we showed that ginseng very significantly attenuated azoxymethane/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis by reducing the colon tumor number and tumor load. The ginseng also effectively suppressed DSS-induced proinflammatory cytokines activation using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay array, in which 12 proinflammatory cytokine levels were assessed, and this effect was supported subsequently by real-time polymerase chain reaction data. Conclusion AG, as a candidate of botanical-based colon cancer chemoprevention, should be further investigated for its potential clinical utility. PMID:25535472

  1. Effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate on structures of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) at the particle surface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng Wei

    2015-01-01

    The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) tethered to nanoparticles was experimentally investigated using dynamic light scattering below the lower critical solution temperature. A mean-field analytical model was used to calculate the parameters of interfacial PNIPAM-SDS complexes. Particularly, the magnitude of SDS adsorption energy obtained decreases with decreasing excluded volume parameter, implying that the partially collapsed PNIPAM brush virtually favors the adsorption of SDS onto the PNIPAM chains. A self-consistent field theory (SCFT) model was used to get a detailed quantitative description of monomer density distribution. By lowering the solvent quality, a number of phenomena related to the noncontinuity of monomer density are revealed. These phenomena are either referred to as the vertical phase separation or as its precursor, which can be delayed and eventually eliminated as the SDS coverage is increased. The distribution of free chain ends was calculated using the SCFT model. Increasing the SDS coverage gives rise to a broader and more asymmetric distribution of free chain ends, accompanied by a considerable expansion of the dead zone (below which the free chain ends do not exist), but lowering the solvent quality has opposite influences. The relative thickness of the dead zone can be scaled to a master curve, regardless of SDS coverage. PMID:25493920

  2. Diplacone and mimulone ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Vochyánová, Zora; Bartošová, Ladislava; Bujdáková, Veronika; Fictum, Petr; Husník, Roman; Suchý, Pavel; Šmejkal, Karel; Hošek, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Diplacone (1) and mimulone (2), two geranylated flavanones, have previously shown anti-inflammatory and antiradical activity in vitro. The present study aimed to evaluate their activity in vivo on a model of colitis induced in Wistar rats by an oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Diplacone (1) and mimulone (2) were administered at a bolus dose of 25mg/kg by gastric gavage 48 and 24h prior to the induction of colitis by DSS and every 24h on the following days of the experiment. The effect of the treatment was assessed by monitoring the disease activity index (DAI), histopathological examination, evaluation of the weight and length of the colon and by analysis of the levels and activities of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and catalase (CAT) in the inflamed tissue. Administration of the test compounds prior and after induction of colitis ameliorated the symptoms of colitis (diarrhea, presence of the blood in the stool) and delayed their onset. The ability of compounds 1 and 2 to reduce the levels of COX-2 and to increase the ratio of pro-MMP2/MMP2 activity correlates with the values of the DAI. The lowering of the levels of the antioxidant enzymes SOD2 and CAT reflects the ability of the test compounds to scavenge reactive oxygen species. PMID:25623260

  3. Quasi-elastic light scattering study of intermicellar interactions in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Corti, M.; Deglorgio, V.

    1981-03-19

    Quasi-elastic light scattering measurement have been performed on aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions in the 0.1 to 0.6 mole NaCl concentration range at 25 and 40 C. The aggregation number M, the hydrodynamic radius Rh, and the amphiphile concentration dependence of static and transport coefficients of micellar solutions are obtained from the experimental data. The micellar parameters M and Rh increase with salt concentration and slightly decrease with temperature. The concentration dependence of the apparent molecular weight and of the mass diffusion coefficient is interpreted on the basis of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory of colloid stability. The fit to the experimental data, performed with the assumption that the Hamaker constant for micellar attraction A and the micellar electric charge Q do not depend on the salt concentration, is satisfactory and gives A = 4.5 x 10/sup -20/ J and Q = 37 electronic charges. The electric potential at the shear surface of the micelle goes from 70 MV at 0.1 mole NaCl to approximately 30 MV at 0.5 to 0.6 mole NaCl. 45 references.

  4. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Ceren [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Unal, Ugur [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Yagci Acar, Havva, E-mail: fyagci@ku.edu.tr [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Chemistry Department, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koc University, Surface Science and Technology Center, KUYTAM, Rumelifeneri yolu, Sariyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-03-15

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  5. Dietary Uptake of Wedelia chinensis Extract Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Huang, Li-Ting; Lin, Wen-Ching; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Shu-Hui; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Scope Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. Methods and Results C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF) orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-4, IFN-?, IL-17, TGF-?, IL-12) revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) was not toxic to mice. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23734189

  6. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kanbe, Takamasa [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan)]|[Department of Internal Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago (Japan); Murai, Rie [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan); Mukoyama, Tomoyuki [Department of Internal Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago (Japan); Murawaki, Yoshiyuki [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan)]|[Division of Medicine and Clinical Science, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University (Japan); Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan); Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo [Division of Medicine and Clinical Science, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University (Japan); Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Kawasaki, Hironaka [Department of Internal Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago (Japan); Murawaki, Yoshikazu [Division of Medicine and Clinical Science, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Tottori University (Japan); Shiota, Goshi [Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Department of Genetic Medicine and Regenerative Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8504 (Japan)]. E-mail: gshiota@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.

  7. Protective Effect of IntraRectal Administration of Rebamipide on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Rat Colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuaki Okayama; Ryoichi Tsubouchi; Hikaru Nishio; Shinichi Kato; Koji Takeuchi

    2004-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: Rebamipide, an anti-ulcer drug, has various actions including radical scavenging and mucus-stimulating as well as anti-inflammatory effects, and exhibits both mucosal protective and healing promoting actions in the stomach. In the present study, we examined the effect of rebamipide on an animal model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Methods: Experimental colitis was induced in rats by

  8. Amelioration of dextran sulfate sodium–induced colitis by anti-macrophage migration inhibitory factor antibody in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuya Ohkawara; Jun Nishihira; Hiroshi Takeda; Shuhei Hige; Mototsugu Kato; Toshiro Sugiyama; Toshihiko Iwanaga; Hideki Nakamura; Yuka Mizue; Masahiro Asaka

    2002-01-01

    Background & Aims: We investigated the effects of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) antibodies in experimental colitis-induced dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) and examined whether plasma levels of MIF were elevated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: BALB\\/c or C57BL\\/6 mice were fed 4% DSS in their drinking water for up to 7 days with

  9. Solubilization Site of Organic Perfume Molecules in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles: New Insights from Proton NMR Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varsha Suratkar; Samiran Mahapatra

    2000-01-01

    The site of incorporation of solubilizates in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar systems has been investigated by proton NMR spectroscopy. The solubilizate molecules chosen for the present study are phenol, 4-methylphenol, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 4-propenylanisole, 1,8-cineole, and limonene. These molecules possess a wide variety of functional groups with different degrees of hydrophilic\\/hydrophobic character and are thereby solubilized at different micellar

  10. Effect of Surfactant Impregnation into Chitosan Hydrogel Beads Formed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Gelation for the Removal of Congo Red

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudipta Chatterjee; Tania Chatterjee; Seong-Rin Lim; Seung H. Woo

    2011-01-01

    Effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and triton X-100 (TX100) impregnation into chitosan hydrogel beads formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gelation (CSB) was investigated for the adsorption of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions. An impregnation of CTAB at 0.1 wt% into CSB increased adsorption from 97.46 mg\\/g to 113.24 mg\\/g, while 0.5 wt% TX100 impregnation into CSB registered a very small increase from

  11. Recovery of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from high cell density culture of Ralstonia eutropha by direct addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mia Kim; Kyung-Suk Cho; Hee Wook Ryu; Eun Gyo Lee; Yong Keun Chang

    2003-01-01

    A simple and effective method for the recovery poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] directly from high cell density culture broth with no pretreatment steps has been developed. This method consists of direct addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to the culture broth, shaking, heat treatment, and washing steps. When the SDS\\/biomass ratio was higher than 0.4, the purity of recovered P(3HB) was over

  12. Biotechnological Treatment of Sulfate-Rich Wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. L. Lens; A. Visser; A. J. H. Janssen; L. W. Hulshoff Pol; G. Lettinga

    1998-01-01

    Sulfate-rich wastewaters are generated by many industrial processes that use sulfuric acid or sulfate-rich feed stocks (e.g., fermentation or sea food processing industry). Also, the use of reduced sulfur compounds in industry, that is, sulfide (tanneries, kraft pulping), sulfite (sulfite pulping), or thiosulfate (pulp bleaching, fixing of photographs), contaminates wastewaters with sulfate. A major problem for the biological treatment of

  13. Application of the Aqueous Porous Pathway Model to Quantify the Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate on Ultrasound-Induced Skin Structural Perturbation

    E-print Network

    Polat, Baris E.

    This study investigated the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on skin structural perturbation when utilized simultaneously with low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS). Pig full-thickness skin (FTS) and pig split-thickness ...

  14. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    E-print Network

    Polat, Baris E.

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, ...

  15. Free-radical chemistry of sulfite.

    PubMed Central

    Neta, P; Huie, R E

    1985-01-01

    The free-radical chemistry of sulfite oxidation is reviewed. Chemical transformations of organic and biological molecules induced by sulfite oxidation are summarized. The kinetics of the free-radical oxidations of sulfite are discussed, as are the kinetics of the reactions of the sulfite-derived radicals SO3 and the peroxy derivative SO5 with organic compounds. PMID:3830699

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in water-the effect of the force field.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xueming; Koenig, Peter H; Larson, Ronald G

    2014-04-10

    Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of preassembled sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles are carried out using three versions of GROMOS, as well as CHARMM36, OPLS-AA, and OPLS-UA force fields at different aggregation numbers and box sizes. The differences among force fields have little effect on the overall micelle structure of small aggregates of size 60 or 100, but for micelles of an aggregation number of 300 or higher, bicelle structures with ordered tails, rather than the more realistic rodlike or cylindrical micelles with disordered tails, occur when using versions of GROMOS45A3 or the OPLS-AA force fields that are adapted to model the sulfate head group atoms using methods given in the literature. We find that the Lennard-Jones (L-J) parameters for the sodium ions and the ionic oxygens of the SDS head group, as well as the water model, control the transition to bicelles, regardless of other L-J parameters. A closer binding of the sodium ions to the head group ionic oxygens screens the electrostatic repulsions more strongly, resulting in condensation of SDS head groups, leading to unphysical bicelles for GROMOS45A3 or the OPLS-AA force fields, when the aggregation number is large. A telltale sign that the sodium-oxygen interaction is too strong shows up in high nearest neighbor peaks (height >8 and height >20 for micelles with 60 and 100 surfactants, respectively) in the radial distribution functions (RDFs) of sodium ions to ionic oxygens. In the 100-surfactant micelles, the high RDF peak is accompanied by "crystal-like" layering of sodium ions onto the surface of the micelle. The distance between the sodium ions and micelle also depends on the number of waters binding to sodium ions in the presence of surfactant head groups, which depends on both the sodium ion and water models, and for the same sodium model increases as the water model is changed in the order: TIP4P, SPC/E, SPC, and TIP3P. PMID:24620851

  17. Interactions of small dendrimers with sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Campbell, Richard A; Watkins, Erik B; Obiols-Rabasa, Marc; Schillén, Karin; Nylander, Tommy

    2014-10-01

    We have determined how the bulk behavior of mixtures of small cationic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (generation 2, PAMAM-G2) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) affects the structure and composition of the adsorbed layers at the air-water interface. The aim is to reveal how the size of a well-defined hyperbranched polyelectrolyte affects the interfacial and bulk solution behavior of mixtures with oppositely charged surfactants, when the size of the polyelectrolyte approaches that of the surfactant. A combination of electrophoretic mobility, UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements have been employed to characterize the interactions in the bulk solution. PAMAM-G2 associates strongly with SDS in the bulk, forming large aggregates where the size and the charge depend on the bulk composition. We show that kinetically trapped aggregates can be formed at compositions outside the equilibrium two-phase region, and the positively charged aggregates are larger than the negative ones. Surface tensiometry, neutron reflectometry, and ellipsometry have been used to reveal the properties of the interfacial layers. The interfacial structures formed depend strongly on the bulk composition: structured layers are present for samples inside the two-phase region, whereas intact nanostructured aggregates adsorb for samples just outside the two-phase region. The interfacial behavior of PAMAM-G2/SDS mixtures is compared with that of small amines or multivalent ions and oppositely charged surfactants. The implications of aggregate adsorption, dissociation, and spreading processes are discussed as well as the potential of small dendrimers for applications involving the delivery of functional molecules to interfaces. PMID:25203770

  18. Dietary flaxseed intake exacerbates acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Zhang, Claire; Wu, Wenqing; Lepp, Dion; Robinson, Lindsay; Wanasundara, Janitha; Cui, Steve; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Fofana, Bourlaye; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Power, Krista A

    2014-06-15

    Flaxseed (FS), a dietary oilseed, contains a variety of anti-inflammatory bioactives, including fermentable fiber, phenolic compounds (lignans), and the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ?-linolenic acid. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of FS and its n-3 PUFA-rich kernel or lignan- and soluble fiber-rich hull on colitis severity in a mouse model of acute colonic inflammation. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a basal diet (negative control) or a basal diet supplemented with 10% FS, 6% kernel, or 4% hull for 3 wk prior to and during colitis induction via 5 days of 2% (wt/vol) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in their drinking water (n = 12/group). An increase in anti-inflammatory metabolites (hepatic n-3 PUFAs, serum mammalian lignans, and cecal short-chain fatty acids) was associated with consumption of all FS-based diets, but not with anti-inflammatory effects in DSS-exposed mice. Dietary FS exacerbated DSS-induced acute colitis, as indicated by a heightened disease activity index and an increase in colonic injury and inflammatory biomarkers [histological damage, apoptosis, myeloperoxidase, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1?), and NF-?B signaling-related genes (Nfkb1, Ccl5, Bcl2a1a, Egfr, Relb, Birc3, and Atf1)]. Additionally, the adverse effect of the FS diet was extended systemically, as serum cytokines (IL-6, IFN?, and IL-1?) and hepatic cholesterol levels were increased. The adverse effects of FS were not associated with alterations in fecal microbial load or systemic bacterial translocation (endotoxemia). Collectively, this study demonstrates that although consumption of a 10% FS diet enhanced the levels of n-3 PUFAs, short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lignans in mice, it exacerbated DSS-induced colonic injury and inflammation. PMID:24763556

  19. Investigation of the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate and cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungno; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

    2004-05-25

    Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on a cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose, Polyquaternium-10 (PQ-10), of low charge density were studied by potentiometric and pyrene fluorescence methods and compared with those of poly(diallyldimethylammomium chloride) (PDADMAC) of high charge density. The critical aggregation concentration (cac) was measured with the potentiometric method and further confirmed with the fluorescence method. The former was found to be more accurate. The value of the cac for the SDS/PQ-10 system was measured at 100, 200, and 400 ppm polymer and at 288.2,298.2, and 308.2 K. They showed almost the same cac value, 0.04 mmol dm-3. The I1/I3 value of the pyrene fluorescence spectrum in the SDS/PQ-10 system at higher SDS concentration was smaller than that in SDS/PDADMAC solution and much larger than that of water. From the binding isotherm by the potentiometric method, the free DS- concentration (Cf) and the bound DS- concentration (Cb) could be evaluated with ease over the SDS concentration range above the cac. The aggregation number of DS- aggregates for both the above polymers was evaluated from the fluorescence quenching method using the values of Cf and Cb from the potentiometric method. Because Cf in the SDS/PQ-10 system above the cac did not maintain a constant value contrary to that in the SDS/PDADMAC system but increased quite a lot, Cb should not be regarded as [SDS] - cac above the cac. The aggregation number in the SDS/PQ-10 system increased almost linearly with increasing total concentration of SDS, while that in the SDS/PDADMAC system reached a plateau. With increasing temperature, the aggregation number of the SDS/PDADMAC system decreased more rapidly than that of the SDS/PQ-10 system. PMID:15969141

  20. Alterations of testosterone metabolism in microsomes from rats with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanjuan; Hu, Nan; Gao, Xuejiao; Yan, Zhixiang; Li, Sai; Jing, Wanghui; Yan, Ru

    2015-05-01

    Down-regulation of some hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) was observed in patients and animals with ulcerative colitis (UC). This study examined changes of CYP450s activities in microsomes of liver (RLMs), intestine (RIMs) and kidney (RRMs) from rats with experimental acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days and those receiving DSS treatment followed by 7-d cessation through measuring 6?-(CYP1A1), 7?-(CYP2A1), 16?-(CYP2C11) and 2?-/6?-(CYP3A2) hydroxytestosterone (OHT) formed from testosterone. Both pro-(IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?) and anti-(IL-4, IL-10) inflammatory cytokines were elevated in acute colitis, while the production of the former was enhanced and that of the latter declined by DSS withdrawal. In RLMs, the CYP2A1 activity was significantly increased at DSS stimulation and partially returned to normal level when DSS treatment was terminated. Activity of other CYP450s were decreased by acute colitis and remained after DSS withdrawal. In RRMs, formations of 6?-, 16?- and 2?-OHT significantly declined in acute colitis and DSS termination further potentiated the down-regulation, while 7?-OHT formation was suppressed at DSS stimulation and remained after DSS withdrawal. The formation of 6?-OHT only showed significant decrease after DSS withdrawal. Two metabolites (6?- and 6?-OHT) formed in RIMs and 6?-OHT formation was significantly decreased by DSS stimulation and continued after DSS treatment halted. These findings indicate that the alterations of CYP450s activities vary with organ, CYP isoforms and colitis status, which arouse cautions on efficacy and toxicity of drug therapy during disease progression. PMID:25777935

  1. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption onto Positively Charged Surfaces: Monolayer Formation With Opposing Headgroup Orientations

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Hun; Koelsch, Patrick; Weidner, Tobias; Wagner, Matthew S.; Castner, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption and structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) layers onto positively charged films have been monitored in situ with vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. Substrates with different charge densities and polarities used in these studies include CaF2 at different pH values as well as allylamine and heptylamine films deposited onto CaF2 and Au substrates by radio frequency glow discharge deposition. The SDS films were adsorbed from aqueous solutions ranging in concentration from 0.067 to 20 mM. In general the SFG spectra exhibited well resolved CH and OH peaks. However, at SDS concentrations between 1–8 mM the SFG CH and OH intensities decreased close to background levels. Combined data sets from molecular conformation, orientation, and order sensitive SFG with mass sensitive SPR suggest that the observed changes in SFG intensities above 0.2 mM are related to structural arrangements in the SDS layer. A model is proposed where the SFG intensity minimum between 1–8 mM is associated with a monolayer containing two head group orientations, one pointing towards the substrate and one pointing towards the solution phase. The SFG peaks observed at concentrations below 0.2 mM are dominated by the presence of adsorbed contaminants such as fatty alcohols (e.g., dodecanol), which are more surface active than SDS. As SDS solution concentration is increased above 1 mM SDS molecules are incorporated in the surface layer, with dodecanol continuing to be present in the surface layer for solution concentrations up to at least critical micelle concentration. PMID:24024777

  2. Loss of p53 enhances the induction of colitis-associated neoplasia by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chi L; Coudry, Renata A; Clapper, Margie L; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Williams, Kara-Lynn; Spittle, Cynthia S; Li, Tianyu; Cooper, Harry S

    2007-11-01

    Loss of p53 function is an early event in colitis-associated neoplasia in humans. We assessed the role of p53 in a mouse model of colitis-associated neoplasia. Colitis was induced in p53-/-, p53+/- and p53+/+ mice using three or four cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) followed by 120 days of water. Mice were examined for incidence, multiplicity and types of neoplastic lesions. Lesions were examined for mutations in beta-catenin (exon 3), K-ras (codons 12/13) and p53 (exons 5-8) by sequencing and for cellular localization of beta-catenin by immunohistochemistry. The incidence of neoplastic lesions was 57, 20 and 20% in p53-/-, p53+/- and p53+/+ mice, respectively (P = 0.013). p53-/- mice had a greater number of total lesions (P < 0.0001), cancers (P = 0.001) and dysplasias (P = 0.009) per mouse than either p53+/- or p53+/+ mice. Flat lesions were associated with the p53-/- genotype, whereas polypoid lesions were associated with the p53+/- and p53+/+ genotypes (P < 0.0001). beta-Catenin mutations were present in 75% of lesions of p53+/+ mice and absent in lesions from p53-/- mice (P = 0.055). Nuclear expression of beta-catenin was seen only in polypoid lesions (91%). No K-ras or p53 mutations were detected. These data indicate that loss of p53 enhances the induction of colitis-associated neoplasia, particularly flat lesions, and dysregulation of beta-catenin signaling plays an important role in the formation of polypoid lesions in this mouse model. As observed in humans, p53 plays a protective role in colitis-associated neoplasia in the DSS model. PMID:17557903

  3. A study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and sodium (lithium) dodecyl sulfate by the small-angle neutron scattering method

    SciTech Connect

    Rajewska, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)], E-mail: aldonar@jinr.ru; Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E. [Gdansk University of Technology (Poland)

    2007-09-15

    The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a new nonionic surfactant, namely, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C{sub 14}E{sub 7}), and an anionic surfactant, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, or lithium dodecyl sulfate, is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary results of the investigation into the behavior of C{sub 14}E{sub 7} aqueous solutions (at two concentrations, 0.17 and 0.50%) upon addition of small amounts of three different classical anionic surfactants are reported.

  4. Negative ions of ethylene sulfite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Robertson; N. I. Hammer; J. E. Bartmess; R. N. Compton; K. Diri; K. D. Jordan

    2005-01-01

    The formation of negative ions in molecular beams of ethylene sulfite (ES, alternately called glycol sulfite or ethylene glycol, C2H4SO3) molecules has been studied using both Rydberg electron transfer (RET) and free electron attachment methods. RET experiments with jet-cooled ES show an unexpected broad profile of anion formation as a function of the effective quantum number (n*) of the excited

  5. Effect of terbium(III) chloride on the micellization properties of sodium decyl- and dodecyl-sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Neves, A C S; Valente, A J M; Burrows, H D; Ribeiro, A C F; Lobo, V M M

    2007-02-01

    The effect of TbCl3 on the aggregation processes of the anionic surfactants sodium decyl sulfate (SDeS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been investigated. Electrical conductivity data, combined with Tb(III) luminescence measurements suggest that the formation of micelles involving TbCl3 and SDS occurs at concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the pure surfactants; the formation of these mixed aggregates was also monitored by light scattering, which indicates that the addition of TbCl3 to surfactant concentration at values below the pure surfactant cmc results in a much greater light scattering than that found with pure sodium alkylsulfate surfactant micelles. This phenomenon is dependent upon the alkyl chain length of the surfactant. With Tb(III)/DS-, complexes are formed with a cation/anion binding ratio varying from 3 to 6, which depends upon the initial concentration of Tb(III). This suggests that the majority of the cation hydration water molecules can be exchanged by the anionic surfactant. When the carbon chain length decreases, interactions between surfactant and Tb(III) also decrease, alterations in conductivity and fluorescence data are not so significant and, consequently, no binding ratio can be detected even if existing. The surfactant micellization is dependent on the presence of electrolyte in solution with apparent cmc being lower than the corresponding cmc value of pure SDS. PMID:17107684

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanying; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Liao, Jie; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH(-/-) mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.62±20.91 mm(3) vs. 22.42±11.22 mm(3)), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (3±1.18 vs. 2±0.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH(-/-) mice (44.7%±24.9% vs. 20.2%±16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1? and TNF-? expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/ dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis. PMID:24324059

  7. Changes in phosphatidylcholine liposomes caused by a mixture of Triton X-100 and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    de la Maza, A; Parra, J L

    1996-04-19

    The mechanisms governing the interaction of equimolecular mixtures of Triton X-100 (Tx-100) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with phosphatidylcholine liposomes were investigated. Permeability alterations were determined as a change in 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein released from the interior of vesicles and bilayer solubilization as a decrease in the static light-scattered by liposome suspensions. At subsolubilizing level, a maximum bilayer/water partitioning of surfactant mixture was reached at 30% CF release, which correlated with the increased presence of SDS in the bilayers. However, transition stages between 70% CF release and 100% light-scattering corresponded to the increased presence of Tx-100 in these structures. These findings may be correlated with the reduced deleterious effects caused by this mixture in different tissues versus pure SDS, given that the presence of Tx-100 may modulate the level of SDS partitioning in the human stratum corneum. At subsolubilizing level, the mixture showed higher affinity with bilayers than those reported for single components, whereas at solubilizing level this affinity was slightly lower and higher than those reported for Tx-100 and SDS respectively. A direct relationship was established in the initial interaction steps between the growth of vesicles, the leakage of entrapped CF and the effective molar ratio of surfactant to phospholipid in bilayers (Re). This dependence was also detected during solubilization, where the decrease in the vesicle size and in the scattered light of the system depended on the Re parameter and hence on the bilayer composition. The fact that the free surfactant concentration at subsolubilizing and solubilizing levels showed respectively lower and similar values than the critical micelle concentration (c.m.c.) of the surfactant mixture indicates that permeability alterations and solubilization were determined respectively by the action of surfactant monomer and by the formation of mixed micelles. This finding supports the generally admitted assumption, for single surfactants, that the concentration of free surfactant must reach the c.m.c. for solubilization to occur and highlights the influence of the negative synergism of this surfactant mixture on the free surfactant concentration needed to saturate or solubilize liposomes. PMID:8652638

  8. Higher fecal bile acid hydrophobicity is associated with exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Lotta K; Holma, Reetta; Forsgård, Richard; Gylling, Helena; Korpela, Riitta

    2013-11-01

    Increased luminal bile acid hydrophobicity is associated with cytotoxicity and has been suggested to contribute to gut barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare 2 high-fat diets and a low-fat diet as to whether they modify fecal bile acid profile and hydrophobicity and/or susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis in C57Bl/6J mice. Control and DSS-Control groups received a low-fat control diet [5.5% of total energy (E%) soy oil, 4.5 E% lard], and the DSS-Lard (5.5 E% soy oil, 54.5 E% lard) and DSS-Fish oil (5.5 E% soy oil, 27.2 E% lard and 27.2% menhaden oil) groups received high-fat diets. Feces for bile acid analysis were collected after 3-wk feeding, followed by induction of dextran DSS colitis (2 d 5% DSS in drinking water + 2 d tap water). Fecal bile acid hydrophobicity was elevated 76% in the lard group (P = 0.051) and 122% in the fish oil group (P = 0.001) compared with control, indicating potentially increased cytotoxicity. DSS caused severe colitis symptoms, evaluated as rectal bleeding, whereas all the controls were symptom free. The median symptom scores were: DSS-Control, 2.3 (IQR = 0.6, 3.0); DSS-Lard, 0.3 (IQR = 0, 2.3); and DSS-Fish oil, 2.4 (IQR = 1.9, 2.8). The only differences were DSS-Control vs. control (P < 0.001) and DSS-Fish oil vs. control (P < 0.001). Severity of symptoms in all colitic mice was positively correlated with fecal bile acid hydrophobicity (Spearman's ? = 0.43; P = 0.028) and fecal deoxycholic acid concentration (Spearman's ? = 0.39; P = 0.048). These results suggest that luminal bile acid modification, induced by altered dietary fat composition, may alter susceptibility to DSS colitis. PMID:24047703

  9. Therapeutic effect of a hydroxynaphthoquinone fraction on dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Liang; Fan, Hua-Ying; Yang, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Zuo-Kai; Liu, Ke

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of hydroxynaphthoquinone mixture (HM) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: BALB/c mice received 3.5% DSS for 6 d to induce ulcerative colitis. Groups of mice were orally administered HM 3.5, 7 and 14 mg/kg and mesalazine 200 mg/kg per day for 7 d. During the experiment, clinical signs and body weight, stool consistency and visible fecal blood were monitored and recorded daily. A disease activity index score was calculated for each animal. At the conclusion of the experiment, the colonic histopathological lesions were evaluated. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels were determined. Protein expression levels of TNF-?, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65, inhibitor of ?B (I?B) and phosphorylation of I?B (p-I?B) were analyzed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Administration of 3.5% DSS for 6 d successfully induced acute colitis associated with soft stool, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and colon shortening, as well as a loss of body weight. Administration of HM effectively attenuated the severity of colonic mucosa injury. For histopathological analysis, HM treatment improved histological alterations and lowered pathological scores compared with the DSS only group. This manifested as a reduction in the extent of colon injury and inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the degree of mucosal destruction. In addition, HM at doses of 7 and 14 mg/kg significantly decreased MPO activity in colonic tissue (0.98 ± 0.22 U/g vs 1.32 ± 0.24 U/g, 0.89 ± 0.37 U/g vs 1.32 ± 0.24 U/g tissue, P < 0.05) and serum TNF-? levels (68.78 ± 7.34 ng/L vs 88.98 ± 17.79 ng/L, 64.13 ± 14.13 ng/L vs 88.98 ± 17.79 ng/L, P < 0.05). Furthermore, HM down-regulated the expression of TNF-?, NF-?B p65 and p-I?B? in colonic tissue while up-regulating I?B? protein expression. These results suggest that the significant anti-inflammatory effect of HM may be attributable to its inhibition of TNF-? production and NF-?B activation. CONCLUSION: HM had a favorable therapeutic effect on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, supporting its further development and clinical application in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25386079

  10. Study of chemical selectivity of molecular binary mixed micelles of sodium 10-undecenyl sulfate and sodium N-undecenyl leucinate using linear solvation energy relationships model.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hamid H; Ahlstrom, David M; Arslan, Hakan; Guzel, Mustafa; Akbay, Cevdet

    2012-05-01

    Poly(sodium 10-undecenyl sulfate) (poly-SUS), poly(sodium N-undecenyl leucinate) (poly-SUL) and their five molecular binary mixed micelles with varied SUS:SUL composition were prepared and used as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) model and free energy of transfer studies were used to characterize the retention behavior and the selectivity differences among the seven surfactant systems. System constant differences and regression models for varied benzene derivative compounds are used to establish the selectivity differences of the seven pseudostationary phases. The cavity formation and dispersion interaction (the v system constant) and the hydrogen-bonding acidity (the b system constant) of the surfactant systems were found to have the most significant influence on selectivity and MEKC retention. The molecular micelle with sulfate head group, poly-SUS, was found to be more hydrogen-bond acidic than the molecular micelle with leucinate head group, poly-SUL. The other system constants (a, s and e) have modest effect on the retention and selectivity of the benzene derivatives. The model intercept coefficients (c system constants), which are negative for all surfactant systems have unusually large values. The free energy changes of transfer for the functional groups studied have all negative values except phenol and benzyl alcohol. Selectivity differences between pseudostationary phases were also compared by plotting the log k values against each other and were found to agree well with LSER results. PMID:22446078

  11. Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate Micellization and Water Solubility Enhancement Towards Naphthalene and Pyrene: Effect of the Degree of Ethoxylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Aoudia; Butheina Al-Haddabi; Zuleikha Al-Harthi; Aadel Al-Rubkhi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ethoxylation on self-aggregation behavior in aqueous media of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), C12H25 (OCH2CH2)xOSO3Na, where x = 1 (SLE1S), x = 2 (SLE2S), and x = (SLE3S) was investigated. CMCs were determined from the effect of surfactant concentration on (2,2?-bipyridine dichloro-ruthenium(II)\\u000a hexahydrate (Ru(bipy)32+,2Cl?) fluorescence emission. Aggregation numbers and micelle concentrations were estimated from the fluorescent quenching of (Ru(bipy)32+,2Cl?) by 9-methylanthracene. Interestingly, critical

  12. Hot corrosion of nickel-chromium and nickel-chromium-aluminum thermal-spray coatings by sodium sulfate-sodium metavanadate salt

    SciTech Connect

    Longa-Nava, Y.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Setagaya, Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Science and Engineering; Zhang, Y.S.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The hot corrosion behavior of low-pressure plasma-sprayed (LPPS) 80 wt% Ni-20 wt% Cr and flame-sprayed (FS) 75 wt% Ni-20 wt% Cr-4.0 wt% Al coatings on type 304 stainless steel by thin fused films of sodium sulfate and 0.7 mol fraction Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-0.3 mol fraction sodium metavanadate at 900 C in a 1% sulfur dioxide-oxygen atmosphere was studied using an electrochemical method. The 80% Ni-20% Cr coatings were tested in the as-sprayed condition. 75% Ni-20% Cr-4% Al coatings were tested under as-sprayed and laser-glazed conditions. Evolution of the fused salt film chemistry, in terms of the thermodynamic activities of O{sub 2} and sodium oxide, was monitored using a zirconia O{sub 2} probe and a fused-silica Na sensor. Results permitted qualitative evaluation of the corrosion resistance of the coatings and could be interpreted in terms of previously proposed hot corrosion mechanisms.

  13. Effect of crown ether 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane on the structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide aqueous micellar solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Caponetti, E.; Martino, D.C.; Floriano, M.A. [Universita di Palermo (Italy); Triolo, R.; Wignall, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The effects of the addition of crown ether 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane on the structure of aqueous solutions of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide have been studied by small angle neutron scattering. In the case of sodium dodecyl sulfate, an appreciable amount of crown ether was found to be localized in the micellar phase, though it was not possible to establish whether it was in the core or in the shell; there was no evidence of crown ether localization in dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles. The above observations indicate that although, at least in principle, the crown ether methylene groups could interact hydrophobically in the micellar core with the surfactant alkyl chains, the ability of crown ethers to form metal complexes might also lead, in sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions, to electrostatic interactions in the external palisade between the crown ether-sodium ion complex and the surfactant head groups. The absence of crown ether from dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles indicates that the macrocyclic molecules interact with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles via the formation of a complex between the sodium ion and the crown ether and rules out the possibility of hydrophobic interaction in the micellar core. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...in accordance with good manufacturing practice, except that it is not used in meats; in food recognized as a source of vitamin B1 ; on fruits or vegetables intended to be served raw to consumers or sold raw to consumers, or to be presented to...

  15. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...or explanation. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1...

  16. DISSOLUTION AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM SULFITE PLATELETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the dissolution and crystallization of calcium sulfite platelets. The rates of calcium sulfite dissolution and crystallization are important in slurry scrubbing processes for flue gas desulfurization. The rates affect the scrubber solution composition, SO2 abs...

  17. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-12-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain lengths, the slower the sphere-to-rod transition. PMID:17904570

  18. Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. (Univ. South Florida College, Tampa (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

  19. Determination and application of the equilibrium oxygen isotope effect between water and sulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankel, Scott D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Eldridge, Daniel L.; Johnston, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The information encoded by the two stable isotope systems in sulfate (?34SSO4 and ?18OSO4) has been widely applied to aid reconstructions of both modern and ancient environments. Interpretation of ?18OSO4 records has been complicated by rapid oxygen isotope equilibration between sulfoxyanions and water. Specifically, the apparent relationship that develops between ?18OSO4 and ?18Owater during microbial sulfate reduction is thought to result from rapid oxygen isotope equilibrium between intracellular water and aqueous sulfite - a reactive intermediate of the sulfate reduction network that can back-react to produce sulfate. Here, we describe the oxygen equilibrium isotope effect between water and sulfite (referring to all the sum of all S(IV)-oxyanions including sulfite and both isomers and the dimer of bisulfite). Based on experiments conducted over a range of pH (4.5-9.8) and temperature (2-95 °C), where ? = 1000 * (? - 1), we find ?SO3-H2O=13.61-0.299?pH-0.081?T °C. Thus, at a pH (7.0) and temperature (25 °C) typifying commonly used experimental conditions for sulfate reducing bacterial cultures, sulfite is enriched in 18O by 9.5‰ (±0.8‰) relative to ambient water. We examine the implication of these results in a sulfate reduction network that has been revised to reflect our understanding of the reactions involving oxygen. By evaluating previously published data within this new architecture, our results are consistent with previous suggestions of high reversibility of the sulfate reduction biochemical network. We also demonstrate that intracellular exchange rates between SO32- and water must be on average 1-3 orders of magnitude more rapid than intracellular fluxes of sulfate reduction intermediates and that kinetic isotope effects upstream of SO32- are required to explain previous laboratory and environmental studies of ?18OSO4 resulting as a consequence of sulfate reduction.

  20. Hepatitis B surface antigen polypeptides: artifactual bands in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis caused by aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Koistinen, V U

    1980-01-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen, subtype ad, was purified and studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. Two major bands with molecular weights of 23,500 and 27,500 and several weaker bands with higher molecular weights were observed. When the low-molecular-weight bands and the group of high-molecular-weight bands were excised from the gel, eluted, and reelectrophoresed, neither the low-molecular-weight bands nor the high-molecular-weight bands ever appeared alone, but both high- and low-molecular-weight bands always appeared. It was concluded that the apparently high-molecular-weight bands represented aggregates of the two small polypeptides whose monomers formed the major bands. The preparation thus contained only two polypeptides. Images PMID:7411691

  1. Adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide in water under the effect of the potassium persulfate-sodium metabisulfite-copper sulfate system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurenkov, V.F.; Baiburdov, T.A.; Stupen'kova, L.L.

    1988-04-10

    Since adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide (AA) has been studied very little and the information on the effect of copper ions on polymerization of AA prepared in dilute aqueous solutions is very limited, the features of adiabatic polymerization of AA in concentrated aqueous solutions in the presence of the potassium persulfate-sodium metabisulfite-copper sulfate redox initiating system were investigated in this study. The empirical equation for the overall rate of adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide in concentrated aqueous solutions was found, and the effective total activation energy, which decreases with an increase in the concentration of CuSO/sub 4/, was determined. An increase in the molecular weight of the polymer with an increase in the concentration of the monomer and a decrease in the concentration of the components of the initiating system was demonstrated.

  2. Negative impact of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Young-Sun; Kim, Nayoun; Im, Keon-Il; Lim, Jung-Yeon; Lee, Eun-Sol; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on dextran sulfate sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed 3.5% (g/L) dextran sulfate sodium. On day seven, the mice received intraperitoneal injections of 1 × 106 MSCs. The survival rate, disease activity index values, and body weight, were monitored daily. On day ten, colon lengths and histopathologic changes were assessed. In addition, immunoregulatory changes following MSC administration were evaluated by determining the levels of effector T cell responses in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in homogenized colons. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of MSCs did not prevent development of colitis and did not reduce the clinicopathologic severity of IBD. No significant difference was evident in either survival rate or disease activity index score between the control and MSC-treated group. Day ten-sacrificed mice exhibited no significant difference in either colon length or histopathologic findings. Indeed, the MSC-treated group exhibited elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and transforming growth factor-?, and a reduced level of IL-10, in spleens, mesenteric lymph nodes, and homogenized colons. The IL-17 level was lower in the mesenteric lymph nodes of the MSC-treated group (P = 0.0126). In homogenized colons, the IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor-? (P = 0.0092) expression levels were also lower in the treated group. CONCLUSION: MSC infusion provided no significant histopathologic or clinical improvement, thus representing a limited therapeutic approach for IBD. Functional enhancement of MSCs is needed in further study. PMID:25717235

  3. Oxidation of byproduct calcium sulfite hemihydrate from coal-fired power plant

    E-print Network

    Bhatt, Sandeep

    1995-01-01

    concentrations. The solid solutions so prepared were used to determine the critical solubility limit of calcium sulfate in calcium sulfite hemihydrate in the solid solution (CaSO4)a (CaSO3)1-a.(I/2)H20 at room temperature, Gypsite can be oxidized to calcium...

  4. TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

  5. Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceburg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies showed that levulinic acid (LA) and sodium acid sulfate (SAS) were effective in inactivating human pathogens on fresh produce. The present study investigated the effects of LA and SAS in comparison with citric acid and chlorine on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and the sensory qu...

  6. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation and sodium sulfate on the IGSCC susceptibility of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel in high-temperature water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Saito; N. Ichikawa; Y. Hemmi; A. Sudo; M. Itow; T. Okada

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of gamma- ray irradiation and sodium sulfate as an aqueous impurity on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of sensitized type 304 (UNS{sup (1)} S30400) stainless steel (SS) studied through slow strain rate tests (SSRT) and corrosion potential measurements in high- temperature water that simulated the BWR normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water

  7. Skin Barrier Disruption by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate-Exposure Alters the Expressions of Involucrin, Transglutaminase 1, Profilaggrin, and Kallikreins during the Repair Phase in Human Skin In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Törmä; Magnus Lindberg; Berit Berne

    2008-01-01

    Detergents are skin irritants affecting keratinocytes. In this study, healthy volunteers were exposed to water (vehicle) and 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) under occlusive patch tests for 24 hours. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers and of enzymes involved in corneodesmosome degradation was examined in skin biopsies (n=8) during the repair phase (6 hours to 7 days

  8. The treatment of agitated and depressed mental states with benzedrine sulfate and sodium amytal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupert A. Chittick; Abraham Myerson

    1941-01-01

    Summary 1.Twenty-one psychotic patients who presented various degrees of agitation and depression were treated with a combination of benzedrine (amphetamine) and sodium amytal.2.Five patients were markedly benefited.3.Nine patients were made more comfortable and accepted a more active hospital program which continued after the therapy was discontinued.4.Three patients whose psychoses showed schizophrenic features were not benefited.

  9. Measurement of oxidation rate of sulfite in rain water in Yokohama, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, S.; Yamanaka, K.; Hashimoto, Y.

    1986-04-01

    In recent years, the influences of acid rain such as the acidification of lake water, on bio-system by the heavy metals from effluent of soils with acid rain and also on the structural materials of buildings are seriously discussed. Sulfur and nitrogen that are contained in fossil fuels are released into the atmosphere by the fuel combustion as their oxides dissolve in rain drops as sulfite and nitrous ions, where they are further oxidized into sulfate and nitrate ions These ions lower the pH of rain water resulting so-called acid rain. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine these ions in rain water for the investigation of reality of acid rain. However, it is not easy to accurately determine these ions, especially for sulfite ions in rain water, since they are quickly oxidized by the catalytic action of metallic ions such as ferric and manganous ions. And light, temperature, pH of solution and also species and concentrations of dissolved metallic ions as catalysts, must be influential factors for the rate of oxidation of sulfite ions. In this paper, first, the rate of oxidation of sulfite ion in the test solutions by the catalytic reactions of metallic ions was examined, since the metallic ions is most influential in the oxidation of sulfite ion, and then the relations between the rate of oxidation of sulfite ion and the metallic ions were investigated for rain samples. The contribution of hydrogen ion that was produced by the oxidation of sulfite ion to sulfate was also examined for the change of pH values of rain water.

  10. Molecular cloning of human liver sulfite oxidase.

    PubMed

    Garrett, R M; Bellissimo, D B; Rajagopalan, K V

    1995-06-01

    A 2.4 kilobase cDNA clone of human sulfite oxidase was isolated from a human liver cDNA library in lambda gt10. Comparison of three sulfite oxidase sequences to several plant and fungal nitrate reductase sequences reveals a single conserved cysteine with highly conserved flanking sequences. The conserved cysteine is postulated to be a ligand of molybdenum in sulfite oxidase and nitrate reductase. PMID:7599189

  11. Sulfite-formaldehyde pretreatment on rice straw for the improvement of enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

    2013-08-01

    Rice straw is one of the most abundant agricultural residues in China. It is considered as a promising raw material for bioethanol production. In this work, rice straw was pretreated by sodium sulfite-formaldehyde (SF) for improving enzymatic saccharification. The SF pretreatment, using proven technology and industrialized equipment, showed efficient delignification selectivity and high carbohydrates retention in pretreated solid. The highest sugar yields of 79.0%, 88.8% and 71.1% for total sugar, glucan and xylan, respectively were obtained at an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate after the raw material pretreated with 12% sodium sulfite at 160°C. About 75% of lignin was dissolved in pretreatment spent liquor and 78% of silica was retained in the residue of enzymatic hydrolysis. The results proved sulfite-formaldehyde as a promising pretreatment for the production of bioethanol as well as potential high value added by-products of silica nanoparticles and lignosulfonate. PMID:23743425

  12. Visual evoked potentials in normal and sulfite oxidase deficient rats exposed to ingested sulfite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vural Küçükatay; Gülay Hac?o?lu; Feyza Savc?o?lu; Piraye Yarg?ço?lu; Aysel A?ar

    2006-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfur amino acids, and protects cells from sulfite (SO32?) toxicity. Rats do not mimic responses seen in human, because of their relatively high SOX activity levels. Therefore, the present study used SOX deficient rats since they are a more appropriate model for studying sulfite toxicity.

  13. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  14. Water activities, densities, and refractive indices of aqueous sulfates and sodium nitrate droplets of atmospheric importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, I. N.; Munkelwitz, H. R.

    1994-09-01

    Water activities, densities, and refractive indices over extended concentration ranges at 25°C are reported for solution droplets containing a single salt of either (NH4)2SO4, NH4HSO4, (NH4)3H(SO4)2, Na2SO4, NaHSO4, or NaNO3, which are common constituents of atmospheric aerosols. The extensive data reported here are obtained from experiments using the single-particle levitation technique recently developed for measuring the thermodynamic and optical properties of microdroplets. These data should find application in mathematical models predicting the dynamic behavior, visibility reduction, and radiative effects of atmospheric sulfate and nitrate aerosols.

  15. Adhesion of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant monolayers with TiO2 (rutile and anatase) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M.

    2013-09-17

    Surfactants are widely used as templates to control the nucleation and growth of nanostructured metal oxides such as titania. To gain insight into the origin of surfactant-titania interactions responsible for polymorph and orientation selection, we simulate the self-assembly of an anionic surfactant monolayer on various low-index titania surfaces and for a range of densities. We characterize the binding in each case and compute the adhesion energies, finding anatase (100) and rutile (110) to be the strongest-binding surfaces. The sodium counterions in the monolayer are found to dominate the adhesion. It is also observed that the assembly is directed predominantly by surface-monolayer electrostatic complementarity.

  16. Spectrophotometric study and potentiometric titration between sulfite and nitrite ions using acetaldehyde complex of nitroprusside as a carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Y.Z.; Abd-Elmottalb, M.

    1985-11-01

    A complex between sodium nitroprusside (NP) and acetaldehyde of 1:1 in aqueous solution of pH 10 has been prepared and used as an analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of sulfite and nitrite ions. Nitrite ion can be titrated against sulfite ion and vise versa in equivalent amounts with high accuracy in the presence of the acetaldehyde complex of nitroprusside as a carrier using a potentiometric titration technique. 9 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Protein-decorated micelle structure of sodium-dodecyl-sulfate--protein complexes as determined by neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Ibel, K; May, R P; Kirschner, K; Szadkowski, H; Mascher, E; Lundahl, P

    1990-06-20

    The structure of the complex between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a deuterated bifunctional enzyme, N-5'-phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase/indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase (Mr 49,484), has been studied in dilute solution by small-angle neutron scattering. The complex nearly acquired its final size, as shown by molecular-sieve chromatography, at the chosen SDS concentration of 1.6 mM, which is slightly below the critical micelle concentration of 1.8 mM (at the ionic strength of 0.1 M). The 452 amino-acid residues of the bifunctional enzyme were combined with 216 detergent molecules. The complex was found to be composed of three protein-decorated SDS micelles of unequal size, connected by short flexible polypeptide segments. The largest of the three micelles was the middle one. The SDS-protein complex contained the dodecyl hydrocarbon moieties in three globular cores. Each core was surrounded by a hydrophilic shell, formed by the hydrophilic and amphiphilic stretches of the polypeptide chain, and by the sulfate head groups of the detergent. The average thickness of these shells was 0.7-0.8 nm. The three-micelle complex was cleaved with trypsin at a single site, possibly in a micelle-connecting segment, into a single-micelle fragment at the carboxyl-terminal which comprised 73 SDS molecules and 163 amino-acid residues, and a dual-micelle fragment. One of the micelles within this larger fragment contained 42 SDS molecules and about 90 amino-acid residues; the other micelle contained 101 SDS molecules and about 190 amino-acid residues. The individual micelle sizes seemed to be determined by the amino-acid sequence. PMID:2194800

  18. The effect of sulfite and chronic restraint stress on brain lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Derin, Narin; Yargiço?lu, Piraye; Aslan, Mutay; Elmas, O?uz; Agar, Aysel; Aicigüzel, Yakup

    2006-07-01

    Sulfites are used as anti-microbial and anti-oxidant agents in a variety of drugs, and function as a preservative in many food preparations. In addition to these effects, sulfites oxidize to sulfite radicals initiating lipid peroxidation. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of restraint stress and sulfite on brain lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities. Forty male Wistar rats, aged three months, were randomized to one of the following groups: control, restraint stress, sulfite-treated and restraint stress + sulfite-treated. Chronic restraint stress was applied for 21 days (1 h/day) and sodium metabisulfite (520 mg/kg per day) was given by gavage for the same period. Lipid peroxidation was measured using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) fluorometric assay. TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) were found increased in all treatment groups when compared to the control group. Spectrophotometric measurement of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT) revealed decreased enzyme activities in rats exposed to restraint stress compared to control and sulfite-treated rats. GSH-Px activities were significantly decreased in the restraint stress and sulfite-treated rats compared with the control rats. GSH-Px activity measured in restraint stress + sulfite-treated rats was significantly lower than in the other groups. The presented data confirms the pro-oxidant activity of restraint stress and establishes that decreased anti-oxidant enzyme activities in restraint stress-treated rats enhances brain lipid peroxidation caused via the ingestion of sulfites. PMID:16924954

  19. Oxidation of metal sulfites by iodine for use in thermochemical hydrogen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, C. F. V.; Bowman, M. G.

    1981-09-01

    It is noted that thermochemical hydrogen cycles involving metal sulfates offer an alternative to sulfuric acid which is corrosive and has high energy requirements for drying prior to its thermal decomposition. The formation of such metal sulfates in conjunction with a low temperature hydrogen formation step is discussed. The following reaction was studied: MgSO3(c) + MgO(c) + I2(g) yields MgSO4(c) + MgI2(c). Although magnesium sulfite appears promising for this oxidation, a search was conducted for alternative metal sulfites which fit the following criteria for use: (1) sulfate must decompose in the temperature range available ( 1400 K); (2) iodide must hydrolyze easily; and (3) salts must not be rare, toxic, or expensive. Lanthanum and titanium fit these criteria.

  20. Risk analysis of sulfites used as food additives in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian Bo; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua Li; Zhang, Ji Yue; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian

    2014-02-01

    This study was to analyze the risk of sulfites in food consumed by the Chinese people and assess the health protection capability of maximum-permitted level (MPL) of sulfites in GB 2760-2011. Sulfites as food additives are overused or abused in many food categories. When the MPL in GB 2760-2011 was used as sulfites content in food, the intake of sulfites in most surveyed populations was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Excess intake of sulfites was found in all the surveyed groups when a high percentile of sulfites in food was in taken. Moreover, children aged 1-6 years are at a high risk to intake excess sulfites. The primary cause for the excess intake of sulfites in Chinese people is the overuse and abuse of sulfites by the food industry. The current MPL of sulfites in GB 2760-2011 protects the health of most populations. PMID:24625409

  1. Adsorption of mixtures of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Arteta, Marianna Yanez; Campbell, Richard A; Nylander, Tommy

    2014-05-27

    We relate the adsorption from mixtures of well-defined poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers of generations 4 and 8 with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at the air-water interface to the bulk solution properties. The anionic surfactant shows strong attractive interactions with the cationic dendrimers at pH 7, and electrophoretic mobility measurements indicate that the association is primarily driven by electrostatic interactions. Optical density measurements highlight the lack of colloidal stability of the formed bulk aggregates at compositions close to charge neutrality, the time scale of which is dependent on the dendrimer generation. Adsorption at the air-water interface was followed from samples immediately after mixing using a combination of surface tension, neutron reflectometry, and ellipsometry measurements. In the phase separation region for dendrimers of generation 4, we observed high surface tension corresponding to a depleted surfactant solution but only when the aggregates carried an excess of surfactant. Interestingly, these depleted adsorption layers contained spontaneously adsorbed macroscopic aggregates, and these embedded particles do not rearrange to spread monomeric material at the interface. These findings are discussed in relation to the interfacial properties of mixtures involving dendrimers of generation 8 as well as polydisperse linear and hyperbranched polyelectrolytes where there is polyelectrolyte bound to a surfactant monolayer. The results presented here demonstrate the capability of dendrimers to sequester anionic surfactants in a controllable manner, with potential applications as demulsification and antifoaming agents. PMID:24785641

  2. A Simple Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-assisted Sample Preparation Method for LC-MS-based Proteomics Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Shi, Tujin; Wang, Lu; Gao, Xiaoli; Su, Dian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most popular laboratory reagents used for biological sample extraction; however, the presence of this reagent in samples challenges LC-MS-based proteomics analyses because it can interfer with reversed-phase LC separations and electrospray ionization. This study reports a simple SDS-assisted proteomics sample preparation method facilitated by a novel peptide-level SDS removal step. In an initial demonstration, SDS was effectively (>99.9%) removed from peptide samples through ion substitution-mediated DS- precipitation using potassium chloride (KCl), and excellent peptide recovery (>95%) was observed for <20 ?g peptides. Further experiments demonstrated the compatibility of this protocol with LC-MS/MS analyses. The resulting proteome coverage obtained for both mammalian tissues and bacterial samples was comparable to or better than that obtained for the same sample types prepared using standard proteomics preparation methods and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. These results suggest the SDS-assisted protocol is a practical, simple, and broadly applicable proteomics sample processing method, which can be particularly useful when dealing with samples difficult to solubilize by other methods. PMID:22339560

  3. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases. PMID:16256467

  4. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and static magnetic field on the properties of freshly precipitated calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Chibowski, Emil; Szczes, Aleksandra; Holysz, Lucyna

    2005-08-30

    Properties of calcium carbonate precipitated from aqueous solutions of CaCl(2) and Na(2)CO(3) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and S-S 0.1 T magnetic field (MF) were studied. The nucleation and precipitation processes of CaCO(3) were investigated by pH and zeta potential measurements at 20 +/- 1 degrees C up to 2 h after mixing the solutions. Also the amounts of calcium carbonate deposited on the glass surfaces and its structure were examined. It was found that SDS influences the kinetics of precipitation, crystallographic forms, and crystal size of CaCO(3). The SDS effects are more pronounced in MF presence. A small amount of SDS accelerates transformation of vaterite into calcite, whereas increasing surfactant concentration moderates such a transformation. On the other hand, in all the systems, MF in the presence of SDS causes a slower transformation of vaterite into calcite. These effects are reflected in pH and zeta potential changes, although there is no clear dependence between the SDS amount present during the precipitation and changes of the parameters investigated. It seems that MF effect is most significant at a defined optimal SDS concentration. The results, however, do not allow suggestion of any detailed mechanism of the field interaction. PMID:16114911

  5. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, M. I. E.; Zuhainis, S. W.; Yusof, M. T.; Shaharuddin, N. A.; Helmi, W.; Shukor, Y.; Syed, M. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30?mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5?mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700?nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3?g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

  6. Determination of M/G ratio of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate by HPLC with pre-column derivatization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Xia; Ren, Li; Xue, Yiting; Li, Chunxia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-04-15

    A reliable high performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization method was developed for the determination of the mannuronic acid (M)/guluronic acid (G) ratio of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS). The hydrolysis conditions of PSS were investigated by four degradation methods based on the degree of destruction of M and G, and the chromatographic separation conditions were also optimized. A satisfactory resolution of M and G was achieved with a KP-C18 column using 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)-acetonitrile (83/17, v/v) as a mobile phase, after PSS was hydrolyzed with 0.1 mol/L sulfuric acid and labeled with 1-phenyl-3-methyl -5-pyrazolone. The M/G ratio of PSS determined by this method was in good accordance with that obtained by the (1)H NMR method with a desulfurization strategy. Our method is rapid, sensitive, accurate and reproducible. The limit of detection was found to be 0.25 ?g/mL for M and 0.40 ?g/mL for G. PMID:24607155

  7. Expression of Blimp-1 in Dendritic Cells Modulates the Innate Inflammatory Response in Dextran Sodium Sulfate–Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Jung; Goldstein, Jordan; Dorso, Kimberly; Merad, Miriam; Mayer, Lloyd; Crawford, James M; Gregersen, Peter K; Diamond, Betty

    2014-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism of PRDM1, the gene encoding Blimp-1, is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we demonstrate that Blimp-1 in CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) critically contributes to the regulation of macrophage homeostasis in the colon. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-exposed Blimp-1cko mice with a deletion of Blimp-1 in CD103+ DCs and CD11chi macrophages exhibited severe inflammatory symptoms, pronounced weight loss, high mortality, robust infiltration of neutrophils in epithelial regions of the colon, an increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and a significant decrease in CD103+ DCs in the colon compared with DSS exposed wild-type (WT) mice. Purified colonic macrophages from Blimp-1cko mice expressed increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase 8, 9 and 12 mRNA. WT macrophages cocultured with colonic DCs but not bone marrow–derived DCs from Blimp-1cko produced increased matrix metalloproteinases in an interleukin (IL)-1?– and IL-6–dependent manner. Treatment of Blimp-1cko mice with anti–IL-1? and anti–IL-6 abrogated the exaggerated clinical response. Overall, these data demonstrate that Blimp-1 expression in DCs can alter an innate inflammatory response by modulating the activation of myeloid cells. This is a novel mechanism of contribution of Blimp-1 for the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, implicating another therapeutic target for the development of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25826676

  8. Inhibition of Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) Induces Resistance to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vu, John P.; Million, Mulugeta; Larauche, Muriel; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Waschek, James A.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    VIP is highly expressed in the colon and regulates motility, vasodilatation, and sphincter relaxation. However, its role in the development and progress of colitis is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the participation of VIP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic mucosal inflammation using VIP?/? and WT mice treated with VIP antagonists. Colitis was induced in 32 adult VIP?/? and 14 age-matched WT litter-mates by giving 2.5 % DSS in the drinking water. DSS-treated WT mice were injected daily with VIP antagonists, VIPHyb (n=22), PG 97–269 (n=9), or vehicle (n=31). After euthanasia, colons were examined; colonic cytokines mRNA were quantified. VIP?/? mice were remarkably resistant to DSS-induced colitis compared to WT. Similarly, DSS-treated WT mice injected with VIPHyb (1 ?M) or PG 97–269 (1 nM) had significantly reduced clinical signs of colitis. Furthermore, colonic expression of IL-1, TNF-?, and IL-6 was significantly lower in VIP?/? and VIPHyb or PG 97–269 compared to vehicle-treated WT. Genetic deletion of VIP or pharmacological inhibition of VIP receptors resulted in resistance to colitis. These data demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role for VIP in murine colitis and suggest that VIP antagonists may be an effective clinical treatment for human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24395090

  9. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg-1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. PMID:25763529

  10. Arginase activity in alternatively activated macrophages protects PI3Kp110? deficient mice from dextran sodium sulfate induced intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Weisser, Shelley B; Kozicky, Lisa K; Brugger, Hayley K; Ngoh, Eyler N; Cheung, Bonnie; Jen, Roger; Menzies, Susan C; Samarakoon, Asanga; Murray, Peter J; Lim, C James; Johnson, Pauline; Boucher, Jean-Luc; van Rooijen, Nico; Sly, Laura M

    2014-11-01

    Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages have been reported to protect mice from intestinal inflammation, but the mechanism of protection has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that mice deficient in the p110? catalytic subunit activity of class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3Kp110?) have increased clinical disease activity and histological damage during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis. Increased disease severity in PI3Kp110?-deficient mice is dependent on professional phagocytes and correlates with reduced numbers of arginase I+ M2 macrophages in the colon and increased production of inflammatory nitric oxide. We further demonstrate that PI3Kp110?-deficient macrophages are defective in their ability to induce arginase I when skewed to an M2 phenotype with IL-4. Importantly, adoptive transfer of IL-4-treated macrophages derived from WT mice, but not those from PI3Kp110?-deficient mice, protects mice during DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, M2 macrophages mediated protection is lost when mice are cotreated with inhibitors that block arginase activity or during adoptive transfer of arginase I deficient M2 macrophages. Taken together, our data demonstrate that arginase I activity is required for M2 macrophages mediated protection during DSS-induced colitis in PI3Kp110?-deficient mice. PMID:25124254

  11. Factors affecting size and swelling of poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres formed in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions without surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Michael D.; Scott, Evan A.; Elbert, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    The LCST behavior of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was exploited to fabricate microspheres without the use of other monomers, polymers, surfactants or organic solvents. Reactive PEG derivatives underwent thermally induced phase separation to produce spherical PEG-rich domains that coarsened in size pending gelation, resulting in stable hydrogel microspheres between ?1–100 microns in size. The time required to reach the gel point during the coarsening process and the extent of crosslinking after gelation both affected the final microsphere size and swelling ratio. The gel point could be varied by pre-reaction of the PEG derivatives below the cloud point, or by controlling pH and temperature above the cloud point. Pre-reaction brought the PEG derivatives closer to the gel point prior to phase separation, while the pH and temperature influenced the rate of reaction. Dynamic light scattering indicated a percolation-to-cluster transition about 3–5 minutes following phase separation. The mean radius of PEG-rich droplets subsequently increased with time to the 1/4th power until gelation. PEG microspheres produced by these methods with controlled sizes and densities may be useful for the production of modular scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:19615738

  12. Effect of Glu-B3 Allelic Variation on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Sedimentation Volume in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Manli; He, Fuxia; Ma, Chuanxi

    2013-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation volume has long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. In order to survey the influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) at Glu-B3 locus on wheat SDS sedimentation volume, a total of 283 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties including landraces and improved and introduced cultivars were analyzed using 10 allele-specific PCR markers at the Glu-B3 locus. The highest allele frequency observed in the tested varieties was Glu-B3i with 21.9% in all varieties, 21.1% in landraces, 25.5% in improved cultivars, and 12% in introduced cultivars. Glu-B3 locus represented 8.6% of the variance in wheat SDS sedimentation volume, and Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g, and Glu-B3h significantly heightened the SDS sedimentation volume, but Glu-B3a, Glu-B3c, and Glu-B3j significantly lowered the SDS sedimentation volume. For the bread-making quality, the most desirable alleles Glu-B3b and Glu-B3g become more and more popular and the least desirable alleles Glu-B3a and Glu-B3c got less and less in modern improved cultivars, suggesting that wheat grain quality in China has been significantly improved through breeding effort. PMID:23861659

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical absorption study of VO2+-doped sodium zinc sulfate tetrahydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripal, Ram; Shukla, Santwana

    2012-01-01

    Single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of VO2+ doped in sodium zinc sulfate tetrahydrate (Na2Zn(SO4)2·4H2O) have been carried out at room temperature. The results show the presence of three magnetically inequivalent VO2+ sites with different populations. The VO2+ impurity ions take up substitutional positions in the host lattice replacing Zn2+ ions. The angular variation of EPR spectra in three mutually orthogonal planes, bc, a*c and ba*, are used to determine the spin-Hamiltonian parameters. The optical absorption spectrum of VO2+ ions doped in the crystal lattice is also recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 325-1100 nm. This is utilized to study the energy level structure of the VO2+ ion. By correlating the EPR and optical data, various molecular orbital coefficients of the VO2+ ion with its ligands are evaluated and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed.

  14. Origin of salt additive effect on solute partitioning in aqueous polyethylene glycol-8000-sodium sulfate two-phase system.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Mikheeva, Larissa M; Teixeira, José A; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2014-04-11

    Partitioning of a homologous series of dinitrophenylted (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic side chains was examined in aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000-sodium sulfate two-phase systems (ATPS) with the additives NaSCN, NaClO4, and NaH2PO4 at concentrations varied from 0.025M up to 0.54M. The differences between the relative hydrophobicities and electrostatic properties of the two phases in all ATPS were estimated. Partitioning of adenine, adenosine mono-, di- and tri-phosphates was also examined in all ATPSs, including those with NaCl additive. Partition coefficients for these compounds and for nonionic organic compounds previously reported [L.A. Ferreira, P. Parpot, J.A. Teixeira, L.M. Mikheeva, B.Y. Zaslavsky, J. Chromatogr. A 1220 (2012) 14.] were analyzed in terms of linear solvent regression relationship. The results obtained suggest that the effects of the salts additives are related to their influence on the water structure. PMID:24613040

  15. Determination of antihypertensive drug moexipril hydrochloride based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate at carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Attia, Ali K

    2010-04-15

    Herein, an electrochemical differential pulse voltammetric method was developed for the determination of moexipril hydrochloride based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The oxidation process has been carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer. Moexipril hydrochloride exhibits a well-defined irreversible oxidation peak over the entire pH range (2-11). The peak current varied linearly over the range from 4.0 x 10(-7) to 5.2 x 10(-6) mol L(-1). The limits of detection and quantification were 6.87 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) and 2.29 x 10(-7) mol L(-1), respectively. The recovery was found in the range from 99.65% to 100.76%. The relative standard deviation was found in the range from 0.429% to 0.845%. The proposed method possesses high sensitivity, accuracy and rapid response. Finally, this method was successfully used to determine moexipril hydrochloride in tablets. PMID:20188882

  16. Adsorption of hydroxamate siderophores and EDTA on goethite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Siderophore-promoted iron acquisition by microorganisms usually occurs in the presence of other organic molecules, including biosurfactants. We have investigated the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the adsorption of the siderophores DFOB (cationic) and DFOD (neutral) and the ligand EDTA (anionic) onto goethite (?-FeOOH) at pH 6. We also studied the adsorption of the corresponding 1:1 Fe(III)-ligand complexes, which are products of the dissolution process. Adsorption of the two free siderophores increased in a similar fashion with increasing SDS concentration, despite their difference in molecule charge. In contrast, SDS had little effect on the adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption of the Fe-DFOB and Fe-DFOD complexes also increased with increasing SDS concentrations, while adsorption of Fe-EDTA decreased. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between adsorbed surfactants and siderophores are more important than electrostatic interactions. However, for strongly hydrophilic molecules, such as EDTA and its iron complex, the influence of SDS on their adsorption seems to depend on their tendency to form inner-sphere or outer-sphere surface complexes. Our results demonstrate that surfactants have a strong influence on the adsorption of siderophores to Fe oxides, which has important implications for siderophore-promoted dissolution of iron oxides and biological iron acquisition. PMID:19523232

  17. Increased skin barrier disruption by sodium lauryl sulfate in mice expressing a constitutively active STAT6 in T cells

    PubMed Central

    DaSilva, Sonia C.; Sahu, Ravi P.; Konger, Raymond L.; Perkins, Susan M.; Kaplan, Mark H.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic, chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 10–20% of children and 1–3% of adults worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that the ability of Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) to regulate skin barrier function may be a predisposing factor for AD development. The present studies examined the ability of increased Th2 activity to affect cutaneous barrier function in vivo and epidermal thickening. Mice that express a constitutively active Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6VT) have increased Th2 cells and a predisposition to allergic inflammation were used in these studies; they demonstrate that topical treatment with the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) caused increased transepidermal water loss and epidermal thickening in STAT6VT mice over similarly treated wild-type mice. The proliferation marker Ki-67 was increased in the epidermis of STAT6VT compared to wild-type mice. However, these differences do not appear to be linked to the addition of an irritant as control-treated STAT6VT skin also exhibited elevated Ki-67 levels, suggesting that the increased epidermal thickness in SLS-treated STAT6VT mice is primarily driven by epidermal cell hypertrophy rather than an increase in cellular proliferation. Our results suggest that an environment with increased Th2 cytokines results in abnormal responses to topical irritants. PMID:21959772

  18. Thermoreversible Gel Formulations Containing Sodium Lauryl Sulfate or n-Lauroylsarcosine as Potential Topical Microbicides against Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sylvie; Gourde, Pierrette; Piret, Jocelyne; Désormeaux, André; Lamontagne, Julie; Haineault, Caroline; Omar, Rabeea F.; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2001-01-01

    The microbicidal efficacies of two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and n-lauroylsarcosine (LS), were evaluated in cultured cells and in a murine model of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) intravaginal infection. In vitro studies showed that SLS and LS were potent inhibitors of the infectivity of HSV-2 strain 333. The concentrations of SLS which inhibit viral infectivity by 50% (50% inhibitory dose) and 90% (90% inhibitory dose) were 32.67 and 46.53 ?M, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for LS were 141.76 and 225.30 ?M. In addition, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with thermoreversible gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS prior to the inoculation of HSV-2 strain 333 completely prevented the development of genital herpetic lesions and the lethality associated with infection. Of prime interest, no infectious virus could be detected in mouse vaginal mucosa. Both formulations still provided significant protection when viral challenge was delayed until 1 h after pretreatment. Finally, intravaginal application of gel formulations containing 2.5% SLS or 2.5% LS once daily for 14 days to rabbits did not induce significant irritations to the genital mucosa, as demonstrated from macroscopic and histopathologic examinations. These results suggest that thermoreversible gel formulations containing SLS or LS could represent potent and safe topical microbicides for the prevention of HSV-2 and possibly other sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:11353610

  19. Surfactant effects on hydrate formation in an unstirred gas\\/liquid system: An experimental study using HFC32 and sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyoshi Watanabe; Shuntaro Imai; Yasuhiko H. Mori

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of a surfactant additive on the formation of a clathrate hydrate in a quiescent guest-gas\\/liquid–water system. The paper first presents our strong suspicion against the existing hypothesis that the surfactant-micelle formation in the liquid–water phase promotes the hydrate formation. It is pointed out that the Krafft point for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a popular

  20. Purification and Properties of a Highly Thermostable, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Resistant and Stereospecific Proteinase from the Extremely Thermophilic ArchaeonThermococcus stetteri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. KLINGEBERG; B. GALUNSKY; C. SJOHOLM; V. KASCHE

    1995-01-01

    The cultivation of the extremely thermophilic archaeonThermococcus stetteriin a dialysis membrane reactor was paralleled by the production of an extremely heat-stable proteinase(s). By applying preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, an SDS-resistant proteinase was purified 67-fold in one step with a yield of 34%. The purified enzyme, which was composed of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass

  1. A Single-Sample Method for Determination of Carbohydrate and Protein Contents Glycoprotein Bands Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate– Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Zdebska; Jerzy Ko?cielak

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for determination of carbohydrate and protein contents of glycoproteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then electroblotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Blots were stained, and appropriate pieces of PVDF membranes were excised, destained, and subjected to sequential hydrolysis with 0.2 M trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) for 1 h at 80°C, then with 2 M

  2. Metachromatic staining patterns of basic proline-rich proteins from rat and human saliva in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys-Beher, M.G.; Wells, D.J.

    1984-10-01

    A series of basic proteins, rich in proline, were isolated from the salivary secretions of humans and rats. These proteins underwent metachromasia after staining with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The technique of destaining gels in several changes of 10% acetic acid after a 30-min staining period is a rapid method of general utility for the identification of proline-rich proteins from total cell lysates from other sources besides saliva.

  3. The Distribution of mixtures of dodecyl ether of poly(23)ethylene glycol with sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide in the water/octane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboleva, O. A.; Pronchenko, K. S.; Chernysheva, M. G.; Badun, G. A.

    2012-03-01

    The scintillation phase and tensiometry methods were used to study the mutual influence of dodecyl ether of poly(23)ethylene glycol (Brij-35) with sodium dodecyl sulfate and Brij-35 with dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide on the distribution in the water/octane system and adsorption at the liquid/liquid interface. The composition of mixed adsorption layers was determined and interaction parameters between molecules were calculated according to the Rosen model.

  4. Removal of metal ions at low concentration by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Samper; M. Rodríguez; M. A. De la Rubia; D. Prats

    2009-01-01

    Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) has been used to remove dissolved metals including Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ from synthetic water using two anionic surfactants: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in a lab-scale membrane system. The effect of surfactant concentration, pH and conductivity on metal retention was studied. The molar concentration ratio of the surfactant to metal

  5. How are “Atypical” Sulfite Dehydrogenases Linked to Cell Metabolism? Interactions between the SorT Sulfite Dehydrogenase and Small Redox Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ulrike, Kappler

    2011-01-01

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of the toxic and mutagenic compound sulfite to sulfate, thereby protecting cells from adverse effects associated with sulfite exposure. While some bacterial SDHs that have been characterized to date are able to use cytochrome c as an electron acceptor, the majority of these enzymes prefer ferricyanide as an electron acceptor and have therefore been termed “atypical” SDHs. Identifying the natural electron acceptor of these enzymes, however, is crucial for understanding how the “atypical” SDHs are integrated into cell metabolism. The SorT sulfite dehydrogenase from Sinorhizobium meliloti is a representative of this enzyme type and we have investigated the interactions of SorT with two small redox proteins, a cytochrome c and a Cu containing pseudoazurin, that are encoded in the same operon and are co-transcribed with the sorT gene. Both potential acceptor proteins have been purified and characterized in terms of their biochemical and electrochemical properties, and interactions and enzymatic studies with both the purified SorT sulfite dehydrogenase and components of the respiratory chain have been carried out. We were able to show for the first time that an “atypical” sulfite dehydrogenase can couple efficiently to a cytochrome c isolated from the same organism despite being unable to efficiently reduce horse heart cytochrome c, however, at present the role of the pseudoazurin in SorT electron transfer is unclear, but it is possible that it acts as an intermediate electron shuttle between. The SorT system appears to couple directly to the respiratory chain, most likely to a cytochrome oxidase. PMID:21833314

  6. Changes in tyrosinase specificity by ionic liquids and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Goldfeder, Mor; Egozy, Mor; Shuster Ben-Yosef, Vered; Adir, Noam; Fishman, Ayelet

    2013-03-01

    Tyrosinase is a member of the type 3 copper enzyme family involved in the production of melanin in a wide range of organisms. The ability of tyrosinases to convert monophenols into diphenols has stimulated studies regarding the production of substituted catechols, important intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, polymerization inhibitors, and antioxidants. Despite its enormous potential, the use of tyrosinases for catechol synthesis has been limited due to the low monophenolase/diphenolase activity ratio. In the presence of two water miscible ionic liquids, [BMIM][BF(4)] and ethylammonium nitrate, the selectivity of a tyrosinase from Bacillus megaterium (TyrBm) was altered, and the ratio of monophenolase/diphenolase activity increased by up to 5-fold. Furthermore, the addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at levels of 2-50 mM increased the activity of TyrBm by 2-fold towards the natural substrates L-tyrosine and L-Dopa and 15- to 20-fold towards the non-native phenol and catechol. The R209H tyrosinase variant we previously identified as having a preferential ratio of monophenolase/diphenolase activity was shown to have a 45-fold increase in activity towards phenol in the presence of SDS. We propose that the effect of SDS on the ability of tyrosinase to convert non-natural substrates is due to the interaction of surfactant molecules with residues located at the entrance to the active site, as visualized by the newly determined crystal structure of TyrBm in the presence of SDS. The effect of SDS on R209 may enable less polar substrates such as phenol and catechol, to penetrate more efficiently into the enzyme catalytic pocket. PMID:22539021

  7. Partial replacement of dietary linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Anupama; Kumar, Uday; Santosh, Vadakattu Sai; Reddy, Suryam; Mohammed, Saazida Bhanu; Ibrahim, Ahamed

    2014-12-01

    Imbalances in the dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of substitution of linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence decreasing n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets with n-6:n-3 fatty acid in the ratios of 215,50,10 or 5 for 3 months and colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water during last 11 days. Decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio to 10 and 5 significantly attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by improvements in clinical symptoms, reversal of shortening of colon length, reduced severity of anemia, preservation of colonic architecture as well as reduced colonic mucosal myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with suppression of colonic mucosal proinflammatory mediators such as TNF?, IL-1? and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 3.0 g/kg diet (n-6:n-3 ratio of 10) prevents dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25451558

  8. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

    2008-11-10

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

  9. Suppressive effects of Moringa oleifera Lam pod against mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Budda, Sirintip; Butryee, Chaniphun; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Wangnaithum, Supradit; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Kupradinun, Piengchai

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a major ingredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. Previous studies have shown potentially antioxidant, antitumor promoter, anticlastogen and anticarcinogen activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was conducted to investigate chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 8 groups: Group 1 served as a negative control; Group 2 received AOM/DSS as a positive control; Groups 3-5 were fed boiled freeze-dried M. oleifera (bMO) at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively supplemented in basal diets for 5 weeks; Groups 6-8 were fed with bMO diets at the designed doses above for 2 weeks prior to AOM, during and 1 week after DSS administration. At the end of the study, colon samples were processed for histopathological examination. PCNA indices, and iNOS and COX-2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the incidences and multiplicities of tumors in Groups 6-8 to be decreased when compared to Group 2 in a dose dependent manner, but this was significant only in Group 8. The PCNA index was also significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M. oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:22471457

  10. Influence of ceramides in the solubilization of stratum corneum lipid liposomes by C(12)-betaine/sodium dodecyl sulfate mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lopez, O; Cócera, M; Parra, J L; Coderch, L; de la Maza, A

    1999-10-01

    The solubilization of liposomes modeling the stratum corneum (SC) lipid composition and those obtained varying the proportion of ceramides by means of dodecyl betaine (C(12)-Bet)/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) mixtures was studied. The surfactant/lipid molar ratios (Re) and the bilayer/aqueous phase partition coefficients (K) were determined by monitoring the changes in the static light scattering of the system during solubilization. The fact that the free surfactant concentration was always similar to its critical micelle concentration (CMC) indicates that the liposome solubilization was mainly ruled by the formation of mixed micelles. The mole fraction of the zwitterionic component (X(zwitter)) of 0.4 showed the lowest ability to saturate or solubilize liposomes, although exhibiting the highest degree of partitioning into liposomes. This X(zwitter) corresponded to the highest derivation of the CMCs of these mixtures (negative synergism) and to the highest reduction in the skin irritation with respect to the anionic component. Higher and lower proportion of ceramides in the mixture led to a fall and to a rise in both the activity and the partitioning of a specific surfactant mixture (X(zwitter)=0.4). This finding could be related to the recently reported dependences of the level of ceramides in skin and function barrier abnormalities. Comparison of the present Re and K values with those reported for phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes shows that, although SC liposomes were more resistant to the action of surfactant mixtures, the surfactant partitioning into SC bilayers was similar to that reported for PC ones in all cases. PMID:10502629

  11. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated neoplasia: a promising model for the development of chemopreventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Clapper, Margie Lee; Cooper, Harry Stanley; Chang, Wen-Chi Lee

    2007-09-01

    Individuals diagnosed with ulcerative colitis face a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal dysplasia and cancer during their lifetime. To date, little attention has been given to the development of a chemopreventive intervention for this high-risk population. The mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) - induced colitis represents an excellent preclinical system in which to both characterize the molecular events required for tumor formation in the presence of inflammation and assess the ability of select agents to inhibit this process. Cyclic administration of DSS in drinking water results in the establishment of chronic colitis and the development of colorectal dysplasias and cancers with pathological features that resemble those of human colitis-associated neoplasia. The incidence and multiplicity of lesions observed varies depending on the mouse strain used (ie, Swiss Webster, C57BL/6J, CBA, ICR) and the dose (0.7%-5.0%) and schedule (1-15 cycles with or without a subsequent recovery period) of DSS. The incidence of neoplasia can be increased and its progression to invasive cancer accelerated significantly by administering DSS in combination with a known colon carcinogen (azoxymethane (AOM), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1- methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) or iron. More recent induction of colitis-associated neoplasia in genetically defined mouse strains has provided new insight into the role of specific genes (ie, adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Msh2) in the development of colitis-associated neoplasias. Emerging data from chemopreventive intervention studies document the efficacy of several agents in inhibiting DSS-induced neoplasia and provide great promise that colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia is a preventable disease. PMID:17723178

  12. ?-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPAR? Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Allisson Freire; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Claudino, Rafaela Franco; Cola, Maíra; Pereira Leite, Daniela Ferraz; Calixto, João B.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) activation is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) pathway, and agonists of both receptors improve colitis. Recently, the plant metabolite (E)-?-caryophyllene (BCP) was shown to bind to and activate CB2. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPAR?. Oral treatment with BCP reduced disease activity, colonic macro- and microscopic damage, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, and levels and mRNA expression of colonic tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, interferon-?, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. BCP treatment also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, nuclear factor ?B, I?B-kinase ?/?, cAMP response element binding and the expression of caspase-3 and Ki-67. Moreover, BCP enhanced IL-4 levels and forkhead box P3 mRNA expression in the mouse colon and reduced cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2) in a culture of macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPAR? antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effect of BCP. Confirming our results, AM630 reversed the beneficial effect of BCP on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IEC-6 cells. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of BCP involves CB2 and the PPAR? pathway and suggest BCP as a possible therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:21356367

  13. Evaluation of phototoxic properties of some food additives: sulfites exhibit prominent phototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Eberlein-König, B; Bergner, T; Diemer, S; Przybilla, B

    1993-10-01

    Additives are used widely to enhance the quality of food products. To identify possible phototoxic properties, 13 food additives (benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester, 4-hydroxybenzoic ethyl ester, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl ester, p-hydroxybenzoic acid n-butyl ester, benzyl alcohol, sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, propionic acid, sodium disulfite and sodium sulfite) were evaluated in vitro by means of a photohemolysis test using suspensions of human erythrocytes. Irradiation was performed with various light sources differing with regard to their spectral irradiance. Sodium sulfite and sodium disulfite induced photohemolysis up to almost 100%, the effect depending on the concentration of the compounds and UV dose administered. Radiation rich in UVB was most effective; a sunlight-simulating lamp induced photohemolysis to a lesser degree. All other substances tested did not cause significant photohemolysis. As sulfites are frequently encountered, they may contribute to UVB sensitivity. The clinical significance of these findings has to be established by further work. PMID:7904403

  14. Fed-batch cultivation of the marine bacterium Sulfitobacter pontiacus using immobilized substrate and purification of sulfite oxidase by application of membrane adsorber technology.

    PubMed

    Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland

    2008-03-01

    Sulfitobacter pontiacus, a gram-negative heterotrophic bacterium isolated from the Black Sea is well known to produce a soluble AMP-independent sulfite oxidase (sulfite: acceptor oxidoreductase) of high activity. Such an enzyme can be of great help in establishing biosensor systems for detection of sulfite in food and beverages considering the high sensitivity of biosensors and the increasing demand for such biosensor devices. For obtaining efficient amounts of the enzyme, an induction of its biosynthesis by supplementing sufficient concentrations of sodium sulfite to the fermentation broth is required. Owing to the fact that a high initial concentration of sodium sulfite decreases dramatically the enzyme expression, different fed-batch strategies can be applied to circumvent such inhibition or repression of the enzyme respectively. By the use of sulfite species immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol gels, an approach to the controlled and continuous feeding of sulfite to the cultivation media could be established to diminish inhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the purification of the enzyme is described by using membrane adsorber technology. PMID:17705251

  15. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mineralization and mobility of nonylphenol and sodium dodecyl sulfate in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillotte, Julia; Marschner, Bernd; Stumpe, Britta

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the major scientific research fields in this decade. One of the most wide-spread nanomaterials are carbon based nanoparticles (CNPs) which are increasingly be used in industry. Several studies shows that CNPs are interacting with other chemical compounds and organic pollutants in the environment. It is assumed that the interactions between CNPs and organic pollutants are affected by solution and aggregate behavior. Based on the knowledge of the behavior of CNPs and organic pollutants in aquatic systems the interactions of CNPs and organic pollutants in agricultural soils have to be studied. As organic pollutants two environmental substances, nonylphenol (NP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected as model substances. They occur frequently in aqueous systems and also show different solubility behavior. As CNP representatives, two different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were selected. They differed either in length or outer diameter. Conclusions therefrom are to be closed the influence of length and diameter of the sorption capacity of different organic pollutants. In addition, two agricultural soils (sandy and silty soil) and one forest soil (sandy soil) were chosen. Mineralization and sorption experiments were conducted to provide information about the degradation of organic pollutants in presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils. To analyze the CNPs mineralization potential, peroxidase activity was measured. Further extraction experiments were conducted to detect the extractable part of organic pollutants. The results show that the surface area of the MWNT has a significant impact on the sorption behav-ior of NP and SDS in soils. The sorption of NP and SDS is much higher than without MWNT. However, the properties of the organic pollutants (different water solubility and hydrophobicity) are equally important and should be noted. The degradation of both pollutants is influenced by MWNT. Due to the strong sorption of NP and SDS on the MWNT, the degradation of these pollutants in soils, is slower than without MWNT. The peroxidase activity did not contribute to NP and SDS degradation. But the peroxidase activity in agricultural soils is higher than in forest soils. The extractable fraction of NP and SDS is very low and amounts to a maximum of 2 %. Due to the lower degradation of NP and SDS in the presence of MWNT a longer retention of the substances in the soils and potential toxic effects for humans and animals, as a result of plant uptake may be taken into account.

  16. Agonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 inhibit experimental colitis induced by oil of mustard and by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Edward S; Schneider, Craig R; Wallace, Nathaniel H; Hornby, Pamela J

    2006-08-01

    Oil of mustard (OM) is a potent neuronal activator that is known to elicit visceral hyperalgesia when given intracolonically, but the full extent to which OM is also proinflammatory in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. We have previously shown that male CD-1 mice given a single administration of 0.5% OM develop a severe colitis that is maximum at day 3 and that gradually lessens until essentially absent by day 14. OM-induced neuronal stimulation is reported to be reduced by cannabinoid agonists, and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R)-/- mice have exacerbated experimental colitis. Therefore, we examined the role of cannabinoids in this OM-induced 3-day model of colitis in CD-1 mice and in a 7-day dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model in BALB/c mice. In OM colitis, the CB1R-selective agonist ACEA and the CB2R-selective agonist JWH-133 reduced (P < 0.05) colon weight gain (means +/- SE; 82 +/- 13% and 47 +/- 15% inhibition, respectively), colon shrinkage (98 +/- 24% and 42 +/- 12%, respectively), colon inflammatory damage score (49 +/- 11% and 40 +/- 12%, respectively), and diarrhea (58 +/- 12% and 43 +/- 11%, respectively). Histological damage was similarly reduced by these treatments. Likewise, CBR agonists attenuated DSS colitis, albeit at higher doses; ACEA at 10 mg/kg, twice daily, inhibited (P < 0.05) macroscopic and microscopic scores (46 +/- 9% and 63 +/- 7%, respectively); whereas 20 mg/kg, twice daily, of JWH-133 was required to diminish (P < 0.05) macroscopic and microscopic scores (29 +/- 7% and 43 +/- 5%, respectively). CB1R and CB2R immunostaining of colon sections revealed that CB1R in enteric neurons was more intense in colitic vs. control mice; however, CB1R was also increased in the endothelial layer in OM colitis only. CB2R immunostaining was more marked in infiltrated immune cells in OM colitis. These findings validate the OM colitis model with respect to the DSS model and provide strong support to the emerging idea that cannabinoid receptor activation mediates protective mechanisms in experimental colitis. The demonstration of CB1R agonist effects in colitis support the neurogenic nature of the OM-induced colitis model and reinforce the importance of neuronal activation in intestinal inflammation. PMID:16574988

  17. Enhanced removal of detergent and recovery of enzymatic activity following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: UUse of casein in gel wash buffer

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, B.R.; Green, D.M. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA))

    1990-08-15

    The inclusion of 1% casein or bovine serum albumin in buffer used to reactivate enzymes subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide electrophoresis resulted in accelerated removal of SDS and restoration of nuclease and beta-galactosidase enzyme activities. Nuclease and beta-galactosidase activities which are absent from gels after longer wash procedures are detectable with this technique. Enzyme activity in gels prepared with SDS which contained inhibitory contaminants was partially restored by the casein wash procedure. The threshold of detection of two-dimensionally separated deoxyribonuclease I using the casein wash procedure was 1 picogram.

  18. Isolation and characterization of sulfite oxidase from Alligator mississipiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, A.; Neame, P.J.; Barber, M.J. (Univ. of South Florida College, Tampa (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Sulfite oxidase has been isolated from fresh alligator liver using ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionation, DEAE chromatography and FPLC on Mono Q. The enzyme is dimeric and exhibits a subunit M. Wt. of approximately 58 kDa, larger than that of chicken SO. EPR spectroscopy of the partially-reduced enzyme revealed a single Mo(V) species while visible spectroscopy revealed the presence of cytochrome b{sub 557}. Maximal activities were obtained at pH 8 and 9, respectively. K{sub m}'s for SO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}, cyt. c and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3 {minus}} were 23.5 uM, 2.9 uM and 8.0 uM, respectively. Sequencing of peptides obtained by endoprotease K digestion indicated regions of extensive sequence similarity to chicken and rat enzymes in both heme and Mo-pterin domains. Regions of sequence dissimilarity were also found.

  19. Applications of pulsed EPR spectroscopy to structural studies of sulfite oxidizing enzymes?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eric L.; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Raitsimring, Arnold M.; Enemark, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), including sulfite oxidase (SO) and bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), catalyze the oxidation of sulfite (SO32?) to sulfate (SO42?). The active sites of SO and SDH are nearly identical, each having a 5-coordinate, pseudo-square-pyramidal Mo with an axial oxo ligand and three equatorial sulfur donor atoms. One sulfur is from a conserved Cys residue and two are from a pyranopterindithiolene (molybdopterin, MPT) cofactor. The identity of the remaining equatorial ligand, which is solvent-exposed, varies during the catalytic cycle. Numerous in vitro studies, particularly those involving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the Mo(V) states of SOEs, have shown that the identity and orientation of this exchangeable equatorial ligand depends on the buffer pH, the presence and concentration of certain anions in the buffer, as well as specific point mutations in the protein. Until very recently, however, EPR has not been a practical technique for directly probing specific structures in which the solvent-exposed, exchangeable ligand is an O, OH?, H2O, SO32?, or SO42? group, because the primary O and S isotopes (16O and 32S) are magnetically silent (I = 0). This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of isotopic labeling, variable-frequency high resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, synthetic model compounds, and DFT calculations to elucidate the roles of various anions, point mutations, and steric factors in the formation, stabilization, and transformation of SOE active site structures. PMID:23440026

  20. Applications of pulsed EPR spectroscopy to structural studies of sulfite oxidizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric L.; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Raitsimring, Arnold; Enemark, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), including sulfite oxidase (SO) and bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), catalyze the oxidation of sulfite (SO32?) to sulfate (SO42?). The active sites of SO and SDH are nearly identical, each having a 5-coordinate, pseudo-square-pyramidal Mo with an axial oxo ligand and three equatorial sulfur donor atoms. One sulfur is from a conserved Cys residue and two are from a pyranopterindithiolene (molybdopterin, MPT) cofactor. The identity of the remaining equatorial ligand, which is solvent-exposed, varies during the catalytic cycle. Numerous in vitro studies, particularly those involving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the Mo(V) states of SOEs, have shown that the identity and orientation of this exchangeable equatorial ligand depends on the buffer pH, the presence and concentration of certain anions in the buffer, as well as specific point mutations in the protein. Until very recently, however, EPR has not been a practical technique for directly probing specific structures in which the solvent-exposed, exchangeable ligand is an O, OH?, H2O, SO32?, or SO42? group, because the primary O and S isotopes (16O and 32S) are magnetically silent (I = 0). This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of isotopic labeling, variable-frequency high resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, synthetic model compounds, and DFT calculations to elucidate the roles of various anions, point mutations, and steric factors in the formation, stabilization, and transformation of SOE active site structures.

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of SLC26A11, a sodium-independent sulfate transporter from high endothelial venules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Baptiste Vincourt; Denis Jullien; Francois Amalric; Jean-Philippe Girard

    2003-01-01

    Lymphocyte emigration from the blood into most secondary lymphoid organs and chronically inflamed tissues occurs at the level of high endothelial venules (HEV). A unique characteristic of HEV endothelial cells (HEVEC) is their capacity to incorporate large amounts of sulfate into sialomucin-type counter-receptors for the lymphocyte homing receptor L-selectin. We have previously shown that sulfate uptake into HEVEC is mediated

  2. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (P<0.05; 0.70 log CFU/g) of Salmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (P<0.05) psychrotrophic growth. SDLA patties had more purge (P<0.05) and lower (P<0.05) subjective color scores. There were not large differences in sensory characteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05). PMID:23639886

  3. Effect of sulfite on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oktay Hasan Ozturk; Suleyman Oktar; Mehmet Aydin; Vural Kucukatay

    2010-01-01

    Sulfite and related chemical such as sulfite salts and sulfur dioxide has been used as a preservative in food and drugs. This\\u000a molecule has also been generated from the catabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite is a very reactive and potentially\\u000a toxic molecule and has to be detoxified by the enzyme sulfite oxidase (SOX). The aim of this study was

  4. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  5. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    PubMed

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-01

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules. PMID:16262297

  6. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, M; Schuster, B; Schellenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present in many pharmaceutical products and are one of many excipients and additives that have been reported to cause severe adverse reactions. The provided list should be a useful aid for health care practitioners when prescribing pharmaceutical products for sulfite-sensitive patients. PMID:1483237

  7. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

  8. VOLATILE COMPONENT RECOVERY FROM SULFITE EVAPORATOR CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is on the operation and modification of a demonstration unit to remove sulfur dioxide, methanol, furfural, and acetic acid from its sulfite evaporator condensate. This unit consisted of a steam stripper, vent tank SO2 recovery, activated carbon adsorption columns, and ...

  9. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate and Pluronic F127 on the electrophoretic separation of protein and polypeptide test mixtures at acid pH.

    PubMed

    Miksík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Forgács, Esther; Cserháti, Tibor; Deyl, Zdenek

    2002-06-01

    Using a test mixture consisting of standard proteins (cytochrome c, chymotrypsinogen A, hen egg albumin, bovine serum albumin, aldolase, catalase and ferritin) and synthetic polypeptides (polylysine, polyaspartic, polyglutamic acid and polyproline) it was revealed that using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as background electrolyte modifier at acid pH (2.5) allows selective separation of highly positively charged polypeptides (polylysine) provided that their relative molecular mass is sufficiently low (3300 Da). The altered elution sequence of standard proteins as compared to a separation done without SDS may help their identification. Addition of Pluronic F127 offers clear-cut separations of standard proteins up to a relative molecular mass of 5 x 10(4) Da and allows to reveal protein/polypeptide microheterogeneity where applicable. None of the systems tested is suitable for the separation of acidic polypeptides and polyproline. PMID:12116132

  10. Comparative In Vitro Sensitivities of Human Immune Cell Lines, Vaginal and Cervical Epithelial Cell Lines, and Primary Cells to Candidate Microbicides Nonoxynol 9, C31G, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred C. Krebs; Shendra R. Miller; Bradley J. Catalone; Raina Fichorova; Deborah Anderson; Daniel Malamud; Mary K. Howett; Brian Wigdahl

    2002-01-01

    In experiments to assess the in vitro impact of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol 9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human immune and epithelial cell viability, cell lines and primary cell populations of lymphocytic and monocytic origin were generally shown to be equally sensitive to exposures ranging from 10 min to 48 h. However, U-937 cells were more

  11. pH at the micellar interface: Synthesis of pH probes derived from salicylic acid, acid–base dissociation in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles, and Poisson–Boltzmann simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Souza; D. Zanette; A. E. Kawanami; L. de Rezende; H. M. Ishiki; A. T. do Amaral; H. Chaimovich; A. Agostinho-Neto; I. M. Cuccovia

    2006-01-01

    The study of the H+ concentration at the micellar interface is a convenient system for modeling the distribution of H+ at interfaces. We have synthesized salicylic acid derivatives to analyze the proton dissociation of both the carboxylic and phenol groups of the probes, determining spectrophotometrically the apparent pKa's (pKap) in sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, micelles with and without added salt.

  12. ROS, Hsp27, and IKK? Mediate Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) Activation of I?Ba, NF?B, and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is a sulfated polysaccharide that has been very widely used to induce inflammation in experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease in which the effects of pharmacologic and biologic therapies are tested. However, the precise mechanisms by which DSS induces inflammation have not been elucidated. Methods DSS-induced increases in phospho-I?B?, nuclear NF?B (p65), and IL-8 secretion in human colonic epithelial cells in tissue culture are attributable to a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced pathway of inflammation, and do not require TLR4, MyD88, or Bcl10, which are associated with the innate immune pathway of NF?B-IL-8 activation. Results DSS-induced increases were inhibited by the ROS scavengers Tempol and Tiron, were associated with decreased phosphorylation of MAPK12 (p38?), MAPK 13 (p38?), and Hsp27, and required the I?B kinase (IKK) signalosome component IKK?. In ex vivo colonic tissue from TLR4-deficient mice, or following knockdown of MyD88 or Bcl10 or exposure to an IRAK 1/4 inhibitor, DSS effects were not suppressed. Data demonstrated that DSS activates I?B?, NF?B, and IL-8 through an ROS-Hsp27-IKK?-mediated pathway, and not through an innate immune cascade. Conclusions These results suggest that DSS models of inflammation may not be optimal for evaluation of interventions that involve mechanisms of innate immunity. PMID:19085995

  13. Pattern formation in the thiourea-iodate-sulfite system: Spatial bistability, waves, and stationary patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Judit; Szalai, István; De Kepper, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    We present a detailed study of the reaction-diffusion patterns observed in the thiourea-iodate-sulfite (TuIS) reaction, operated in open one-side-fed reactors. Besides spatial bistability and spatio-temporal oscillatory dynamics, this proton autoactivated reaction shows stationary patterns, as a result of two back-to-back Turing bifurcations, in the presence of a low-mobility proton binding agent (sodium polyacrylate). This is the third aqueous solution system to produce stationary patterns and the second to do this through a Turing bifurcation. The stationary pattern forming capacities of the reaction are explored through a systematic design method, which is applicable to other bistable and oscillatory reactions. The spatio-temporal dynamics of this reaction is compared with that of the previous ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite mixed Landolt system.

  14. A critical evaluation of fasted state simulating gastric fluid (FaSSGF) that contains sodium lauryl sulfate and proposal of a modified recipe.

    PubMed

    Aburub, Aktham; Risley, Donald S; Mishra, Dinesh

    2008-01-22

    The aim of this work is to evaluate one of the most commonly used fasted state simulating gastric fluids (FaSSGFs), which contains sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (FaSSGF(SLS)), and propose a more appropriate surfactant concentration. Surface tension studies clearly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SLS in the relevant media (a media whose pH and sodium chloride concentration are representative of physiological conditions) is significantly lower (p<0.05) than 8.67 mM, which is the SLS concentration in FaSSGF(SLS). The CMC of SLS in the relevant media was determined to be 1.75 mM. Based on this a modified recipe is proposed in which the concentration of SLS is sufficient to achieve a surface tension similar to that in vivo without causing artificial micellar solubilization. Solubility, intrinsic dissolution, and GastroPlus modeling studies are presented to support and give rationale for the modified recipe. In addition, a comparison between the modified recipe and other FaSSGFs reported in the literature is made. PMID:17656053

  15. Degradation of yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings by vanadium pentoxide, phosphorous pentoxide, and sodium sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabhakar Mohan; Biao Yuan; Travis Patterson; Vimal H. Desai; Yongho H. Sohn

    2007-01-01

    The presence of vanadium, phosphorus, and sodium impurities in petcoke and coal\\/petcoke blends used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants warrants a clear understanding of high-temperature material degradation for the development of fuel-flexible gas turbines. In this study, degradation reactions of free-standing air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in contact with VO, PO, and NaSO were investigated at temperatures

  16. Differential sensitivity of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) to sulfite: I. Carbon assimilation and frond replication rate as factors influencing sulfite phytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, B.K.; Noble, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The thiol content and hydrogen sulfide emission responses of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) differentially sensitive to sulfite enrichment were studied, at two levels of irradiance. The objectives were to examine the relationship of selected parameters of sulfite metabolism to sulfite sensitivity, and the role of light level on modifying sulfite metabolic responses and duckweed sulfite sensitivity. Under low light, thiol contents were increased 30 to 40% by sulfite in all three duckweeds examined. Hydrogen sulfide was emitted by all three species, and emission rates were up to four times higher in the sulfite tolerant duckweed Lemna valdiviana. Under high light, sulfite increased thiol contents by an average of 40% in L. valdiviana and Spirodela oligorhiza, but only 20% in Lemna gibba. The greater light enhancement of thiol content exhibited by L. valdiviana and S. oligorhiza may be indicative of larger or more numerous sulfur sinks. Hydrogen sulfide emission rates were also enhanced under high light, and L. gibba exhibited a 17% increase relative to its low light rate. In comparison, L. valdiviana and S. oligorhiza exhibited 55% and 60% increases, respectively. The ability to form elevated internal thiols and hydrogen sulfide were found to be important to sulfite tolerance in duckweeds. Enhancement of both processes under high light may contribute to increased tolerance of sulfite in L. gibba and S. oligorhiza. It is hypothesized that thiol production and hydrogen sulfide emission are important sulfite detoxification processes in duckweeds, and enhancement of sulfite detoxification is fundamental to the modification of duckweed sulfite sensitivity by the photoenvironment. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Carbon Monoxide-Reacting Pigment from Desulfotomaculum nigrificans and Its Possible Relevance to Sulfite Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Trudinger, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    The separation of an autoxidizable brown pigment, P582, from Desulfotomaculum nigrificans is described. It reacted with Na2S2O4 and was characterized by absorption maxima in the oxidized state at 392, 582, and 700 nm. In the presence of Na2S2O4, P582 formed complexes with CO and, under alkaline conditions, pyridine. There was no reaction with cyanide. The molecular weight of P582 was approximately 145,000, and the purest preparations contained Fe, Zn, and acid-labile sulfide but not Cu, Mo, or Mn. Preparations of P582 catalyzed the reduced methyl viologen (MVH)-linked reduction of sulfite, hydroxylamine, and nitrite but not of sulfate, thiosulfate, or nitrate. Reduced pyridine nucleotides did not substitute for MVH. A major product of the MVH-sulfite reaction was sulfide. CO partially inhibited the enzymatic activities. Sulfite, hydroxylamine, and nitrite and CO caused changes in the spectrum of Na2S2O4-reduced P582. Fe2+-chelating reagents reacted with part of the Fe of P582 and caused partial losses of labile sulfide and enzymatic activity. The spectral and CO-reacting properties of P582 were, however, unaffected by chelating agents. The reaction between P582 and chelating agents was stimulated by reducing agents. PMID:5473884

  18. Stable isotope studies of vent fluids and chimney minerals, southern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Sodium metasomatism and seawater sulfate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks W.C. III; Seyfried W.E. Jr.

    1987-10-10

    Sulfur isotope values (delta/sup 34/S) or H/sub 2/S in vent fluids from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal sites range from 4.0 to 7.4% and are variably /sup 34/S-enriched with respect to coexisting inner wall chimney sulfides. Chimney sulfides range from 1.6 to 5.7%. The chimneys consist of Fe-sphalerite zoned to inner zinc sulfide and chalcopyrite ( +- isocubanite)-pyrrhotite lining channels. Sulfide from inner walls of type A chimneys have the lightest delta/sup 34/S values. Type B chimneys (porous, unzoned, low-Fe-sphalerite) have the isotopically heaviest chimney sulfides and occur at vent sites distal to the along-axis shallow point of the ridge crest, hence distal to the magma chamber. These variations are largely ascribed to sulfate reduction by ferrous iron in the hydrothermal fluid in chimneys of substrate mounds, probably due to transitory entrainment of ambient sulfate-bearing seawater. The delta/sup 18/O values of end-member hydrothermal fluids range from 0.6 to 0.8%, significantly lower than the delta/sup 18/O values at 21 /sup 0/N vent fluids. The deltaD values of the fluid samples range from -2.5 to 0.5%. Isotopic differences from the 21 /sup 0/N fluids may be due to slightly higher water/rock ratios, approximately 1.0, in the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal system. Admixture of a small amount of residual brine from an earlier phase separation even may have contributed water with low deltaD values.

  19. Applications of pulsed EPR spectroscopy to structural studies of sulfite oxidizing enzymes().

    PubMed

    Klein, Eric L; Astashkin, Andrei V; Raitsimring, Arnold M; Enemark, John H

    2013-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), including sulfite oxidase (SO) and bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), catalyze the oxidation of sulfite (SO(3) (2-)) to sulfate (SO(4) (2-)). The active sites of SO and SDH are nearly identical, each having a 5-coordinate, pseudo-square-pyramidal Mo with an axial oxo ligand and three equatorial sulfur donor atoms. One sulfur is from a conserved Cys residue and two are from a pyranopterindithiolene (molybdopterin, MPT) cofactor. The identity of the remaining equatorial ligand, which is solvent-exposed, varies during the catalytic cycle. Numerous in vitro studies, particularly those involving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the Mo(V) states of SOEs, have shown that the identity and orientation of this exchangeable equatorial ligand depends on the buffer pH, the presence and concentration of certain anions in the buffer, as well as specific point mutations in the protein. Until very recently, however, EPR has not been a practical technique for directly probing specific structures in which the solvent-exposed, exchangeable ligand is an O, OH(-), H(2)O, SO(3) (2-), or SO(4) (2-) group, because the primary O and S isotopes ((16)O and (32)S) are magnetically silent (I = 0). This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of isotopic labeling, variable-frequency high resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, synthetic model compounds, and DFT calculations to elucidate the roles of various anions, point mutations, and steric factors in the formation, stabilization, and transformation of SOE active site structures. PMID:23440026

  20. Conservation of the genes for dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Archaeoglobus fulgidus allows their detection by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Karkhoff-Schweizer, R R; Huber, D P; Voordouw, G

    1995-01-01

    The structural genes for dissimilatory sulfite reductase (desulfoviridin) from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hilden-borough were cloned as a 7.2-kbp SacII DNA fragment. Nucleotide sequencing indicated the presence of a third gene, encoding a protein of only 78 amino acids, immediately downstream from the genes for the alpha and beta subunits (dsvA and dsvB). We designated this protein DsvD and the gene encoding it the dsvD gene. The alpha- and beta-subunit sequences are highly homologous to those of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, a thermophilic archaeal sulfate reducer, which grows optimally at 83 degrees C. A gene with significant homology to dsvD was also found immediately downstream from the dsrAB genes of A. fulgidus. The remarkable conservation of gene arrangement and sequence across domain (bacterial versus archaeal) and physical (mesophilic versus thermophilic) boundaries indicates an essential role for DsvD in dissimilatory sulfite reduction and allowed the construction of conserved deoxyoligonucleotide primers for detection of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes in the environment. PMID:7887608

  1. Poly(amidoamine) and poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers show distinct binding behaviors with sodium dodecyl sulfate: insights from SAXS and NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianfu; Shao, Naimin; Liu, Yuntao; Hu, Jingjing; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Hongli; Chen, Dongfeng; Cheng, Yiyun

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the interactions of generation 3 (G3) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) and G3 poly(propylenimine) (PPI) dendrimers with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution. Size and structure of the dendrimer-SDS aggregates as a function of SDS/dendrimer molar ratio were revealed by SAXS and NMR. G3 PAMAM has a relatively open and dense-core structure, while G3 PPI with the same number of surface amine groups possesses a compact and uniform structure. Upon addition of SDS, much more SDS monomers were encapsulated in the interior of PPI rather than in PAMAM. More significant size increase in PAMAM-SDS aggregate is observed at low SDS concentrations, due to the binding of SDS on PAMAM surface and further assembly into larger supramolecular structures. Both noncooperative and cooperative binding of SDS on G3 PPI surface are observed, while only noncooperative binding is proposed on G3 PAMAM, due to its open surface and large surface group distance. The size of the PPI-SDS complex is larger than that of PAMAM-SDS at higher SDS concentrations. Within the investigated SDS concentrations, SDS exhibits much stronger interactions with G3 PPI than with G3 PAMAM. These results provide new insights into dendrimer-surfactant interactions and explain why PPI is much more cytotoxic than PAMAM. PMID:24606033

  2. Petal-shaped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/sodium dodecyl sulfate-graphene oxide intercalation composites for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Fu, Dongying; Chang, Yunzhen; Xiao, Yaoming; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2014-12-01

    A facile and one-step electrochemical codeposition method is introduced for incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The as-prepared PEDOT/SDS-GO composites are characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that PEDOT/SDS-GO composites possessing a unique petal-shaped morphology have been prepared successfully and exhibit an intercalated microstructure. With the purpose of electrochemical energy storage, the properties of electrochemical capacitance for composites have also been investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. The electrochemical test results manifest the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites have superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability, and a high areal capacitance of 79.6 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 cyclic voltammetry scan. Furthermore, the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites exhibit more superior capacitive performance than that of PEDOT/SDS, indicating the incorporation of GO into the composites effectively boosts the capacitive performance of PEDOT-based supercapacitor electrodes. We consider that this research further extends the application of GO and the composites prepared can be developed as the candidate for the fabrication of low-cost, high-performance supercapacitors for energy storage.

  3. Oral administration of the anti-proliferative substance taurolidine has no impact on dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Sebastian; Osseili, Hayssam; Daigeler, Adrien; Kersting, Sabine; Sülberg, Dominique; Mittelkötter, Ulrich; Herdegen, Thomas; Uhl, Waldemar; Müller, Annette M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: New chemopreventive strategies for ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and cancer have to be evaluated. Taurolidine (TRD) has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-neoplastic properties with almost absent toxicity. The aim of the study was to determine whether TRD decreases dysplasia in the well-characterized Dextran Sulfate Sodium – Azoxymethane (DSS-AOM) animal model for UC-associated carcinogenesis. Material and Methods: The DSS-AOM model of carcinogenesis was induced in female inbred C57BL/6 mice. Half of the mice were treated with TRD, the other served as control. After 100 days macroscopic, histological and immunhistochemical (?-Catenin, E-Cadherin, SOX9, Ki-67, Cyclin-D1) examination of the colon was performed. Results: Incidence, multiplicity, grading and growth pattern of adenomas did not differ significantly between TRD and control group. In all animals, inflammatory changes were absent. Immunhistochemistry revealed increased expression of Ki-67, ?-catenin, SOX9 and Cyclin-D1 in adenomas compared to normal mucosa – without significant difference between TRD and control treatment. Conclusion: Oral administration of TRD has no impact on DSS-induced colitis-associated carcinogenesis. However, SOX9 and Cyclin-D1 representing key members of the Wnt pathway have not yet been described in the DSS-AOM model of carcinogenesis – underlining the importance of this oncogenic pathway in this setting. PMID:20442801

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for proteolytically inactivated antithrombin-III: use of sodium dodecyl sulfate to eliminate signal due to intact antithrombin-III.

    PubMed

    Esmon, P C; Yee, E

    1992-05-01

    Antithrombin III (AT-III) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that can be catalytically inactivated by human neutrophil elastase (HNE) without inhibiting HNE activity. As with catalytic inactivation of most serpins, the cleaved form of the inhibitor is difficult to measure in the presence of active inhibitor. One major difference between the cleaved and intact forms of AT-III is that the cleaved form adopts a more stable conformation. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), we were able to devise an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) capable of detecting cleaved AT-III in the presence of intact AT-III. It seems likely that the SDS alters the intact AT-III so that it is not detected in the ELISA. As little as 5 micrograms/ml HNE-cleaved AT-III could be detected when spiked into human plasma; HNE-cleaved AT-III spiked into human plasma at different levels was recovered as expected. Thrombin-cleaved AT-III was also detected using this ELISA. The generation of cleaved AT-III in human plasma by HNE in the presence of heparin could be monitored as well. The cleaved AT-III ELISA is a novel, yet simple way to measure proteolytically inactivated AT-III in the presence of intact AT-III and should be useful for studying the role of proteolytic inactivation of serpins such as AT-III in vivo. PMID:1519763

  5. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on stress response in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis): regulatory volume decrease (Rvd) and modulation of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Messina, Concetta Maria; Faggio, Caterina; Laudicella, Vincenzo Alessandro; Sanfilippo, Marilena; Trischitta, Francesca; Santulli, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    In this study the effects of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are assessed on the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), exposed for 18 days at a concentration ranging from 0.1 mg/l to 1 mg/l. The effects are monitored using biomarkers related to stress response, such as regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and to oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endogenous antioxidant systems and Hsp70 levels. The results demonstrate that cells from the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis, exposed to SDS were not able to perform the RVD owing to osmotic stress. Further, SDS causes oxidative stress in treated organisms, as demonstrated by the increased ROS production, in comparison to the controls (p<0.05). Consequently, two enzymes involved in ROS scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) have higher activities and the proportion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) is higher in hepatopancreas and mantle of treated animals, compared to untreated animals (p<0.05). Furthermore Hsp70 demonstrates an up-regulation in all the analyzed tissues of exposed animals, attesting the stress status induced by the surfactant with respect to the unexposed animals. The results highlight that SDS, under the tested concentrations, exerts a toxic effect in mussels in which the disruption of the osmotic balance follows the induction of oxidative stress. PMID:25456223

  6. Interaction of polymer and surfactant at the air-water interface: poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Moglianetti, Mauro; Li, Peixun; Malet, Fred L G; Armes, Steven P; Thomas, Robert K; Titmuss, Simon

    2008-11-18

    The interactions between the weak polyelectrolyte, poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) or PDMAEMA, and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at the air-water interface have been investigated at pH = 3 and 9 using a combination of neutron reflectivity and surface tension measurements. By using deuterated PDMAEMA in combination with h-SDS and d-SDS, we have been able to directly determine the distribution of both the polymer and the surfactant at the air-water interface. At pH = 3, the polyelectrolyte is positively charged while at pH = 9 it is essentially uncharged. The enhancement in the adsorption of SDS at low coverage suggests that surface active polymer surfactant complexes are forming and adsorbing at the interface. This leads to close to monolayer adsorption of SDS, suggesting that it is surfactant monomers that are complexing with polymers that are in extended conformations parallel to the surface. As the concentration of SDS in the mixtures changes so does the surfactant content of the complexes, which affects the surface activity and hence the coverage of the complexes. Multilayer structures are formed at SDS concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM, for pH = 3 and 9, respectively. PMID:18925760

  7. Temperature-dependent phase transition and desorption free energy of sodium dodecyl sulfate at the water/vapor interface: approaches from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Xiandong; Hou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Youyi; Zhou, Huiqun

    2014-09-01

    Adsorption of surfactants at the water/vapor interface depends upon their chemical potential at the interface, which is generally temperature-dependent. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to reveal temperature influences on the microstructure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecule adsorption layer. At room temperature, SDS molecules aggregate at the interface, being in a liquid-expanded phase, whereas they tend to spread out and probably transit to a gaseous phase as the temperature increases to above 318 K. This phase transition has been confirmed by the temperature-dependent changes in two-dimensional array, tilt angles, and immersion depths to the aqueous phase of SDS molecules. The aggregation of SDS molecules accompanies with larger immersion depths, more coordination of Na(+) ions, and less coordination of water. Desorption free energy profiles show that higher desorption free energy appears for SDS molecules at the aggregate state at low temperatures, but no energy barrier is observed. The shapes of desorption free energy profiles depend upon the distribution of SDS at the interface, which, in turn, is related to the phase state of SDS. Our study sheds light on the development of adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics theories. PMID:25127193

  8. Comparison of primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes with immortalized cell lines regarding their sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate in a neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Olschläger, Veronika; Schrader, Andreas; Hockertz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Cell lines present a valuable tool for in vitro assessment of skin damage caused by application of cosmeticals or pharmaceuticals. They form a reproducible test system under controllable test conditions and, in many cases, can be used as alternatives to animal testing in order to assess the compatibility of drugs or cosmetics and human skin. Yet, it can not necessarily be assumed that the behavior of cultured cells, when treated with different substances, is exactly consistent with the behavior of cells being part of a live organism. Becoming immortal, cells exhibit changes in genotype and/or phenotype, possibly resulting in modified reactions to external influences. Therefore, to obtain results close to in vivo studies, it seems apparent to use primary cells for testing that have not yet undergone any modifications. To compare the properties of primary fibroblasts (Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts, NHDF) and primary keratinocytes (Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes, NHEK) with those of immortal cell lines (3T3 (ACC 173) Swiss albino mouse fibroblasts and HaCaT (human, adult, low calcium, high temperature, human adult skin keratinocytes) cells), their sensitivities in cytotoxicity assays have been assessed. While both fibroblast cell cultures showed similar sensitivities towards sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), primary keratinocytes died at SDS concentrations about three times lower than the immortal HaCaT cells. PMID:19402346

  9. Mice Deficient in the CXCR2 Ligand, CXCL1 (KC/GRO-?), Exhibit Increased Susceptibility to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shea-Donohue, Terez; Thomas, Karen; Cody, M. Joshua; Zhao, Aiping; DeTolla, Louis J.; Kopydlowski, Karen M.; Futaka, Masayuki; Lira, Sergio A.; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2008-01-01

    The role of TLRs and MyD88 in the maintenance of gut integrity in response to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was demonstrated recently and led to the conclusion that our innate immune response to luminal commensal flora provides necessary signals that facilitate epithelial repair and permit a return to homeostasis after colonic injury. In this report, we demonstrate that a deficit in a single neutrophil chemokine, CXCL1/KC, also results in a greatly exaggerated response to DSS. Mice with a targeted mutation in the gene that encodes this chemokine responded to 2.5% DSS in their drinking water with significant weight loss, bloody stools, and a complete loss of gut integrity in the proximal and distal colon, accompanied by a predominantly mononuclear infiltrate, with few detectable neutrophils. In contrast, CXCL1/KC?/? and wild-type C57BL/6J mice provided water only showed no signs of inflammation and, at this concentration of DSS, wild-type mice administered DSS showed only minimal histopathology, but significantly more infiltrating neutrophils. This finding implies that neutrophil infiltration induced by CXCL1/KC is an essential component of the intestinal response to inflammatory stimuli as well as the ability of the intestine to restore mucosal barrier integrity. PMID:18713728

  10. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  11. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant complexes of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-peptide with the N-terminal, receptor binding domain of apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed Central

    Golabek, A A; Kida, E; Walus, M; Perez, C; Wisniewski, T; Soto, C

    2000-01-01

    Immunocytochemical, biochemical, and molecular genetic studies indicate that apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in the process of amyloidogenesis-beta. However, there is still no clear translation of these data into the pathogenesis of amyloidosis-beta. Previous studies demonstrated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-resistant binding of apoE to the main component of Alzheimer's amyloid-A beta and modulation of A beta aggregation by apoE in vitro. To more closely characterize apoE-A beta interactions, we have studied the binding of thrombolytic fragments of apoE3 to A beta in vitro by using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and intrinsic fluorescence quenching. Here we demonstrate that SDS-resistant binding of A beta is mediated by the receptor-binding, N-terminal domain of apoE3. Under native conditions, both the N- and C-terminal domains of apoE3 bind A beta; however, the former does so with higher affinity. We propose that the modulation of A beta binding to the N-terminal domain of apoE is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of amyloidosis-beta. PMID:10920030

  12. Inhibitory effects of resistant starch (RS3) as a carrier for stachyose on dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, YU; ZHAO, XIN; SONG, JIA-LE; ZHU, KAI; SUN, PENG; LI, GUI-JIE; WANG, RUI; KAN, JIAN-QUAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistant starch 3 (RS3) as a carrier for stachyose on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. RS3 microspheres carrying stachyose (RS3 + stachyose) were produced and evaluated as a potentially improved colitis therapy for this study. The body weights of the mice treated with RS3 + stachyose were higher compared with those of DSS-treated control mice. RS3 + stachyose reduced the levels of the serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? to a greater extent compared with the same concentration of stachyose combined with ordinary starch (stachyose + starch). Histopathological examination of sections of colon tissues showed that the RS3 + stachyose group recovered well from colitis; however, the tissue sections of the stachyose + starch group presented necrosis to a more serious degree. These results suggest that stachyose with an RS3 carrier has better preventative effects on colitis than stachyose alone in mice. PMID:24223664

  13. Skin barrier disruption by sodium lauryl sulfate-exposure alters the expressions of involucrin, transglutaminase 1, profilaggrin, and kallikreins during the repair phase in human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Törmä, Hans; Lindberg, Magnus; Berne, Berit

    2008-05-01

    Detergents are skin irritants affecting keratinocytes. In this study, healthy volunteers were exposed to water (vehicle) and 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) under occlusive patch tests for 24 hours. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers and of enzymes involved in corneodesmosome degradation was examined in skin biopsies (n=8) during the repair phase (6 hours to 7 days postexposure) using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. It was found that the expression of involucrin was increased at 6 hours, but then rapidly normalized. The expression of transglutaminase 1 exhibited a twofold increase after 24 hours in the SLS-exposed skin. Profilaggrin was decreased after 6 hours. Later (4-7 days), the expression in SLS-exposed areas was >50% above than in control areas. An increased and altered immunofluorescence pattern of involucrin, transglutaminase 1, and filaggrin was also found (n=4). At 6 hours post-SLS exposure, the mRNA expression of kallikrein-7 (KLK-7) and kallikrein-5 (KLK-5) was decreased by 50 and 75%, respectively, as compared with control and water-exposed areas. Thereafter, the expression pattern of KLK-7 and KLK-5 was normalized. Changes in protein expression of KLK-5 were also found. In conclusion, SLS-induced skin barrier defects induce altered mRNA expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers and enzymes degrading corneodesmosomes. PMID:18007579

  14. Polyphenol-rich sorghum brans alter colon microbiota and impact species diversity and species richness after multiple bouts of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lauren E; Sturino, Joseph M; Carroll, Raymond J; Rooney, Lloyd W; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Turner, Nancy D

    2015-03-01

    The microbiota affects host health, and dysbiosis is involved in colitis. Sorghum bran influences butyrate concentrations during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, suggesting microbiota changes. We aimed to characterize the microbiota during colitis, and ascertain if polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets mitigate these effects. Rats (n = 80) were fed diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins), or Hi Tannin black (both) sorghum bran. Inflammation was induced three times using 3% DSS for 48 h (40 rats, 2 week separation), and the microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher in Cellulose DSS rats. Colonic injury negatively correlated with Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus, and positively correlated with Unknown/Unclassified. Post DSS#2, richness was significantly lower in Sumac and Hi Tannin black. Post DSS#3 Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus were reduced, with no Clostridium identified. Diet significantly affected Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales and Lactobacillus post DSS#2 and #3. Post DSS#3 diet significantly affected all genus, including Bacteroides and Lactobacillus, and diversity and richness increased. Sumac and Hi Tannin black DSS had significantly higher richness compared to controls. Thus, these sorghum brans may protect against alterations observed during colitis including reduced microbial diversity and richness, and dysbiosis of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. PMID:25764457

  15. Inhibitory effects of Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. on azoxymethane- and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QIANG; SUN, PENG; LI, GUIJIE; ZHU, KAI; WANG, CUN; ZHAO, XIN

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobium candidum Wall ex Lindl. was purchased for the evaluation of azoxymethane (AOM)- and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. The body weights of the AOM- and DSS-induced colon cancer control groups were lighter than those of the untreated mice. D. candidum increased the body weights of the mice compared with the control group, and reduced the levels of the serum proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-? and IFN-?, compared with the colon cancer control group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses of the apoptotic-related genes, bax, bcl-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9, were performed in the colon tissues. The high-concentration D. candidum group showed a significant increase in the mRNA and protein expression levels of bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 and decreased expression levels of bcl-2 compared with the control group. These results indicate that D. candidum Wall ex Lindl. exhibits preventive effects against colon carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:24396476

  16. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lim, Ji Ye; Min, Soo Jin; Shin, Jae-Ho; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Yuri

    2014-10-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis leaves exert anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, although it remains unclear whether these leaves can suppress inflammation-related intestinal diseases. This study hypothesized that Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) exerts a protective effect against inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Therefore, colon tissues of DSS-induced colitis mice that were treated with SQE were assayed for levels of proinflammatory markers, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and activation of nuclear factor ?B. For this purpose, mice were pretreated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage for a 2-week period. Mice then received either SQE or sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg body weight) with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days twice daily and 7 days of tap water ad libitum between DSS treatment. Treatment with SQE was found to attenuate the severity of DSS-induced colitis, as assessed by disease activity index scores, shrinkage of colon length, and histopathologic changes. SQE reduced DSS-induced proliferation in distal colon tissues. It also significantly suppressed levels of tumor necrosis factor-? in serum and colon tissues, nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, and levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases, p38, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and I?B? in colon tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that SQE supplementation can exert an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental chronic colitis. PMID:25287291

  17. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (rpore) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 – 18.5 Å, but significantly larger than rpore of native skin samples (13.6 Å). Conversely, rpore within LTRs increases significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 Å, to 276 Å, and to ? (>300Å) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60 kHz, 40 kHz, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, while the increased rpore values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming. PMID:20740667

  18. An Intertwined Evolutionary History of Methanogenic Archaea and Sulfate Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Susanti, Dwi; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F420)-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr) where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C) are homologs of F420H2 dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP), both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest), carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe4-S4] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex), with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster and an additional [Fe4-S4] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs with group I features and a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster were proposed as evolutionary intermediates. Group III is the precursor of Fsr-C. The freestanding Fsr-N homologs serve as F420H2 dehydrogenase unit of a putative novel glutamate synthase, previously described membrane-bound electron transport system in methanogens and of assimilatory type sulfite reductases in certain haloarchaea. Among archaea, only methanogens carried Dsr-LPs. They also possessed homologs of sulfate activation and reduction enzymes. This suggested a shared evolutionary history for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and Dsr-LPs could have been the source of the oldest (3.47-Gyr ago) biologically produced sulfide deposit. PMID:23028926

  19. Hippocampal neuron number loss in rats exposed to ingested sulfite.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, Ilgaz; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Kucukatay, Vural; Yonguc, Nilufer Goksin; Ozdemir, Mehmet Bulent; Murk, William

    2011-10-01

    Sulfite, which is continuously formed in the body during metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, is commonly used in preservatives. It has been shown that there are toxic effects of sulfite on many cellular components. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible toxic effects of sulfite on pyramidal neurons by counting cell numbers in CA1 and CA2-CA3 subdivisions of the rat hippocampus. For this purpose, male albino rats were divided into a control group and a sulfite group (25 mg/kg). Sulfite was administered to the animals via drinking water for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, brains were removed and neurons were estimated in total and in a known fraction of CA1 and CA2-CA3 subdivisions of the left hippocampus by using the optical fractionator method--a stereological method. Results showed that sulfite treatment caused a significant decrease in the total number of pyramidal neurons in three subdivisions of the hippocampus (CA1 and CA2-CA3) in the sulfite group compared with the control group (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney U test). It was concluded that exogenous administration of sulfite causes loss of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA2-CA3 subdivisions of the rat hippocampus. PMID:21511899

  20. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rose; S. S. Gunthe; E. Mikhailov; G. P. Frank; U. Dusek; M. O. Andreae; U. Pöschl

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, covering

  1. Effects of contact sensitizers neomycin sulfate, benzocaine and 2,4-dinitrobenzene 1-sulfonate, sodium salt on viability, membrane integrity and IL1? mRNA expression of cultured normal human keratinocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pastore; G. M. Shivji; S. Kondo; T. Kono; R. C. McKenzie; L. Segal; D. Somers; D. N. Sauder

    1995-01-01

    The toxic effect of three potential contact sensitization chemicals [the aminoglycosidic antibiotic neomycin sulfate, the local anaesthetic benzocaine and the primary sensitizer 2,4-dinitrobenzene l-sulfonate, sodium salt (DNBS)], on cultured human keratinocytes was examined. The three chemicals were compared with respect to their cytotoxic potential (determined by crystal violet staining assay), their membrane disruptive potential ([3h]arachidonic acid release assay), and their

  2. High-dose green tea polyphenols induce nephrotoxicity in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice by down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and heat-shock protein expressions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Inoue; Satoko Akiyama; Mari Maeda-Yamamoto; Atsushi Nesumi; Takuji Tanaka; Akira Murakami

    Previously, we reported that oral feeding of 1% green tea polyphenols (GTPs) aggravated the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced\\u000a colitis in mice. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of 1% GTPs in several organs from normal and DSS-exposed mice.\\u000a Sixty-two male ICR mice were initially divided into four groups. Non-treated group (group 1, n?=?15) was given standard diet and

  3. Sodium metabisulfite--a marker for cosmetic allergy?

    PubMed

    Malik, Mohsin M; Hegarty, Mary A; Bourke, John F

    2007-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman developed dermatitis of the face after she applied a cosmetic package comprising day and night creams. Patch tests were performed with the British Contact Dermatitis Society (BCDS) standard, bases + preservatives, and cosmetic series in addition to samples of both creams and the individual constituents. She had positive tests to both cosmetic creams, sodium sulfite from the manufacturer's samples (5% white soft paraffin (WSP)), and sodium metabisulfite (1% pet) in our bases + preservatives battery. Sodium sulfite is a constituent of both cosmetic creams. We assume that the positive test to sodium metabisulfite is a cross-reaction. We hypothesize that a reaction to sodium metabisulfite may be a marker for sulfite allergy in cosmetics and might account for some of the unexplained positives in previous reports. PMID:17343630

  4. Characterization of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Inflammation and Colonic Tumorigenesis in Smad3?/? Mice with Dysregulated TGF?

    PubMed Central

    Brabb, Thea; Maggio-Price, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    There are few mouse models that adequately mimic large bowel cancer in humans or the gastrointestinal inflammation which frequently precedes it. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induces colitis in many animal models and has been used in combination with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) to induce cancer in mice. Smad3?/? mice are deficient in the transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) signaling molecule, SMAD3, resulting in dysregulation of the cellular pathway most commonly affected in human colorectal cancer, and develop inflammation-associated colon cancer. Previous studies have shown a requirement for a bacterial trigger for the colitis and colon cancer phenotype in Smad3?/? mice. Studies presented here in Smad3?/? mice detail disease induction with DSS, without the use of AOM, and show a) Smad3?/? mice develop a spectrum of lesions ranging from acute and chronic colitis, crypt herniation, repair, dysplasia, adenomatous polyps, disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis, adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) and squamous metaplasia; b) the colon lesions have variable galactin-3 (Mac2) staining c) increased DSS concentration and duration of exposure leads to increased severity of colonic lesions; d) heterozygosity of SMAD3 does not confer increased susceptibility to DSS-induced disease and e) disease is partially controlled by the presence of T and B cells as Smad3?/?Rag2?/? double knock out (DKO) mice develop a more severe disease phenotype. DSS-induced disease in Smad3?/? mice may be a useful animal model to study not only inflammation-driven MAC but other human diseases such as colitis cystica profunda (CCP) and pseudomyxomatous peritonei (PMP). PMID:24244446

  5. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. But as far as we ... containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. ...

  6. The rate of sulfite oxidation in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Jiazhong Zhang; Millero, F.J. (Univ. of Miami, FL (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The oxidation of sulfite in the atmosphere has long been a subject of interest because it is important in the formation of acid rain. Unlike the most volatile sulfur compounds, such as dimethyl sulfide, the direction of the net flux for SO{sub 2} is from the atmosphere into the oceans. The magnitude of the flux from the air to the sea was calculated by LISS (1983) to be 5 {times} 10{sup 12} g a{sup {minus}1}, based on a concentration of SO{sub 2} in marine air of 0.1 {mu}g m{sup {minus}3}. Recent measurements of SO{sub 2} concentration in the remote marine air are lower than precious values (0.01 to 0.06 {mu}g m{sup {minus}3}); thus, the flux might also be an order of magnitude lower. This paper presents new studies on the rate of oxidation of sulfite in seawater as a function of temperature (15-45C), pH (4.0 - 8.5), and salinity (0.2 - 35) as well as the effect that Mn and Fe have on the rate of oxidation.

  7. Nature of electronic states and optical functions of sodium oxyanionic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, Yu. N.; Korabel'Nikov, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The band structure, the density of states, the partial electron densities, and optical functions (such as permittivity, refraction index, reflection and absorption coefficients) of sodium nitrite, nitrate, carbonate, chlorate, sulfite, perchlorate, and sulfate are calculated in a local approximation of the density-functional theory using the Troullier-Martins pseudopotentials in the basis of numerical pseudoatomic orbitals. The nature of the upper valence bands and the lower empty bands is established. It is shown that the specific features of the optical functions at energies of up to 8 eV and at E> 8 eV are due to the excitation of electrons into a localized anionic conduction band and into the bands of anion-cation states, respectively. The results are compared to experimental photoelectron spectra and reflection and absorption spectra.

  8. The impact of JNK inhibitor D-JNKI-1 in a murine model of chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    PubMed Central

    Kersting, Sabine; Behrendt, Volker; Kersting, Jonas; Reinecke, Kirstin; Hilgert, Christoph; Stricker, Ingo; Herdegen, Thomas; Janot, Monika S; Uhl, Waldemar; Chromik, Ansgar M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are involved in the activation of T cells and the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Several studies have established the relevance of the JNK pathway in inflammatory bowel diseases. The present study analyzed the therapeutic effect of D-JNKI-1, a specific JNK-inhibiting peptide, in a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of chronic colitis. Methods: DSS colitis was induced in female C57/BL6 mice by cyclic administration using different concentrations of DSS (1.0% and 1.5%). Mice in the intervention groups received subcutaneous administration of 1 ?g/kg D-JNKI-1 on days 2, 12, and 22. They were monitored daily to assess the severity of colitis, body weight, stool consistency, and the occurrence of occult blood or gross rectal bleeding using evaluation of the disease activity index. The animals were sacrificed after 30 days, and the inflamed intestine was histologically evaluated using a crypt damage score. Immunohistochemical quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was also carried out. Results: Administration of 1 ?g/kg D-JNKI-1 resulted in a significant decrease in the disease activity index (P = 0.013 for 1.0% DSS; P = 0.007 for 1.5% DSS). As a mild form of colitis was induced, histological examination did not show any distinct damage to the mucosa and crypts. However, expression of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was reduced in mice treated with D-JNKI-1 (not significant). Conclusion: Administration of D-JNKI-1 resulted in a clinical attenuation of chronic DSS colitis, and a therapeutic effect of D-JNKI-1 must therefore be assumed. The decrease in CD4+ and CD8+ cells may reflect the influence of D-JNKI-1 on T-cell activation, differentiation, and migration. PMID:23667316

  9. Arctigenin but not arctiin acts as the major effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit for attenuating colonic inflammatory response induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Yang, Yan; Dou, Yannong; Ye, Jun; Bian, Difei; Wei, Zhifeng; Tong, Bei; Kong, Lingyi; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2014-12-01

    The crude powder of the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (ALF) has previously been reported to attenuate experimental colitis in mice. But, its main effective ingredient and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. In this study, ALF was extracted with ethanol, and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Among the four fractions of ALF, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the most significant inhibition of DSS-induced colitis in mice. The comparative studies of arctigenin and arctiin (the two main ingredients of ethyl acetate fraction) indicated that arctigenin rather than arctiin could reduce the loss of body weight, disease activity index and histological damage in the colon. Arctigenin markedly recovered the loss of intestinal epithelial cells (E-cadherin-positive cells) and decreased the infiltration of neutrophils (MPO-positive cells) and macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Arctigenin could down-regulate the expressions of TNF-?, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1, MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at both protein and mRNA levels in colonic tissues. Also, it markedly decreased the MDA level, but increased SOD activity and the GSH level. Of note, the efficacy of arctigenin was comparable or even superior to that of the positive control mesalazine. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-?B, including phosphorylation of I?B? and p65, p65 translocation and DNA binding activity. In conclusion, arctigenin but not arctiin is the main active ingredient of ALF for attenuating colitis via down-regulating the activation of MAPK and NF-?B pathways. PMID:25284342

  10. A ?-Tocopherol–Rich Mixture of Tocopherols Inhibits Colon Inflammation and Carcinogenesis in Azoxymethane and Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jihyeung; Hao, Xingpei; Lee, Mao-Jung; Lambert, Joshua D.; Lu, Gang; Xiao, Hang; Newmark, Harold L.; Yang, Chung S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a ?-tocopherol–rich mixture of tocopherols (?-TmT, containing 57% ?-T, 24% ?-T, and 13% ?-T) on colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)–treated mice. In experiment 1, 6-week-old male CF-1 mice were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.), and 1 week later, 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 1 week. The mice were maintained on either a ?-TmT (0.3%)–enriched or a standard AIN93M diet, starting 1 week before the AOM injection, until the termination of experiment. In the AOM/DSS–treated mice, dietary ?-TmT treatment resulted in a significantly lower colon inflammation index (52% of the control) on day 7 and number of colon adenomas (9% of the control) on week 7. ?-TmT treatment also resulted in higher apoptotic index in adenomas, lower prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and nitrotyrosine levels in the colon, and lower prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, and 8-isoprostane levels in the plasma on week 7. Some of the decreases were observed even on day 7. In experiment 2 with AOM/DSS–treated mice sacrificed on week 21, dietary 0.17% or 0.3% ?-TmT treatment, starting 1 week before the AOM injection, significantly inhibited adenocarcinoma and adenoma formation in the colon (to 17–33% of the control). Dietary 0.3% ?-TmT that was initiated after DSS treatment also exhibited a similar inhibitory activity. The present study showed that ?-TmT effectively inhibited colon carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS–treated mice, and the inhibition may be due to the apoptosis-inducing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and reactive nitrogen species–trapping activities of tocopherols. PMID:19155443

  11. Campylobacter jejuni Disrupts Protective Toll-Like Receptor 9 Signaling in Colonic Epithelial Cells and Increases the Severity of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Jennifer R.; Feener, Troy D.; Fischer, Carrie D.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation associated with a dysregulated immune response to commensal bacteria in susceptible individuals. The relapse of IBD may occur following an infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Apical epithelial Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation by bacterial DNA is reported to maintain colonic homeostasis. We investigated whether a prior C. jejuni infection disrupts epithelial TLR9 signaling and increases the severity of disease in a model of mild dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. In a further attempt to identify mechanisms, T84 monolayers were treated with C. jejuni followed by a TLR9 agonist. Transepithelial resistance (TER) and dextran flux across confluent monolayers were monitored. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and flow cytometry were used to examine TLR9 expression. Mice colonized by C. jejuni lacked any detectable pathology; however, in response to low levels of DSS, mice previously exposed to C. jejuni exhibited significantly reduced weight gain and increased occult blood and histological damage scores. Infected mice treated with DSS also demonstrated a significant reduction in levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-25. In vitro studies indicated that apical application of a TLR9 agonist enhances intestinal epithelial barrier function and that this response is lost in C. jejuni-infected monolayers. Furthermore, infected cells secreted significantly more CXCL8 following the basolateral application of a TLR9 agonist. Surface TLR9 expression was reduced in C. jejuni-infected monolayers subsequently exposed to a TLR9 agonist. In conclusion, infection by C. jejuni disrupts TLR9-induced reinforcement of the intestinal epithelial barrier, and colonization by C. jejuni increases the severity of mild DSS colitis. PMID:22311925

  12. Deletion of Intestinal Epithelial Cell STAT3 Promotes T Lymphocyte STAT3 Activation and Chronic Colitis Following Acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Willson, Tara A.; Jurickova, Ingrid; Collins, Margaret; Denson, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) Stat3 is required for wound healing following acute Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) injury. We hypothesized that loss of IEC STAT3 would promote the development of chronic colitis following acute DSS injury. METHODS Colitis was induced in IEC-specific Stat3 deficient mice (Stat3?IEC) and littermate controls (Stat3Flx/Flx) with 4%DSS for 7 days, followed by water consumption for 21 days. Epithelial and immune mediators and severity of colitis were determined. RESULTS Survival, colon length, and histologic injury were significantly worse at day 28 in Stat3?IEC mice. IEC proliferation and apoptosis did not vary by genotype at day 14 or day 28. The colonic lamina propria frequency of pSTAT3+ cells was increased at day 28 and correlated with histologic injury in Stat3?IEC mice. The frequency of colonic F480+pSTAT3+ macrophages and CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes were increased in Stat3?IEC mice as compared to Stat3Flx/Flx controls. In Stat3?IEC mice, colonic expression of Stat3 target genes Reg3? and Reg3? which mediate epithelial restitution were significantly decreased, while expression of IL-17a, IFN?, CXCL2, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly increased and correlated with the increase in histologic severity at Day 28(p<.05). IL-17a expression also correlated with the increased lamina propria frequency of CD3+pSTAT3+ T-lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Loss of intestinal epithelial Stat3 leads to more severe chronic inflammation following acute injury which is not accounted for by a sustained defect in epithelial proliferation or apoptosis 7 or 21 days after one cycle of DSS but rather defective REG3 expression and expansion of pSTAT3+ lymphocytes and IL-17a expression. PMID:23429443

  13. On-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes using electrokinetic supercharging method with a prefilled water plug in capillary sieving electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Kang, Mingchao; Liu, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    An electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) method with a prefilled water plug at the head column of capillary was developed for on-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes in capillary sieving electrophoresis (CSE). Conventional EKS is a combination of electrokinetic injection with transient isotachophoresis (tr-ITP). The capillary is first filled with background electrolyte, then an appropriate amount of a leading electrolyte is filled and electro-injection is carried out for certain duration. After that, terminating electrolyte is filled, and tr-ITP is subsequently initiated, followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. In this work, the performance of EKS was evaluated by integrating multiple sub-methods step by step, and a water plug containing polymer was introduced before electrokinetic injection in order to further improve the concentration effect. The positive effects of the sub-methods were verified, including molecular sieving effect of polymer, field enhanced sample injection (FESI) with and without a water plug, and transient isotachophoretic electrophoresis-based FESI. It was observed that analyte discrimination usually encountered in conventional electrokinetic injection was eliminated due to the similar charge to mass ratios of SDS-protein complexes. Based on these results, a hybrid on-line preconcentration method, EKS with injecting a water plug containing polymer before sample electrokinetic injection, was proposed and used to indiscriminately preconcentrate SDS-protein complexes, which provided a sensitivity enhancement factor of more than 1000. It was very suitable for the analysis of low-abundance proteins, providing the information of their molecular mass. PMID:22233073

  14. Genetic Deletion of Klf4 in the Mouse Intestinal Epithelium Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate–induced Colitis by Modulating the NF-?B Pathway Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Amr M.; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Yang, Vincent W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in the differentiated epithelial cells lining of the intestine. Under physiological conditions, KLF4 inhibits cell proliferation. Conversely, KLF4 mediates proinflammatory signaling in macrophages and its overexpression in the esophageal epithelium activates cytokines, leading to inflammation-mediated esophageal squamous cell cancer formation in mice. Here, we tested whether KLF4 has a proinflammatory activity in experimental colitis in mice. Methods Villin-Cre;Klf4fl/fl mice with intestine-specific Klf4 deletion (Klf4?IS) and control mice with floxed Klf4 gene (Klf4fl/fl) were treated or not with 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 days to induce colitis. Additionally, WT mice were administered or not, nanoparticles loaded with scrambled or Klf4-siRNA, and concomitantly given DSS. Results Compared with DSS-treated Klf4fl/fl mice, DSS-treated Klf4?IS mice were significantly less sensitive to DSS-induced colitis. DSS treatment of Klf4fl/fl mice induced Klf4 expression in the crypt zone of the colonic epithelium. DSS-treated Klf4?IS mice had increased proliferation relative to DSS-treated control mice. DSS treatment induced NF-?B signaling pathway in Klf4fl/fl mice colon but not Klf4?IS mice. Additionally, WT mice given DSS and nanoparticle/Klf4-siRNA were less sensitive to colitis and had reduced Klf4 expression and while maintaining the proliferative response in the colonic epithelium. Conclusions Our results indicate that Klf4 is an important mediator of DSS-induced colonic inflammation by modulating NF-?B signaling pathway and could be involved in the pathogenesis and/or propagation of inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, Klf4 may represent a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24681655

  15. [Apocynin relieves inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis mice: the role of NOXs-ROS-p38MAPK pathway].

    PubMed

    Wei, Dan-Dan; Lin, Xu-Hong; Wang, Hui-Chao; Wang, Bin; Bai, Chun-Yang; Wang, Ya-Qiang; Li, Guo-En; Ren, Xue-Qun

    2015-02-25

    The study is aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of the treatment of apocynin in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) mice. 5% DSS was used to mimic the UC model, and 2% apocynin was applied to treat the UC mice. HE staining was used for histopathological evaluation. Chemiluminescence technique was used to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the rate of consumption of NADPH inhibited by DPI was detected to determine the NADPH oxidases (NOXs) activity. Western blot was applied to identify the level of p38MAPK phosphorylation, Griess reaction assay to analyze NO production, immunoenzymatic method to determine prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, real time RT-PCR and Western blot to identify the expression of iNOS and COX2, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, IFN-?, IL-1?. Rat neutrophils were separated, and then ROS production, NOXs activity, NO and PGE2 production, NOX1 and p-p38MAPK expression were detected. Compared with the UC group, apocynin decreased ROS over-production and NOXs activity (P < 0.01), reduced p38MAPK phosphorylation, inhibited NO, PGE2 and cytokines production (P < 0.01). Apocynin also decreased NOXs activity and ROS over-production (P < 0.01), inhibited p38MAPK phosphorylation and NOX1 expression, and reduced NO and PGE2 production (P < 0.01) in separated neutrophils from UC mice. Therefore, apocynin could relieve inflammation in DSS-induced UC mice through inhibiting NOXs-ROS-p38MAPK signal pathway, and neutrophils play an important role. PMID:25672629

  16. Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji-Kang; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Park, Kun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue. PMID:25191137

  17. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 2: An electrospray mass spectrometry investigation into the chemical composition of sulfited quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii and Schinopsis balansae) heartwood extract.

    PubMed

    Venter, Pieter B; Senekal, Nadine D; Amra-Jordaan, Maryam; Bonnet, Susan L; Van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2012-06-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are natural plant-derived polymers used in leather tanning, wood adhesives, water purification, and mud additives for oil drilling. Quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii and Schinopsis balansae) heartwood and mimosa (Acacia mearnsii) bark extracts are the major industrial sources of PACs. These commercial extracts are often sulfited via treatment with sodium hydrogen sulfite to reduce their viscosity and increase their solubility in water. An ESI-MS investigation into the molecular composition of sulfited (cold-water-soluble) quebracho heartwood extract indicates that sulfitation of the PACs occurs via S(N)2 attack of a sulfite ion at both C-2 and C-4 of the constituent flavan-3-ol monomer extender units. Attack at C-2 leads to the opening of the pyran ring. This releases an additional electron-donating phenolic hydroxy group on the A-ring and renders the extract more nucleophilic and suitable for the manufacturing of adhesives. Attack at C-4 leads to interflavanyl bond fission and decrease of the PAC oligomer chain length. The introduction of sulfonic acid moieties at C-2 or C-4 increases the polarity and water solubility of the hot water soluble (unsulfited) extract and transforms it into a cold-water-soluble extract. PMID:22513010

  18. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...125, “Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams Method Final Action” in “Official Methods of Analysis of the...the “Total Sulfurous Acid” procedure in the “Monier-Williams Procedure (with Modifications) for Sulfites in...

  19. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...125, “Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams Method Final Action” in “Official Methods of Analysis of the...the “Total Sulfurous Acid” procedure in the “Monier-Williams Procedure (with Modifications) for Sulfites in...

  20. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...125, “Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams Method Final Action” in “Official Methods of Analysis of the...the “Total Sulfurous Acid” procedure in the “Monier-Williams Procedure (with Modifications) for Sulfites in...

  1. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...125, “Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams Method Final Action” in “Official Methods of Analysis of the...the “Total Sulfurous Acid” procedure in the “Monier-Williams Procedure (with Modifications) for Sulfites in...

  2. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...125, “Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams Method Final Action” in “Official Methods of Analysis of the...the “Total Sulfurous Acid” procedure in the “Monier-Williams Procedure (with Modifications) for Sulfites in...

  3. Diversity and abundance of sulfate-reducing microorganisms in the sulfate and methane zones of a marine sediment, Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Julie; Loy, Alexander; Knab, Nina J; Borowski, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2007-01-01

    The Black Sea, with its highly sulfidic water column, is the largest anoxic basin in the world. Within its sediments, the mineralization of organic matter occurs essentially through sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In this study, the sulfate-reducing community was investigated in order to understand how these microorganisms are distributed relative to the chemical zonation: in the upper sulfate zone, at the sulfate-methane transition zone, and deeply within the methane zone. Total bacteria were quantified by real-time PCR of 16S rRNA genes whereas sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) were quantified by targeting their metabolic key gene, the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrA). Sulfate-reducing microorganisms were predominant in the sulfate zone but occurred also in the methane zone, relative proportion was maximal around the sulfate-methane transition, c. 30%, and equally high in the sulfate and methane zones, 5-10%. The dsrAB clone library from the sulfate-methane transition zone, showed mostly sequences affiliated with the Desulfobacteraceae. While, the dsrAB clone libraries from the upper, sulfate-rich zone and the deep, sulfate-poor zone were dominated by similar, novel deeply branching sequences which might represent Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate- and/or sulfite-reducing microorganisms. We thus hypothesize that terminal carbon mineralization in surface sediments of the Black Sea is largely due to the sulfate reduction activity of previously hidden SRM. Although these novel SRM were also abundant in sulfate-poor, methanogenic areas of the Black Sea sediment, their activities and possibly very versatile metabolic capabilities remain subject of further study. PMID:17227418

  4. Distribution, metabolism and toxicity of inhaled sulfur dioxide and endogenously generated sulfite in the respiratory tract of normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnison, A.F.; Sellakumar, A.; Currie, D.; Snyder, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the distribution, metabolism, and toxicity of sulfite in the respiratory tract and other tissues of rats exposed to endogenously generated sulfite or to inhaled sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Graded sulfite oxidase deficiency was induced in several groups of rats by manipulating their tungsten to molybdenum intake ratio. Endogenously generated sulfite and S-sulfonate compounds (a class of sulfite metabolite) accumulated in the respiratory tract tissues and in the plasma of these rats in inverse proportion to hepatic sulfite oxidase activity. In contrast to this systemic mode of exposure, sulfite exposure of normal, sulfite oxidase-competent rats via inhaled SO/sub 2/ (10 and 30 ppm) was restricted to the airways. Minor pathological changes consisting of epithelial hyperplasia, mucoid degeneration, and desquamation of epithelium were observed only in the tracheas and bronchi of the rats inhaling SO/sub 2/, even though the concentration of sulfite plus S-sulfonates in the tracheas and bronchi of these rats was considerably lower than that in the endogenously exposed rats. We attribute this histological damage to hydrogen ions stemming from inhaled SO/sub 2/, not to the sulfite/bisulfite ions that are also a product of inhaled SO/sub 2/. In addition to the lungs and trachea, all other tissues examined, except the testes, appeared to be refractory to high concentrations of endogenously generated sulfite. The testes of grossly sulfite oxidase-deficient rats were severely atrophied and devoid of spermatogenic cells.

  5. Colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent detection of sulfite in water via cationic surfactant-promoted addition of sulfite to ?,?-unsaturated ketone.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haiyu; Qian, Junhong; Sun, Qian; Bai, Hongyan; Zhang, Weibing

    2013-07-25

    Three fluorescent probes were constructed by incorporating an ?,?-unsaturated ketone to a coumarin fluorophore. The selective addition of sulfite to the alkene of TSP assisted by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelle can be visualized by dramatic color and ratiometric fluorescence changes. In CTAB-PBS system, the fluorescence intensity ratio at 465 nm and 592 nm (I465/I592) and the absorbance ratio at 390 nm and 470 nm (A390/A470) were linearly proportional to sulfite concentration in the range of 0.5-150 ?M, and the detection limit was 0.2 ?M. Good selectivity and competition of TSP1 towards sulfite over several anions and biological thiols were acquired. Probe TSP1 was used to detect sulfite in three realistic samples (mineral water, sugar and white wine) with good recovery. PMID:23845496

  6. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Venceslau, Sofia S. [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal)] [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Cort, John R.; Baker, Erin S. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Chu, Rosalie K.; Robinson, Errol W. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Dahl, Christiane [Institut für Mikrobiologie and Biotechnologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 168, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)] [Institut für Mikrobiologie and Biotechnologie, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 168, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Saraiva, Lígia M. [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal)] [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Pereira, Inês A.C., E-mail: ipereira@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •DsrC is known to interact with the dissimilatory sulfite reductase enzyme (DsrAB). •We show that, however, most cellular DsrC is not associated with DsrAB. •A gel-shift assay was developed that allows monitoring of the DsrC redox state. •The DsrC intramolecularly oxidized state could only be produced by arginine treatment. -- Abstract: Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC, which has two conserved redox-active cysteines. DsrC was initially believed to be a third subunit of DsrAB. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts to show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we developed a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor the DsrC redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. The oxidized state of DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond, which is proposed to be a key metabolic intermediate, could be successfully produced for the first time by treatment with arginine.

  7. Management of Bleeding Duodenal Varices with Combined TIPS Decompression and Trans-TIPS Transvenous Obliteration Utilizing 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E; Lippert, Allison; Schwaner, Sandra; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Sabri, Saher; Saad, Nael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Endoscopic experience in the management of duodenal varices (DVs) is limited and challenging given the anatomic constraints and limited experience. The endovascular management of DVs is not yet established and the controversy of whether to manage them by decompression with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or by transvenous obliteration is unresolved. In the literature, the 6–12 month rebleeding rate of DVs after TIPS is 21-37% and after transvenous obliteration is 13%. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of combined TIPS decompression and transvenous obliteration/sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study (case series) of two institutions, evaluating patients who underwent TIPS and/or transvenous obliteration/sclerosis for bleeding DVs (from January 2009 to June 2013). TIPS was performed according to a standard procedure using covered stents. Transvenous obliteration (variceal sclerosis) from the systemic and/or portal venous circulation was performed utilizing 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Transvenous obliteration was commonly augmented with coils and/or vascular plugs. Technical (technical success of establishing TIPS and completely obliterating the DVs) and clinical outcomes (rebleeding rate and survival) were evaluated. Results: Five patients with liver cirrhosis presenting with bleeding DVs were included in the study with all eventually (and coincidentally) receiving TIPS and transvenous obliteration. Two of the five patients underwent concomitant TIPS and transvenous obliteration in the same procedural setting. However, three patients underwent transvenous obliteration due to bleeding despite a patent TIPS that had been previously placed. The average time from TIPS placement to transvenous obliteration was 125 days (range: 3-324 days). After having both procedures, there was no rebleeding in the patients during a mean follow-up period of 22 months (6–50 months). Coils and/or metallic vascular plugs were used to augment the sclerosant obliteration in four of five patients. Conclusion: The combination of TIPS decompression and foam sclerosant transvenous obliteration appears to be effective in preventing rebleeding in this limited case series and compares favorably with the existing evidence for either approach [TIPS or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO)] alone. PMID:25558434

  8. Baicalin down regulates the expression of TLR4 and NFkB-p65 in colon tissue in mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jinshan; Guo, Cancan; Zhu, Yuzhen; Pang, Liping; Yang, Zheng; Zou, Ying; Zheng, Xuebao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Baicalin is one of flavonoid extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis, which has several functions including anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, antitumor and et al. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory of baicalin in ulcerative colitis is not clear. Methods: Mice colitis models were established by dextran sodium sulfate, Mice administrated with baicalin (100 mg/kg) and mesalazine (100 mg/kg) twice daily by intragastric injection for 7 days after colitis induced were defined as treated group. Then the mice were sacrificed and the colon samples were collected. Toll-like receptor-2, 4, 9 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Signaling proteins such as TLR4, MyD88, and NF-?B p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Cytokine’s mRNA include TNF-?, IL-6 IL-10 and IL-13 were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Modified disease activity index were used to analyse the severity of the disease by assessed of diarrhea, stool (occult) blood and body weight loss of the mice. Results: Compared with control and model groups, modified disease activity index in baicalin and mesalazine treated, mice decreased gradually. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the expression of TLR4, but not TLR2 and TLR9, in the mucosa of mice colon were decreased. Western blot analysis showed that in colitis model, the expression of NF-?B p65 and TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05), while the expression of MyD88 increased significantly compared to control group, and MyD88 expression can not be repressed by baicalin (P < 0.05). Baicalin and mesalazine treatment suppressed the expression of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-13 mRNA (P < 0.05), yet up-regulated the expression of IL-10 mRNA (P < 0.05), compared to the DDS and control groups. Conclusions: Baicalin administration by intragastric injection ameliorates the severity of colon inflammation. The possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory response by baicalin may involve in the blocking of the TLR4/NF-?B-p65/IL-6 signaling pathway. PMID:25550915

  9. Reductions of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium on beef trim by lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Dong; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh; Hung, Yen-Con; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    Studies were done at 21 °C to determine the bactericidal activity of lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) applied individually and in combination on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in pure culture and to compare the efficacy of lactic acid and levulinic acid plus SDS treatments applied by spray or immersion to inactivate STEC and Salmonella (10(7) CFU/cm2) on beef trim pieces (10 by 10 by 7.5 cm). Application of 3% lactic acid for 2 min to pure cultures was shown to reduce E. coli O26:H11, O45:H2, O111:H8, O103:H2, O121:H2, O145:NM, and O157:H7 populations by 2.1, 0.4, 0.3, 1.4, 0.3, 2.1, and 1.7 log CFU/ml, respectively. Treatment with 0.5% levulinic acid plus 0.05% SDS for <1 min reduced the populations of all STEC strains to undetectable levels (>6 log/ml reduction). Beef surface temperature was found to affect the bactericidal activity of treatment with 3 % levulinic acid plus 2% SDS (LV-SDS). Treating cold (4 °C) beef trim with LV-SDS at 21, 62, or 81 °C for 30 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.0, 1.1, or 1.4 log CFU/cm2, respectively, whereas treating beef trim at 8 °C with LV-SDS at 12 °C for 0.1, 1, 3, or 5 min reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.4, 2.4, 2.5, or 3.3 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Spray treatment of beef trim at 4 °C with 5 % lactic acid only reduced the E. coli O157:H7 population by 1.3 log CFU/cm2. Treating beef trim at 8 °C with LV-SDS for 1, 2, or 3 min reduced Salmonella Typhimurium by 2.1, 2.6, and >5.0 log CFU/cm2, respectively. Hand massaging the treated beef trim substantially reduced contamination of both pathogens, with no detectable E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium (<5 CFU/cm2) on beef trim pieces treated with LV-SDS. Reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations was enhanced, but bactericidal activity was affected by the meat temperature. PMID:24680063

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of sodium deoxycholate sulfate as a lipid drug carrier to enhance the solubility, stability and safety of an amphotericin B inhalation formulation.

    PubMed

    Gangadhar, Katkam N; Adhikari, Kajiram; Srichana, Teerapol

    2014-08-25

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is still used as the gold standard for therapy against invasive fungal diseases. However, the use of AmB through oral administration is restricted due to its low solubility and stability in aqueous solution, which is the cause for its poor bioavailability and highly varying absorption. Therefore, an attempt has been made to enhance the solubility and stability of AmB to evaluate its bioactivity and safety for use as an inhaler by using a new excipient sodium deoxycholate sulfate (SDS) with aim of using it as a drug carrier for AmB. Therefore, SDS was formulated together with AmB as a dry powder by lyophilization. The dry powder was reconstituted in distilled water and evaluated its physicochemical properties such as zeta potential, particle size and pH to compare its solubility and stability of the formulations with a SDC-AmB (i.e., known as Fungizone(®)). In vitro toxicity studies were carried out with red blood cells (RBC) and respiratory cell lines. Bioactivity was determined by a micro-dilution method against Candidaalbicans and Cryptococcusneoformans. We found that SDS-AmB had a zeta potential (-45.53 mV), which was higher than of Fungizone(®); and produced a stable particle size in solution (73.8 nm). The particle size distributions of both formulations were expressed as their mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD; 1.70 and 1.74 ?m), their fine particle fractions (FPF; 70 and 80%) and geometric standard deviations (GSD; 2.3 and 2.0), respectively. These values indicated that the sizes were appropriate for use in an inhaler. Pure AmB was found to hemolyse RBC and was very toxic to alveolar macrophage cells, as their viability rapidly declined from 93 to 56% when the AmB concentration increased from 1 to 8 ?g/mL. The SDS-AmB formulation had a significantly reduced toxicity compared to AmB. The results clearly indicated that the SDS-lipid based nanoparticles had the potential to be used as an alternative option to Fungizone(®) for an AmB formulation for inhalation. PMID:24907597

  11. Increased CYP4B1 mRNA Is Associated with the Inhibition of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Caffeic Acid in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhong; Liu, Zhiping; Henderson, Abigail; Lee, Kwangwon; Hostetter, Jesse; Wannemuehler, Michael; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases depends upon interactions between the genetics of the individual and induction of chronic mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that administration of dietary phenolics, caffeic acid and rutin, would suppress upregulation of inflammatory markers and intestinal damage in a mouse model of colitis. Colitis was induced in C3H/HeOuJ mice (8 wk old, 6 male/6 female per treatment) with 1.25% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 6 d in their drinking water. Rutin (1.0 mmol (524 mg)/kg in diet), caffeic acid (1.0 mmol (179 mg)/kg in diet), and hypoxoside extract (15 mg/d, an anticolitic phenolic control) were fed for 7 d before and during DSS treatment, as well as without DSS treatment. Body weight loss was prevented by rutin and caffeic acid during DSS treatment. Colon lengths in mice fed caffeic acid and hypoxoside during DSS treatment were similar to DSS-negative control. Food intake was improved and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was decreased with each phenolic treatment in DSS-treated mice compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic mRNA expression of IL-17 and iNOS were inhibited when IL-4 was increased by each phenolic treatment combined with DSS, whereas CYP4B1 mRNA was increased only by caffeic acid in DSS-treated mice, compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic and cecal histopathology scores of DSS-treated mice were significantly more severe (P< 0.01) than in mice fed caffeic acid before and during DSS treatment based on mucosal height, necrosis, edema, erosion, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Although both rutin and caffeic acid suppressed the expression of selected inflammatory markers, only caffeic acid protected against DSS induced colitis, in association with normalization of CYP4B1 expression. The inhibition of DSS-induced colitic pathology by caffeic acid was mediated by mechanisms in addition to anti-inflammatory effects that deserve further study. PMID:19307459

  12. Electronic and photophysical properties of adducts of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and Dawson-type sulfite polyoxomolybdates ?/?-[Mo18O54(SO3)2]4-.

    PubMed

    Walsh, James J; Long, De-Liang; Cronin, Leroy; Bond, Alan M; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2011-03-01

    The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of [Ru(bpy)(3)](2)[[Mo(18)O(54)(SO(3))(2)], where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridyl and [Mo(18)O(54)(SO(3))(2)](4-) is either the ? or ?-sulfite containing polyoxomolybdate isomer, have been measured and compared with those for the well known but structurally distinct sulfate analogue, ?-[Mo(18)O(54)(SO(4))(2)](4-). Electronic difference spectroscopy revealed the presence of new spectral features around 480 nm, although they are weak in comparison with the [Ru(bpy)(3)](2)[Mo(18)O(54)(SO(4))(2)] analogue. Surprisingly, Stern-Volmer plots of [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) luminescence quenching by the polyoxometallate revealed the presence of both static and dynamic quenching for both ? and ?-[Mo(18)O(54)(SO(3))(2)](4-). The association constant inferred for the ion cluster [Ru(bpy)(3)](2)?-[Mo(18)O(54)(SO(4))(2)] is K = 5.9 ± 0.56 × 10(6) and that for [Ru(bpy)(3)](2)?-[Mo(18)O(54)(SO(4))(2)] is K = 1.0 ± 0.09 × 10(7). Unlike the sulfate polyoxometalates, both sulfite polyoxometalate-ruthenium adducts are non-luminescent. Despite the strong electrostatic association in the adducts resonance Raman and photoelectrochemical studies suggests that unlike the sulfato polyoxometalate analogue there is no sensitization of the polyoxometalate photochemistry by the ruthenium centre for the sulfite anions. In addition, the adducts exhibit photochemical lability in acetonitrile, attributable to decomposition of the ruthenium complex, which has not been observed for other [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) -polyoxometalate adducts. These observations suggest that less electronic communication exists between the [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) and the sulfite polyoxoanions relative to their sulfate polyoxoanion counterparts, despite their structural and electronic analogy. The main distinction between sulfate and sulfite polyoxometalates lies in their reversible reduction potentials, which are more positive by approximately 100 mV for the sulfite anions. This suggests that the capacity for [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) or analogues to sensitize photoreduction in the adducts of polyoxometalates requires very sensitive redox tuning. PMID:21258724

  13. Intramolecular electron transfer in sulfite oxidizing enzymes: elucidating the role of a conserved active site arginine†

    PubMed Central

    Emesh, Safia; Rapson, Trevor D.; Rajapakshe, S. Asha; Kappler, Ulrike; Bernhardt, Paul V.; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H.

    2009-01-01

    All reported sulfite oxidizing enzymes have a conserved arginine in their active site which hydrogen bonds to the equatorial oxygen ligand on the Mo atom. Previous studies on the pathogenic R160Q mutant of human sulfite oxidase (HSO) have shown that Mo-heme intramolecular electron transfer (IET) is dramatically slowed when positive charge is lost at this position. In order to better understand the function that this conserved positively charged residue plays in IET, we have studied the equivalent uncharged substitutions, R55Q and R55M, as well as the positively charged substitution, R55K, in bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH). The heme and molybdenum cofactor (Moco) subunits are tightly associated in SDH, which makes it an ideal system for increasing the understanding of residue function in IET without the added complexity of the inter-domain movement that occurs in HSO. Unexpectedly, the uncharged SDH variants (R55Q and R55M) showed increased IET rate constants relative to the wildtype (3–4 fold) when studied by laser flash photolysis. The gain in function observed in SDHR55Q and SDHR55M suggests that the reduction of IET seen in HSOR160Q is not due to a required role of this residue in the IET pathway itself, but to the fact that it plays an important role in heme orientation during the inter-domain movement necessary for IET in HSO (as seen in viscosity experiments). The pH profiles of SDHwt, SDHR55M, and SDHR55Q show that the arginine substitution also alters the behavior of the Mo-heme IET equilibrium (Keq) and rate constants (ket) of both variants with respect to SDHWT enzyme. SDHWT has a ket that is independent of pH and a Keq that increases as pH decreases, whereas both SDHR55M and SDHR55Q have a ket that increases as pH decreases, and SDHR55M has a Keq that is pH independent. IET in the SDHR55Q variant is inhibited by sulfate in laser flash photolysis experiments, a behavior that differs from SDHWT, but which also occurs in HSO. IET in SDHR55K is slower than for SDHWT. A new analysis of the possible mechanistic pathways for sulfite oxidizing enzymes is presented and related to available kinetic and EPR results for these enzymes. PMID:19226119

  14. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction.

    PubMed

    Venceslau, Sofia S; Cort, John R; Baker, Erin S; Chu, Rosalie K; Robinson, Errol W; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Lígia M; Pereira, Inês A C

    2013-11-29

    Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC, which has two conserved redox-active cysteines. DsrC was initially believed to be a third subunit of DsrAB. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts to show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we developed a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor the DsrC redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. The oxidized state of DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond, which is proposed to be a key metabolic intermediate, could be successfully produced for the first time by treatment with arginine. PMID:24211572

  15. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Venceslau, Sofia S.; Cort, John R.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Chu, Rosalie K.; Robinson, Errol W.; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Pereira, Ines Ac

    2013-11-29

    Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC having two conserved cysteine residues. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts, a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor its redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. We show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we successfully produced DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond (oxidized state) by treatment with arginine.

  16. The Effect of Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfate and Simvastatin on Elevated Serum Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanjay

    2013-01-01

    Background. Coronary heart disease (CHD) due to atherosclerotic inflammation remains a significant threat to global health despite the success of the lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory statins. Tanshinone IIA, a potent anti-inflammatory compound derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), may be able to supplement statins by further reducing levels of circulating inflammatory markers correlated to cardiovascular risk. Here, we present the protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that will investigate the synergistic effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfate and simvastatin on reducing elevated inflammatory markers in patients with CHD. Participants: Seventy-two inpatients with confirmed CHD, elevated serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) level, and a TCM diagnosis of blood stasis syndrome will be enrolled and randomized 1?:?1 into the control or experimental group. Intervention. All subjects will receive a standard Western therapy including 20?mg simvastatin orally once per evening. Patients in the experimental group will additionally receive a daily 80?mg dose of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfate intravenously, diluted into 250?mL 0.9% NaCl solution. The treatment period will be 14 days. Outcomes. Primary outcome parameter: serum Hs-CRP level. Secondary outcome parameters: other circulating inflammatory markers (including IL-6, TNF?, VCAM-1, CD40, sCD40L, MCP-1, and MMP-9), improvement in symptoms of angina and blood stasis syndrome, and safety. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-12002361. PMID:23983803

  17. The antibrowning agent sulfite inactivates Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase through covalent modification of the copper-B site.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Gruppen, Harry; Sforza, Stefano; van Berkel, Willem J H; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2013-12-01

    Sulfite salts are widely used as antibrowning agents in food processing. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism by which sulfite prevents enzymatic browning has remained unknown. Here, we show that sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) irreversibly blocks the active site of tyrosinase from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, and that the competitive inhibitors tropolone and kojic acid protect the enzyme from NaHSO3 inactivation. LC-MS analysis of pepsin digests of NaHSO3 -treated tyrosinase revealed two peptides showing a neutral loss corresponding to the mass of SO3 upon MS(2) fragmentation. These peptides were found to be homologous peptides containing two of the three histidine residues that form the copper-B-binding site of mushroom tyrosinase isoform PPO3 and mushroom tyrosinase isoform PPO4, which were both present in the tyrosinase preparation used. Peptides showing this neutral loss behavior were not found in the untreated control. Comparison of the effects of NaHSO3 on apo-tyrosinase and holo-tyrosinase indicated that inactivation is facilitated by the active site copper ions. These data provide compelling evidence that inactivation of mushroom tyrosinase by NaHSO3 occurs through covalent modification of a single amino-acid residue, probably via addition of HSO3(-) to one of the copper-coordinating histidines in the copper-B site of the enzyme. PMID:24112416

  18. Concentration of Simple Aldehydes by Sulfite-Containing Double-Layer Hydroxide Minerals: Implications for Biopoesis

    E-print Network

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    Concentration of Simple Aldehydes by Sulfite-Containing Double-Layer Hydroxide Minerals of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors aldehydes, we investigated their adduct formation with sulfite ion bound in the interlayer of positively

  19. Linkage of High Rates of Sulfate Reduction in Yellowstone Hot Springs to Unique Sequence Types in the Dissimilatory Sulfate Respiration Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Fishbain; Jesse G. Dillon; Heidi L. Gough; David A. Stahl

    2003-01-01

    Diversity, habitat range, and activities of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes within hot springs in Yellowstone National Park were characterized using endogenous activity measurements, molecular characterization, and enrichment. Five major phylogenetic groups were identified using PCR amplification of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) from springs demonstrating significant sulfate reduction rates, including a warm, acidic (pH 2.5) stream and several nearly neutral hot

  20. Oxygen scavengers - The chemistry of sulfite under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, I.J.

    1987-03-01

    Control of oxygen corrosion is critical to the reliability of steam generator systems. Mechanical deaeration and chemical oxygen scavenging effectively reduce oxygen levels in boiler feedwater systems. This paper reviews the use of sulfites to reduce oxygen and provide corrosion control throughout the boiler feedwater circuit as well as mechanical and operational oxygen reduction methods. The mechanism of oxygen pitting, electrochemical reactions, and the basis of operation of mechanical deaeration are discussed. Estimating techniques for the amount of steam required and a deaerator troubleshooting guide are included. The chemistry of sulfites is covered in detail. Also included are a functional definition of chemical oxygen scavengers and a general discussion of their various types.

  1. Sulfate attack on alkali-activated slag concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bakharev; J. G. Sanjayan; Y.-B. Cheng

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into durability of alkali-activated slag (AAS) concrete in sulfate environment. Two tests were used to determine resistance of AAS concrete to sulfate attack. These tests involved immersion in 5% magnesium sulfate and 5% sodium sulfate solutions. The main parameters studied were evolution of compressive strength, products of degradation, and microstructural changes. After 12 months of

  2. TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE USING A MIXED REDUCTANT SOLUTION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a method for disseminating ferrous iron in the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a chromite ore processing solid waste derived from the production of ferrochrome alloy. The method utilizes ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in combinati...

  3. [Bronchial asthma caused by occupational sulfite exposure].

    PubMed

    Valero, A L; Bescos, M; Amat, P; Malet, A

    1993-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with episodes of bronchospasm requiring hospital admission after handling sodium bisulfite on the job. The patient had a 15-year history of bronchial asthma and concomitant rhinoconjunctivitis and a 6-year history of asthma induced by moderate exercise. His family history included a father with sensitization to mites. Skin tests, measurement of specific IgI, and nasal provocation were positive for domestic dust mites and grass pollen. Skin tests for sodium metasulfite at a concentration of 10 mg/ml were negative. A simple blind oral provocation test of sodium metasulfite (1, 5, 20, and 50 mg) in acid medium was positive at the 50-mg dose, eliciting bronchial and nasal symptoms, and a decrease in CVF, FEV1, and PEF of more than 20% over baseline values. The episode of bronchospasm has not recurred in the workplace since exposure to sodium bisulfite was eliminated. Oral provocation with metasulfite in acid medium is considered a good technique for confirming the diagnosis of these cases. PMID:8160569

  4. Formation of thionates by freshwater and marine strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sass; J. Steuber; M. Kroder; P. M. H. Kroneck; H. Cypionka

    1992-01-01

    The formation of thionates (thiosulfate, trithionate and tetrahionate) during the reduction of sulfate or sulfite was studied with four marine and four freshwater strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Growing cultures of two strains of the freshwater species Desulfovibrio desulfuricans formed up to 400 µM thiosulfate and 100 µM trithionate under conditions of electron donor limitation. Tetrathionate was observed in lower concentrations

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBIDE LIME TO IDENTIFY SULFITE OXIDATION INHIBITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of carbide lime--a by-product of acetylene manufacture, primarily calcium hydroxide--used in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system at Louisville Gas and Electric (LGE). The study was undertaken to: identify sulfite ion oxidation inhibitors in...

  6. Lipase-mediated synthesis of alkyl ricinoleates and 12-hydroxy stearates and evaluation of the surfactant properties of their sulfated sodium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. L. Karuna; J. R. C. Reddy; B. V. S. K. Rao; R. B. N. Prasad

    2005-01-01

    An efficient and simple lipase-mediated synthesis of alkyl ricinoleates and 12-hydroxy stearates was performed by transesterification\\u000a of methyl ricinoleate\\/12-hydroxy stearate and various alcohols in a solvent-free system without estolide formation. The reaction\\u000a conditions were optimized by varying the temperature, pressure, and dosage of lipase. Sulfates of alkyl ricinoleates\\/12-hydroxy\\u000a stearates were evaluated for surfactant properties such as surface tension, critical micelle

  7. Cement composition and sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, Natalya [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Zayed, Abla [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)]. E-mail: zayed@eng.usf.edu

    2007-04-15

    Four cements were used to address the effect of tricalcium silicate content of cement on external sulfate attack in sodium sulfate solution. The selected cements had similar fineness and Bogue-calculated tricalcium aluminate content but variable tricalcium silicates. Durability was assessed using linear expansion and compressive strength. Phases associated with deterioration were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical phase content of the as-received cements was studied by X-ray diffraction using two methods: internal standard and Rietveld analysis. The results indicate that phase content of cements determined by X-ray mineralogical analysis correlates better with the mortar performance in sulfate environment than Bogue content. Additionally, it was found that in cements containing triclacium aluminate only in the cubic form, the observed deterioration is affected by tricalcium silicate content. Morphological similarities between hydration products of high tricalcium aluminate and high tricalcium silicate cements exposed to sodium sulfate environment were also observed.

  8. Solution pH and oligoamine molecular weight dependence of the transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption at the air-water interface from sodium dodecyl sulfate/oligoamine mixtures.

    PubMed

    Halacheva, S S; Penfold, J; Thomas, R K; Webster, J R P

    2013-05-14

    Neutron reflectivity and surface tension have been used to investigate the solution pH and oligoamine molecular weight dependence of the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/oligoamine mixtures at the air-water interface. For diethylenetriamine, triamine, or triethylenetetramine, tetramine mixed with SDS, there is monolayer adsorption at pH 7 and 10, and multilayer adsorption at pH 3. For the slightly higher molecular weight tetraethylenepentamine, pentamine, and pentaethylenehexamine, hexamine, the adsorption is in the form of a monolayer at pH 3 and multilayers at pH 7 and 10. Hence, there is a pH driven transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption, which shifts from low pH to higher pH as the oligoamine molecular weight increases from tetramine to pentamine. This results from the relative balance between the electrostatic attraction between the SDS and amine nitrogen group which decreases as the charge density decreases with increasing pH, the ion-dipole interaction between the amine nitrogen and SDS sulfate group which is dominant at higher pH, and the hydrophobic interalkyl chain interaction between bound SDS molecules which changes with oligoamine molecular weight. PMID:23641792

  9. Novel photo-sulfite system: toward simultaneous transformations of inorganic and organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yaoguang; Lou, Xiaoyi; Fang, Changling; Xiao, Dongxue; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Jianshe

    2013-10-01

    An efficient and green advanced oxidation process (i.e., photo-sulfite reaction) for the simultaneous oxidation of sulfite and organic pollutants in water is reported. The photo-sulfite system (UV-Fe(III)-sulfite) is based on the Fe-catalyzed sulfite oxidation and photochemistry of Fe(III) species. SO4(•-) and (•)OH radicals were identified in the photo-sulfite system with radical scavenging experiments using specific alcohols. This novel technology was consistently proven to be more favorable than the alternative Fe(III)-sulfite systems for the degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and other organic pollutants at all conditions tested. The reactivity of photo-sulfite system was sustained due to the spontaneous switch of photoactive species from Fe(III)-sulfito to Fe(III)-hydroxo complexes with the depletion of sulfite and the decrease in pH. In contrast, in the absence of light the performance of the Fe(III)-sulfite system was greatly diminished after the consumption of sulfite. The formation of the Fe(III)-sulfito complex is a necessary step for initiating the photo-sulfite reaction. Inhibition of the oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and methyl orange (MO) was observed in the presence of ligands that can stabilize one or more of the reactants: Fe(III), Fe(II), or sulfite. Our study provides a new facile route for the generation of SO4(•-) and simultaneous removal of organic and inorganic pollutants. PMID:24015851

  10. Curcumin, the Main Part of Turmeric, Prevents Learning and Memory Changes Induced by Sodium Metabisulfite, a Preservative Agent, in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Noorafshan, Ali; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Abdollahifar, Mohammad Amin; Rashidiani-Rashidabadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Sodium metabisulfite is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant, and preservative agent in the food, beverage, and drug industries. Neurons are highly sensitive to sulfite toxicity. Curcumin is the main part of turmeric and has neuroprotective effects on a variety of nervous system damages. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective role of curcumin in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite in rats. The rats were divided into five groups receiving distilled water (solvent of the sulfite), olive oil (solvent of the curcumin), sodium metabisulfite (25 mg/kg/day), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), and sulfite + curcumin. All the animals received daily gavages for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8th week, learning and memory were assessed in a partially-baited eight arm radial maze. The animals treated with sulfite showed fewer correct choices and more reference and working memory errors during the learning phase, at the end of the learning phase, and during the retention testing (p<0.001). The study results demonstrated that sulfite-exposure was associated with impaired learning and memory in rats. Adding curcumin to the rat nutrition plays a protective role in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite. PMID:23585719

  11. Sulfate resistance of plain and blended cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanifi Binici; Orhan Akso?an

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory study on the sulfate resistance of blended cement combination of reference Portland cement with high volume ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and natural pozzolan (NP). The exposure solutions were tap water containing 5% magnesium sulfate solution and 5% sodium sulfate solution. Two types of grinding method (separately grinding and intergrinding, two finenesses (250m2\\/kg and 500m2\\/kg)

  12. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium sulfate solutions to 773 K and 3 GPa derived from acoustic velocity measurements in the diamond anvil cell.

    PubMed

    Mantegazzi, Davide; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Reusser, Eric; Driesner, Thomas

    2012-12-14

    The thermodynamic properties of a 1 m Na(2)SO(4) solution have been determined to 773 K and 3 GPa from acoustic velocity measurements in externally heated diamond anvil cell using Brillouin spectroscopy. The measured acoustic velocities were inverted to obtain the density of the aqueous electrolyte solution with an accuracy of 0.3%-0.5%, and an equation of state (EoS) valid in the 293-773 K and 0.4-3 GPa range is proposed. The new EoS reproduces the experimental acoustic velocity data with a maximal deviation of 1.5% and allows deriving all thermodynamic properties of the aqueous solution, including isobaric heat capacity (C(P)), thermal expansion (?(P)), and compressibility (?) with an accuracy better than 3%-8%. The addition of dissolved sulfate species decreases the compressibility of water, consistent with the structure-maker character of SO(4)(2-) ions in solution that enhance the hydrogen-bond network of the solvent. PMID:23249011

  14. Nitroxide-labeled ruthenium(II)-polypyridyl complexes as EPR probes to study organized systems. 1. Micellar solutions and micellization of sodium alkyl sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Ottaviani, M.F. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Ghatlia, N.D.; Turro, N.J. [Univ. of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    1992-07-09

    EPR probes that structurally resemble ruthenium(II) trisphenanthroline complexes have been utilized to monitor the binding and dynamics of these complexes with different anionic detergents in aqueous solutions. The results and interpretation of these EPR experiments are compared with the results and interpretations of photophysical studies involving interactions of ruthenium(II)-trisphenanthroline complexes and micelles. The EPR spectra have been evaluated in terms of both the hyperfine splitting (a polarity-sensitive parameter) and the rotational correlation time (a dynamics parameter). All experimentally recorded spectra could be successfully simulated as a single component or as the superposition of two components. Stronger binding of these probes is observed as the chain length of the detergent increases. For the same chain length, stronger interactions are observed for micelles containing a sulfate head group compared to a carboxylate group. The rotational diffusional coefficients obtained are found to correlate extremely well with the translational diffusion coefficients obtained in photophysical studies. Previously reported observations of the formation of premicellar aggregates at concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) have also been corroborated in this study. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Modeling of Sulfate Resistance of Flyash Blended Cement Concrete Materials

    E-print Network

    Mobasher, Barzin

    of the matrix due to degradation of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C- S-H), and volumetric expansion due to formation or external sources. Internal sulfate attack could be related to different forms of calcium sulfates which, Kentucky, USA Home #12;attack is generally related to natural sulfates of calcium, magnesium, sodium

  16. Flotation of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts from their saturated brines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Ozcan; J. D Miller

    2002-01-01

    The flotation behavior of sodium carbonates and sodium bicarbonate has been studied with dodecyl amine hydrochloride (DAH) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as part of a research program to evaluate the potential of flotation technology for use in the trona industry. Laboratory microflotation experiments generally show that flotation of sodium carbonate salts is possible at least to some extent with

  17. A Continuous Spectrophotometric Assay for APS Reductase Activity with Sulfite-Selective Probes

    PubMed Central

    Paritala, Hanumantharao; Carroll, Kate S.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (EC number 1.8.4.10), (APR) catalyzes the first committed step in sulfate reduction for the biosynthesis of essential reduced sulfur-containing biomolecules, such as cysteine, and is essential for survival in the latent phase of TB infection. Despite the importance of APR to Mtb, and other bacterial pathogens, current assay methods depend on use of [35S]-labeled APS or shunt AMP to a coupled-enzyme system. Both methods are cumbersome and require the use of expensive reagents. Here we report the development of a continuous spectrophotometric method for measuring APR activity by using novel sulfite-selective colorimetric or “off-on” fluorescent levulinate-based probes. The APR activity can thus be followed by monitoring the increase in absorbance or fluorescence of the resulting phenolate product. Using this assay, we determined Michelis-Menten kinetic constants (Km, kcat, kcat/Km) and apparent inhibition constant (Ki) for adenosine 5?-diphosphate (ADP), which compared favorably to values obtained in the gold-standard radioactive assay. The newly developed assay is robust and easy to perform with a simple spectrophotometer. PMID:23711725

  18. Formation of sulfite-like species on Cr 2O 3 after SO 2 chemisorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranea, V. A.; Hernandez, S. N.; Medina, S.; Irurzun, I. M.; Coria, I. D.; Mola, E. E.

    2011-03-01

    The adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) on polycrystalline Cr 2O was experimentally investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The chemisorption of SO 2 on the (0001) surface was also studied using theoretical methods. Different adsorption geometries were explored for SO 2 adsorption on the ?-Cr 2O (0001) surface. Two similar adsorption configurations were found to be the most stable with chemisorption energies of - 3.09 and - 2.79 eV/molecule. In both calculated stable adsorption configurations the appearance of sulfite-like species is predicted on the (0001) surface after adsorption. It is important to emphasize that these results are predicted only within the DFT + U framework. Under these conditions and despite great efforts, no stable sulfate-like geometry was found on this surface. The TPD spectrum exhibit a desorption peak at Tp ? 870 °C with a heating rate of ? ? 0.12 °C/s. The desorption energy calculated by the analysis given by Redhead and Adams, assuming the rate of desorption is given by a Polanyi-Wigner equation, is ? - 3.12 eV. This value is in good agreement with the predicted one using DFT + U calculations. To our knowledge, this is the first theoretical study of SO 2 adsorption on the Cr 2O (0001) surface.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantifying Expression of a Dissimilatory (bi)Sulfite

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    ]-labelled PAHs are oxidized to 14 CO2 and the rate of degradation of the bulk pool of PAHs [36]. Although at higher temperatures and/or with added acetate to increase the rate of sulfate reduction. Levels of dsrA transcripts were low when there was no sulfate reduction because the sediments were depleted of sulfate

  20. Comparative study of sulfite pretreatments for robust enzymatic saccharification of corn cob residue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corn cob residue (CCR) is a kind of waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. The moderated sulphite processes were used to enhance the hydrophily of the material by sulfonation and hydrolysis. The composition, FT-IR spectra, and conductometric titrations of the pretreated materials were measured to characterize variations of the CCR in different sulfite pretreated environments. And the objective of this study is to compare the saccharification rate and yield of the samples caused by these variations. Results It was found that the lignin in the CCR (43.2%) had reduced to 37.8%, 38.0%, 35.9%, and 35.5% after the sulfite pretreatment in neutral, acidic, alkaline, and ethanol environments, respectively. The sulfite pretreatments enhanced the glucose yield of the CCR. Moreover, the ethanol sulfite sample had the highest glucose yield (81.2%, based on the cellulose in the treated sample) among the saccharification samples, which was over 10% higher than that of the raw material (70.6%). More sulfonic groups and weak acid groups were produced during the sulfite pretreatments. Meanwhile, the ethanol sulfite treated sample had the highest sulfonic group (0.103 mmol/g) and weak acid groups (1.85 mmol/g) in all sulfite treated samples. In FT-IR spectra, the variation of bands at 1168 and 1190 cm-1 confirmed lignin sulfonation during sulfite pretreatment. The disappearance of the band at 1458 cm-1 implied the methoxyl on lignin had been removed during the sulfite pretreatments. Conclusions It can be concluded that the lignin in the CCR can be degraded and sulfonated during the sulfite pretreatments. The pretreatments improve the hydrophility of the samples because of the increase in sulfonic group and weak acid groups, which enhances the glucose yield of the material. The ethanol sulfite pretreatment is the best method for lignin removal and with the highest glucose yield. PMID:23206858

  1. Optimization of Sulfide/Sulfite Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Ahmad; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Potential of sodium sulfide and sodium sulfite, in the presence of sodium hydroxide was investigated to pretreat the corncob (CC), bagasse (BG), water hyacinth and rice husk (RH) for maximum digestibility. Response Surface Methodology was employed for the optimization of pretreatment factors such as temperature, time and concentration of Na2S and Na2SO3, which had high coefficient of determination (R2) along with low probability value (P), indicating the reliable predictability of the model. At optimized conditions, Na2S and Na2SO3 remove up to 97% lignin, from WH and RH, along with removal of hemicellulose (up to 93%) during pretreatment providing maximum cellulose, while in BG and CC; 75.0% and 90.0% reduction in lignin and hemicellulose was observed. Saccharification efficiency of RH, WH, BG and CC after treatment with 1.0% Na2S at 130°C for 2.3–3.0 h was 79.40, 85.93, 87.70, and 88.43%, respectively. WH treated with Na2SO3 showed higher hydrolysis yield (86.34%) as compared to Na2S while other biomass substrates showed 2.0–3.0% less yield with Na2SO3. Resulting sugars were evaluated as substrate for lactic acid production, yielding 26.48, 25.36, 31.73, and 30.31 gL?1 of lactic acid with 76.0, 76.0, 86.0, and 83.0% conversion yield from CC, BG, WH, and RH hydrolyzate, respectively. PMID:24058918

  2. Protein Radical Formation Resulting from Eosinophil Peroxidase-catalyzed Oxidation of Sulfite*

    PubMed Central

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Ramirez, Dario C.; Summers, Fiona A.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is an abundant heme protein in eosinophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma, allergic inflammatory disorders, and cancer. It is known that some proteins with peroxidase activity (horseradish peroxidase and prostaglandin hydroperoxidase) can catalyze oxidation of bisulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide), leading to the formation of sulfur trioxide anion radical (·SO3?). This free radical further reacts with oxygen to form peroxymonosulfate anion radical (?O3SOO·) and the very reactive sulfate anion radical (SO4??), which is nearly as strong an oxidant as the hydroxyl radical. However, the ability of EPO to generate reactive sulfur radicals has not yet been reported. Here we demonstrate that eosinophil peroxidase/H2O2 is able to oxidize bisulfite, ultimately forming the sulfate anion radical (SO4??), and that these reactive intermediates can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study protein oxidation by EPO/H2O2 in the presence of bisulfite in a pure enzymatic system and in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells, maturated to eosinophils. Polyclonal antiserum raised against the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) detected the presence of DMPO covalently attached to the proteins resulting from the DMPO trapping of protein free radicals. We found that sulfite oxidation mediated by EPO/H2O2 induced the formation of radical-derived DMPO spin-trapped human serum albumin and, to a lesser extent, of DMPO-EPO. These studies suggest that EPO-dependent oxidative damage may play a role in tissue injury in bisulfite-exacerbated eosinophilic inflammatory disorders. PMID:20501663

  3. Curcumin can prevent the changes in cerebellar structure and function induced by sodium metabisulfite in rat.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, Ali; Rashidiani-Rashidabadi, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Poostpasand, Aghdas; Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Asadi-Golshan, Reza

    2013-12-01

    Sulfites are used as anti-microbial and anti-oxidant agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Curcumin, a flavonoid, is an Asian spice that shows neuroprotective activities. The current study aimed to stereologically assess the rats' cerebellar cortex and rotarod performance following sulfite exposure and determine the possible neuroprotective potential of curcumin. The rats were divided into five groups: distilled water, olive oil, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite (25 mg/kg/day), and sodium metabisulfite+curcumin. At 56 days after treatment, rotarod performance was tested, and then the cerebellum was removed for stereological analysis. The study results revealed 31%, 36%, 19% and 24% decrease in the total volume of the cerebellum, cortex, the total number of the Purkinje cells and length of the nerve fibers in the cortex per Purkinje, respectively in the sodium metabisulfite-treated rats compared to the distilled water group (p<0.01). The pre-trained animals on the rotarod apparatus were tested first on the fixed speed rotarod protocol followed by the accelerating rotarod protocol two days later. The results showed a significant decrease in the latency to fall in both test in sulfite-treated rats. The sulfite effects on the structural parameters and rotarod performance were significantly protected by the concomitant curcumin treatment (p<0.001). Sulfite can induce structural and functional changes in the rats' cerebellum and concomitant curcumin prescription plays a neuroprotective role. PMID:24465141

  4. Curcumin Can Prevent the Changes in Cerebellar Structure and Function Induced by Sodium Metabisulfite in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Noorafshan, Ali; Rashidiani-Rashidabadi, Ali; Poostpasand, Aghdas; Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Asadi-Golshan, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Sulfites are used as anti-microbial and anti-oxidant agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Curcumin, a flavonoid, is an Asian spice that shows neuroprotective activities. The current study aimed to stereologically assess the rats' cerebellar cortex and rotarod performance following sulfite exposure and determine the possible neuroprotective potential of curcumin. The rats were divided into five groups: distilled water, olive oil, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite (25 mg/kg/day), and sodium metabisulfite+curcumin. At 56 days after treatment, rotarod performance was tested, and then the cerebellum was removed for stereological analysis. The study results revealed 31%, 36%, 19% and 24% decrease in the total volume of the cerebellum, cortex, the total number of the Purkinje cells and length of the nerve fibers in the cortex per Purkinje, respectively in the sodium metabisulfite-treated rats compared to the distilled water group (p<0.01). The pre-trained animals on the rotarod apparatus were tested first on the fixed speed rotarod protocol followed by the accelerating rotarod protocol two days later. The results showed a significant decrease in the latency to fall in both test in sulfite-treated rats. The sulfite effects on the structural parameters and rotarod performance were significantly protected by the concomitant curcumin treatment (p<0.001). Sulfite can induce structural and functional changes in the rats' cerebellum and concomitant curcumin prescription plays a neuroprotective role. PMID:24465141

  5. Influence of binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate, all-trans-retinol, palmitate, and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate on the heat-induced unfolding and aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin B.

    PubMed

    Considine, Thérèse; Patel, Hasmukh A; Singh, Harjinder; Creamer, Lawrence K

    2005-04-20

    Heat treatment of bovine beta-lactoglobulin B (beta-LG) causes it to partially unfold and aggregate via hydrophobic association and intra- and interprotein disulfide bonds. The first stage, which involves a "loosening" of the native structure, is influenced by the environmental conditions, such as pressure, pH, and added solutes. In the present study, four potential beta-LG ligands [palmitate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS), and all-trans-retinol (retinol)] were added to beta-LG solutions prior to heat treatment for 12 min at temperatures between 40 and 93 degrees C. The extent of the changes in secondary and tertiary structures, unfolding, and aggregation at 20 degrees C were determined by circular dichroism, fluorescence, and alkaline- and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Both palmitate and SDS stabilized the native structure of beta-LG against heat-induced structural flexibility, subsequent unfolding, and denaturation. Retinol was less effective, probably because of its lower affinity for the calyx-binding site, and ANS did not stabilize beta-LG, suggesting that ANS did not bind strongly in the calyx. It was also noted that holding a beta-LG solution with added SDS or ANS promoted the formation of a hydrophobically associated non-native dimer. PMID:15826078

  6. Effects of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic permeants: Comparative in vitro studies with full-thickness and split-thickness pig and human skin.

    PubMed

    Seto, Jennifer E; Polat, Baris E; Lopez, Renata F V; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness skin (FTS) and split-thickness skin (STS) differ in mechanical strength, US/SLS treatment may have different effects on their transdermal transport pathways. Therefore, we evaluated STS as an alternative to the well-established US/SLS-treated FTS model for TDD studies of hydrophilic permeants. We utilized the aqueous porous pathway model to compare the effects of US/SLS treatment on the skin permeability and the pore radius of pig and human FTS and STS over a range of skin electrical resistivity values. Our findings indicate that the US/SLS-treated pig skin models exhibit similar permeabilities and pore radii, but the human skin models do not. Furthermore, the US/SLS-enhanced delivery of gold nanoparticles and quantum dots (two model hydrophilic macromolecules) is greater through pig STS than through pig FTS, due to the presence of less dermis that acts as an artificial barrier to macromolecules. In spite of greater variability in correlations between STS permeability and resistivity, our findings strongly suggest the use of 700microm-thick pig STS to investigate the in vitro US/SLS-enhanced delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules. PMID:20346994

  7. Effects of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic permeants: Comparative in vitro studies with full-thickness and split-thickness pig and human skin

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Jennifer E.; Polat, Baris E.; Lopez, Renata F.V.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness skin (FTS) and split-thickness skin (STS) differ in mechanical strength, US/SLS treatment may have different effects on their transdermal transport pathways. Therefore, we evaluated STS as an alternative to the well-established US/SLS-treated FTS model for TDD studies of hydrophilic permeants. We utilized the aqueous porous pathway model to compare the effects of US/SLS treatment on the skin permeability and the pore radius of pig and human FTS and STS over a range of skin electrical resistivity values. Our findings indicate that the US/SLS-treated pig skin models exhibit similar permeabilities and pore radii, but the human skin models do not. Furthermore, the US/SLS-enhanced delivery of gold nanoparticles and quantum dots (two model hydrophilic macromolecules) is greater through pig STS than through pig FTS, due to the presence of less dermis that acts as an artificial barrier to macromolecules. In spite of greater variability in correlations between STS permeability and resistivity, our findings strongly suggest the use of 700-?m-thick pig STS to investigate the in vitro US/SLS-enhanced delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules. PMID:20346994

  8. Effect of alloy composition on the sodium-sulfate induced hot corrosion attack of cast nickel-base superalloys at 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Deadmore, D. L.; Barrett, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, Ta, Nb, and W content on the hot corrosion of Ni-base alloys were examined experimentally. The superalloys were tested for 300 1-hr cycles at 900 C in a Mach 0.3 burner rig flame containing 0.5 ppmw sodium. The data reveal that the best corrosion resistance is obtained when the Cr content is greater than 12 percent; however, good resistance is detected in some alloys with Cr content less than 10 percent provided that the Al content is less than 2.5 wt pct and the Ti content is less than 4 wt pct. It is observed that the influence of W, Ta, Mo, and Nb content on resistance is dependent on Al and Ti contents. The derivation of an equation for estimating hot corrosion attack as a function of alloy composition using multiple linear regression analysis is described. The applicability of the equation is tested using various data sets of alloys. It is noted that the equation can be used to explain the effects of alloy composition on attack rates.

  9. Sulfation of von Willebrand factor

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-12-15

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated (35S)-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate.

  10. Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers

    SciTech Connect

    Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-04-01

    Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations, and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to environmental perturbations.

  11. Comparison of the capabilities of liquid isoelectric focusing–one-dimensional nonporous silica reversed-phase liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid isoelectric focusing–one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mass mapping for the analysis of intact protein molecular masses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel B Wall; Stephen J Parus; David M Lubman

    2001-01-01

    Nonporous silica reversed-phase HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization with on-line time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (NPS-RP-HPLC–ESI-TOF-MS) is shown to be an effective liquid phase method for obtaining the molecular masses of proteins from pH fractionated cellular lysates where the method is capable of generating the same banding patterns typically observed using gel phase one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The liquid-phase

  12. Novel spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of sulfite with rhodamine B hydrazide in a micellar medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Feng Yang; Xiang-Qun Guo; Yi-Bing Zhao

    2002-01-01

    A novel spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of sulfite using rhodamine B hydrazide as fluorogenic reagent in the presence of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) surfactant micelles is described. The method is based on the mixture of sulfite with rhodamine B hydrazide, a colorless, non-fluorescent substance in Tween 80 surfactant micelles which gives rhodamine B-like fluorescence emission. The fluorescence intensity

  13. OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS CONJUGATED WITH SULFITE OXIDATION IN FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation under flue gas desulfurization (FGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k12, is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate times th...

  14. A new diketopyrrolopyrrole-based probe for sensitive and selective detection of sulfite in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Cui, Yu; Li, Yexin; Zheng, Luyi; Xie, Lijun; Ning, Rui; Liu, Zheng; Lu, Junling; Zhang, Gege; Liu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Guangyou

    2015-02-01

    A new probe was synthesized by incorporating an ?,? -unsaturated ketone to a diketopyrrolopyrrole fluorophore. The probe had exhibited a selective and sensitive response to the sulfite against other thirteen anions and biothiols (Cys, Hcy and GSH), through the nucleophilic addition of sulfite to the alkene of probe with the detection limit of 0.1 ?M in HEPES (10 mM, pH 7.4) THF/H2O (1:1, v/v). Meanwhile, it could be easily observed that the probe for sulfite changed from pink to colorless by the naked eye, and from pink to blue under UV lamp after the sulfite was added for 20 min. The NMR and Mass spectral analysis demonstrated the expected addition of sulfite to the Cdbnd C bonds.

  15. The Structures of the C185S and C185A Mutants of Sulfite Oxidase Reveal Rearrangement of the Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, James A.; Wilson, Heather L.; Pushie, M. Jake; Kisker, Caroline; George, Graham N.; Rajagopalan, K.V. (Wurzburg); (Duke); (Saskatchewan)

    2010-11-03

    Sulfite oxidase (SO) catalyzes the physiologically critical conversion of sulfite to sulfate. Enzymatic activity is dependent on the presence of the metal molybdenum complexed with a pyranopterin-dithiolene cofactor termed molybdopterin. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of SOs from a variety of sources has identified a single conserved Cys residue essential for catalytic activity. The crystal structure of chicken liver sulfite oxidase indicated that this residue, Cys185 in chicken SO, coordinates the Mo atom in the active site. To improve our understanding of the role of this residue in the catalytic mechanism of sulfite oxidase, serine and alanine variants at position 185 of recombinant chicken SO were generated. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies indicate that neither variant is capable of sulfite oxidation. The crystal structure of the C185S variant was determined to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution and to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution in the presence of sulfite, and the C185A variant to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The structures of the C185S and C185A variants revealed that neither the Ser or Ala side chains appeared to closely interact with the Mo atom and that a third oxo group replaced the usual cysteine sulfur ligand at the Mo center, confirming earlier extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) work on the human C207S mutant. An unexpected result was that in the C185S variant, in the absence of sulfite, the active site residue Tyr322 became disordered as did the loop region flanking it. In the C185S variant crystallized in the presence of sulfite, the Tyr322 residue relocalized to the active site. The C185A variant structure also indicated the presence of a third oxygen ligand; however, Tyr322 remained in the active site. EXAFS studies of the Mo coordination environment indicate the Mo atom is in the oxidized Mo{sup VI} state in both the C185S and C185A variants of chicken SO and show the expected trioxodithiolene active site. Density functional theory calculations of the trioxo form of the cofactor reasonably reproducd the Mo=O distances of the complex; however, the calculated Mo-S distances were slightly longer than either crystallographic or EXAFS measurements. Taken together, these results indicate that the active sites of the C185S and C185A variants are essentially catalytically inactive, the crystal structures of C185S and C185A variants contain a fully oxidized, trioxo form of the cofactor, and Tyr322 can undergo a conformational change that is relevant to the reaction mechanism. Additional DFT calculations demonstrated that such methods can reasonably reproduce the geometry and bond lengths of the active site.

  16. The Impact of Simulated Sulfate Deposition on Peatland Testate Amoebae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Payne; Vincent Gauci; Dan J. Charman

    2010-01-01

    Peatlands subjected to sulfate deposition have been shown to produce less methane, believed to be due to competitive exclusion\\u000a of methanogenic archaea by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Here, we address whether sulfate deposition produces impacts on a higher\\u000a microbial group, the testate amoebae. Sodium sulfate was applied to experimental plots on a Scottish peatland and samples\\u000a extracted after a period of more

  17. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  19. 75 FR 56101 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0727; FRL-8839-6] Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of...review decision for the pesticide, lauryl sulfate salts (also known as sodium lauryl salts), case 4061. Registration review is...

  20. Knockout of the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase 2 aggravates the development of mild chronic dextran sulfate sodium colitis independently of expression of intestinal cytokines TNF?, TGFB1, and IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Kersting, Sabine; Reinecke, Kirstin; Hilgert, Christoph; Janot, Monika S; Haarmann, Elisabeth; Albrecht, Martin; Müller, Annette M; Herdegen, Thomas; Mittelkötter, Ulrich; Uhl, Waldemar; Chromik, Ansgar M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are involved in signal transduction of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the function of JNKs by using a low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model in JNK1 knockout mice (Mapk8?/?), JNK2 knockout mice (Mapk9?/?), and wild-type controls (WT1, WT2). Methods The animals were evaluated daily using a disease activity index. After 30 days, the intestine was evaluated histologically with a crypt damage score. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were quantified using immunofluorescence. Analysis of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGFB1) expression was carried out using LightCycler® real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Cyclic administration of low-dose DSS (1%) was not able to induce features of chronic colitis in Mapk8?/? WT2 mice. By contrast, DSS administration significantly increased the disease activity index in WT1 and Mapk9?/? mice. In Mapk9?/? mice, the crypt damage score and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells as features of chronic colitis/inflammation were also significantly elevated. Expression of TNF?, IL-6, and TGFB1 was not altered by the JNK knockout. Conclusion Administering DSS at a defined low concentration that is unable to induce colitis in WT animals leads to clinically and histologically detectable chronic colitis in Mapk9?/? mice. The reason for this disease-inducing effect resulting from the loss of JNK2 remains to be elucidated. Expression of TNF?, IL-6, and TGFB1 does not appear to be involved; proapoptotic JNK2 may prolong the activity of proinflammatory immune cells, leading to perpetuation of the inflammation. PMID:23426157

  1. Soy protein diet, but not Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, decreases mucin-1, trefoil factor-3, and tumor necrosis factor-? in colon of dextran sodium sulfate-treated C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huanyi; Przybyszewski, Joseph; Mitra, Debjani; Becker, Chad; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Tentinger, Amy; MacDonald, Ruth S

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases has increased during recent decades. Within the colon, the families of mucins (MUC) and trefoil factors (TFF) facilitate mucosal protection. Probiotic administration influences the intestinal MUC layer. Additionally, food components may affect gut microflora or have direct effects on the MUC barrier. Our objective was to determine whether diet and/or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) would mediate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis by altering expression of the MUC and TFF genes. C57BL/6 mice were fed diets containing 20% (wt:wt) casein, soy, or whey proteins with or without LGG for 12 d. Seven days after starting LGG diets, the mice were given 2% DSS in drinking water for 4 d. Two additional casein groups with or without LGG were given tap water, for a total of 8 groups. One day after the DSS treatment, the mice were killed and the colon and cecum tissues and cecum contents were collected and analyzed by qRT-PCR. Whey protein significantly increased cecal LGG content compared with the other diets. In the casein diet groups, MUC1 and TFF-3 expression in colon was significantly induced by DSS independent of LGG. Compared with other DSS-treated groups, soy protein decreased MUC-1 and TFF-3 in the colon. Similarly, soy protein decreased the impact of DSS on inflammatory scores, TNF? gene expression, and colon shortening. There was no overall effect of LGG on these measurements. In conclusion, soy protein suppressed the DSS-induced inflammatory stimulation of MUC, TFF, and TNF? gene expression independently of LGG. PMID:21593350

  2. An improved form for the electrostatic interactions of polyelectrolytes in solution and its implications for the analysis of QELSS experiments on sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushkin, Nicholas V.

    The electrostatic interaction between two charged spheres in the presence of a screening electrolyte is calculated at the level of the linearized Debye-Huckel theory. The calculation is performed analytically as a multipole expansion by applying two-center spherical harmonic expansions and symbolic manipulation methods. I focus on charge-charge and charge-induced dipole interactions, calculated for two spheres of possibly unequal size. The former interaction is given to good approximation by the familiar Debye-Huckel form ~q1q2[ exp][[-]?(R-2a)]/[/epsilon r(1+/kappa a)2]. The new results are the charge-induced dipole interactions. Physically, these terms arise from two sources: (i) surface polarization charge at the surface of each sphere, and (ii) exclusion of the counterion cloud of each sphere from the volume occupied by the other sphere. With parameters appropriate for micelles, the charge-induced dipole interactions dominate the charge-charge interaction at small separations. Quasi-elastic light scattering measurements of the diffusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles in aqueous solutions, and the diffusion of mesoscopic optical probes through the same solutions, were carried out at 35oC and multiple solvent ionic strengths. Assuming a spherical micelle, I deduced the micelle radius, aggregation number, charge, and hydration from nonlinear least-squares fits to both probe and mutual diffusion data. For SDS micelles the charge that I find is lower than reported in the literature (Hayter, J. B.; Penfold, J. Colloid & Polymer Science 1983, 261, 1022; Triolo, R.; Caponetti, E.; Graziano, V. J. Phys. Chem. 1985, 89, 5743.) because I used an improved functional form of the micellar electrostatic interaction. I find a smaller aggregation number and a larger micellar hydration than literature values. My analysis of CTAB data implies extensive micellar growth, and failure of the spherical micelle assumption.

  3. Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

    1993-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na{sup +} + H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} {r_reversible} NaZnPO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O or 2 ZnO(s) + H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(aq) {r_reversible} Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO{sub 4} possesses an orthorhombic unit cell having lattice parameters a = 8.710 {+-} 0.013, b = 15.175 {+-} 0.010, and c = 8.027 {+-} 0.004 {angstrom}. The thermodynamic equilibria for these reactions were defined in the system ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. Based on observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S{degrees}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{degrees}) for NaZnPO{sub 4} were calculated to be 169.0 J/mol-K and {minus}1510.6 kJ/mol, respectively; similar values for Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4} (tarbuttite) were 235.9 J/mol-K and {minus}1604.6 kJ/mol. Additions of sodium sulfite and sulfate did not alter the above reactions.

  4. Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P. (Knolls Atomic Power Lab., Schenectady, NY (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na[sup +] + H[sub 2]PO[sub 4]- [l reversible] NaZnPO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O or 2ZnO(s) + H[sub 3]PO[sub 4](aq) [l reversible] Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO[sub 4] possesses an orthorhombic unit cell having lattice parameters a = 8.710 [+-] 0.013, b = 15.175 [+-] 0.010, c = 8.027 [+-] 0.004 [angstrom]. The thermodynamic equilibria for these reactions were defined in the system ZnO-Na[sub 2]O-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]-H[sub 2]O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S[degrees]) and free energy of formation ([delta]G[sub f][degrees]) for NaZnPO[sub 4] were calculated to be 169.0 J/(mol K) and -1510.6 kJ/mol, respectively; similar values for Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4] (tarbuttite) were 235.9 J/(mol K) and -1604.6 kJ/mol. Additions of sodium sulfite and sulfate did not alter the above reactions. 26 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Sulfite both stimulates and inhibits the yeast vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Kibak, H; Van Eeckhout, D; Cutler, T; Taiz, S L; Taiz, L

    1993-11-01

    The yeast vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) exhibits nonlinear hydrolysis kinetics, i.e. an initial rapid rate followed by a slower, steadily declining rate. Sulfite (50-100 mM) stimulates the yeast V-ATPase specifically during the latter period. Sulfite activation has been observed for the F-ATPases and archaebacterial ATPases and is thought to be caused by the release of tightly bound nucleotide at the catalytic site. However, turnover-dependent inactivation of the yeast V-ATPase, and sulfite stimulation, were only observed at MgATP concentrations > 1.0 mM. Below 1.0 mM MgATP, the hydrolysis time course was linear, and sulfite was inhibitory. The inhibition during the initial phase and the stimulation during the later phase of the time course could be accounted for by a 5.5-fold sulfite-induced increase in the apparent Km, and a small increase in the apparent Vmax. Sulfite also protected the enzyme against inhibition by cold inactivation and by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide but not by bafilomycin. Sulfite stimulation during the later phase was antagonized by delta mu H+, particularly by delta pH. In contrast to its effects on hydrolysis, sulfite inhibited the formation of a pH gradient at all times and failed to enhance the membrane potential even when delta pH was collapsed by nigericin. These results indicate that sulfite partially uncouples hydrolysis from proton transport in a way that preserves regulation by delta mu H+. PMID:8226856

  6. Preparation and characterization of chitosan microspheres as drug carrier for prednisolone sodium phosphate as model for anti-inflammatory drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Berthold; K. Cremer; J. Kreuter

    1996-01-01

    Chitosan microspheres were prepared by a novel precipitation process using sodium sulfate as precipitant. Low, medium, and high molecular weight chitosan was chosen for the formulation of microspheres. The extent of precipitation was controlled by the concentration of sodium sulfate and monitored by turbidity measurement. The amount of sodium sulfate required for the preparation of the microspheres depended on the

  7. [Demonstration of sulfite-group-specific IgE in patients with intolerance to preservatives].

    PubMed

    Sainte-Laudy, J; Vallon, C; Guérin, J C

    1994-04-01

    On the basis of the selection of a population of patients intolerant to sulfites by the clinical history, a simple blind oral provocation test and a basophil activation test, we explored the basophil activation reaction induced by sulfites after passive sensitisation of blood donors basophils. We demonstrated that the percentages of activation obtained with a non covalent reagent (MBS-HSA), a covalent reagent (sulfonyl-HSA) and the optimal concentration of an anti-IgE were not significantly different. Human basophil activation was negativated by heating the transferred sera and by competition with a monoclonal human IgE. We also observed mediator release (histamine and LTC4) with a low frequency, histamine release being strictly related to the carrier protein concentration. In two cases, sulfite specific IgE were detected by ELISA. These results are in favour of the specificity and the IgE dependent nature of basophil activation induced by sulfites. PMID:7518236

  8. In vitro evidence that sulfite impairs glutamatergic neurotransmission and inhibits glutathione metabolism-related enzymes in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Belisa; Moura, Alana Pimentel; Grings, Mateus; Bumbel, Anna Paula; de Moura Alvorcem, Leonardo; Tauana Pletsch, Julia; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Wyse, Angela Ts; Wajner, Moacir; Leipnitz, Guilhian

    2015-05-01

    Sulfite oxidase (SOX) deficiency is an inherited neurometabolic disorder biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of sulfite and thiosulfate. Affected patients present severe neurological dysfunction accompanied by seizures, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. In the present study we evaluated the in vitro effects of sulfite and thiosulfate on important parameters of glutamatergic neurotransmission and redox homeostasis in rat cerebral cortex slices. We verified that sulfite, but not thiosulfate, significantly decreased glutamate uptake when cerebral cortex slices were exposed during 1h to these metabolites. We also observed that thiosulfate inhibited glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. A pronounced trend toward GS inhibition induced by sulfite was also found. Regarding redox homeostasis, sulfite, at the concentration of 10?M, increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and decreased glutathione concentrations after 1h of exposure. In contrast, thiosulfate did not alter these parameters. We also found that 500?M sulfite increased sulfhydryl group content in rat cerebral cortex slices and increased GSH levels in a medium containing oxidized GSH (GSSG) and devoid of cortical slices, suggesting that sulfite reacts with disulfide bonds to generate sulfhydryl groups. Moreover, sulfite and thiosulfate did not alter the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) after 1h of incubation. However, sulfite inhibited the activities of GPx, GST and G6PDH when cortical slices were exposed for 3h to sulfite. We finally verified that sulfite did not induce cell death after 1h of incubation. Our data show that sulfite impairs glutamatergic neurotransmission and redox homeostasis in cerebral cortex. Therefore, it may be presumed that these pathomechanisms contribute, at least in part, to the seizures observed in patients affected by SOX deficiency. PMID:25777939

  9. Oxidation and characterization of FGD byproduct calcium sulfite and oxidized product

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Anurag

    1993-01-01

    OXIDATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FGD BYPRODUCT CALCIUM SULFITE AND OXIDIZED PRODUCT A Thesis by ANURAG GUPTA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering OXIDATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FGD BYPRODUCT CALCIUM SULFITE AND OXIDIZED PRODUCT A Thesis by ANURAG GUPTA Approved as to style and content by: Ahmed M. Gadalla (Ch...

  10. Effects of low concentrations of bisulfite-sulfite and nitrite on microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wodzinski, R S; Labeda, D P; Alexander, M

    1978-01-01

    A wide range of microorganisms was tested to determine their sensitivity to low concentrations of bisulfite-sulfite and nitrite, solubility products of SO2 and NO2, respectively. Photosynthesis by blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) was more strongly inhibited by 0.1 mM bisulfite-sulfite and 1 mM nitrite at pH 6.0 than photosynthesis by eucaryotic algae and respiration of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. At pH 7.7, blue-green algae were still more sensitive to bisulfite-sulfite and nitrite than eucaryotic algae, but the toxicity of bisulfite-sulfite and nitrite decreased as the pH increased. Photosynthesis by Anabaena flos-aquae at pH 6.0 was inhibited 25% by a bisulfite-sulfite concentration of 10 micrometer and 15% by a nitrite concentration of 50 micrometer. Photosynthesis by the blue-green alga, Lyngbya sp., was not exceptionally sensitive to chlorate and thiosulfate. Acetylene-reducing activity of Beijerinckia indica was completely inhibited by 0.1 mM bisulfite-sulfite at pH 4.0, the suppression being decreased with increasing pH. PMID:646357

  11. Effect of sodium sulfite on the mutagenicity of chlorinated drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Morlay; J. De Laat; M. Dore; Y. Courtois; N. Houel; A. Montiel

    1992-01-01

    It is a well known fact that numerous organohalogenated compounds are formed during the chlorination (preoxidation or final disinfection) of drinking water. Some of these compounds have been proved to be mutagenic (Horth 1989). Recent studies have suggested that a treatment with SIV species (SO2, NaHSO3, Na2SO3) could reduce the mutagenic activity and the total organic halogen content (AOX) of

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of EDTA in aqueous solution through ferroin formation using sodium sulfite as the reducer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingang; Yu, Jiemei; Kong, Xiang Z; Hou, Longlei

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a simple, easy and reliable method for determination of EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in aqueous system. Using EDTA chelating with ferric irons, an excessive amount of Fe(3+) was added to EDTA solution, and Fe(3+) in excess was reduced by addition of a Na2SO3 solution, the outcome ferrous ions were then reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate (PTM) to form ferroin, a color developing reagent. The absorbance of the ferroin was determined using spectrophotometry, from which EDTA concentration was obtained. The method was tested for interferences and applied to determination of trace amount EDTA in its degradation by ozone oxidation, and the result compared with those from high-performance liquid chromatography. It was revealed that a low limit of 1.4?M for EDTA concentration detection was achieved with a high correlation coefficient of 0.999 combined with a low relative standard deviation of 0.6%. In contrast to all reported processes, where ferric ions in excess have to be separated from those chelated with EDTA prior to their reduction followed by interaction with PTM and spectrophotometric determination, the key merit of the present method is that EDTA concentration is determined without need of ferric separation, rendering the present process very easy. The method is also characterized by low cost, high precision and high reproducibility at the same time. PMID:23266411

  13. Determination of norfloxacin using gold nanoparticles catalyzed cerium(IV)–sodium sulfite chemiluminescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xijuan Yu; Junfang Bao

    2009-01-01

    A rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method is proposed for the determination of norfloxacin (NFLX). The method is based on the fact that the weak CL from the redox reaction of Ce(IV)–Na2SO3 can be greatly strengthened by gold nanoparticles (NPs). UV–visible spectra, fluorescence spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies are carried out before and after the CL reactions to investigate

  14. Diacetamidinium sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Jalový, Zden?k; R?ži?ka, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, 2C2H7N2 +·SO4 2?, which contains four cations and two anions in the asymmetric unit, the ions are inter­connected by an extensive hydrogen-bonding system whereby two of the O atoms of sulfate ion are hydrogen-bonded to the amidinium H atoms of two cations, leading to the formation of two eight-membered rings. The two remaining O atoms inter­connect two H atoms of acetamidinium cations, forming an infinite chain. The C?N separations within the H2N?C?NH2 moieties are similar, with an average value of 1.305?(2)?Å, which is in good agreement with a delocalization model. PMID:21589618

  15. Improved PCR-DGGE for high resolution diversity screening of complex sulfate-reducing prokaryotic communities in soils and sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzia Miletto; Paul L. E. Bodelier; Hendrikus J. Laanbroek

    2007-01-01

    In this study we evaluated a high resolution PCR-DGGE strategy for the characterization of complex sulfate-reducing microbial communities inhabiting natural environments. dsrB fragments were amplified with a two-step nested PCR protocol using combinations of primers targeting the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes. The PCR-DGGE conditions were initially optimized using a dsrAB clone library obtained from a vegetated intertidal riparian soil along

  16. Resonance Raman studies of Escherichia coli sulfite reductase hemoprotein. 2. Fe sub 4 S sub 4 cluster vibrational modes

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, J.F.; Siegel, L.M. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA)); Han, Sanghwa (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Spiro, T.G. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA))

    1989-06-27

    Resonance Raman (RR) spectra from the hemoprotein subunit of Escherichia coli sulfite reductase (SiR-HP) are examined in the low-frequency (200-500 cm{sup {minus}1}) region where Fe-S stretching modes are expected. In spectra obtained with excitation in the siroheme Soret or Q bands, this region is dominated by siroheme modes. Modes assignable to the Fe{sub 4}S{sub 4} cluster are selectively enhanced, however, with excitation at 488.0 or 457.9 nm. The assignments are confirmed by observation of the expected frequency shifts in SiR-HP extracted from E. coli grown on {sup 34}S-labeled sulfate. The mode frequencies and isotopic shifts resemble those seen in RR spectra of other Fe{sub 4}S{sub 4} proteins and analogues, but the breathing mode of the cluster at 342 cm{sup {minus}1} is higher than that observed in the other species. Spectra of various ligand complexes of SiR-HP reveal only slight sensitivity of the cluster terminal ligand modes to the presence of exogenous heme ligands, at variance with a model of ligand binding in a bridged mode between heme and cluster. Close examination of RR spectra obtained with siroheme Soret-band excitation reveals additional {sup 34}S-sensitive features at 352 and 393 cm{sup {minus}1}. These may be attributed to a bridging thiolate ligand.

  17. Sulfite determination by a biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate: very simple and economical method.

    PubMed

    Teke, Mustafa; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    Of all the food additives for which the FDA has received adverse reaction reports, the ones that most closely resemble true allergens are sulfur-based preservatives. Sulfites are used primarily as antioxidants to prevent or reduce discoloration of light-colored fruits and vegetables, such as dried apples and potatoes, and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in fermented foods such as wine. This work aims to prepare an electrochemical biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate that contains polyphenol oxidase enzyme abundantly for sulfite detection in foods. The principle of the biosensor is based on the inhibition effect of sulfites on polyphenol oxidase in the bioactive layer. Optimum conditions for the biosensor, such as temperature and pH, were investigated. Some stability parameters of the biosensor were also identified. The biosensor showed a linear calibration graph in the range of 25-100 microM sulfite. The biosensor presents a very simple, economical, reliable, and feasible method for sulfite detection in foods. PMID:19418312

  18. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  19. BUFFER ADDITIVES FOR LIME/LIMESTONE SLURRY SCRUBBING: SULFITE OXIDATION WITH ENHANCED OXYGEN ABSORPTION CATALYZED BY TRANSITION METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of sulfite oxidation, involving the measurement of the rate of enhanced oxygen absorption across an unbroken interface into solution containing sulfite (2-100 mM) and catalyst (0.01-100 mM) at pH 4-6 and 50 C. Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Cr ions were po...

  20. The effect of chronic restraint stress and sulfite on visual evoked potentials (VEPs): Relation to lipid peroxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selcen Aydin; Piraye Yargicoglu; Narin Derin; Yakup Aliciguzel; ?smail Abidin; Aysel Agar

    2005-01-01

    Stress and sulfite can stimulate numerous pathways leading to an increased production of free radicals which generate a peroxidation cascade producing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA damage and cell death, and contribute to the occurrence of pathologic conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of stress and sulfite on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and to examine

  1. Selective and sensitive chromofluorogenic detection of the sulfite anion in water using hydrophobic hybrid organic-inorganic silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santos-Figueroa, Luis Enrique; Giménez, Cristina; Agostini, Alessandro; Aznar, Elena; Marcos, María D; Sancenón, Félix; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Amorós, Pedro

    2013-12-16

    In water and wine: Chromofluorogenic detection of the sulfite anion in pure water was accomplished by using a new hybrid organic-inorganic material that contained a probe entrapped in hydrophobic biomimetic cavities. This material was used for the detection of sulfite in red wine. PMID:24346947

  2. Growth-promoting activity of spent sulfite liquor for Sphaerotilus natans growing in a continuous-flow apparatus.

    PubMed

    Dias, F F; Okrend, H; Dondero, N C

    1968-02-01

    The calcium in ammonia-base spent sulfite liquor, unlike that in calcium-base spent liquor, is not available for growth of Sphaerotilus natans. It has not been possible to obtain a mixed slime with Sphaerotilus as the dominant organism in a continuous-flow apparatus fed spent sulfite liquor. PMID:5645414

  3. Dietary Sodium

    MedlinePLUS

    Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

  4. Revisiting Modes of energy generation in sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Joachimiak, Marcin; Chakraborty, Romy; Zhou, Aifen; Fortney, Julian; Geller, Jil; Wall, Judy; Zhou, Jizhong; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Keasling, Jay; Chhabra, Swapnil

    2010-05-17

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) play an important role in global sulfur and carbon cycling through their ability to completely mineralize organic matter while respiring sulfate to hydrogen sulfide. They are ubiquitous in anaerobic environments and have the ability to reduce toxic metals like Cr(VI) and U(VI). While SRB have been studied for over three decades, bioenergetic modes of this group of microbes are poorly understood. Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough (DvH) has served as a model SRB over the last decade with the accumulation of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic data under a wide variety of stressors. To further investigate the three hypothesized modes of energy generation in this anaerobe we conducted a systematic study involving multiple electron donor and acceptor combinations for growth. DvH was grown at 37oC in a defined medium with (a) lactate + thiosulfate, (b) lactate + sulfite (c) lactate + sulfate, (d) pyruvate + sulfate, (e) H2 + acetate + sulfate, (f) formate + acetate + sulfate, g) formate + sulfate and (h) pyruvate fermentation. Cells were harvested at mid-log phase of growth for all conditions for transcriptomics, when the optical density at 600nm was in the range 0.42-0.5. Initial results indicate that cells grown on lactate do not appear to significantly differentiate their gene expression profiles when presented with different electron acceptors. These profiles however differ significantly from those observed during growth with other electron donors such as H2 and formate, as well as during fermentative growth. Together the gene expression changes in the presence of different electron donors provide insights into the ability of DvH to differentially reduce metals such as Cr(VI). Here we present revised modes of energy generation in DvH in light of this new transcriptomic evidence.

  5. Bacterial sulfite dehydrogenases in organotrophic metabolism: separation and identification in Cupriavidus necator H16 and in Delftia acidovorans SPH-1.

    PubMed

    Denger, Karin; Weinitschke, Sonja; Smits, Theo H M; Schleheck, David; Cook, Alasdair M

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of organosulfonates as carbon sources by aerobic or nitrate-reducing bacteria usually involves a measurable, uncharacterized sulfite dehydrogenase. This is tacitly assumed to be sulfite : ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase [EC 1.8.2.1], despite negligible interaction with (eukaryotic) cytochrome c: the enzyme is assayed at high specific activity with ferricyanide as electron acceptor. Purified periplasmic sulfite dehydrogenases (SorAB, SoxCD) are known from chemoautotrophic growth and are termed 'sulfite oxidases' by bioinformatic services. The catalytic unit (SorA, SoxC; termed 'sulfite oxidases' cd02114 and cd02113, respectively) binds a molybdenum-cofactor (Moco), and involves a cytochrome c (SorB, SoxD) as electron acceptor. The genomes of several bacteria that express a sulfite dehydrogenase during heterotrophic growth contain neither sorAB nor soxCD genes; others contain at least four paralogues, for example Cupriavidus necator H16, which is known to express an inducible sulfite dehydrogenase during growth with taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate). This soluble enzyme was enriched 320-fold in four steps. The 40 kDa protein (denatured) had an N-terminal amino acid sequence which started at position 42 of the deduced sequence of H16_B0860 (termed 'sulfite oxidase' cd02114), which we named SorA. The neighbouring gene is an orthologue of sorB, and the sorAB genes were co-transcribed. Cell fractionation showed SorA to be periplasmic. The corresponding enzyme in Delftia acidovorans SPH-1 was enriched 270-fold, identified as Daci_0055 (termed 'sulfite oxidase' cd02110) and has a cytochrome c encoded downstream. We presume, from genomic data for bacteria and archaea, that there are several subgroups of sulfite dehydrogenases, which all contain a Moco, and transfer electrons to a specific cytochrome c. PMID:18174144

  6. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot solubility determinations have suggested that in some cases the solubility increases with increasing salt concentrations.

  7. Synthesis and anticoagulant activity of the quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lihong; Wu, Penghui; Zhang, Jinrong; Gao, Song; Wang, Libo; Li, Mingjia; Sha, Mingming; Xie, Weiguo; Nie, Min

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates with diverse degrees of substitution (DS) ascribed to sulfate groups between 0.52 and 1.55 were synthesized by reacting quaternary ammonium chitosan with an uncommon sulfating agent (N(SO(3)Na)(3)) that was prepared from sodium bisulfite (NaHSO(3)) through reaction with sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) in the aqueous system homogeneous. The structures of the derivatives were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The factors affecting DS of quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates which included the molar ratio of NaNO(2) to quaternary ammonium chitosan, sulfated temperature, sulfated time and pH of sulfated reaction solution were investigated in detail. Its anticoagulation activity in vitro was determined by an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a thrombin time (TT) assay and a prothrombin time (PT) assay. Results of anticoagulation assays showed quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates significantly prolonged APTT and TT, but not PT, and demonstrated that the introduction of sulfate groups into the quaternary ammonium chitosan structure improved its anticoagulant activity obviously. The study showed its anticoagulant properties strongly depended on its DS, concentration and molecular weight. PMID:21996571

  8. Studies on bipolar membranes. Part II — Conversion of sodium acetate to acetic acid and sodium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Trivedi; B. G. Shah; S. K. Adhikary; V. K. Indusekhar; R. Rangarajan

    1997-01-01

    The electrodialytic water-splitting technology using bipolar membrane is an attractive cost-effective process for the production of acids and alkalies from the corresponding salts occurring in waste waters. Earlier report by us described the preparation of bipolar membranes and its application in converting sodium sulfate into sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. In this paper, as an extension of our earlier published

  9. The preparation and analysis of ammonia base sulfite pulping liquor

    E-print Network

    Honstead, John Frederick

    1950-01-01

    action cn other cellulose-bearing materi- als such as straws, hulls, wood waste, or others. As a first step in this project an analytical method for determin- ing ammonia and sulfur dioxide in the pulping liquor must be worked out and tested... method of continuous analysis and control. The equip- ment must be tested and any calibration curves that will be needed must be furnished. I ? IHTRODUCTIOM The two most important processes for producing paper pulp by chem- ical means are the sulfate...

  10. Single-cell protein production from spent sulfite liquor utilizing cell-recycle and computer monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Gold; Ali Mohagheghi; Charles L. Cooney; Daniel I. C. Wang

    1981-01-01

    To reduce the BOD of spent sulfite liquor before disposal, torula yeast (Candida utilis) is produced by a continuous culture process, the productivity of which is limited by sugar concentration and cell growth rate. To increase productivity, a recycle system has been designed and tested. Cells were sedimented continuously with a flocculating agent (bentonite) before being recycled to the fermentor.

  11. Properties of an enzymatic complex active in sulfite and thiosulfate oxidation by Rhodotorula sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa J. Kurek; M. Curie-Sk

    1985-01-01

    An enzymatic complex from Rhodotorula was characterized and it was indicated that it possessed thiosulfate-oxidizing activity, forming tetrathionate as well as sulfite oxidase activity. Both activities coupled with ferricyanide and native cytochrome c but no with mammalian cytochrome c. Activities of these enzymes were inhibited by thiol inhibitors. Chelating agents did not affect thiosulfate oxidizing activity and only moderately inhibited

  12. Influence of pH on inhibition of bacteria, fungi, and coliphages by bisulfite and sulfite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Babich; G. Stotzky

    1978-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effects of bisulfite (HSOâ⁻) and sulfite (SOâ\\/sup 2 -\\/), the anionic solubility products of sulfur dioxide (SOâ), on the growth of bacteria and fungi and on the survival of a coliphage. Although differential sensitivities to these anions were noted among the test microorganisms, HSOâ⁻ was always more inhibitory than SOâ⁻². The inhibitory effects of

  13. Process Modifications for Air Pollution Control in Neutral Sulfite Semi-Chemical Mills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio F. Galeano; Byron M. Dillard

    1972-01-01

    The body of information presented in this paper is directed to those individuals concerned with the air pollution control problems of the pulp and paper industry operation. Process modifications introduced at two Company mills, at Big Island, Va. and Tomahawk, Wis., where neutral sulfite semichemical pulping of hardwoods is performed at rates of 550 and 630 tons per day, respectively,

  14. Sulfate metabolism in the alloxan-diabetic rat: relationship of altered sulfate pools to proteoglycan sulfation in heart and other tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Spiro

    1987-01-01

    Summary  The incorporation of [35S]sulfate into heart proteoglycans has been studied in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats by perfusion and in vivo administration of the isotope; in the latter situation, comparison was also made of radiolabeled sulfate utilization by several other tissues (kidney, liver, lung, muscle, testes and skin). The radiolabeled products were characterized by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and anion

  15. Sodium Phosphate

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, ... clear view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  16. Oxidation of H 2 , organic compounds and inorganic sulfur compounds coupled to reduction of O 2 or nitrate by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simone Dannenberg; Michael Kroder; Waltraud Dilling; Heribert Cypionka

    1992-01-01

    All of fourteen sulfate-reducing bacteria tested were able to carry out aerobic respiration with at least one of the following electron donors: H2, lactate, pyruvate, formate, acetate, butyrate, ethanol, sulfide, thiosulfate, sulfite. Generally, we did not obtain growth with O2 as electron acceptor. The bacteria were microaerophilic, since the respiration rates increased with decreasing O2 concentrations or ceased after repeated

  17. Sulfate impurities from deicing salt and durability of Portland cement mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, M.C.

    1987-06-01

    This thesis reports research on the effects of calcium sulfate in halite on Portland cement durability. Much has been published about sulfate ions causing expansion reactions in Portland cement concrete, on scaling caused by sodium chloride, and the participation of magnesium sulfate in seawater attack. However, little work has been done on the influence of sodium chloride and calcium sulfate solutions as they are found combined in natural halite. Durability studies were conducted using brines containing different amounts of gypsum as an impurity. Damage mechanisms, reaction products and pore structure changes were evaluated. 16 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Sulfated glycans in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-03-01

    Sulfated glycans such as glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans are key players in both molecular and cellular events of inflammation. They participate in leukocyte rolling along the endothelial surface of inflamed sites; chemokine regulation and its consequential functions in leukocyte guidance, migration and activation; leukocyte transendothelial migration; and structural assembly of the subendothelial basement membrane responsible to control tissue entry of cells. Due to these and other functions, exogenous sulfated glycans of various structures and origins can be used to interventionally down-regulate inflammation processes. In this review article, discussion is given primarily on the anti-inflammatory functions of mammalian heparins, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and related compounds as well as the holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and the brown algal fucoidans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action of these sulfated glycans in inflammation, helps research programs involved in developing new carbohydrate-based drugs aimed to combat acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25576741

  19. Phytoextraction potential of wild type and 35S-gshI transgenic poplar trees (Populus x Canescens) for environmental pollutants herbicide paraquat, salt sodium, zinc sulfate and nitric oxide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, G; Bittsánszky, A; Szabó, Z; Waters, L; Gullner, G; Kampfl, G; Heltai, G; Komíves, T

    2014-01-01

    Phytoextraction potentials of two transgenic (TR) poplar (Populus x canescens) clones TRggs11 and TRlgl6 were compared with that of wild-type (WT) following exposure to paraquat, zinc sulfate, common salt and nitric oxide (NO), using a leaf-disc system incubated for 21 days on EDTA-containing nutritive WPM media in vitro. Glutathione (GSH) contents of leaf discs of TRlgl6 and TRggs11 showed increments to 296% and 190%, respectively, compared with WT. NO exposure led to a twofold GSH content in TRlgl6, which was coupled with a significantly increased sulfate uptake when exposed to 10(-3) M ZnSO4. The highest mineral contents of Na, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Mo was observed in the TRggs11 clone. Salt-induced activity of catalase enzyme increased in both TR clones significantly compared with WT under NaCl (0.75% and 1.5%) exposure. The in silico sequence analyses of gsh1 genes revealed that P. x canadensis and Salix sachalinensis show the closest sequence similarity to that of P. x canescens, which predicted an active GSH production with high phytoextraction potentials of these species with indication for their use where P. x canescens can not be grown. PMID:24912238

  20. Magnesium Sulfate Reduces Intra- and Postoperative Analgesic Requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Koinig; Thomas Wallner; Peter Marhofer; Harald Andel; Klaus Horauf; Nikolaus Mayer

    1998-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind study with two parallel groups, we assessed the analgesic effect of periopera- tive magnesium sulfate administration in 46 ASA phys- ical status I or II patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery with total IV anesthesia. The patients received either magnesium sulfate 50 mg\\/kg preoperatively and Smg*kg-i * hP ' intraoperatively or the same volume of isotonic sodium

  1. Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Li, Y.C. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall goal of this study is to assess the technical and economic feasibilities for producing marketable products including fertilizer-grade ammonium sulfate from gypsum produced as part of lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. Millions of tone of FGD-gypsum by-product may be produced in this decade as a result of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In this research, bench-scale experiments were conducted to obtain process data for the production of ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum and to help evaluate technical and economic feasibilities of the process. The FGD-gypsum sample produced from a Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121-FGD process installed on the Abbott power plant in Champaign, EL which was composed of 98.36% gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O) and less than 0.01% calcium sulfite (CaSO) was used. The preliminary results of bench-scale experiments to evaluate the influence of reaction conditions to produce ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum are presented in this paper.

  2. Protective performances of two anti-graffiti treatments towards sulfite and sulfate formation in SO 2 polluted model environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula María Carmona-Quiroga; Itai Panas; Jan-Erik Svensson; Lars-Gunnar Johansson; María Teresa Blanco-Varela; Sagrario Martínez-Ramírez

    2010-01-01

    Specific strategies for protection are being developed to counter both the staining and corrosive effects of polluted air in cities, as well as to allow for efficient removal of unwanted graffiti paintings. These protection strategies employ molecules with tailored functionalities, e.g. being hydrophobic, while maintaining porosity for molecular water vapour permeation.The present study employs SO2 and water to probe the

  3. Mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes during thermochemical reduction of native sulfur, sulfite and sulfate by amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Watanabe; H. Naraoka; H. Ohmoto

    2006-01-01

    Mass independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) is recognized when the Delta33S value (= delta33S-0.515xdelta34S) of a sample falls outside the range of 0±0.2 permil and the 33-34theta value (= ln33alpha\\/ ln34alpha) lies outside the range of 0.515±.005 (Farquhar and Wing, 2003). Previous investigators have concluded that the only mechanisms to create MIF-S are photochemical reactions between sulfur-bearing gases (SO2,

  4. Sulfate assimilation in eukaryotes: fusions, relocations and lateral transfers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The sulfate assimilation pathway is present in photosynthetic organisms, fungi, and many bacteria, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine and methionine and a range of other metabolites. In photosynthetic eukaryotes sulfate is reduced in the plastids whereas in aplastidic eukaryotes the pathway is cytosolic. The only known exception is Euglena gracilis, where the pathway is localized in mitochondria. To obtain an insight into the evolution of the sulfate assimilation pathway in eukaryotes and relationships of the differently compartmentalized isoforms we determined the locations of the pathway in lineages for which this was unknown and performed detailed phylogenetic analyses of three enzymes involved in sulfate reduction: ATP sulfurylase (ATPS), adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR) and sulfite reductase (SiR). Results The inheritance of ATPS, APR and the related 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPR) are remarkable, with multiple origins in the lineages that comprise the opisthokonts, different isoforms in chlorophytes and streptophytes, gene fusions with other enzymes of the pathway, evidence a eukaryote to prokaryote lateral gene transfer, changes in substrate specificity and two reversals of cellular location of host- and endosymbiont-originating enzymes. We also found that the ATPS and APR active in the mitochondria of Euglena were inherited from its secondary, green algal plastid. Conclusion Our results reveal a complex history for the enzymes of the sulfate assimilation pathway. Whilst they shed light on the origin of some characterised novelties, such as a recently described novel isoform of APR from Bryophytes and the origin of the pathway active in the mitochondria of Euglenids, the many distinct and novel isoforms identified here represent an excellent resource for detailed biochemical studies of the enzyme structure/function relationships. PMID:18248682

  5. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  6. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  7. Efficient reductive dechlorination of monochloroacetic acid by sulfite/UV process.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuchun; Ma, Jun; Liu, Guifang; Fang, Jingyun; Yue, Siyang; Guan, Yinghong; Chen, Liwei; Liu, Xiaowei

    2012-07-01

    Most halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) are toxic and persistent, and their efficient destruction is currently a challenge. Here, we proposed a sulfite/UV (253.7 nm) process to eliminate HOCs. Monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) was selected as the target compound and was degraded rapidly in the sulfite/UV process. The degradation kinetics were accelerated proportionally to the increased sulfite concentration, while the significant enhancement by increasing pH only occurred in a pH range of 6.0-8.7. The degradation proceeded via a reductive dechlorination mechanism induced by hydrated electron (e(aq)(-)), and complete dechlorination was readily achieved with almost all the chlorine atoms in MCAA released as chloride ions. Mass balance (C and Cl) studies showed that acetate, succinate, sulfoacetate, and chloride ions were the major products, and a degradation pathway was proposed. The dual roles of pH were not only to regulate the S(IV) species distribution but also to control the interconversion between e(aq)(-) and H(•). Effective quantum efficiency (?) for the formation of e(aq)(-) in the process was determined to be 0.116 ± 0.002 mol/einstein. The present study may provide a promising alternative for complete dehalogenation of most HOCs and reductive detoxification of numerous toxicants. PMID:22681542

  8. Combined S-33 and O-18 Isotope Tracing of Intracellular Sulfur Metabolism during Microbial Sulfate Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antler, Gilad; Bosak, Tanja; Ono, Shuhei; Sivan, Orit; Turchyn, Alexandra V.

    2014-05-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is a key player in the global carbon cycle, oxidizing nearly 50% of organic matter in marine sediments. The biochemical pathway of microbial sulfate reduction fractionates sulfur and oxygen isotopes and these fractionations can be used to reconstruct S cycling in sediments. Sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction, which partitions lighter sulfur (32S) into sulfide and heavier sulfur (33S and 34S) into the residual sulfate, can be as high as 72o for 34S/32S. The availability and type of organic substrate control the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation by influencing the fluxes of and the transfer of electrons to different S species. The partitioning of oxygen in sulfate during microbial sulfate reduction appears to be strongly influenced by the oxygen isotopic composition of water in which the bacteria grow, but its magnitude also seems to correlate with the magnitude of 34S/32S isotope fractionation. In addition, the fractionation of 33S/32S is thought to reflect the reversibility of some intercellular fluxes. We wanted to investigate whether the 18O/16O, 34S/32S and 33S/32S isotope fractionations in sulfate are controlled by the same intracellular processes and conditions. This was done by investigating the combined sulfur and oxygen isotope partitioning by a marine Desulfovibrio sp. grown in pure culture on different organic substrates and in water with different isotopic composition of oxygen. The isotope fractionations of oxygen and sulfur correlated with the cell specific sulfate reduction rates (csSRR), where slower rates yielded higher sulfur fractionation (as high as 60) and higher oxygen isotope fractionation. The trends in 33S/32S and 34S/32S with the changing csSRR was similar to the trends in 18O/16O with the csSRR, suggesting that the same intercellular pathways controlled both oxygen and sulfur isotope signatures during microbial sulfate reduction. The use of water with different isotopic composition of oxygen showed that the kinetic isotopic fractionation was negligible and that ?18O in sulfate should be 22.5o higher than ?18O in water (at 22° C). This relationship indicates that more intracellular sulfite may be oxidized back to sulfate when the flux of electrons from the electron donor to sulfite is low, allowing isotopic exchange of oxygen between sulfite and water. The use of our experimental results as constraints in a reactive transport model implies that the magnitudes of the oxygen isotope fractionation and sulfur isotope fractionation are correlated under a broad range of sulfate reduction rates in marine and marginal marine environments. This correlation suggests a strong role for the electron donor in controlling the intracellular redox fluxes of sulfur and the fractionation of oxygen isotopes in the natural environment.

  9. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium bicarbonate comes as a tablet and powder to take by mouth. Sodium bicarbonate is taken one to four times a day, depending on the reason you ... flecainide (Tambocor), iron, ketoconazole (Nizoral), lithium (Eskalith, ... Urex), methotrexate, quinidine, sulfa-containing antibiotics, tetracycline ( ...

  10. Sodium Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... irrationally, and coma or convulsions if the sodium level rises to extremely high concentrations. In rare cases, hypernatremia may be due to Cushing syndrome or a condition caused by too little ADH ... association with blood levels. The body normally excretes excess sodium, so the ...

  11. [Activity and structure of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community in the sediments of the southern part of Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The rates of sulfate reduction (SR) and the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were studied in the sediments of the Posol'skaya banka elevation in the southern part of Lake Baikal. SR rates varied from 1.2 to 1641 nmol/(dm3 day), with high rates (> 600 nmol/(dm3 day)) observed at both deep-water stations and in subsurface silts. Integral SR rates calculated for the uppermost 50 cm of the sediments were higher for gas-saturated and gas hydrate-bearing sediments than in those with low methane content. Enrichment SRB cultures were obtained in Widdel medium for freshwater SRB. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragments from clone libraries obtained from the enrichments revealed the presence of SRB belonged to Desulfosporosinus genus, with D. lacus as the most closely related member (capable of sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate reduction), as well as members of the order Clostridiales. PMID:25507445

  12. [Activity and structure of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community in the sediments of the southern part of Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Pimenov, N V; Zakharova, E E; Briukhanov, A L; Korneeva, V A; Kuznetsov, B B; Turova, T P; Pogodaeva, T V; Kalmychkov, G V; Zemskaia, T I

    2014-01-01

    The rates of sulfate reduction (SR) and the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were studied in the sediments of the Posol'skaya banka elevation in the southern part of Lake Baikal. SR rates varied from 1.2 to 1641 nmol/(dm3 day), with high rates (> 600 nmol/(dm3 day)) observed at both deep-water stations and in subsurface silts. Integral SR rates calculated for the uppermost 50 cm of the sediments were higher for gas-saturated and gas hydrate-bearing sediments than in those with low methane content. Enrichment SRB cultures were obtained in Widdel medium for freshwater SRB. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragments from clone libraries obtained from the enrichments revealed the presence of SRB belonged to Desulfosporosinus genus, with D. lacus as the most closely related member (capable of sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate reduction), as well as members of the order Clostridiales. PMID:25423722

  13. Solution structure of the transmembrane 2 domain of the human melanocortin-4 receptor in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles and the functional implication of the D90N mutant.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Minsup; Kim, Kuglae; Lee, Dongju; Jung, Youngjin; Oh, Daeseok; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Cho, Art E; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Weontae

    2015-06-01

    The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 1 superfamily with seven transmembrane (TM) domains. Among them, the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) subtype has been highlighted recently by genetic studies in obese humans. In particular, in a patient with severe early-onset obesity, a novel heterozygous mutation in the MC4R gene was found in an exchange of Asp to Asn in the 90th amino acid residue located in the TM 2 domain (MC4R(D90N)). Mutations in the MC4R gene are the most frequent monogenic causes of severe obesity and are described as heterozygous with loss of function. We determine solution structures of the TM 2 domain of MC4R (MC4R(TM2)) and compared secondary structure of Asp90 mutant (MC4R(TM2-D90N)) in a micelle environment by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR structure shows that MC4R(TM2) forms a long ?-helix with a kink at Gly98. Interestingly, the structure of MC4R(TM2-D90N) is similar to that of MC4R(TM2) based on data from CD and NMR spectrum. However, the thermal stability and homogeneity of MC4R(D90N) is quite different from those of MC4R. The structure from molecular modeling suggests that Asp90(2.50) plays a key role in allosteric sodium ion binding. Our data suggest that the sodium ion interaction of Asp90(2.50) in the allosteric pocket of MC4R is essential to its function, explaining the loss of function of the MC4R(D90N) mutant. PMID:25753114

  14. Automotive sulfate emission data.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, J H

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses automotive sulfate emission results obtained by the Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control of EPA, General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and Esso. This work has been directed towards obtaining sulfate emission factors for cars with and without catalyst. While the EPA and Chrysler investigations have found significant sulfate formation in noncatalyst cars, GM, Ford, and Esso have found only trace levels from noncatalyst cars. All of these investigators agree that much higher quantities of sulfate are emitted from catalyst cars. The work done to date shows pelleted catalysts to have much lower sulfate emissions over the low speed-EPA Federal Test Procedures than monolith catalysts. This is probably due to temporary storage of sulfates on the catalyst due to chemical interaction with the alumina pellets. The sulfate compounds are, to a large degree, emitted later under higher speed conditions which result in higher catalyst temperatures which decompose the alumina salt. Future work will be directed towards further elucidation of this storage mechanism as well as determining in detail how factors such as air injection rate and catalyst location affect sulfate emissions. PMID:50932

  15. Allergy to protamine sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Porsche; Zara R. Brenner

    1999-01-01

    Adverse responses to protamine sulfate have been identified for many years. The antigen-antibody response to protamine sulfate results in a type I anaphylactic reaction. Manifestations of allergic reactions include hypotension, bronchospasm, and skin and mucous membrane reactions. The severity of the adverse responses may vary from mild to causing death. Several potential risk factors for adverse reactions to protamine have

  16. Wnts, Signaling and Sulfates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Seth S. Blair (University of Wisconsin; Department of Zoology REV)

    2001-09-25

    Questions remain about the signaling pathways that control pattern formation during development. Blair describes how sulfated glycosaminoglycans affect several developmentally important signaling pathways, including Wnt-Wingless, Fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog, and Bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling. A new secreted sulfatase, Qsulf1, regulates the sensitivity of vertebrate cells to Wnts, possibly by modifying the sulfation of glycosaminoglycans.

  17. Dynamic fluorescence quenching of quinine sulfate dication by chloride ion in ionic and neutral micellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Sunita; Varma Y, Tej Varma; Pant, Debi D.

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Quinine sulfate dication (QSD) by chloride-ion (Cl-) in micellar environments of anionic, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and neutral, triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous phase has been investigated by time-resolved and steady- state fluorescence measurements. The quenching follows linear Stern-Volmer relation in micellar solutions and is dynamic in nature.

  18. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1991-01-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from oil field waters from oil production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Spore-forming rods dominated in the enrichments when lactate, propionate, butyrate, or a mixture of aliphatic fatty acids (C4 through C6) was added as a carbon source and electron donor. Representative strains were isolated and characterized. The isolates grew autotrophically on H2-CO2 and heterotrophically on fatty acids such as formate, propionate, butyrate, caproate, valerate, pyruvate, and lactate and on alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate but not nitrate could be used as an electron acceptor. The temperature range for growth was 43 to 78°C; the spores were extremely heat resistant and survived 131°C for 20 min. The optimum pH was 7.0. The isolates grew well in salt concentrations ranging from 0 to 800 mmol of NaCl per liter. Sulfite reductase P582 was present, but cytochrome c and desulfoviridin were not found. Electron micrographs revealed a gram-positive cell organization. The isolates were classified as a Desulfotomaculum sp. on the basis of spore formation, general physiological characteristics, and submicroscopic organization. To detect thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field water, polyvalent antisera raised against antigens from two isolates were used. These bacteria were shown to be widespread in oil field water from different platforms. The origin of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the pore water of oil reservoirs is discussed. Images PMID:16348538

  19. Promotion of ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  20. Antidotes for acute beryllium sulfate intoxication in mice.

    PubMed

    Basinger, M A; Johnson, J E; Burka, L T; Jones, M M

    1982-06-01

    Eleven water soluble chelating agents were tested as antidotes for acute beryllium sulfate intoxication in mice. The most effective of these was sodium 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonate (Tiron). At the level of administration of beryllium used, aurin tricarboxylic acid is not an antidote. PMID:7122994

  1. Effects of the food additive sulfite on nitrite-dependent nitric oxide production under conditions simulating the mixture of saliva and gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2012-02-01

    The food additive sulfite is mixed with saliva, which contains nitrite, in the oral cavity, and the mixture is mixed with gastric juice in the stomach. In the stomach, salivary nitrite can be transformed to nitric oxide (NO). In this study, the effects of sulfite on nitrite-dependent NO production were investigated using acidified saliva (pH 2.6) and acidic buffer solutions (pH 2.0). Sulfite enhanced NO production in acidified saliva and acidic buffer solutions, and the enhancement increased with the increase in sulfite concentration from 0 to 0.1 mM, whereas suppressed NO production and the suppression increased as the concentration was increased over 0.2 mM. The enhancement was due to the increase in reaction rate between nitrous acid and nitrososulfonate (ONSO(3)(-)) that was formed by the reaction of nitrous acid with hydrogen sulfite, and the suppression was due to the increase in hydrogen sulfite-dependent consumption rate of ONSO(3)(-). A salivary component SCN(-) (1 mM) enhanced and suppressed NO production induced by 1 mM nitrite when sulfite concentrations were lower and higher than 1 mM, respectively. ONSO(3)(-) formed from hydrogen sulfite and nitrosyl thiocyanate (ONSCN), which was produced by the reaction of nitrous acid with SCN(-), seemed to contribute to the enhancement and suppression. NO production induced by nitrite/ascorbic acid systems was suppressed by sulfite, and the suppressive effects were decreased by SCN(-), whereas sulfite-induced suppression of NO production in nitrite/rutin systems was increased by SCN(-). During reactions of nitrite with sulfite in the presence and absence of SCN(-), oxygen was taken up. The oxygen uptake is discussed to be due to autoxidation of NO and radical chain reactions initiated by hydrogen sulfite radicals. The results of the present study suggest that sulfite can enhance and suppress nitrite-dependent NO production. It is discussed that radicals including hydrogen sulfite radicals can be formed through the reactions of nitrite and sulfite in the stomach. PMID:22224438

  2. Isolation and characterization by immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Rochalimaea quintana from a patient with bacillary angiomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M; Roux, V; Stein, A; Ferrier, F; Viraben, R; Raoult, D

    1994-01-01

    Rochalimaea quintana was isolated from the blood of a French human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient with bacillary angiomatosis. The isolate showed the typical growth characteristics of Rochalimaea species and was inert when typical biochemical testing was used. The purpose of the present work was to characterize and compare this new isolate with reference strains of R. quintana, Rochalimaea vinsonii, and Rochalimaea henselae by using immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot (immunoblot), restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR of the citrate synthase gene, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR with TaqI enzyme, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing could differentiate the three Rochalimaea species and allowed characterization of the French isolate as R. quintana. However, identification of the Rochalimaea isolate to the species level was more easily obtained by immunofluorescence with specific murine antisera. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis allowed differentiation of the French R. quintana isolate from R. quintana Fuller and may serve as an epidemiological tool. Images PMID:7519628

  3. Allergy to protamine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Porsche, R; Brenner, Z R

    1999-01-01

    Adverse responses to protamine sulfate have been identified for many years. The antigen-antibody response to protamine sulfate results in a type I anaphylactic reaction. Manifestations of allergic reactions include hypotension, bronchospasm, and skin and mucous membrane reactions. The severity of the adverse responses may vary from mild to causing death. Several potential risk factors for adverse reactions to protamine have been identified, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, vasectomy, allergy to fish, prior exposure to protamine sulfate, and the rate of infusion. A case study is presented, and strategies for improving patient outcomes are discussed. PMID:10580216

  4. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  5. Multicopy Fzf1 (Sul1) Suppresses the Sulfite Sensitivity but Not the Glucose Derepression or Aberrant Cell Morphology of a Grr1 Mutant of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Avram, D.; Bakalinsky, A. T.

    1996-01-01

    An ssu2 mutation in Sacccharomyces cerevisiae, previously shown to cause sulfite sensitivity, was found to be allelic to GRR1, a gene previously implicated in glucose repression. The suppressor rgt1, which suppresses the growth defects of grr1 strains on glucose, did not fully suppress the sensitivity on glucose or nonglucose carbon sources, indicating that it is not strictly linked to a defect in glucose metabolism. Because the Cln1 protein was previously shown to be elevated in grr1 mutants, the effect of CLN1 overexpression on sulfite sensitivity was investigated. Overexpression in GRR1 cells resulted in sulfite sensitivity, suggesting a connection between CLN1 and sulfite metabolism. Multicopy FZF1, a putative transcription factor, was found to suppress the sulfite sensitive phenotype of grr1 strains, but not the glucose derepression or aberrant cell morphology. Multicopy FZF1 was also found to suppress the sensitivity of a number of other unrelated sulfite-sensitive mutants, but not that of ssu1 or met20, implying that FZF1 may act through Ssu1p and Met20p. Disruption of FZF1 resulted in sulfite sensitivity when the construct was introduced in single copy at the FZF1 locus in a GRR1 strain, providing evidence that FZF1 is involved in sulfite metabolism. PMID:8889516

  6. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  7. Diversity and distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria in permanently frozen Lake Fryxell, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Karr, Elizabeth A; Sattley, W Matthew; Rice, Melissa R; Jung, Deborah O; Madigan, Michael T; Achenbach, Laurie A

    2005-10-01

    The permanently frozen freshwater Lake Fryxell, located in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, exhibits an ideal geochemistry for microbial sulfate reduction. To investigate the population of sulfate-reducing bacteria in Lake Fryxell, both 16S rRNA gene and metabolic primer sets targeting the dsrA gene for the dissimilatory sulfite reductase alpha subunit were employed to analyze environmental DNA obtained from the water column and sediments of Lake Fryxell. In addition, enrichment cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria established at 4 degrees C from Lake Fryxell water were also screened using the dsrA primer set. The sequence information obtained showed that a diverse group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes of the domain Bacteria inhabit Lake Fryxell. With one exception, the enrichment culture sequences were not represented within the environmental sequences. Sequence data were compared with the geochemical profile of Lake Fryxell to identify possible connections between the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and limnological conditions. Several clone groups were highly localized with respect to lake depth and, therefore, experienced specific physiochemical conditions. However, all sulfate-reducing bacteria inhabiting Lake Fryxell must function under the constantly cold conditions characteristic of this extreme environment. PMID:16204557

  8. Binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate to linear and star homopolymers of the nonionic poly(methoxyhexa(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) and the polycation poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate): electromotive force, isothermal titration calorimetry, surface tension, and small-angle neutron scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Couderc-Azouani, S; Sidhu, J; Georgiou, T K; Charalambous, D C; Vamvakaki, M; Patrickios, C S; Bloor, D M; Penfold, J; Holzwarth, J F; Wyn-Jones, E

    2004-07-20

    We investigated the binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to various linear and star polymers of the nonionic methoxyhexa(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PMHEGMA) and the ionic 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA), the latter being a polycation at low pH. The dodecyl sulfate ion selective electrode (EMF), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and surface tension (ST) were applied to gain detailed information about interactions. In all cases there is evidence of significant binding of SDS over an extensive SDS concentration range spanning from ca. 10(-6) to 0.1 mol dm(-3). At pH 3, the polymer PDMAEMA is a strong polycation and here the binding is dominated by electrostatic 1:1 charge neutralization with the anionic surfactant. At their natural pH of 8.6, PMHEGMA and PDMAEMA polymers are essentially nonionic and bind SDS in the form of polymer-bound aggregates in the concentration range of ca. 1 x 10(-3) to 3 x 10(-2) mol dm(-3). All the polymers also bind SDS to a lesser extent at concentrations below 1 x 10(-3) mol dm(-3) reaching as low as 10(-7) mol dm(-3). This low concentration binding process involves the polymer and nonassociated SDS monomers. As far as we are aware, this is the first example that such a low concentration noncooperative binding process could be observed in SDS/neutral polymer systems by EMF and ST. We also showed that the nonionic surfactant hexa(ethylene glycol) mono-n-dodecyl ether (C12EO6) and the cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) interact with star PDMAEMA. We believe that the interaction of C12EO6 and CTAB is of similar noncooperative type as the first SDS binding process in the range from ca. 10(-5) to 0.3 x 10(-3) mol dm(-3). At the high concentration binding limit Csat of SDS, the above polymers become fully saturated with bound SDS micelles. We applied small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to determine the structure and aggregation numbers of the star polymer/bound SDS micelles and calculated the stoichiometry of such supramolecular complexes. The SANS data on PDMAEMA star polymers in the presence of C12EO6 showed only a limited monomer binding in contrast to linear PDMAEMA, which showed monomer C12EO6 binding at low concentrations but micellar aggregates at 6 x 10(-3) mol dm(-3). PMID:15248737

  9. Presence of chondroitin sulfate in the neuronal cytoplasm.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, R K; Thomas, M D; Crockett, C P; Margolis, R U

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins has been studied in cytoplasmic and particulate fractions of neurons isolated in bulk from rat cerebrum. Lysis of the neurons in 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 released 20% of the protein and over 90% of the lactate dehydrogenase in a soluble form. Eighty-two percent of the chondroitin sulfate was also released, together with 55% of the heparan sulfate and 24-25% of the hyaluronic acid and glycoproteins. The chondroitin sulfate remaining in the membranes was completely depolymerized to disaccharides after treatment with chondroitinase ABC, and treatment of the neuronal membranes with 0.1% trypsin removed 55-63% of the chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate but only 25% of the sulfated glycoproteins. The results reported here support our previous conclusion that the soluble chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain is largely a cytoplasmic constitutent of neurons (and astrocytes) and is not primarily present in nervous tissue as an extracellular ground substance. Images PMID:287011

  10. Concentration of simple aldehydes by sulfite-containing double-layer hydroxide minerals: implications for biopoesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in conceptual studies of prebiotically relevant chemical reactions that could have led to functional biomolecules. The necessary source compounds are likely to have been present in dilute solution, raising the question of how to achieve selective concentration and to reach activation. With the assumption of an initial 'RNA World', the questions of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors of sugar phosphates, come into the foreground. As a possible concentration process for simple, uncharged aldehydes, we investigated their adduct formation with sulfite ion bound in the interlayer of positively charged expanding-sheet-structure double-layer hydroxide minerals. Minerals of this type, initially with chloride as interlayer counter anion, have previously been shown to induce concentration and subsequent aldolization of aldehyde phosphates to form tetrose, pentose, and hexose phosphates. The reversible uptake of the simple aldehydes formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde by adduct formation with the immobilized sulfite ions is characterized by equilibrium constants of K=1.5, 9, and 11, respectively. This translates into an observable uptake at concentrations exceeding 50 mM.

  11. Kinetics and efficiency of the hydrated electron-induced dehalogenation by the sulfite/UV process.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuchun; Fang, Jingyun; Liu, Guifang; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Ma, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Hydrated electron (e(aq)(-)), which is listed among the most reactive reducing species, has great potential for removal and detoxification of recalcitrant contaminants. Here we provided quantitative insight into the availability and conversion of e(aq)(-) in a newly developed sulfite/UV process. Using monochloroacetic acid as a simple e(aq)(-)-probe, the e(aq)(-)-induced dehalogenation kinetics in synthetic and surface water was well predicted by the developed models. The models interpreted the complex roles of pH and S(IV), and also revealed the positive effects of UV intensity and temperature quantitatively. Impacts of humic acid, ferrous ion, carbonate/bicarbonate, and surface water matrix were also examined. Despite the retardation of dehalogenation by electron scavengers, the process was effective even in surface water. Efficiency of the process was discussed, and the optimization approaches were proposed. This study is believed to better understand the e(aq)(-)-induced dehalogenation by the sulfite/UV process in a quantitative manner, which is very important for its potential application in water treatment. PMID:24956604

  12. On the Occurrence of Anoxic Microniches, Denitrification, and Sulfate Reduction in Aerated Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, Andreas; Santegoeds, Cecilia M.; Nielsen, Helle K.; Ploug, Helle; Wagner, Michael; Pribyl, Milan; Wanner, Jiri; Amann, Rudolf; de Beer, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    A combination of different methods was applied to investigate the occurrence of anaerobic processes in aerated activated sludge. Microsensor measurements (O2, NO2?, NO3?, and H2S) were performed on single sludge flocs to detect anoxic niches, nitrate reduction, or sulfate reduction on a microscale. Incubations of activated sludge with 15NO3? and 35SO42? were used to determine denitrification and sulfate reduction rates on a batch scale. In four of six investigated sludges, no anoxic zones developed during aeration, and consequently denitrification rates were very low. However, in two sludges anoxia in flocs coincided with significant denitrification rates. Sulfate reduction could not be detected in any sludge in either the microsensor or the batch investigation, not even under short-term anoxic conditions. In contrast, the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria was shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and by PCR-based detection of genes coding for the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. A possible explanation for the absence of anoxia even in most of the larger flocs might be that oxygen transport is not only diffusional but enhanced by advection, i.e., facilitated by flow through pores and channels. This possibility is suggested by the irregularity of some oxygen profiles and by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the three-dimensional floc structures, which showed that flocs from the two sludges in which anoxic zones were found were apparently denser than flocs from the other sludges. PMID:10473433

  13. Oxygen isotope composition of sulfate produced during microbial sulfur oxidation: A pathway-specific fingerprint?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pjevac, P.; Brunner, B.; Mußmann, M.

    2012-04-01

    The oxidation of zero-valent sulfur such as elemental sulfur (S0) is an important energy source in many marine habitats including deep-sea vents, pelagic redox-clines and coastal surface sediments. Many microorganisms oxidize elemental sulfur to sulfate to gain reducing power. This transformation is catalyzed by a few known enzymatic pathways such as the reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase (rDSR)-aprAB/Sor pathway or the Sox multienzyme pathway. The isotopic composition of oxygen and sulfur in produced sulfate (?34S and ?18O) is determined by the isotope composition of the reactants, the ratio between forward and backward fluxes of enzymatically catalyzed reaction steps, and by kinetic and equilibrium isotopic fractionation. We hypothesize that the activity of distinct oxidation pathways is reflected in different ?34S and particularly, in unique ?18O isotopic fingerprints in the produced sulfate. To test our hypothesis we grew pure cultures of photo- and chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms of different phylogenetic origin with S0 as sole source of reducing power and determined the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of the produced sulfate. The identification of characteristic isotope fingerprints for each sulfur oxidation pathway could serve as a tool to estimate and deduce the importance of certain enzymatic pathways and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in the environment.

  14. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions. PMID:25228086

  15. Role for Ferredoxin:NAD(P)H Oxidoreductase (FprA) in Sulfate Assimilation and Siderophore Biosynthesis in Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Glassing, Angela; Harper, Justin; Franklin, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylate) (PDTC), produced by certain pseudomonads, is a sulfur-containing siderophore that binds iron, as well as a wide range of transition metals, and it affects the net hydrolysis of the environmental contaminant carbon tetrachloride. The pathway of PDTC biosynthesis has not been defined. Here, we performed a transposon screen of Pseudomonas putida DSM 3601 to identify genes necessary for PDTC production (Pdt phenotype). Transposon insertions within genes for sulfate assimilation (cysD, cysNC, and cysG [cobA2]) dominated the collection of Pdt mutations. In addition, two insertions were within the gene for the LysR-type transcriptional activator FinR (PP1637). Phenotypic characterization indicated that finR mutants were cysteine bradytrophs. The Pdt phenotype of finR mutants could be complemented by the known target of FinR regulation, fprA (encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase), or by Escherichia coli cysJI (encoding sulfite reductase). These data indicate that fprA is necessary for effective sulfate assimilation by P. putida and that the effect of finR mutation on PDTC production was due to deficient expression of fprA and sulfite reduction. fprA expression in both P. putida and P. aeruginosa was found to be regulated by FinR, but in a manner dependent upon reduced sulfur sources, implicating FinR in sulfur regulatory physiology. The genes and phenotypes identified in this study indicated a strong dependence upon intracellular reduced sulfur/cysteine for PDTC biosynthesis and that pseudomonads utilize sulfite reduction enzymology distinct from that of E. coli and possibly similar to that of chloroplasts and other proteobacteria. PMID:23794620

  16. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion tests, the combined sulfate attack tests captured performance risks and complex damage mechanisms associated with the SCC pore structure and constituent materials. Sodium sulfate attack with wetting-drying cycles and/or partial immersion under temperate-hot conditions synergistically caused significant damage to specimens, especially to quaternary cementitious systems having very fine pore structure, due to the build-up of salt crystals and sulfate reaction products. The deleterious effects of sulfate reaction products and salt crystallization on all cementitious systems were more severe under the combined sodium sulfate and freezing-thawing exposure, with a potential of sudden brittle failure. Laboratory experiments in the current work documented evidence for the occurrence of thaumasite sulfate attack (TSA) in cementitious systems containing limestone filler, not only under cold but also under temperate-hot conditions, which made specimens more vulnerable to damage in the combined sulfate attack tests. The field-like combined exposure of sodium sulfate, cyclic environments and flexural loading had synergistic effects on SCC specimens and caused the coexistence of multiple-complex degradation mechanisms (sulfate attack, TSA, stress-corrosion, salt crystallization, surface scaling and corrosion of surface steel fibres) depending on the mixture design variables. The current thesis demonstrates that relying only on sulfate immersion tests to evaluate the performance of cement-based materials can be risky. It also shows that linear and deterministic modeling of the performance of concrete structures under external sulfate attack is unrealistic. Fuzzy and adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference systems developed in the current thesis accurately and rationally predicted the serviceability, deterioration in engineering properties and time to failure of the SCC mixtures under the various sulfate attack exposure regimes adopted in the integrated testing approach. A durability evaluation factor from multiple performance criteria was created for the ammonium sulfate exposure. Enviro

  17. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  18. Bisulfite and sulfite as derivatives of sulfur dioxide alters biomechanical behaviors of airway smooth muscle cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Song, Aijing; Lin, Feng; Li, Jianming; Liao, Qingfeng; Liu, Enmei; Jiang, Xuemei; Deng, Linhong

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a common air pollutant that triggers asthmatic symptoms, but its toxicological mechanisms are not fully understood. Specifically, it is unclear how SO2 in vivo affects airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells of which the mechanics is known to ultimately mediate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) - a hallmark feature of asthma. To this end, we investigated the effects of bisulfite/sulfite (1:3 M/M in neutral fluid to simulate the in vivo derivatives of inhaled SO2 in the airways), on the viability, migration, stiffness and contractility of ASM cells cultured in vitro. The results showed that bisulfite/sulfite consistently increased viability, migration, F-actin intensity and stiffness of ASM cells in similar fashion as concentration increasing from 10(-4) to 10(-1)?mmol/L. However, bisulfite/sulfite increased the ASM cell contractility induced by KCl only at the concentration between 10(-4) and 10(-3)?mmol/L (p?sulfite became acutely toxic to the ASM cells. Taken together, the data suggest that SO2 derivatives at low levels in vivo may directly increase the mass, stiffness and contractility of ASM cells, which may help understand the mechanism in which specific air pollutants contribute in vivo to the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:24456156

  19. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of super-reduced cobalamin and cobinamide species by thiosulfate, sulfite and dithionite

    PubMed Central

    Dereven’kov, Ilia A.; Salnikov, Denis S.; Makarov, Sergei V.; Boss, Gerry R.; Koifman, Oskar I.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the kinetics of reactions of cob(I)alamin and cob(I)inamide with thiosulfate, sulfite, and dithionite by UV-Visible (UV-Vis) and stopped-flow spectroscopy. We found that the two Co(I) species were oxidized by these sulfur-containing compounds to Co(II) forms: oxidation by excess thiosulfate leads to penta-coordinate complexes and oxidation by excess sulfite or dithionite leads to hexa-coordinate Co(II)–SO2? complexes. The net scheme involves transfer of three electrons in the case of oxidation by thiosulfate and one electron for oxidation by sulfite and dithionite. On the basis of kinetic data, the nature of the reactive oxidants was suggested, i.e., HS2O3? (for oxidation by thiosulfate), S2O52?, HSO3?, and aquated SO2 (for oxidation by sulfite), and S2O42? and SO2? (for oxidation by dithionite). No difference was observed in kinetics with cobalamin(I) or cobinamide(I) as reductants. PMID:23999614

  1. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  2. Microscale separation of heparosan, heparan sulfate, and heparin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Bo; Linkens, Kathryn; Datta, Payel; Onishi, Akihiro; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-03-15

    The separation and quantification of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains with different levels of sulfation from cells and media, and prepared through chemoenzymatic synthesis or metabolic engineering, pose a major challenge in glycomics analysis. A method for microscale separation and quantification of heparin, heparan sulfate, and heparosan from cells is reported. This separation relies on a mini strong anion exchange spin column eluted stepwise with various concentrations of sodium chloride. Disaccharide analysis by LC-MS was used to monitor the chemical structure of the various GAG chains that were recovered. PMID:23262074

  3. Microscale separation of heparosan, heparan sulfate and heparin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue; Yang, Bo; Linkens, Kathryn; Datta, Payel; Onishi, Akihiro; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The separation and quantification of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, with different levels of sulfation, from cells, media and prepared through chemoenzymatic synthesis or metabolic engineering, poses a major challenge in glycomics analysis. A method for microscale separation and quantification of heparin, heparan sulfate and heparosan from cells is reported. This separation relies on a mini-strong anion exchange spin column eluted stepwise with different concentrations of sodium chloride. Disaccharide analysis by LC-MS was used to monitor the chemical structure of the different GAG chains that were recovered. PMID:23262074

  4. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  5. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Blank, R D; Doty, S B

    2001-04-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate. PMID:11334711

  6. A comparison of the dodecyl sulfate-induced precipitation of the myelin basic protein with other water-soluble proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Moskaitis; Anthony T. Campagnoni

    1986-01-01

    The interactions of sodium dodecyl sulfate with a number of proteins were examined at a variety of pH values ranging from 4.8 to 11.6 The dodecyl sulfate-induced precipitation of some of these proteins was observed within a relatively limited range of total dodecyl sulfate concentration. Most of the basic proteins precipitated at low pH but as the isoelectric point of

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution...base), and 10,000 Units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Sponsor....

  11. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  12. PIMLUCK KIJJANAPANICH SULFATE REDUCTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Metals from Acid Mine Drainage 37 3.1 Introduction 38 3.2 Material and Methods 39 3.2.1 Acid mine drainage (AMD) 39 3.2.2 Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculums 40 3.2.3 Organic substrates 40 3 Reduction in Gypsiferous Mine Soils from Nakhon Si Tham

  13. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  14. The Mechanism of Sodium and Chloride Uptake by the Gills of a Fresh-Water Fish, Carassius auratus: I. Evidence for an independent uptake of sodium and chloride ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Garcia Romeu; A ROMEU; J. MAETZ

    1964-01-01

    Carassius auratus placed in a dilute sodium chloride solution (400 gM) is able to absorb sodium and chloride ions at very different rates, or to absorb one ion and to lose the other. This is the case not only for fish which have been previously kept in choline chloride or sodium sulfate solutions or deionized water, in order to stimulate

  15. Activity and phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature subsurface fluids within the upper oceanic crust.

    PubMed

    Robador, Alberto; Jungbluth, Sean P; LaRowe, Douglas E; Bowers, Robert M; Rappé, Michael S; Amend, Jan P; Cowen, James P

    2014-01-01

    The basaltic ocean crust is the largest aquifer system on Earth, yet the rates of biological activity in this environment are unknown. Low-temperature (<100°C) fluid samples were investigated from two borehole observatories in the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR) flank, representing a range of upper oceanic basement thermal and geochemical properties. Microbial sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were measured in laboratory incubations with (35)S-sulfate over a range of temperatures and the identity of the corresponding sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) was studied by analyzing the sequence diversity of the functional marker dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrAB) gene. We found that microbial sulfate reduction was limited by the decreasing availability of organic electron donors in higher temperature, more altered fluids. Thermodynamic calculations indicate energetic constraints for metabolism, which together with relatively higher cell-specific SRR reveal increased maintenance requirements, consistent with novel species-level dsrAB phylotypes of thermophilic SRM. Our estimates suggest that microbially-mediated sulfate reduction may account for the removal of organic matter in fluids within the upper oceanic crust and underscore the potential quantitative impact of microbial processes in deep subsurface marine crustal fluids on marine and global biogeochemical carbon cycling. PMID:25642212

  16. Activity and phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature subsurface fluids within the upper oceanic crust

    PubMed Central

    Robador, Alberto; Jungbluth, Sean P.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Bowers, Robert M.; Rappé, Michael S.; Amend, Jan P.; Cowen, James P.

    2015-01-01

    The basaltic ocean crust is the largest aquifer system on Earth, yet the rates of biological activity in this environment are unknown. Low-temperature (<100°C) fluid samples were investigated from two borehole observatories in the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR) flank, representing a range of upper oceanic basement thermal and geochemical properties. Microbial sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were measured in laboratory incubations with 35S-sulfate over a range of temperatures and the identity of the corresponding sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) was studied by analyzing the sequence diversity of the functional marker dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrAB) gene. We found that microbial sulfate reduction was limited by the decreasing availability of organic electron donors in higher temperature, more altered fluids. Thermodynamic calculations indicate energetic constraints for metabolism, which together with relatively higher cell-specific SRR reveal increased maintenance requirements, consistent with novel species-level dsrAB phylotypes of thermophilic SRM. Our estimates suggest that microbially-mediated sulfate reduction may account for the removal of organic matter in fluids within the upper oceanic crust and underscore the potential quantitative impact of microbial processes in deep subsurface marine crustal fluids on marine and global biogeochemical carbon cycling. PMID:25642212

  17. Effect of controlled aeration on glycerol production in a sulfite process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Kalle, G.P.; Naik, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In a conventional sulfite process for glycerol production from sugarcane molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, maximum product concentration of only 40 g/L and productivities only up to 5 g/L/day are obtained, making the process industrially unattractive. Fermentation carried out under controlled conditions of aeration improved product concentration in the medium by twofold (96 g/L) and productivity by threefold (16 g/L/day), while permitting the yeast to tolerate higher initial concentration of sugar (400-465 g/L). There was a concomittant increase in glycerol concentration and productivity with increasing aeration rate (0-1.4 vvm), whereas ethanol concentration in the medium dropped by ca. twofold. At aeration rates greater than 1.4 vvm, all these parameters showed a sharp decline, indicating general inhibition of fermentation.

  18. Mimic of superoxide dismutase activity protects Chlorella sorokiniana against the toxicity of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitch, H.D.; Rosen, G.M.; Fridovich, I.

    1989-01-01

    The spin-trapping agent 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) has been used to demonstrate the light-dependent production of O/sub 2/- by Chlorella sorokiniana. In the presence of SO/sub 3/= a light-dependent production of the sulfur trioxy anion radical (SO/sub 3/-.) could also be seen. A complex prepared by reacting desferrioxamine with MnO/sub 2/, which catalyzes the dismutation of O/sub 2/-, protected the alga against the toxicity of sulfite. The data suggest that SO/sub 2/ toxicity is at least partially due to the effects of sulfoxy-free radicals generated by the oxidation of SO3= by O/sub 2/-.

  19. Cellulase production from spent sulfite liquor and paper-mill waste fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Qu Yinbo; Zhao Xin; Gao Peiji; Wang Zunong [Shandong Univ. (China)

    1991-12-31

    Since a high proportion of the overall cost of the conversion of cellulosics to useful products is the expense of cellulose production (1), it is desirable to develop new processes for producing large amounts of cellulase inexpensively. So far, most of the research work on cellulose production has been carried out using milled cellulose powder and inorganic salts as substrates, which significantly increases the cost of enzyme production. In order to reduce the cost of raw materials, we tried to develop from industrial wastes a new medium for the production of cellulose. In this report, we describe a simple method by which an all-waste medium, which was composed of spent ammonium sulfite liquor and cellulosic waste of a paper mill, and a catabolite derepression mutant of Penicillium decumbens were used to produce the enzyme efficiently.

  20. 4, 29492971, 2004 Ammonium sulfate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2949­2971, 2004 Ammonium sulfate ­ malonic acid aerosols C. F. Braban and J. P. D. Abbatt and Physics Discussions A study of the phase transition behavior of mixed ammonium sulfate ­ malonic acid Ammonium sulfate ­ malonic acid aerosols C. F. Braban and J. P. D. Abbatt Title Page Abstract Introduction

  1. Pulsed EPR Spectroscopy of 33S-Labeled Molybdenum Cofactor in Catalytically Active Bioengineered Sulfite Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eric L.; Belaidi, Abdel Ali; Raitsimring, Arnold M.; Davis, Amanda C.; Krämer, Tobias; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Neese, Frank; Schwarz, Günter; Enemark, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum enzymes contain at least one pyranopterin dithiolate (molybdopterin, MPT) moiety that coordinates Mo through two dithiolate (dithiolene) sulfur atoms. For sulfite oxidase (SO), hyperfine interactions (hfi) and nuclear quadrupole interactions (nqi) of magnetic nuclei (I ? 0) near the Mo(V) (d1) center have been measured using high-resolution pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods and interpreted with the help of the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These have provided important insights about the active site structure and the reaction mechanism of the enzyme. However, it has not been possible to use EPR to probe the dithiolene sulfurs directly since naturally abundant 32S has no nuclear spin (I = 0). Here we describe direct incorporation of 33S (I = 3/2), the only stable magnetic sulfur isotope, into MPT using controlled in vitro synthesis with purified proteins. The electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectra from 33S-labeled MPT in this catalytically active SO variant are dominated by the ‘inter-doublet’ transition arising from the strong nuclear quadrupole interaction, as also occurs for the 33S-labeled exchangeable equatorial sulfite ligand [Klein, E. L., et al., Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 1408 – 1418]. The estimated experimental hfi and nqi parameters for 33S (aiso = 3 MHz and e2Qq/h = 25 MHz) are in good agreement with those predicted by DFT. In addition, the DFT calculations show that the two 33S atoms are indistinguishable by EPR and reveal a strong intermixing between their out-of-plane pz orbitals and the dxy orbital of Mo(V). PMID:24387640

  2. Viscosity control of zein processing with sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Sessa; Gordon W. Selling; J. L. Willett; Debra E. Palmquist

    2006-01-01

    Zein, the predominant protein in corn, may be used as an alternative to various commercial plastics. Plastics produced from zein tend to be brittle, so plasticizers such as triethylene glycol (TEG) and water were used in this study to alleviate brittleness. When zein is blended with water and subjected to heat and shear in a torque rheometer, zein readily generates

  3. Sodium sulfate: Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous species over liquid Na2SO4 were identified by the technique of molecular beam mass spectrometry. The heat and entropy of vaporization of the Na2SO4 molecule were measured directly. Comparisons of the experimental entropy with values calculated using various molecular parameters were used to estimate the molecular structure and vibrational frequencies. The thermodynamic properties of gaseous and condensed phase Na2SO4, along with additional pertinent species, were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. Compositions were calculated at various fuel-to-oxidant ratios with additions of sulfur to the fuel and the components of sea salt to the intake air. Temperatures for condensation of Na2SO4 were obtained as a function of sulfur and sea salt concentrations.

  4. Gaseous sodium sulfate formation in flames and flowing gas environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Formation of Na2SO4(g) in flames and hot flowing gas systems was studied by high pressure, free-jet expansion, modulated molecular beam mass spectrometric sampling. Fuel-lean CH4-O2 flames doped with SO2, H2O and NaCl yielded the gaseous Na2SO4 molecule in residence times of less than one millisecond. Intermediate species NaSO2(g) and NaSO3(g) were also observed and measured. Composition profiles were obtained for all reaction products. Non-flame flowing gas experiments showed that Na2SO4 and NaSO3 gaseous molecules were formed at 1140 C in mixtures of O2, H2O(g), SO2 and and NaCl(g). Experimental results are compared with calculated equilibrium thermodynamic predictions.

  5. Gaseous sodium sulfate formation in flames and flowing gas environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Formation of Na2SO4(g) in flames and hot flowing gas systems was studied by high pressure, free-jet expansion, modulated molecular beam mass spectrometric sampling. Fuel-lean CH4-O2 flames doped with SO2, H2O and NaCl yielded the gaseous Na2SO4 molecule in residence times of less than one millisecond. Intermediate species NaSO2(g) and NaSO3(g) were also observed and measured. Composition profiles were obtained for all reaction products. Nonflame flowing gas experiments showed that Na2SO4 and NaSO3 gaseous molecules were formed at 1140 C in mixtures of O2, H2O(g), SO2 and NaCl(g). Experimental results are compared with calculated equilibrium thermodynamic predictions.

  6. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chassaing, Benoit; Aitken, Jesse D.; Malleshappa, Madhu; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) mainly comprised of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease are complex and multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. For the past 20 years, to study human IBD mechanistically, number of murine models of colitis has been developed. These models are indispensable tools to decipher underlying mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis as well as to evaluate number potential therapeutics. Among various chemical induced colitis models, DSS-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human ulcerative colitis. This model has both advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered when employed. The current protocol aimed to extensively describe the DSS-induced colitis model, focusing on its detailed protocol as well as factors that could affect DSS-induced pathology. PMID:24510619

  7. Pressure-induced disordering of sodium potassium sulfates and chromates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardin, Frederick E., III; Hammack, William S.

    1996-09-01

    Raman scattering and energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell were used to study the salts NaKSO4, K3Na(SO4)2, NaKCrO4, and K3Na(CrO4)2 to pressures of 22.5 GPa. These measurements reveal that the SO4 and CrO4 tetrahedra in the monopotassium salts become disordered, while those in the tripotassium salts stay ordered. This disordering occurs without a significant change in the structural arrangement of the cations. We suggest that the disordering results from an impeded ferroelastic phase transition, which causes the zone boundaries, and therefore the SO4 and CrO4 tetrahedra, to be distorted. The four salts are related to one of two structures: The tripotassium salts are isostructural, the monopotassium salts are closely related. The two structures differ by one symmetry element, which leaves the neighboring tetrahedra inequivalent. It is this difference that causes only one of the structures to form distorted zone boundaries.

  8. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...whipping agent at a level not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of gelatine used in the preparation of marshmallows. (3) As a surfactant in: (i) Fumaric acid-acidulated dry beverage base whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts per million of...

  9. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...whipping agent at a level not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of gelatine used in the preparation of marshmallows. (3) As a surfactant in: (i) Fumaric acid-acidulated dry beverage base whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts per million of...

  10. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...whipping agent at a level not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of gelatine used in the preparation of marshmallows. (3) As a surfactant in: (i) Fumaric acid-acidulated dry beverage base whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts per million of...

  11. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...whipping agent at a level not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of gelatine used in the preparation of marshmallows. (3) As a surfactant in: (i) Fumaric acid-acidulated dry beverage base whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts per million of...

  12. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...whipping agent at a level not to exceed 0.5 percent by weight of gelatine used in the preparation of marshmallows. (3) As a surfactant in: (i) Fumaric acid-acidulated dry beverage base whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts per million of...

  13. Fluorescence Probe Studies of Gelatin-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Interactions

    E-print Network

    Bales, Barney

    that the bulk properties (principally viscosity) of the solution are intimately related to the (microscopic of bothhydrophobicandhydrophilicsidechains,andbehaves asapolyampholyteoverawiderangeofpH.Theproperties of gelatin depend on its source solution. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies7 suggest that these adsorbed micelles have

  14. Evolutionary Relationships and Functional Diversity of Plant Sulfate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hideki; Buchner, Peter; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR, and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26). The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1–SULTR4) in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologs from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4), and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR, and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13) and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT). The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1) and SAC1-like transporters (SLT) of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte, and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae. PMID:22629272

  15. Regulation of Sulfate Assimilation by Nitrogen in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Koprivova, Anna; Suter, Marianne; den Camp, Roel Op; Brunold, Christian; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2000-01-01

    Using Arabidopsis, we analyzed the effect of omission of a nitrogen source and of the addition of different nitrogen-containing compounds on the extractable activity and the enzyme and mRNA accumulation of adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate reductase (APR). During 72 h without a nitrogen source, the APR activity decreased to 70% and 50% of controls in leaves and roots, respectively, while cysteine (Cys) and glutathione contents were not affected. Northern and western analysis revealed that the decrease of APR activity was correlated with decreased mRNA and enzyme levels. The reduced APR activity in roots could be fully restored within 24 h by the addition of 4 mm each of NO3?, NH4+, or glutamine (Gln), or 1 mm O-acetylserine (OAS). 35SO42? feeding showed that after addition of NH4+, Gln, or OAS to nitrogen-starved plants, incorporation of 35S into proteins significantly increased in roots; however, glutathione and Cys labeling was higher only with Gln and OAS or with OAS alone, respectively. OAS strongly increased mRNA levels of all three APR isoforms in roots and also those of sulfite reductase, Cys synthase, and serine acetyltransferase. Our data demonstrate that sulfate reduction is regulated by nitrogen nutrition at the transcriptional level and that OAS plays a major role in this regulation. PMID:10712537

  16. Sulfate Assimilation Mediates Tellurite Reduction and Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?†

    PubMed Central

    Ottosson, Lars-Göran; Logg, Katarina; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Sunnerhagen, Per; Käll, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Despite a century of research and increasing environmental and human health concerns, the mechanistic basis of the toxicity of derivatives of the metalloid tellurium, Te, in particular the oxyanion tellurite, Te(IV), remains unsolved. Here, we provide an unbiased view of the mechanisms of tellurium metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring deviations in Te-related traits of a complete collection of gene knockout mutants. Reduction of Te(IV) and intracellular accumulation as metallic tellurium strongly correlated with loss of cellular fitness, suggesting that Te(IV) reduction and toxicity are causally linked. The sulfate assimilation pathway upstream of Met17, in particular, the sulfite reductase and its cofactor siroheme, was shown to be central to tellurite toxicity and its reduction to elemental tellurium. Gene knockout mutants with altered Te(IV) tolerance also showed a similar deviation in tolerance to both selenite and, interestingly, selenomethionine, suggesting that the toxicity of these agents stems from a common mechanism. We also show that Te(IV) reduction and toxicity in yeast is partially mediated via a mitochondrial respiratory mechanism that does not encompass the generation of substantial oxidative stress. The results reported here represent a robust base from which to attack the mechanistic details of Te(IV) toxicity and reduction in a eukaryotic organism. PMID:20675578

  17. Pravastatin sodium.

    PubMed

    Al-Badr, Abdullah A; Mostafa, Gamal A E

    2014-01-01

    Pravastatin sodium is an [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitor and is a lipid-regulating drug. This monograph includes the description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition, solubility, appearance, and partition coefficient. The uses and the methods that have been reported for the synthesis of this drug are described. The physical methods that were used to characterize the drug are the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry. This chapter also contains the following spectra of the drug: the ultraviolet spectrum, the vibrational spectrum, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and the mass spectrum. The compendial methods of analysis include the British Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia methods. Other methods of analysis that are included in this profile are spectrophotometric, electrochemical, polarographic, voltammetric and chromatographic, and immunoassay methods. The chapter also contains the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, stability, and articles that reviewed pravastatin sodium manufacturing, characterization, and analysis. One hundred and sixty-two references are listed at the end of this comprehensive profile. PMID:24794911

  18. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  19. Molecular Basis of the Biological Function of Molybdenum. The Relationship between Sulfite Oxidase and the Acute Toxicity of Bisulfite and SO2

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Harvey J.; Drew, Robert T.; Johnson, Jean L.; Rajagopalan, K. V.

    1973-01-01

    The administration of tungsten to rats maintained on a low molybdenum diet resulted in a dose- and time-dependent loss of sulfite oxidase (EC 1.8.3.1) and xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2) activities and hepatic molybdenum. These tungsten-treated animals appeared healthy, but were more susceptible to bisulfite toxicity. The median lethal dose for intraperitoneal bisulfite was found to be 181 mg of NaHSO3 per kg for the animals deficient in sulfite oxidase, compared to 473 mg/kg for normal rats. The survival time of rats exposed to SO2 at concentrations of 590 ppm and higher was seen to be inversely related to the level of SO2. At 590 ppm and 925 ppm, control animals displayed symptoms of severe respiratory toxicity before death. At 2350 ppm of SO2, death was preceded by seizures and prostration, symptoms observed with the systemic toxicity of injected bisulfite. At 590 ppm, animals deficient in sulfite oxidase were indistinguishable from control animals. However, at 925 ppm and 2350 ppm, the deficient animals displayed symptoms of systemic toxicity and had much shorter survival times. It is concluded that sulfite oxidase is instrumental in counteracting the toxic systemic effects of bisulfite, either injected or derived from respired SO2. Respiratory death probably results from the toxicity of gaseous SO2 before absorption as bisulfite and cannot be alleviated by sulfite oxidase. Sulfite oxidase does not appear to be inducible by either bisulfite or SO2. PMID:4519654

  20. Electrochemistry of Ferrous Sulfate-Sodium Thiosulphate and Copper Sulfate-Sodium Thiosulphate Systems for Template-Assisted Nanowire Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogan, Lee Jeffery

    Two related series of investigations are presented in this dissertation. First, two candidate systems for electrochemical deposition of metal sulfides for photovoltaic applications have been characterized. Secondly, a general electrochemical synthesis method allowing countable numbers of wires embedded in porous anodic alumina arrays to be measured using macroscopic contacts was developed. Electrochemical studies of the FeSO4-Na2S 2O3 system and the CuSO4-Na2S 2O3 system were undertaken to evaluate their suitability as electrodeposition baths for FeS2 and CuxS, respectively. Each solution system was studied extensively using cyclic voltammetry to characterize electrochemical processes at various concentrations. The iron sulfide / thiosulfate system was found to be unsuitable for the synthesis of FeS2 due to the preferential formation of FeS. The copper sulfide / thiosulfate system was found to be suitable for the synthesis of Cu2S, with thiosulfate concentration being the most important parameter due to the high complexation of Cu(I) by thiosulfate. Investigations into the electrochemical synthesis of metal wires in porous anodic alumina templates revealed an interesting synthesis mechanism wherein sparse, isolated wires are created in a very small fraction of the available pores. These wires are nucleated through the reduction of metal from the deposition bath by aluminum at the base of the alumina pores. This reduction causes a localized increase in acidity, accelerating the dissolution of the alumina barrier layer and allowing more typical wire deposition to occur. The sparse nucleation is exaggerated by the increasing rate of wire deposition as the wires lengthen and the swift rate of overgrowth formation at the surface of the template, resulting in domes of overgrowth attached to countable numbers of nanowires. This geometry has been exploited to obtain in situ measurements of known numbers of nanowires.