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Sample records for sulfate sodium sulfite

  1. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  3. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  4. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  7. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  8. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  9. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium...

  11. Recovery of anhydrous Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from SO{sub 2}-scrubbing liquor by extractive crystallization: Liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, and/or sulfite plus acetone, 2-propanol, or tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Cos, R.; Prausnitz, J.M.; Schiozer, A.L.; Jaecksch, W.L.

    1996-11-01

    Sodium carbonate is a superior scrubbing agent for removing SO{sub 2} from combustion gases, but the resulting sodium sulfate (or sulfite) must be recovered for environmental reasons. Recovery by evaporative crystallization is energy-intensive; extractive crystallization provides an attractive alterative when technically feasible. Liquid/liquid equilibrium data were determined for two-phase mixtures containing aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, or sulfite and a polar organic solvent: acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol (i.e., tert-butyl alcohol). In the salt-saturated two-phase region, data were obtained between the lower consolute temperature and 60 C (50 C for acetone). data were also obtained at 35 C for liquid/liquid systems that were subsaturated with their respective salts and for liquid/liquid systems with overall molar ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium sulfate fixed at 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25. In the latter systems, it was found that the sulfite/sulfate ratios in the organic and aqueous phases were the same, i.e., there is no selectivity by these solvents for one salt relative to the other. The data show that any one of these solvents can be used to extract water from a concentrated solution of either sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate in a countercurrent extractor at 35 C, causing the anhydrous salt to crystallize. The wet solvent can be dried for recycle in a similar countercurrent operation at 35 C, using a saturated solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as the drying agent. The number of moles of carbonate required for drying does not exceed the number of moles of sulfite-plus-sulfate precipitated. The process energy is about 0% of that required for single-stage evaporative crystallization of the same liquor.

  12. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory....

  13. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory....

  14. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory....

  15. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory....

  16. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory § 415.200 Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory....

  17. Hydrogen production via photolytic oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfite solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cunping; Linkous, Clovis A; Adebiyi, Olawale; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emission from coal-burning power plants and refinery operations has been implicated as a cause of acid rain and other air pollution related problems. The conventional treatment of SO(2)-contaminated air consists of two steps: SO(2) absorption using an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, forming aqueous sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), and Na(2)SO(3) oxidation via air purging to produce sodium sulfate (Na(2)SO(4)). In this process, the potential energy of SO(2) is lost. This paper presents a novel ultraviolet (UV) photolytic process for production of hydrogen from aqueous Na(2)SO(3) solutions. The results show that the quantum efficiency of hydrogen production can reach 14.4% under illumination from a low pressure mercury lamp. The mechanism occurs via two competing reaction pathways that involve oxidation of SO(3)(2-) to SO(4)(2-) directly and through the dithionate (S(2)O(6)(2-)) ion intermediate. The first route becomes dominant once a photostationary state for S(2)O(6)(2-) is established. The initial pH of Na(2)SO(3) solution plays an important role in determining both the hydrogen production rate and the final products of the photolytic oxidation. At initial solution pH of 9.80 Na(2)SO(3) photo-oxidation generates Na(2)SO(4) as the final reaction product, while Na(2)S(2)O(6) is merely a reaction intermediate. The highest hydrogen production rate occurs when the initial solution pH is 7.55. Reduction in the initial solution pH to 5.93 results in disproportionation of HSO(3)(-) to elemental sulfur and SO(4)(2-) but no hydrogen production. PMID:20515046

  18. Nitrogen dioxide absorption in aqueous sodium sulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen Hua

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires additional reduction of acid gases, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere from coal-fired electric power plants. In the case of older existing power plants, a possible retrofit strategy is to oxidize nitric oxide (NO, the major constituent of NOsbX in flue gas) to nitrogen dioxide (NOsb2) by the addition of methanol or other hydrocarbons into the duct at an optimum temperature regime. NOsb2 can then be removed by either modifying existing SOsb2 control equipment or by adding a limestone (CaCOsb3) slurry scrubbing process. Limestone reacts with SOsb2 to from CaSOsb3, and the free sulfite (SO{sb3sp{=}}) in the solution is reactive toward NOsb2. The focus of this research is to study the reaction between NOsb2 and aqueous sulfite at elevated temperature and in the presence of gas phase Osb2. The removal of NOsb2 by limestone slurry scrubbing involves the reaction between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}, bisulfite (HSO{sb3sp{-}}) and water. The reactions between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}/HSO{sb3sp{-}} are first order in both reactants, while the NOsb2-water reaction is second order in NOsb2 concentration. The rate constants of the above reactions and the NOsb2-thiosulfate (Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}) reaction were determined at 55sp°C. SO{sb3sp{=}} was found to be the most reactive toward NOsb2, while the contribution of chemical reaction still dominated in the absorption of NOsb2 into water. The effect of gas phase SOsb2 and Osb2, and liquid phase additives such as Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}, Casp{++}, Mgsp{++}, and Clsp{-} on NOsb2 absorption was also investigated. The absorption of NOsb2 catalyzes free radical reactions that lead to sulfite oxidation. A semi-empirical model was proposed to relate the rate of sulfite oxidation to the rate of NOsb2 absorption. Thiosulfate inhibits sulfite oxidation by providing an alternative route for the termination of the free radical reactions, and a fundamental model was derived to quantify the effect of Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}} on sulfite oxidation. The absorption of NOsb2 into aqueous bisulfide (HSsp{-}) was studied in an attempt to discover alternative scrubbing technologies. The reaction between NOsb2 and HSsp{-} is twice as fast as the NOsb2-SO{sb3sp{=}} reaction at 55sp°C. A semi-empirical model was proposed to relate NOsb2 absorption to HSsp{-} oxidation. This study has shown that acceptable level of NOsb2 removal by a conventional limestone slurry scrubber is not probable. However, aqueous scrubbing of NOsb2 by Nasb2SOsb3 and Nasb2S solutions are viable options. Furthermore, significant reduction in hold tank liquid depth and/or oxidizing air stoichiometry is possible by NOsb2 injection.

  19. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Formaldehyde will react with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however...2A solution of 1 molar (M) sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 ) (63...methanol). 2.2.5Sodium chloride (NaCl) (reagent...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Formaldehyde will react with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however...2A solution of 1 molar (M) sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 ) (63...methanol). 2.2.5Sodium chloride (NaCl) (reagent...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Formaldehyde will react with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however...2A solution of 1 molar (M) sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 ) (63...methanol). 2.2.5Sodium chloride (NaCl) (reagent...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Formaldehyde will react with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however...2A solution of 1 molar (M) sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 ) (63...methanol). 2.2.5Sodium chloride (NaCl) (reagent...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Formaldehyde will react with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however...2A solution of 1 molar (M) sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 ) (63...methanol). 2.2.5Sodium chloride (NaCl) (reagent...

  9. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

  10. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely used in...

  11. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in...

  12. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in...

  13. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in...

  14. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in...

  15. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172...CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely used in...

  16. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385...CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in...

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of conditioning with sodium sulfite for bioethanol production from softwood.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Adnan; Martín, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Mörtsell, Marlene; Jönsson, Leif J

    2015-11-01

    Conditioning with reducing agents allows alleviation of inhibition of biocatalytic processes by toxic by-products generated during biomass pretreatment, without necessitating the introduction of a separate process step. In this work, conditioning of steam-pretreated spruce with sodium sulfite made it possible to lower the yeast and enzyme dosages in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to 1g/L and 5FPU/g WIS, respectively. Techno-economic evaluation indicates that the cost of sodium sulfite can be offset by benefits resulting from a reduction of either the yeast load by 0.68g/L or the enzyme load by 1FPU/g WIS. As those thresholds were surpassed, inclusion of conditioning can be justified. Another potential benefit results from shortening the SSF time, which would allow reducing the bioreactor volume and result in capital savings. Sodium sulfite conditioning emerges as an opportunity to lower the financial uncertainty and compensate the overall investment risk for commercializing a softwood-to-ethanol process. PMID:26232771

  18. Acid/Base Recovery From Sodium Sulfate 

    E-print Network

    Niksa, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    FROM SODIUM SULFATE Marilyn J. Nlksa ELTECH Research CorporatIon 625 East Street, Fairport Harbor, Ohio I. ABSTRACT Large amounts of sodium sulfate are produced as a by-product of many diverse Industries. Some of this material is recycled... internally. Some Is upgraded and sold as a product. Most is disposed of as waste In landfills, or discharged to deep-wells, or bodies of water. Electrolytic regeneration of by-product sodium sulfate can prof~ably exploij this valuable Internal resource...

  19. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

  20. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

  1. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

  2. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

  3. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section...INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production...

  4. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in... sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed...

  5. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It...

  6. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following... subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  7. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  8. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  9. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. PMID:25047093

  10. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. Multiple sulfur isotope signatures of sulfite and thiosulfate reduction by the model dissimilatory sulfate-reducer, Desulfovibrio alaskensis str. G20

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, William D.; Cummins, Renata; Schmidt, Marian L.; Sim, Min S.; Ono, Shuhei; Bradley, Alexander S.; Johnston, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction serves as a key metabolic carbon remineralization process in anoxic marine environments. Sulfate reducing microorganisms can impart a wide range in mass-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation. As such, the presence and relative activity of these organisms is identifiable from geological materials. By extension, sulfur isotope records are used to infer the redox balance of marine sedimentary environments, and the oxidation state of Earth's oceans and atmosphere. However, recent work suggests that our understanding of microbial sulfate reduction (MSRs) may be missing complexity associated with the presence and role of key chemical intermediates in the reductive process. This study provides a test of proposed metabolic models of sulfate reduction by growing an axenic culture of the well-studied MSRs, Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain G20, under electron donor limited conditions on the terminal electron acceptors sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate, and tracking the multiple S isotopic consequences of each condition set. The dissimilatory reduction of thiosulfate and sulfite produce unique minor isotope effects, as compared to the reduction of sulfate. Further, these experiments reveal a complex biochemistry associated with sulfite reduction. That is, under high sulfite concentrations, sulfur is shuttled to an intermediate pool of thiosulfate. Site-specific isotope fractionation (within thiosulfate) is very large (34? ~ 30‰) while terminal product sulfide carries only a small fractionation from the initial sulfite (34? < 10‰): a signature similar in magnitude to sulfate and thiosulfate reduction. Together these findings show that microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) is highly sensitive to the concentration of environmentally important sulfur-cycle intermediates (sulfite and thiosulfate), especially when thiosulfate and the large site-specific isotope effects are involved. PMID:25505449

  1. Enhanced generation of hydroxyl radical and sulfur trioxide anion radical from oxidation of sodium sulfite, nickel(II) sulfite, and nickel subsulfide in the presence of nickel(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Shi, X; Dalal, N; Kasprzak, K S

    1994-09-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping was utilized to investigate the generation of free radicals from oxidation of sodium sulfite, nickel(II) sulfite, and nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) by ambient oxygen or H2O2 at pH 7.4. The spin trap used was 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). Under ambient oxygen, a solution of sodium sulfite alone generated predominantly sulfur trioxide anion radical (.SO3-) due to the autoxidation of sulfite. Addition of nickel(II) chloride [Ni(II)] enhanced the .SO3- yield about 4-fold. Incubation of sulfite with Ni(II) in the presence of chelators such as tetraglycine, histidine, beta-alanyl-3-methyl-L-histidine (anserine), beta--L-histidine (carnosine), gamma-aminobutyryl-L-histidine (homocarnosine), glutathione, and penicillamine did not have any significant effect on that enhancement. In contrast, albumin, and especially glycylglycylhistidine (GlyGlyHis), augmented the enhancing effect of Ni(II) by factors of 1.4 and 4, respectively. Computer simulation analysis of the spin-adduct spectrum and formate scavenging experiment showed that the mixture of sodium sulfite, Ni(II), and GlyGlyHis generated both hydroxyl (.OH) radical and .SO3- radical, in the ratio of approximately 1:2. The free-radical spin adduct intensity reached its saturation level in about 5 min. The yield of the radical adducts could be slightly reduced by deferoxamine and very strongly reduced by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Aqueous suspensions of sparingly soluble nickel(II) sulfite in the presence of air and GlyGlyHis generated surface-located .SO3- and .OH radicals. The same radicals were generated in Ni3S2 suspension in the presence of GlyGlyHis and H2O2, indicating sulfite production by oxidation of the sulfide moiety of this compound.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7843142

  2. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic... (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic... (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic... (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic...ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic... (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate...

  6. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory...provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate obtained...

  7. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory...provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate obtained...

  8. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory...provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate obtained...

  9. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory...provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate obtained...

  10. 40 CFR 436.150 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfate Subcategory...provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of sodium sulfate. Sodium sulfate obtained...

  11. New insights into an ancient antibrowning agent: formation of sulfophenolics in sodium hydrogen sulfite-treated potato extracts.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Waard, Pieter; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-09-28

    The effect of sodium hydrogen sulfite (S), used as antibrowning agent, on the phenolic profile of potato extracts was investigated. This extract was compared to one obtained in the presence of ascorbic acid (A). In the presence of A, two major compounds were obtained, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid. With S, their 2'-sulfo-adducts were found instead, the structures of which were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Also, for minor caffeoyl derivatives and quercetin glycosides, the corresponding sulfo-adducts were observed. Feruloyl and sinapoyl derivatives were not chemically affected by the presence of S. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was thought to be responsible for the formation of the sulfo-adducts. This was confirmed by preparing 2'-sulfo-5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid in a model system using 5-CQA, sodium hydrogen sulfite, and PPO. This sulfo-adduct exhibited a small bathochromic shift (?max 329 nm) as compared to 5-CQA (?max 325 nm) and a strong hypochromic shift with an extinction coefficient of 9357±395 M(-1) cm(-1) as compared to 18494±196 M(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The results suggest that whenever S is used as an antibrowning agent, the O-quinone formed with PPO reacts with S to produce sulfo-O-diphenol, which does not participate in browning reactions. PMID:21854040

  12. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxic and anoxic regions of a microbial mat characterized by comparative analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Minz, D.; Flax, J.L.; Green, S.J.; Muyzer, G.; Cohen, Y.; Wagner, M.; Rittmann, B.E.; Stahl, D.A.

    1999-10-01

    Sequence analysis of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) was used to identify sulfate-reducing bacteria in a hypersaline microbial mat and to evaluate their distribution in relation to levels of oxygen. The most highly diverse DSR sequences, most related to those of the Desulfonema-like organisms within the {delta}-proteobacteria, were recovered from oxic regions of the mat. This observation extends those of previous studies by the authors and others associating Desulfonema-like organisms with oxic habitats.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) A Appendix A to Subpart HHHH of Part.... HHHH, App. A Appendix A to Subpart HHHH of Part 63—Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea... methods. The primary use is for urea-formaldehyde resins. 2.0Part A—Testing Resins Formaldehyde will...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) A Appendix A to Subpart HHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS...

  15. Sodium sulfate - Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mass spectrometer experiments were conducted to determine the thermodynamic properties of gaseous Na2SO4, and these data were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. The work is important in that sodium sulfate is the major phase recovered from turbine surfaces after instances of corrosion, due to the presence of sulfur in fuels and sodium chloride in intake air.

  16. Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

  17. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a constituent of paper and paperboard used...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Glauber's salt, occurs naturally and exists as colorless crystals or as a fine, white crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a constituent of paper and paperboard used...

  19. Community composition and distribution of sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and adjacent East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; Xu, Bochao; Wang, Guoshan; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Zhigang

    2015-11-01

    Sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SSRP) communities play a vital role in both sulfur and carbon cycles. Community composition and abundance of SSRP were investigated using dissimilatory sulfite reductase ? subunit (dsrB) gene sequencing in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and its adjacent area in the East China Sea (ECS). Clone libraries were constructed and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was applied to understand the community information of SSRP. In addition to sequences affiliated to sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP), those affiliated with sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SiRP) were also observed. Four phylotypes of SRP in this study showed genetic similarity to Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrophobacteraceae, Desulfobacteraceae and Peptococcaceae, and an unknown group that could not be clearly affiliated with known lineages was found. Salinity, temperature and contents of total organic carbon (TOC) were most closely correlated with the SSRP communities by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). 210Pb activities demonstrated the sedimentary environment at S33 was more stable than that at S31. Intense resuspension and reconstruction of sediments made the vertical abundance profile of SSRP fluctuate violently. For surface sediments, the dsrB gene copy numbers near the Changjiang estuary were higher than those in the mouth of Hangzhou Bay and the mud deposits along the Zhejiang coast, and contents of TOC were positively related to the copy numbers of dsrB gene. Our data provided valuable information to achieve a better understanding of the potential role of SSRP in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and adjacent East China Sea.

  20. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822...

  1. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric Titration

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Functionalized Graphene Measured by Conductometric States ABSTRACT: We report on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto functionalized graphene) and sodium ions coadsorbing with dodecyl sulfate monomers onto FGSs. We find that, for FGS with a carbon

  2. Temperature-Controlled Vesicle Aggregation in the Mixed System of Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate/

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianbin

    Temperature-Controlled Vesicle Aggregation in the Mixed System of Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate/ n surfactant system of sodium n-dodecyl sulfate/n-dodecyltributylammonium bromide. Vesicle aggregation took,temperature-controlledvesicleaggregation is for the first time reported in a catanionic surfactant system of sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS

  3. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  5. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  7. Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases (desulforubidin and desulfoviridin) from the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Moessbauer and EPR studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, I.; LeGall, J.; Lino, A.R.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; Fauque, G.; Xavier, A.V.; DerVartanian, D.V.; Moura, J.J.G.; Huynh, B.H.

    1988-02-17

    In this paper, the authors report a detailed Moessbauer investigation of two different sulfite reductases, namely, desulforubidin from D. baculatus and desulfoviridin from D. gigas. In order to better characterize the prosthetic groups, they have also studied the EPR spectra and determined the iron and heme contents of the /sup 57/Fe-enriched enzymes. They found that desulforubidin contains exchange-coupled siroheme-(4Fe-4S) units which are similar to those found in the hemoprotein subunit of E. coli sulfite reductase. To their surprise, they discovered that the majority of the purified desulfoviridin contains demetalized sirohydrochlorin, with only a minor portion of the sample containing siroheme. The siroheme in desulfoviridin was also found to be coupled with a (4Fe-4S) cluster.

  8. Phase Behavior of Aqueous Mixtures of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) and Sodium Octyl Sulfate (SOS)

    E-print Network

    Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

    Phase Behavior of Aqueous Mixtures of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) and Sodium Octyl) and sodium octyl sulfate (SOS) are explored with cryotransmission electron microscopy, quasielastic light of surfactant concentration in mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium tosylate (CTAT) with sodium

  9. Physicochemical effects on sulfite transformation in a lipid-rich Chlorella sp. strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fang; Wen, Xiaobin; Luo, Liming; Geng, Yahong; Li, Yeguang

    2014-11-01

    SO2 is very rapidly hydrated to sulfurous acid in water solution at pH value above 6.0, whereby sulfite is yielded from the disassociation of protons. We aimed to improve the sulfite transformation efficiency and provide a basis for the direct utilization of SO2 from flue gas by a microalgal suspension. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 was cultured in a medium with 20 mmol/L sodium sulfite under different physicochemical conditions. Under light conditions, sulfite concentration in the algal suspension reduced linearly over time, and was completely converted into sulfate within 8 h. The highest sulfite transformation rate (3.25 mmol/(L·h)) was obtained under the following conditions: 35°C, light intensity of 300 ?mol/(m2·s), NaHCO3 concentration of 6 g/L, initial cell density (OD540) of 0.8 and pH of 9-10. There was a positive correlation between sulfite transformation rate and the growth of Chlorella, with the conditions favorable to algal growth giving better sulfite transformation. Although oxygen in the air plays a role in the transformation of SO2- 3 to SO2- 4, the transformation is mainly dependent on the metabolic activity of algal cells. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 is capable of tolerating high sulfite concentration, and can utilize sulfite as the sole sulfur source for maintaining healthy growth. We found that sulfite ?20 mmol/L had no obvious effect on the total lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the algae. Thus, the results suggest it is feasible to use flue gas for the mass production of feedstock for biodiesel using Chlorella sp. XQ-20044, without preliminary removal of SO2, assuming there is adequate control of the pH.

  10. Destabilization of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by molten sodium vanadate-sodium sulfate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagelberg, A. S.; Hamilton, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The extent of surface destabilization of ZrO2 - 8 wt percent Y2O3 ceramic disks was determined after exposure to molten salt mixtures of sodium sulfate containing up to 15 mole percent sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) at 1173 K. The ceramic surface was observed to transform from the cubic/tetragonal to monoclinic phase, concurrent with chemical changes in the molten salt layer in contact with the ceramic. Significant attack rates were observed in both pure sulfate and metavanadate sulfate melts. The rate of attack was found to be quite sensitive to the mole fraction of vanadate in the molten salt solution and the partial pressure of sulfur trioxide in equilibrium with the salt melt. The observed parabolic rate of attack is interpreted to be caused by a reaction controlled by diffusion in the salt that penetrates into the porous layer formed by the destabilization. The parabolic rate constant in mixed sodium metavanadate - sodium sulfate melts was found to be proportional to the SO3 partial pressure and the square of the metavanadate concentration. In-situ Raman spectroscopic measurements allowed simultaneous observations of the ceramic phases and salt chemistry during the attack process.

  11. Preparation and anticoagulation activity of sodium cellulose sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao Mei; Li, Lin; Zheng, Bi Sheng; Normakhamatov, Nodirali; Guo, Si Yuan

    2007-10-01

    Semi-synthesis of cellulose sulfate sodium (Na-MCS) was carried out by sulfation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) with chlorosulfonic acid-dimethylformamide complex as sulfating agent. As shown by FT-IR, NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis, the sulfation occurred mainly at C6, partially at C2, and no substitution at C3. The substitution degree ranged from 1.10 to 1.70 and the average molecular weight is between 1.1 and 3.5 x 10(4)Da. The anticoagulant efficacy and its possible mechanism were investigated using in vitro, in vivo coagulation assays and amidolytic tests in comparison with heparin. Results indicated that Na-MCS exhibited higher anticoagulation activity based on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay and prolonged the thrombin time (TT) to a lesser extent than heparin. No effect was detected on the prothrombin time (PT). Subcutaneous administration of Na-MCS to mice increased the clotting time (CT) in a moderate dose-dependent manner with a longer duration. Na-MCS exhibited anticoagulation activity mainly by accelerating the inhibition of antithrombin III (AT-III) on coagulation factors FIIa and FXa in plasma. PMID:17602735

  12. Precipitating Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate to Create Ultrastable and Stimulable Foams.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Mikhailovskaya, Alesya; Yazhgur, Pavel; Muller, François; Cousin, Fabrice; Langevin, Dominique; Wang, Nan; Salonen, Anniina

    2015-08-10

    Ultrastable foams are made very simply by adding salt (NaCl or KCl) to sodium dodecyl sulfate. The addition of high concentrations of salt leads to the precipitation of the surfactant on the bubble surfaces and as crystals in the interstices between the bubbles. As a consequence, the ageing of the foams is stopped to make them stable indefinitely, or until they are heated above the melting temperature of the crystals. The use of KCl is shown to be much more effective than that of NaCl because potassium dodecyl sulfate has a higher melting temperature and faster rates of crystallization. The crystalline structures have been investigated inside the foam using small angle neutron scattering. The larger lattice spacing of the crystals formed with NaCl in comparison with KCl has been evidenced. These simple temperature stimulable foams could have many potential applications. PMID:26120060

  13. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion-Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2008-01-01

    A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gas diffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for the electrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generate gaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. The sulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of the GDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell and detected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to prevent electrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mg SO32?/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO32?/L was achieved. This method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical results agreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations for the analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was 65 h?1.

  14. Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. PMID:26556376

  15. Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize.

    PubMed

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. PMID:26556376

  16. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Monomers Induce XAO Peptide Polyproline II to Helix Transition

    E-print Network

    Asher, Sanford A.

    Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Monomers Induce XAO Peptide Polyproline II to Helix Transition Zhenmin Hong, Krishnan Damodaran, and Sanford A. Asher* Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh

  17. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role. PMID:26197394

  18. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  19. The effect of sodium tetradecyl sulfate on mobility and antigen detectability of microtubule proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, J L; Steffen, W

    1997-10-01

    Several factors been reported to influence the mobility of polypeptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) including the brand of SDS. Using microtubule proteins from axonemes of Lytechinus pictus and Spisula solidissima sperm and meiotic spindles of Spisula solidissima we demonstrate that the change in mobility was caused by sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), a major contaminant of many commercial SDS brands. We also examined the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and different SDS brands as a tool in extracting more information from immunoblot studies. Commercial SDS containing contaminants other than sodium tetradecyl sulfate reduced or eliminated the immunosignal from certain polypeptides and the loss of antigenicity could not even be recovered by immunoblot under "renaturing" conditions. It can thus be concluded that STS can be useful in separating and identifying comigrating polypeptides and in detecting additional immunobands in immunoblots. PMID:9420152

  20. Activation of tobacco leaf polyphenol oxidase by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Shi, Chunhua; Xie, Yongshu; Xu, Xiaolong; Liu, Qingliang

    2003-10-01

    The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on purified tobacco leaf PPO (PPO II) was investigated at various pHs and temperatures. SDS increased the activity of PPO II due to the formation of SDS-PPO II complex, leading to conformational changes, thus making access to active center easier. The relationship between the activity and the molar ratio of SDS-PPO II to PPO II showed that the critical point reached a plateau of activity at the molar ratio of about 1.2. The pH had a significant effect on interaction between SDS and PPO II, as compared to PPO II. The optimum catalytic temperature of the complex rose by 10 degrees C, suggesting that stabilization of the structure had been improved by the formation of complex. PMID:22900329

  1. 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-amino acid derivatives as spectrophotometric reagents for sulfur dioxide. [Using sodium sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hajjaji, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method for sulfur dioxide determination was explored on the basis of its complexation with TNP-amino acid derivatives forming an orange colored 1:1 complex with an increase in absorbance at 420 nm. TNP-glycine, TNP-threonine, TNP-serine and TNP-histidine (TNP-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-)) were investigated. The color development was instantaneous and the absorbance remained unchanged even after 24 h of mixing when kept in the dark. Linear calibration graphs (0-5 x 10/sup -5/M sulfite ions) were obtained at optimal reaction conditions of 7 x 10/sup -5/M TNP-amino acid and pH 8.0 phosphate buffer (0.05 M). The investigation of the effect of several diverse ions revealed an interference by sulfide and mercury ions at concentration levels of 10/sup -4/M. The standard deviation of determining 3 x 10/sup -5/M sulfite solution (10 times) was 1.474 x 10/sup -7/M. 22 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Phylogeography of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria among Disturbed Sediments, Disclosed by Analysis of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes (dsrAB)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, J. R.; Kerkhof, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected worldwide from 16 locations on four continents (in New York, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Italy, Latvia, and South Korea) to assess the extent of the diversity and the distribution patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated sediments. The SRB communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) with NdeII digests. The fingerprints of dsrAB genes contained a total of 369 fluorescent TRFs, of which <20% were present in the GenBank database. The global sulfidogenic communities appeared to be significantly different among the anthropogenically impacted (petroleum-contaminated) sites, but nearly all were less diverse than pristine habitats, such as mangroves. A global SRB indicator species of petroleum pollution was not identified. However, several dsrAB gene sequences corresponding to hydrocarbon-degrading isolates or consortium members were detected in geographically widely separated polluted sites. Finally, a cluster analysis of the TRFLP fingerprints indicated that many SRB microbial communities were most similar on the basis of close geographic proximity (tens of kilometers). Yet, on larger scales (hundreds to thousands of kilometers) SRB communities could cluster with geographically widely separated sites and not necessarily with the site with the closest proximity. These data demonstrate that SRB populations do not adhere to a biogeographic distribution pattern similar to that of larger eukaryotic organisms, with the greatest species diversity radiating from the Indo-Pacific region. Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time. PMID:15691959

  3. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: a synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of an elusive metastable hydrated salt 

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We describe an unusual application of synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction with hard X-rays to obtain structural information on metastable sodium sulfate heptahydrate. This hydrate was often mentioned in nineteenth ...

  4. Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

  5. Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: direct observation of crystallization in a porous material 

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher; Pel, Leo

    2008-10-15

    It is well known that sodium sulfate causes salt crystallization damage in building materials and rocks. However since the early 1900s the existence of the metastable heptahydrate has been largely forgotten and almost ...

  6. Determination of free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide by ion chromatography through anion exchange column and conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Benjamin S; Sram, Jacqueline C; Files, Darin J

    2013-01-01

    A simple and effective anion ion chromatography (IC) method with anion exchange column and conductivity detector has been developed to determine free sulfites (SO3-2) in dried fruits processed with sulfur dioxide. No oxidation agent, such as hydrogen peroxide, is used to convert sulfites to sulfates for IC analysis. In addition, no stabilizing agent, such as formaldehyde, fructose or EDTA, is required during the sample extraction. This method uses aqueous 0.2 N NaOH as the solvent for standard preparation and sample extraction. The sulfites, either prepared from standard sodium sulfite powder or extracted from food samples, are presumed to be unbound SO3-2 in aqueous 0.2 N NaOH (pH > 13), because the bound sulfites in the sample matrix are released at pH > 10. In this study, sulfites in the standard solutions were stable at room temperature (i.e., 15-25 degrees C) for up to 12 days. The lowest standard of the linear calibration curve is set at 1.59 microg/mL SO3-2 (equivalent to 6.36 microg/g sample with no dilution) for analysis of processed dried fruits that would contain high levels (>1000 microg/g) of sulfites. As a consequence, this method typically requires significant dilution of the sample extract. Samples are prepared with a simple procedure of sample compositing, extraction with aqueous 0.2 N NaOH, centrifugation, dilution as needed, and filtration prior to IC. The sulfites in these sample extracts are stable at room temperature for up to 20 h. Using anion IC, the sulfites are eluted under isocratic conditions with 10 mM aqueous sodium carbonate solution as the mobile phase passing through an anion exchange column. The sulfites are easily separated, with an analysis run time of 18 min, regardless of the dried fruit matrix. Recoveries from samples spiked with sodium sulfites were demonstrated to be between 81 and 105% for five different fruit matrixes (apricot, golden grape, white peach, fig, and mango). Overall, this method is simple to perform and effective for the determination of high levels of sulfites in dried fruits. PMID:24282955

  7. Environmental impact of sodium sulfate decomposition in silicate glass manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki

    2003-06-01

    Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) is commonly used in soda-lime-silicate glass manufacturing as a fining agent. The decomposition of Na2SO 4 in glass tanks is an environmental linked to SOx and particulate matter emissions. This study focuses on the influence of atmosphere and reducing agents on Na2SO4 decomposition and the concurrent emissions release. Non-isothermal decomposition measurements identify 1373 K as the initial decomposition temperature for Na2SO4 alone regardless of atmosphere type. This implies that decomposition occurs in the molten phase. The isothermal decomposition occurs in a steady-state, with higher decomposition rates occurring in inert or reducing atmospheres. The decomposition mechanism involves rearrangements of Na-S-O complexes on the Na2SO4 melt surface followed by desorption of SOx molecules. This desorption step is rate-controlling. Decomposition atmosphere impacts the total SOx concentration and SO/SO2 ratio. Inert atmospheres facilitate decomposition via collisions with the Na-S-O surface complexes, resulting in higher total SOx concentration. Oxidizing atmospheres passivate the melt surface, thus favoring the desorption of smaller molecules such as SO. This phenomenon increases the SO/SO2 ratio in oxidizing atmospheres. Carbon is frequently used in combination with Na2SO4 to enhance the fining process. Higher carbon active surface area (ASA) decreases the initial decomposition temperature. In non-isothermal decomposition, carbon increases SOx emissions at temperatures above 1373 K. Isothermal decomposition is shifted to a non-steady state behavior. The decomposition rate scales with ASA. Carbon fractional conversion can be calculated by measuring CO/CO2 concentration by FT-IR spectrometry. Conversion vs. time data indicate three distinct regions: nucleation, desorption, and carbon depletion. Decomposition is initiated by chemisorption of O atoms from Na2SO4 on carbon active sites, forming surface complexes. These complexes subsequently dissociate, releasing SOx and leaving behind C(O) complexes. The C(O) complexes desorbs as CO/CO2, exposing new active sites.

  8. Effects of increasing concentrations of sodium sulfite on deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol sulfonate concentrations of maize kernels and maize meal preserved at various moisture content.

    PubMed

    Paulick, Marleen; Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-03-01

    Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction. PMID:25760079

  9. Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Marleen; Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction. PMID:25760079

  10. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive. PMID:26615710

  11. Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about l.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodcyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks.

  12. Multiple sulfur isotope signatures of sulfite and thiosulfate reduction by the model dissimilatory sulfate-reducer, Desulfovibrio alaskensis str. G20

    E-print Network

    Leavitt, William D.

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction serves as a key metabolic carbon remineralization process in anoxic marine environments. Sulfate reducing microorganisms can impart a wide range in mass-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation. ...

  13. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility.

  14. Spectrophotometric quantitation of watermelon lycopene extracted into aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absorbance properties of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extracts of watermelon tissue were examined as part of an ongoing effort to develop simpler, more economical ways to quantify carotenoids in melon fruit. Levels of SDS >0.2% extracted and solubilized watermelon lycopene-containing ch...

  15. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  16. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE (SDS) SEDIMENTATION TEST FOR WHEAT MEALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sedimentation tests have long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. However, the use of the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation test AACC International Approved Method 56-70 for durum wheat has not been characterized...

  17. Location of Spectroscopic Probes in Self-Aggregating Assemblies. II. The Location of Pyrene and Other Probes in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles

    E-print Network

    Bales, Barney

    and Other Probes in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles Nataly Lebedeva, Radha Ranganathan, and Barney L. Bales The location of pyrene in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles is determined as a function of the aggregation

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  19. Sclerotherapy using 1% sodium tetradecyl sulfate to treat a vascular malformation: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the most common congenital and neonatal vascular anomalies in the head and neck region. The demand for simple and esthetic vascular malformation treatments have increased more recently. In this study, two patients that were diagnosed with venous malformations were treated with sodium tetradecyl sulfate as a sclerosing agent. Recurrence was not found one year after the surgery. This article gives a brief case report of sclerotherapy as an effective approach to treat vascular malformations in the oral cavity.

  20. One-step casting of Laemmli discontinued sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqiang; Koiwa, Hisashi

    2012-02-01

    A modified Laemmli sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protocol is described. The new method saves 30 min for gel casting without loss of the resolution power of Laemmli gel. In this method, both the upper and lower gels can be cast at the same time because the lower gel contains 10% glycerol, which generates higher density in the lower gel than in the upper gel. PMID:22037291

  1. Enhancing the transdermal delivery of rigid nanoparticles using the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate

    E-print Network

    Seto, Jennifer E.

    The potential of rigid nanoparticles to serve as transdermal drug carriers can be greatly enhanced by improving their skin penetration. Therefore, the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate (referred ...

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles in the presence of sodium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Guangxiang; Song Xinyu; Yu Haiyun; Fan Chunhua; Yin Zhilei; Sun Sixiu . E-mail: ssx@sdu.edu.cn

    2006-02-02

    Sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles have been successfully prepared, for the first time, through a simple salt-assisted hydrothermal route based on the reaction between Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and HCl in aqueous solution. The resultant sodium tungstate nanorods and nanobundles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) techniques. The ingredients of the sample have been detected by energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) method. It is found that hydrothermal temperature and time play important roles in the control of the morphology and size of the products.

  3. Structure-based Alteration of Substrate Specificity and Catalytic Activity of Sulfite Oxidase from Sulfite Oxidation to Nitrate Reduction†

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, James A.; Wilson, Heather L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic sulfite oxidase is a dimeric protein that contains the molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the metabolically essential conversion of sulfite to sulfate as the terminal step in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine. Nitrate Reductase is an evolutionally related molybdoprotein in lower organisms that is essential for growth on nitrate. In this study we describe human and chicken sulfite oxidase variants in which the active site has been modified to alter substrate specificity and activity from sulfite oxidation to nitrate reduction. Based on sequence alignments and the known crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase two residues are conserved in nitrate reductases that align with residues in the active site of sulfite oxidase. Based on the crystal structure of yeast nitrate reductase, both positions were mutated in human sulfite oxidase and chicken sulfite oxidase. The resulting double mutant variants demonstrated a marked decrease in sulfite oxidase activity but gained nitrate reductase activity. An additional methionine residue in the active site was proposed to be important in nitrate catalysis, and therefore the triple variant was also produced. The nitrate-reducing ability of the human sulfite oxidase triple mutant was nearly three-fold higher than that of the double mutant. In order to obtain detailed structural data on the active site of these variants, the analogous mutations in chicken sulfite oxidase were generated in order to perform crystallographic analysis. The crystal structures of the Mo domains of the double and triple mutants were solved to 2.4 Å and 2.1Å resolution, respectively. PMID:22263579

  4. 17028 J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 17028-17031 Growth of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles with Detergent Concentration

    E-print Network

    Bales, Barney

    17028 J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 17028-17031 Growth of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles with Detergent by changing the concentrations of the detergent, the added counterion salt, or both. Values of ~2 and y' that sodiumdodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles grow slowly as a function of the detergent concentration. This growth has

  5. Influence and hydrolysis kinetics in titanyl sulfate solution from the sodium hydroxide molten salt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weijing; Chen, Desheng; Chu, Jinglong; Li, Jie; Xue, Tianyan; Wang, Lina; Wang, Dong; Qi, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Hydrated titanium dioxide (HTD) was precipitated by thermal hydrolysis in purified titanyl sulfate solution (TSS) obtained through the sodium hydroxide molten salt clean method. Various factors including the stirring speed and initial concentrations of TiOSO4, sulfuric acid, and sodium ion were studied. The main influence factors in the hydrolysis process were the initial concentrations of TiOSO4 and sulfuric acid. Contrary to the ferrous ion, the sodium ion improved the ionic activity of Ti4+, but did not decrease the crystal size. The Boltzman growth model (x=A2+(A1-A2)/{1+exp[(t-t0)/dt)]}, which focuses on two main parameters (CTiOSO4 and CH2SO4), fits the hydrolysis process well with R2>0.97. An increase in sulfuric acid concentration negatively affected the hydrolysis rates and the value of A2, while t0 increased. An increase in titanyl sulfate concentration directly reduced the hydrolysis rates and particle size of HTD, contrary to the trend for the value of t0. A simulation software called 1stopt was used to observe the relationship between Z (A1, A2, t0, dt) and a, b (CTiO2 and CH2SO4).

  6. Synthesis and foaming properties of new anionic surfactants based on a renewable building block: sodium dodecyl isosorbide sulfates.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Aurélie; Zhu, Ying; Pizzino, Aldo; Molinier, Valérie; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2011-08-15

    Two agro-based anionic surfactants containing an isosorbide moiety have been synthesized and their amphiphilic properties evaluated. Since isosorbide is now considered as an important platform chemical of the starch industry, these compounds could represent bio-sourced alternatives to the alkyl ether sulfates (notably lauryl ether sulfate, LES) that are based on petroleum-derived ethylene oxides. As isosorbide is an asymmetric diol, two isomers can be prepared (2-O-dodecyl isosorbide sulfate and 5-O-dodecyl isosorbide sulfate) that show significantly different aqueous properties as regards to their Krafft temperatures and critical micellar concentrations. 5-O-dodecyl isosorbide sulfate is the most soluble and the most efficient surfactant. It possesses a much lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) than sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, leading to comparable foaming properties with a three times lower concentration. Its behavior compares well with the one of pure diethoxylated dodecyl sulfate that has also been prepared and evaluated in this work. PMID:21621216

  7. Testing a direct-contact crystallizer for cold thermal energy storage using sodium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Thermal energy storage systems have the potential permitting more economical and efficient use of intermittent energy sources and off-peak electrical power for applications where energy supply and demand do not coincide. One such application is space cooling of residential buildings. This program investigated a novel approach to an aqueous sodium sulfate system wherein water evaporating directly from the salt solution provides the cooling. A circulation pump outside the combination crystallizer-thermal energy storage tank discharges through nozzles inside the tank to maintain agitation of the crystal slurry. The concept was evaluated analytically and tested experimentally.

  8. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Acute Colitis in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jérôme C; Bériou, Gaëlle; Josien, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are complex multifactorial disease thought to result from inappropriate immune responses to the gut microbiota, in genetically susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors. Among the different animal models developed to help in understanding IBDs pathophysiological mechanisms as well as to achieve pharmacological preclinical studies, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most widely used because of its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and similarity with human IBDs. This section provides with a detailed protocol that we validated in our laboratory to perform DSS-induced acute colitis in the Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rat. PMID:26530802

  9. Enthalpies of formation for water + sodium dodecyl sulfate + 1-pentanol + triethanolamine mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batov, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    The enthalpies of mixing of water (H2O) + sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDDS) + 1-pentanol (PeOH) + triethanolamine (TEA) mixtures with different compositions at 298.15 K are determined using the thermochemical cycle. The enthalpies of dissolution of NaDDS, H2O, PeOH, TEA, and H2O + TEA + PeOH + NaDDS mixtures in 2-propanol are measured by means of calorimetry. The formation of the studied mixtures from neat components is shown to be mainly an exothermic process. The influence of the nature of components and a mixture's composition on the enthalpies of mixing is discussed.

  10. Effect of chromuium, aluminum, and titanium on the corrosion resistance of nickel in molten sodium sulfate and chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Oryshich, I.V.

    1985-09-01

    The author reports on a study whose purpose was to determine the corrosion of binary nickel alloys, containing aluminum, titanium and chromium, in molten sodium sulfate and chloride. The work was undertaken because under operating conditions, gas-turbine materials are subject to oxidation and high-temperature corrosion caused by contact with molten salt based on sodium sulfate formed during fuel combustion. It is concluded that: on alloying nickel with chromium, resistance to sulfide corrosion increases, but with aluminum and titanium it is reduced; alloying nickel with aluminum, titanium (up to 6-8 %) and chromium (up to 10-12 %) leads to an increase in its resistance to the action of molten sodium chloride; and, binary Ni-Al, Ni-Ti and ternary Ni-Al-Ti alloys have a lower corrosion resistance in sodium solfate than in sodium chloride.

  11. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl phosphate on aluminum, studied by QCM-D, XPS, and AAS.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Philip M; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Holmberg, Krister

    2008-12-01

    The adsorption of two anionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl phosphate (SDP), at surfaces of aluminum and aluminum oxide has been studied by means of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). It was shown that more SDP than SDS binds to the surface and that SDP prevents dissolution of aluminum in water whereas SDS does not. This was not obvious, since the adsorption isotherms of the two surfactants to aluminum pigment powder are quite similar, as shown in an earlier work. The decreased aluminum dissolution with SDP compared to SDS was explained by the formation of a more compact protective layer with less permeability on the aluminum surface with SDP than with SDS. This is explained by differences in complexing ability between the surfactants and the aluminum pigment surface. While SDP is expected to form an inner-sphere complex with aluminum, leading to a lower accessibility of aluminum sites to water, SDS is likely to form a weaker outer-sphere complex. PMID:18980348

  12. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  13. Orally delivered ?-glucans aggravate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Williams, David L; Welting, Olaf; Meijer, Sybren L; Gordon, Siamon; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2015-12-01

    ?-Glucans have beneficial health effects due to their immune modulatory properties. Oral administration of ?-glucans affects tumour growth, microbial infection, sepsis, and wound healing. We hypothesized that pre-treatment with orally delivered soluble and particulate ?-glucans could ameliorate the development of aggravate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced intestinal inflammation. To study this, mice were orally pre-treated with ?-glucans for 14 days. We tested curdlan (a particulate ?-(1,3)-glucan), glucan phosphate (a soluble ?-(1,3)-glucan), and zymosan (a particle made from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contains around 55% ?-glucans). Weight loss, colon weight, and feces score did not differ between ?-glucan and vehicle treated groups. However, histology scores indicated that ?-glucan-treated mice had increased inflammation at a microscopic level suggesting that ?-glucan treatment worsened intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, curdlan and zymosan treatment led to increased colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, compared to vehicle. Glucan phosphate treatment did not significantly affect cytokine and chemokine levels. These data suggest that particulate and soluble ?-glucans differentially affect the intestinal immune responses. However, no significant differences in other clinical colitis scores between soluble and particulate ?-glucans were found in this study. In summary, ?-glucans aggravate the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation at the level of the mucosa. PMID:26500083

  14. Beyond the detergent effect: a binding site for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in mammalian apoferritin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Renyu Bu, Weiming; Xi, Jin; Mortazavi, Shirin R.; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Loll, Patrick J.

    2012-05-01

    Using X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) binds specifically to a pre-formed internal cavity in horse-spleen apoferritin. Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as an anionic detergent, it can also exert specific pharmacological effects that are independent of the surfactant properties of the molecule. However, structural details of how proteins recognize SDS are scarce. Here, it is demonstrated that SDS binds specifically to a naturally occurring four-helix bundle protein: horse apoferritin. The X-ray crystal structure of the apoferritin–SDS complex was determined at a resolution of 1.9 Å and revealed that the SDS binds in an internal cavity that has previously been shown to recognize various general anesthetics. A dissociation constant of 24 ± 9 µM at 293 K was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. SDS binds in this cavity by bending its alkyl tail into a horseshoe shape; the charged SDS head group lies in the opening of the cavity at the protein surface. This crystal structure provides insights into the protein–SDS interactions that give rise to binding and may prove useful in the design of novel SDS-like ligands for some proteins.

  15. Effect of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Halide on the Relative Stability between Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanoaggregates.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriel M Dias; Ferreira, Guilherme M Dias; Agudelo, Álvaro J Patiño; Hespanhol da Silva, Maria C; Rezende, Jaqueline de Paula; Pires, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2015-12-24

    It is well-known that ionic liquids (ILs) alter the properties of aqueous systems containing only surfactants. However, the effect of ILs on polymer-surfactant systems is still unknown. Here, the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) and chloride (bmimCl) on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and its interaction with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was evaluated using conductimetry, fluorimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The ILs decreased the critical micellar concentration (cmc) of the surfactant, stabilizing the SDS micelles. A second critical concentration (c2thc) was verified at high SDS concentrations, due to the micelle size decrease. The stability of PEO/SDS aggregates was also affected by ILs, and the critical aggregation concentration (cac) of SDS increased. Integral aggregation enthalpy changed from -0.72 in water to 2.16 kJ mol(-1) in 4.00 mM bmimBr. IL anions did not affect the SDS micellization or the beginning of PEO/SDS aggregation. Nevertheless, when chloride was replaced with bromide, the amount of SDS bound to the polymer increased. At 100.0 mM IL, the PEO-SDS interaction vanished. We suggest that the effect of ILs comes from participating in the structure of the formed aggregates, interacting with the SDS monomers at the core/interface of the micelles, and promoting preferential solvation of the polymer. PMID:26595360

  16. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    PubMed

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these adulterants in CS and procedures to isolate ASD from CS matrixes containing these adulterants. The authors describe in this paper utilization of an orthogonal approach to establish the identity of Z1 as sodium hexametaphosphate and to confirm the identity of ASD, including ethanol fractionation, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and NMR spectroscopy. The authors suggest that CAME is a cost-effective and easy to use methodfor detecting certain impurities in CS raw ingredients and recommend that CPC and CAME be used in combination by QC laboratories as a means of effectively deterring the practice of adulterating CS raw materials with the known adulterants ASD and Z1 and/or other non-chondroitin substances that can be separated from CSby CAME and that exhibit CPC titration behavior similar to CS. PMID:25372663

  17. Phosphoprotein staining for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using fluorescent reagent morin hydrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2013-04-01

    A fluorescence-based stain with 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (morin hydrate, MH) was designed to stain phosphoproteins in one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Al(3+) was applied as a "fixed bridge," providing an efficient energy transfer channel between phosphoprotein and MH, to produce a strong fluorescent complex for the determination of phosphoprotein. As little as 62.5ng of ?-casein (7 or 8 phosphates) and ?-casein (5 phosphates), 125ng of ovalbumin (2 phosphates), and ?-casein (1 phosphate) could be visualized with a wide linear dynamic range. In comparison with conventional methods, MH stain is a time-saving method that takes just 90min. It also has good compatibility with routine protein stainings such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue R (CBBR) and SYPRO Ruby for total protein analysis. PMID:23274386

  18. Interaction of cellulase with sodium dodecyl sulfate at critical micelle concentration level.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jin; Fan, Jun-Bao; Chen, Nan; Chen, Jie; Liang, Yi

    2006-05-01

    The interactions between Trichoderma reesei cellulase and an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), at critical micelle concentration level have been investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism. SDS micelles have dual interactions with cellulase: electrostatic at first and then hydrophobic interactions. When the concentration of SDS is smaller than 45.0mM, SDS micelles cause a partial loss in the hydrolytic activity together with a steep decrease in the alpha-helical content of cellulase. With further increasing the concentration of SDS, however, a re-formation of the alpha-helical structure and a partial recovery of the hydrolytic activity of cellulase induced by SDS micelles are observed. Taken together, these results indicate that SDS micelles exert dual effects on cellulase through binding as both a denaturant and a recovery reagent. PMID:16632334

  19. XRD, SEM and infrared study into the intercalation of sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS) into hydrocalumite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Tianqi; Zhang, Longlong; Wu, Daishe; Frost, Ray L

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocalumite (CaAl-LDH-Cl) interacted with a natural anionic surfactant, sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS), was performed using an intercalation method. To understand the intercalation behavior and characterize the resulting products, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique were used. The XRD analysis indicated that SHS was intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl successfully, resulting in an expansion of the interlayer (from 0.78 nm to 2.74 nm). The bands of C-H stretching vibrations of SHS were observed in the near-infrared spectra, which indicated that the resulting products were indeed CaAl-LDH-SHS. In addition, the bands of water stretching vibrations and OH groups shifted to higher wavenumbers when SHS was intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl interlayer space. PMID:26163791

  20. Enhancement by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate of Pigment Formation in Serratia marcescens O8

    PubMed Central

    Feng, J. S.; Webb, J. W.; Tsang, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Three methods were used to determine the enhancement by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) of prodigiosin formation in Serratia marcescens O8. The results of the agar disk diffusion method indicated that pigment formation was dependent upon the concentration of SDS. Diameters of the pigment zones were proportional to the logarithm of SDS concentrations of 300 to 1,500 ?g/ml. When bacteria were grown in broth containing SDS from 0 to 800 ?g/ml and the pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically, a similar enhancement of pigment formation was observed. Finally, these results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the extracts. Prodigiosin appeared to be the sole component with increased synthesis. The possible mechanism of the SDS enhancement effect could be explained by an increase in negative binding sites by the association of SDS with a cell envelope component(s). These binding sites may be required for prodigiosin synthesis. PMID:16345993

  1. Renaturation of enzymes after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.; Springhorn, S.S.

    1980-08-10

    A number of enzymes, including amylases, dehydrogenases, and proteases, were shown to be renaturable after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Enzyme activity was detected in situ by action on substrates introduced into the gel and subsequent staining of either the product or unreacted substrate. Enzymes appeared to recover activity as soon as the detergent diffused out of the gel. Renatured enzymes were retained in gels after electrophoresis longer than native enzymes which had been subjected to electrophoresis in the absence of detergent. Re-electrophoresis of the renatured enzymes showed that part of the retained activity was physically anchored to the gel, possibly by the folding of polypeptides around the gel matrix as the enzymes were renatured.

  2. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Molin, Soeren; Yang, Liang; Ndoni, Sokol

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h) and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week) by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability. PMID:23377015

  3. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Molin, Soeren; Yang, Liang; Ndoni, Sokol

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h) and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week) by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability. PMID:23377015

  4. Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Ge Substrate: The Effect of a Low-Polarity Solvent

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Rommel B.; da Silva, Albérico B. F.; Pimentel, André S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules in a low polar solvent on Ge substrate by using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The maximum SDS amount adsorbed is (5.0 ± 0.3) × 1014 molecules cm?2 in CHCl3, while with the use of CCl4 as subphase the ability of SDS adsorbed is 48% lower. AFM images show that depositions are highly disordered over the interface, and it was possible to establish that the size of the SDS deposition is around 30–40 nm over the Ge surface. A complete description of the infrared spectroscopic bands for the head and tail groups in the SDS molecule is also provided. PMID:22942685

  5. J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 15153-15162 15153 Fluorescence Quenching of Pyrene by Copper(I1) in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    E-print Network

    Bales, Barney

    J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 15153-15162 15153 Fluorescence Quenching of Pyrene by Copper(I1) in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles. Effect of Micelle Size As Controlled by Surfactant Concentration Barney L. Bales@ The aggregation numbers of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)micelles and the fluorescence quenching constants, kq

  6. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives. PMID:23923788

  7. Interaction of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate with watermelon chromoplasts and examination of the organization of lycopene within the chromoplasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The properties of plant-derived precipitates of watermelon lycopene were examined in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as part of an ongoing effort to develop simpler, more economical ways to quantify carotenoids in melon fruit. Levels of SDS >0.2% were found to increase the water solubility of ...

  8. Corrosion of NiCoCrAlY Coatings and TBC Systems Subjected to Water Vapor and Sodium Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Robert; Yuan, Kang; Li, Xin-Hai; Lin Peng, Ru

    2015-08-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are commonly used in gas turbines for protection against high-temperature degradation. Penetration of the ceramic top coat by corrosive species may cause corrosion damage on the underlying NiCoCrAlY bond coat and cause failure of the TBC system. In the current study, four oxidation/corrosion conditions were tried: (i) lab air, (ii) water vapor, (iii) sodium sulfate deposited on the specimens, and (iv) water vapor + sodium sulfate. The test was done at 750 °C in a cyclic test rig with 48 h cycles. The corrosion damage was studied on NiCoCrAlY-coated specimens, thin APS TBC specimens, and thick APS TBC specimens. Water vapor was found to have very minor influence on the oxidation, while sodium sulfate increased the TGO thickness both for NiCoCrAlY specimens and TBC-coated specimens; the influence of the TBC thickness was found to be very small. Sodium sulfate promoted thicker TGO; more Cr-rich TGO; the formation of Y oxides, and internally, Y sulfides; pore formation in the coating as well as in the substrate; and the formation of a Cr-depleted zone in the substrate.

  9. Surfactant-and Salt-Induced Growth of Normal Sodium Alkyl Sulfate Micelles Well above Their Critical Micelle Concentrations

    E-print Network

    Bales, Barney

    Surfactant- and Salt-Induced Growth of Normal Sodium Alkyl Sulfate Micelles Well above, dodecyl, and tetradecyl were studied. In all cases, the growth of the aggregates with added salt counterion concentration in the aqueous phase (supplied by the surfactant and the added salt). The constants

  10. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  11. Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

  12. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of urinary protein in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Sufi M; Woo, K T; Tan, H K; Wong, K S

    2011-07-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI). We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na). The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04) and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF) group (P <0.002). Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003) than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM), AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively). Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN). At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF) or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05). In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome. PMID:21743220

  13. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions have been measured in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. This corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.

  14. Oxidation of byproduct calcium sulfite hemihydrate from coal-fired power plants 

    E-print Network

    Bhatt, Sandeep

    1995-01-01

    mixture of calcium sulfate dehydrate, calcium carbonate, a solid solution of calcium sulfate and calcium sulfite hemihydrate, and trace quantities of silicon and iron. Pure CaSO3.(1/2)H20 was used to prepare solid solutions with different sulfate...

  15. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and zinc sulfate as reference substances for toxicity tests with the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Moreira, G S

    2005-06-01

    Effects of anthropogenic pollution have been observed at different trophic levels in the oceans, and toxicity tests constitute one way of monitoring these alterations. The present assay proposes the use of two reference substances, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate, for Perna perna larvae. This common mussel on the Brazilian coast is used as a bioindicator and is of economic interest. The chronic static embryo-larval test of short duration (48 h) was employed to determine the NOEC, LOEC, and IC50 for SDS and zinc sulfate, as well as the coefficient of variation. Salinity, pH and un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were measured to monitor water quality. The results demonstrated that the main alterations in veliger larvae are the development of only one shell, protruded mantle, malformed shell, formation of only part of a valve, clipped edges, uneven sizes and presence of a concave or convex hinge. NOEC values were lower than 0.25 mg L(-1) for zinc sulfate and 0.68 mg L(-1) for SDS. The coefficient of variation was 17.63% and 2.50% for zinc sulfate and SDS, respectively. PMID:15883100

  16. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C.

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  17. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-print Network

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G, Austin, Texas 78712-1062 Removal of NO from flue gas may be achieved by its oxidation to NO2 followed oxidation were measured in a highly characterized stirred-cell contactor. The results were interpreted

  18. The reaction of sulfite radical anion with nucleic acid components.

    PubMed

    Erben-Russ, M; Michel, C; Bors, W; Saran, M

    1987-01-01

    The sulfite radical anion (SO3.-) is the first intermediate in the autoxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Using competition kinetics, its reactivities with the nucleic acid bases and the corresponding nucleosides were investigated. The second order rate constants were found to be rather low, k less than or equal to 1 x 10(6) dm3mol-1s-1 at pH 7. As a competitor, the carotenoid crocin was used, which was found to be bleached very efficiently by SO3.- (k = 1.0 x 10(9) dm3mol-1 s-1). PMID:2849586

  19. Oxygen reactivity of mammalian sulfite oxidase provides a concept for the treatment of sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Belaidi, Abdel A; Röper, Juliane; Arjune, Sita; Krizowski, Sabina; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Schwarz, Guenter

    2015-07-15

    Mammalian sulfite oxidase (SO) is a dimeric enzyme consisting of a molybdenum cofactor- (Moco) and haem-containing domain and catalyses the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate. Following sulfite oxidation, electrons are passed from Moco via the haem cofactor to cytochrome c, the terminal electron acceptor. In contrast, plant SO (PSO) lacks the haem domain and electrons shuttle from Moco to molecular oxygen. Given the high similarity between plant and mammalian SO Moco domains, factors that determine the reactivity of PSO towards oxygen, remained unknown. In the present study, we generated mammalian haem-deficient and truncated SO variants and demonstrated their oxygen reactivity by hydrogen peroxide formation and oxygen-consumption studies. We found that intramolecular electron transfer between Moco and haem showed an inverse correlation to SO oxygen reactivity. Haem-deficient SO variants exhibited oxygen-dependent sulfite oxidation similar to PSO, which was confirmed further using haem-deficient human SO in a cell-based assay. This finding suggests the possibility to use oxygen-reactive SO variants in sulfite detoxification, as the loss of SO activity is causing severe neurodegeneration. Therefore we evaluated the potential use of PEG attachment (PEGylation) as a modification method for future enzyme substitution therapies using oxygen-reactive SO variants, which might use blood-dissolved oxygen as the electron acceptor. PEGylation has been shown to increase the half-life of other therapeutic proteins. PEGylation resulted in the modification of up to eight surface-exposed lysine residues of SO, an increased conformational stability and similar kinetic properties compared with wild-type SO. PMID:26171830

  20. Prophylactic role of curcumin in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis murine model.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Hossam M M; Hemeida, Ramadan A; El-Bahrawy, Ali I M; Hamada, Farid M A

    2009-06-01

    We have addressed in this study the possible protective role of the main principle of turmeric pigment; curcumin on a murine model of ulcerative colitis (UC). Colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) (3% W/V) in drinking water to male Swiss albino rats for 5 consecutive days. DSS challenge induced UC model that was well characterized morphologically and biochemically. DSS produced shrinkage of colon length and increased the relative colon weight/length ratio accompanied by mucosal edema and bloody stool. Histologically, DSS produced submucosal erosions, ulceration, inflammatory cell infiltration and crypt abscess as well as epithelioglandular hyperplasia. The model was confirmed biochemically, and the test battery entailed elevated serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and colonic activity of myleoperoxidase (MPO). Colonic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and its substrate concentration; GSH, were notably reduced, while lipid peroxidation, expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and total nitric oxide (NO) were significantly increased. Prior administration of curcumin (100mg/kg, IP) for 7 consecutive days ahead of DSS challenge mitigated the injurious effects of DSS and ameliorated all the altered biochemical parameters. These results suggest that curcumin could possibly have a protective role in ulcerative colitis probably via regulation of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and modulation of the release of some inflammatory endocoids, namely TNF-alpha and NO. PMID:19285535

  1. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kanbe, Takamasa |; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki |; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Shiota, Goshi . E-mail: gshiota@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.

  2. Quasi-elastic light scattering study of intermicellar interactions in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Corti, M.; Deglorgio, V.

    1981-03-19

    Quasi-elastic light scattering measurement have been performed on aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions in the 0.1 to 0.6 mole NaCl concentration range at 25 and 40 C. The aggregation number M, the hydrodynamic radius Rh, and the amphiphile concentration dependence of static and transport coefficients of micellar solutions are obtained from the experimental data. The micellar parameters M and Rh increase with salt concentration and slightly decrease with temperature. The concentration dependence of the apparent molecular weight and of the mass diffusion coefficient is interpreted on the basis of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory of colloid stability. The fit to the experimental data, performed with the assumption that the Hamaker constant for micellar attraction A and the micellar electric charge Q do not depend on the salt concentration, is satisfactory and gives A = 4.5 x 10/sup -20/ J and Q = 37 electronic charges. The electric potential at the shear surface of the micelle goes from 70 MV at 0.1 mole NaCl to approximately 30 MV at 0.5 to 0.6 mole NaCl. 45 references.

  3. American ginseng attenuates azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunhao; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Martin, Adiba; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for this malignancy. We previously reported colon cancer chemoprevention potential using American ginseng (AG) in a xenograft mice model. However, the nude mouse model is not a gut-specific colon carcinogenesis animal model. Methods In this study, an experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, chemically induced by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was established and the effects of oral AG were evaluated. The contents of representative ginseng saponins in the extract were determined. Results AG significantly reduced experimental colitis measured by the disease activity index scores. This suppression of the experimental colitis was not only evident during DSS treatment, but also very obvious after the cessation of DSS, suggesting that the ginseng significantly promoted recovery from the colitis. Consistent with the anti-inflammation data, we showed that ginseng very significantly attenuated azoxymethane/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis by reducing the colon tumor number and tumor load. The ginseng also effectively suppressed DSS-induced proinflammatory cytokines activation using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay array, in which 12 proinflammatory cytokine levels were assessed, and this effect was supported subsequently by real-time polymerase chain reaction data. Conclusion AG, as a candidate of botanical-based colon cancer chemoprevention, should be further investigated for its potential clinical utility. PMID:25535472

  4. Beyond the detergent effect: a binding site for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in mammalian apoferritin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renyu; Bu, Weiming; Xi, Jin; Mortazavi, Shirin R.; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Loll, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as an anionic detergent, it can also exert specific pharmacological effects that are independent of the surfactant properties of the molecule. However, structural details of how proteins recognize SDS are scarce. Here, it is demonstrated that SDS binds specifically to a naturally occurring four-helix bundle protein: horse apoferritin. The X-ray crystal structure of the apoferritin–SDS complex was determined at a resolution of 1.9?Å and revealed that the SDS binds in an internal cavity that has previously been shown to recognize various general anesthetics. A dissociation constant of 24 ± 9?µM at 293?K was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. SDS binds in this cavity by bending its alkyl tail into a horseshoe shape; the charged SDS head group lies in the opening of the cavity at the protein surface. This crystal structure provides insights into the protein–SDS interactions that give rise to binding and may prove useful in the design of novel SDS-like ligands for some proteins. PMID:22525747

  5. A comparative study of three cytotoxicity test methods for nanomaterials using sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-10-01

    The biocompatibility evaluation of nanomaterials is essential for their medical diagnostic and therapeutic usage, where a cytotoxicity test is the simplest form of biocompatibility evaluation. Three methods have been commonly used in previous studies for the cytotoxicity testing of nanomaterials: trypan blue exclusion, colorimetric assay using water soluble tetrazolium (WST), and imaging under a microscope following calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining. However, there has yet to be a study to compare each method. Therefore, in this study three methods were compared using the standard reference material of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Each method of the cytotoxicity test was carried out using mouse fibroblasts of L-929 exposed to different concentrations of SLS. Compared to the gold standard trypan blue exclusion test, both colorimetric assay using water soluble tetrazolium (WST) and imaging under microscope with calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining showed results that were not statistically different. Also, each method exhibited various advantages and disadvantages, which included the need of equipment, time taken for the experiment, and provision of additional information such as cell morphology. Therefore, this study concludes that all three methods of cytotoxicity testing may be valid, though careful consideration will be needed when selecting tests with regard to time, finances, and the amount of information required by the researcher(s). PMID:25942919

  6. Effects of Treatment with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on the Ultrastructure of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Woldringh, C. L.; Van Iterson, Woutera

    1972-01-01

    An electron microscopy study has been made of the effects of dissolution of the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the organization of the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. The alterations observed in time course experiments were related to absorbance changes and to release of macromolecules from the cells. As the cells became plasmolyzed, under the conditions used, the first visible effect of SDS was a collapse of the plasmolysis spaces. This was accompanied by a displacement of the nuclear material which then appeared in broad contact with the redeployed plasma membrane. This initial displacement of nuclear material to the cell border may indicate an association between the nucleoplasm and the plasma membrane. Upon further dissolution of the plasma membrane, the nuclear material receded from the cell margin and contracted into an axial filament. Meanwhile, the cytoplasm dissociated into an amorphous, Pronase-sensitive component and an electron-opaque, granular one sensitive to ribonuclease. The latter represented one continuous area of ribosomal structures surrounding the nucleoplasm, an organization which did not occur when the cells were inhibited with rifamycin before SDS treatment. During prolonged SDS interaction, approximately 65% of the cellular protein, 25% of the ribonucleic acid and 40% of the deoxyribonucleic acid were released from the cells concomitant with the disappearance of the amorphous cytoplasmic part, expansion of the ribosomal aggregate, and rearrangement of the nuclear material at the cell periphery. The observations support the contention that all ribosomal structures bear a direct relationship with the nucleoplasm. Images PMID:4559830

  7. Secondary structure transitions and aggregation induced in dynorphin neuropeptides by the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hugonin, Loïc; Barth, Andreas; Gräslund, Astrid; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex

    2008-11-01

    Dynorphins, endogeneous opioid neuropeptides, function as ligands to the opioid kappa receptors and also induce non-opioid effects in neurons, probably related to direct membrane interactions. We have characterized the structure transitions of dynorphins (big dynorphin, dynorphin A and dynorphin B) induced by the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In SDS titrations monitored by circular dichroism, we observed secondary structure conversions of the peptides from random coil to alpha-helix with a highly aggregated intermediate. As determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, this intermediate exhibited beta-sheet structure for dynorphin B and big dynorphin. In contrast, aggregated dynorphin A was alpha-helical without considerable beta-sheet content. Hydrophobicity analysis indicates that the YGGFLRR motif present in all dynorphins is prone to be inserted in the membrane. Comparing big dynorphin with dynorphin A and dynorphin B, we suggest that the potent neurotoxicity of big dynorphin could be related to the combination of amino acid sequences and secondary structure propensities of dynorphin A and dynorphin B, which may generate a synergistic effect for big dynorphin membrane perturbing properties. The induced aggregated alpha-helix of dynorphin A is also correlated with membrane perturbations, whereas the beta-sheet of dynorphin B does not correlate with membrane perturbations. PMID:18694723

  8. Fabrication and surface properties of hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates based on sodium cocoate modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Linna; Wang, Guangxiu; Cao, Rong; Yang, Chun; Chen, Xi

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates were fabricated by the direction of cocoate anions. At 30 °C, when the weight ratio of sodium cocoate to BaSO4 particles was 2.0 wt.%, the active ratio of the product reached 99.43% and the contact angle was greater than 120°. This method could not only simplify the complex modification process, but reduce energy consumption. The surface morphology, chemical structure and composition of BaSO4 aggregates were characterized by SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The results indicated that the as-synthesized BaSO4 particles were almond-liked and were composed of many interconnected nanoballs and that their surfaces were affected by cocoate anions. The adsorption of cocoate anions reversed the charge and weakened the surface polarity of BaSO4 particles, driving the formation of aggregates. And cocoate anions induced a change of the BaSO4 particles surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by a self-assembly and transformation process. Due to the self-assembled structure and the surface hydrophobicity, when adding the hydrophobic BaSO4 into PVC, the mechanical properties of PVC composite materials were significantly improved.

  9. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin [IL]-1?, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

  10. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Ga??zka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Ma?gorzata; Dembi?ski, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8?nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1? and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. PMID:26713317

  11. Ginsenosides Regulate PXR/NF-?B Signaling and Attenuate Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Lijuan; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Xuefang; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Lin; Yan, Tingting; Xie, Yang; Wu, Yuzheng; Zhao, Min; Ma, Sijing; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2015-08-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation exhibits anti-inflammatory effects via repressing nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B); however, its overactivation may disrupt homeostasis of various enzymes and transporters. Here we found that ginsenosides restore PXR/NF-?B signaling in inflamed conditions without disrupting PXR function in normal conditions. The effects and mechanisms of ginsenosides in regulating PXR/NF-?B signals were determined both in vitro and in vivo. Ginsenosides significantly inhibited NF-?B activation and restored the expression of PXR target genes in tumor necrosis factor-?-stimulated LS174T cells. Despite not being PXR agonists, ginsenosides repressed NF-?B activation in a PXR-dependent manner. Ginsenosides significantly increased the physical association between PXR and the NF-?B p65 subunit and thereby decreased the nuclear translocation of p65. Ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K (CK) were major bioactive compounds in the regulating PXR/NF-?B signaling. Consistently, ginsenosides significantly attenuated dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis, which was associated with restored PXR/NF-?B signaling. This study indicates that ginsenosides may elicit anti-inflammatory effects via targeting PXR/NF-?B interaction without disrupting PXR function in healthy conditions. Ginsenoside Rb1 and CK may serve as leading compounds in the discovery of new drugs that target PXR/NF-?B interaction in therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25986850

  12. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Monomers Induce XAO Peptide Polyproline II to ?-Helix Transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    XAO peptide (Ac–X2A7O2–NH2; X: diaminobutyric acid side chain, ?CH2CH2NH3+; O: ornithine side chain, ?CH2CH2CH2NH3+) in aqueous solution shows a predominantly polyproline II (PPII) conformation without any detectable ?-helix-like conformations. Here we demonstrate by using circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) monomers bind to XAO and induce formation of ?-helix-like conformations. The stoichiometry and the association constants of SDS and XAO were determined from the XAO–SDS diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. We developed a model for the formation of XAO–SDS aggregate ?-helix-like conformations. Using UVRR spectroscopy, we calculated the Ramachandran ? angle distributions of aggregated XAO peptides. We resolved ?-, ?- and 310- helical conformations and a turn conformation. XAO nucleates SDS aggregation at SDS concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration. The XAO4–SDS16 aggregates have four SDS molecules bound to each XAO to neutralize the four side chain cationic charges. We propose that the SDS alkyl chains partition into a hydrophobic core to minimize the hydrophobic area exposed to water. Neutralization of the flanking XAO charges enables ?-helix formation. Four XAO–SDS4 aggregates form a complex with an SDS alkyl chain-dominated hydrophobic core and a more hydrophilic shell where one face of the ?-helix peptide contacts the water environment. PMID:25121643

  13. Sodium dodecyl sulfate monomers induce XAO peptide polyproline II to ?-helix transition.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhenmin; Damodaran, Krishnan; Asher, Sanford A

    2014-09-11

    XAO peptide (Ac-X2A7O2-NH2; X: diaminobutyric acid side chain, -CH2CH2NH3(+); O: ornithine side chain, -CH2CH2CH2NH3(+)) in aqueous solution shows a predominantly polyproline II (PPII) conformation without any detectable ?-helix-like conformations. Here we demonstrate by using circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) monomers bind to XAO and induce formation of ?-helix-like conformations. The stoichiometry and the association constants of SDS and XAO were determined from the XAO-SDS diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. We developed a model for the formation of XAO-SDS aggregate ?-helix-like conformations. Using UVRR spectroscopy, we calculated the Ramachandran ? angle distributions of aggregated XAO peptides. We resolved ?-, ?- and 3(10)-helical conformations and a turn conformation. XAO nucleates SDS aggregation at SDS concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration. The XAO4-SDS16 aggregates have four SDS molecules bound to each XAO to neutralize the four side chain cationic charges. We propose that the SDS alkyl chains partition into a hydrophobic core to minimize the hydrophobic area exposed to water. Neutralization of the flanking XAO charges enables ?-helix formation. Four XAO-SDS4 aggregates form a complex with an SDS alkyl chain-dominated hydrophobic core and a more hydrophilic shell where one face of the ?-helix peptide contacts the water environment. PMID:25121643

  14. Allyl Isothiocyanate Ameliorates Angiogenesis and Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, Jae Ho; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Wang, Shuaiyu; Sung, Mi Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables that has known chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Thus far, the antiangiogenic activity of AITC has not been reported in in vivo studies. Herein, we investigated the effect of AITC on angiogenesis and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium via drinking water. To monitor the activity of AITC in this model, we measured body weight, disease activity indices, histopathological scores, microvascular density, myeloperoxidase activity, F4/80 staining, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression in the mice. We found that AITC-treated mice showed less weight loss, fewer clinical signs of colitis, and longer colons than vehicle-treated mice. AITC treatment also significantly lessened the disruption of colonic architecture that is normally associated with colitis and repressed the microvascularization response. Further, AITC treatment reduced both leukocyte recruitment and macrophage infiltration into the inflamed colon, and the mechanism these activities involved repressing iNOS and COX-2 expression. Finally, AITC attenuated the expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR2. Thus, AITC may have potential application in treating conditions marked by inflammatory-driven angiogenesis and mucosal inflammation. PMID:25051185

  15. Simple Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Assisted Sample Preparation Method for LC-MS-based Proteomic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Shi, Tujin; Wang, Lu; Gao, Xiaoli; Su, Dian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-03-10

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most popular laboratory reagents used for highly efficient biological sample extraction; however, SDS presents a significant challenge to LC-MS-based proteomic analyses due to its severe interference with reversed-phase LC separations and electrospray ionization interfaces. This study reports a simple SDS-assisted proteomic sample preparation method facilitated by a novel peptide-level SDS removal protocol. After SDS-assisted protein extraction and digestion, SDS was effectively (>99.9%) removed from peptides through ion substitution-mediated DS- precipitation with potassium chloride (KCl) followed by {approx}10 min centrifugation. Excellent peptide recovery (>95%) was observed for less than 20 {mu}g of peptides. Further experiments demonstrated the compatibility of this protocol with LC-MS/MS analyses. The resulting proteome coverage from this SDS-assisted protocol was comparable to or better than those obtained from other standard proteomic preparation methods in both mammalian tissues and bacterial samples. These results suggest that this SDS-assisted protocol is a practical, simple, and broadly applicable proteomic sample processing method, which can be particularly useful when dealing with samples difficult to solubilize by other methods.

  16. Management of stomal varices with transvenous obliteration utilizing sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E A; Schwaner, Sandra; Lippert, Allison; Sabri, Saher S; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Matsumoto, Alan H; Angle, John F; Caldwell, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    The management of parastomal varices is not established. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation is the most commonly described treatment; however, the rebleed rate after TIPS is 21-37%. The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of transvenous obliteration using sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) and to describe a new simplified technique in obliterating these varices. Four patients are presented who underwent transvenous obliteration using STS. One was obliterated using balloon occlusion from the systemic veins, the second was obliterated without balloon from a transhepatic antegrade approach, and the last two patients were obliterated using the direct antegrade technique. This simplified technique requires only a micropuncture kit (not requiring balloons or coils) and ultrasound transducer compression of the systemic draining veins, relying on high portal pressure to keep the sclerosant confined to the varices. The sclerosant is essentially trapped between the portal pressure and the ultrasound-transducer compression (10-15 min). Technical success was achieved in all four patients without procedural or postprocedural complications and no rebleeding for a mean follow-up of 17 (range 2-33) months. Transvenous obliteration of parastomal varices utilizing STS as a sclerosant is safe and effective. The newly described technique is simple, feasible, and requires minimal equipment (no balloons or coils or catheters). PMID:24798128

  17. Allicin Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Ulcerative Colitis in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Ismail, Salmiah; Saadatdoust, Zeinab; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of allicin (10?mg/kg body weight, orally) in an experimental murine model of UC by administering 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water to BALB/c mice. DSS-induced mice presented reduced body weight, which was improved by allicin administration. We noted increases in CD68 expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and Malonaldehyde (MDA) and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) ?, interleukin- (IL-) 1?, IL-6, and IL-17, and decrease in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in DSS-induced mice. However, allicin treatment significantly decreased CD68, MPO, MDA, and proinflammatory cytokines and increased the enzymic antioxidants significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, allicin was capable of reducing the activation and nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby preventing degradation of the inhibitory protein I?B and inducing inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B-p65 in the colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that allicin exerts clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated through the suppression of the NF-?B and IL-6/p-STAT3(Y705) pathways. PMID:26075036

  18. Allicin Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Ulcerative Colitis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Salmiah; Saadatdoust, Zeinab; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of allicin (10?mg/kg body weight, orally) in an experimental murine model of UC by administering 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water to BALB/c mice. DSS-induced mice presented reduced body weight, which was improved by allicin administration. We noted increases in CD68 expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and Malonaldehyde (MDA) and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) ?, interleukin- (IL-) 1?, IL-6, and IL-17, and decrease in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in DSS-induced mice. However, allicin treatment significantly decreased CD68, MPO, MDA, and proinflammatory cytokines and increased the enzymic antioxidants significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, allicin was capable of reducing the activation and nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby preventing degradation of the inhibitory protein I?B and inducing inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B-p65 in the colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that allicin exerts clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated through the suppression of the NF-?B and IL-6/p-STAT3Y705 pathways. PMID:26075036

  19. Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate onto clathrate hydrates in the presence of salt.

    PubMed

    Salako, O; Lo, C; Zhang, J S; Couzis, A; Somasundaran, P; Lee, J W

    2012-11-15

    This work presents the effect of NaCl on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at the cyclopentane (CP) hydrate-water interface. The adsorption isotherms and the SDS solubility in NaCl solutions are obtained using liquid-liquid titrations. The solubility data are determined at typical hydrate forming temperatures (274-287 K) to ensure that the adsorption isotherms are obtained within SDS solubility limits in NaCl solutions. The isotherms show L-S (Langmuir-Step) type behaviors with 1mM and 10mM NaCl solutions while L type isotherm is determined for 25 mM NaCl solutions due to the low SDS solubility in this salt concentration. Zeta potentials of CP hydrate particles in the aqueous solutions support the shape of the adsorption isotherm with the 1mM NaCl solution. The 1mM NaCl case shows the highest SDS adsorption amount among the cases with 0 mM, 10 mM, and 25 mM NaCl solutions. In this case, the competition for adsorption between Cl(-) and DS(-) is not as strong compared to the 10 and 25 mM NaCl cases and the presence of Na(+) ions may reduce the repulsion between DS(-) ions, which results in a higher adsorption of DS(-) ions and enhanced enclathration. PMID:22883238

  20. Are micelles needed to form methane hydrates in sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions?

    PubMed

    Albertí, M; Costantini, A; Laganá, A; Pirani, F

    2012-04-12

    The possibility that methane hydrates form in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) water solutions without the help of micelles formation has been investigated. To asses whether micelles are needed for the hydrate to form only one SDS molecule has been considered. To figure out the possible mechanism through which the SDS promotes the formation of methane clathrate the dynamics of CH(4) solvation in the presence and absence of the surfactant molecule is monitored. To carry out the dynamical calculations, the SDS-H(2)O, SDS-CH(4), and CH(4)-H(2)O interactions were described using a recently proposed model potential. The adopted model leverages both on the decomposition of the molecular polarizability in effective components associated with the interaction centers distributed on the molecular frame and on the use of an improved Lennard-Jones functional form to represent the effective pair interaction energies. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on such potential, contrary to some earlier assumptions, do not support mechanisms requiring the formation of micelles as suggested by the findings of more recent experiments. PMID:22448641

  1. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Mohebali, Nooshin; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA. PMID:26251571

  2. Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rashad, A.M.; Bai, Y.; Basheer, P.A.M.; Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B.

    2012-02-15

    The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

  3. Phosphorescence lifetime studies of interactions between serum albumins and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Enescu, M; Ionescu, R; Dumbraveanu, G; Pascu, M L

    1993-02-01

    Binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solutions at room temperature induces significant changes in the phosphorescence lifetime of tryptophan (Trp) residues. A steep rise of the phosphorescence lifetime from 1.9 ms to 10.0 ms for BSA and from 1.9 ms to 5.5 ms for HSA is observed when the total SDS concentration increases from 0.0 mM to 0.22 mM at 1 mg/mL protein concentration. As the total SDS concentration is further increased to 2.2 mM, a slower increase in the phosphorescence lifetime is observed, from 10.0 ms to 19.5 ms for BSA and from 5.5 ms to 7.2 ms for HSA. It appears that the phosphorescence lifetime modifications are mainly due to an increase of protein matrix rigidity around Trp residues. The observed differences (between HSA and BSA) allow us to distinguish the contribution of the two Trp residues to the BSA phosphorescence. PMID:8451299

  4. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur; Yagci Acar, Havva

    2012-03-15

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  5. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    PubMed

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality. PMID:19924888

  6. Effect of Nanometric Lactobacillus plantarum in Kimchi on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Bong, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Hyunung; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Kim, Hee-Young; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-10-01

    Nanometric Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) is a processed form of Lab. plantarum derived from kimchi and is 0.5-1.0??m in size. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of nLp and kimchi plus nLp (K-nLp) on a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis. Animals fed nLp or K-nLp had longer colons, but lower colon weights per unit length than DSS controls. In addition, nLp- or K-nLp-fed animals showed lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory genes in serum and in colon tissues, lower populations of total bacteria, but higher populations of lactic acid bacteria in feces, and lower activities of fecal ?-glucosidase and ?-glucuronidase. Furthermore, these suppressive activities of nLp on colitis were equivalent to or higher than those of naive Lab. plantarum. Consequently, nLp was found to exhibit anticolitic effects, and the addition of nLp to kimchi was found to enhance the protective activity of kimchi against DSS-induced colitis. These results suggest that nLp might be an effective substitute for live probiotics and be useful as a functional ingredient with the anticolitic activity by the probiotic and food processing industries. PMID:26305853

  7. Antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate in apple slices.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q

    2009-01-01

    There are few available compounds that can both control browning and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut fruits. In the present study, the antibrowning ability of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) on "Granny Smith" apple slices was first investigated in terms of optimum concentration and treatment time. In a separate experiment, the apple slices were treated with water or 3% of SAS, calcium ascorbate, citric acid, or acidified calcium sulfate for 5 min. Total plate count, color, firmness, and tissue damage were assessed during a 21-d storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that the efficacy of SAS in inhibiting browning of apple slices increased with increasing concentration. A minimum 3% of SAS was needed to achieve 14 d of shelf life. Firmness was not significantly affected by SAS at 3% or lower concentrations. Antibrowning potential of SAS was similar for all treatment times ranging from 2 to 10 min. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. When cut surface of apple slices were stained with a fluorescein diacetate solution, tissue damage could be observed under a microscope even though visual damage was not evident. Among the antibrowning agents tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for the first 14 d. Total plate count of samples treated with 3% SAS was significantly lower than those treated with calcium ascorbate, a commonly used antibrowning agent. Our results suggested that it is possible to use SAS to control browning while inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the apple slices if the skin damage can be minimized. Practical Application: Fresh-cut apples have emerged as one of the popular products in restaurants, schools, and food service establishments as more consumers demand fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Processing of fresh-cut apples induces mechanical damage to the fruit and exposes apple tissue to air, resulting in the development of undesirable tissue browning. The fresh-cut industry currently uses antibrowning agents to prevent discoloration. However, the antibrowning solutions can become contaminated with human pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, and washing of apple slices with the contaminated solutions can result in the transfer of pathogens to the product. It would be ideal if an antibrowning compound prevented the proliferation of human pathogens in solutions and minimized the growth of pathogens during storage. The study was conducted to investigate antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) in comparison with other common antibrowning agents on Granny Smith apples. Results showed that among the antimicrobial agents we tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for 14 d at 4 degrees C. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. Overall, SAS can potentially be used to inhibit tissue browning while reducing the microbial growth on apple slices. The information is useful for the fresh-cut produce industry to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut apples while minimizing browning, thus increasing the consumption of the health benefiting fresh fruit. PMID:20492119

  8. Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Antoinette Weil

    The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of sodium sulfite injection to remove flue gas NO prior to sodium bicarbonate injection.

  9. Effects of various polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooils (Tweens) and sodium dodecyl sulfate on reflux synthesis of copper nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xifeng; Yin Hengbo . E-mail: yin@ujs.edu.cn; Cheng Xiaonong; Hu Huifeng; Yu Qi; Wang Aili

    2006-11-09

    Size-controlled synthesis of phase pure Cu nanoparticles was carried out by using copper sulfate pentahydrate as a precursor, ascorbic acid as a reductant, Tweens and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as modifiers in an aqueous solution at 80 deg. C. The as-prepared Cu nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The stabilizing effects of SDS and Tweens on the Cu nanoparticles should be through the coordination between Cu nanoparticles and the respective sulfate group and oxygen-containing bond. The synergic effect of the composite SDS and Tweens on Cu nanoparticles was different from those arising from the individuals.

  10. Application of the Aqueous Porous Pathway Model to Quantify the Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate on Ultrasound-Induced Skin Structural Perturbation

    E-print Network

    Polat, Baris E.

    This study investigated the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on skin structural perturbation when utilized simultaneously with low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS). Pig full-thickness skin (FTS) and pig split-thickness ...

  11. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    E-print Network

    Polat, Baris E.

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, ...

  12. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption onto Positively Charged Surfaces: Monolayer Formation With Opposing Headgroup Orientations

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Hun; Koelsch, Patrick; Weidner, Tobias; Wagner, Matthew S.; Castner, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption and structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) layers onto positively charged films have been monitored in situ with vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. Substrates with different charge densities and polarities used in these studies include CaF2 at different pH values as well as allylamine and heptylamine films deposited onto CaF2 and Au substrates by radio frequency glow discharge deposition. The SDS films were adsorbed from aqueous solutions ranging in concentration from 0.067 to 20 mM. In general the SFG spectra exhibited well resolved CH and OH peaks. However, at SDS concentrations between 1–8 mM the SFG CH and OH intensities decreased close to background levels. Combined data sets from molecular conformation, orientation, and order sensitive SFG with mass sensitive SPR suggest that the observed changes in SFG intensities above 0.2 mM are related to structural arrangements in the SDS layer. A model is proposed where the SFG intensity minimum between 1–8 mM is associated with a monolayer containing two head group orientations, one pointing towards the substrate and one pointing towards the solution phase. The SFG peaks observed at concentrations below 0.2 mM are dominated by the presence of adsorbed contaminants such as fatty alcohols (e.g., dodecanol), which are more surface active than SDS. As SDS solution concentration is increased above 1 mM SDS molecules are incorporated in the surface layer, with dodecanol continuing to be present in the surface layer for solution concentrations up to at least critical micelle concentration. PMID:24024777

  13. Bifidobacterium breve Attenuates Murine Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases Regulatory T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bin; van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen; Overbeek, Saskia; van de Kant, Hendrik J. G.; Garssen, Johan; Folkerts, Gert; Vos, Paul; Morgan, Mary E.; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

    2014-01-01

    While some probiotics have shown beneficial effects on preventing or treating colitis development, others have shown no effects. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulating effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve) on T cell polarization in vitro, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and in vivo, using murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. With respect to the latter, the mRNA expression of T cell subset-associated transcription factors and cytokines in the colon was measured and the T helper type (Th) 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets were determined in the Peyer's patches. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve incubations in vitro reduced Th17 and increased Th2 cell subsets in human PBMCs. In addition, B. breve incubation was also able to reduce Th1 and increase Treg cell subsets in contrast to L. rhamnosus. In vivo intervention with B. breve, but not L. rhamnosus, significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice, intervention with B. breve increased the expression of mRNA encoding for Th2- and Treg-associated cytokines in the distal colon. In addition, intervention with B. breve led to increases of Treg and decreases of Th17 cell subsets in Peyer's patches of DSS-treated mice. B. breve modulates T cell polarization towards Th2 and Treg cell-associated responses in vitro and in vivo. In vivo B. breve intervention ameliorates DSS-induced colitis symptoms and this protective effect may mediated by its effects on the T-cell composition. PMID:24787575

  14. Kimchi Protects Against Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Young; Song, Jia-Le; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Kang, Soon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The chemopreventive effects of different types and quantities of kimchi prepared with different subingredients, including commercial kimchi (CK), standardized kimchi (SK), cancer-preventive kimchi (CPK), and anticancer kimchi (ACK), on colorectal carcinogenesis in mice were evaluated. The development of colon cancer was induced in male BALB/c mice with a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM, 10?mg/kg body weight) and subsequent treatment with 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days for two cycles. After exposure to AOM and DSS, treatment with the methanolic extracts from different kimchis, particularly 1.89?g/kg of ACK, significantly increased colon length, decreased the ratio of colon weight/length, and resulted in the lowest number of tumors compared with the other kimchi-treated groups. Histological observation revealed that ACK was able to suppress AOM- and DSS-induced colonic mucosal damage and neoplasia. ACK also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, and IFN-?) as well as the mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of p53 and p21 was elevated in colon tissues from the ACK-treated mice compared with the other kimchi-treated groups. Our results suggest that kimchi exerted a suppressive effect on AOM- and DSS-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in the BALB/c mice. The anticancer effects of ACK were particularly potent. Thus, it is possible that the health-promoting subingredients added to ACK might be used to prevent colon carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:25029638

  15. L-arginine Supplementation Improves Responses to Injury and Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Lori A.; Gong, Xue; Singh, Kshipra; Asim, Mohammad; Scull, Brooks P.; Allaman, Margaret M.; Williams, Christopher S.; Rosen, Michael J.; Washington, M. Kay; Barry, Daniel P.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Casero, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Zhao, Zhongming; Wilson, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), results in substantial morbidity and is difficult to treat. New strategies for adjunct therapies are needed. One candidate is the semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg), a complementary medicine purported to be an enhancer of immunity and vitality in the lay media. Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as a murine colonic injury and repair model with similarities to human UC, we assessed the effect of L-Arg, as DSS induced increases in colonic expression of the y+ cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) and L-Arg uptake. L-Arg supplementation improved the clinical parameters of survival, body weight loss, and colon weight, and reduced colonic permeability and the number of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in DSS colitis. Luminex-based multi-analyte profiling demonstrated that there was a marked reduction in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression with L-Arg treatment. Genomic analysis by microarray demonstrated that DSS-treated mice supplemented with L-Arg clustered more closely with mice not exposed to DSS than to those receiving DSS alone, and revealed that multiple genes that were upregulated or downregulated with DSS alone exhibited normalization of expression with L-Arg supplementation. Additionally, L-Arg treatment of mice with DSS colitis resulted in increased ex vivo migration of colonic epithelial cells, suggestive of increased capacity for wound repair. Because CAT2 induction was sustained during L-Arg treatment and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) requires uptake of L-Arg for generation of NO, we tested the effect of L-Arg in iNOS?/? mice and found that its benefits in DSS colitis were eliminated. These preclinical studies indicate that L-Arg supplementation could be a potential therapy for IBD, and that one mechanism of action may be functional enhancement of iNOS activity. PMID:22428068

  16. Transcatheter Foam Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Female Varicocele with Sodium-Tetradecyl-Sulfate Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Chiocchi, Marcello Konda, Daniel; Pampana, Enrico; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-07-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of transcatheter foam sclerotherapy (TCFS) in pelvic varicocele using sodium-tetradecyl-sulfate foam (STSF), we conducted a retrospective study in 38 patients (mean age, 36.9 years; range, 22-44 years) with pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) treated between January 2000 and June 2005 by TCFS. Pelvic pain was associated with dyspareunia in 23 (60.5%) patients, urinary urgency in 9 (23.7%) patients, and worsening of pain during menstruation and at the end of a day of work in 7 (18.4%) and 38 (100%) patients, respectively. Diagnosis was made by pelvic and transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound examination, demonstrating ovarian or pelvic varices with a diameter >5 mm presenting venous reflux. TCFS was performed in all patients, using 3% STSF. Follow-up was performed by physical examination, pelvic and transvaginal Doppler ultrasound examination and by a questionnaire-based assessment of pain at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%). In three patients a pelvic colic-like pain occurred immediately after sclerotic agent injection, disappearing spontaneously after a few minutes. No recurrent varicoceles were observed during a 12-month follow-up. A statistically significant improvement in each category of specific symptoms was observed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. We conclude that TCFS of female varicocele using a 3% STSF is safe and effective for the treatment of PCS. It is associated with a significant reduction of symptoms and can be regarded as a valid alternative to other endovascular and surgical techniques.

  17. Unfolding and folding pathway of lysozyme induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Filho, Pedro L O; Bozelli, José C; Carvalho, Juliana; Schreier, Shirley; Oliveira, Cristiano L P

    2015-10-21

    Proteins may exhibit an unfolding or folding state in the presence of a surfactant. In the present study, the unfolding and folding pathway of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is studied. The stoichiometry obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides guidelines for other techniques. The fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism show that the fluorescence properties and secondary structure of proteins undergo a two-step change upon binding with SDS, in which the intensity decreases, the emission blue shifts and the helical conformation decreases at low ratios of SDS to HEWL, while all of them return to the native-like state upon the addition of SDS at higher ratios. At the end of the binding, HEWL presents a higher ?-helical content but its tertiary structure is lost compared to its native state, which is namely a molten globule state. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis and the derived model reveal that the complexes possess a decorated core-shell structure, with the core composed of dodecyl chains and the shell consisting of SDS head groups with a protein in molten globule state. Five binding steps, including the individual details involved in the denaturation, were obtained to describe the unfolding and folding pathway of HEWL induced by SDS. The results of this study not only present details about the denaturation of protein induced by SDS and the structure of the complexes involved in each binding step, but also provide molecular insights into the mechanism of the higher helical conformation of proteins in the presence of surfactant micelles. PMID:26308474

  18. Adequate Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Colitis Model in Mice and Effective Outcome Measurement Method

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung; Shim, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoon Jin; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Ham, Min Hee; Suh, Ji Hyung; Lee, Sun Min; Lee, Chang Min; Yoon, Hyuk; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model is used for research of inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to establish the adequate conditions for DSS mice model, and to find useful tool to measure inflammation. Methods: The 2.5% DSS was administered to six male C57BL/6 mice and 4% DSS to eight mice at 5 or 9 weeks of age. Each group was consisted of 6 mice with control group in which vehicle was administered instead of DSS. The mice were sacrificed on the 7th day after DSS or vehicle administration. Body weight, diarrhea, and hematochezia were recorded daily. Disease activity index (DAI) score which was composed of body weight change, diarrhea, and hematochezia was measured every day. Colon length was measured after sacrifice and colon mucosal level of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) was measured by ELISA assay. Histological score was compared between ascending and descending colon in the DSS group. Results: Colon length of five- and nine-week DSS group was significantly shorter than each control group but there was no statistical significance depending on DSS concentration or age. DAI score of 4% DSS group in nine-week was significantly higher than that five-week (P = 0.012) but there was no difference between 2.5% and 4% DSS group. The level of IL-1? in DSS mice was much higher than control group (P < 0.01), but there was no difference among several DSS groups. The histological score was higher in the descending colon than in the ascending colon but there was no statistical difference between each pair of DSS groups. Conclusions: The 4% DSS mice in nine-week was adequate for DSS-induced colitis model. DAI score was useful tool and descending colon was more appropriate site for histological evaluation of colitis than ascending colon.

  19. Poultry enteric inflammation model with dextran sodium sulfate mediated chemical induction and feed restriction in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kuttappan, V A; Berghman, L R; Vicuña, E A; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Wolchok, J D; Wolfenden, A D; Faulkner, O B; Tellez, G I; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R

    2015-06-01

    Gut inflammation is a cardinal event occurring in various gastrointestinal diseases regardless of etiology. A potential mechanism of action for antibiotic growth promoters and probiotics is alleviation or attenuation of such inflammation. In vivo inflammation models and markers to quantify changes in inflammation, such as paracellular leakage and tight junction function, are necessary tools in the search for methods to reduce enteric inflammation. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and feed restriction (FRS), and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d; 3 to 5 kDa) marker were evaluated for induction and assessment of enteric inflammation in broilers. Three independent experiments were conducted where birds received an inflammation inducer treatment and an oral gavage of FITC-d (2.2 mg/bird) 2.5 h before killing on d 4, followed by measurement of serum FITC-d levels and release of FITC-d from different regions of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to evaluate tight junction function. Experiment 1 tested control (CON) and DSS; Experiments 2 and 3 evaluated CON, DSS, and FRS. In all experiments DSS, as well as FRS in Experiments 2 and 3, showed higher (P<0.05) leakage of FITC-d into serum than CON, but FRS was not different from DSS. The amount of FITC-d retained in duodenal and cecal tissue was affected (P<0.05) by FRS in Experiments 2 and 3, and DSS affected FITC-d retention in duodenum only, suggesting differences in gut passage or absorption/adsorption. In conclusion, DSS oral gavage and FRS could induce leaky gut, with changes in serum FITC-d and migration of FITC-d from GIT. PMID:25877409

  20. Kimchi protects against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Song, Jia-Le; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Kang, Soon-Ah; Park, Kun-Young

    2014-08-01

    The chemopreventive effects of different types and quantities of kimchi prepared with different subingredients, including commercial kimchi (CK), standardized kimchi (SK), cancer-preventive kimchi (CPK), and anticancer kimchi (ACK), on colorectal carcinogenesis in mice were evaluated. The development of colon cancer was induced in male BALB/c mice with a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM, 10?mg/kg body weight) and subsequent treatment with 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days for two cycles. After exposure to AOM and DSS, treatment with the methanolic extracts from different kimchis, particularly 1.89?g/kg of ACK, significantly increased colon length, decreased the ratio of colon weight/length, and resulted in the lowest number of tumors compared with the other kimchi-treated groups. Histological observation revealed that ACK was able to suppress AOM- and DSS-induced colonic mucosal damage and neoplasia. ACK also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6, and IFN-?) as well as the mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of p53 and p21 was elevated in colon tissues from the ACK-treated mice compared with the other kimchi-treated groups. Our results suggest that kimchi exerted a suppressive effect on AOM- and DSS-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in the BALB/c mice. The anticancer effects of ACK were particularly potent. Thus, it is possible that the health-promoting subingredients added to ACK might be used to prevent colon carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:25029638

  1. Modulation of partition and localization of perfume molecules in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaxun; Tang, Haiqiu; Strand, Ross; Wang, Yilin

    2015-12-16

    The influence of perfume molecules on the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and their localization in SDS micelles have been investigated by ? potential, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), one- and two-dimensional NMR and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC). A broad range of perfume molecules varying in octanol/water partition coefficients P are employed. The results indicate that the surface charge, size and aggregation number of the SDS micelles strongly depend on the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity degree of perfume molecules. Three distinct regions along the log?P values are identified. Hydrophilic perfumes (log?P < 2.0) partially incorporate into the SDS micelles and do not lead to micelle swelling, whereas hydrophobic perfumes (log?P > 3.5) are solubilized close to the end of the hydrophobic chains in the SDS micelles and enlarge the micelles with higher ? potential and a larger aggregation number. The incorporated fraction and micelle properties show increasing tendency for the perfumes in the intermediate log?P region (2.0 < log?P < 3.5). Besides, the molecular conformation of perfume molecules also affects these properties. The perfumes with a linear chain structure or an aromatic group can penetrate into the palisade layer and closely pack with the SDS molecules. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC show that the binding of the perfumes in the intermediate log?P region is more spontaneous than those in the other two log?P regions, and the micellization of SDS with the perfumes is driven by entropy. PMID:26458054

  2. Sulfur Isotope Effects of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, William D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Santos, André A.; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Johnston, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The precise interpretation of environmental sulfur isotope records requires a quantitative understanding of the biochemical controls on sulfur isotope fractionation by the principle isotope-fractionating process within the S cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). Here we provide the only direct observation of the major (34S/32S) and minor (33S/32S, 36S/32S) sulfur isotope fractionations imparted by a central enzyme in the energy metabolism of sulfate reducers, dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). Results from in vitro sulfite reduction experiments allow us to calculate the in vitro DsrAB isotope effect in 34S/32S (hereafter, 34?DsrAB) to be 15.3 ± 2‰, 2?. The accompanying minor isotope effect in 33S, described as 33?DsrAB, is calculated to be 0.5150 ± 0.0012, 2?. These observations facilitate a rigorous evaluation of the isotopic fractionation associated with the dissimilatory MSR pathway, as well as of the environmental variables that govern the overall magnitude of fractionation by natural communities of sulfate reducers. The isotope effect induced by DsrAB upon sulfite reduction is a factor of 0.3–0.6 times prior indirect estimates, which have ranged from 25 to 53‰ in 34?DsrAB. The minor isotope fractionation observed from DsrAB is consistent with a kinetic or equilibrium effect. Our in vitro constraints on the magnitude of 34?DsrAB is similar to the median value of experimental observations compiled from all known published work, where 34?r?p = 16.1‰ (r–p indicates reactant vs. product, n = 648). This value closely matches those of MSR operating at high sulfate reduction rates in both laboratory chemostat experiments (34?SO4?H2S =  17.3 ± 1.5‰, 2?) and in modern marine sediments (34?SO4?H2S =  17.3 ± 3.8‰). Targeting the direct isotopic consequences of a specific enzymatic processes is a fundamental step toward a biochemical foundation for reinterpreting the biogeochemical and geobiological sulfur isotope records in modern and ancient environments.

  3. A study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and sodium (lithium) dodecyl sulfate by the small-angle neutron scattering method

    SciTech Connect

    Rajewska, A. Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E.

    2007-09-15

    The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a new nonionic surfactant, namely, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C{sub 14}E{sub 7}), and an anionic surfactant, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, or lithium dodecyl sulfate, is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary results of the investigation into the behavior of C{sub 14}E{sub 7} aqueous solutions (at two concentrations, 0.17 and 0.50%) upon addition of small amounts of three different classical anionic surfactants are reported.

  4. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15th day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. RESULTS: The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3rd and 5th days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6th day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0.05). Kefir treatment significantly reduced the DSS colitis-induced TNF-? increase (P < 0.01). No statistically significant differences were observed among groups for IL-10 and MDA levels. Colon tissue iNOS levels in the colitis group were significantly higher than those in the control and kefir-colitis groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Kefir reduces the clinical DAI and histologic colitis scores in a DSS-induced colitis model, possibly via reduction of MPO, TNF-?, and iNOS levels. PMID:26676086

  5. Histopathological and morphometric changes induced by a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model in broilers.

    PubMed

    Menconi, A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Faulkner, O B; Tellez, G; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R

    2015-05-01

    Oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used as an inducer of enteric inflammation in rodents. However, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding appropriate dosage, timing, or ageresponses in broilers for this potential inducer of inflammation without necrosis. Two experiments were conducted in day-of-hatch chicks to analyze clinical parameters and enteric histological changes induced by DSS when administered via drinking water ( DW: ). In both experiments, birds were distributed into nontreated control or varying concentrations of DSS in DW. For both experiments, only 0.75% DSS in DW was histologically evaluated. In Experiment 1, chicks received DSS from day 3 to 11, and at 3, 6, and 8 d of treatment, chicks were weighed, and sections of the duodenum, ileum, and ceca were formalin fixed. The addition of 0.75% DSS caused depression, anemia, and watery bloody diarrhea, plus significantly (P < 0.05) decreased BW gain at all times. Shortened ileal villi at 6 d and duodenal villi at 8 d of treatment, reduced duodenal and ileal epithelial cell height at 3, 6, and 8 d, and increased duodenal goblet cell density at 6 and 8 d were observed in response to DSS administration (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, birds received DSS from days 10 to 16 and were sampled at 3 and 6 d of treatment. Similar changes were found in ceca of treated birds. There was no significant change in the duodenal villus height and goblet cell density by 6 d of treatment, suggesting that 6 d of 0.75% DSS in DW was not sufficient for the reproduction of duodenal symptoms in these older birds. However, there was a significant decrease in ilealvillus height and decreased ileal epithelial cell height at 3 and 6 d of treatment, as well as a significant decrease in BW compared to the control group. These findings indicate that DW administration of 0.75% DSS caused generalized mild and non-necrotic enteritis in broilers and that this compound may be useful for enteric inflammation modeling in poultry. PMID:25743415

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanying; Li, Haonan; Dong, Hua; Liao, Jie; Hammock, Bruce D; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyses/inactivates anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their corresponding diols, and targeting sEH leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemical approach, a significant increase of sEH expression was identified in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The effects of deficiency in the sEH gene were determined on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis-induced carcinogenesis. The effects of EETs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages were analyzed in vitro. With extensive histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses, compared to wild-type mice, sEH(-/-) mice exhibited a significant decrease in tumor incidence (13/20 vs. 6/19, p<0.05) and a markedly reduced average tumor size (59.62±20.91 mm(3) vs. 22.42±11.22 mm(3)), and a significant number of pre-cancerous dysplasia (3±1.18 vs. 2±0.83, p<0.01). The inflammatory activity, as measured by the extent/proportion of erosion/ulceration/dense lymphoplasmacytosis (called active colitis index) in the colon, was significantly lower in sEH(-/-) mice (44.7%±24.9% vs. 20.2%±16.2%, p<0.01). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays demonstrated significantly low levels of cytokines/chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VCAM-1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). In vitro, LPS-activated macrophages treated with 14,15-EET showed a significant reduction of LPS-triggered IL-1? and TNF-? expression. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling revealed a significant increase of the ratios of EETs/ dihydroeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and epoxyoctadecennoic acid/dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOMEs/DiHOMEs). These results indicate that sEH plays an important role in the development of colitis and in inducing carcinogenesis. PMID:24324059

  7. Higher fecal bile acid hydrophobicity is associated with exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Lotta K; Holma, Reetta; Forsgård, Richard; Gylling, Helena; Korpela, Riitta

    2013-11-01

    Increased luminal bile acid hydrophobicity is associated with cytotoxicity and has been suggested to contribute to gut barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare 2 high-fat diets and a low-fat diet as to whether they modify fecal bile acid profile and hydrophobicity and/or susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis in C57Bl/6J mice. Control and DSS-Control groups received a low-fat control diet [5.5% of total energy (E%) soy oil, 4.5 E% lard], and the DSS-Lard (5.5 E% soy oil, 54.5 E% lard) and DSS-Fish oil (5.5 E% soy oil, 27.2 E% lard and 27.2% menhaden oil) groups received high-fat diets. Feces for bile acid analysis were collected after 3-wk feeding, followed by induction of dextran DSS colitis (2 d 5% DSS in drinking water + 2 d tap water). Fecal bile acid hydrophobicity was elevated 76% in the lard group (P = 0.051) and 122% in the fish oil group (P = 0.001) compared with control, indicating potentially increased cytotoxicity. DSS caused severe colitis symptoms, evaluated as rectal bleeding, whereas all the controls were symptom free. The median symptom scores were: DSS-Control, 2.3 (IQR = 0.6, 3.0); DSS-Lard, 0.3 (IQR = 0, 2.3); and DSS-Fish oil, 2.4 (IQR = 1.9, 2.8). The only differences were DSS-Control vs. control (P < 0.001) and DSS-Fish oil vs. control (P < 0.001). Severity of symptoms in all colitic mice was positively correlated with fecal bile acid hydrophobicity (Spearman's ? = 0.43; P = 0.028) and fecal deoxycholic acid concentration (Spearman's ? = 0.39; P = 0.048). These results suggest that luminal bile acid modification, induced by altered dietary fat composition, may alter susceptibility to DSS colitis. PMID:24047703

  8. Modeling Colitis-Associated Cancer with Azoxymethane (AOM) and Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Ameet I.; Shaker, Anisa; Rao, M. Suprada; Ciorba, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) over healthy individuals. This risk is proportional to the duration and extent of disease, with a cumulative incidence as high as 30% in individuals with longstanding UC with widespread colonic involvement.1 Colonic dysplasia in IBD and colitis associated cancer (CAC) are believed to develop as a result of repeated cycles of epithelial cell injury and repair while these cells are bathed in a chronic inflammatory cytokine milieu.2 While spontaneous and colitis-associated cancers share the quality of being adenocarcinomas, the sequence of underlying molecular events is believed to be different.3 This distinction argues the need for specific animal models of CAC. Several mouse models currently exist for the study of CAC. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), an agent with direct toxic effects on the colonic epithelium, can be administered in drinking water to mice in multiple cycles to create a chronic inflammatory state. With sufficient duration, some of these mice will develop tumors.4 Tumor development is hastened in this model if administered in a pro-carcinogenic setting. These include mice with genetic mutations in tumorigenesis pathways (APC, p53, Msh2), as well as mice pre-treated with genotoxic agents (azoxymethane [AOM], 1,2-dimethylhydrazine [DMH]).5 The combination of DSS with AOM as a model for colitis associated cancer has gained popularity for its reproducibility, potency, low price, and ease of use. Though they have a shared mechanism, AOM has been found to be more potent and stable in solution than DMH. While tumor development in other models generally requires several months, mice injected with AOM and subsequently treated with DSS develop adequate tumors in as little as 7-10 weeks.6, 7 Finally, AOM and DSS can be administered to mice of any genetic background (knock out, transgenic, etc.) without cross-breeding to a specific tumorigenic strain. Here, we demonstrate a protocol for inflammation-driven colonic tumorigenesis in mice utilizing a single injection of AOM followed by three seven-day cycles of DSS over a 10 week period. This model induces tumors with histological and molecular changes closely resembling those occurring in human CAC and provides a highly valuable model for the study of oncogenesis and chemoprevention in this disease.8 PMID:22990604

  9. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. METHODS: Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. RESULTS: Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired uptake of a lipid tracer within mesenteric lymphatics. Our in vivo NIRF imaging data demonstrated dilated dermal lymphatic vessels, which were confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of lymphatic vessels, and significantly reduced lymphatic contractile function in the skin of mice with DSS-induced acute colitis. Quantification of the fluorescent intensity remaining in the depot as a function of time showed that there was significantly higher Alexa680-BSA fluorescence in mice with DSS-induced acute colitis compared to pre-treatment with DSS, indicative of impaired lymphatic drainage. CONCLUSION: The lymphatics are locally and systemically altered in acute colitis, and functional NIRF imaging is useful for noninvasively monitoring systemic lymphatic changes during inflammation. PMID:26668501

  10. Modifying effects of polyethylene glycols and sodium dodecyl sulfate on synthesis of Ni nanocrystals in 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xifeng; Yin, Hengbo; Cheng, Xiaonong; Jiang, Zhonggui; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Aili

    2006-09-01

    Morphology-controlled synthesis of nickel (Ni) nanocrystals has been carried out from nickel acetate tetrahydrate with 1,2-propanediol as both solvent and reductant in the presence of modifiers. The as-prepared nanostructured Ni samples have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron micrographs (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The presence of modifiers plays an important role in morphology-controlled synthesis of Ni nanocrystals. The modifying and stabilizing effects of single modifiers such as polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and their composites have been investigated.

  11. Impairment in Sulfite Reductase Leads to Early Leaf Senescence in Tomato Plants1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Kurmanbayeva, Assylay; Bekturova, Aizat; Ventura, Yvonne; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Eppel, Amir; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Sulfite reductase (SiR) is an essential enzyme of the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, which catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Here, we show that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with impaired SiR expression due to RNA interference (SIR Ri) developed early leaf senescence. The visual chlorophyll degradation in leaves of SIR Ri mutants was accompanied by a reduction of maximal quantum yield, as well as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, messenger RNA transcripts and proteins involved in chlorophyll breakdown in the chloroplasts were found to be enhanced in the mutants, while transcripts and their plastidic proteins, functioning in photosystem II, were reduced in these mutants compared with wild-type leaves. As a consequence of SiR impairment, the levels of sulfite, sulfate, and thiosulfate were higher and glutathione levels were lower compared with the wild type. Unexpectedly, in a futile attempt to compensate for the low glutathione, the activity of adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate reductase was enhanced, leading to further sulfite accumulation in SIR Ri plants. Increased sulfite oxidation to sulfate and incorporation of sulfite into sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols were not sufficient to maintain low basal sulfite levels, resulting in accumulative leaf damage in mutant leaves. Our results indicate that, in addition to its biosynthetic role, SiR plays an important role in prevention of premature senescence. The higher sulfite is likely the main reason for the initiation of chlorophyll degradation, while the lower glutathione as well as the higher hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde additionally contribute to premature senescence in mutant leaves. PMID:24987017

  12. DISSOLUTION AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM SULFITE PLATELETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the dissolution and crystallization of calcium sulfite platelets. The rates of calcium sulfite dissolution and crystallization are important in slurry scrubbing processes for flue gas desulfurization. The rates affect the scrubber solution composition, SO2 abs...

  13. Synergetic Transformations of Multiple Pollutants Driven by Cr(VI)-Sulfite Reactions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Liu, Yukun; Zheng, Jingtang; Tan, Minghui; Wang, Zhaohui; Wu, Mingbo

    2015-10-20

    Reduction of Cr(VI) is often deemed necessary to detoxify chromium contaminants; however, few investigations utilized this reaction for the purpose of treating other industrial wastewaters. Here a widely used Cr(VI)-sulfite reaction system was upgraded to simultaneously transform multiple pollutants, namely, the reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of sulfite and other organic/inorganic pollutants in an acidic solution. As(III) was selected as a probe pollutant to examine the oxidation capacity of a Cr(VI)-sulfite system. Both (•)OH and SO4(•-) were considered as the primary oxidants for As(III) oxidation, based on the results of electron spin resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and specific radicals quenching. As(III)-scavenging, oxidative radicals greatly accelerated Cr(VI) reduction and simultaneously consumed less sulfite. In comparison with a Cr(VI)-H2O2 system with 50 ?M Cr(VI), Cr(VI), the sulfite system had excellent performance for both As(III) oxidation and Cr(VI) reduction at pH 3.5. Moreover, in this escalated process, less sulfite was required to reduce Cr(VI) than the traditional Cr(VI) reduction by sulfite process. This effectively improves the environmental compatibility of this Cr(VI) detoxification process, alleviating the potential for SO2 release and sulfate ion production in water. Generally, this study provides an excellent example of a "waste control by waste" strategy for the detoxification of multiple industrial pollutants. PMID:26384045

  14. Anticoagulant and FGF/FGFR signal activating activities of the heparinoid propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate and its oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Yiran; Zeng, Yangyang; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhao, Xia

    2016-01-20

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), prepared by chemical sulfation of alginate, has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. In the current study, the PSS was hydrolyzed partially by an environment-friendly solid phase acid degradation method, and then separated by using a Bio-Gel P6 chromatographic column. Thirteen PSS oligosaccharide fractions were obtained and characterized by ESI-MS. The results of different coagulation assays showed that a high molecular weight and a higher degree of sulfation were essential for the anticoagulant activity of the PSS because the PSS oligosaccharides exhibited no detectable anticoagulant activity. In contrast, not only PSS but also certain oligosaccharides showed significant activities in stimulation of FGF1, 2, 7, 8, 9 or 10 induced cell proliferation in FGFR1c-expressing BaF3 cells. Such properties made the PSS and its oligosaccharides promising compounds in the regulation of FGF-dependent development, treatment of cancer, and wound healing processes. PMID:26572396

  15. Influence of sodium aluminosilicate, hydroxy-sodalite, carnegieite, aluminum sulfate, and aluminum phosphate on performance of commercial Leghorns.

    PubMed

    Roland, D A; Barnes, D G; Laurent, S M

    1991-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if the high ion-exchange capacity of sodium aluminosilicate (ZA) marketed as ETHACAL Feed Component or its aluminum content or both are related to the beneficial effect of ZA on egg specific gravity (ESG). In Experiments 1 and 2, ZA was compared with hydroxy-sodalite (HS) and carnegieite, which have the same chemical formula as ZA but little or no ion-exchange capacity. Two levels of ZA (0 and 1.5% of the diet) and three levels of HS (0, .75, and 1.5%) were fed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, 0, .75, and 1.5% of ZA and carnegieite were fed. In Experiment 3, ZA, carnegieite, aluminum sulfate, and aluminum phosphate were fed at levels calculated to contain .148 and .101% aluminum. Criteria evaluated were ESG, egg production, feed consumption, and egg weight. Egg specific gravity was significantly improved by ZA in all experiments and was not affected by HS, carnegieite (Experiments 1 and 2), aluminum sulfate (.148% Al), or aluminum phosphate (Experiment 3). Carnegieite and aluminum (.101%) from aluminum sulfate increased ESG in Experiment 3. In Experiments 1 and 3, egg production and feed consumption were not influenced by various treatments. Carnegieite and ZA reduced egg production and feed consumption in Experiment 2. It was concluded that the ion-exchange capacity and aluminum content of ZA may contribute to its beneficial effect on ESG. PMID:1652132

  16. Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

  17. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-12-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain lengths, the slower the sphere-to-rod transition. PMID:17904570

  18. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sodium chondroitin sulfate into the bladder through a urinary catheter improves quality of live in people with overactive bladder. Urinary tract infections (UTIs). Early evidence suggests that ... (IALURIL) through a catheter weekly for 4 weeks and then monthly for ...

  19. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M.; Hussein, Lobna A.; Sedki, Nehal G.; Salama, Nahla N.

    2016-01-01

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at ?ex 257 nm and ?em 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH 3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  20. The effect of caffeine on the reactions of the excited singlet state of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Shuichi; Thomas, J. Kerry

    1984-08-01

    The effect of caffeine on a few photo-induced reactions of pyrene in micellar sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) has been studied. In these systems caffeine complexes with the pyrene (K asso = 85 ± 10 M -1 and also with the other reactants, e.g. Cu 2+ or TI +. The efficiencies of reactions which involve contact, i.e. pyrene excimer formation, and quenching by TI + ions to give the triplet state of pyrene, are significantly reduced in the presence of caffeine, due to geometric inhibitions formed by the complexation processes. The kinetics of photo-induced electron transfer, e.g. between excited pyrene and Cu 2+, are not affected. However, the subsequent reactions of the products are modified and the yield of ionic products is markedly increased.

  1. High-impact polystyrene/halloysite nanocomposites prepared by emulsion polymerization using sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong; Ng, Kai Mo; Chan, Chi-Ming; Sun, Guoxing; Wu, Jingshen

    2011-06-15

    High-impact polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites filled with individually dispersed halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of HNTs with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the emulsifier. The SDS is a good dispersing agent for HNTs in aqueous solution. The emulsion polymerization resulted in the formation of polystyrene nanospheres separating individual HNTs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the PS matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry were used to characterize the PS/HNT nanocomposites. The impact strength of the PS/HNTs nanocomposites was 300% higher than that of the neat PS. This paper presents a simple yet feasible method for the preparation of high-impact PS/halloysite nanocomposites. PMID:21458819

  2. Evidence for a common regulation in the activation of a polyphenol oxidase by trypsin and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes; Cabanes, Juana; García-Carmona, Francisco; Escribano, Josefa

    2005-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from beet root, in both soluble and membrane fractions, and in both cases the enzyme was in a latent state. PPO from the membrane fraction showed no diphenolase activity unless it was activated by trypsin or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The kinetics of the activation process of latent PPO by trypsin was studied and the specific rate constant of active PPO formation, k 3 , showed a value of 0.03 s(-1). The protease-activated form showed a pH optimum (6.5) and kinetic properties identical to those of the SDS-activated enzyme. Evidence is provided for the existence of a common peptide responsible for the regulation of the activity of the enzyme by both proteolysis and SDS detergent. Formation of the active proteolyzate was followed by spectroscopic measurements, Western blotting and partially denaturing SDS-PAGE. PMID:16006247

  3. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent.

    PubMed

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Sedki, Nehal G; Salama, Nahla N

    2016-01-15

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at ?ex 257nm and ?em 335nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance. PMID:26356788

  4. Studies on bio-antioxidants--prooxidation of vitamin E on the autoxidation of linoleic acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z L; Wang, L J; Liu, Y C

    1991-07-01

    The reaction of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) with linoleic acid containing peroxidized linoleic acid has been studied. No significant reaction was found in ethanol solution, whereas in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles vitamin E reacted rapidly with peroxidized linoleic acid, and thereby induced the peroxidation of linoleic acid, leading to oxygen absorption. The reaction kinetics was studied in detail by u.v. spectroscopy, HPLC and ESR spectroscopy. It was found that the main product was alpha-tocopherone with alpha-tocopheroxy radical as the reaction intermediate. A mechanism involving two consecutive bimolecular reactions between peroxidized linoleic acid and alpha-tocopherol and between peroxidized linoleic acid and alpha-tocopheroxy radical, with rate constant 2.93 and 6.21 mol/L-1s-1 respectively is proposed. The micellar effect on the reaction is discussed. PMID:1878142

  5. Prevention of acid drainage from stored coal. [Inhibition of bacterial action by treatment with a solution of sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H.; Bell, T.L.; Longaker, J.J.

    1983-06-01

    A method has been identified for controlling acid production and subsequent dissolution of toxic pollutants in drainage from coal storage piles. Results of laboratory and field experiments indicate that it may be possible to prevent, rather than treat, acid drainage by periodically applying an environmentally safe detergent formulation to the coal. These experiments showed that a mild solution of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) effectively blocks the activity of the bacteria that promote acid formation and chemical leaching. Drainage from coal treated once with 50 mg/L of SLS remained neutral for 60 days, about three times longer than the untreated control sample. An extrapolation of results to an industrial-scale application revealed that the cost of the SLS needed for a single application would likely be no more than $200 per acre of coal storage area ($500 per hectare ) or, expressed per unit weight of coal, $4,000 per million metric tons.

  6. Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours. PMID:20237384

  7. Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceburg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies showed that levulinic acid (LA) and sodium acid sulfate (SAS) were effective in inactivating human pathogens on fresh produce. The present study investigated the effects of LA and SAS in comparison with citric acid and chlorine on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and the sensory qu...

  8. Control of pathogens in biofilms on the surface of stainless steel by levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-08-17

    The efficacy of levulinic acid (LVA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to remove or inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in biofilms on the surface of stainless steel coupons was evaluated. Five- or six-strain mixtures (ca. 9.0 log CFU/ml) of the three pathogens were separately inoculated on stainless steel coupons. After incubation at 21 °C for 72 h, the coupons were treated for 10 min by different concentrations of LVA plus SDS (0.5% LVA+0.05% SDS, 1% LVA+0.1% SDS, and 3% LVA+2% SDS) and other commonly used sanitizers, including a commercial quaternary ammonium-based sanitizer (150 ppm), lactic acid (3%), sodium hypochlorite (100 ppm), and hydrogen peroxide (2%). The pathogens grew in the biofilms to ca. 8.6 to 9.3 log CFU/coupon after 72 h of incubation. The combined activity of LVA with SDS was bactericidal in biofilms for cells of the three pathogens evaluated, with the highest concentrations (3% LVA+2% SDS) providing the greatest log reduction. Microscopic images indicated that the cells were detached from the biofilm matrix and the integrity of cell envelopes were decreased after the treatment of LVA plus SDS. This study is conducive to better understanding the antimicrobial behavior of LVA plus SDS to the foodborne pathogens within biofilms. PMID:25950851

  9. Sodium lauryl sulfate impedes drug release from zinc-crosslinked alginate beads: switching from enteric coating release into biphasic profiles.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mutasem O; Nasser, Wissam; Ardakani, Adel; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2008-02-28

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads. Different levels of SLS were mixed with sodium alginate and chlorpheniramine maleate (as loaded model drug). The resulting viscous solutions were dropped onto aqueous solutions of zinc or calcium ions for ionotropic curing. The generated beads were assessed by their drug releasing profiles, infrared and differential scanning colorimetery (DSC) traits. SLS was found to exert profound concentration-dependent impacts on the characteristics of zinc-crosslinked alginate beads such that moderate modifications in the levels of SLS switched drug release from enteric coating-like behavior to a biphasic release modifiable to sustained-release by the addition of minute amounts of xanthan gum. Calcium cross-linking failed to reproduce the same behavior, probably due to the mainly ionic nature of calcium-carboxylate bonds compared to the coordinate character of their zinc-carboxylate counterparts. Apparently, moderate levels of SLS repel water penetration into the beads, and therefore minimize chlorpheniramine release. However, higher SLS levels seem to discourage polymeric cross-linking and therefore allow biphasic drug release. PMID:17980979

  10. The effects of temperature on the leaching behavior of cement waste forms: The cement/sodium sulfate system

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, M.; Pietrzak, R.; Heiser, J.; Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1989-10-01

    The leaching mechanisms of simulated low-level radioactive waste forms are being determined as support for development of an accelerated leach test. Two approaches are being used: (1) comparisons of leaching data with results of a model that describes diffusion from a finite cylinder, and (2) observation of the leaching process at temperatures between 20{degree}C and 65{degree}C. To provide results that can be used for modeling, leaching at elevated temperatures must change neither the leaching mechanism nor the structural controls of leaching such as the porosity. Releases of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 85}Sr, calcium, sodium and potassium from portland cement containing sodium sulfate, as a simulated evaporator sludge, have been determined under a variety of experimental conditions. Data from the leach tests were compared to model results for diffusion from the finite cylinder. While most leaching appears to be diffusion controlled, notable exceptions occur. For all samples activation energies ranging between 6 and 11 Kcal/mole have been calculated from the relationship of the effective diffusion coefficient to increasing temperature, close to the expected value of 5 Kcal/mole for diffusion. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The irreversible inactivation of two copper-dependent monooxygenases by sulfite: peptidylglycine alpha-amidating enzyme and dopamine beta-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Merkler, D J; Kulathila, R; Francisco, W A; Ash, D E; Bell, J

    1995-06-12

    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating enzyme (alpha-AE) and dopamine beta-monooxygenase (D beta M), two copper-dependent monooxygenases that have catalytic and structural similarities, are irreversibly inactivated by sodium sulfite in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Studies with alpha-AE show that the sulfite-mediated inactivation is dependent on the presence of redox active transition metals free in solution, with Cu(II) being the most effective in supporting the inactivation reaction. Sulfite inactivation of alpha-AE is specific for the monooxygenase reaction of this bifunctional enzyme and amidated peptides provide protection against the inactivation. Consequently, the sulfite-mediated inactivation of alpha-AE and D beta M most likely results from the transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of sulfite to the sulfite radical, SO3-. PMID:7540562

  12. Impact of AlCl3 on the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium polyethylene glycol monoalkyl ether sulfate in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Petkov, Jordan T; Tucker, Ian; Grillo, I; Terry, A

    2013-11-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering has been used to study the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium polyethylene glycol monoalkyl ether sulfate in aqueous solution and in the presence of Al(3+) multivalent counterions in the form of AlCl3. The addition of the Al(3+) ions promotes significant micellar growth of the initially globular micelles into highly elongated structures until ultimately lamellar structures form. Increasing the size of the polyethylene oxide, EO, group progressively suppresses micellar growth before lamellar formation. Reducing the alkyl chain length has a similar effect on the structural evolution. Both trends are associated with increased solubility with increasing EO group size and decreasing alkyl chain length. Both the size of the EO group and the length of the alkyl chain affect sodium diethylene glycol monododecyl ether sulfate/Al(3+) complex formation and drive lamellar formation to progressively higher AlCl3 concentrations. PMID:24093727

  13. Analysis of partitioning of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-10-01

    Partition behavior of nine small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. It was found out that the partition coefficient of all compounds examined (including proteins) may be described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system differ from those in polyethylene glycol-dextran system. PMID:26342872

  14. Adhesion of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant monolayers with TiO2 (rutile and anatase) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M.

    2013-09-17

    Surfactants are widely used as templates to control the nucleation and growth of nanostructured metal oxides such as titania. To gain insight into the origin of surfactant-titania interactions responsible for polymorph and orientation selection, we simulate the self-assembly of an anionic surfactant monolayer on various low-index titania surfaces and for a range of densities. We characterize the binding in each case and compute the adhesion energies, finding anatase (100) and rutile (110) to be the strongest-binding surfaces. The sodium counterions in the monolayer are found to dominate the adhesion. It is also observed that the assembly is directed predominantly by surface-monolayer electrostatic complementarity.

  15. Sulfite-formaldehyde pretreatment on rice straw for the improvement of enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

    2013-08-01

    Rice straw is one of the most abundant agricultural residues in China. It is considered as a promising raw material for bioethanol production. In this work, rice straw was pretreated by sodium sulfite-formaldehyde (SF) for improving enzymatic saccharification. The SF pretreatment, using proven technology and industrialized equipment, showed efficient delignification selectivity and high carbohydrates retention in pretreated solid. The highest sugar yields of 79.0%, 88.8% and 71.1% for total sugar, glucan and xylan, respectively were obtained at an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate after the raw material pretreated with 12% sodium sulfite at 160°C. About 75% of lignin was dissolved in pretreatment spent liquor and 78% of silica was retained in the residue of enzymatic hydrolysis. The results proved sulfite-formaldehyde as a promising pretreatment for the production of bioethanol as well as potential high value added by-products of silica nanoparticles and lignosulfonate. PMID:23743425

  16. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  17. Adhesion of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant monolayers with TiO(2) (rutile and anatase) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M

    2013-09-17

    Surfactants are widely used as templates to control the nucleation and growth of nanostructured metal oxides such as titania. To gain insight into the origin of the surfactant-titania interactions responsible for polymorph and orientation selection, we simulate the self-assembly of an anionic surfactant monolayer on various low-index titania surfaces, for a range of densities. We characterize the binding in each case and compute the adhesion energies, finding anatase (100) and rutile (110) to be the strongest-binding surfaces. The sodium counterions in the monolayer are found to dominate the adhesion. It is also observed that the assembly is directed predominantly by surface-monolayer electrostatic complementarity. Incorporating water displacement into the calculations does not alter the general findings but does cause the adhesion energies to fall within a smaller range. PMID:24004277

  18. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

    2013-07-01

    As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organics and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O:C) was ? 0.8 and was always observed for O:C<0.5. For 0.5 ? O:C< 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organics investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ? NH4HSO4 ? NaCl ? NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting-out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O:C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

  19. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organic species and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) ≥ 0.8 and was always observed for O : C < 0.5. For 0.5 ≤ O : C < 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organic species investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ≥ NH4HSO4 ≥ NaCl ≥ NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O : C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

  20. Sodium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too much and your kidneys ...

  1. A method for in-gel fluorescent visualization of proteins after native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pristov, Jelena Bogdanovi?; Opa?i?, Miloš; Dimitrijevi?, Milena; Babi?, Nikolina; Spasojevi?, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a simple one-step 30-min method for fluorescent visualization of proteins in native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gels. The method is based on formation of strong fluorophores via potassium ferricyanide-provoked oxidation of tryptophan (Trp). Following PAGE, gels are soaked in water solution of potassium ferricyanide (100 mM) and NaOH (1 M) and are kept in the dark for 30 min. Gels are then transferred to water and scanned. The sensitivity of the method was slightly lower compared with standard Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining. The method can be useful when rapid acquisition of data is of the essence. After preview, gels can be post-stained using the CBB protocol for further analysis. The intensity of fluorescence is dependent on Trp number, so the protocol might find application in the quantification of Trp residues as illustrated here. Importantly, there is room for improvement of the method. Namely, according to excitation-emission matrix analysis of stained protein bands, maximal fluorescence intensity (at 345/460 nm) was 3.5-fold higher compared with the settings that were available on a commercial imager (395/525 nm). As a supplement, we present an upgrade of the previously described method for in-gel detection of non-heme iron-binding proteins that also employs potassium ferricyanide. PMID:25862081

  2. Microemulsion formation and phase behavior of anionic and cationic surfactants with sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Lin, E.; Zhao, G.; Xiao, T.

    1996-12-01

    The phase behavior and solubilization of multiphase microemulsions in mixed anionic-cationic surfactant systems were studied for fixed ratio of water-to-oil and surfactant-to-alcohol. In the mixed surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate + cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)/heptane/alcohol/water systems, microemulsions and birefringement phases are formed by adjusting the surfactant ratio {epsilon} and the cationic weight fraction {delta}. The bicontinuous (or w/o microemulsion) {yields} birefringement o/w microemulsion transition takes place and microemulsion domain enlarges with increasing {epsilon}. The optimum surfactant concentration {gamma} increases and the corresponding optimum {delta} decreases with increasing {epsilon} and both of them decrease with increasing the alcohol chain length butanol to hexanol. The birefringent region shrinks rapidly with increasing alcohol and/or CTAB weight fractions in total surfactant concentration. Conductivity measurements have been performed in the single-phase region of the system containing mixed surfactants and alcohols at 25 C. The conductivity results indicate where a transition takes place and which of these different types of phase structures may be in the single-phase of the system containing anionic-cationic mixed surfactants.

  3. Spontaneous Emulsification of Triolein Induced by Mixed Micellar Solutions of Sodium Polyoxyethylene Alkyl Ether Sulfate and Dodecyldimethyl Amine Oxide.

    PubMed

    Endo, Chika; Ito, Yoshiko; Akabane, Chika; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Sakai, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    A new mechanism of spontaneous emulsification without any salts or co-solvents is described, and is related to the dilatational behavior. Spontaneous emulsification can reduce the time required to remove oily soils from hard surfaces and enhance the detergency, because this type of emulsification requires no external mechanical work. In this paper, we focused on triolein, the main component of food oils and human sebum soil, and tried to induce spontaneous emulsification by using mixed micellar solutions of sodium polyoxyethylene alkyl ether sulfate and N, N-dimethyldodecylamine oxide (AES/DDAO). We characterized the dilatation of the oil/water interface using dynamic interfacial tension and elasticity measurements. This study confirmed that the degree of spontaneous emulsification can be enhanced by controlling the molar ratio of DDAO to AES. This enhancement can be attributed to an increased rate of decrease in the dynamic interfacial tension (i.e., a decreased interface dilatational elasticity), allowing for much greater suppression of the Marangoni effect. Further, we determined that one of the reasons for the decrease in the interface dilatational elasticity is the increasing number of micelles near the oil drop interface, which results from a decrease in the electrostatic repulsion between the micelles and the drop interface. Therefore, controlling the molar ratio of a mixed anionic/amphoteric surfactant solution is an effective way to induce spontaneous emulsification in the absence of salts or co-solvents. PMID:26250425

  4. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases. PMID:16256467

  5. A solid-phase immunoassay of protease-resistant prion protein with filtration blotting involving sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshiteru; Kohno, Naoyuki; Wanibe, Shoko; Hirayasu, Kazunari; Uemori, Hitoshi; Tagawa, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Shinagawa, Morikazu

    2006-02-15

    The precise diagnosis for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is crucial for preventing new transmission to humans. Several testing procedures are reported for determining protease-resistant prion protein in various tissues as a major hallmark of prion diseases such as BSE, scrapie, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. However, contamination of materials from tissues or degradation of the specimens sometimes disturbs the accuracy of the assay. Here, we have developed a novel method for solid-phase immunoassay of the disease-specific conformational isoform, PrP(Sc), using filtration blotting of protein in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) followed by a filtration-based immunoassay with a single anti-prion protein antibody, together with the improved fractionation procedure involving high concentrations of surfactant/detergent. The SDS/heat treatment renders unfolded PrP(Sc) quantitative retention on a polyvinylidene difluoride filter and allows enhancement of the analyte signal with immunodetection; thus, all of the tested specimens are determined with 100% accuracy. In addition, the immunoassay is completed in approximately 1h, indicating its usefulness not only for the screening of BSE specimens but probably also for the postmortem BSE diagnosis of fallen stock as the antibody recognizes the core part of PrP(Sc). The solid-phase immunoassay method, including the filtration blotting with SDS, would be applicable to determining even more sensitively proteins other than PrP(Sc), especially those having rigid conformations. PMID:16289444

  6. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-?-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis. PMID:26013555

  7. Synergistic effects between sodium tripolyphosphate and zinc sulfate in corrosion inhibition for copper in neutral tap water

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Siow, K.S.; Teo, W.K.; Tan, K.L.; Hsieh, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion inhibition behavior of sodium tripolyphosphate (Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10}, or TPP) and zinc sulfate and the synergistic effects between them were studied for copper in neutral simulated tap water using electrochemical methods, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Zn{sup 2+} alone showed few inhibiting effects on copper corrosion. The film formed in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} was porous and composed mainly of cuprous oxide, which was similar in morphology and composition to films formed in the absence of the inhibitor. In the presence of TPP, a smooth and compact film, believed to be of Cu(II)-TPP compounds, formed on the copper surface. More protective films were formed in solutions containing TPP and Zn{sup 2+} as a blend. High zinc content (15% to 19%) was detected by XPS. Synergistic effects of TPP and Zn{sup 2+} were believed to result from formation of Zn(II)-TPP compounds that incorporated in the films, with Cu(II)-TPP in the upper layer and Cu{sub 2}O in the inner layer. The zinc compounds increased the anodic diffusion resistance of copper ions in the films and enhanced polarization of the cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen.

  8. Human and Environmental Toxicity of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Evidence for Safe Use in Household Cleaning Products

    PubMed Central

    Bondi, Cara AM; Marks, Julia L; Wroblewski, Lauren B; Raatikainen, Heidi S; Lenox, Shannon R; Gebhardt, Kay E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemical exposure is a major concern for consumers of packaged goods. The complexity of chemical nomenclature and wide availability of scientific research provide detailed information but lends itself to misinterpretation by the lay person. For the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), this has resulted in a misunderstanding of the environmental health impact of the chemical and statements in the media that are not scientifically supported. This review demonstrates how scientific works can be misinterpreted and used in a manner that was not intended by the authors, while simultaneously providing insight into the true environmental health impact of SLS. SLS is an anionic surfactant commonly used in consumer household cleaning products. For decades, this chemical has been developing a negative reputation with consumers because of inaccurate interpretations of the scientific literature and confusion between SLS and chemicals with similar names. Here, we review the human and environmental toxicity profiles of SLS and demonstrate that it is safe for use in consumer household cleaning products. PMID:26617461

  9. Activation of intestinal human pregnane X receptor protects against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Okamoto, Minoru; Qu, Aijuan; Tanaka, Naoki; Kimura, Shioko; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2014-12-01

    The role of intestinal human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in colon cancer was determined through investigation of the chemopreventive role of rifaximin, a specific agonist of intestinal human PXR, toward azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon cancer. Rifaximin treatment significantly decreased the number of colon tumors induced by AOM/DSS treatment in PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. Additionally, rifaximin treatment markedly increased the survival rate of PXR-humanized mice, but not wild-type or Pxr-null mice. These data indicated a human PXR-dependent therapeutic chemoprevention of rifaximin toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer. Nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells-mediated inflammatory signaling was upregulated in AOM/DSS-treated mice, and inhibited by rifaximin in PXR-humanized mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were also modulated by rifaximin treatment in the AOM/DSS model. In vitro cell-based assays further revealed that rifaximin regulated cell apoptosis and cell cycle in a human PXR-dependent manner. These results suggested that specific activation of intestinal human PXR exhibited a chemopreventive role toward AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer by mediating anti-inflammation, antiproliferation, and proapoptotic events. PMID:25277138

  10. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, M. I. E.; Zuhainis, S. W.; Yusof, M. T.; Shaharuddin, N. A.; Helmi, W.; Shukor, Y.; Syed, M. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30?mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5?mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700?nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3?g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

  11. Interleukin-6, but not the interleukin-6 receptor plays a role in recovery from dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    SOMMER, JAN; ENGELOWSKI, ERIKA; BARAN, PAUL; GARBERS, CHRISTOPH; FLOSS, DOREEN M.; SCHELLER, JÜRGEN

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6-deficient, but not IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-deficient mice present with a delayed skin wound healing phenotype. Since IL-6 solely signals via the IL-6R and glycoprotein 130 (gp130), Il-6r-deficient mice are expected to exhibit a similar phenotype as Il-6-deficient mice. However, p28 (IL-30) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have been identified as additional low-affinity ligands of the IL-6R/gp130/LIFR complex. IL-6 plays an inflammatory and regenerative role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we compared Il-6r-deficient mice with mice treated with neutralizing IL-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Our results, in agreement with those of previous reports, demonstrated that IL-6 mAbs slightly attenuated DSS-induced colitis during the regeneration phase. Il-6r-deficient mice and mice with tissue-specific deletion of the Il-6r in the myeloid cell lineage (LysMCre) with acute and chronic DSS-induced colitis were, however, indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Our data suggest that IL-6 and IL-6R have an additional role in colitis, apart from the IL-6/IL-6R classic and trans-signaling. PMID:24993179

  12. Activity Stain for Rapid Characterization of Pectic Enzymes in Isoelectric Focusing and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gels †

    PubMed Central

    Ried, J. L.; Collmer, A.

    1985-01-01

    A system was developed for the rapid characterization of microbial pectic enzyme complexes and then tested on Erwinia chrysanthemi and Sclerotium rolfsii. Pectic enzymes in minute samples of crude culture filtrates were resolved by ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then assayed with an ultrathin pectate-agarose overlay stained with ruthenium red. The simple procedure can be completed within 30 min after isoelectric focusing, can detect extremely low levels of pectate lyase (6.4 × 10?6 ?mol of product per min), and is sufficiently sensitive to determine the pectate lyase isozyme profile of a single bacterial colony with a diameter of 4 mm. Pectate lyases and polygalacturonases can be distinguished by altering buffer conditions in the overlays. The assay system revealed additional isozymes not resolved by classical techniques and generally corroborated the previously published isoelectric points and molecular weights of the pectate lyase isozymes and exo-poly-?-d-galacturonosidase produced by E. chrysanthemi and the endopolygalacturonase and exopolygalacturonase produced by S. rolfsii. Images PMID:16346881

  13. Quantification of AAV Particle Titers by Infrared Fluorescence Scanning of Coomassie-Stained Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate–Polyacrylamide Gels

    PubMed Central

    Kohlbrenner, Erik; Henckaerts, Els; Rapti, Kleopatra; Gordon, Ronald E.; Linden, R. Michael; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors have gained increasing attention as gene delivery vehicles in basic and preclinical studies as well as in human gene therapy trials. Especially for the latter two—for both safety and therapeutic efficacy reasons—a detailed characterization of all relevant parameters of the vector preparation is essential. Two important parameters that are routinely used to analyze recombinant AAV vectors are (1) the titer of viral particles containing a (recombinant) viral genome and (2) the purity of the vector preparation, most commonly assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) followed by silver staining. An important, third parameter, the titer of total viral particles, that is, the combined titer of both genome-containing and empty viral capsids, is rarely determined. Here, we describe a simple and inexpensive method that allows the simultaneous assessment of both vector purity and the determination of the total viral particle titer. This method, which was validated by comparison with established methods to determine viral particle titers, is based on the fact that Coomassie Brilliant Blue, when bound to proteins, fluoresces in the infrared spectrum. Viral samples are separated by SDS–PAGE followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and gel analysis with an infrared laser-scanning device. In combination with a protein standard, our method allows the rapid and accurate determination of viral particle titers simultaneously with the assessment of vector purity. PMID:22816378

  14. Caspase-11 is expressed in the colonic mucosa and protects against dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Demon, D; Kuchmiy, A; Fossoul, A; Zhu, Q; Kanneganti, T-D; Lamkanfi, M

    2014-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are major inflammatory syndromes that affect millions of patients. Caspase-11 confers protection against Gram-negative enteropathogens, but its role during colitis is unknown. Here, we show that caspase-11 was constitutively expressed in the colon, and that caspase-11-deficient (caspase-11(-/-)) mice were hypersusceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Notably, pro-inflammatory Prevotella species were strongly reduced in the gut microbiota of caspase-11(-/-) mice. Co-housing with wild-type mice leveled Prevotella contents, but failed to protect caspase-11(-/-) mice from increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. We therefore addressed the role of caspase-11 in immune signaling. DSS-induced tissue damage and inflammatory cell infiltration in the gut were markedly increased in caspase-11?/? mice, while release of the pyroptosis/necroptosis marker HMGB1 was abolished [Corrected]. Moreover, caspase-11(-/-) mice showed normal or increased production of mature interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18, whereas IL-1? and IL-18 secretion was blunted in animals lacking both caspases 1 and 11. In conclusion, we showed that caspase-11 shapes the gut microbiota composition, and that caspase-11(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, DSS-induced inflammasome activation relied on caspase-1, but not caspase-11. These results suggest a role for other caspase-11 effector mechanisms such as pyroptosis in protection against intestinal inflammation. PMID:24850431

  15. Evaluation of the Role of Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate as a Sclerosant in the Treatment of Primary Hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Musa, Osman; Roy, Arijit; Ansari, Nisar Ahmad; Sharan, Jagadamba

    2015-12-01

    The present study was carried out with an aim to perform a prospective study to establish the role of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (3 %) (STDS) as a safe and effective sclerosant in the management of primary hydrocele. Sclerotherapy was performed with 3 % STDS on an outdoor basis. The amount of sclerosant injected depended on the amount of fluid drained. All patients were given prophylactic antibiotics. Patients were clinically reassessed at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months and earlier if complications occur. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. The data have been represented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to compare the data. A total of 57 patients with primary vaginal hydrocele gave consent for being enrolled in the study. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 65 years with a mean age of 35.72?±?13.18 years. The success rate at the end of the study was observed to be 84.2 %. As regards patient satisfaction, in present study, in a limited time period of follow up, all the patients who had a successful procedure were satisfied. Overall, sclerotherapy was observed to be a relatively cost-effective (including both direct and indirect costs) procedure with low complications, high satisfaction, and a high success rate within the limited period of follow-up. PMID:26730040

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hou, W W; Zhang, X J; Shi, J B; Liu, Y J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate genetic diversity and relationships of 101 faba bean (Vicia faba L.), landraces and varieties from different provinces of China and abroad were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 2625 unambiguous and stable bands from 101 germplasms were detected, and 36 different bands were classified according to the electrophoretic mobility patterns of the proteins as determined by the SDS-PAGE analysis, of which 16 were polymorphic. Besides the common bands, the protein bands of 92, 75, 62, 40, 34, 17, and 13 kDa presented the highest frequencies of 92.08, 90.10, 99.01, 95.05, 95.05, 98.02, and 95.05%, respectively. The other 29 polymorphic protein bands showed higher polymorphism with 16.09 polymorphic bands in average. The genetic similarity of the 101 genotypes tested varied from 0.6111 to 0.9722, with an average of 0.7122. Cluster analysis divided the 101 genotypes into six major clusters, which was consistent with the systematic classification of faba bean done in previous studies. The overall results indicated that SDS-PAGE was a useful tool for genetic diversity analysis and laid a solid foundation for future faba bean breeding. PMID:26535710

  17. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium for isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, R G; Jarvis, J; Janda, J M

    1987-01-01

    The differential and selective sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium (SPS) of Kitaura et al. (T. Kitaura, S. Doke, I. Azuma, M. Imaida, K. Miyano, K. Harada, and E. Yabuuchii, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 17:205-209, 1983), which highlights alkylsulfatase activity, was evaluated for its potential use in the direct isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish. V. vulnificus was detected by this method in six of nine shellfish samples collected from diverse geographic locales during the summer of 1986. Direct enumeration of V. vulnificus at 7.0 X 10(2) to 2.2 X 10(4) CFU/g of shellfish was achieved on SPS agar. All sample results were confirmed in parallel examinations by using conventional glucose-salt-Teepol (Shell Oil Co.) broth and alkaline peptone water enrichment with plating onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. Additionally, alkylsulfatase activity was evaluated in vitro for 97 strains representing 14 Vibrio spp. V. vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae-01 were the only species consistently found to possess this activity. The range of plating efficiencies for random V. vulnificus strains analyzed on SPS was 11 to 74% (mean, 39%). The use of SPS shows great promise for the study of shellfish and other environmental sources for V. vulnificus. Images PMID:3662506

  18. Interaction of poly(ethylene oxide) with the sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle interface studied with nitroxide spin probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.S.; Kevan, L. )

    1994-08-04

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) line widths of 5-, 7-, 12-, and 16-doxylstearic acid (x-DSA) and tempo nitroxides versus the concentration of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles show different trends. The ESR line widths of 5-, 7-, and 16-DSA increase with increasing concentration of PEO, which is interpreted as due to increasing viscosity in the environment of the nitroxide spin probe. The tempo and 12-DSA line widths were independent of the concentration of PEO. The line width showed the highest value for 5-DSA and the lowest value of tempo. The line width of x-DSA decreases from 5-DSA to a minimum value for 12-DSA and then increases somewhat for 16-DSA. This is interpreted as bending of the alkyl chain to provide different locations for the nitroxide moiety relative to the micelle interface. The relative distances of the nitroxide moiety of [chi]-DSA from deuterated water at the SDS micelle interface was measured by deuterium electron spin echo modulation. The distances increased from 5-DSA to 12-DSA and then decreased for 16-DSA. The interpretation of the DSR line width trend is supported by the deuterium modulation depth trend. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Increased susceptibility to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer OASIS deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hino, Kenta; Saito, Atsushi; Asada, Rie; Kanemoto, Soshi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    OASIS is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transmembrane transcription factor that is activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Previously, we showed that OASIS regulates final maturation of goblet cells in the large intestine. In the present study, to elucidate the roles of OASIS under pathophysiological conditions, we examined the stress response and inflammatory responses in Oasis deficient (Oasis?/?) mice exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis. A significant loss of body weight and an increase of mortality were observed in Oasis?/? mice with DSS-induced colitis compared with those in WT mice. The mucosa of the large intestine in Oasis?/? mice exhibited severe damage involving inflammatory cell infiltration. The expression levels of ER stress and apoptosis markers in intestinal epithelial cells were upregulated in Oasis?/? mice. These abnormalities were improved by treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a chemical chaperone that facilitates protein folding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that OASIS plays important roles in protection of the large intestinal mucosa in DSS-induced colitis through attenuation of ER stress and inflammation. PMID:24498426

  20. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-?-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis. PMID:26013555

  1. Oxidation of metal sulfites by iodine for use in thermochemical hydrogen cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.V.; Bowman, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Thermochemical hydrogen cycles involving metal sulfates offer an alternative to sulfuric acid which is corrosion and has high energy requirements for drying prior to its thermal decomposition. The formation of such metal sulfates in conjunction with a low-temperature hydrogen formation step is discussed. The following reaction was studied: MgSO/sub 3/(c) + MgO(c) + I/sub 2/ (g) ..-->.. MgSO/sub 4/(c) + MgI/sub 2/(c). Although magnesium sulfite appears promising for this oxidation, a search was conducted for alternative metal sulfites which fit the following criteria for use: (a) sulfate must decompose in the temperature range available (< 1400/sup 0/K); (b) iodide must hydrolyze easily; and (c) salts must not be rare, toxic, or expensive. Lanthanum and titanium fit these criteria and will be investigated.

  2. Metachromatic staining patterns of basic proline-rich proteins from rat and human saliva in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys-Beher, M.G.; Wells, D.J.

    1984-10-01

    A series of basic proteins, rich in proline, were isolated from the salivary secretions of humans and rats. These proteins underwent metachromasia after staining with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The technique of destaining gels in several changes of 10% acetic acid after a 30-min staining period is a rapid method of general utility for the identification of proline-rich proteins from total cell lysates from other sources besides saliva.

  3. How are “Atypical” Sulfite Dehydrogenases Linked to Cell Metabolism? Interactions between the SorT Sulfite Dehydrogenase and Small Redox Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ulrike, Kappler

    2011-01-01

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of the toxic and mutagenic compound sulfite to sulfate, thereby protecting cells from adverse effects associated with sulfite exposure. While some bacterial SDHs that have been characterized to date are able to use cytochrome c as an electron acceptor, the majority of these enzymes prefer ferricyanide as an electron acceptor and have therefore been termed “atypical” SDHs. Identifying the natural electron acceptor of these enzymes, however, is crucial for understanding how the “atypical” SDHs are integrated into cell metabolism. The SorT sulfite dehydrogenase from Sinorhizobium meliloti is a representative of this enzyme type and we have investigated the interactions of SorT with two small redox proteins, a cytochrome c and a Cu containing pseudoazurin, that are encoded in the same operon and are co-transcribed with the sorT gene. Both potential acceptor proteins have been purified and characterized in terms of their biochemical and electrochemical properties, and interactions and enzymatic studies with both the purified SorT sulfite dehydrogenase and components of the respiratory chain have been carried out. We were able to show for the first time that an “atypical” sulfite dehydrogenase can couple efficiently to a cytochrome c isolated from the same organism despite being unable to efficiently reduce horse heart cytochrome c, however, at present the role of the pseudoazurin in SorT electron transfer is unclear, but it is possible that it acts as an intermediate electron shuttle between. The SorT system appears to couple directly to the respiratory chain, most likely to a cytochrome oxidase. PMID:21833314

  4. Effects of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic permeants: Comparative in vitro studies with full-thickness and split-thickness pig and human skin

    E-print Network

    Seto, Jennifer E.

    The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness ...

  5. Simulation of blood oxygenation in capillary membrane oxygenators using modified sulfite solution.

    PubMed

    Tabesh, Hadi; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Rasouli, Ali; Ramedani, Arash; Poorkhalil, Ali; Kashefi, Ali; Mottaghy, Khosrow

    2014-12-01

    Blood oxygenation is the main performance characteristic of capillary membrane oxygenators (CMOs). Handling of natural blood in in vitro investigations of CMOs is quite complex and time-consuming. Since the conventional blood analog fluids (e.g. water/glycerol) lack a substance with an affinity to capture oxygen comparable to hemoglobin's affinity, in this study a novel approach using modified sulfite solution is proposed to address this challenge. The solution comprises sodium sulfite as a component, simulating the role of hemoglobin in blood oxygenation. This approach is validated by OTR (oxygen transfer rate) measured using native porcine blood, in two types of commercially available CMOs. Consequently, the number of complicated natural blood investigations in the evolution procedure of newly developed oxygenators would considerably decrease. Moreover, the reassessing of failed devices, in clinics, would be performed more precisely using a modified sulfite solution than simple water/glycerol testing. PMID:25159916

  6. Protective role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis through generating gut-homing macrophages.

    PubMed

    Meshkibaf, Shahab; Martins, Andrew J; Henry, Garth T; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine best known for its role in promoting the generation and function of neutrophils. G-CSF is also found to be involved in macrophage generation and immune regulation; however, its in vivo role in immune homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis using G-CSF receptor-deficient (G-CSFR(-/-)) mice. Mice were administered with 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 5days, and the severity of colitis was measured for the next 5days. GCSFR(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis than G-CSFR(+/+) or G-CSFR(-/+) mice. G-CSFR(-/-) mice harbored less F4/80(+) macrophages, but a similar number of neutrophils, in the intestine. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of both G-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (G-BMDM) expressed higher levels of regulatory macrophage markers such as programmed death ligand 2 (PDL2), CD71 and CD206, but not in arginase I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, Ym1 (chitinase-like 3) and FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), and lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD80 and CD86 than bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of M-CSF alone (BMDM), in response to interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-?, respectively. Adoptive transfer of G-BMDM, but not BMDM, protected G-CSFR(-/-) mice from DSS-induced colitis, and suppressed expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1? and iNOS in the intestine. These results suggest that G-CSF plays an important role in preventing colitis, likely through populating immune regulatory macrophages in the intestine. PMID:26687628

  7. Determination of lead in the presence of morin-5'-sulfonic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Arancibia, Verónica; Nagles, Edgar; Cornejo, Shasmmin

    2009-11-15

    A simple and sensitive electroanalytical method is developed for the determination of lead by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) in the presence of morin-5'-sulfonic acid (MSA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The Pb-MSA complex accumulates on the surface of a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) and peak current is measured by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The complex is reduced at -0.48 V and peak current increases when low concentrations of SDS are added to the sample solution. The experimental variables pH, MSA concentration (C(MSA)); accumulation time (t(acc)); accumulation potential (E(acc)), and SDS concentration (C(SDS)), as well as potential interferences, are investigated. Under the optimized conditions (pH 3.2; C(MSA): 0.5 micromol L(-1); t(acc): 60s; E(acc): -0.35 V, and C(SDS): 20 micromol L(-1)), peak current is proportional to the concentration of Pb(II) over the 0.1-32.0 microg L(-1) range, with a detection limit of 0.04 microg L(-1). The relative standard deviation for a solution containing 5.0 microg L(-1) of Pb(II) solution was 1.5% for seven successive assays. The method was validated by determining Pb(II) in synthetic sea water (ASTM D665) spiked with ICP multi-element standard solution and in certified reference water (GBW08607). Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of Pb(II) in tap water and sea water after UV digestion. PMID:19782211

  8. Lysate of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum K8 Modulate the Mucosal Inflammatory System in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is caused by dysregulation of colon mucosal immunity and mucosal epithelial barrier function. Recent studies have reported that lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus plantarum K8 reduces excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally pretreated with lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 (low dose or high dose) or live Lb. plantarum K8 prior to the induction of colitis using 4% DSS. Disease progression was monitored by assessment of disease activity index (DAI). Histological changes of colonic tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The colon mRNA expressions of TNF-?, IL-6, and toll like receptor-2 (TLR-2) were examined by quantitative real-time-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 suppressed colon shortening, edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of DSS-induced crypts. The groups that received lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 exhibited significantly decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 in the colon. Interestingly, colonic expression of toll like receptor-2 mRNA in the high-dose lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 group increased significantly. Our study demonstrates the protective effects of oral lysate of Lb. plantarum K8 administration on DSS-induced colitis via the modulation of pro-inflammatory mediators of the mucosal immune system.

  9. Extracellular vesicles derived from gut microbiota, especially Akkermansia muciniphila, protect the progression of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chil-Sung; Ban, Mingi; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jeon, Jun-Sung; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Soo-Kyung; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Roh, Tae-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Jae Gyu; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:24204633

  10. Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Gut Microbiota, Especially Akkermansia muciniphila, Protect the Progression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chil-sung; Ban, Mingi; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Moon, Hyung-Geun; Jeon, Jun-Sung; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Park, Soo-Kyung; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Roh, Tae-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota play an important part in the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, owing to the complexity of the gut microbiota, our understanding of the roles of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is evolving only slowly. Here, we evaluated the role of gut microbiota and their secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) in the development of mucosal inflammation in the gut. Experimental IBD model was established by oral application of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to C57BL/6 mice. The composition of gut microbiota and bacteria-derived EV in stools was evaluated by metagenome sequencing using bacterial common primer of 16S rDNA. Metagenomics in the IBD mouse model showed that the change in stool EV composition was more drastic, compared to the change of bacterial composition. Oral DSS application decreased the composition of EV from Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens in stools, whereas increased EV from TM7 phylum, especially from species DQ777900_s and AJ400239_s. In vitro pretreatment of A. muciniphila-derived EV ameliorated the production of a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from colon epithelial cells induced by Escherichia coli EV. Additionally, oral application of A. muciniphila EV also protected DSS-induced IBD phenotypes, such as body weight loss, colon length, and inflammatory cell infiltration of colon wall. Our data provides insight into the role of gut microbiota-derived EV in regulation of intestinal immunity and homeostasis, and A. muciniphila-derived EV have protective effects in the development of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:24204633

  11. Beneficial effects of the traditional medicine Igongsan and its constituent ergosterol on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jin; Shin, Hyun-Ji; Lee, Geun-Hyuk; Kim, Dae-Seung; Kim, Hye-Lin; Park, Jinbong; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Jongwook; Hong, Seung-Heon; Um, Jae-Young

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease and is considered a chronic gastrointestinal disorder. Igongsan (IGS) is a Korean herbal medicine, which has been used to treat digestive disorders. However, the ameliorative effect and molecular mechanisms of IGS in intestinal inflammation have not yet been studied in detail. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of IGS and its constituent, ergosterol, in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)?induced colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by supplementing their drinking water with 5% (w/v) DSS for 7 days. The effects of IGS were then determined on DSS?induced clinical signs of colitis, including weight loss, colon shortening, diarrhea and obscure/gross bleeding. In addition, the effects of IGS were determined on the expression levels of inflammation?associated genes in the colon tissue of DSS?treated mice. The results of the present study demonstrated that mice treated with DSS exhibited marked clinical symptoms, including weight loss and reduced colon length. Treatment with IGS attenuated these symptoms and also suppressed the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor?? and interleukin?6, as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase?2 in the colon tissue of DSS?treated mice. IGS also reduced the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor??B p65 in the colon tissue of DSS?treated mice. In addition, ergosterol was shown to attenuate the DSS?induced clinical symptoms of colitis in mice. In conclusion, the present study provided experimental evidence that IGS may be a useful therapeutic drug for patients with UC. PMID:26005209

  12. Resolvin E1, an endogenous lipid mediator derived from eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Tsukasa; Yoshida, Masaru; Arita, Makoto; Nishitani, Yosuke; Nishiumi, Shin; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Mizuno, Shigeto; Takagawa, Tetsuya; Morita, Yoshinori; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Inokuchi, Hideto; Serhan, Charles N; Blumberg, Richard S.; Azuma, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Background Resolvin E1 (RvE1), an endogenous lipid mediator derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has been identified in local inflammation during the healing stage. RvE1 reduces inflammation in several types of animal models including peritonitis and retinopathy, and blocks human neutrophil transendothelial cell migration. The RvE1 receptor ChemR23 is expressed on myeloid cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether RvE1 regulates colonic inflammation when the innate immune response of macrophages plays a key role in the pathogenesis and tissue damage. Methods/Results RvE1 receptor, ChemR23, was expressed in mouse peritoneal macrophages as defined by flow cytometry. Peritoneal macrophages were pretreated with RvE1, followed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation whereupon of the transcriptional levels of proinflammatory cytokines were analyzed. RvE1 treatment led to the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-? and IL-12p40. In HEK293 cells, pretreatment with RvE1 inhibited TNF-?-induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B in a ChemR23 dependent manner. These results suggested that RvE1 could regulate pro-inflammatory responses of macrophages expressing ChemR23. Therefore, we investigated the beneficial effects of RvE1 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis. RvE1 treatment led to amelioration of colonic inflammation. Conclusions These results indicate that RvE1 suppresses pro-inflammatory responses of macrophages. RvE1 and its receptor may therefore be useful as therapeutic targets in the treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory disorders. PMID:19572372

  13. Efficacy of a levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate-based sanitizer on inactivation of human norovirus surrogates.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Jennifer L; Aydin, Ali; Mann, Amy N; Bolton, Stephanie L; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    Human noroviruses are the most common etiologic agent of foodborne illness in the United States. The inability to culture human noroviruses in the laboratory necessitates the use of surrogate viruses such as murine norovirus (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) for inactivation studies. In this study, a novel sanitizer of organic acid (levulinic acid) plus the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was evaluated. Viruses were treated with levulinic acid (0.5 to 5%), SDS (0.05 to 2%), or combinations of levulinic acid plus SDS (1:10 solution of virus to sanitizer). MNV-1 inoculated onto stainless steel also was treated with a 5% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS liquid or foaming solution. Log reductions of viruses were determined with a plaque assay. Neither levulinic acid nor SDS alone were capable of inactivating MNV-1 or FCV, resulting in a ?0.51-log reduction of the infectious virus titer. However, the combination of 0.5% levulinic acid plus 0.5% SDS inactivated both surrogates by 3 to 4.21 log PFU/ml after 1 min of exposure. Similarly, MNV-1 inoculated onto stainless steel was reduced by >1.50 log PFU/ml after 1 min and by >3.3 log PFU/ml after 5 min of exposure to a liquid or foaming solution of 5% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS. The presence of organic matter (up to 10%) in the virus inoculum did not significantly affect sanitizer efficacy. The fact that both of the active sanitizer ingredients are generally recognized as safe to use as food additives by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration further extends its potential in mitigating foodborne disease. PMID:22856583

  14. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

    2008-11-10

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

  15. 75 FR 56101 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...lauryl sulfate salts (also known as sodium lauryl salts), case 4061. Registration...decision for the lauryl sulfate salts. Sodium lauryl sulfate (PC Code 079011) is the...is one registered product that contains sodium lauryl sulfate as an active...

  16. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The...

  17. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory. The...

  18. Fed-batch cultivation of the marine bacterium Sulfitobacter pontiacus using immobilized substrate and purification of sulfite oxidase by application of membrane adsorber technology.

    PubMed

    Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland

    2008-03-01

    Sulfitobacter pontiacus, a gram-negative heterotrophic bacterium isolated from the Black Sea is well known to produce a soluble AMP-independent sulfite oxidase (sulfite: acceptor oxidoreductase) of high activity. Such an enzyme can be of great help in establishing biosensor systems for detection of sulfite in food and beverages considering the high sensitivity of biosensors and the increasing demand for such biosensor devices. For obtaining efficient amounts of the enzyme, an induction of its biosynthesis by supplementing sufficient concentrations of sodium sulfite to the fermentation broth is required. Owing to the fact that a high initial concentration of sodium sulfite decreases dramatically the enzyme expression, different fed-batch strategies can be applied to circumvent such inhibition or repression of the enzyme respectively. By the use of sulfite species immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol gels, an approach to the controlled and continuous feeding of sulfite to the cultivation media could be established to diminish inhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the purification of the enzyme is described by using membrane adsorber technology. PMID:17705251

  19. Three-dimensional structure of the ion-channel forming peptide trichorzianin TA VII bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Condamine, E; Rebuffat, S; Prigent, Y; Ségalas, I; Bodo, B; Davoust, D

    1998-08-01

    Trichorzianin TA VII, Ac0 U1 A2 A3 U4 J5 Q6 U7 U8 U9 S10 L11 U12 P13 V14 U15 I16 Q17 Q18 Fol19, is a nonadecapeptide member of the peptaibol antibiotics biosynthesized by Trichoderma soil fungi, which is characterized by a high proportion of the alpha, alpha-dialkylated amino acids, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib, U) and isovaline (Iva, J), an acetylated N-terminus and a C-terminal phenylalaninol (Pheol, Fol). The main interest in such peptides stems from their ability to interact with phospholipid bilayers and form voltage-dependent transmembrane channels in planar lipid bilayers. In order to provide insights into the lipid-peptide interaction promoting the voltage gating, the conformational study of TA VII in the presence of perdeuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-d25) micelles has been carried out. 1H sequential assignment have been performed with the use of two-dimensional homo- and -heteronuclear nmr techniques including double quantum filtered correlated spectroscopy, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, 1H-13C heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation. Conformational parameters, such as 3JNHC alpha H coupling constants, temperature coefficients of amide protons (delta gamma/delta TNH) and quantitative nuclear Overhauser enhancement data, lead to detailed structural information. Ninety-eight three-dimensional structures consistent with the nmr data were generated from 231 interproton distances six phi dihedral angle restraints, using restrained molecular dynamics and energy minimization calculations. The average rms deviation between the 98 refined structures and the energy-minimized average structure is 0.59 A for the backbone atoms. The structure of trichorzianin TA VII associated with SDS micelles, as determined by these methods, is characterized by two right-handed helical segments involving residues 1-8 and 11-19, linked by a beta-turn that leads to an angle about 90 degrees-100 degrees between the two helix axes; residues 18 and 19 at the end of the C-terminal helix exhibit multiple conformations. PMID:9729066

  20. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mineralization and mobility of nonylphenol and sodium dodecyl sulfate in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillotte, Julia; Marschner, Bernd; Stumpe, Britta

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the major scientific research fields in this decade. One of the most wide-spread nanomaterials are carbon based nanoparticles (CNPs) which are increasingly be used in industry. Several studies shows that CNPs are interacting with other chemical compounds and organic pollutants in the environment. It is assumed that the interactions between CNPs and organic pollutants are affected by solution and aggregate behavior. Based on the knowledge of the behavior of CNPs and organic pollutants in aquatic systems the interactions of CNPs and organic pollutants in agricultural soils have to be studied. As organic pollutants two environmental substances, nonylphenol (NP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected as model substances. They occur frequently in aqueous systems and also show different solubility behavior. As CNP representatives, two different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were selected. They differed either in length or outer diameter. Conclusions therefrom are to be closed the influence of length and diameter of the sorption capacity of different organic pollutants. In addition, two agricultural soils (sandy and silty soil) and one forest soil (sandy soil) were chosen. Mineralization and sorption experiments were conducted to provide information about the degradation of organic pollutants in presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils. To analyze the CNPs mineralization potential, peroxidase activity was measured. Further extraction experiments were conducted to detect the extractable part of organic pollutants. The results show that the surface area of the MWNT has a significant impact on the sorption behav-ior of NP and SDS in soils. The sorption of NP and SDS is much higher than without MWNT. However, the properties of the organic pollutants (different water solubility and hydrophobicity) are equally important and should be noted. The degradation of both pollutants is influenced by MWNT. Due to the strong sorption of NP and SDS on the MWNT, the degradation of these pollutants in soils, is slower than without MWNT. The peroxidase activity did not contribute to NP and SDS degradation. But the peroxidase activity in agricultural soils is higher than in forest soils. The extractable fraction of NP and SDS is very low and amounts to a maximum of 2 %. Due to the lower degradation of NP and SDS in the presence of MWNT a longer retention of the substances in the soils and potential toxic effects for humans and animals, as a result of plant uptake may be taken into account.

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of SLC26A11, a sodium-independent sulfate transporter from high endothelial venules.

    PubMed

    Vincourt, Jean-Baptiste; Jullien, Denis; Amalric, Francois; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2003-05-01

    Lymphocyte emigration from the blood into most secondary lymphoid organs and chronically inflamed tissues occurs at the level of high endothelial venules (HEV). A unique characteristic of HEV endothelial cells (HEVEC) is their capacity to incorporate large amounts of sulfate into sialomucin-type counter-receptors for the lymphocyte homing receptor L-selectin. We have previously shown that sulfate uptake into HEVEC is mediated by two distinct functional classes of sulfate transporters: Na+-coupled transporters and sulfate/anion exchangers. Here, we report the molecular characterization from human HEVEC of SLC26A11, a novel member of the SLC26 sulfate/anion exchanger family. Functional expression studies in COS-7 and Sf9 insect cells revealed that SLC26A11 is targeted to the cell membrane and exhibits Na+-independent sulfate transport activity, sensitive to the anion exchanger inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). Northern blot analysis showed the highest SLC26A11 transcript levels in placenta, kidney, and brain. The SLC26A11 gene mapped to human chromosome 17q25, very close to the hereditary hearing loss diseases loci DFNA20, DFNA26, and USH1G. RT-PCR analysis of SLC26 sulfate transporters in human HEVEC revealed coexpression of SLC26A11 with SLC26A2/DTDST and lack of SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, and SLC26A8/TAT1. Together, our results indicate that SLC26A11 is a novel Na+-independent sulfate transporter that may cooperate with SLC26A2 to mediate DIDS-sensitive sulfate uptake into HEVEC. PMID:12626430

  2. An experimental model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium from acute progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6: correlation between conditions of mice and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Niloofar; Molaei, Mahsa; Mosaffa, Nariman; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Anissian, Ali; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To induce acute colitis progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6 mice by dextran sulfate sodium. Background: Murine models are essential tools to understand IBD pathogenesis. Among different types of chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most common model of IBD, due to its simplicity. Patients and methods: Male C57BL/6 mice 6–8 weeks old, were collected and matched by age with controls. C57BL/6 mice treated with 2 cycles of 3.5% DSS for 4 days and 4 days of pure water between each cycle. After that, mice were sacrificed and the entire colon was removed. Small sections of the colon were fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and sectioned with a microtome. Sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin to analyses the degree of inflammation. Results: After the first cycle oral administration of DSS, mice with severe and visible rectal bleeding and diarrhea entered into the acute phase. After day 4-5, bleeding and diarrhea were improved and mice entered into the chronic phase with peak levels of weight loss. Macroscopically, the inflammation was predominantly located in the distal colon. Microscopically, examination of the distal colon sections showed a decrease number of goblet cells, loss of crypts, signs of surface epithelial regeneration and moderate to severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: In order to achieve an experimental colitis model, our protocol is recommended for future therapies in IBD experimental modeling.

  3. Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate-Fumaric Acid Coupled Addition on the In Vitro Rumen Fermentation with Special Regard to Methanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abdl-Rahman, M. A.; Sawiress, F. A. R.; Abd El-Aty, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric acid coupled addition on in vitro methangenesis and rumen fermentation. Evaluation was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Ruminal contents were collected from five steers immediately after slaughtering and used for preparation of inoculums of mixed rumen microorganisms. Rumen fluid was then mixed with the basal diet of steers and used to generate four treatments, negative control (no additives), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treated, fumaric acid treated, and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition treated. The results revealed that, relative to control, efficiency in reduction of methanogenesis was as follows: coupled addition > SLS-addition > fumaric acid addition. Both SLS-addition and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition demonstrated a decremental effect on ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N), total short chain volatile fatty acids (SCVFAs) concentrations and the amount of substrate degraded, and an increment effect on microbial mass and microbial yield (YATP). Nevertheless, fumaric acid did not alter any of the previously mentioned parameters but induced a decremental effect on NH3–N. Furthermore, both fumaric acid and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition increased propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate, while, defaunation increased acetate at the expense of propionate and butyrate. The pH value was decreased by all treatments relative to control, while, cellulase activity did not differ by different treatments. The current study can be promising strategies for suppressing ruminal methane emissions and improving ruminants feed efficiency. PMID:20445794

  4. Determining the Oxygen Isotope Equilibrium Fractionation Between Sulfite and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, I.; Brunner, B.; Ferdelman, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    The kinetics of oxygen isotope exchange between water and sulfite have been well studied. However, the scientific community still lacks reliable information for the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between these two species. One reason for the lack of this data is the technical difficulty of extracting sulfite from solution for oxygen isotope analysis. The experimental challenge arises from the fact that sulfite coexists in solution with other S(IV) species, i.e. sulfur dioxide, bisulfite, and pyrosulfite. Extraction techniques such as precipitation of sulfite as barium sulfite or silver sulfite by the addition of barium chloride or silver nitrate induce conversion of non-sulfite species, i.e. sulfur dioxide and pyrosulfite, to sulfite. Each S(IV) species is expected to have a different oxygen isotope equilibrium with water. The wholesale conversion of all S(IV) species to sulfite may induce incorporation of additional oxygen from water and kinetic oxygen isotope effects. Such a conversion would overprint the oxygen isotope signature of sulfite in equilibrium with water and compromise experimental results. We report the first results from our experimental approach to overcome this limitation by using a solid sulfite phase (Ag2SO3, BaSO3, Na2SO3) that is in equilibrium with sulfite in solution. Our goal is to determine both the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between water and sulfite, as well as the isotope equilibrium fractionation between solids and dissolved sulfite. Elucidation of the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water would enable a better understanding of reductive and oxidative sulfur cycling, where sulfite plays a pivotal role as intermediate in both microbial and abiotic processes.

  5. The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite species and water

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite species and water Inigo A. Mu¨ller a+ ), resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite species and water. Con- sequently, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfite is strongly influenced by the oxygen isotope composition of water. Since

  6. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    PubMed

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-01

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules. PMID:16262297

  7. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  8. VOLATILE COMPONENT RECOVERY FROM SULFITE EVAPORATOR CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is on the operation and modification of a demonstration unit to remove sulfur dioxide, methanol, furfural, and acetic acid from its sulfite evaporator condensate. This unit consisted of a steam stripper, vent tank SO2 recovery, activated carbon adsorption columns, and ...

  9. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular cobinamide sulfite rapidly and effectively reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide poisoning, suggesting that a compact cyanide antidote kit can be developed for mass casualty cyanide exposures. PMID:20045579

  10. Phylogenetic and environmental diversity of DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductases

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Albert Leopold; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Rattei, Thomas; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional marker showed that dsrAB richness in many environments is dominated by novel sequence variants and collectively represents an extensive, largely uncharted sequence assemblage. Here, we established a comprehensive, manually curated dsrAB/DsrAB database and used it to categorize the known dsrAB diversity, reanalyze the evolutionary history of dsrAB and evaluate the coverage of published dsrAB-targeted primers. Based on a DsrAB consensus phylogeny, we introduce an operational classification system for environmental dsrAB sequences that integrates established taxonomic groups with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at multiple phylogenetic levels, ranging from DsrAB enzyme families that reflect reductive or oxidative DsrAB types of bacterial or archaeal origin, superclusters, uncultured family-level lineages to species-level OTUs. Environmental dsrAB sequences constituted at least 13 stable family-level lineages without any cultivated representatives, suggesting that major taxa of sulfite/sulfate-reducing microorganisms have not yet been identified. Three of these uncultured lineages occur mainly in marine environments, while specific habitat preferences are not evident for members of the other 10 uncultured lineages. In summary, our publically available dsrAB/DsrAB database, the phylogenetic framework, the multilevel classification system and a set of recommended primers provide a necessary foundation for large-scale dsrAB ecology studies with next-generation sequencing methods. PMID:25343514

  11. Phylogenetic and environmental diversity of DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductases.

    PubMed

    Müller, Albert Leopold; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Rattei, Thomas; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional marker showed that dsrAB richness in many environments is dominated by novel sequence variants and collectively represents an extensive, largely uncharted sequence assemblage. Here, we established a comprehensive, manually curated dsrAB/DsrAB database and used it to categorize the known dsrAB diversity, reanalyze the evolutionary history of dsrAB and evaluate the coverage of published dsrAB-targeted primers. Based on a DsrAB consensus phylogeny, we introduce an operational classification system for environmental dsrAB sequences that integrates established taxonomic groups with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at multiple phylogenetic levels, ranging from DsrAB enzyme families that reflect reductive or oxidative DsrAB types of bacterial or archaeal origin, superclusters, uncultured family-level lineages to species-level OTUs. Environmental dsrAB sequences constituted at least 13 stable family-level lineages without any cultivated representatives, suggesting that major taxa of sulfite/sulfate-reducing microorganisms have not yet been identified. Three of these uncultured lineages occur mainly in marine environments, while specific habitat preferences are not evident for members of the other 10 uncultured lineages. In summary, our publically available dsrAB/DsrAB database, the phylogenetic framework, the multilevel classification system and a set of recommended primers provide a necessary foundation for large-scale dsrAB ecology studies with next-generation sequencing methods. PMID:25343514

  12. Efficient analysis of egg yolk proteins and their thermal sensitivity using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Guilmineau, Fabien; Krause, Ingolf; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2005-11-30

    The multiple functional properties of egg yolk are mostly influenced by its complex protein composition. The high lipid content of egg yolk as well as the low solubility of delipidated egg yolk lipoproteins make analysis by conventional chromatographic or electrophoretic techniques a difficult task. This work describes a method to profile egg yolk proteins after delipidation with acetone using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on precast 8-18% T polyacrylamide gradient gels. Twenty bands were obtained for the whole egg yolk profile with molecular weights ranging between 5 and 221 kDa. The bands were identified based on their molecular weight and by comparison with isolated egg yolk subfractions. The dissociation behavior under reducing and nonreducing conditions provided additionally helpful information for identification and characterization of the yolk proteins. The method presented is very well suited for assaying the thermal sensitivity of whole yolk and its components and thus for the characterization of heat treatment processes. PMID:16302743

  13. Interaction of quinine sulfate with anionic micelles of sodium dodecylsulfate: A time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy at different pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Sunita; Pant, Debi D.

    2015-09-01

    Photophysical behavior and rotational relaxation dynamics of quinine sulfate (QS) in anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at different pH have been studied using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. It has been observed that the cationic form of quinine sulfate (at pH 2) forms a fluorescent ion pair complex with the surfactant molecules at lower concentrations of surfactant. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, the probe molecules bind strongly with the micelles and reside at the water-micelle interface. At pH 7, QS is singly protonated in bulk aqueous solution. At lower concentrations of SDS aggregation between probe and surfactant molecules has been observed. However, for higher concentrations of SDS, an additional fluorescence peak corresponding to dicationic form of QS appears and this has been attributed to double protonation of the QS molecule in micellar solution. At pH 7, in the presence of SDS micelles, the photophysical properties of QS showed substantial changes compared to that in the bulk water solution. At pH 12, an increase in fluorescence intensity and lifetime has been observed and this has been attributed to the increase in radiative rate due to the incorporation of QS at the micelle-water interface. The local pH at micellar surface has been found different from the pH of bulk solution.

  14. Effect of pH, surface charge and counter-ions on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate to the sapphire/solution interface

    E-print Network

    Ningning Li; Robert K. Thomas; Adrian R. Rennie

    2012-05-01

    The role of ionic interactions between sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, and sapphire surfaces have been studied using specular neutron reflection to determine the structure and composition of adsorbed surfactant layers. Increasing the pH of the solution from 3 to 9 reduces the adsorption by reversing the charge of the alumina. This occurs at lower pH for the R-plane (1 -1 0 2) than the C-plane (0 0 0 1), corresponding to the different points of zero charge. The largest surface excess is about 6.5 micromol m-2, the thickness of the adsorbed layer is about 24 Angstrom and it contains roughly 20% water. The hydrocarbon tails of the surfactant molecules clearly interpenetrate rather than form an ordered bilayer. The structure is similar in either pure water or in 0.1 M NaCl when the surfactant is at the respective critical micelle concentration. Different structures were seen with lithium and cesium dodecyl sulfate. The CsDS forms dense layers with little or no hydration and a surface excess of about 10.5 micromol m-2. The metal cation strongly influences the hydration of the adsorbed surfactant. An overall picture of 'flattened micelles' for the structure of the adsorbed layer is observed

  15. A novel, single-isomer, sulfated cyclodextrin for use as a chiral resolving agent in capillary electrophoresis: the sodium salt of octakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)-?-cyclodextrin 

    E-print Network

    Busby, Michael Brent

    2002-01-01

    A novel, single-isomer, sulfated cyclodextrin, the sodium salt of octakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfo)cyclomaltooctaose (ODMS) was used as a chiral resolving agent in both aqueous and non-aqueous chiral mediated electrophoretic separation of a large...

  16. A protein trisulfide couples dissimilatory sulfate reduction to energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Santos, André A; Venceslau, Sofia S; Grein, Fabian; Leavitt, William D; Dahl, Christiane; Johnston, David T; Pereira, Inês A C

    2015-12-18

    Microbial sulfate reduction has governed Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle for at least 2.5 billion years. However, the enzymatic mechanisms behind this pathway are incompletely understood, particularly for the reduction of sulfite-a key intermediate in the pathway. This critical reaction is performed by DsrAB, a widespread enzyme also involved in other dissimilatory sulfur metabolisms. Using in vitro assays with an archaeal DsrAB, supported with genetic experiments in a bacterial system, we show that the product of sulfite reduction by DsrAB is a protein-based trisulfide, in which a sulfite-derived sulfur is bridging two conserved cysteines of DsrC. Physiological studies also reveal that sulfate reduction rates are determined by cellular levels of DsrC. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction couples the four-electron reduction of the DsrC trisulfide to energy conservation. PMID:26680199

  17. Ion Association in Hydrothermal Sodium Sulfate Solutions Studied by Modulated FT-IR-Raman Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Joachim; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Wambach, Jörg M; Vogel, Frédéric

    2015-07-30

    Saline aqueous solutions at elevated pressures and temperatures play an important role in processes such as supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water gasification (SCWG), as well as in natural geochemical processes in Earth and planetary interiors. Some solutions exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of solubility at high temperatures, thereby leading to salt precipitation with increasing temperature. Using modulated FT-IR Raman spectroscopy and classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD), we studied the solute speciation in solutions of 10 wt % Na2SO4, at conditions close to the saturation limit. Our experiments reveal that ion pairing and cluster formation are favored as solid saturation is approached, and ionic clusters form prior to the precipitation of solid sulfate. The proportion of such clusters increases as the phase boundary is approached either by decreasing pressure or by increasing temperature in the vicinity of the three-phase (vapor-liquid-solid) curve. PMID:26125627

  18. Stable isotope studies of vent fluids and chimney minerals, southern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Sodium metasomatism and seawater sulfate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks W.C. III; Seyfried W.E. Jr.

    1987-10-10

    Sulfur isotope values (delta/sup 34/S) or H/sub 2/S in vent fluids from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal sites range from 4.0 to 7.4% and are variably /sup 34/S-enriched with respect to coexisting inner wall chimney sulfides. Chimney sulfides range from 1.6 to 5.7%. The chimneys consist of Fe-sphalerite zoned to inner zinc sulfide and chalcopyrite ( +- isocubanite)-pyrrhotite lining channels. Sulfide from inner walls of type A chimneys have the lightest delta/sup 34/S values. Type B chimneys (porous, unzoned, low-Fe-sphalerite) have the isotopically heaviest chimney sulfides and occur at vent sites distal to the along-axis shallow point of the ridge crest, hence distal to the magma chamber. These variations are largely ascribed to sulfate reduction by ferrous iron in the hydrothermal fluid in chimneys of substrate mounds, probably due to transitory entrainment of ambient sulfate-bearing seawater. The delta/sup 18/O values of end-member hydrothermal fluids range from 0.6 to 0.8%, significantly lower than the delta/sup 18/O values at 21 /sup 0/N vent fluids. The deltaD values of the fluid samples range from -2.5 to 0.5%. Isotopic differences from the 21 /sup 0/N fluids may be due to slightly higher water/rock ratios, approximately 1.0, in the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal system. Admixture of a small amount of residual brine from an earlier phase separation even may have contributed water with low deltaD values.

  19. Sodium lauryl sulfate enhances nickel penetration through guinea-pig skin. Studies with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.; Sagstroem, S.R.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), a common ingredient of detergents, on the penetration of nickel through the stratum corneum in the guinea-pig skin model was studied with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) to evaluate the barrier-damaging properties of this common detergent. The EDX technique allows a simultaneous determination of physiologically important elements, e.g., Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca and S in addition to Ni at each point of measurement in epidermal cell strata. Our results show that SLS reduces the barrier function to Ni-ion penetration of the stratum corneum. In addition we have shown that EDX allows analysis of the influence of different factors involved in nickel penetration through the skin by giving data on the physiological effects on the epidermal cells caused by the applied substances.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...animal tissues. Sodium acetate may occur in either the anhydrous or trihydrated form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium...

  3. Conservation of the genes for dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Archaeoglobus fulgidus allows their detection by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Karkhoff-Schweizer, R R; Huber, D P; Voordouw, G

    1995-01-01

    The structural genes for dissimilatory sulfite reductase (desulfoviridin) from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hilden-borough were cloned as a 7.2-kbp SacII DNA fragment. Nucleotide sequencing indicated the presence of a third gene, encoding a protein of only 78 amino acids, immediately downstream from the genes for the alpha and beta subunits (dsvA and dsvB). We designated this protein DsvD and the gene encoding it the dsvD gene. The alpha- and beta-subunit sequences are highly homologous to those of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, a thermophilic archaeal sulfate reducer, which grows optimally at 83 degrees C. A gene with significant homology to dsvD was also found immediately downstream from the dsrAB genes of A. fulgidus. The remarkable conservation of gene arrangement and sequence across domain (bacterial versus archaeal) and physical (mesophilic versus thermophilic) boundaries indicates an essential role for DsvD in dissimilatory sulfite reduction and allowed the construction of conserved deoxyoligonucleotide primers for detection of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes in the environment. PMID:7887608

  4. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets for the spectrophotometric determination of Fingolomid in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Azari, Zhila; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Beheshti, Abolghasem

    2016-01-15

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the separation and determination of Fingolimod (FLM) in water, urine and plasma samples prior to spectrophotometeric determination. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory extraction recoveries can be produced. The main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent amounts, ionic strength, extraction time and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the selected conditions, FLM has been quantitatively extracted. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and good recoveries of 96%, 95% and 88% were observed for water, urine and plasma respectively. Proper linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges of 2-26, 2-17 and 2-13mg/L with good coefficients of determination, 0.998, 0.997 and 0.995 were achieved for water, urine and plasma samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a mixed hemimicelles SPE method based on magnetic separation and nanoparticles has been used as a simple and sensitive method for monitoring of FLM in water and biological samples. PMID:26439525

  5. A novel method for dissolution and stabilization of non-mulberry silk gland protein fibroin using anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Biman B; Kundu, S C

    2008-04-15

    The importance of silk protein has increased because of its potential use as a natural biopolymer for tissue engineering and biomedical applications. In this report we show a novel and ecofriendly method for dissolution of gland silk protein fibroin. Non-mulberry silk fibroin from mature fifth instar larvae of Antheraea mylitta was found to be optimally soluble in 1% (w/v) anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Regenerated fibroin showed distinct bands of approximately 395 and 197 kDa on electrophoresis in non-reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Enhanced fibroin dissolution via internalization of hydrophobic amino groups inside a hydrophilic amino acid core in the form of micelles was observed. Prolonged storage stability without gelation of SDS-extracted fibroin was seen. Atomic force microscopy showed micellar aggregation with mean micellar aggregation size of 8 nm. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed predominantly helical conformation due to surfactant addition with internal protein conformational changes as revealed by fluorescence spectroscopic studies. PMID:17969177

  6. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine functionalized sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated magnetite nanoparticles for effective removal of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from water samples.

    PubMed

    Sobhanardakani, Soheil; Zandipak, Raziyeh

    2015-07-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine immobilized on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated magnetite and was used for removal of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. The prepared product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size of the nanoparticles according to SEM was obtained around 20-35 nm. In batch tests, the effects of pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature were studied. The kinetic and equilibrium data were modeled with recently developed models. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were well fitted by the fractal-like pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir-Freundlich model, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity by this adsorbent is 255.1 mg g(-1) for Cd(II) ion and 319.6 mg g(-1) for Ni(II) ion at pH 7.0 and 25 °C. The method was successfully applied to the removal of metal cations in real samples (tap water, river water, and petrochemical wastewater). PMID:26050063

  7. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 ?m. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion. PMID:26595186

  8. Pre-labeling of diverse protein samples with a fixed amount of Cy5 for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Erik J; Johansson, Johan D; Laurin, Ylva; Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Rönn, Ola; Karlsson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    A pre-labeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester labeling of proteins has been developed for one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. We show that a fixed amount of sulfonated Cy5 can be used in the labeling reaction to label proteins over a broad concentration range-more than three orders of magnitude. The optimal amount of Cy5 was found to be 50 to 250pmol in 20?l using a Tris-HCl labeling buffer at pH 8.7. Labeling protein samples with a fixed amount of dye in this range balances the requirements of sub-nanogram detection sensitivity and low dye-to-protein (D/P) ratios for SDS-PAGE. Simulations of the labeling reaction reproduced experimental observations of both labeling kinetics and D/P ratios. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to examine the labeling of proteins in a cell lysate using both sulfonated and non-sulfonated Cy5. For both types of Cy5, we observed efficient labeling across a broad range of molecular weights and isoelectric points. PMID:25957128

  9. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis alters stress-associated behaviour and neuropeptide gene expression in the amygdala-hippocampus network of mice

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Hassan, Ahmed Mostafa; Farzi, Aitak; Jain, Piyush; Schuligoi, Rufina; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress causes disease exacerbation and relapses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Since studies on stress processing during visceral inflammation are lacking, we investigated the effects of experimental colitis as well as psychological stress on neurochemical and neuroendocrine changes as well as behaviour in mice. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS) were used as mouse models of colitis and mild psychological stress, respectively. We measured WAS-associated behaviour, gene expression and proinflammatory cytokine levels within the amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus as well as plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in male C57BL/6N mice. Animals with DSS-induced colitis presented with prolonged immobility during the WAS session, which was associated with brain region-dependent alterations of neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptor Y1, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor gene expression. Furthermore, the combination of DSS and WAS increased interleukin-6 and growth regulated oncogene-? levels in the brain. Altered gut-brain signalling in the course of DSS-induced colitis is thought to cause the observed distinct gene expression changes in the limbic system and the aberrant molecular and behavioural stress responses. These findings provide new insights into the effects of stress during IBD. PMID:26066467

  10. Routine diagnosis with PhastSystem compared to conventional electrophoresis: automated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining and western blotting of urinary proteins.

    PubMed

    Scherberich, J E; Fischer, P; Bigalke, A; Stangl, P; Wolf, G B; Haimerl, M; Schoeppe, W

    1989-01-01

    The recent introduction of the PhastSystem, an automatic electrophoresis and staining system with precast gradient-gels, allows rapid and reproducible analysis of proteinuria in patients suffering from renal injury. A routine method for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and silver staining of unconcentrated urine specimens in the PhastSystem is described and compared to our conventional "macro"-method with self-cast SDS-polyacrylamide gradient gels. The method described for the PhastSystem using 0.3 microL sample volumes and an 8-25% polyacrylamide gradient gel leads to highly reproducible results within 1.5 h. Before electrophoresis urine specimens were neither concentrated nor dialyzed. Samples with a protein concentration exceeding 5 mg/mL had to be diluted 1:5 (v/v). Analysis and documentation of PhastGels appeared as easy as with our conventional SDS-PAGE. Protein bands could reliably be identified by Western blotting. Urine and serum proteins, separated in PhastGels, were electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose and detected with specific antibodies against human albumin, transferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and IgG. Comparison of several standard kits for molecular weight determination revealed considerable differences concerning the quality of protein separation patterns. Availability of precast gels and automatization of SDS-PAGE and staining allows easy standardization of urine SDS-PAGE among clinical routine laboratories. PMID:2469571

  11. A rapid method of species identification of wild chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) via electrophoresis of hemoglobin proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE).

    PubMed

    Oh, J T; Epler, J H; Bentivegna, C S

    2014-10-01

    Studying aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates (BMIs) in the field requires accurate taxonomic identification, which can be difficult and time consuming. Conventionally, head capsule morphology has been used to identify wild larvae of Chironomidae. However, due to the number of species and possible damage and/or deformity of their head capsules, another supporting approach for identification is needed. Here, we provide hemoglobin (Hb) protein in hemolymph of chironomids as a new biomarker that may help resolve some of the ambiguities and difficulties encountered during taxonomic identification. Chironomids collected from two locations in Maine and New Jersey, USA were identified to the genus level and in some cases to the species-level using head capsule and body morphologies. The head capsule for a particular individual was then associated with a corresponding Hb protein profile generated from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Distinct Hb profiles were observed from one group (Thienemannimyia) and four genera (Chironomus, Cricotopus, Dicrotendipes, and Glyptotendipes) of chironomids. Several species were polymorphic, having more than one Hb profile and/or having bands of the same size as those of other species. However, major bands and the combination of bands could distinguish individuals at the genus and sometimes species-level. Overall, this study showed that Hb profiles can be used in combination with head capsule morphology to identify wild chironomids. PMID:24923437

  12. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (rpore) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 – 18.5 Å, but significantly larger than rpore of native skin samples (13.6 Å). Conversely, rpore within LTRs increases significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 Å, to 276 Å, and to ? (>300Å) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60 kHz, 40 kHz, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, while the increased rpore values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming. PMID:20740667

  13. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets for the spectrophotometric determination of Fingolomid in biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azari, Zhila; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Beheshti, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the separation and determination of Fingolimod (FLM) in water, urine and plasma samples prior to spectrophotometeric determination. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory extraction recoveries can be produced. The main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent amounts, ionic strength, extraction time and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the selected conditions, FLM has been quantitatively extracted. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and good recoveries of 96%, 95% and 88% were observed for water, urine and plasma respectively. Proper linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges of 2-26, 2-17 and 2-13 mg/L with good coefficients of determination, 0.998, 0.997 and 0.995 were achieved for water, urine and plasma samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a mixed hemimicelles SPE method based on magnetic separation and nanoparticles has been used as a simple and sensitive method for monitoring of FLM in water and biological samples.

  14. In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction of some fluoroquinolones based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube.

    PubMed

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid

    2015-07-23

    In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction (in-tube MSPME) of fluoroquinolones from water and urine samples based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube has been reported. After the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by a batch synthesis, these NPs were introduced into a stainless steel tube by a syringe and then a strong magnet was placed around the tube, so that the Fe3O4 NPs were remained in the tube and the tube was used in the in-tube SPME-HPLC/UV for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in water and urine samples. Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening the variables significantly affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were more investigated by Box-Behnken design. Calibration curves were linear (R(2)>0.990) in the range of 0.1-1000?gL(-1) for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 0.5-500?gL(-1) for enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL), respectively. LODs for all studied fluoroquinolones ranged from 0.01 to 0.05?gL(-1). The main advantages of this method were rapid and easy automation and analysis, short extraction time, high sensitivity, possibility of fully sorbent collection after analysis, wide linear range and no need to organic solvents in extraction. PMID:26231896

  15. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  16. Electron spin echo modulation study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide micellar solutions in the presence of urea: Evidence for urea interaction at the micellar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Baglioni, P. ); Ferroni, E. ); Kevan, L. )

    1990-05-17

    Electron spin echo studies have been carried out for a series of x-doxylstearic acid (x-DSA, x = 5,7,10,12,16) and 4-octanoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy (C{sub 8}-TEMPO) spin probes in micellar solutions of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) in D{sub 2}O and in the presence of 2 or 6 M urea or urea-d{sub 4}. Modulation effects due to the interaction of the unpaired electron with urea and water deuteriums show that urea does not affect the bent conformation of the x-DSA probe in the micelle. The analysis of the deuterium modulation depth and the Fourier transformation of the two-pulse electron spin echo spectra show that urea interacts with the surfactant polar headgroups at the micelle surface. These results support recent molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo calculations of micellar systems and are in agreement with direct interaction of urea at micellar surfaces in which it replaces some water molecules in the surface region.

  17. Efficacy of a Levulinic Acid Plus Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Based Sanitizer on Inactivation of Influenza A Virus on Eggshells.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ali; Cannon, Jennifer L; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2013-10-17

    Influenza A virus poses a major public health concern and is associated with annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza A H3N2 viruses, which are an important cause of human influenza, can infect birds and mammals. Contaminated undercooked poultry products including eggs with avian influenza virus constitute a possible risk of transmission to humans. In this study, a novel levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sanitizer was evaluated for eggshell decontamination. Influenza A H3N2 virus-inoculated chicken eggshells were treated with a 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS, 2 % levulinic acid plus 1 % SDS, and 0.5 % levulinic acid plus 0.5 % SDS liquid solution for 1 min. Log reductions of viable viruses were observed by plaque assay. The 5 % levulinic acid plus 2 % SDS sanitizer provided the greatest level of influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation (2.23 log PFU), and differences in virus inactivation were observed for the various levulinic acid plus SDS concentrations tested (P ? 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating influenza A H3N2 virus inactivation on eggshells using a novel levulinic acid plus SDS sanitizer. The sanitizer may be useful for reducing egg contamination and preventing the spread of avian influenza virus to humans. PMID:24132876

  18. Oleanolic acid ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by restoring the balance of Th17/Treg cells and inhibiting NF-?B signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Geum-Dan; Lim, Sumin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    In a preliminary experiment, it was found that oleanolic acid (OA), which is widely distributed in food and medicinal plants, inhibited interleukin (IL)-6/tumor growth factor beta-induced differentiation of splenic T cells into Th17 cells. Moreover, OA induced the differentiation of splenic T cells into Treg cells. Therefore, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of OA in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of OA significantly inhibited DSS-induced colon shortening, macroscopic score, and myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with OA inhibited DSS-induced differentiation to Th17 cells and downregulated the expression of ROR?t and IL-17 in the lamina propria of colon and Treg cell differentiation and Foxp3 and IL-10 expression were increased. OA treatment increased the DSS-suppressed expression of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 in the colon. Moreover, OA treatment inhibited DSS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-17, the activation of NF-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinases, and increased IL-10 expression. OA also inhibited the activation of NF-?B and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest that OA may ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as colitis by inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation and increasing Treg cell differentiation. PMID:26514300

  19. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on stress response in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis): regulatory volume decrease (Rvd) and modulation of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Messina, Concetta Maria; Faggio, Caterina; Laudicella, Vincenzo Alessandro; Sanfilippo, Marilena; Trischitta, Francesca; Santulli, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    In this study the effects of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are assessed on the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), exposed for 18 days at a concentration ranging from 0.1 mg/l to 1 mg/l. The effects are monitored using biomarkers related to stress response, such as regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and to oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endogenous antioxidant systems and Hsp70 levels. The results demonstrate that cells from the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis, exposed to SDS were not able to perform the RVD owing to osmotic stress. Further, SDS causes oxidative stress in treated organisms, as demonstrated by the increased ROS production, in comparison to the controls (p<0.05). Consequently, two enzymes involved in ROS scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) have higher activities and the proportion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) is higher in hepatopancreas and mantle of treated animals, compared to untreated animals (p<0.05). Furthermore Hsp70 demonstrates an up-regulation in all the analyzed tissues of exposed animals, attesting the stress status induced by the surfactant with respect to the unexposed animals. The results highlight that SDS, under the tested concentrations, exerts a toxic effect in mussels in which the disruption of the osmotic balance follows the induction of oxidative stress. PMID:25456223

  20. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...sulfite in the finished food will be determined using...Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams...Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of...Modifications) for Sulfites in Foods,” which is appendix...Official Methods of Analysis of the...

  1. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...sulfite in the finished food will be determined using...Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams...Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of...Modifications) for Sulfites in Foods,” which is appendix...Official Methods of Analysis of the...

  2. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...sulfite in the finished food will be determined using...Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams...Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of...Modifications) for Sulfites in Foods,” which is appendix...Official Methods of Analysis of the...

  3. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...sulfite in the finished food will be determined using...Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams...Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of...Modifications) for Sulfites in Foods,” which is appendix...Official Methods of Analysis of the...

  4. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...sulfite in the finished food will be determined using...Sulfurous Acid (Total) in Food Modified Monier-Williams...Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of...Modifications) for Sulfites in Foods,” which is appendix...Official Methods of Analysis of the...

  5. Kinetic and structural studies reveal a unique binding mode of sulfite to the nickel center in urease.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Luca; Cianci, Michele; Benini, Stefano; Bertini, Leonardo; Musiani, Francesco; Ciurli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Urease is the most efficient enzyme known to date, and catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea using two Ni(II) ions in the active site. Urease is a virulence factor in several human pathogens, while causing severe environmental and agronomic problems. Sporosarcina pasteurii urease has been used extensively in the structural characterization of the enzyme. Sodium sulfite has been widely used as a preservative in urease solutions to prevent oxygen-induced oxidation, but its role as an inhibitor has also been suggested. In the present study, isothermal titration microcalorimetry was used to establish sulfite as a competitive inhibitor for S. pasteurii urease, with an inhibition constant of 0.19mM at pH7. The structure of the urease-sulfite complex, determined at 1.65Å resolution, shows the inhibitor bound to the dinuclear Ni(II) center of urease in a tridentate mode involving bonds between the two Ni(II) ions in the active site and all three oxygen atoms of the inhibitor, supporting the observed competitive inhibition kinetics. This coordination mode of sulfite has never been observed, either in proteins or in small molecule complexes, and could inspire synthetic coordination chemists as well as biochemists to develop urease inhibitors based on this chemical moiety. PMID:26580226

  6. Oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite catalyzed by cobalt ions.

    PubMed

    Qiangwei, Li; Lidong, Wang; Yi, Zhao; Yongliang, Ma; Shuai, Cui; Shuang, Liu; Peiyao, Xu; Jiming, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Oxidation of magnesium sulfite is important for recycle of byproduct in the magnesium desulfurization. The oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite, prepared by vacuum evaporation method, was investigated in a bubbling tank in presence of transition metal catalysts, which shows cobalt is the most effective. The general reaction orders with respect to cobalt, magnesium sulfite, and oxygen are 0.44, 0, and 0.46, respectively, and the apparent activity energy is 17.43 KJ·mol. The catalytic performance of cobalt compared with other metals was also analyzed employing the ion potential theory. Integrated with the three-phase reaction model, we inferred that the general oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite is controlled by mass transfer of oxygen. Further, the intrinsic kinetics was predicted, indicating that the reaction orders with respect to cobalt and oxygen are 1.0 and 0, respectively. The results are helpful for the recycle of magnesium sulfite in magnesia desulfurization. PMID:24588305

  7. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y. L.; Dick, W. A.; Stehouwer, R. C.; Bigham, J. M.

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3?0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This combination effect was partially due to the positive interaction of CaS03 with CaC03 and fly ash on inhibition of acid leaching. In Chapter 3, CaS03-containing FGD was found to inhibit acid leaching from both fresh and aged coal refuse in large scale columns under simulated field conditions. During 39 weeks of leaching, the reduction of leachate acidity and Fe concentration and the increase ofleachate pH were significant (p <0.05) for the 22% FGD treatment with a linear response to increasing FGD rates (0%, 5.5%, 11%, and 22%). I conclude that CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD have the ability to inhibit acid production in coal refuse and the inhibitory effect shown in this experiment is likely to occur under field conditions. Thus, the research results present a potential new method for mitigation of acid production in coal refuse and another beneficial utilization of FGD by-products.

  8. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required... Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements. (a) Sulfites are chemical substances that... containing a sulfite, except epinephrine for injection when intended for use in allergic or other...

  9. Macrokinetics of magnesium sulfite oxidation inhibited by ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Lidong, Wang; Yongliang, Ma; Wendi, Zhang; Qiangwei, Li; Yi, Zhao; Zhanchao, Zhang

    2013-08-15

    Magnesia flue gas desulfurization is a promising process for small to medium scale industrial coal-fired boilers in order to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, in which oxidation control of magnesium sulfite is of great importance for the recycling of products. Effects of four inhibitors were compared by kinetic experiments indicating that ascorbic acid is the best additive, which retards the oxidation process of magnesium sulfite in trace presence. The macrokinetics of magnesium sulfite oxidation inhibited by ascorbic acid were studied. Effects of the factors, including ascorbic acid concentration, magnesium sulfite concentration, oxygen partial pressure, pH, and temperature, were investigated in a stirred reactor with bubbling. The results show that the reaction rate is -0.55 order in ascorbic acid, 0.77 in oxygen partial pressure, and zero in magnesium sulfite concentration, respectively. The apparent activation energy is 88.0 kJ mol(-1). Integrated with the kinetic model, it is concluded that the oxidation rate of magnesium sulfite inhibited by ascorbic acid is controlled by the intrinsic chemical reaction. The result provides a useful reference for sulfite recovery in magnesia desulfurization. PMID:23692683

  10. On-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes using electrokinetic supercharging method with a prefilled water plug in capillary sieving electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Kang, Mingchao; Liu, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    An electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) method with a prefilled water plug at the head column of capillary was developed for on-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes in capillary sieving electrophoresis (CSE). Conventional EKS is a combination of electrokinetic injection with transient isotachophoresis (tr-ITP). The capillary is first filled with background electrolyte, then an appropriate amount of a leading electrolyte is filled and electro-injection is carried out for certain duration. After that, terminating electrolyte is filled, and tr-ITP is subsequently initiated, followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. In this work, the performance of EKS was evaluated by integrating multiple sub-methods step by step, and a water plug containing polymer was introduced before electrokinetic injection in order to further improve the concentration effect. The positive effects of the sub-methods were verified, including molecular sieving effect of polymer, field enhanced sample injection (FESI) with and without a water plug, and transient isotachophoretic electrophoresis-based FESI. It was observed that analyte discrimination usually encountered in conventional electrokinetic injection was eliminated due to the similar charge to mass ratios of SDS-protein complexes. Based on these results, a hybrid on-line preconcentration method, EKS with injecting a water plug containing polymer before sample electrokinetic injection, was proposed and used to indiscriminately preconcentrate SDS-protein complexes, which provided a sensitivity enhancement factor of more than 1000. It was very suitable for the analysis of low-abundance proteins, providing the information of their molecular mass. PMID:22233073

  11. Electrophoretic Extraction of Low Molecular Weight Cationic Analytes from Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Containing Sample Matrices for Their Direct Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kinde, Tristan F.; Lopez, Thomas D.; Dutta, Debashis

    2015-01-01

    While the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in separation buffers allows efficient analysis of complex mixtures, its presence in the sample matrix is known to severely interfere with the mass-spectrometric characterization of analyte molecules. In this article, we report a microfluidic device that addresses this analytical challenge by enabling inline electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of low molecular weight cationic samples prepared in SDS containing matrices. The functionality of this device relies on the continuous extraction of analyte molecules into an SDS-free solvent stream based on the free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) technique prior to their ESI-MS analysis. The reported extraction was accomplished in our current work in a glass channel with microelectrodes fabricated along its sidewalls to realize the desired electric field. Our experiments show that a key challenge to successfully operating such a device is to suppress the electroosmotically driven fluid circulations generated in its extraction channel that otherwise tend to vigorously mix the liquid streams flowing through this duct. A new coating medium, N-(2-triethoxysilylpropyl) formamide, recently demonstrated by our laboratory to nearly eliminate electroosmotic flow in glass microchannels was employed to address this issue. Applying this surface modifier, we were able to efficiently extract two different peptides, human angiotensin I and MRFA, individually from an SDS containing matrix using the FFZE method and detect them at concentrations down to 3.7 and 6.3 µg/mL, respectively, in samples containing as much as 10 mM SDS. Notice that in addition to greatly reducing the amount of SDS entering the MS instrument, the reported approach allows rapid solvent exchange for facilitating efficient analyte ionization desired in ESI-MS analysis. PMID:25664891

  12. Mangiferin attenuates the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice via NF-?B and MAPK signaling inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Wei; Zhang, Jingjing; Ren, Gaiyan; Ding, Lili; Sun, Aning; Deng, Chao; Wu, Xiaojun; Wei, Xiaohui; Mani, Sridhar; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and currently no curative treatment available. Mangiferin, a natural glucosylxanthone mainly from the fruit, leaves and stem bark of the mango tree, has strong anti-inflammatory activity. We sought to investigate whether mangiferin attenuates inflammation in a mouse model of chemically induced IBD. Pre-administration of mangiferin significantly attenuated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced body weight loss, diarrhea, colon shortening and histological injury, which correlated with the decline in the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the level of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in the colon. DSS-induced degradation of inhibitory ?B? (I?B?) and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) p65 as well as the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (inducible NO synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), TNF-?, interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-6) in the colon were also downregulated by mangiferin treatment. Additionally, the phosphorylation/activation of DSS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins was also inhibited by mangiferin treatment. In accordance with the in vivo results, mangiferin exposure blocked TNF-?-stimulated nuclear translocation of NF-?B in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Transient transfection gene reporter assay performed in TNF-?-stimulated HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells indicated that mangiferin inhibits NF-?B transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. The current study clearly demonstrates a protective role for mangiferin in experimental IBD through NF-?B and MAPK signaling inhibition. Since mangiferin is a natural compound with little toxicity, the results may contribute to the effective utilization of mangiferin in the treatment of human IBD. PMID:25194678

  13. Effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Myoung-Gyu; Park, Mi-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Colitis is a serious health problem, and chronic obesity is associated with the progression of colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet (HFD, 45%) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 2% w/v)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Body weight, colon length, and colon weight-to-length ratio, were measured directly. Serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were determined using commercial kits. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6 were detected using a commercial ELISA kit. Histological study was performed using a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining assay. Colonic mRNA expressions of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by RT-PCR assay. RESULTS Body weight and obesity-related biomarkers (TG, TC, LDL, HDL, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin) were regulated and obesity was prevented in NRM treated mice. NRM significantly suppressed colon shortening and reduced colon weight-to-length ratio in HFD+DSS induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice (P < 0.05). Histological observations suggested that NRM reduced edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by HFD and DSS. In addition, NRM decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 and inhibited the mRNA expressions of these cytokines, and iNOS and COX-2 in colon mucosa (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The results suggest that NRM has an anti-inflammatory effect against HFD and DSS-induced colitis in mice, and that these effects are due to the amelioration of HFD and/or DSS-induced inflammatory reactions. PMID:26634051

  14. Calcium-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-c-Src Signaling Cascade Mediates Disruption of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junctions by Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with the symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ by BAPTA or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of Ask1 or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased Tyr-phosphorylation of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin and ?-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced Tyr-phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto phosphorylation of c-Src. This study demonstrates that Ca2+-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-cSrc signaling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. PMID:25377781

  15. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-? as well as NF?B and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-? secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy. PMID:26642326

  16. Analysis of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable peptidoglycan autolysins of select gram-negative pathogens by using renaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Bernadsky, G; Beveridge, T J; Clarke, A J

    1994-01-01

    For the first time, peptidoglycan autolysins from cellular fractions derived from sonicated cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli W7, Klebsiella pneumoniae CWK2, and Proteus mirabilis 19 were detected and partially characterized by zymogram analysis. Purified murein sacculi from P. aeruginosa PAO1 were incorporated into a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel at a concentration of 0.05% (wt/vol) to serve as a substrate for the separated autolysins. At least 11 autolysin bands of various intensities with M(r)s ranging between 17,000 and 122,000 were detected in each of the homogenated cultures. Some of the autolysins of the four bacteria had similar M(r)s. The zymogram analysis was used to show that a number of the autolysins from E. coli were inhibited by the heavy metals Hg2+ and Cu2+, at 1 and 10 mM, respectively, high ionic strengths, and reagents known to affect the packing of lipopolysaccharides. The activity of an autolysin with an M(r) of 65,000 was also impaired by penicillin G, whereas it was enhanced by gentamicin. A preliminary screen to determine the relationship between penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and autolysins was carried out by using a dual assay in which radiolabelled penicillin V bands were visualized on an autolysin zymogram. Radiolabelled bands corresponding to PBPs 3, 4, 5, and 6 from E. coli and P. aeruginosa; PBPs 3, 4, and 6 from Proteus mirabilis; and PBP 6 from K. pneumoniae degraded the murein sacculi in the gels and were presumed to have autolytic activity, although the possibility of two distinct enzymes, each with one of the activities, comigrating in the SDS-polyacrylamide gels could not be excluded. Some radiolabelled bands possessed an Mr of <34,000 and coincided with similar low-Mr autolysin bands. Images PMID:7915268

  17. Electrophoretic extraction of low molecular weight cationic analytes from sodium dodecyl sulfate containing sample matrices for their direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kinde, Tristan F; Lopez, Thomas D; Dutta, Debashis

    2015-03-01

    While the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in separation buffers allows efficient analysis of complex mixtures, its presence in the sample matrix is known to severely interfere with the mass-spectrometric characterization of analyte molecules. In this article, we report a microfluidic device that addresses this analytical challenge by enabling inline electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of low molecular weight cationic samples prepared in SDS containing matrices. The functionality of this device relies on the continuous extraction of analyte molecules into an SDS-free solvent stream based on the free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) technique prior to their ESI-MS analysis. The reported extraction was accomplished in our current work in a glass channel with microelectrodes fabricated along its sidewalls to realize the desired electric field. Our experiments show that a key challenge to successfully operating such a device is to suppress the electroosmotically driven fluid circulations generated in its extraction channel that otherwise tend to vigorously mix the liquid streams flowing through this duct. A new coating medium, N-(2-triethoxysilylpropyl) formamide, recently demonstrated by our laboratory to nearly eliminate electroosmotic flow in glass microchannels was employed to address this issue. Applying this surface modifier, we were able to efficiently extract two different peptides, human angiotensin I and MRFA, individually from an SDS containing matrix using the FFZE method and detect them at concentrations down to 3.7 and 6.3 ?g/mL, respectively, in samples containing as much as 10 mM SDS. Notice that in addition to greatly reducing the amount of SDS entering the MS instrument, the reported approach allows rapid solvent exchange for facilitating efficient analyte ionization desired in ESI-MS analysis. PMID:25664891

  18. WHAT LURKS IN THE MARTIAN ROCKS AND SOIL? INVESTIGATIONS OF SULFATES, PHOSPHATES,AND PERCHLORATES Optical constants of synthetic potassium, sodium, and hydronium jarosite

    E-print Network

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    Optical constants of synthetic potassium, sodium, and hydronium jarosite ElizabEth C. SklutE1, *, timothy, hydronium, and sodium jarosite in the VNIR. We also explicitly describe the calculation procedures

  19. The octaheme SirA catalyses dissimilatory sulfite reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shirodkar, Sheetal; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad

    2011-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a metal reducer that uses a large number of electron acceptors that include thiosulfate, polysulfide, and sulfite. The enzyme required for thiosulfate and polysulfide respiration has been recently identified, but the mechanisms of sulfite reduction remained unexplored. Analysis of MR-1 cultures grown anaerobically with sulfite suggested that the dissimilatory sulfite reductase catalyzes six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Reduction of sulfite required menaquinones and c cytochromes but appeared to be independent of the intermediate electron carrier CymA. Furthermore, the terminal sulfite reductase, SirA, was identified as an octaheme c cytochrome with an atypical heme binding site that represents a new class of sulfite reductases. The sirA locus was identified in the genomes of several sequenced Shewanella genomes, and its presence appears to be linked to the ability of these organisms to reduce sulfite under anaerobic conditions.

  20. Activation of the superoxide forming NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system by sodium dodecyl sulfate. Characterization of the membrane-associated component.

    PubMed

    Pick, E; Bromberg, Y; Shpungin, S; Gadba, R

    1987-12-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was shown to elicit NADPH-dependent superoxide (O2-) production by a cell-free system derived from sonically disrupted resting guinea pig macrophages (Bromberg, Y., and Pick, E. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 13539-13545). O2- production was absolutely dependent on the cooperation between a membrane-associated component, sedimenting with the 48,000 X g pellet and a cytosolic factor, nonsedimentable at 265,000 X g. The present report describes the solubilization and characterization of the membrane-associated component of the SDS-activable O2(-)-forming NADPH oxidase (operationally termed pi). Treatment of the 48,000 X g pellet with 30 mM octyl glucoside resulted in complete transfer of pi to the soluble fraction. The solubilized pellet produced an average of 0.92 mumol of O2-/mg of protein/min upon reduction of octyl glucoside content below the critical micellar concentration and in the presence of cytosol, 100 microM SDS, and 0.2 mM NADPH. The activity of solubilized pellet-cytosol combinations was also expressed as NADPH-dependent, azide-resistant oxygen consumption and hydrogen peroxide production. pi was inactivated by the sulfhydryl reagent p-chloromercuribenzoate. Solubilized pellet contained spectroscopically detectable cytochrome b559 (225.6 +/- 15.0 pmol/mg mg protein). Both pi and cytochrome b559 were bound by Cibacron Blue Sepharose and could be eluted by a gradient of octyl glucoside (0-30 mM) in the presence of 1 M KCl. On high performance gel filtration on Superose 12, both pi and cytochrome b559 eluted in the excluded volume; when 25 mM octyl glucoside was present in the elution buffer, pi was partially dissociated from cytochrome b559. Sequential purification of pi on Blue Sepharose followed by gel filtration on Superose 12 in the presence of 25 mM octyl glucoside lead to complete resolution of pi from cytochrome b559 (pi was found in the Mr = 28,000 - 11,000 range while the bulk of cytochrome b559 eluted in the Mr = 113,000 - 71,000 range). We propose that pi is distinct from cytochrome b559 and represents a membrane-associated component in an amphiphile-activated electron transport chain from NADPH to oxygen. PMID:2824496

  1. Synergistic Effects of Lactic Acid and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate to Decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Cattle Hide Sections

    PubMed Central

    Elramady, Mohamed G.; Rossitto, Paul V.; Crook, Jennifer A.; Cullor, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of chitosan acetate (CA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), lactic acid (LA) and their synergism when combined against a nontoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Treatments that significantly reduced the concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in vitro by more than two logs were further investigated using a cattle hide decontamination model. In vitro treatments included CA (1% chitosan in 1% acetic acid vol/vol), SDS (1% vol/vol), SDS (2% vol/vol), LA (1% vol/vol), CA-SDS combination (1% chitosan in 1% acetic acid vol/vol mixed with 1% SDS vol/vol), and LA-SDS combination in two different concentrations (1% LA mixed with 1% SDS vol/vol, and 1% LA mixed with 2% SDS vol/vol). Butterfield's Phosphate Buffer water was used as a control. The antibacterial effect of 1% CA solution alone and in combination with 1% SDS in vitro resulted in a 1.8 and 1.7 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL reduction, respectively (p<0.05). Only 1% LA, 1% SDS, 2% SDS and their combinations resulted in a >2 log reduction in E. coli O157:H7. On hide sections, both 1% LA–1% SDS and 1% LA–2% SDS combinations significantly (p<0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7 concentration by 4.6 and 4.7 log CFU/ cm2 greater than the control, respectively. There was no significant difference in the antibacterial effect of 1% LA compared to the control, 2% SDS compared to the control, or 1% LA compared to 2% SDS. Hence, the antibacterial efficacy of 1% LA against E. coli O157:H7 on hide sections was significantly enhanced when combined with 1% SDS. Results of this study support the use of low concentration LA-SDS combination as a hide wash to reduce the risk of E. coli O157:H7 contamination. PMID:23594235

  2. Management of Bleeding Duodenal Varices with Combined TIPS Decompression and Trans-TIPS Transvenous Obliteration Utilizing 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E; Lippert, Allison; Schwaner, Sandra; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Sabri, Saher; Saad, Nael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Endoscopic experience in the management of duodenal varices (DVs) is limited and challenging given the anatomic constraints and limited experience. The endovascular management of DVs is not yet established and the controversy of whether to manage them by decompression with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or by transvenous obliteration is unresolved. In the literature, the 6–12 month rebleeding rate of DVs after TIPS is 21-37% and after transvenous obliteration is 13%. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of combined TIPS decompression and transvenous obliteration/sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study (case series) of two institutions, evaluating patients who underwent TIPS and/or transvenous obliteration/sclerosis for bleeding DVs (from January 2009 to June 2013). TIPS was performed according to a standard procedure using covered stents. Transvenous obliteration (variceal sclerosis) from the systemic and/or portal venous circulation was performed utilizing 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Transvenous obliteration was commonly augmented with coils and/or vascular plugs. Technical (technical success of establishing TIPS and completely obliterating the DVs) and clinical outcomes (rebleeding rate and survival) were evaluated. Results: Five patients with liver cirrhosis presenting with bleeding DVs were included in the study with all eventually (and coincidentally) receiving TIPS and transvenous obliteration. Two of the five patients underwent concomitant TIPS and transvenous obliteration in the same procedural setting. However, three patients underwent transvenous obliteration due to bleeding despite a patent TIPS that had been previously placed. The average time from TIPS placement to transvenous obliteration was 125 days (range: 3-324 days). After having both procedures, there was no rebleeding in the patients during a mean follow-up period of 22 months (6–50 months). Coils and/or metallic vascular plugs were used to augment the sclerosant obliteration in four of five patients. Conclusion: The combination of TIPS decompression and foam sclerosant transvenous obliteration appears to be effective in preventing rebleeding in this limited case series and compares favorably with the existing evidence for either approach [TIPS or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO)] alone. PMID:25558434

  3. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Blend, Peroxyacetic Acid, and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Salmonella on Inoculated Chicken Wings.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Brad; Belk, Keith E

    2015-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (SSS) in reducing Salmonella on inoculated whole chilled chicken wings and to compare its efficacy to peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Wings were spot inoculated (5 to 6 log CFU/ml of sample rinsate) with a five-strain mixture of novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and then left untreated (control) or treated by immersing individual wings in 350 ml of antimicrobial solution. An initial study evaluated two treatment immersion times, 10 and 20 s, of SSS (pH 1.1) and compared cell recoveries following rinsing of treated samples with buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth. In a second study, inoculated wings were treated with SSS (pH 1.1; 20 s), PAA (700 ppm, 20 s), or CPC (4,000 ppm, 10 s) and analyzed for survivors immediately after treatment (0 h) and after 24 h of aerobic storage at 4°C. Color and pH analyses were also conducted in the latter study. Recovery of Salmonella survivors following treatment with SSS (10 or 20 s) was not (P ? 0.05) affected by the type of cell recovery rinse solution (buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth), but there was an effect (P < 0.05) of SSS treatment time. Immersion of samples for 10 or 20 s in SSS resulted in pathogen reductions of 0.8 to 0.9 and 1.1 to 1.2 log CFU/ml, respectively. Results of the second study showed that there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between antimicrobial type and storage time. Efficacy against Salmonella at 0 h increased in the order CPC , SSS , PAA; however, after 24 h of aerobic storage, pathogen counts of SSS- and PAA-treated wings did not differ (P ? 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that SSS applied at pH 1.1 for 20 s was an effective antimicrobial intervention to reduce Salmonella contamination on chicken wings. PMID:26555519

  4. Baicalin down regulates the expression of TLR4 and NFkB-p65 in colon tissue in mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jinshan; Guo, Cancan; Zhu, Yuzhen; Pang, Liping; Yang, Zheng; Zou, Ying; Zheng, Xuebao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Baicalin is one of flavonoid extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis, which has several functions including anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, antitumor and et al. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory of baicalin in ulcerative colitis is not clear. Methods: Mice colitis models were established by dextran sodium sulfate, Mice administrated with baicalin (100 mg/kg) and mesalazine (100 mg/kg) twice daily by intragastric injection for 7 days after colitis induced were defined as treated group. Then the mice were sacrificed and the colon samples were collected. Toll-like receptor-2, 4, 9 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Signaling proteins such as TLR4, MyD88, and NF-?B p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Cytokine’s mRNA include TNF-?, IL-6 IL-10 and IL-13 were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Modified disease activity index were used to analyse the severity of the disease by assessed of diarrhea, stool (occult) blood and body weight loss of the mice. Results: Compared with control and model groups, modified disease activity index in baicalin and mesalazine treated, mice decreased gradually. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the expression of TLR4, but not TLR2 and TLR9, in the mucosa of mice colon were decreased. Western blot analysis showed that in colitis model, the expression of NF-?B p65 and TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05), while the expression of MyD88 increased significantly compared to control group, and MyD88 expression can not be repressed by baicalin (P < 0.05). Baicalin and mesalazine treatment suppressed the expression of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-13 mRNA (P < 0.05), yet up-regulated the expression of IL-10 mRNA (P < 0.05), compared to the DDS and control groups. Conclusions: Baicalin administration by intragastric injection ameliorates the severity of colon inflammation. The possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory response by baicalin may involve in the blocking of the TLR4/NF-?B-p65/IL-6 signaling pathway. PMID:25550915

  5. Increased CYP4B1 mRNA Is Associated with the Inhibition of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Caffeic Acid in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhong; Liu, Zhiping; Henderson, Abigail; Lee, Kwangwon; Hostetter, Jesse; Wannemuehler, Michael; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases depends upon interactions between the genetics of the individual and induction of chronic mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that administration of dietary phenolics, caffeic acid and rutin, would suppress upregulation of inflammatory markers and intestinal damage in a mouse model of colitis. Colitis was induced in C3H/HeOuJ mice (8 wk old, 6 male/6 female per treatment) with 1.25% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 6 d in their drinking water. Rutin (1.0 mmol (524 mg)/kg in diet), caffeic acid (1.0 mmol (179 mg)/kg in diet), and hypoxoside extract (15 mg/d, an anticolitic phenolic control) were fed for 7 d before and during DSS treatment, as well as without DSS treatment. Body weight loss was prevented by rutin and caffeic acid during DSS treatment. Colon lengths in mice fed caffeic acid and hypoxoside during DSS treatment were similar to DSS-negative control. Food intake was improved and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was decreased with each phenolic treatment in DSS-treated mice compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic mRNA expression of IL-17 and iNOS were inhibited when IL-4 was increased by each phenolic treatment combined with DSS, whereas CYP4B1 mRNA was increased only by caffeic acid in DSS-treated mice, compared with DSS treatment alone. Colonic and cecal histopathology scores of DSS-treated mice were significantly more severe (P< 0.01) than in mice fed caffeic acid before and during DSS treatment based on mucosal height, necrosis, edema, erosion, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Although both rutin and caffeic acid suppressed the expression of selected inflammatory markers, only caffeic acid protected against DSS induced colitis, in association with normalization of CYP4B1 expression. The inhibition of DSS-induced colitic pathology by caffeic acid was mediated by mechanisms in addition to anti-inflammatory effects that deserve further study. PMID:19307459

  6. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Venceslau, Sofia S.; Cort, John R.; Baker, Erin S.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Robinson, Errol W.; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Lígia M.; Pereira, Inês A.C.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •DsrC is known to interact with the dissimilatory sulfite reductase enzyme (DsrAB). •We show that, however, most cellular DsrC is not associated with DsrAB. •A gel-shift assay was developed that allows monitoring of the DsrC redox state. •The DsrC intramolecularly oxidized state could only be produced by arginine treatment. -- Abstract: Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC, which has two conserved redox-active cysteines. DsrC was initially believed to be a third subunit of DsrAB. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts to show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we developed a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor the DsrC redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. The oxidized state of DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond, which is proposed to be a key metabolic intermediate, could be successfully produced for the first time by treatment with arginine.

  7. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  8. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Venceslau, Sofia S.; Cort, John R.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Chu, Rosalie K.; Robinson, Errol W.; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Pereira, Ines Ac

    2013-11-29

    Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC having two conserved cysteine residues. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts, a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor its redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. We show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we successfully produced DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond (oxidized state) by treatment with arginine.

  9. Effectiveness of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate employed as a sanitizer during harvest or packing of cantaloupes contaminated with Salmonella Poona.

    PubMed

    Webb, Cathy C; Erickson, Marilyn C; Davey, Lindsey E; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-08-17

    Freshly harvested Eastern variety cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus cv. Athena) were subjected to three different harvest and wash treatments to examine conditions under which the efficacy of the sanitizer, levulinic acid (LV) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), could be enhanced to reduce Salmonella contamination. In treatment set one, cantaloupes were spot inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Poona (prepared from solid or liquid media cultures) before or after a 1-min dip treatment in LV (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10%) and 2.5% SDS. S. Poona initial populations on rind tissue (4.26-5.04 log CFU/sample) were reduced to detection by enrichment culture when cantaloupes were subsequently exposed to any of the LV/SDS solutions. When S. Poona was introduced after cantaloupes had been dip-treated, greater decreases in pathogen populations at the stem scar were observed when cantaloupes were treated with increasing concentrations of LV. In treatment set two, the response of S. Poona dip-treated with 5% LV/2.5% SDS was compared to a simulated commercial dump tank treatment incorporating 200 ppm chlorine as well as a two-stage treatment employing both the chlorine tank and LV/SDS dip treatments. S. Poona levels (log CFU/sample or # positive by enrichment culture/# analyzed) after treatments were 5.25, 3.07, 7/10, 5/10 (stem scar) and 3.90, 25/40, 28/40, 20/40 (rind) for non-treated, chlorine tank, LV/SDS dip, and tank plus dip treatments, respectively. In treatment set three, freshly harvested cantaloupes were first treated in the field using a needle-free stem scar injection (200 ?l, 7.5% LV/1.0% SDS, 60 psi) and a cantaloupe spray (30 ml, 7.5% LV/0.5% SDS). Cantaloupe stem scar and rind tissue were then spot-inoculated with S. Poona using either a liquid or soil-based medium followed by a simulated dump tank treatment incorporating either 200 ppm chlorine or 5% LV/2% SDS. S. Poona inoculated on field-treated cantaloupe rind decreased by 4.7 and 5.31 (liquid) and 3.27 and 3.36 (soil) log CFU/sample after simulated chlorine and LV/SDS tank treatments, respectively. In the case of stem scar tissue, S. Poona populations exhibited a 1.0 log greater reduction when cantaloupes were treated with LV/SDS compared to chlorine in the dump tank (P<0.05). Based on this study, application of multiple hurdles is warranted, as additional decreases in S. Poona populations were obtained when cantaloupes were subjected to a chlorine dump tank followed by a LV/SDS dip treatment. PMID:26001062

  10. Use of Evolutionary Factor Analysis in the Spectroelectrochemistry of Escherichia coli Sulfite

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Use of Evolutionary Factor Analysis in the Spectroelectrochemistry of Escherichia coli Sulfite and chronoabsorptometry in a thin-layer cell. The first system was the reduction of E. coli sulfite reductase hemoprotein

  11. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...human use containing a sulfite, except epinephrine for injection when intended for use...100(d) for sulfite-containing epinephrine for injection for use in allergic emergency...shall bear the warning statement “Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for...

  12. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...human use containing a sulfite, except epinephrine for injection when intended for use...100(d) for sulfite-containing epinephrine for injection for use in allergic emergency...shall bear the warning statement “Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for...

  13. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...human use containing a sulfite, except epinephrine for injection when intended for use...100(d) for sulfite-containing epinephrine for injection for use in allergic emergency...shall bear the warning statement “Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for...

  14. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...human use containing a sulfite, except epinephrine for injection when intended for use...100(d) for sulfite-containing epinephrine for injection for use in allergic emergency...shall bear the warning statement “Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for...

  15. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...human use containing a sulfite, except epinephrine for injection when intended for use...100(d) for sulfite-containing epinephrine for injection for use in allergic emergency...shall bear the warning statement “Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for...

  16. Concentrated sulfite-yeast fermenting mixture as a corrosion inhibitor of copper in mixtures of sulfuric and nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Agaev, N.M.; Smorodin, A.E.; Rzaev, E.R.; Tyr, S.G.; Shlimak, Ya.B.; Geidarova, G.D.; Eremeeva, R.A.; Nasirov, G.N.

    1987-03-01

    At the Baku factory of residential air conditioning systems both preliminary and final pickling of copper tubing is carried out in a solution of sulfuric and nitric acids. The authors of this study, in seeking an inhibitor to control this process, evaluate the protective properties of an inhibitor based on a concentrated sulfite-yeast fermenting mixture that is generated as a common waste product by the cellulose-pulp industry. It consists of calcium, sodium, and ammonium salts of lignin sulfonic acids. Tests revealed not only its inhibiting effectiveness but also its capacity to lower toxic gas levels of nitrogen oxides in the plant environment.

  17. TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE USING A MIXED REDUCTANT SOLUTION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a method for disseminating ferrous iron in the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a chromite ore processing solid waste derived from the production of ferrochrome alloy. The method utilizes ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in combinati...

  18. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine. Researchers ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for up to 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can ...

  19. Preparation, Characterization, and Selectivity Study of Mixed-Valence Sulfites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Luciana A.; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    2010-01-01

    A project involving the synthesis of an isomorphic double sulfite series and characterization by classical inorganic chemical analyses is described. The project is performed by upper-level undergraduate students in the laboratory. This compound series is suitable for examining several chemical concepts and analytical techniques in inorganic…

  20. Domain Evolution and Functional Diversification of Sulfite Reductases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Ashita; Goswami, Sulip; Riley, Monica; Teske, Andreas; Sogin, Mitchell

    2005-02-01

    Sulfite reductases are key enzymes of assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfur metabolism, which occur in diverse bacterial and archaeal lineages. They share a highly conserved domain "C-X5-C-n-C-X3-C" for binding siroheme and iron-sulfur clusters that facilitate electron transfer to the substrate. For each sulfite reductase cluster, the siroheme-binding domain is positioned slightly differently at the N-terminus of dsrA and dsrB, while in the assimilatory proteins the siroheme domain is located at the C-terminus. Our sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the siroheme-binding domain shows that sulfite reductase sequences diverged from a common ancestor into four separate clusters (aSir, alSir, dsr, and asrC) that are biochemically distinct; each serves a different assimilatory or dissimilatory role in sulfur metabolism. The phylogenetic distribution and functional grouping in sulfite reductase clusters (dsrA and dsrB vs. aSiR, asrC, and alSir) suggest that their functional diversification during evolution may have preceded the bacterial/archaeal divergence.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBIDE LIME TO IDENTIFY SULFITE OXIDATION INHIBITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of carbide lime--a by-product of acetylene manufacture, primarily calcium hydroxide--used in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system at Louisville Gas and Electric (LGE). The study was undertaken to: identify sulfite ion oxidation inhibitors in...

  2. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, and the refinements of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  3. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, and the refinements of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  4. 21 CFR 130.9 - Sulfites in standardized food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, and the refinements of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfites in standardized food. 130.9 Section 130.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  5. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... edible vegetable oil using 1-butanol. Following sulfation, the reaction mixture is washed with water and neutralized with aqueous sodium or potassium hydroxide. Prior to sulfation, the butyl oleate reaction...

  6. 75 FR 56101 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... final registration review decision for the pesticide, lauryl sulfate salts (also known as sodium lauryl... announces the availability of EPA's final registration review decision for the lauryl sulfate salts. Sodium... product that contains sodium lauryl sulfate as an active ingredient. The product, Kleenex Brand...

  7. Curcumin, the Main Part of Turmeric, Prevents Learning and Memory Changes Induced by Sodium Metabisulfite, a Preservative Agent, in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Noorafshan, Ali; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Abdollahifar, Mohammad Amin; Rashidiani-Rashidabadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Sodium metabisulfite is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant, and preservative agent in the food, beverage, and drug industries. Neurons are highly sensitive to sulfite toxicity. Curcumin is the main part of turmeric and has neuroprotective effects on a variety of nervous system damages. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective role of curcumin in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite in rats. The rats were divided into five groups receiving distilled water (solvent of the sulfite), olive oil (solvent of the curcumin), sodium metabisulfite (25 mg/kg/day), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), and sulfite + curcumin. All the animals received daily gavages for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8th week, learning and memory were assessed in a partially-baited eight arm radial maze. The animals treated with sulfite showed fewer correct choices and more reference and working memory errors during the learning phase, at the end of the learning phase, and during the retention testing (p<0.001). The study results demonstrated that sulfite-exposure was associated with impaired learning and memory in rats. Adding curcumin to the rat nutrition plays a protective role in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite. PMID:23585719

  8. 77 FR 27126 - [alpha]-(p-Nonylphenol)-[omega]-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) Sulfate and Phosphate Esters; Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...corresponding ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc salts of the phosphate...sulfate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc salts when used as...corresponding ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc salts of the...

  9. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium sulfate solutions to 773 K and 3 GPa derived from acoustic velocity measurements in the diamond anvil cell.

    PubMed

    Mantegazzi, Davide; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Reusser, Eric; Driesner, Thomas

    2012-12-14

    The thermodynamic properties of a 1 m Na(2)SO(4) solution have been determined to 773 K and 3 GPa from acoustic velocity measurements in externally heated diamond anvil cell using Brillouin spectroscopy. The measured acoustic velocities were inverted to obtain the density of the aqueous electrolyte solution with an accuracy of 0.3%-0.5%, and an equation of state (EoS) valid in the 293-773 K and 0.4-3 GPa range is proposed. The new EoS reproduces the experimental acoustic velocity data with a maximal deviation of 1.5% and allows deriving all thermodynamic properties of the aqueous solution, including isobaric heat capacity (C(P)), thermal expansion (?(P)), and compressibility (?) with an accuracy better than 3%-8%. The addition of dissolved sulfate species decreases the compressibility of water, consistent with the structure-maker character of SO(4)(2-) ions in solution that enhance the hydrogen-bond network of the solvent. PMID:23249011

  11. Optimization of Sulfide/Sulfite Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Adnan, Ahmad; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Potential of sodium sulfide and sodium sulfite, in the presence of sodium hydroxide was investigated to pretreat the corncob (CC), bagasse (BG), water hyacinth and rice husk (RH) for maximum digestibility. Response Surface Methodology was employed for the optimization of pretreatment factors such as temperature, time and concentration of Na2S and Na2SO3, which had high coefficient of determination (R2) along with low probability value (P), indicating the reliable predictability of the model. At optimized conditions, Na2S and Na2SO3 remove up to 97% lignin, from WH and RH, along with removal of hemicellulose (up to 93%) during pretreatment providing maximum cellulose, while in BG and CC; 75.0% and 90.0% reduction in lignin and hemicellulose was observed. Saccharification efficiency of RH, WH, BG and CC after treatment with 1.0% Na2S at 130°C for 2.3–3.0 h was 79.40, 85.93, 87.70, and 88.43%, respectively. WH treated with Na2SO3 showed higher hydrolysis yield (86.34%) as compared to Na2S while other biomass substrates showed 2.0–3.0% less yield with Na2SO3. Resulting sugars were evaluated as substrate for lactic acid production, yielding 26.48, 25.36, 31.73, and 30.31 gL?1 of lactic acid with 76.0, 76.0, 86.0, and 83.0% conversion yield from CC, BG, WH, and RH hydrolyzate, respectively. PMID:24058918

  12. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with other products, including manganese ascorbate, glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine. Research from a couple ... Early evidence suggests that chondroitin, with or without glucosamine hydrochloride, can reduce pain in people with Kashin-Beck ...

  13. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be cautious about taking products that contain glucosamine. Diabetes: Some early research suggested that glucosamine sulfate might raise blood sugar in people with diabetes. However, more recent and more reliable research now ...

  14. Comparative study of sulfite pretreatments for robust enzymatic saccharification of corn cob residue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corn cob residue (CCR) is a kind of waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. The moderated sulphite processes were used to enhance the hydrophily of the material by sulfonation and hydrolysis. The composition, FT-IR spectra, and conductometric titrations of the pretreated materials were measured to characterize variations of the CCR in different sulfite pretreated environments. And the objective of this study is to compare the saccharification rate and yield of the samples caused by these variations. Results It was found that the lignin in the CCR (43.2%) had reduced to 37.8%, 38.0%, 35.9%, and 35.5% after the sulfite pretreatment in neutral, acidic, alkaline, and ethanol environments, respectively. The sulfite pretreatments enhanced the glucose yield of the CCR. Moreover, the ethanol sulfite sample had the highest glucose yield (81.2%, based on the cellulose in the treated sample) among the saccharification samples, which was over 10% higher than that of the raw material (70.6%). More sulfonic groups and weak acid groups were produced during the sulfite pretreatments. Meanwhile, the ethanol sulfite treated sample had the highest sulfonic group (0.103 mmol/g) and weak acid groups (1.85 mmol/g) in all sulfite treated samples. In FT-IR spectra, the variation of bands at 1168 and 1190 cm-1 confirmed lignin sulfonation during sulfite pretreatment. The disappearance of the band at 1458 cm-1 implied the methoxyl on lignin had been removed during the sulfite pretreatments. Conclusions It can be concluded that the lignin in the CCR can be degraded and sulfonated during the sulfite pretreatments. The pretreatments improve the hydrophility of the samples because of the increase in sulfonic group and weak acid groups, which enhances the glucose yield of the material. The ethanol sulfite pretreatment is the best method for lignin removal and with the highest glucose yield. PMID:23206858

  15. Formation of sulfite-like species on Cr 2O 3 after SO 2 chemisorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranea, V. A.; Hernandez, S. N.; Medina, S.; Irurzun, I. M.; Coria, I. D.; Mola, E. E.

    2011-03-01

    The adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) on polycrystalline Cr 2O was experimentally investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The chemisorption of SO 2 on the (0001) surface was also studied using theoretical methods. Different adsorption geometries were explored for SO 2 adsorption on the ?-Cr 2O (0001) surface. Two similar adsorption configurations were found to be the most stable with chemisorption energies of - 3.09 and - 2.79 eV/molecule. In both calculated stable adsorption configurations the appearance of sulfite-like species is predicted on the (0001) surface after adsorption. It is important to emphasize that these results are predicted only within the DFT + U framework. Under these conditions and despite great efforts, no stable sulfate-like geometry was found on this surface. The TPD spectrum exhibit a desorption peak at Tp ? 870 °C with a heating rate of ? ? 0.12 °C/s. The desorption energy calculated by the analysis given by Redhead and Adams, assuming the rate of desorption is given by a Polanyi-Wigner equation, is ? - 3.12 eV. This value is in good agreement with the predicted one using DFT + U calculations. To our knowledge, this is the first theoretical study of SO 2 adsorption on the Cr 2O (0001) surface.

  16. Comparison of serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein analysis, and genetic restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of rickettsiae: characterization of two new rickettsial strains.

    PubMed Central

    Beati, L; Finidori, J P; Gilot, B; Raoult, D

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, 17 adult Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks were collected in the south of France. Two spotted fever group rickettsiae, Mtu1 and Mtu5, were isolated from the hemolymphs of two of these ticks by the centrifugation shell-vial technique by using HEL cells. These isolates were compared with reference spotted fever group rickettsial serotypes by using three identification methods: microimmunofluorescence serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results obtained by all these techniques showed that Mtu1 and Mtu5 are each previously undescribed rickettsial serotypes. A comparison of the three methods used to identify the isolates led us to the conclusion that, in large-scale epidemiological studies, the simplest way to identify isolates in ticks is to first use the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis directly on triturated ticks as a screening method to detect interesting rickettsiae, and then attempt to isolate rickettsiae from ticks for identification by microimmunofluorescence and SDS-PAGE, both of which are time-consuming and expensive to carry out. Images PMID:1354221

  17. Polyethyleneoxide/sodium dodecyl sulfate as hole-blocking/electron-transporting layer for high-performance blue polymer light-emitting diode with oxygen- and moisture-stable aluminum cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiun-Shian; Lu, Hsin-Hung; Hung, Wei-Chun; Lin, Guan-Hong; Chen, Show-An

    2010-07-01

    We present the case of the blend of polyethyleneoxide (PEO) with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a hole-blocking (HB)/electron-transporting (ET) layer to allow the use of oxygen- and moisture-stable aluminum (Al) as the cathode for achieving high-performance polymer light-emitting diode. With inserting the PEO-SDS layer (at the weight ratio 1:1.25), the blue-emitting device with poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene) exhibits the maximum brightness 12 300 cd/m2 and current efficiency 2.8 cd/A, much higher than the device without this layer (0.3 cd/m2 and 0.005 cd/A) and that using CsF/Al as the cathode (5835 cd/m2 and 1.06 cd/A). This HB-ET layer can also improve the performances of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]-based device with Al as the cathode.

  18. Reply to "Mechanism of the Oscillatory Bromate Oxidation of Sulfite and Ferrocyanide in a

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Irving R.

    Reply to "Mechanism of the Oscillatory Bromate Oxidation of Sulfite and Ferrocyanide in a CSTR of the bromite-sulfite-ferrocyanide (BSF) system is better described by a mechanism that includes the component reaction of bromate and sulfur(IV)2 than by the mechanism proposed by Edblom et al.3 (ELOKE), which focuses

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination of Total Sulfite in White Wine Samples Using Crude Extracts from Flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flora Barbosa Soares, Márlon Herbert; Ramos, Luiz Antonio; Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro, Éder

    2002-09-01

    A didactic spectrophotometric method for determining the sulfite content in white wine samples is proposed. It is based upon a discoloring reaction between flower anthocyanins and the sulfite in basic media. Students' results obtained from iodometric data agreed well with results obtained by the proposed procedure. The use of natural dyes attracted students' interest, enhancing the learning process.

  20. Protein Radical Formation Resulting from Eosinophil Peroxidase-catalyzed Oxidation of Sulfite.

    PubMed

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Ramirez, Dario C; Summers, Fiona A; Kadiiska, Maria B; Mason, Ronald P

    2010-07-30

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is an abundant heme protein in eosinophils that catalyzes the formation of cytotoxic oxidants implicated in asthma, allergic inflammatory disorders, and cancer. It is known that some proteins with peroxidase activity (horseradish peroxidase and prostaglandin hydroperoxidase) can catalyze oxidation of bisulfite (hydrated sulfur dioxide), leading to the formation of sulfur trioxide anion radical ((.)SO(3)(-)). This free radical further reacts with oxygen to form peroxymonosulfate anion radical ((-)O(3)SOO(.)) and the very reactive sulfate anion radical (SO(4)()), which is nearly as strong an oxidant as the hydroxyl radical. However, the ability of EPO to generate reactive sulfur radicals has not yet been reported. Here we demonstrate that eosinophil peroxidase/H(2)O(2) is able to oxidize bisulfite, ultimately forming the sulfate anion radical (SO(4)()), and that these reactive intermediates can oxidize target proteins to protein radicals, thereby initiating protein oxidation. We used immuno-spin trapping and confocal microscopy to study protein oxidation by EPO/H(2)O(2) in the presence of bisulfite in a pure enzymatic system and in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells, maturated to eosinophils. Polyclonal antiserum raised against the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) detected the presence of DMPO covalently attached to the proteins resulting from the DMPO trapping of protein free radicals. We found that sulfite oxidation mediated by EPO/H(2)O(2) induced the formation of radical-derived DMPO spin-trapped human serum albumin and, to a lesser extent, of DMPO-EPO. These studies suggest that EPO-dependent oxidative damage may play a role in tissue injury in bisulfite-exacerbated eosinophilic inflammatory disorders. PMID:20501663

  1. Protein insolubilization and thiol oxidation in sulfite-treated wheat gluten films during aging at various temperatures and relative humidities.

    PubMed

    Morel, M H; Bonicel, J; Micard, V; Guilbert, S

    2000-02-01

    Gluten films were prepared by casting an acidic and ethanolic solution of gluten previously treated with sodium sulfite. The effects of sulfitolysis on proteins were investigated by SE-HPLC and thiol/disulfide content measurements. During sulfitolysis, insoluble glutenin macropolymer was converted into its constitutive subunits. About 10% of gluten disulfide bonds were cleaved, of which three-fourths originated from interchain disulfide bonds. Oxidation of thiol groups released during sulfitolysis was followed for various temperatures (T) and relative humidities. Oxidation was shown to be a second-order rate process occurring below the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and related to T - T(g). Thiol oxidation ensured the formation of interchain bonds between specific classes of gluten proteins according to an ordered process. Intrachain bonds were also formed and through thiol/disulfide-exchange reactions were finally converted to interchain bonds. Thus, fully oxidized gluten films had more insoluble glutenin macropolymers than native gluten. PMID:10691614

  2. A new diketopyrrolopyrrole-based probe for sensitive and selective detection of sulfite in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Cui, Yu; Li, Yexin; Zheng, Luyi; Xie, Lijun; Ning, Rui; Liu, Zheng; Lu, Junling; Zhang, Gege; Liu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Guangyou

    2015-02-01

    A new probe was synthesized by incorporating an ?,? -unsaturated ketone to a diketopyrrolopyrrole fluorophore. The probe had exhibited a selective and sensitive response to the sulfite against other thirteen anions and biothiols (Cys, Hcy and GSH), through the nucleophilic addition of sulfite to the alkene of probe with the detection limit of 0.1 ?M in HEPES (10 mM, pH 7.4) THF/H2O (1:1, v/v). Meanwhile, it could be easily observed that the probe for sulfite changed from pink to colorless by the naked eye, and from pink to blue under UV lamp after the sulfite was added for 20 min. The NMR and Mass spectral analysis demonstrated the expected addition of sulfite to the Cdbnd C bonds.

  3. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  4. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  5. Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers

    SciTech Connect

    Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-04-01

    Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations, and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to environmental perturbations.

  6. Molecular Analysis of the Metabolic Rates of Discrete Subsurface Populations of Sulfate Reducers?

    PubMed Central

    Miletto, M.; Williams, K. H.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Lovley, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that the transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate-reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to environmental perturbations. PMID:21764959

  7. Pattern Formation in the Bromate-Sulfite-Ferrocyanide Reaction.

    PubMed

    Molnár, István; Szalai, István

    2015-10-01

    Mixed Landolt-type pH oscillators are versatile systems that allow the experimental study of a wide range of nonlinear phenomena including multistability, oscillations, and spatiotemporal patterns. We report on the dynamics of the bromate-sulfite-ferrocyanide reaction operated in a open one-side-fed reactor, where spatial bistability, spatiotemporal oscillations, front and Turing-type patterns have been observed. The role of different experimental parameters, like the input flow concentrations of the hydrogen and the ferrocyanide ions, the temperature and the thickness of the gel medium (which affects the rate of the diffusive feed) have been investigated. We point out that all these parameters can be efficiently used to control the spatiotemporal dynamics. We show that the increase of ionic strength stabilizes the uniform states at the expense of the patterned one. Some general aspects of the spatiotemporal dynamics of mixed Landolt type systems, which are based on the oxidation of sulfite ions by strong oxidants, are emphasized. PMID:26371068

  8. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  9. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  10. Does a glycine sodium nitrite crystal exist?

    E-print Network

    Dhavskar, Kiran T

    2015-01-01

    The glycine sodium nitrite crystal reported by Khandpekar and Pati in the paper entitled, Synthesis and characterisation of glycine sodium nitrite crystals having non linear optical behaviour, Opt Commun 285, 2012 288-293 is actually gamma-glycine. In addition, we show that glycine barium ammonium nitrate, glycine sodium zinc sulfate, glycine barium calcium nitrate, glycine acetamide and glycine dimer are dubious crystals.

  11. Retinoic acid-dependent stimulation of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)-initiated autoxidation of linoleic acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles: a novel prooxidant effect of retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Freyaldenhoven, M A; Lehman, P A; Franz, T J; Lloyd, R V; Samokyszyn, V M

    1998-02-01

    (E)-Retinoic acid (RA) was shown to stimulate the rate of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH)-initiated autoxidation of linoleic acid (18:2) in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. RA-dependent stimulation of 18:2 autoxidation was characterized by enhanced rates of dioxygen uptake which were linear with retinoid concentration. In contrast, 5,6-epoxy-RA, a major oxidation product of RA, failed to affect the rate of dioxygen consumption at all concentrations tested. RA was also shown to stimulate peroxyl radical-dependent oxidation of styrene to the corresponding oxirane when styrene was included in the micellar system as a molecular probe. Furthermore, unequivocal evidence of RA-dependent stimulation of 18:2 autoxidation was obtained by relative quantitation of 13-hydroxy-(9Z, 11E)-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) plus 9-hydroxy-(10E,12Z)-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) production. In addition, enhanced carbon-centered radical formation was demonstrated in the presence of RA by EPR spectroscopy using alpha-(4-pyridyl 1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN) as a spin trap. Analysis and quantitation of RA oxidation products indicated that RA was oxidized to one primary product, 5,6-epoxy-RA, which was identified on the basis of cochromatography with synthetic standard (in a reverse-phase HPLC system), electronic absorption spectroscopy, and positive chemical ionization mass spectrometry of the corresponding methyl ester. Other minor oxidation products were also detected but not characterized. In contrast, reaction mixtures devoid of 18:2 failed to demonstrate significant retinoid oxidation. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the prooxidant effects of RA in this system. PMID:9511901

  12. Changes in the Expression and Distribution of Claudins, Increased Epithelial Apoptosis, and a Mannan-Binding Lectin-Associated Immune Response Lead to Barrier Dysfunction in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Rat Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bosi; Zhou, Shuping; Lu, Youke; Liu, Jiong; Jin, Xinxin; Wan, Haijun; Wang, Fangyu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims This animal study aimed to define the underlying cellular mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction. Methods Rats were fed 4% with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce experimental colitis. We analyzed the sugars in 24-hour urine output by high pressure liquid chromatography. The expression of claudins, mannan-binding lectin (MBL), and MBL-associated serine proteases 2 (MASP-2) were detected in the colonic mucosa by immunohistochemistry; and apoptotic cells in the colonic epithelium were detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling method assay. Results The lactulose and sucralose excretion levels in the urine of rats with DSS-induced colitis were significantly higher than those in the control rats. Mannitol excretion was lower and lactulose/mannitol ratios and sucralose/mannitol ratios were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (p<0.05). Compared with the controls, the expression of sealing claudins (claudin 3, claudin 5, and claudin 8) was significantly decreased, but that of claudin 1 was increased. The expression of pore-forming claudin 2 was upregulated and claudin 7 was downregulated in DSS-induced colitis. The epithelial apoptotic ratio was 2.8%±1.2% in controls and was significantly increased to 7.2%±1.2% in DSS-induced colitis. The expression of MBL and MASP-2 in the intestinal mucosa showed intense staining in controls, whereas there was weak staining in the rats with colitis. Conclusions There was increased intestinal permeability in DSS-induced colitis. Changes in the expression and distribution of claudins, increased epithelial apoptosis, and the MASP-2-induced immune response impaired the intestinal epithelium and contributed to high intestinal permeability. PMID:25717051

  13. Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

    1993-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na{sup +} + H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} {r_reversible} NaZnPO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O or 2 ZnO(s) + H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(aq) {r_reversible} Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO{sub 4} possesses an orthorhombic unit cell having lattice parameters a = 8.710 {+-} 0.013, b = 15.175 {+-} 0.010, and c = 8.027 {+-} 0.004 {angstrom}. The thermodynamic equilibria for these reactions were defined in the system ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. Based on observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S{degrees}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{degrees}) for NaZnPO{sub 4} were calculated to be 169.0 J/mol-K and {minus}1510.6 kJ/mol, respectively; similar values for Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4} (tarbuttite) were 235.9 J/mol-K and {minus}1604.6 kJ/mol. Additions of sodium sulfite and sulfate did not alter the above reactions.

  14. Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, alkalitolerant, sulfite-reducing bacterium isolated from a district heating plant.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Bank; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2006-12-01

    A novel alkalitolerant, anaerobic bacterium, designated strain sk.kt5(T), was isolated from a metal coupon retrieved from a corrosion-monitoring reactor of a Danish district heating plant (Skanderborg, Jutland). The cells of strain sk.kt5(T) were motile, rod-shaped (0.4-0.6 x 2.5-9.6 microm), stained Gram-positive and formed endospores. Strain sk.kt5(T) grew at pH 7.6-10.5 (with optimum growth at pH 8.0-9.5), at temperatures in the range 23-44 degrees C (with optimum growth at 35-37 degrees C), at NaCl concentrations in the range 0-5 % (w/v) (with optimum growth at 0-0.5 %) and required yeast extract for growth. Only a limited number of substrates were utilized as electron donors, including betaine, formate, lactate, methanol, choline and pyruvate. Elemental sulfur, sulfite, thiosulfate, nitrate and nitrite, but not sulfate or Fe(III) citrate, were used as electron acceptors. The G+C content of the DNA was 41.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data for the dsrAB genes [encoding the major subunits of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] and the 16S rRNA gene placed strain sk.kt5(T) within a novel lineage in the class Clostridia of the phylum Firmicutes. Taken together, the physiological and genotypic data suggest that strain sk.kt5(T) represents a novel species within a novel genus, for which the name Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfitibacter alkalitolerans is sk.kt5(T) (=JCM 12761(T)=DSM 16504(T)). PMID:17158984

  15. Studies of Sulfate Utilization of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Brunold, Christian; Schiff, Jerome A.

    1976-01-01

    Crude extracts of wild-type Euglena grown in the light (WTL) or in the dark (WTD) and a mutant lacking detectable plastid DNA (W3BUL) contain adenosine 5?-phosphosulfate (APS) sulfotransferase. Isotope dilution experiments indicate that adenosine 3?-phosphate 5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS) sulfotransferase is absent. Thiosulfonate reductase, requiring addition of NADH or NADPH but not ferredoxin, and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase, the two other enzymes of the bound intermediate pathway of assimilatory sulfate reduction, are also present. Increasing levels of all three enzymes were found in WTL, WTD, and W3BUL during logarithmic growth but the various activities were similar at comparable stages of growth in all three types of cell. These results show that the three enzymes are not coded in the chloroplast DNA and are not restricted to Euglena cells having fully developed chloroplasts. Consistent with this, they do not increase during light-induced chloroplast development in resting cells and are found to be enriched in the mitochondrial fraction. Further resolution of this fraction on sucrose gradients shows that the APS sulfotransferase is associated with both the microbody (glyoxysomal) and mitochondrial fractions while the thiosulfonate reductase and O-acetyl-l-serine sulfhydrylase are associated only with the mitochondria. Thus the three known enzymes of the bound pathway of assimilatory sulfate reduction are present in Euglena mitochondria. Although the activity of the entire bound pathway (APS to cysteine) is low in extracts, addition of dithiothreitol which releases free sulfite from the product of the APS sulfotransferase reaction, causes an increase in reduction activity indicating that a sulfite reductase is also present. It remains to be shown which reducing system is the significant one in vivo in Euglena. PMID:16659497

  16. Effect of exchange of the cysteine molybdenum ligand with selenocysteine on the structure and function of the active site in human sulfite oxidase.

    PubMed

    Reschke, Stefan; Niks, Dimitri; Wilson, Heather; Sigfridsson, Kajsa G V; Haumann, Michael; Rajagopalan, K V; Hille, Russ; Leimkühler, Silke

    2013-11-19

    Sulfite oxidase (SO) is an essential molybdoenzyme for humans, catalyzing the final step in the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids and lipids, which is the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. The catalytic site of SO consists of a molybdenum ion bound to the dithiolene sulfurs of one molybdopterin (MPT) molecule, carrying two oxygen ligands, and is further coordinated by the thiol sulfur of a conserved cysteine residue. We have exchanged four non-active site cysteines in the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) binding domain of human SO (SOMD) with serine using site-directed mutagenesis. This facilitated the specific replacement of the active site Cys207 with selenocysteine during protein expression in Escherichia coli. The sulfite oxidizing activity (kcat/KM) of SeSOMD4Ser was increased at least 1.5-fold, and the pH optimum was shifted to a more acidic value compared to those of SOMD4Ser and SOMD4Cys(wt). X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed a Mo(VI)-Se bond length of 2.51 Å, likely caused by the specific binding of Sec207 to the molybdenum, and otherwise rather similar square-pyramidal S/Se(Cys)O2Mo(VI)S2(MPT) site structures in the three constructs. The low-pH form of the Mo(V) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal of SeSOMD4Ser was altered compared to those of SOMD4Ser and SOMD4Cys(wt), with g1 in particular shifted to a lower magnetic field, due to the Se ligation at the molybdenum. In contrast, the Mo(V) EPR signal of the high-pH form was unchanged. The substantially stronger effect of substituting selenocysteine for cysteine at low pH as compared to high pH is most likely due to the decreased covalency of the Mo-Se bond. PMID:24147957

  17. Characterization of chloride-depleted human sulfite oxidase by EPR spectroscopy: experimental evidence for the role of anions in product release

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakshe, Asha; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Nordstrom, Anna R.; Meyers, Kimberly T.; Emesh, Safia; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Enemark, John H.

    2010-01-01

    The Mo(V) state of the molybdoenzyme sulfite oxidase (SO) is paramagnetic and can be studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Vertebrate SO at pH < 7 and pH > 9 exhibits characteristic EPR spectra that correspond to two structurally different forms of the Mo(V) active center referred to as the low-pH (lpH) and high-pH (hpH) forms, respectively. Both EPR forms have an exchangeable equatorial OH ligand, but its orientation in the two forms is different. It has been hypothesized that the formation of the lpH species is dependent upon the presence of chloride. In this work we have prepared and purified samples of wild type and various mutants of human SO that are depleted in chloride. These samples do not exhibit the typical lpH EPR spectrum at low pH, but rather show spectra that are characteristic of the blocked species that contains an exchangeable equatorial sulfate ligand. Addition of chloride to these samples results in the disappearance of the blocked species and the formation of the lpH species. Similarly, if chloride is added before sulfite, the lpH species is formed instead of the blocked one. Qualitatively similar results were observed for samples of sulfite oxidizing enzymes from other organisms that were previously reported to form a blocked species at low pH. However, the depletion of chloride has no effect upon the formation of the hpH species. PMID:20491442

  18. Batch slurry photocatalytic reactors for the generation of hydrogen from sulfide and sulfite waste streams under solar irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Priya, R.; Kanmani, S.

    2009-10-15

    In this study, two solar slurry photocatalytic reactors i.e., batch reactor (BR) and batch recycle reactor with continuous supply of inert gas (BRRwCG) were developed for comparing their performance. The performance of the photocatalytic reactors were evaluated based on the generation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from water containing sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) and sodium sulfite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) ions. The photoreactor of capacity 300 mL was developed with UV-vis transparent walls. The catalytic powders ((CdS/ZnS)/Ag{sub 2}S + (RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2})) were kept suspended by means of magnetic stirrer in the BR and gas bubbling and recycling of the suspension in the BRRwCG. The rate constant was found to be 120.86 (einstein{sup -1}) for the BRRwCG whereas, for the BR it was found to be only 10.92 (einstein{sup -1}). The higher rate constant was due to the fast desorption of products and suppression of e{sup -}/h{sup +} recombination. (author)

  19. odium dodecyl sulfate polyacry-lamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    prior to entering the resolving gel. Second was the use of the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS's partner brand, Calbiochem. Solutions must be carefully and safely pre- pared, dated, and chemical lot

  20. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-08-02

    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid.

  1. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances...-butanol. Following sulfation, the reaction mixture is washed with water and neutralized with aqueous sodium or potassium hydroxide. Prior to sulfation, the butyl oleate reaction mixture meets the...

  2. Sulfite determination by a biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate: very simple and economical method.

    PubMed

    Teke, Mustafa; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal; Dinçkaya, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    Of all the food additives for which the FDA has received adverse reaction reports, the ones that most closely resemble true allergens are sulfur-based preservatives. Sulfites are used primarily as antioxidants to prevent or reduce discoloration of light-colored fruits and vegetables, such as dried apples and potatoes, and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in fermented foods such as wine. This work aims to prepare an electrochemical biosensor based on bay leaf tissue homogenate that contains polyphenol oxidase enzyme abundantly for sulfite detection in foods. The principle of the biosensor is based on the inhibition effect of sulfites on polyphenol oxidase in the bioactive layer. Optimum conditions for the biosensor, such as temperature and pH, were investigated. Some stability parameters of the biosensor were also identified. The biosensor showed a linear calibration graph in the range of 25-100 microM sulfite. The biosensor presents a very simple, economical, reliable, and feasible method for sulfite detection in foods. PMID:19418312

  3. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  4. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Mixed Sodium Dodecyl

    E-print Network

    Bales, Barney

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Studies of Mixed Sodium Dodecyl micelles comprising the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the sugar- based nonionic"restrain"theSANSanalysis. Of particular interest are binary surfactant mixtures of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

  5. Carbon Dioxide Fixation and Sulfate Sequestration by a Supramolecular Trigonal Bipyramid.

    PubMed

    Browne, Colm; Ramsay, William J; Ronson, Tanya K; Medley-Hallam, John; Nitschke, Jonathan R

    2015-09-14

    The subcomponent self-assembly of a bent dialdehyde ligand and different cationic and anionic templates led to the formation of two new metallosupramolecular architectures: a Fe(II) 4 L6 molecular rectangle was isolated following reaction of the ligand with iron(II) tetrafluoroborate, and a M5 L6 trigonal bipyramidal structure was constructed from either zinc(II) tetrafluoroborate or cadmium(II) trifluoromethanesulfonate. The spatially constrained arrangement of the three equatorial metal ions in the M5 L6 structures was found to induce small-molecule transformations. Atmospheric carbon dioxide was fixed as carbonate and bound to the equatorial metal centers in both the Zn5 L6 and Cd5 L6 assemblies, and sulfur dioxide was hydrated and bound as the sulfite dianion in the Zn5 L6 structure. Subsequent in situ oxidation of the sulfite dianion resulted in a sulfate dianion bound within the supramolecular pocket. PMID:26235039

  6. Sulfite analysis of fruits and vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet spectrophotometric detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free and total sulfite were analyzed in acidified vegetable products, instant mashed potatoes and dried apples. Sulfite was separated by HPLC and quantified with a UV/VIS detector. Good resolution from components of food samples was achieved by varying the acid concentration of the eluant solution...

  7. BUFFER ADDITIVES FOR LIME/LIMESTONE SLURRY SCRUBBING: SULFITE OXIDATION WITH ENHANCED OXYGEN ABSORPTION CATALYZED BY TRANSITION METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of sulfite oxidation, involving the measurement of the rate of enhanced oxygen absorption across an unbroken interface into solution containing sulfite (2-100 mM) and catalyst (0.01-100 mM) at pH 4-6 and 50 C. Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Cr ions were po...

  8. Deficiency in frataxin homologue YFH1 in the yeast Pichia guilliermondii leads to missregulation of iron acquisition and riboflavin biosynthesis and affects sulfate assimilation.

    PubMed

    Pynyaha, Yuriy V; Boretsky, Yuriy R; Fedorovych, Daria V; Fayura, Lubov R; Levkiv, Andriy I; Ubiyvovk, Vira M; Protchenko, Olha V; Philpott, Caroline C; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2009-12-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of yeast species that overproduce riboflavin (vitamin B2) in response to iron deprivation. P. guilliermondii YFH1 gene coding for frataxin homologue, eukaryotic mitochondrial protein involved in iron trafficking and storage, was identified and deleted. Constructed P. guilliermondii ?yfh1 mutant grew very poorly in a sucrose-containing synthetic medium supplemented with sulfate or sulfite as a sole sulfur source. Addition of sodium sulfide, glutathione, cysteine, methionine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine partially restored growth rate of the mutant suggesting that it is impaired in sulfate assimilation. Cellular iron content in ?yfh1 mutant was ~3-3.5 times higher as compared to the parental strain. It produced 50-70 times more riboflavin in iron sufficient synthetic media relative to the parental wildtype strain. Biomass yield of the mutant in the synthetic glutathione containing medium supplemented with glycerol as a sole carbon source was 1.4- and 2.6-fold increased as compared to sucrose and succinate containing media, respectively. Oxygen uptake of the ?yfh1 mutant on sucrose, glycerol or succinate, when compared to the parental strain, was decreased 5.5-, 1.7- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Substitution of sucrose or glycerol in the synthetic iron sufficient medium with succinate completely abolished riboflavin overproduction by the mutants. Deletion of the YFH1 gene caused hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and exogenously added riboflavin and led to alterations in superoxide dismutase activities. Thus, deletion of the gene coding for yeast frataxin homologue has pleiotropic effect on metabolism in P. guilliermondii. PMID:19649569

  9. Revisiting Modes of energy generation in sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Joachimiak, Marcin; Chakraborty, Romy; Zhou, Aifen; Fortney, Julian; Geller, Jil; Wall, Judy; Zhou, Jizhong; Arkin, Adam; Hazen, Terry; Keasling, Jay; Chhabra, Swapnil

    2010-05-17

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) play an important role in global sulfur and carbon cycling through their ability to completely mineralize organic matter while respiring sulfate to hydrogen sulfide. They are ubiquitous in anaerobic environments and have the ability to reduce toxic metals like Cr(VI) and U(VI). While SRB have been studied for over three decades, bioenergetic modes of this group of microbes are poorly understood. Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough (DvH) has served as a model SRB over the last decade with the accumulation of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic data under a wide variety of stressors. To further investigate the three hypothesized modes of energy generation in this anaerobe we conducted a systematic study involving multiple electron donor and acceptor combinations for growth. DvH was grown at 37oC in a defined medium with (a) lactate + thiosulfate, (b) lactate + sulfite (c) lactate + sulfate, (d) pyruvate + sulfate, (e) H2 + acetate + sulfate, (f) formate + acetate + sulfate, g) formate + sulfate and (h) pyruvate fermentation. Cells were harvested at mid-log phase of growth for all conditions for transcriptomics, when the optical density at 600nm was in the range 0.42-0.5. Initial results indicate that cells grown on lactate do not appear to significantly differentiate their gene expression profiles when presented with different electron acceptors. These profiles however differ significantly from those observed during growth with other electron donors such as H2 and formate, as well as during fermentative growth. Together the gene expression changes in the presence of different electron donors provide insights into the ability of DvH to differentially reduce metals such as Cr(VI). Here we present revised modes of energy generation in DvH in light of this new transcriptomic evidence.

  10. Evaporator condensates: continuous bioprocessing of simulated sulfite condensates to produce single cell protein. [Candida utilis

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, W.A.; Wines, B.; Baker, J.A.; Johanson, L.N.; McCarthy, J.L.

    1982-11-01

    The continuous bioprocessing of simulated steam-stripped sulfite pulp mill evaporator condensates using Candida utilis to produce single cell protein has been studied. At 32 degrees C, processing can be conducted at space velocities of up to 0.43 hr/sup -1/ with over 90% removal of acetic acid present at an initial concentration of 2 g/liter. (Refs. 16).

  11. Novel Alkylsulfatases Required for Biodegradation of the Branched Primary Alkyl Sulfate Surfactant 2-Butyloctyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Andrew J.; Hales, Stephen G.; Ur-Rehman, Naheed G. A.; White, Graham F.

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports show that contrary to common perception, branched alkyl sulfate surfactants are readily biodegradable in standard biodegradability tests. We report here the isolation of bacteria capable of biodegrading 2-butyloctyl sulfate and the identification of novel enzymes that initiate the process. Enrichment culturing from activated sewage sludge yielded several strains capable of growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Of these, two were selected for further study and identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AE-A was able to utilize either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 2-butyloctyl sulfate as a carbon and energy source for growth, but strain AE-D utilized only the latter. Depending on growth conditions, strain AE-A produced up to three alkylsulfatases, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography. Growth on either SDS or 2-butyloctyl sulfate or in nutrient broth produced an apparently constitutive, nonspecific primary alkylsulfatase, AP1, weakly active on SDS and on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate produced a second enzyme, AP2, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS, and growth on SDS produced a third enzyme, AP3, active on SDS but not on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. In contrast, strain AE-D, when grown on 2-butyloctyl sulfate (no growth on SDS), produced a single enzyme, DP1, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS. DP1 was not produced in broth cultures. DP1 was induced when residual 2-butyloctyl sulfate was present in the growth medium, but the enzyme disappeared when the substrate was exhausted. Gas chromatographic analysis of products of incubating 2-butyloctyl sulfate with DP1 in gels revealed the formation of 2-butyloctanol, showing the enzyme to be a true sulfatase. In contrast, Pseudomonas sp. strain C12B, well known for its ability to degrade linear SDS, was unable to grow on 2-butyloctyl sulfate, and its alkylsulfatases responsible for initiating the degradation of SDS by releasing the parent alcohol exhibited no hydrolytic activity on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. DP1 and the analogous AP2 are thus new alkylsulfatase enzymes with novel specificity toward 2-butyloctyl sulfate. PMID:11772605

  12. Effect of feeding strategy and COD/sulfate ratio on the removal of sulfate in an AnSBBR with recirculation of the liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Archilha, Natália C; Canto, Catarina S A; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Rodrigues, José A D; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of the interaction between feeding strategy and COD/sulfate ratio on the removal efficiency of sulfate and organic matter from a synthetic wastewater. An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with recirculation of the liquid phase and containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam (AnSBBR) was used. The AnSBBR with a total volume of 3.7 L, treated 2.0 L synthetic wastewater in 8-h cycles at 30+/-1 degrees C and was inoculated with anaerobic biomass from a UASB. Two feeding strategies were assessed: (a) batch and (b) batch followed by fed-batch. In strategy (a) the reactor was fed in 10 min with 2L wastewater containing sulfate and carbon sources. In strategy (b) 1.2 L wastewater (containing only the sulfate source) was fed during the first 10 min of the cycle and the remaining 0.8L (containing only the carbon source) in 240 min. The COD/sulfate ratios assessed were 1 and 3. Based on these values and on the concentrations of organic matter (0.5-11.25 gCOD/L) and sulfate (0.5 and 2.5 gSO(4)(2-)/L), the sulfate and organic matter loading rates applied equaled 1.5 and 4.5 gSO(4)(2-)/Ld for sulfate and 1.5, 4.5 and 13.5 gCOD/Ld for organic matter. After stabilization of the system time profiles were run of monitored parameters (COD, sulfate, sulfide and sulfite). In general, the reactor showed to be robust for use in the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters containing sulfate. Gradual feeding (strategy b) of the carbon source favored sulfate reduction, resulting in sulfate removal efficiencies of 84-98% and organic matter removal efficiencies of 48-95%. The best results were observed under COD/sulfate ratio equal to 1 (loading rates of 1.5 and 4.5 gSO(4)(2-)/Ld for sulfate, and 1.5 and 4.5 gCOD/Ld for organic matter). When COD/sulfate ratio was 3 (loading rates of 1.5 and 4.5 gSO(4)(2-)/Ld for sulfate, and 4.5 and 13.5 gCOD/Ld for organic matter) the effect of feed mode became less significant. These results show that the strategy batch followed by fed-batch is more advantageous for COD/sulfate ratios near the stoichiometric value (0.67) and higher organic matter and sulfate concentrations. PMID:20413213

  13. Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of sulfite in food.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Katherine S; Shah, Romina; MacMahon, Shaun; de Jager, Lowri S

    2015-06-01

    Sulfites are widely used food preservatives that can cause severe reactions in sensitive individuals. As a result, the U.S. FDA requires that sulfites be listed on the label of any food product containing >10 mg/kg (ppm) sulfite (measured as sulfur dioxide). Currently, the optimized Monier-Williams (MW) method (AOAC Official Method 990.28) is the most common approach for determining sulfite concentrations in food samples. However, this method is time-consuming and lacks specificity in certain matrices. An improved rapid, sensitive, and selective method has been developed using electrospray ionization (ESI) high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of sulfite in various food matrices. A total of 12 different types of foods were evaluated. These included dried fruits and vegetables, frozen seafood, sweeteners, and juices. The matrix is extracted with a buffered formaldehyde solution, converting free and reversibly bound sulfite to the stable formaldehyde adduct, hydroxymethylsulfonate (HMS). Extracts are prepared for injection using a C18 SPE cartridge to remove any lipophilic compounds. HMS is then separated from other matrix components using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method was validated at 5 concentrations in 12 food matrices. Accuracy data showed spiked recoveries ranging from 84 to 115% in representative foods. Six commercially available sulfited products were analyzed using the LC-MS/MS method, as well as the MW method, to determine if differences exist. PMID:25695590

  14. Sodium Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  15. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot solubility determinations have suggested that in some cases the solubility increases with increasing salt concentrations.

  16. The octahaem MccA is a haem c-copper sulfite reductase.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Bianca; Kern, Melanie; La Pietra, Luigi; Simon, Jörg; Einsle, Oliver

    2015-04-30

    The six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide is the pivot point of the biogeochemical cycle of the element sulfur. The octahaem cytochrome c MccA (also known as SirA) catalyses this reaction for dissimilatory sulfite utilization by various bacteria. It is distinct from known sulfite reductases because it has a substantially higher catalytic activity and a relatively low reactivity towards nitrite. The mechanistic reasons for the increased efficiency of MccA remain to be elucidated. Here we show that anoxically purified MccA exhibited a 2- to 5.5-fold higher specific sulfite reductase activity than the enzyme isolated under oxic conditions. We determined the three-dimensional structure of MccA to 2.2 Å resolution by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion. We find a homotrimer with an unprecedented fold and haem arrangement, as well as a haem bound to a CX15CH motif. The heterobimetallic active-site haem 2 has a Cu(I) ion juxtaposed to a haem c at a Fe-Cu distance of 4.4 Å. While the combination of metals is reminiscent of respiratory haem-copper oxidases, the oxidation-labile Cu(I) centre of MccA did not seem to undergo a redox transition during catalysis. Intact MccA tightly bound SO2 at haem 2, a dehydration product of the substrate sulfite that was partially turned over due to photoreduction by X-ray irradiation, yielding the reaction intermediate SO. Our data show the biometal copper in a new context and function and provide a chemical rationale for the comparatively high catalytic activity of MccA. PMID:25642962

  17. Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Seneff, Stephanie

    Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease Stephanie Seneff Wise Tradi0ons Workshop, London." -- Orville Wright #12;Outline · Introduc0on · Cholesterol sulfate · Blood clots #12;· Cholesterol sulfate supplies

  18. Siroheme: A New Prosthetic Group Participating in Six-Electron Reduction Reactions Catalyzed by Both Sulfite and Nitrite Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Matthew J.; Siegel, Lewis M.; Tove, Shirley R.; Kamin, Henry

    1974-01-01

    Ferredoxin-nitrite reductase (EC 1.7.7.1) of spinach, an enzyme that catalyzes the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia, contains siroheme, the new type of prosthetic group recently found in several sulfite reductases (both assimilatory and dissimilatory) that can catalyze the reduction of sulfite to sulfide, also a six-electron reduction. The prosthetic group of sulfite reductase had previously been shown to be an iron-tetrahydroporphyrin of the isobacteriochlorin type (adjacent pyrrole rings reduced) with eight carboxylate side chains. This finding suggests that both types of “multi-electron” reduction processes may share common mechanistic features. PMID:4595566

  19. Effects of mutating aromatic surface residues of the heme domain of human sulfite oxidase on its heme midpoint potential, intramolecular electron transfer, and steady-state kinetics.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amanda C; Cornelison, Matthew J; Meyers, Kimberly T; Rajapakshe, Asha; Berry, Robert E; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H

    2013-03-01

    Human sulfite oxidase (hSO), an essential molybdoheme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate. The proposed catalytic cycle includes two, one-electron intramolecular electron transfers (IET) between the molybdenum (Mo) and the heme domains. Rapid IET rates are ascribed to conformational changes that bring the two domains into close proximity to one another. Previous studies of hSO have focused on the roles of conserved residues near the Mo active site and on the tether that links the two domains. Here four aromatic surface residues on the heme domain (phenylalanine 57 (F57), phenylalanine 79 (F79), tyrosine 83 (Y83), and histidine 90 (H90)) have been mutated, and their involvement in IET rates, the heme midpoint potential, and the catalytic activity of hSO have been investigated using laser flash photolysis, spectroelectrochemistry, and steady-state kinetics, respectively. The results indicate that the size and hydrophobicity of F57 play an important role in modulating the heme potential and that F57 also affects the IET rates. The data also suggest that important interactions of H90 with a heme propionate group destabilize the Fe(III) state of the heme. The positive charge on H90 at pH ? 7.0 may decrease the electrostatic interaction between the Mo and heme domains, thereby decreasing the IET rates of wt hSO at low pH. Lastly, mutations of F79 and Y83, which are located on the surface of the heme domain, but not in direct contact with the heme or the propionate groups, have little effect on either IET or the heme potential. PMID:22975842

  20. Sulfate Reduction Remediation of a Metals Plume Through Organic Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.A.

    2003-03-11

    Laboratory testing and a field-scale demonstration for the sulfate reduction remediation of an acidic/metals/sulfate groundwater plume at the Savannah River Site has been conducted. The laboratory testing consisted of the use of anaerobic microcosms to test the viability of three organic substrates to promote microbially mediated sulfate reduction. Based upon the laboratory testing, soybean oil and sodium lactate were selected for injection during the subsequent field-scale demonstration. The field-scale demonstration is currently ongoing. Approximately 825 gallons (3,123 L) of soybean oil and 225 gallons (852 L) of 60 percent sodium lactate have been injected into an existing well system within the plume. Since the injections, sulfate concentrations in the injection zone have significantly decreased, sulfate-reducing bacteria concentrations have significantly increased, the pH has increased, the Eh has decreased, and the concentrations of many metals have decreased. Microbially mediated sulfate reduction has been successfully promoted for the remediation of the acidic/metals/sulfate plume by the injection of soybean oil and sodium lactate within the plume.

  1. Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium with Unusual Morphology and Pigment Content

    PubMed Central

    Jones, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    A dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacterium was isolated which differed in morphology and pigment content from previously described species. The organism was mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, gram-negative, nonsporulating, long, and slender with one polar flagellum. Whole cells fluoresced red at neutral pH when excited with light at 365 nm owing to the presence of a pink pigment. Desulfoviridin was present. Reduced minus oxidized spectra of whole cells showed peaks in the position of a c-type cytochrome characteristic of Desulfovibrio species and peaks at about 629 and 603 nm. CO difference spectra showed the presence of a CO-binding pigment with a peak at 593 nm. Lactate and pyruvate supported growth in the presence of sulfate but not in its absence. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate served as electron acceptors for growth. Hydrogenase was present. The deoxyribonucleic acid had a buoyant density of 1.722 g/cm3 and a guanosine plus cystosine molar percentage of total bases calculated by two different methods of 61.2 or 63.2. Images PMID:4929856

  2. Anaerobic degradation of halogenated phenols by sulfate-reducing consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Haeggblom, M.M.; Young, L.Y.

    1995-04-01

    Sulfidogenic consortia enriched from an estuarine sediment were maintained on either 2-, 3-, or 4-chlorophenol as the only source of carbon and energy for over 5 years. The enrichment culture on 4-chlorophenol was the most active and this consortium was selected for further characterization. Utilization of chlorophenol resulted in sulfate depletion corresponding to the values expected for complete mineralization to CO{sub 2}. Degradation of 4-chlorophenol was coupled to sulfate reduction, since substrate utilization was dependent on sulfidogenesis and chlorophenol loss did not proceed in the absence of sulfate. Other sulfur oxyanions, sulfite or thiosulfate, also served as electron acceptors for chlorophenol utilization, while carbonate, nitrate, and fumarate did not. The sulfidogenic consortium utilized phenol, 4-bromophenol, and 4-iodophenol in addition to 4-chlorophenol. 4-Fluorophenol, however, did not serve as a substrate. 4-Bromo- and 4-iodophenol were degraded with stoichiometric release of halide, and 4-[{sup 14}C]bromophenol was mineralized, with 90% of the radiolabel recovered as CO{sub 2}.

  3. Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.I.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Li, Y.C.

    1995-12-31

    The overall goal of this study is to assess the technical and economic feasibilities for producing marketable products including fertilizer-grade ammonium sulfate from gypsum produced as part of lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. Millions of tone of FGD-gypsum by-product may be produced in this decade as a result of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In this research, bench-scale experiments were conducted to obtain process data for the production of ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum and to help evaluate technical and economic feasibilities of the process. The FGD-gypsum sample produced from a Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121-FGD process installed on the Abbott power plant in Champaign, EL which was composed of 98.36% gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O) and less than 0.01% calcium sulfite (CaSO) was used. The preliminary results of bench-scale experiments to evaluate the influence of reaction conditions to produce ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum are presented in this paper.

  4. Study of thermal decomposition of magnesium sulfite in a reducing medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kossaya, A.M.; Lazarev, V.I.

    1982-07-01

    This report studied the kinetics of thermal decomposition of magnesium sulfite in reducing media (hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and a mixture of the two), and compared the results with analogous results of decomposition in an inert medium in order to obtain data for calculating the optimal process parameters. The kinetics of magnesium sulfite decomposition was studied by the gravimetric method widely used for studying the kinetics of topochemical reactions. The experiments were conducted in a flow-type reactor, ensuring removal of gaseous reaction products; i.e., this method may be regarded as an integral method in an open system. Results indicated that the sulfur dioxide content in the gas phase decreases slightly with rise of temperature. The yield of elemental sulfur increases somewhat. The amount of hydrogen sulfide remains virtually constant and independent of temperature in the range studied. The by-product (carbon oxysulfide) content does not exceed 5.5%. Data obtained on the kinetics of thermal decomposition of magnesium sulfite can be used for determination of the optimal parameters of regeneration of the absorbent (magnesium oxide) for removal of sulfur dioxide from industrial gases by the magnesite method.

  5. Solution structure of the transmembrane 2 domain of the human melanocortin-4 receptor in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles and the functional implication of the D90N mutant.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Minsup; Kim, Kuglae; Lee, Dongju; Jung, Youngjin; Oh, Daeseok; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Cho, Art E; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Weontae

    2015-06-01

    The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 1 superfamily with seven transmembrane (TM) domains. Among them, the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) subtype has been highlighted recently by genetic studies in obese humans. In particular, in a patient with severe early-onset obesity, a novel heterozygous mutation in the MC4R gene was found in an exchange of Asp to Asn in the 90th amino acid residue located in the TM 2 domain (MC4RD90N). Mutations in the MC4R gene are the most frequent monogenic causes of severe obesity and are described as heterozygous with loss of function. We determine solution structures of the TM 2 domain of MC4R (MC4RTM2) and compared secondary structure of Asp90 mutant (MC4RTM2-D90N) in a micelle environment by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR structure shows that MC4RTM2 forms a long ?-helix with a kink at Gly98. Interestingly, the structure of MC4RTM2-D90N is similar to that of MC4RTM2 based on data from CD and NMR spectrum. However, the thermal stability and homogeneity of MC4RD90N is quite different from those of MC4R. The structure from molecular modeling suggests that Asp90(2.50) plays a key role in allosteric sodium ion binding. Our data suggest that the sodium ion interaction of Asp90(2.50) in the allosteric pocket of MC4R is essential to its function, explaining the loss of function of the MC4RD90N mutant. PMID:25753114

  6. Hygroscopic and phase separation properties of ammonium sulfate/organics/water ternary solutions

    E-print Network

    Zawadowicz, Maria Anna

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are often partially or completely composed of inorganic salts, such as ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and therefore exhibit hygroscopic properties. Many inorganic salts have well-defined ...

  7. Sulfation of Aegle marmelos gum: synthesis, physico-chemical and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Manish; Rana, Vikas; Kumar, Vineet; Singh, Ram S; Kennedy, John F; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2013-02-15

    The present investigation was aimed at optimizing the conditions for preparing sulfated derivative of gum obtained from partially ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos. Elemental analysis, FTIR-ATR and NMR studies confirmed successful sulfation. The ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine exerted maximum influence on the degree of substitution followed by reaction temperature and reaction time. The sulfated derivative showed higher swelling in both acidic and alkaline pH as compared to unmodified gum. It also possessed higher negative zeta potential, higher viscosity, work of shear, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity as compared to both unmodified gum as well as sodium alginate. Sulfated derivative was superior to unmodified gum and sodium alginate in terms of antimicrobial and anticoagulant activity. The sulfated sample appears to be a potential substitute over the unmodified gum sample and sodium alginate for modulating physicochemical properties of food and drug release dosage forms. PMID:23399204

  8. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. )

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  9. [Activity and structure of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community in the sediments of the southern part of Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The rates of sulfate reduction (SR) and the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were studied in the sediments of the Posol'skaya banka elevation in the southern part of Lake Baikal. SR rates varied from 1.2 to 1641 nmol/(dm3 day), with high rates (> 600 nmol/(dm3 day)) observed at both deep-water stations and in subsurface silts. Integral SR rates calculated for the uppermost 50 cm of the sediments were higher for gas-saturated and gas hydrate-bearing sediments than in those with low methane content. Enrichment SRB cultures were obtained in Widdel medium for freshwater SRB. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragments from clone libraries obtained from the enrichments revealed the presence of SRB belonged to Desulfosporosinus genus, with D. lacus as the most closely related member (capable of sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate reduction), as well as members of the order Clostridiales. PMID:25507445

  10. [Activity and structure of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community in the sediments of the southern part of Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Pimenov, N V; Zakharova, E E; Briukhanov, A L; Korneeva, V A; Kuznetsov, B B; Turova, T P; Pogodaeva, T V; Kalmychkov, G V; Zemskaia, T I

    2014-01-01

    The rates of sulfate reduction (SR) and the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were studied in the sediments of the Posol'skaya banka elevation in the southern part of Lake Baikal. SR rates varied from 1.2 to 1641 nmol/(dm3 day), with high rates (> 600 nmol/(dm3 day)) observed at both deep-water stations and in subsurface silts. Integral SR rates calculated for the uppermost 50 cm of the sediments were higher for gas-saturated and gas hydrate-bearing sediments than in those with low methane content. Enrichment SRB cultures were obtained in Widdel medium for freshwater SRB. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragments from clone libraries obtained from the enrichments revealed the presence of SRB belonged to Desulfosporosinus genus, with D. lacus as the most closely related member (capable of sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate reduction), as well as members of the order Clostridiales. PMID:25423722

  11. Dynamic fluorescence quenching of quinine sulfate dication by chloride ion in ionic and neutral micellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Sunita; Varma Y, Tej Varma; Pant, Debi D.

    2014-04-01

    Fluorescence quenching of Quinine sulfate dication (QSD) by chloride-ion (Cl-) in micellar environments of anionic, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and neutral, triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous phase has been investigated by time-resolved and steady- state fluorescence measurements. The quenching follows linear Stern-Volmer relation in micellar solutions and is dynamic in nature.

  12. Identification of key components in the energy metabolism of the hyperthermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus by transcriptome analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, William P.; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Steen, Ida H.

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation via the pathway of dissimilatory sulfate reduction is present in a diverse group of prokaryotes, but is most comprehensively studied in Deltaproteobacteria. In this study, whole-genome microarray analyses were used to provide a model of the energy metabolism of the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, based on comparative analysis of litoautotrophic growth with H2/CO2 and thiosulfate, and heterotrophic growth on lactate with sulfate or thiosulfate. Only 72 genes were expressed differentially between the cultures utilizing sulfate or thiosulfate, whereas 269 genes were affected by a shift in energy source. We identified co-located gene cluster encoding putative lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs; lldD, dld, lldEFG), also present in sulfate-reducing bacteria. These enzymes may take part in energy conservation in A. fulgidus by specifically linking lactate oxidation with APS reduction via the Qmo complex. High transcriptional levels of Fqo confirm an important role of F420H2, as well as a menaquinone-mediated electron transport chain, during heterotrophic growth. A putative periplasmic thiosulfate reductase was identified by specific up-regulation. Also, putative genes for transport of sulfate and sulfite are discussed. We present a model for hydrogen metabolism, based on the probable bifurcation reaction of the Mvh:Hdl hydrogenase, which may inhibit the utilization of Fdred for energy conservation. Energy conservation is probably facilitated via menaquinone to multiple membrane-bound heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr) complexes and the DsrC protein—linking periplasmic hydrogenase (Vht) to the cytoplasmic reduction of sulfite. The ambiguous roles of genes corresponding to fatty acid metabolism induced during growth with H2 are discussed. Putative co-assimilation of organic acids is favored over a homologous secondary carbon fixation pathway, although both mechanisms may contribute to conserve the amount of Fdred needed during autotrophic growth with H2. PMID:24672515

  13. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... salt coming from? Reducing Sodium in a Salty World The Salty Six – Surprising Foods that Add the ...

  14. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (November 1985...-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied...

  15. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (November 1985...-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied...

  16. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (November 1985...-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied...

  17. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (November 1985...-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied...

  18. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 101 - Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monier-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration (November 1985...-Williams Procedure (With Modifications) for Sulfites in Food, Center for Food Safety and Applied...

  19. Sulfite action in glycolytic inhibition: in vivo real-time observation by hyperpolarized (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sebastian; Solodovnikova, Natalia; Jensen, Pernille R; Wendland, Jürgen

    2012-10-15

    Detecting the molecular targets of xenobiotic substances in vivo poses a considerable analytical challenge. Here, we describe the use of an NMR-based tracer methodology for the instantaneous in vivo observation of sulfur(IV) action on cellular metabolism. Specifically, we find that glycolytic flux is directed towards sulfite adducts of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and pyruvate as off-pathway intermediates that obstruct glycolytic flux. In particular, the pyruvate-sulfite association hinders the formation of downstream metabolites. The apparent in vivo association constant of pyruvate and sulfite agrees with the apparent inhibition constant of CO(2) formation, thus supporting the importance of pyruvate interception in disturbing central metabolism and inhibiting NAD regeneration. PMID:22961998

  20. Promotion of Ni2+ removal by masking toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria: addition of citrate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  1. Promotion of Ni2+ Removal by Masking Toxicity to Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Addition of Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  2. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  3. Modified Active Site Coordination in a Clinical Mutant of Sulfite Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Doonan, C.J.; Wilson, H.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; Garrett, R.M.; Bennett, B.; Prince, R.C.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-02

    The molybdenum site of the Arginine 160 {yields} Glutamine clinical mutant of the physiologically vital enzyme sulfite oxidase has been investigated by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We conclude that the mutant enzyme has a six-coordinate pseudo-octahedral active site with coordination of Glutamine O{sup {epsilon}} to molybdenum. This contrasts with the wild-type enzyme which is five-coordinate with approximately square-based pyramidal geometry. This difference in the structure of the molybdenum site explains many of the properties of the mutant enzyme which have previously been reported.

  4. Response of the ferrocyanide-hydrogen peroxide-sulfite system to a pulsed light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminaga, A.; Rábai, G.; Hanazaki, I.

    1998-02-01

    Response of the ferrocyanide-hydrogen peroxide-sulfite system to the pulsed light perturbation has been examined. A pulse light in the visible region induces two kinds of pulse response: one is a sharp spike with a threshold and the other is a relatively slow response without threshold. The autocatalytic reaction scheme involving HO 2· as a key species is responsible for the observation. The proposed mechanism is compared with the excitability in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky system to characterize the nonlinearity in the present system. The present analysis suggests that the pulse response experiment is useful in revealing details of the reaction scheme.

  5. Concentration of simple aldehydes by sulfite-containing double-layer hydroxide minerals: implications for biopoesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Arrhenius, G.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Environmental conditions play an important role in conceptual studies of prebiotically relevant chemical reactions that could have led to functional biomolecules. The necessary source compounds are likely to have been present in dilute solution, raising the question of how to achieve selective concentration and to reach activation. With the assumption of an initial 'RNA World', the questions of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors of sugar phosphates, come into the foreground. As a possible concentration process for simple, uncharged aldehydes, we investigated their adduct formation with sulfite ion bound in the interlayer of positively charged expanding-sheet-structure double-layer hydroxide minerals. Minerals of this type, initially with chloride as interlayer counter anion, have previously been shown to induce concentration and subsequent aldolization of aldehyde phosphates to form tetrose, pentose, and hexose phosphates. The reversible uptake of the simple aldehydes formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde by adduct formation with the immobilized sulfite ions is characterized by equilibrium constants of K=1.5, 9, and 11, respectively. This translates into an observable uptake at concentrations exceeding 50 mM.

  6. Detection of sewage organic chlorination products that are resistant to dechlorination with sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    MacCrehan, W.A.; Jensen, J.S.; Helz, G.R.

    1998-11-15

    Most of the 36 billion gal of treated sewage wastewater discharged daily into the environment in the United States is disinfected via chlorination. To minimize toxicity. dechlorination with sulfite or sulfur dioxide is often performed. Although dechlorination is considered instantaneous and complete, several studies have found residual toxicity of chlorinated/dechlorinated effluent to aquatic life. The authors investigated chlorination/dechlorination of the organic nitrogen components of sewage wastewater using both iodometric titration and a novel LC method. For LC, a postcolumn reaction with iodide rendered submicromolar chloramine concentrations detectable with amperometry. Using a gradient-elution LC separation, the retention and dechlorination behavior of a suite of model amines was determined, representing primary and secondary aliphatic, peptide, and protein-N. Chlorination/dechlorination experiments on freshly collected, tertiary-treated wastewater showed a fraction of the organic N-chloramines are dechlorinated slowly by sulfite with half-lives of >20 min. Chromatographic retention and kinetic behavior of the sewage N-chloramines was consistent with the behavior of the model peptides and proteins. Proteolytic hydrolysis markedly increased the peptide fraction observed upon chlorination of the wastewater. These results suggest that peptides and proteins contribute to slow dechlorination of sewage and may be a factor in the toxicity noted for chlorine-disinfected wastewater.

  7. Divergence of the Yeast Transcription Factor FZF1 Affects Sulfite Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Engle, Elizabeth K.; Fay, Justin C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are commonly observed during evolution. However, the phenotypic consequences of expression divergence are frequently unknown and difficult to measure. Transcriptional regulators provide a mechanism by which phenotypic divergence can occur through multiple, coordinated changes in gene expression during development or in response to environmental changes. Yet, some changes in transcriptional regulators may be constrained by their pleiotropic effects on gene expression. Here, we use a genome-wide screen for promoters that are likely to have diverged in function and identify a yeast transcription factor, FZF1, that has evolved substantial differences in its ability to confer resistance to sulfites. Chimeric alleles from four Saccharomyces species show that divergence in FZF1 activity is due to changes in both its coding and upstream noncoding sequence. Between the two closest species, noncoding changes affect the expression of FZF1, whereas coding changes affect the expression of SSU1, a sulfite efflux pump activated by FZF1. Both coding and noncoding changes also affect the expression of many other genes. Our results show how divergence in the coding and promoter region of a transcription factor alters the response to an environmental stress. PMID:22719269

  8. Improved Loading of Sulfate-Limited Waste in Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Aloy, A. S.; Soshnikov, R. A.; Trofimenko, A. V.; Vienna, John D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Holtzscheiter, Earl W.

    2006-02-28

    The loading of many wastes in borosilicate glass are limited by the allowable sulfate concentration (e.g., Hanford low-activity waste [LAW] and Idaho National Laboratory [INL] sodium-bearing waste [SBW]). By the Hanford baseline formulation method, the tolerated amount of sulfate in LAW is 0.77 wt% (as SO3) at the lowest soda contents, decreasing to 0.35 wt% at the highest soda contents. Roughly half of the Hanford LAW (on a glass mass basis) will be limited by sulfate tolerance of the glass melt. If the allowable concentrations of sulfate were to be increased only moderately, the cost and time required to vitrify the Hanford LAW would be significantly reduced.

  9. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  10. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  11. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  12. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  13. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  14. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  15. Modeling of Sulfate Double-salts in Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Toghiani, B.

    2000-10-30

    Due to limited tank space at Hanford and Savannah River, the liquid nuclear wastes or supernatants have been concentrated in evaporators to remove excess water prior to the hot solutions being transferred to underground storage tanks. As the waste solutions cooled, the salts in the waste exceeded the associated solubility limits and precipitated in the form of saltcakes. The initial step in the remediation of these saltcakes is a rehydration process called saltcake dissolution. At Hanford, dissolution experiments have been conducted on small saltcake samples from five tanks. Modeling of these experimental results, using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), are being performed at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University. The River Protection Project (RPP) at Hanford will use these experimental and theoretical results to determine the amount of water that will be needed for its dissolution and retrieval operations. A comprehensive effort by the RPP and the Tank Focus Area continues to validate and improve the ESP and its databases for this application. The initial effort focused on the sodium, fluoride, and phosphate system due to its role in the formation of pipeline plugs. In FY 1999, an evaluation of the ESP predictions for sodium fluoride, trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate, and natrophosphate clearly indicated that improvements to the Public database of the ESP were needed. One of the improvements identified was double salts. The inability of any equilibrium thermodynamic model to properly account for double salts in the system can result in errors in the predicted solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) of species in the system. The ESP code is evaluated by comparison with experimental data where possible. However, data does not cover the range of component concentrations and temperatures found in many tank wastes. Therefore, comparison of ESP with another code is desirable, and may illuminate problems with both. For this purpose, the SOLGASMIX code was used in conjunction with a small private database developed at ORNL. This code calculates thermodynamic equilibria through minimization of Gibbs Energy, and utilizes the Pitzer model for activity coefficients. The sodium nitrate-sulfate double salt and the sodium fluoride-sulfate double salt were selected for the FY 2000 validation study of ESP. Even though ESP does not include the sulfate-nitrate double salt, this study found that this omission does not appear to be a major consequence. In this case, the solubility predictions with and without the sulfate-nitrate double salt are comparable. In contrast, even though the sulfate-fluoride double salt is included within the ESP databank, comparison to previous experimental results indicates that ESP underestimates solubility. Thus, the prediction for the sulfate-fluoride system needs to be improved. A main consequence of the inability to accurately predict the SLE of double salts is its impact on the predicted ionic strength of the solution. The ionic strength has been observed to be an important factor in the formation of pipeline plugs. To improve the ESP prediction, solubility tests on the sulfate-fluoride system are underway at DIAL, and these experimental results will be incorporated into the Public database by OLI System, Inc. Preliminary ESP simulations also indicated difficulties with the SLE prediction for anhydrous sodium sulfate. The Public database for the ESP does not include fundamental parameters for this solid in mixed solutions below 32.4 C. The limitation, in the range of anhydrous sodium sulfate, leads to convergence problems in ESP and to inaccurate predictions of solubility near the invariant point when sodium sulfate decahydrate and other salts, such as sodium nitrate, were present. These difficulties were partially corrected through the use of an additional database. In conclusion, these results indicate the need for experimental data at temperatures above 25 C and in solutions containing both nitrate and hydroxide. Furthermore, the validation and do

  16. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  17. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite by a multi-needle-to-plate gas phase pulsed corona discharge reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hua; Lu, Na; Shang, Kefeng; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The oxidation of ammonium sulfite in the ammonia-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process was investigated in a multi-needle-to-plate gas phase pulsed corona discharge reactor in this paper. The effect of several parameters, including capacitance and peak pulse voltage of discharge system, electrode gap and bubbling gas flow rate on the oxidation rate of ammonium sulfite was reviewed. The oxidation rate of ammonium sulfite could reach 47.2% at the capacitance, the peak pulse voltage, electrode gap and bubbling gas flow rate equal to 2 nF, -24.6 k V, 35 mm and 4 L min-1 within treatment time of 40 min The experimental results indicate that the gas phase pulsed discharge system with a multi-needle-to-plate electrode can oxide the ammonium sulfite. The oxidation rate increased with the applied capacitance and peak pulse voltage and decreased with the electrode gap. As the bubbling gas flow rate increased, the oxidation rate increased first and then tended to reach a stationary value. These results would be important for the process optimization of the (NH4)2SO3 to (NH4)2SO4 oxidation.

  18. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  19. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  20. Role for Ferredoxin:NAD(P)H Oxidoreductase (FprA) in Sulfate Assimilation and Siderophore Biosynthesis in Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Glassing, Angela; Harper, Justin; Franklin, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylate) (PDTC), produced by certain pseudomonads, is a sulfur-containing siderophore that binds iron, as well as a wide range of transition metals, and it affects the net hydrolysis of the environmental contaminant carbon tetrachloride. The pathway of PDTC biosynthesis has not been defined. Here, we performed a transposon screen of Pseudomonas putida DSM 3601 to identify genes necessary for PDTC production (Pdt phenotype). Transposon insertions within genes for sulfate assimilation (cysD, cysNC, and cysG [cobA2]) dominated the collection of Pdt mutations. In addition, two insertions were within the gene for the LysR-type transcriptional activator FinR (PP1637). Phenotypic characterization indicated that finR mutants were cysteine bradytrophs. The Pdt phenotype of finR mutants could be complemented by the known target of FinR regulation, fprA (encoding ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase), or by Escherichia coli cysJI (encoding sulfite reductase). These data indicate that fprA is necessary for effective sulfate assimilation by P. putida and that the effect of finR mutation on PDTC production was due to deficient expression of fprA and sulfite reduction. fprA expression in both P. putida and P. aeruginosa was found to be regulated by FinR, but in a manner dependent upon reduced sulfur sources, implicating FinR in sulfur regulatory physiology. The genes and phenotypes identified in this study indicated a strong dependence upon intracellular reduced sulfur/cysteine for PDTC biosynthesis and that pseudomonads utilize sulfite reduction enzymology distinct from that of E. coli and possibly similar to that of chloroplasts and other proteobacteria. PMID:23794620

  1. Sulfate-reducing bacteria mediate thionation of diphenylarsinic acid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ling; Shiiya, Ayaka; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is often found as a toxic intermediate metabolite of diphenylchloroarsine or diphenylcyanoarsine that were produced as chemical warfare agents and were buried in soil after the World Wars. In our previous study Guan et al. (J Hazard Mater 241-242:355-362, 2012), after application of sulfate and carbon sources, anaerobic transformation of DPAA in soil was enhanced with the production of diphenylthioarsinic acid (DPTAA) as a main metabolite. This study aimed to isolate and characterize anaerobic soil microorganisms responsible for the metabolism of DPAA. First, we obtained four microbial consortia capable of transforming DPAA to DPTAA at a high transformation rate of more than 80% after 4 weeks of incubation. Sequencing for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from the consortia revealed that all the positive consortia contained Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans species. In contrast, the absence of dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrAB) which is unique to sulfate-reducing bacteria was confirmed in the negative consortia showing no DPAA reduction. Finally, strain DEA14 showing transformation of DPAA to DPTAA was isolated from one of the positive consortia. The isolate was assigned to D. acetoxidans based on the partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thionation of DPAA was also carried out in a pure culture of a known sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, Desulfovibrio aerotolerans JCM 12613(T). These facts indicate that sulfate-reducing bacteria are microorganisms responsible for the transformation of DPAA to DPTAA under anaerobic conditions. PMID:25228086

  2. Phase Transitions and Phase Miscibility of Mixed Particles of Ammonium Sulfate, Toluene-Derived Secondary Organic Material,

    E-print Network

    in atmospheric particles, such as sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate, have been significantly studied.6 neither the ERH() nor DRH() curves, implying an absence of kinetic effects on the observations over

  3. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  4. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  5. Aqueous sulfate separation by crystallization of sulfate–water clusters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Custelcean, Radu; Williams, Neil J.; Seipp, Charles A.

    2015-08-07

    An effective approach to separating sulfates from aqueous solutions is based on the crystallization of extended [SO4(H2O) 52-]n sulfate–water clusters with a bis(guanidinium) ligand. The ligand was generated in situ by hydrazone condensation in water, thus avoiding elaborate syntheses, tedious purifications, and organic solvents. Crystallization of sulfate–water clusters represents an alternative to the now established sulfate separation strategies that involve encapsulating the “naked” anion.

  6. Effect of controlled aeration on glycerol production in a sulfite process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Kalle, G.P.; Naik, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In a conventional sulfite process for glycerol production from sugarcane molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, maximum product concentration of only 40 g/L and productivities only up to 5 g/L/day are obtained, making the process industrially unattractive. Fermentation carried out under controlled conditions of aeration improved product concentration in the medium by twofold (96 g/L) and productivity by threefold (16 g/L/day), while permitting the yeast to tolerate higher initial concentration of sugar (400-465 g/L). There was a concomittant increase in glycerol concentration and productivity with increasing aeration rate (0-1.4 vvm), whereas ethanol concentration in the medium dropped by ca. twofold. At aeration rates greater than 1.4 vvm, all these parameters showed a sharp decline, indicating general inhibition of fermentation.

  7. Pulsed EPR Spectroscopy of 33S-Labeled Molybdenum Cofactor in Catalytically Active Bioengineered Sulfite Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eric L.; Belaidi, Abdel Ali; Raitsimring, Arnold M.; Davis, Amanda C.; Krämer, Tobias; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Neese, Frank; Schwarz, Günter; Enemark, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum enzymes contain at least one pyranopterin dithiolate (molybdopterin, MPT) moiety that coordinates Mo through two dithiolate (dithiolene) sulfur atoms. For sulfite oxidase (SO), hyperfine interactions (hfi) and nuclear quadrupole interactions (nqi) of magnetic nuclei (I ? 0) near the Mo(V) (d1) center have been measured using high-resolution pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods and interpreted with the help of the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. These have provided important insights about the active site structure and the reaction mechanism of the enzyme. However, it has not been possible to use EPR to probe the dithiolene sulfurs directly since naturally abundant 32S has no nuclear spin (I = 0). Here we describe direct incorporation of 33S (I = 3/2), the only stable magnetic sulfur isotope, into MPT using controlled in vitro synthesis with purified proteins. The electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectra from 33S-labeled MPT in this catalytically active SO variant are dominated by the ‘inter-doublet’ transition arising from the strong nuclear quadrupole interaction, as also occurs for the 33S-labeled exchangeable equatorial sulfite ligand [Klein, E. L., et al., Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 1408 – 1418]. The estimated experimental hfi and nqi parameters for 33S (aiso = 3 MHz and e2Qq/h = 25 MHz) are in good agreement with those predicted by DFT. In addition, the DFT calculations show that the two 33S atoms are indistinguishable by EPR and reveal a strong intermixing between their out-of-plane pz orbitals and the dxy orbital of Mo(V). PMID:24387640

  8. Sulfite Oxidase Catalyzes Single-Electron Transfer at Molybdenum Domain to Reduce Nitrite to Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Krizowski, Sabina; Fischer-Schrader, Katrin; Niks, Dimitri; Tejero, Jesús; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Wang, Ling; Ragireddy, Venkata; Frizzell, Sheila; Kelley, Eric E.; Zhang, Yingze; Basu, Partha; Hille, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Recent studies suggest that the molybdenum enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and mARC exhibit nitrite reductase activity at low oxygen pressures. However, inhibition studies of xanthine oxidase in humans have failed to block nitrite-dependent changes in blood flow, leading to continued exploration for other candidate nitrite reductases. Another physiologically important molybdenum enzyme—sulfite oxidase (SO)—has not been extensively studied. Results: Using gas-phase nitric oxide (NO) detection and physiological concentrations of nitrite, SO functions as nitrite reductase in the presence of a one-electron donor, exhibiting redox coupling of substrate oxidation and nitrite reduction to form NO. With sulfite, the physiological substrate, SO only facilitates one turnover of nitrite reduction. Studies with recombinant heme and molybdenum domains of SO indicate that nitrite reduction occurs at the molybdenum center via coupled oxidation of Mo(IV) to Mo(V). Reaction rates of nitrite to NO decreased in the presence of a functional heme domain, mediated by steric and redox effects of this domain. Using knockdown of all molybdopterin enzymes and SO in fibroblasts isolated from patients with genetic deficiencies of molybdenum cofactor and SO, respectively, SO was found to significantly contribute to hypoxic nitrite signaling as demonstrated by activation of the canonical NO-sGC-cGMP pathway. Innovation: Nitrite binds to and is reduced at the molybdenum site of mammalian SO, which may be allosterically regulated by heme and molybdenum domain interactions, and contributes to the mammalian nitrate-nitrite-NO signaling pathway in human fibroblasts. Conclusion: SO is a putative mammalian nitrite reductase, catalyzing nitrite reduction at the Mo(IV) center. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 283–294. PMID:25314640

  9. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion tests, the combined sulfate attack tests captured performance risks and complex damage mechanisms associated with the SCC pore structure and constituent materials. Sodium sulfate attack with wetting-drying cycles and/or partial immersion under temperate-hot conditions synergistically caused significant damage to specimens, especially to quaternary cementitious systems having very fine pore structure, due to the build-up of salt crystals and sulfate reaction products. The deleterious effects of sulfate reaction products and salt crystallization on all cementitious systems were more severe under the combined sodium sulfate and freezing-thawing exposure, with a potential of sudden brittle failure. Laboratory experiments in the current work documented evidence for the occurrence of thaumasite sulfate attack (TSA) in cementitious systems containing limestone filler, not only under cold but also under temperate-hot conditions, which made specimens more vulnerable to damage in the combined sulfate attack tests. The field-like combined exposure of sodium sulfate, cyclic environments and flexural loading had synergistic effects on SCC specimens and caused the coexistence of multiple-complex degradation mechanisms (sulfate attack, TSA, stress-corrosion, salt crystallization, surface scaling and corrosion of surface steel fibres) depending on the mixture design variables. The current thesis demonstrates that relying only on sulfate immersion tests to evaluate the performance of cement-based materials can be risky. It also shows that linear and deterministic modeling of the performance of concrete structures under external sulfate attack is unrealistic. Fuzzy and adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference systems developed in the current thesis accurately and rationally predicted the serviceability, deterioration in engineering properties and time to failure of the SCC mixtures under the various sulfate attack exposure regimes adopted in the integrated testing approach. A durability evaluation factor from multiple performance criteria was created for the ammonium sulfate exposure. Enviro

  10. Fluorescence Probe Studies of Gelatin-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Interactions

    E-print Network

    Bales, Barney

    and then decalcified. It has an isoelectric pH of 4.9. Over the range pH ) 5.8-6.5 there are approximately 50 intensively in this laboratory.1-3 Gelatin is a proteinaceous material, soluble in water with a range, indicating that the polymer molecule collapses.9 On a more localized level, the nature of the binding of SDS

  11. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gelatine used in the preparation of marshmallows. (3) As a surfactant in: (i) Fumaric acid-acidulated dry beverage base whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts per million of the finished beverage and such beverage base is not for use in a food for which a standard of identity established under section 401...

  12. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used in the preparation of marshmallows. (3) As a surfactant in: (i) Fumaric acid-acidulated dry beverage base whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts per million of the finished beverage and such beverage base is not for use in a food for which a standard of identity established under section 401...

  13. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... preparation of marshmallows. (3) As a surfactant in: (i) Fumaric acid-acidulated dry beverage base whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts per million of the finished beverage and such beverage base is not for... use. (ii) Fumaric acid-acidulated fruit juice drinks whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts...

  14. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gelatine used in the preparation of marshmallows. (3) As a surfactant in: (i) Fumaric acid-acidulated dry beverage base whereby the additive does not exceed 25 parts per million of the finished beverage and such beverage base is not for use in a food for which a standard of identity established under section 401...

  15. Gaseous sodium sulfate formation in flames and flowing gas environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Formation of Na2SO4(g) in flames and hot flowing gas systems was studied by high pressure, free-jet expansion, modulated molecular beam mass spectrometric sampling. Fuel-lean CH4-O2 flames doped with SO2, H2O and NaCl yielded the gaseous Na2SO4 molecule in residence times of less than one millisecond. Intermediate species NaSO2(g) and NaSO3(g) were also observed and measured. Composition profiles were obtained for all reaction products. Nonflame flowing gas experiments showed that Na2SO4 and NaSO3 gaseous molecules were formed at 1140 C in mixtures of O2, H2O(g), SO2 and NaCl(g). Experimental results are compared with calculated equilibrium thermodynamic predictions.

  16. Sodium sulfate: Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous species over liquid Na2SO4 were identified by the technique of molecular beam mass spectrometry. The heat and entropy of vaporization of the Na2SO4 molecule were measured directly. Comparisons of the experimental entropy with values calculated using various molecular parameters were used to estimate the molecular structure and vibrational frequencies. The thermodynamic properties of gaseous and condensed phase Na2SO4, along with additional pertinent species, were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. Compositions were calculated at various fuel-to-oxidant ratios with additions of sulfur to the fuel and the components of sea salt to the intake air. Temperatures for condensation of Na2SO4 were obtained as a function of sulfur and sea salt concentrations.

  17. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...oils and animal fats, provided that the partition step is followed by a conventional refining process that includes alkali neutralization and deodorization of the fats and oils. (c) To insure the safe use of the additive, the label of the food...

  18. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...oils and animal fats, provided that the partition step is followed by a conventional refining process that includes alkali neutralization and deodorization of the fats and oils. (c) To insure the safe use of the additive, the label of the food...

  19. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...oils and animal fats, provided that the partition step is followed by a conventional refining process that includes alkali neutralization and deodorization of the fats and oils. (c) To insure the safe use of the additive, the label of the food...

  20. Gaseous sodium sulfate formation in flames and flowing gas environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Formation of Na2SO4(g) in flames and hot flowing gas systems was studied by high pressure, free-jet expansion, modulated molecular beam mass spectrometric sampling. Fuel-lean CH4-O2 flames doped with SO2, H2O and NaCl yielded the gaseous Na2SO4 molecule in residence times of less than one millisecond. Intermediate species NaSO2(g) and NaSO3(g) were also observed and measured. Composition profiles were obtained for all reaction products. Non-flame flowing gas experiments showed that Na2SO4 and NaSO3 gaseous molecules were formed at 1140 C in mixtures of O2, H2O(g), SO2 and and NaCl(g). Experimental results are compared with calculated equilibrium thermodynamic predictions.

  1. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  2. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Sodium cotransporters.

    PubMed

    Wright, E M; Loo, D D; Turk, E; Hirayama, B A

    1996-08-01

    Recent studies of cloned mammalian sodium cotransporters in heterologous systems have revealed that these integral membrane proteins serve multiple functions as cotransporters, uniporters, channels and water transporters. Some progress has been gained in understanding their secondary structure, but information on helical bundling and tertiary structure is lacking. Site-directed mutagenesis and the construction of chimeras have resulted in the identification of residues and domains involved in ligand binding, and natural mutations have also been found that are responsible for human genetic diseases. Major factors in the short-term regulations of cotransporter function by protein kinases are exocytosis and endocytosis. PMID:8791459

  4. Vitamin C-sulfate inhibits mineralization in chondrocyte cultures: a caveat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskey, A. L.; Blank, R. D.; Doty, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    Differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell micro-mass cultures routinely mineralize in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, antibiotics, 4 mM inorganic phosphate (or 2.5 mM beta-glycerophosphate), 0.3 mg/ml glutamine and either 25 microg/ml vitamin C or 5-12 microg/ml vitamin C-sulfate. The failure of these cultures to produce a mineralized matrix (assessed by electron microscopy, 45Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared microscopy) led to the evaluation of each of these additives. We report here that the "stable" vitamin C-sulfate (ascorbic acid-2-sulfate) causes increased sulfate incorporation into the cartilage matrix. Furthermore, the release of sulfate from the vitamin C derivative appears to be responsible for the inhibition of mineral deposition, as demonstrated in cultures with equimolar amounts of vitamin C and sodium sulfate.

  5. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxidase mimic-mediated chemiluminescence of aqueous luminol for sulfite in white wines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodan; He, Shaohui; Chen, Zhaohui; Huang, Yuming

    2013-01-30

    Recently, the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of nanoparticles (NPs) has become a growing area of interest. However, the analytical applications of the NP-based enzyme mimetic are mainly concentrated on their peroxidase-like activity; no attempts have been made to investigate the analytical applications based on the oxidase mimic activities of NPs. For the first time, we report that CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were found to possess intrinsic oxidase-like activity and could catalyze luminol oxidation by dissolved oxygen to produce intensified chemiluminescence (CL). The effect of sulfite on CoFe(2)O(4) NP oxidase mimic-mediated CL of aqueous luminol was investigated. It is very interesting that when adding sulfite to the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) system, the role of sulfite in the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite system depends on its concentration. At a relatively low concentration level, sulfite presents an inhibition effect on the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP system. However, it does have an enhancement effect at a higher concentration level. Investigations on the effect of the solution pH and luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NP concentrations on the kinetic characteristics of the studied CL system in the presence of trace sulfite suggested that the enhancement and inhibition of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system also depended on the solution pH. It seems that the concentrations of luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs did not influence the CL pathway. The possible mechanism of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system was also discussed. On this basis, a flow injection chemiluminescence method was established for the determination of trace sulfite in this study. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed system could respond down to 2.0 × 10(-8) M sulfite. The method has been applied to the determination of trace sulfite in white wine samples with satisfactory results. The results given by the proposed method are in good agreement with those given by the standard titration method. PMID:23289402

  6. Structural evolution of an alkali sulfate activated slag cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of sodium sulfate content and curing duration (from fresh paste up to 18 months) on the binder structure of sodium sulfate activated slag cements was evaluated. Isothermal calorimetry results showed an induction period spanning the first three days after mixing, followed by an acceleration-deceleration peak corresponding to the formation of bulk reaction products. Ettringite, a calcium aluminium silicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) phase, and a hydrotalcite-like Mg-Al layered double hydroxide have been identified as the main reaction products, independent of the Na2SO4 dose. No changes in the phase assemblage were detected in the samples with curing from 1 month up to 18 months, indicating a stable binder structure. The most significant changes upon curing at advanced ages observed were growth of the AFt phase and an increase in silicate chain length in the C-A-S-H, resulting in higher strength.

  7. Electrochemistry of Ferrous Sulfate-Sodium Thiosulphate and Copper Sulfate-Sodium Thiosulphate Systems for Template-Assisted Nanowire Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogan, Lee Jeffery

    Two related series of investigations are presented in this dissertation. First, two candidate systems for electrochemical deposition of metal sulfides for photovoltaic applications have been characterized. Secondly, a general electrochemical synthesis method allowing countable numbers of wires embedded in porous anodic alumina arrays to be measured using macroscopic contacts was developed. Electrochemical studies of the FeSO4-Na2S 2O3 system and the CuSO4-Na2S 2O3 system were undertaken to evaluate their suitability as electrodeposition baths for FeS2 and CuxS, respectively. Each solution system was studied extensively using cyclic voltammetry to characterize electrochemical processes at various concentrations. The iron sulfide / thiosulfate system was found to be unsuitable for the synthesis of FeS2 due to the preferential formation of FeS. The copper sulfide / thiosulfate system was found to be suitable for the synthesis of Cu2S, with thiosulfate concentration being the most important parameter due to the high complexation of Cu(I) by thiosulfate. Investigations into the electrochemical synthesis of metal wires in porous anodic alumina templates revealed an interesting synthesis mechanism wherein sparse, isolated wires are created in a very small fraction of the available pores. These wires are nucleated through the reduction of metal from the deposition bath by aluminum at the base of the alumina pores. This reduction causes a localized increase in acidity, accelerating the dissolution of the alumina barrier layer and allowing more typical wire deposition to occur. The sparse nucleation is exaggerated by the increasing rate of wire deposition as the wires lengthen and the swift rate of overgrowth formation at the surface of the template, resulting in domes of overgrowth attached to countable numbers of nanowires. This geometry has been exploited to obtain in situ measurements of known numbers of nanowires.

  8. Activity and phylogenetic diversity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature subsurface fluids within the upper oceanic crust

    PubMed Central

    Robador, Alberto; Jungbluth, Sean P.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Bowers, Robert M.; Rappé, Michael S.; Amend, Jan P.; Cowen, James P.

    2015-01-01

    The basaltic ocean crust is the largest aquifer system on Earth, yet the rates of biological activity in this environment are unknown. Low-temperature (<100°C) fluid samples were investigated from two borehole observatories in the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR) flank, representing a range of upper oceanic basement thermal and geochemical properties. Microbial sulfate reduction rates (SRR) were measured in laboratory incubations with 35S-sulfate over a range of temperatures and the identity of the corresponding sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) was studied by analyzing the sequence diversity of the functional marker dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrAB) gene. We found that microbial sulfate reduction was limited by the decreasing availability of organic electron donors in higher temperature, more altered fluids. Thermodynamic calculations indicate energetic constraints for metabolism, which together with relatively higher cell-specific SRR reveal increased maintenance requirements, consistent with novel species-level dsrAB phylotypes of thermophilic SRM. Our estimates suggest that microbially-mediated sulfate reduction may account for the removal of organic matter in fluids within the upper oceanic crust and underscore the potential quantitative impact of microbial processes in deep subsurface marine crustal fluids on marine and global biogeochemical carbon cycling. PMID:25642212

  9. Sulfate Assimilation Mediates Tellurite Reduction and Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae?†

    PubMed Central

    Ottosson, Lars-Göran; Logg, Katarina; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Sunnerhagen, Per; Käll, Mikael; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Despite a century of research and increasing environmental and human health concerns, the mechanistic basis of the toxicity of derivatives of the metalloid tellurium, Te, in particular the oxyanion tellurite, Te(IV), remains unsolved. Here, we provide an unbiased view of the mechanisms of tellurium metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring deviations in Te-related traits of a complete collection of gene knockout mutants. Reduction of Te(IV) and intracellular accumulation as metallic tellurium strongly correlated with loss of cellular fitness, suggesting that Te(IV) reduction and toxicity are causally linked. The sulfate assimilation pathway upstream of Met17, in particular, the sulfite reductase and its cofactor siroheme, was shown to be central to tellurite toxicity and its reduction to elemental tellurium. Gene knockout mutants with altered Te(IV) tolerance also showed a similar deviation in tolerance to both selenite and, interestingly, selenomethionine, suggesting that the toxicity of these agents stems from a common mechanism. We also show that Te(IV) reduction and toxicity in yeast is partially mediated via a mitochondrial respiratory mechanism that does not encompass the generation of substantial oxidative stress. The results reported here represent a robust base from which to attack the mechanistic details of Te(IV) toxicity and reduction in a eukaryotic organism. PMID:20675578

  10. Improved Loading of Sulfate-Limited Waste in Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Aloy, A.; Soshnikov, R.; Trofimenko, A.V.; Vienna, J.D.; Elliott, M.L.; Holtzscheiter, E.W.

    2006-07-01

    The allowable sulfate concentration limits waste loading in borosilicate glasses (e.g., Hanford low-activity waste [LAW] and Idaho National Laboratory sodium-bearing waste. By the Hanford baseline formulation method, the tolerated amount of sulfate in LAW is 0.77 wt% (as SO{sub 3}) at the lowest soda contents, decreasing to 0.35 wt% at the highest soda contents. Roughly half of the Hanford LAW (on a glass mass basis) will be limited by sulfate tolerance of the glass melt. If the allowable concentrations of sulfate were to be increased only moderately, the cost and time required to vitrify the Hanford LAW would be significantly reduced A series of high-sulfate glass formulations were developed by Khlopin Radium Institute (Russian Federation) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These glasses were tested at crucible, small melter, and larger test melter scales for not only sulfate retention but key product quality criteria as well. The key properties of the glasses to be disposed of at Hanford were measured (product consistency test and vapor hydration test), and processing-related properties (viscosity and electrical conductivity) were predicted using property composition models. The results for 28 glass compositions tested at crucible-scale, 6 glass compositions tested at small-melter-scale, and 4 glass compositions tested at larger melter scale are presented in this paper. The melter tests were all performed with waste composition and processing parameters (e.g., bubbling rate, melting rate, temperature) prototypic for the Hanford LAW melter design. The results show that sulfate loadings as high as 1.5 wt% with soda concentrations as high as 20 wt% are viable with improved formulation methods. These results suggest that the loading of sulfate-limited Hanford LAW may be increased by over 300%, relative to the current formulation. However, additional work is recommended before implementing the new formulations. (authors)

  11. The first organically templated open-framework metal-sulfites with layered and three-dimensional diamondoid structures.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ranjay K; Kumar, Jitendra; Behera, J N

    2016-01-01

    The crystallographic signatures and characterization data of two novel organically templated open-framework zinc-sulfites (NH3CH2CH2NH3)[Zn3(SO3)4], , and (CN3H6)2[Zn(SO3)2], , are reported for the first time, synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using different amines, namely, ethylenediamine and guanidine, to generate 2D (for ) and 3D (for ) assemblies with 4-, 6-, 8- and 12-membered rings. PMID:26615884

  12. Analysis of Gill Structure from a Fresh Water Fish (Heteropneustes fossilis) Exposed to Bleached Sulfite Pulp Mill Effluents.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sudip; Rajguru, Utpal; Pathak, Dinesh Chandra; Goswami, Umesh C

    2015-04-01

    The present communication reports toxic effects of bleached sulfite pulp mill effluents in fish (Heteropneustes fossilis) gills, with optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The general adverse effects include dilation of the primary lamellar wall, curling of secondary lamellar terminals, displacement of epithelial cell layers, degeneration of secondary lamella, deposition of mucous, and severe congestion in the gill arch. The significant shortening of secondary lamellae, widening of lamellar tips, and significant decrease in the number of mitochondria in chloride cells as compared to controls are some specific effects of bleached sulfite pulp mill effluents. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated tearing of tissues in gill lamellae and arches. Transmission electron microscopy revealed membrane distortion of mitochondria in chloride cells, loss of uniformity of microvilli in pavement cells, and abnormalities in nuclear shape in different cells of effluent-exposed fish gills. Toxicity of the bleached sulfite pulp mill effluents and its impact on fish are discussed in the light of existing literature. Further, the importance of microscopy in toxicological evaluation of environmental pollutants is emphasized in view of its specific application potential. PMID:25797144

  13. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  14. Aqueous sulfate separation by crystallization of sulfate–water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Williams, Neil J.; Seipp, Charles A.

    2015-08-07

    An effective approach to separating sulfates from aqueous solutions is based on the crystallization of extended [SO4(H2O) 52-]n sulfate–water clusters with a bis(guanidinium) ligand. The ligand was generated in situ by hydrazone condensation in water, thus avoiding elaborate syntheses, tedious purifications, and organic solvents. Crystallization of sulfate–water clusters represents an alternative to the now established sulfate separation strategies that involve encapsulating the “naked” anion.

  15. D-Area Sulfate Reduction DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.A.

    2003-01-12

    An acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume emanates from the diarrhea Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), due to the contaminated runoff the basin receives from the D-Area coal pile. From a previous feasibility evaluation and laboratory testing, it was concluded that the plume could be remediated with sulfate reduction remediation combined with monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Additionally these previous studies recommended that soybean oil and sodium lactate be utilized as organic substrates for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) during a subsequent sulfate reduction, pilot scale, field demonstration. The soybean oil was to be tested as a long-term, slow release, organic substrate, and the sodium lactate was to be tested as a short-term, immediately available, organic substrate. The subsequent sulfate reduction, pilot scale, field demonstration consisted of the following: (1) Approximately 825 gallons of soybean oil was injected into both the south and north wings of the existing D-Area interceptor well. (2) Approximately 227.5 gallons of sodium lactate and 1169 gallons of groundwater from a background well were injected into the south wing only. The groundwater was used to reduce the viscosity of the sodium lactate for injection, to flush the sodium lactate out of the injection point screen zones, and to provide bioaugmentation (i.e. the addition of SRB). Both pre-injection and post-injection monitoring and sampling and analysis were conducted in order to evaluate the impact of organic substrate injection on soluble organic, sulfate, nutrient, microbe, hydrogen sulfide, pH, Eh, and metal concentrations (i.e. the ability to promote sulfate reduction remediation of the plume). Overall it is clear from this field demonstration that both soybean oil and sodium lactate provided a suitable organic substrate to promote SRB growth. The SRB growth promoted by both soybean oil and sodium lactate resulted in sulfate reduction remediation as evidenced by the decrease in sulfate and increase in hydrogen sulfide concentrations, the subsequent increase in pH and decrease in Eh, and finally the subsequent decrease in metal concentrations.

  16. Biological sulfate reduction using synthesis gas as energy and carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Houten, R.T. van; Spoel, H. van der; Aelst, A.C. van; Pol, L.W.H.; Lettinga, G.

    1996-04-20

    Several industries, in particular the chemical and mining industries, produce wastewater containing high amounts of oxidized inorganic sulfur compounds, such as sulfate, sulfite, or sulfuric acid. Due to the negative environmental impact, discharge of this wastewater to sewage systems is likely to be prohibited in the future. Therefore, recycling or (re)processing of this type of wastewater will become increasingly important. Biological sulfate reduction was studied in laboratory-scale gas-lift reactors. Synthesis gas (gas mixtures of H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2}) was used as energy and carbon source. Special attention was paid to the effect of CO addition on the sulfate conversion rate, aggregation, and aggregate composition. Addition of 5% CO negatively affected the overall sulfate conversion rate; i.e., it dropped from 12--14 to 6--8 g SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}/L{center_dot}day. However, a further increase of CO to 10 and 20% did not further deteriorate the process. With external biomass recycling the sulfate conversion rate could be improved to 10 g SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}/L{center_dot}day. Therefore, biomass retention clearly could be regarded as the rate-limiting step. Furthermore, CO affected the aggregate shape and diameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs showed that rough aggregates pregrown on H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} changed into smooth aggregates upon addition of CO. After addition of CO, a layered biomass structure developed. Acetobacterium sp. were mainly located at the outside of the aggregates, whereas Desulfovibrio sp. were located inside the aggregates.

  17. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Guaymas Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhillon, Ashita; Teske, Andreas; Dillon, Jesse; Stahl, David A.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2003-01-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) is a hydrothermal vent site where thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter forms petroliferous material which supports diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria. We explored the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria by characterizing PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) and 16S rRNA genes from the upper 4 cm of the Guaymas sediment. The dsrAB sequences revealed that there was a major clade closely related to the acetate-oxidizing delta-proteobacterial genus Desulfobacter and a clade of novel, deeply branching dsr sequences related to environmental dsr sequences from marine sediments in Aarhus Bay and Kysing Fjord (Denmark). Other dsr clones were affiliated with gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers (genus Desulfotomaculum) and the delta-proteobacterial species Desulforhabdus amnigena and Thermodesulforhabdus norvegica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNAs from the same environmental samples resulted in identification of four clones affiliated with Desulfobacterium niacini, a member of the acetate-oxidizing, nutritionally versatile genus Desulfobacterium, and one clone related to Desulfobacula toluolica and Desulfotignum balticum. Other bacterial 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes were represented by non-sulfate reducers and uncultured lineages with unknown physiology, like OP9, OP8, as well as a group with no clear affiliation. In summary, analyses of both 16S rRNA and dsrAB clone libraries resulted in identification of members of the Desulfobacteriales in the Guaymas sediments. In addition, the dsrAB sequencing approach revealed a novel group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes that could not be identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.

  18. Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms in Wetlands – Fameless Actors in Carbon Cycling and Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Pester, Michael; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Friedrich, Michael W.; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater wetlands are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane but at the same time can function as carbon sink. Their response to global warming and environmental pollution is one of the largest unknowns in the upcoming decades to centuries. In this review, we highlight the role of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in the intertwined element cycles of wetlands. Although regarded primarily as methanogenic environments, biogeochemical studies have revealed a previously hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands that can sustain rapid renewal of the small standing pools of sulfate. Thus, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, which frequently occurs at rates comparable to marine surface sediments, can contribute up to 36–50% to anaerobic carbon mineralization in these ecosystems. Since sulfate reduction is thermodynamically favored relative to fermentative processes and methanogenesis, it effectively decreases gross methane production thereby mitigating the flux of methane to the atmosphere. However, very little is known about wetland SRM. Molecular analyses using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] as marker genes demonstrated that members of novel phylogenetic lineages, which are unrelated to recognized SRM, dominate dsrAB richness and, if tested, are also abundant among the dsrAB-containing wetland microbiota. These discoveries point toward the existence of so far unknown SRM that are an important part of the autochthonous wetland microbiota. In addition to these numerically dominant microorganisms, a recent stable isotope probing study of SRM in a German peatland indicated that rare biosphere members might be highly active in situ and have a considerable stake in wetland sulfate reduction. The hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands and the fact that wetland SRM are not well represented by described SRM species explains their so far neglected role as important actors in carbon cycling and climate change. PMID:22403575

  19. Kinetic and structural evidence for the importance of Tyr236 for the integrity of the Mo active site in a bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kappler, Ulrike; Bailey, Susan; Feng, Changjian; Honeychurch, Michael J; Hanson, Graeme R; Bernhardt, Paul V; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H

    2006-08-15

    The sulfite dehydrogenase from Starkeya novella is the only known sulfite-oxidizing enzyme that forms a permanent heterodimeric complex between a molybdenum and a heme c-containing subunit and can be crystallized in an electron transfer competent conformation. Tyr236 is a highly conserved active site residue in sulfite oxidoreductases and has been shown to interact with a nearby arginine and a molybdenum-oxo ligand that is involved in catalysis. We have created a Tyr236 to Phe substitution in the SorAB sulfite dehydrogenase. The purified SDH(Y236F) protein has been characterized in terms of activity, structure, intramolecular electron transfer, and EPR properties. The substituted protein exhibited reduced turnover rates and substrate affinity as well as an altered reactivity toward molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor. Following reduction by sulfite and unlike SDH(WT), the substituted enzyme was reoxidized quickly in the presence of molecular oxygen, a process reminiscent of the reactions of the sulfite oxidases. SDH(Y236F) also exhibited the pH-dependent CW-EPR signals that are typically observed in vertebrate sulfite oxidases, allowing a direct link of CW-EPR properties to changes caused by a single-amino acid substitution. No quantifiable electron transfer was seen in laser flash photolysis experiments with SDH(Y236F). The crystal structure of SDH(Y236F) clearly shows that as a result of the substitution the hydrogen bonding network surrounding the active site is disturbed, resulting in an increased mobility of the nearby arginine. These disruptions underline the importance of Tyr236 for the integrity of the substrate binding site and the optimal alignment of Arg55, which appears to be necessary for efficient electron transfer. PMID:16893171

  20. Cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate in pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yuzhu; Yu, Jianguo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate to explore the basic data for the recovery of aluminum resources from coal spoil. First, the metastable zone width (MSZW) of aluminum sulfate was reported. A parallel synthesis platform (CrystalSCAN) was used to determine the solubility from 10 °C to 70 °C, and an automatic lab reactor (LabMax) equipped with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was adopted to determine the supersolubility. The effects of operating variables on MSZW were experimentally explored. Results show that the MSZW of aluminum sulfate decreases with increasing stirring speed, while it increases with increasing cooling rate. Second, the continuous crystallization kinetics of aluminum sulfate was investigated in a laboratory-scale mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer at a steady state. Growth kinetics presented size-dependent growth rate, which was well fitted with the MJ3 model. Both the growth rate (G) and the total nucleation rate (BTOT) were correlated in the power law kinetic expressions with good correlation coefficients. Third, aluminum sulfate products were modified by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). Crystals with large sizes and regular hexagonal plate morphologies were obtained. These crystals reveal that SDBS can inhibit crystal nucleation and promote crystal growth.