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Sample records for sulfate sodium sulfite

  1. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  4. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  5. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  7. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  8. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  10. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium...

  11. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium carbonate. ... sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory 415.200 Applicability; description of the...

  12. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium carbonate. ... sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory 415.200 Applicability; description of the...

  13. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium carbonate. ... sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory 415.200 Applicability; description of the...

  14. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium carbonate. ... sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Sulfite Production Subcategory 415.200 Applicability; description of the...

  15. Recovery of anhydrous Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from SO{sub 2}-scrubbing liquor by extractive crystallization: Liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, and/or sulfite plus acetone, 2-propanol, or tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Cos, R.; Prausnitz, J.M.; Schiozer, A.L.; Jaecksch, W.L.

    1996-11-01

    Sodium carbonate is a superior scrubbing agent for removing SO{sub 2} from combustion gases, but the resulting sodium sulfate (or sulfite) must be recovered for environmental reasons. Recovery by evaporative crystallization is energy-intensive; extractive crystallization provides an attractive alterative when technically feasible. Liquid/liquid equilibrium data were determined for two-phase mixtures containing aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, or sulfite and a polar organic solvent: acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol (i.e., tert-butyl alcohol). In the salt-saturated two-phase region, data were obtained between the lower consolute temperature and 60 C (50 C for acetone). data were also obtained at 35 C for liquid/liquid systems that were subsaturated with their respective salts and for liquid/liquid systems with overall molar ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium sulfate fixed at 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25. In the latter systems, it was found that the sulfite/sulfate ratios in the organic and aqueous phases were the same, i.e., there is no selectivity by these solvents for one salt relative to the other. The data show that any one of these solvents can be used to extract water from a concentrated solution of either sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate in a countercurrent extractor at 35 C, causing the anhydrous salt to crystallize. The wet solvent can be dried for recycle in a similar countercurrent operation at 35 C, using a saturated solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as the drying agent. The number of moles of carbonate required for drying does not exceed the number of moles of sulfite-plus-sulfate precipitated. The process energy is about 0% of that required for single-stage evaporative crystallization of the same liquor.

  16. Hydrogen production via photolytic oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfite solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cunping; Linkous, Clovis A; Adebiyi, Olawale; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emission from coal-burning power plants and refinery operations has been implicated as a cause of acid rain and other air pollution related problems. The conventional treatment of SO(2)-contaminated air consists of two steps: SO(2) absorption using an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, forming aqueous sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), and Na(2)SO(3) oxidation via air purging to produce sodium sulfate (Na(2)SO(4)). In this process, the potential energy of SO(2) is lost. This paper presents a novel ultraviolet (UV) photolytic process for production of hydrogen from aqueous Na(2)SO(3) solutions. The results show that the quantum efficiency of hydrogen production can reach 14.4% under illumination from a low pressure mercury lamp. The mechanism occurs via two competing reaction pathways that involve oxidation of SO(3)(2-) to SO(4)(2-) directly and through the dithionate (S(2)O(6)(2-)) ion intermediate. The first route becomes dominant once a photostationary state for S(2)O(6)(2-) is established. The initial pH of Na(2)SO(3) solution plays an important role in determining both the hydrogen production rate and the final products of the photolytic oxidation. At initial solution pH of 9.80 Na(2)SO(3) photo-oxidation generates Na(2)SO(4) as the final reaction product, while Na(2)S(2)O(6) is merely a reaction intermediate. The highest hydrogen production rate occurs when the initial solution pH is 7.55. Reduction in the initial solution pH to 5.93 results in disproportionation of HSO(3)(-) to elemental sulfur and SO(4)(2-) but no hydrogen production. PMID:20515046

  17. Removal of sulfide, sulfate and sulfite ions by electro coagulation.

    PubMed

    Murugananthan, M; Raju, G Bhaskar; Prabhakar, S

    2004-06-18

    The removal of various species of sulfur from beamhouse of tannery wastewater and also from synthetic samples was studied by electro-flotation technique. Consumable anodes of iron and aluminum and insoluble anode of titanium were tested as anodes. It was found that iron and aluminum anodes were effective for the removal of suspended solids, sulfide, sulfite and sulfate. Progress of simultaneous coagulation of suspended solids during electro-flotation was measured using particle size analysis. Coagulation was found to be essential for effective flotation of suspended solids. Metal ions generated in situ by electrolytic oxidation of anode were found to react with dissolved sulfide ions. Metal sulfides thus formed as colloidal suspension were coagulated and floated simultaneously by hydrogen bubbles generated from cathode. Simultaneous occurrence of precipitation, coagulation and flotation was observed during electro-flotation. X-ray diffraction studies were conducted to identify the nature of sulfide phase formed during electrolytic precipitation. The effect of pH, current density and initial concentration of pollutants was studied and the results are discussed. The removal of sulfite and sulfate ions is explained by zeta-potential measurements. PMID:15177743

  18. Nitrogen dioxide absorption in aqueous sodium sulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen Hua

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires additional reduction of acid gases, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere from coal-fired electric power plants. In the case of older existing power plants, a possible retrofit strategy is to oxidize nitric oxide (NO, the major constituent of NOsbX in flue gas) to nitrogen dioxide (NOsb2) by the addition of methanol or other hydrocarbons into the duct at an optimum temperature regime. NOsb2 can then be removed by either modifying existing SOsb2 control equipment or by adding a limestone (CaCOsb3) slurry scrubbing process. Limestone reacts with SOsb2 to from CaSOsb3, and the free sulfite (SO{sb3sp{=}}) in the solution is reactive toward NOsb2. The focus of this research is to study the reaction between NOsb2 and aqueous sulfite at elevated temperature and in the presence of gas phase Osb2. The removal of NOsb2 by limestone slurry scrubbing involves the reaction between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}, bisulfite (HSO{sb3sp{-}}) and water. The reactions between NOsb2 and SO{sb3sp{=}}/HSO{sb3sp{-}} are first order in both reactants, while the NOsb2-water reaction is second order in NOsb2 concentration. The rate constants of the above reactions and the NOsb2-thiosulfate (Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}) reaction were determined at 55sp°C. SO{sb3sp{=}} was found to be the most reactive toward NOsb2, while the contribution of chemical reaction still dominated in the absorption of NOsb2 into water. The effect of gas phase SOsb2 and Osb2, and liquid phase additives such as Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}}, Casp{++}, Mgsp{++}, and Clsp{-} on NOsb2 absorption was also investigated. The absorption of NOsb2 catalyzes free radical reactions that lead to sulfite oxidation. A semi-empirical model was proposed to relate the rate of sulfite oxidation to the rate of NOsb2 absorption. Thiosulfate inhibits sulfite oxidation by providing an alternative route for the termination of the free radical reactions, and a fundamental model was derived to quantify the effect of Ssb2O{sb3sp{=}} on sulfite oxidation. The absorption of NOsb2 into aqueous bisulfide (HSsp{-}) was studied in an attempt to discover alternative scrubbing technologies. The reaction between NOsb2 and HSsp{-} is twice as fast as the NOsb2-SO{sb3sp{=}} reaction at 55sp°C. A semi-empirical model was proposed to relate NOsb2 absorption to HSsp{-} oxidation. This study has shown that acceptable level of NOsb2 removal by a conventional limestone slurry scrubber is not probable. However, aqueous scrubbing of NOsb2 by Nasb2SOsb3 and Nasb2S solutions are viable options. Furthermore, significant reduction in hold tank liquid depth and/or oxidizing air stoichiometry is possible by NOsb2 injection.

  19. 40 CFR 415.200 - Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium sulfite production subcategory. 415.200 Section 415.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... the production of sodium sulfite by reacting sulfur dioxide with sodium carbonate....

  20. Influence of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase on stable isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalo, Muna; Einsiedl, Florian; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald

    2008-03-01

    The stable isotopes of sulfate are often used as a tool to assess bacterial sulfate reduction on the macro scale. However, the mechanisms of stable isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen at the enzymatic level are not yet fully understood. In batch experiments with water enriched in 18O we investigated the effect of different nitrite concentrations on sulfur isotope fractionation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. With increasing nitrite concentrations, we found sulfur isotope enrichment factors ranging from -11.2 ± 1.8‰ to -22.5 ± 3.2‰. Furthermore, the δ18O values in the remaining sulfate increased from approximately 50-120‰ when 18O-enriched water was supplied. Since 18O-exchange with ambient water does not take place in sulfate, but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway (e.g. SO32-), we suggest that nitrite affects the steady-state concentration and the extent of reoxidation of the metabolic intermediate sulfite to sulfate during sulfate reduction. Given that nitrite is known to inhibit the production of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase, our results suggest that the activity of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase regulates the kinetic isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen during bacterial sulfate reduction. Our novel results also imply that isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction strongly depends on the cell internal enzymatic regulation rather than on the physico-chemical features of the individual enzymes.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) A Appendix A to Subpart HHHH of Part...-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced & Cooled) 1.0Scope This procedure corresponds to the Housing and... with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH);...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's salt... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as...

  7. Access to antigens related to anthrose using pivotal cyclic sulfite/sulfate intermediates.

    PubMed

    Milhomme, Ophélie; John, Cédric; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Grandjean, Cyrille

    2011-08-01

    Anthrose is the upstream terminal unit of the tetrasaccharide side chain from a major glycoprotein of Bacillus anthracis exosporium and is part of important antigenic determinants. A novel entry to anthrose-containing antigens and precursors is described. The synthetic route, starting from D(+)-fucose, makes use of intermediates featuring a cyclic sulfite or sulfate function which serves successively as a protecting and a leaving group. PMID:21678952

  8. Biodesulfurization of flue gases and other sulfate/sulfite waste streams using immobilized mixed sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, P T; Little, M H; Kaufman, E N

    1997-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of the major pollutants in the atmosphere that cause acid rain. Microbial processes for reducing SO2 to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have previously been demonstrated by utilizing mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) with municipal sewage digest as the carbon and energy source. To maximize the productivity of the bioreactor for SO2 reduction in this study, various immobilized cell bioreactors were investigated: a stirred tank with SRB flocs and columnar reactors with cells immobilized in either potassium-carrageenan gel matrix or polymeric porous BIO-SEP beads. The maximum volumetric productivity for SO2 reduction in the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) with SRB flocs was 2.1 mmol of SO2/(h.L). The potassium-carrageenan gell matrix used for cell immobilization was not durable at feed sulfite concentrations greater than 2000 mg/L (1.7 mmol/(h.L)). A columnar reactor with mixed SRB cells that had been allowed to grow into highly stable BIO-SEP polymeric beads exhibited the highest sulfite conversion rates, in the range 16.5 mmol/(h.L) (with 100% conversion) to 20 mmol/(h.L) (with 95% conversion). The average specific activity for sulfite reduction in the column, in terms of dry weight of SRB biomass, was 9.5 mmol of sulfite/(h.g). In addition to flue gas desulfurization, potential applications of this microbial process include the treatment of sulfate/sulfite-laden wastewater from the pulp and paper, petroleum, mining, and chemical industries. PMID:9376112

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with sodium sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however... degrees Celsius (( °deg;C) to minimize the reaction of the methanol groups. 2.1Apparatus Required....

  10. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens. PMID:24926808

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfite to form the sulfite addition products and liberate sodium hydroxide (NaOH); however, at room...) to minimize the reaction of the methanol groups. 2.1Apparatus Required. 2.1.1Ice crusher....

  12. Multiple Lateral Transfers of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes between Major Lineages of Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michael; Friedrich, Michael; Roger, Andrew J.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Fishbain, Susan; Abicht, Heike; Blackall, Linda L.; Stahl, David A.; Wagner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A large fragment of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) was PCR amplified and fully sequenced from 30 reference strains representing all recognized lineages of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In addition, the sequence of the dsrAB gene homologs of the sulfite reducer Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans was determined. In contrast to previous reports, comparative analysis of all available DsrAB sequences produced a tree topology partially inconsistent with the corresponding 16S rRNA phylogeny. For example, the DsrAB sequences of several Desulfotomaculum species (low G+C gram-positive division) and two members of the genus Thermodesulfobacterium (a separate bacterial division) were monophyletic with ?-proteobacterial DsrAB sequences. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that dsrAB genes from ancestors of as-yet-unrecognized sulfate reducers within the ?-Proteobacteria were laterally transferred across divisions. A number of insertions and deletions in the DsrAB alignment independently support these inferred lateral acquisitions of dsrAB genes. Evidence for a dsrAB lateral gene transfer event also was found within the ?-Proteobacteria, affecting Desulfobacula toluolica. The root of the dsr tree was inferred to be within the Thermodesulfovibrio lineage by paralogous rooting of the alpha and beta subunits. This rooting suggests that the dsrAB genes in Archaeoglobus species also are the result of an ancient lateral transfer from a bacterial donor. Although these findings complicate the use of dsrAB genes to infer phylogenetic relationships among sulfate reducers in molecular diversity studies, they establish a framework to resolve the origins and diversification of this ancient respiratory lifestyle among organisms mediating a key step in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur. PMID:11567003

  13. Techno-economic evaluation of conditioning with sodium sulfite for bioethanol production from softwood.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Adnan; Martín, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Mörtsell, Marlene; Jönsson, Leif J

    2015-11-01

    Conditioning with reducing agents allows alleviation of inhibition of biocatalytic processes by toxic by-products generated during biomass pretreatment, without necessitating the introduction of a separate process step. In this work, conditioning of steam-pretreated spruce with sodium sulfite made it possible to lower the yeast and enzyme dosages in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to 1g/L and 5FPU/g WIS, respectively. Techno-economic evaluation indicates that the cost of sodium sulfite can be offset by benefits resulting from a reduction of either the yeast load by 0.68g/L or the enzyme load by 1FPU/g WIS. As those thresholds were surpassed, inclusion of conditioning can be justified. Another potential benefit results from shortening the SSF time, which would allow reducing the bioreactor volume and result in capital savings. Sodium sulfite conditioning emerges as an opportunity to lower the financial uncertainty and compensate the overall investment risk for commercializing a softwood-to-ethanol process. PMID:26232771

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Fiume M; Bergfeld WF; Belsito DV; Klaassen CD; Marks JG Jr; Shank RC; Slaga TJ; Snyder PW; Alan Andersen F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  15. Multiple sulfur isotope signatures of sulfite and thiosulfate reduction by the model dissimilatory sulfate-reducer, Desulfovibrio alaskensis str. G20

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, William D.; Cummins, Renata; Schmidt, Marian L.; Sim, Min S.; Ono, Shuhei; Bradley, Alexander S.; Johnston, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction serves as a key metabolic carbon remineralization process in anoxic marine environments. Sulfate reducing microorganisms can impart a wide range in mass-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation. As such, the presence and relative activity of these organisms is identifiable from geological materials. By extension, sulfur isotope records are used to infer the redox balance of marine sedimentary environments, and the oxidation state of Earth's oceans and atmosphere. However, recent work suggests that our understanding of microbial sulfate reduction (MSRs) may be missing complexity associated with the presence and role of key chemical intermediates in the reductive process. This study provides a test of proposed metabolic models of sulfate reduction by growing an axenic culture of the well-studied MSRs, Desulfovibrio alaskensis strain G20, under electron donor limited conditions on the terminal electron acceptors sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate, and tracking the multiple S isotopic consequences of each condition set. The dissimilatory reduction of thiosulfate and sulfite produce unique minor isotope effects, as compared to the reduction of sulfate. Further, these experiments reveal a complex biochemistry associated with sulfite reduction. That is, under high sulfite concentrations, sulfur is shuttled to an intermediate pool of thiosulfate. Site-specific isotope fractionation (within thiosulfate) is very large (34ε ~ 30‰) while terminal product sulfide carries only a small fractionation from the initial sulfite (34ε < 10‰): a signature similar in magnitude to sulfate and thiosulfate reduction. Together these findings show that microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) is highly sensitive to the concentration of environmentally important sulfur-cycle intermediates (sulfite and thiosulfate), especially when thiosulfate and the large site-specific isotope effects are involved. PMID:25505449

  16. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. PMID:25047093

  17. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. Characterization of two dissimilatory sulfite reductases from sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, B. H.; Moura, I.; Lino, A. R.; Moura, J. J. G.; Legall, J.

    1988-02-01

    Mössbauer, EPR, and biochemical techniques were used to characterize two dissimilatory sulfite reductases: desulforubidin from Desulfovibrio baculatus strain DSM 1743 and desulfoviridin from Desulfovibrio gigas. For each molecule of desulforubidin, there are two sirohemes and four [4Fe-4S] clusters. The [4Fe-4S] clusters are in the diamagnetic 2+ oxidation state. The sirohemes are high-spin ferric (S=5/2) and each siroheme is exchanged-coupled to a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster. Such an exchange-coupled siroheme-[4Fe-4S] unit has also been found in the assimilatory sulfite reductase from Escherichia coli/1/ and in a low-molecular weight sulfite reductase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris/2/. For each molecule of defulfoviridin, there are two tetrahydroporphyrin groups and four [4Fe-4S]2+ clusters. To our surprise, we discovered that about 80% of the tetrahydroporphyrin groups, however, do not bind iron.

  8. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  9. Direct demonstration of the presence of coordinated sulfate in the reaction pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana sulfite oxidase using 33S labeling and ESEEM spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Astashkin, Andrei V.; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Klein, Eric L.; Byrne, Robert S.; Hille, Russ; Raitsimring, Arnold M.; Enemark, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana has been reduced at pH = 6 with sulfite labeled with 33S (nuclear spin I = 3/2), followed by reoxidation by ferricyanide to generate the Mo(V) state of the active center. To obtain information about the hyperfine interaction (hfi) of 33S with Mo(V), continuous wave EPR and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments have been performed. The interpretation of the EPR and ESEEM spectra was facilitated by a theoretical analysis of the nuclear transition frequencies expected for the situation of the nuclear quadrupole interaction being much stronger than the Zeeman and hyperfine interactions. The isotropic hfi constant of 33S determined in these experiments was about 3 MHz, which demonstrates the presence of coordinated sulfate in the sulfite-reduced low-pH form of the plant enzyme. PMID:17983221

  10. Protective performances of two anti-graffiti treatments towards sulfite and sulfate formation in SO 2 polluted model environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, Paula María; Panas, Itai; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Johansson, Lars-Gunnar; Blanco-Varela, María Teresa; Martínez-Ramírez, Sagrario

    2010-11-01

    Specific strategies for protection are being developed to counter both the staining and corrosive effects of polluted air in cities, as well as to allow for efficient removal of unwanted graffiti paintings. These protection strategies employ molecules with tailored functionalities, e.g. being hydrophobic, while maintaining porosity for molecular water vapour permeation. The present study employs SO 2 and water to probe the behaviors of two anti-graffiti treatments, a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane ("Protectosil Antigraffiti" marketed by Degussa) and an organically modified silicate (Ormosil) synthesized from a polymer chain (polydimethyl siloxane, PDMS) and two network forming alkoxides (Zr propoxide and methyl triethoxy silane, MTES) dissolved in n-propanol, on five building materials, comprising limestone, aged lime mortar, hydrated cement mortar, granite, and brick material. The materials were exposed to a synthetic atmosphere for 20 h in a climate chamber, 0.78 ± 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and 95% RH. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DR-FTIR) spectra were registered before and after exposure in the climate chamber in the cases of both treated and untreated samples. DR-FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, suggest the anti-graffiti Ormosil to suppress formation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate (the primary initial product of the reaction of calcium compounds with SO 2 and water) on carbonate materials (limestone and lime mortar). In case of the granite, brick and cement mortar, Ormosil has a negligible influence on the SO 2 capture. While no sulfite formation was detected by DR-FTIR, gypsum is inferred to form due to metal oxides and minority compounds catalysed oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. In case of brick, this understanding finds support from SEM images as well as EDX. A priori presence of gypsum in hydrated cement mortars prevents positive identification by SEM. However, support for sulfur accumulation in hydrated cement mortar is provided by means of EDX. In case of a second anti-graffiti considered, Protectosil, no influence of the anti-graffiti treatment on the SO 2 uptake of any of the building materials was observed.

  11. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive meets...

  12. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive meets...

  13. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is present as the result of methylation of pectin by....1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  14. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive...

  15. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxic and anoxic regions of a microbial mat characterized by comparative analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Minz, D.; Flax, J.L.; Green, S.J.; Muyzer, G.; Cohen, Y.; Wagner, M.; Rittmann, B.E.; Stahl, D.A.

    1999-10-01

    Sequence analysis of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) was used to identify sulfate-reducing bacteria in a hypersaline microbial mat and to evaluate their distribution in relation to levels of oxygen. The most highly diverse DSR sequences, most related to those of the Desulfonema-like organisms within the {delta}-proteobacteria, were recovered from oxic regions of the mat. This observation extends those of previous studies by the authors and others associating Desulfonema-like organisms with oxic habitats.

  16. Effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate of polyphenoloxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.M.; Flurkey, W.H. )

    1989-04-01

    The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the enzymatic and physical characteristics of purified broad bean polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were examined. A sigmoidal increase in PPO activation was observed with increasing SDS concentrations. Half maximal activation occurred at .9 mM SDS well below the CMC of 3.5 mM. No apparent changes in the Km for catechol, pH optimum, of I{sub 50} for tropolone were observed in the presence vs absence of SDS. Thermal inactivation and binding of {sup 14}C dopa increased in the presence of SDS. Analytical ultracentrifugation and HPLC-SEC indicated that SDS did not change the apparent size of the PPO under nondenaturing conditions. Scanning fluorescence spectroscopy showed an increase in intrinsic trp/tyr fluorescence at approximately the same concentration in which SDS activation began. Further addition of SDS caused a large increase in intrinsic fluorescence. These results suggest the SDS causes an apparent conformational change induced by SDS binding which leads to enzyme activation.

  17. Radiolysis and photolysis of sodium sulfate crystalline hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenchurina, A. R.; Sal'keeva, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    The thermal treatment of sodium sulfate was found to affect its optical and luminescent properties when activated with trivalent rare-earth ions. The influence of crystal water molecules on radiation processes in sodium sulfate was studied. The interactions of atomic hydrogen with ions and radicals were calculated by the semiempirical MNDO quantum-chemical method. The hydrogen atom was found to form stable complexes with all ions and radicals. The ions and radicals of the sulfate subsystem play the role of traps for hydrogen atoms and escape recombination, giving rise to recombination luminescence at 150 K during UV excitation of the crystalline hydrate.

  18. Sodium sulfate induced hot corrosion in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1989-04-01

    A mass transfer model is developed that considers diffusive and chemical aspects of sodium sulfate formation and deposition on cooled turbine blades. The roles of gas phase condensation of sodium sulfate and multicomponent diffusion across a chemically frozen thin boundary layer are elaborated. A rational procedure is presented for correlating material wastage with laboratory weight gain data obtained by exposing alloy specimens pre-coated with a thin film of salt to SO/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/ in an oxygen environment. The sodium sulfate mass transfer model is used in conjunction with the correlation to project blade corrosion and lifetime as a function of gas turbine inlet temperature, blade cooling, and sodium and sulfur contaminant concentration. 19 refs., 16 figs.

  19. Sulfite-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Chloroplasts as Determined by Ethane Production 1

    PubMed Central

    Peiser, Galen D.; Lizada, Ma. Concepcion C.; Yang, Shang Fa

    1982-01-01

    Ethane formation, as a measure of lipid peroxidation, was studied in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts exposed to sulfite. Ethane formation required sulfite and light, and occurred with concomitant oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. In the dark, both ethane formation and sulfite oxidation were inhibited. Ethane formation was stimulated by ferric or ferrous ions and inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetate. The photosynthetic electron transport modulators, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) and phenazine methosulfate, inhibited both sulfite oxidation and ethane formation. Methyl viologen greatly stimulated ethane formation, but had little effect on sulfite oxidation. Methyl viologen, in the absence of sulfite, caused only a small amount of ethane formation in comparison to that produced with sulfite alone. Sulfite oxidation and ethane formation were effectively inhibited by the radical scavengers, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonic acid and ascorbate. Ethanol, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, inhibited ethane formation only to a small degree; formate, which converts hydroxyl radical to superoxide radical, caused a small stimulation in both sulfite oxidation and ethane formation. Superoxide dismutase inhibited ethane formation by 50% when added at a concentration equivalent to that of the endogenous activity. Singlet oxygen did not appear to play a role in ethane formation, inasmuch as the singlet oxygen scavengers, sodium azide and 1,4-diazobicyclo-[2,2,2]-octane, were not inhibitory. These data are consistent with the view that O2 is reduced by the photosynthetic electron transport system to superoxide anion, which in turn initiates the free radical oxidation of sulfite, and the free radicals produced during sulfite oxidation were responsible for the peroxidation of membrane lipids, resulting in the formation of ethane. PMID:16662657

  20. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and β-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%. PMID:25773993

  1. Community composition and distribution of sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and adjacent East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hui; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; Xu, Bochao; Wang, Guoshan; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Zhigang

    2015-11-01

    Sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SSRP) communities play a vital role in both sulfur and carbon cycles. Community composition and abundance of SSRP were investigated using dissimilatory sulfite reductase β subunit (dsrB) gene sequencing in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and its adjacent area in the East China Sea (ECS). Clone libraries were constructed and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was applied to understand the community information of SSRP. In addition to sequences affiliated to sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP), those affiliated with sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SiRP) were also observed. Four phylotypes of SRP in this study showed genetic similarity to Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrophobacteraceae, Desulfobacteraceae and Peptococcaceae, and an unknown group that could not be clearly affiliated with known lineages was found. Salinity, temperature and contents of total organic carbon (TOC) were most closely correlated with the SSRP communities by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). 210Pb activities demonstrated the sedimentary environment at S33 was more stable than that at S31. Intense resuspension and reconstruction of sediments made the vertical abundance profile of SSRP fluctuate violently. For surface sediments, the dsrB gene copy numbers near the Changjiang estuary were higher than those in the mouth of Hangzhou Bay and the mud deposits along the Zhejiang coast, and contents of TOC were positively related to the copy numbers of dsrB gene. Our data provided valuable information to achieve a better understanding of the potential role of SSRP in sediments from the Changjiang estuary and adjacent East China Sea.

  2. Synthesis and solid state properties of the 4-naphthyloxymethyl-2,2-dioxo-1,3,2-dioxathiolane, cyclic sulfate not available through sulfite oxidation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Bredikhin, Alexander A.

    2010-12-01

    The chiral adrenoblocker propranolol precursor 4-naphthyloxymethyl-2,2-dioxo-1,3,2-dioxathiolane, 2, was obtained in racemic and scalemic form. It was found that sulfates 2 are practically unavailable through the standard Ru-catalyzed sulfite oxidation procedure, but could be obtained by the direct action of SO 2Cl 2 on the corresponding vicinal diols 3. The published properties of the sulfate were corrected. Thermodynamic characteristics and binary melting phase diagram were evaluated for compound 2 by DSC. The crystal structure of rac- and scal- 2 was established by single crystal X-ray analysis and the absolute configuration of scal- 2 was established by the Flack method. The flexible nature of the sulfur-containing cycle, and the sensitivity of the compound conformation to homo- and heterochiral crystal environment was demonstrated.

  3. Sodium sulfate - Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mass spectrometer experiments were conducted to determine the thermodynamic properties of gaseous Na2SO4, and these data were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. The work is important in that sodium sulfate is the major phase recovered from turbine surfaces after instances of corrosion, due to the presence of sulfur in fuels and sodium chloride in intake air.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Pt. 63, Subpt... trays (small cubes). 2.2Materials Required. 2.2.1Ice cubes (made with distilled water). 2.2.2A solution of 1 molar (M) sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) (63 grams (g) Na2SO3/500 mL water (H2O) neutralized...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Hhhh... - Method for Determining Free-Formaldehyde in Urea-Formaldehyde Resins by Sodium Sulfite (Iced...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Pt. 63, Subpt. HHHH, App. A....2Materials Required. 2.2.1Ice cubes (made with distilled water). 2.2.2A solution of 1 molar (M) sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) (63 grams (g) Na2SO3/500 mL water (H2O) neutralized to thymolphthalein endpoint)....

  6. Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

  7. Enhanced growth of methane-propane clathrate hydrate crystals with sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium tetradecyl sulfate, and sodium hexadecyl sulfate surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoslim, Jeffry; Linga, Praveen; Englezos, Peter

    2010-12-01

    In the present study the effect of three commercially available anionic surfactants on the hydrate growth from a gas mixture of 90.5 mol% methane/9.5 mol% propane mixture was investigated. The surfactants used were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), and sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS). The morphology of the growing crystals and the gas consumption were observed during the experiments. The results showed that in the presence of surfactants, branches of porous fibre-like crystals were formed instead of dendritic crystals formed in the absence of any additive. In addition, extensive hydrate crystal growth on the crystallizer walls and a "mushy" hydrate layer instead of a thin crystal film appeared at the gas/water interface. Finally, the addition of SDS with concentration range between 242 and 2200 ppm (Δ T=13.1 K) was found to increase the mole consumption for hydrate formation by approximately 14 times compared to pure water. This increase is related to the change in hydrate morphology, whereby a more porous hydrate forms with enhanced water/gas contacts.

  8. Effect of sulfite on macrophage functions of normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Izgüt-Uysal, V Nimet; Küçükatay, Vural; Bülbül, Mehmet; Tan, Ruken; Yargiçoğlu, Piraye; Ağar, Aysel

    2005-04-01

    Sulfite has both an endogenous and an exogenous provenance in the mammalian tissues. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sulfite on macrophages functions in normal or sulfite oxidase deficient rats. Rats were divided into eight groups; (1) control group, (2) sulfite group (the rats received sodium meta bi-sulfite (25 mg/kg) in drinking water for 6 weeks), (3) vitamin E group (the rats received Vit E (50 mg/kg) by gavage for 6 weeks), (4) sulfite group+Vit E, (5)sulfite oxidase deficient group (the rats received high-W/Mo-deficient diet. The activity of sulfite oxidase was reduced in rats maintained on the high-W/Mo-deficient diet during the first 21 days of treatment. After the sulfite-oxidase deficiency, the rats continued to receive high-W/Mo-deficient diet for 6 weeks.), (6) sulfite+sulfite oxidase deficient group, (7) Vit E+sulfite oxidase deficient group, and (8) sulfite+Vit E+sulfite oxidase deficient group. Sulfite caused a significant increase in phagocytic and chemotactic activities of peritoneal macrophages. In sulfite-oxidase deficient rats, the increase in phagocytic and chemotactic activities in peritoneal macrophages after sulfite intake was found more than the control rats. Vit E supplementation prevented sulfite induced increase in macrophages functions. These results show that the macrophage functions are sensitive to sulfite intake. The effect of sulfite on macrophage functions may be related to reactive oxygen species. Because Vit E administration was able to modulate significantly sulfite-induced changes in the functions of peritoneal macrophages. PMID:15721208

  9. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.822...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  11. Effect of sulfite on cognitive function in normal and sulfite oxidase deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Küçükatay, Vural; Savcioğlu, Feyza; Hacioğlu, Gülay; Yargiçoğlu, Piraye; Ağar, Aysel

    2005-01-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite is oxidized to sulfate ion by sulfite oxidase (SOX, EC. 1.8.3.1). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible toxic effects of sulfite on neurons by measuring active avoidance learning in normal and SOX-deficient rats. For this purpose, male albino rats used in this study were divided into eight groups such as control group (C), sulfite group (25 mg/kg) (S), vitamin E group (50 mg/kg) (E), sulfite (25 mg/kg)+vitamin E group (50 mg/kg) (SE), SOX-deficient group (D), deficient+vitamin E group (50 mg/kg) (DE), deficient+sulfite group (25 mg/kg) (DS) and deficient+sulfite (25 mg/kg)+vitamin E group (50 mg/kg) (DSE). Sulfite-induced impairment of active avoidance learning in SOX-deficient rats but not in normal rats. Sulfite had no effect on hippocampus TBARS levels in SOX normal groups. In SOX-deficient rats, TBARS levels were found to be significantly increased with sulfite exposure. Vitamin E reversed the observed detrimental effects of sulfite in the SOX-deficient rats on their hippocampal TBARS but not on their active avoidance learning. In conclusion, sulfite has neurotoxic effects in sulfite oxidase deficient rats, but this effect may not depend on oxidative stress. PMID:15681120

  12. Physicochemical effects on sulfite transformation in a lipid-rich Chlorella sp. strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Fang; Wen, Xiaobin; Luo, Liming; Geng, Yahong; Li, Yeguang

    2014-11-01

    SO2 is very rapidly hydrated to sulfurous acid in water solution at pH value above 6.0, whereby sulfite is yielded from the disassociation of protons. We aimed to improve the sulfite transformation efficiency and provide a basis for the direct utilization of SO2 from flue gas by a microalgal suspension. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 was cultured in a medium with 20 mmol/L sodium sulfite under different physicochemical conditions. Under light conditions, sulfite concentration in the algal suspension reduced linearly over time, and was completely converted into sulfate within 8 h. The highest sulfite transformation rate (3.25 mmol/(L·h)) was obtained under the following conditions: 35°C, light intensity of 300 μmol/(m2·s), NaHCO3 concentration of 6 g/L, initial cell density (OD540) of 0.8 and pH of 9-10. There was a positive correlation between sulfite transformation rate and the growth of Chlorella, with the conditions favorable to algal growth giving better sulfite transformation. Although oxygen in the air plays a role in the transformation of SO2- 3 to SO2- 4, the transformation is mainly dependent on the metabolic activity of algal cells. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 is capable of tolerating high sulfite concentration, and can utilize sulfite as the sole sulfur source for maintaining healthy growth. We found that sulfite ≤20 mmol/L had no obvious effect on the total lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the algae. Thus, the results suggest it is feasible to use flue gas for the mass production of feedstock for biodiesel using Chlorella sp. XQ-20044, without preliminary removal of SO2, assuming there is adequate control of the pH.

  13. Subclinical, non-erythematous irritation with an open assay model (washing): sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) versus sodium laureth sulfate (SLES).

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, V; Morrison, B M; Paye, M; Maibach, H I

    2001-03-01

    Compared to exaggerated hand washing procedures, an open non-exaggerated assay better approximates consumer surfactant use. Our goal was to observe skin surface modifications induced by an open test with regard to discriminating between surfactant solutions. This human in vivo assay provided information about the effect of only three washes at the laboratory and a week of at-home use. Dorsal hand and volar forearm were compared. The results demonstrated that this clinical model permits exploration of subclinical surfactant-induced irritation. Both the volar forearm and the dorsal hand are capable of discriminating between the effects of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium laureth sulfate (SLES). Squamometry proved to be a sensitive assessment technique for detecting surfactant-induced subclinical skin surface alterations and for differentiating surfactant effects in this open application assay, in as few as three washes. PMID:11278060

  14. Sulfite Reductase Defines a Newly Discovered Bottleneck for Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction and Is Essential for Growth and Development in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Sayyar; Haas, Florian Heinrich; Allboje Samami, Arman; Moghaddas Gholami, Amin; Bauer, Andrea; Fellenberg, Kurt; Reichelt, Michael; Hnsch, Robert; Mendel, Ralf R.; Meyer, Andreas J.; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rdiger

    2010-01-01

    The role of sulfite reductase (SiR) in assimilatory reduction of inorganic sulfate to sulfide has long been regarded as insignificant for control of flux in this pathway. Two independent Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion lines (sir1-1 and sir1-2), each with an insertion in the promoter region of SiR, were isolated. sir1-2 seedlings had 14% SiR transcript levels compared with the wild type and were early seedling lethal. sir1-1 seedlings had 44% SiR transcript levels and were viable but strongly retarded in growth. In mature leaves of sir1-1 plants, the levels of SiR transcript, protein, and enzymatic activity ranged between 17 and 28% compared with the wild type. The 28-fold decrease of incorporation of 35S label into Cys, glutathione, and protein in sir1-1 showed that the decreased activity of SiR generated a severe bottleneck in the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. Root sulfate uptake was strongly enhanced, and steady state levels of most of the sulfur-related metabolites, as well as the expression of many primary metabolism genes, were changed in leaves of sir1-1. Hexose and starch contents were decreased, while free amino acids increased. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur composition was also severely altered, demonstrating strong perturbations in metabolism that differed markedly from known sulfate deficiency responses. The results support that SiR is the only gene with this function in the Arabidopsis genome, that optimal activity of SiR is essential for normal growth, and that its downregulation causes severe adaptive reactions of primary and secondary metabolism. PMID:20424176

  15. Destabilization of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by molten sodium vanadate-sodium sulfate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagelberg, A. S.; Hamilton, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The extent of surface destabilization of ZrO2 - 8 wt percent Y2O3 ceramic disks was determined after exposure to molten salt mixtures of sodium sulfate containing up to 15 mole percent sodium metavanadate (NaVO3) at 1173 K. The ceramic surface was observed to transform from the cubic/tetragonal to monoclinic phase, concurrent with chemical changes in the molten salt layer in contact with the ceramic. Significant attack rates were observed in both pure sulfate and metavanadate sulfate melts. The rate of attack was found to be quite sensitive to the mole fraction of vanadate in the molten salt solution and the partial pressure of sulfur trioxide in equilibrium with the salt melt. The observed parabolic rate of attack is interpreted to be caused by a reaction controlled by diffusion in the salt that penetrates into the porous layer formed by the destabilization. The parabolic rate constant in mixed sodium metavanadate - sodium sulfate melts was found to be proportional to the SO3 partial pressure and the square of the metavanadate concentration. In-situ Raman spectroscopic measurements allowed simultaneous observations of the ceramic phases and salt chemistry during the attack process.

  16. Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. PMID:26556376

  17. Studies on the bioavailability of deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in pigs fed with sodium sulfite-treated DON-contaminated maize.

    PubMed

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-11-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. PMID:26556376

  18. A precise spectrophotometric method for measuring sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, Kevin R; Lang, Ewa Z; Gregory, Svetoslava D; Bergsma, Janet M; Rae, Tracey D; Fishpaugh, Jeffrey R

    2015-10-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is used to denature and solubilize proteins, especially membrane and other hydrophobic proteins. A quantitative method to determine the concentration of SDS using the dye Stains-All is known. However, this method lacks the accuracy and reproducibility necessary for use with protein solutions where SDS concentration is a critical factor, so we modified this method after examining multiple parameters (solvent, pH, buffers, and light exposure). The improved method is simple to implement, robust, accurate, and (most important) precise. PMID:26150094

  19. Final report of the amended safety assessment of sodium laureth sulfate and related salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Valerie C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-07-01

    Sodium laureth sulfate is a member of a group of salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols, the safety of which was evaluated by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel for use in cosmetics. Sodium and ammonium laureth sulfate have not evoked adverse responses in any toxicological testing. Sodium laureth sulfate was demonstrated to be a dermal and ocular irritant but not a sensitizer. The Expert Panel recognized that there are data gaps regarding use and concentration of these ingredients. However, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentrations indicates a pattern of use. The potential to produce irritation exists with these salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols, but in practice they are not regularly seen to be irritating because of the formulations in which they are used. These ingredients should be used only when they can be formulated to be nonirritating. PMID:20634505

  20. Study on quality control of sulfated polysaccharide drug, propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS).

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-Ting; Ren, Li; Li, Shuang; Wang, Lin-Lin; He, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-06-25

    The combination of biological and chemical analysis methods was developed to improve quality control of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide drug. The allergic and anticoagulant assays revealed that PSS fractions with higher Mw and lower M/G ratio may have allergic response and bleeding risks. HPLC with pre-column derivatization, HPGPC and IC methods were combined to analyze 10 batches of PSS samples from different manufacturers. The results showed that the quality of these PSSs varied greatly which in turn led to the unstable anticoagulant activity and side effects. The study indicated that PSS with high purity, M/G ratio above 1.5, Mw of ∼9kD and DS of 9.0-13.0% can ensure clinical efficacy and low incidence of adverse drug reactions. In conclusion, the combined methods would be in favor of guiding manufacture and quality control of PSS to guarantee its effectiveness and safety. PMID:27083824

  1. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role. PMID:26197394

  2. Instrumental methods of analysis of sulfur compounds in synfuel process streams. Quarterly technical progress report for April-June 1984. [Sulfidic, polysulfidic, thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfate, thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.; Sexton, E.; Talbott, J.; Yakupkovic, J.

    1984-07-01

    Task 1: methods development for the speciation of the polysulfides. Work on this task has been completed in December 1983 and reported accordingly in DOE/PC/40783-T13. Task 2: methods development for the speciation of dithionite and polythionates. Electrochemical reduction of tetrathionate and pentathionate at the dropping mercury electrode (DME) proceeds through a mechanism involving specific adsorption of the reactant at the DME surface and yielding polarographic waves at -0.2 volt (versus the saturated calomel electrode) in aqueous solution. Ethanol interferes with the specific adsorption of tetrathionate and pentathionate in a range of potentials between 0.0 and -1.1 volt, because EtOH is preferentially adsorbed. This results in a shift of the polarographic half-wave potentials of tetrathionate and pentathionate, which facilitates their determination in polythionate mixtures. On the other hand, the polarographic reduction of trithionate is unaffected by ethanol, because it occurs at -1.5 volt where ethanol is not adsorbed at the surface of the DME. Task 3: total accounting of the sulfur balance in representative samples of synfuel process streams. Analyses of two aqueous gasifier effluents from Grand Forks, ND, were performed. An untreated specimen contained sulfidic and polysulfidic sulfur, thiosulfate and thiocyanate. On the other hand, sulfite, sulfate, and thiocyanate were the only sulfur moieties observed in the Grand Forks sample which had been stripped at PETC. 7 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joon; Ryu, Dong-Sung; Li, Dong Xun; Quan, Qi Zhe; Oh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jong Oh; Seo, Youn Gee; Lee, Young-Im; Yong, Chul Soon; Woo, Jong Soo; Choi, Han-Gon

    2009-06-01

    To develop a novel tacrolimus-loaded solid dispersion with improved solubility, various solid dispersions were prepared with various ratios of water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and carboxylmethylcellulose-Na using spray drying technique. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersions were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetery and powder X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, their solubility and dissolution were evaluated compared to drug powder. The solid dispersion at the tacrolimus/CMC-Na/sodium lauryl sulfate/citric acid ratio of 3/24/3/0.2 significantly improved the drug solubility and dissolution compared to powder. The scanning electron microscopy result suggested that carriers might be attached to the surface of drug in this solid dispersion. Unlike traditional solid dispersion systems, the crystal form of drug in this solid dispersion could not be converted to amorphous form, which was confirmed by the analysis of DSC and powder X-ray diffraction. Thus, the solid dispersion system with water, sodium lauryl sulfate, citric acid and CMC-Na should be a potential candidate for delivering a poorly water-soluble tacrolimus with enhanced solubility and no convertible crystalline. PMID:19557367

  4. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  5. Induction of colitis in young rats by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Vicario, María; Crespí, Mar; Franch, Angels; Amat, Concepció; Pelegrí, Carme; Moretó, Miquel

    2005-01-01

    Models using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce experimental colitis in rodents have been performed mostly in adult animals. For this reason, we aimed to develop a model of colitis in young rats. DSS was administered to 30-day-old rats at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5% in drinking water. Young rats were remarkably sensitive to DSS since clinical symptoms rapidly rose with 5% DSS and most animals died after the fifth day. With 1 and 2% DSS, the severity of mucosal lesions was also high on day 7, the animals showing leukocytosis and anemia. At 0.5% DSS, leukocytosis and mild colonic lesions were induced. This concentration of DSS significantly increased myeloperoxidase activity and goblet cell number in the colon, indicating mucosal inflammation. Since food consumption was not reduced by 0.5% DSS, we suggest that this protocol can be used to study the effects of dietary supplements on intestinal inflammatory processes. PMID:15712652

  6. Complexation between sodium dodecyl sulfate and amphoteric polyurethane nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Shifeng; Lin, Ouya; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2007-09-27

    The complexation between negatively charged sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and positively charged amphoteric polyurethane (APU) self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) containing nonionic hydrophobic segments is studied by dynamic light scattering, pyrene fluorescent probing, zeta-potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the present paper. With increasing the mol ratio of SDS to the positive charges on the surface of APU NPs, the aqueous solution of APU NPs presents precipitation at pH 2, around stoichiometric SDS concentration, and then the precipitate dissociates with excess SDS to form more stable nanoparticles of ionomer complexes. Three stages of the complexation process are clearly shown by the pyrene I1/I3 variation of the complex systems, which only depends on the ratio of SDS/APU, and demonstrate that the process is dominated by electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic aggregation. PMID:17803299

  7. Detergent (sodium dodecyl sulfate) shock proteins in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Adamowicz, M.; Kelley, P.M.; Nickerson, K.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The protein composition of Escherichia coli W3110 grown in the presence and absence of 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In SDS-grown cells, at least 4 proteins were turned on, 13 were turned off, 15 were elevated, and 15 were depressed. The 19 unique and elevated SDS-induced spots constituted 7.91% of the total 35S-labeled protein. There was no apparent overlap between these 19 detergent (SDS) stress proteins and those of other known bacterial stress responses. The detergent stress stimulon is a distinct and independent stimulon. Its physiological relevance probably derives from the presence of bile salts in animal gastrointestinal tracts.

  8. Phylogeography of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria among Disturbed Sediments, Disclosed by Analysis of the Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes (dsrAB)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, J. R.; Kerkhof, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected worldwide from 16 locations on four continents (in New York, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Italy, Latvia, and South Korea) to assess the extent of the diversity and the distribution patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated sediments. The SRB communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) with NdeII digests. The fingerprints of dsrAB genes contained a total of 369 fluorescent TRFs, of which <20% were present in the GenBank database. The global sulfidogenic communities appeared to be significantly different among the anthropogenically impacted (petroleum-contaminated) sites, but nearly all were less diverse than pristine habitats, such as mangroves. A global SRB indicator species of petroleum pollution was not identified. However, several dsrAB gene sequences corresponding to hydrocarbon-degrading isolates or consortium members were detected in geographically widely separated polluted sites. Finally, a cluster analysis of the TRFLP fingerprints indicated that many SRB microbial communities were most similar on the basis of close geographic proximity (tens of kilometers). Yet, on larger scales (hundreds to thousands of kilometers) SRB communities could cluster with geographically widely separated sites and not necessarily with the site with the closest proximity. These data demonstrate that SRB populations do not adhere to a biogeographic distribution pattern similar to that of larger eukaryotic organisms, with the greatest species diversity radiating from the Indo-Pacific region. Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time. PMID:15691959

  9. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  10. Structural Insights into Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Karakas,E.; Wilson, H.; Graf, T.; Xiang, S.; Jaramillo-Busquets, S.; Rajagopalan, K.; Kisker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase deficiency is a lethal genetic disease that results from defects either in the genes encoding proteins involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis or in the sulfite oxidase gene itself. Several point mutations in the sulfite oxidase gene have been identified from patients suffering from this disease worldwide. Although detailed biochemical analyses have been carried out on these mutations, no structural data could be obtained because of problems in crystallizing recombinant human and rat sulfite oxidases and the failure to clone the chicken sulfite oxidase gene. We synthesized the gene for chicken sulfite oxidase de novo, working backward from the amino acid sequence of the native chicken liver enzyme by PCR amplification of a series of 72 overlapping primers. The recombinant protein displayed the characteristic absorption spectrum of sulfite oxidase and exhibited steady state and rapid kinetic parameters comparable with those of the tissue-derived enzyme. We solved the crystal structures of the wild type and the sulfite oxidase deficiency-causing R138Q (R160Q in humans) variant of recombinant chicken sulfite oxidase in the resting and sulfate-bound forms. Significant alterations in the substrate-binding pocket were detected in the structure of the mutant, and a comparison between the wild type and mutant protein revealed that the active site residue Arg-450 adopts different conformations in the presence and absence of bound sulfate. The size of the binding pocket is thereby considerably reduced, and its position relative to the cofactor is shifted, causing an increase in the distance of the sulfur atom of the bound sulfate to the molybdenum.

  11. Sulfite inhibits oxalate production from glycolate and glyoxylate in vitro and from dichloroacetate infused i.v. into male rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V; Schwille, P O

    1993-04-01

    The effect of sulfite on oxalate production from glycolate and glyoxylate was investigated in an in vitro assay system using rabbit muscle LDH and rat liver 35-60% ammonium sulfate fraction as enzymes. A > or = 50% inhibition in oxalate production was observed at sulfite to glyoxylate ratio of 0.4. LDH activity (change in A340 nm) was inhibited by > or = 40% at sulfite to glyoxylate ratio of 0.5. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fasted for 24 h and infused with dichloroacetate (150 mg/rat/h, iv, n = 6), without and with sodium sulfite (150 mg/rat/h, n = 6) excreted oxalate in urine, respectively, at the rate of 1.13 +/- 0.29 and 0.61 +/- 0.09 mumol/h/100 g body wt, showing a nearly 50% reduction due to sulfite. The present report demands further experimentation to define the role of sulfite as an intracellular modulator of oxalate production. PMID:8484965

  12. Inactivation of Prions by Acidic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, David; Supattapone, Surachai; Giles, Kurt; Vergara, Julie; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Lessard, Pierre; Safar, Jiri G.; Glidden, David V.; McCulloch, Charles; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Scott, Michael; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by the discovery that prions become protease-sensitive after exposure to branched polyamine dendrimers in acetic acid (AcOH) (S. Supattapone, H. Wille, L. Uyechi, J. Safar, P. Tremblay, F. C. Szoka, F. E. Cohen, S. B. Prusiner, and M. R. Scott, J. Virol. 75:3453-3461, 2001), we investigated the inactivation of prions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in weak acid. As judged by sensitivity to proteolytic digestion, the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc) was denatured at room temperature by SDS at pH values of ≤4.5 or ≥10. Exposure of Sc237 prions in Syrian hamster brain homogenates to 1% SDS and 0.5% AcOH at room temperature resulted in a reduction of prion titer by a factor of ca. 107; however, all of the bioassay hamsters eventually developed prion disease. When various concentrations of SDS and AcOH were tested, the duration and temperature of exposure acted synergistically to inactivate both hamster Sc237 prions and human sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions. The inactivation of prions in brain homogenates and those bound to stainless steel wires was evaluated by using bioassays in transgenic mice. sCJD prions were more than 100,000 times more resistant to inactivation than Sc237 prions, demonstrating that inactivation procedures validated on rodent prions cannot be extrapolated to inactivation of human prions. Some procedures that significantly reduced prion titers in brain homogenates had a limited effect on prions bound to the surface of stainless steel wires. Using acidic SDS combined with autoclaving for 15 min, human sCJD prions bound to stainless steel wires were eliminated. Our findings form the basis for a noncorrosive system that is suitable for inactivating prions on surgical instruments, as well as on other medical and dental equipment. PMID:16352557

  13. Inactivation of prions by acidic sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Peretz, David; Supattapone, Surachai; Giles, Kurt; Vergara, Julie; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Lessard, Pierre; Safar, Jiri G; Glidden, David V; McCulloch, Charles; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B; Scott, Michael; Dearmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by the discovery that prions become protease-sensitive after exposure to branched polyamine dendrimers in acetic acid (AcOH) (S. Supattapone, H. Wille, L. Uyechi, J. Safar, P. Tremblay, F. C. Szoka, F. E. Cohen, S. B. Prusiner, and M. R. Scott, J. Virol. 75:3453-3461, 2001), we investigated the inactivation of prions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in weak acid. As judged by sensitivity to proteolytic digestion, the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc) was denatured at room temperature by SDS at pH values of < or =4.5 or > or =10. Exposure of Sc237 prions in Syrian hamster brain homogenates to 1% SDS and 0.5% AcOH at room temperature resulted in a reduction of prion titer by a factor of ca. 10(7); however, all of the bioassay hamsters eventually developed prion disease. When various concentrations of SDS and AcOH were tested, the duration and temperature of exposure acted synergistically to inactivate both hamster Sc237 prions and human sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) prions. The inactivation of prions in brain homogenates and those bound to stainless steel wires was evaluated by using bioassays in transgenic mice. sCJD prions were more than 100,000 times more resistant to inactivation than Sc237 prions, demonstrating that inactivation procedures validated on rodent prions cannot be extrapolated to inactivation of human prions. Some procedures that significantly reduced prion titers in brain homogenates had a limited effect on prions bound to the surface of stainless steel wires. Using acidic SDS combined with autoclaving for 15 min, human sCJD prions bound to stainless steel wires were eliminated. Our findings form the basis for a noncorrosive system that is suitable for inactivating prions on surgical instruments, as well as on other medical and dental equipment. PMID:16352557

  14. Effects of Increasing Concentrations of Sodium Sulfite on Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol Sulfonate Concentrations of Maize Kernels and Maize Meal Preserved at Various Moisture Content

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Marleen; Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Under moderate climatic conditions, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination occurs frequently on cereals. Detoxification measures are required to avoid adverse effects on farm animals. In the present study, a wet preservation method with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) and propionic acid was tested to titrate the optimum Na2SO3-dose for maximum DON reduction of contaminated maize kernels and meal and to examine the interaction between dose and moisture content in dependence on the preservation duration. The DON concentration decreased with increasing amounts of supplemented Na2SO3 and with increasing duration of the preservation period in a bi-exponential fashion. Additionally, the feed structure and moisture content had a significant influence on the decontaminating effect. Variants with 30% moisture content favored higher DON reduction rates compared to 14% moisture, but especially at low moisture contents, DON reduction was more pronounced in maize kernels than in maize meal. In addition to the decrease of DON, a concomitant formation of three different DON sulfonates was observed which differed in their formation pattern over the time course of preservation. The overall results and statistical analysis clarified that Na2SO3 addition of 10 g/kg maize at 30% moisture for eight days was necessary to obtain a complete DON reduction. PMID:25760079

  15. Structure-Based Alteration of Substrate Specificity and Catalytic Activity of Sulfite Oxidase from Sulfite Oxidation to Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, James A.; Wilson, Heather L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.

    2012-04-18

    Eukaryotic sulfite oxidase is a dimeric protein that contains the molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the metabolically essential conversion of sulfite to sulfate as the terminal step in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine. Nitrate reductase is an evolutionarily related molybdoprotein in lower organisms that is essential for growth on nitrate. In this study, we describe human and chicken sulfite oxidase variants in which the active site has been modified to alter substrate specificity and activity from sulfite oxidation to nitrate reduction. On the basis of sequence alignments and the known crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase, two residues are conserved in nitrate reductases that align with residues in the active site of sulfite oxidase. On the basis of the crystal structure of yeast nitrate reductase, both positions were mutated in human sulfite oxidase and chicken sulfite oxidase. The resulting double-mutant variants demonstrated a marked decrease in sulfite oxidase activity but gained nitrate reductase activity. An additional methionine residue in the active site was proposed to be important in nitrate catalysis, and therefore, the triple variant was also produced. The nitrate reducing ability of the human sulfite oxidase triple mutant was nearly 3-fold greater than that of the double mutant. To obtain detailed structural data for the active site of these variants, we introduced the analogous mutations into chicken sulfite oxidase to perform crystallographic analysis. The crystal structures of the Mo domains of the double and triple mutants were determined to 2.4 and 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, respectively.

  16. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive. PMID:26615710

  17. Molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles with intrinsic sulfite oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Ragg, Ruben; Natalio, Filipe; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Janssen, Henning; Kashyap, Anubha; Strand, Dennis; Strand, Susanne; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2014-05-27

    Sulfite oxidase is a mitochondria-located molybdenum-containing enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate in the amino acid and lipid metabolism. Therefore, it plays a major role in detoxification processes, where defects in the enzyme cause a severe infant disease leading to early death with no efficient or cost-effective therapy in sight. Here we report that molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanoparticles display an intrinsic biomimetic sulfite oxidase activity under physiological conditions, and, functionalized with a customized bifunctional ligand containing dopamine as anchor group and triphenylphosphonium ion as targeting agent, they selectively target the mitochondria while being highly dispersible in aqueous solutions. Chemically induced sulfite oxidase knockdown cells treated with MoO3 nanoparticles recovered their sulfite oxidase activity in vitro, which makes MoO3 nanoparticles a potential therapeutic for sulfite oxidase deficiency and opens new avenues for cost-effective therapies for gene-induced deficiencies. PMID:24702461

  18. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S.; Rard, J.A.

    1991-07-01

    New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l_brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r_brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298. 15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. ); Rard, J.A. )

    1991-07-01

    New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Prevention of sodium lauryl sulfate irritant contact dermatitis by Pro-Q aerosol foam skin protectant.

    PubMed

    Patterson, S E; Williams, J V; Marks, J G

    1999-05-01

    Eczematous skin disease is a serious work-related illness. Since 1995, reimbursement by insurance companies for treatment of skin diseases has become the largest cost source in some countries. This study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 20) of the efficacy of Pro-Q, a skin protectant product, in the prevention of contact dermatitis from sodium lauryl sulfate and urushiol, the resinous sap of poison ivy and poison oak. Pro-Q was significantly effective in reducing the irritation from sodium lauryl sulfate but did not prevent the allergic reaction to urushiol. PMID:10321615

  1. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  2. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pectin in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  3. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pectin in accordance with the following conditions. (a) It is present as the result of methylation of pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin....

  4. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy

  5. Iron(III) sulfate: a stable, cost effective electrode material for sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chad W; Gocheva, Irina; Hoster, Harry E; Yu, Denis Y W

    2014-03-01

    Iron(iii) sulfate, a rhombohedral NASICON compound, has been demonstrated as a sodium intercalation host. This cost-effective material is attractive, as it can be slurry processed in bulk with ball-milling, while utilizing the iron 2(+)/3(+) redox couple, offering stable 3.2 V performance for over 400 cycles. PMID:24217427

  6. DETERMINATION OF SURFACTANT SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULFATE BY ION PAIRING CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESSED CONDUCTIVITY DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. CS-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. The main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES)....

  7. Spectrophotometric quantitation of watermelon lycopene extracted into aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absorbance properties of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extracts of watermelon tissue were examined as part of an ongoing effort to develop simpler, more economical ways to quantify carotenoids in melon fruit. Levels of SDS >0.2% extracted and solubilized watermelon lycopene-containing ch...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic... superficial ocular inflammations or infections limited to the conjunctiva or the anterior segment of the...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ophthalmic ointment. 524.1883 Section 524.1883 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ophthalmic ointment. 524.1883 Section 524.1883 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate...

  11. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility.

  12. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  13. DETERMINATION OF SURFACTANT SODIUM LAURYL ESTHER SULFATE BY ION PAIRING CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH SUPPRESED CONDUCTIVITY DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the determination of the anionic Steol CS-330 surfactant is described. S-330 is a complex mixture of oligomers due to the various sizes of fatty alcohols and the number of moles of the ethoxylation. he main component of CS-330 is sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES). i...

  14. Emission of burning emulsified diesel oil with sodium sulfate in salty atmospheric air.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan; Pan, Jenq-Yih

    2003-01-01

    The effects of sodium sulfate in fuel oil and salty atmospheric air on the emission characteristics of furnaces or boilers burned with emulsified diesel oils are considered in this study. An industrial cylindrical furnace made of stainless steel associated with an automatic oil-fired burner was used for the emission measurements. Both neat diesel oil and emulsified diesel oil with distilled water were used as the tested oils. A homogenizing and emulsifying machine was employed to stir the diesel oil and sodium sulfate powder into a homogeneous oil mixture, and to prepare emulsions of micro-droplets of water dispersed in diesel oil. The experimental results showed that the existence of sodium chloride in atmospheric air enhanced SO2 formation. The use of emulsified diesel oil with 300-ppm sodium sulfate as fuel reduced the burning gas temperature and NOx emission while increased O2 emission. Moreover, the presence of sodium chloride in atmospheric air hindered the completeness of the combustion process and thus resulted in lower burning efficiency and larger excess oxygen emission. PMID:14672327

  15. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Dorman, Rebecca A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Doug K; Brumbaugh, William G; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Mount, David R

    2016-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1 mg K/L to 3 mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:115-127. Published 2015 SETAC. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the United States. PMID:26139383

  17. The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Boyd Arthur

    Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (<5 mum). Complex phase assemblages including gypsum, ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

  18. Isolation of Assimilatory- and Dissimilatory-Type Sulfite Reductases from Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Po; LeGall, Jean; Peck, Harry D.

    1973-01-01

    Bisulfite reductase (desulfoviridin) and an assimilatory sulfite reductase have been purified from extracts of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The bisulfite reductase has absorption maxima at 628, 580, 408, 390, and 279 nm, and a molecular weight of 226,000 by sedimentation equilibrium, and was judged to be free of other proteins by disk electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. On gels, purified bisulfite reductase exhibited two green bands which coincided with activity and protein. The enzyme appears to be a tetramer but was shown to have two different types of subunits having molecular weights of 42,000 and 50,000. The chromophore did not form an alkaline ferrohemochromogen, was not reduced with dithionite or borohydride, and did not form a spectrally visible complex with CO. The assimilatory sulfite reductase has absorption maxima at 590, 545, 405 and 275 nm and a molecular weight of 26,800, and appears to consist of a single polypeptide chain as it is not dissociated into subunits by sodium dodecyl sulfate. By disk electrophoresis, purified sulfite reductase exhibited a single greenish-brown band which coincided with activity and protein. The sole product of the reduction was sulfide, and the chromophore was reduced by borohydride in the presence of sulfite. Carbon monoxide reacted with the reduced chromophore but it did not form a typical pyridine ferrohemochromogen. Thiosulfate, trithionate, and tetrathionate were not reduced by either enzyme preparation. In the presence of 8 M urea, the spectrum of bisulfite reductase resembles that of the sulfite reductase, thus suggesting a chemical relationship between the two chromophores. Images PMID:4725615

  19. Sulfonates as Terminal Electron Acceptors for Growth of Sulfite-Reducing Bacteria (Desulfitobacterium spp.) and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Effects of Inhibitors of Sulfidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Thomas J.; Godchaux, Walter; Leadbetter, Edward R.

    1999-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of Desulfitobacterium spp. to utilize aliphatic sulfonates as terminal electron acceptors (TEA) for growth. Isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) reduction by Desulfitobacterium hafniense resulted in acetate as well as sulfide accumulation in accordance with the expectation that the carbon portion of isethionate was oxidized to acetate and the sulfur was reduced to sulfide. The presence of a polypeptide, approximately 97 kDa, was evident in isethionate-grown cells of Desulfitobacterium hafniense, Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE 1, and the two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)—Desulfovibrio desulfuricans IC1 (T. J. Lie, J. R. Leadbetter, and E. R. Leadbetter, Geomicrobiol. J. 15:135–149, 1998) and Desulfomicrobium norvegicum; this polypeptide was not detected when these bacteria were grown on TEA other than isethionate, suggesting involvement in its metabolism. The sulfate analogs molybdate and tungstate, effective in inhibiting sulfate reduction by SRB, were examined for their effects on sulfonate reduction. Molybdate effectively inhibited sulfonate reduction by strain IC1 and selectively inhibited isethionate (but not cysteate) reduction by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans and Desulfitobacterium sp. strain PCE 1. Desulfitobacterium hafniense, however, grew with both isethionate and cysteate in the presence of molybdate. In contrast, tungstate only partially inhibited sulfonate reduction by both SRB and Desulfitobacterium spp. Similarly, another inhibitor of sulfate reduction, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, effectively inhibited sulfate reduction by SRB but only partially inhibited sulfonate reduction by both SRB and Desulfitobacterium hafniense. PMID:10508097

  20. Reactions in microemulsion formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and hexanol

    SciTech Connect

    Valaulikar, B.S. . Chemistry Div.)

    1993-11-01

    The reactions, oxidation of iodide by persulfate and basic hydrolysis of crystal violet, were investigated in the w/o microemulsion formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and hexanol. The second order rate constants were measured as a function of emulsion formed by sodium dodecyl sulfate, water, and hexanol. The second order rate constants were measured as a function of water to surfactant molar ratio and hexanol content. The increased rates were attributed to the smaller droplet size of the water pools. The rates are shown to be controlled by the water content as well as the hexanol content. It is shown that the manner in which the rate is affected applies to the catalyzed as well as the retarded reactions. This system is shown to be more effective than the AOT/water/decane system.

  1. Thermodynamics of micelle formation in a water-alcohol solution of sodium tetradecyl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilova, S. V.; Tret'yakova, A. Ya.; Barabanov, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of addition of ethanol and propan-1-ol on sodium tetradecyl sulfate micelle formation in an aqueous solution are studied via microprobe fluorescence microscopy and conductometry. The critical micelle concentration, quantitative characteristics of micelles, and thermodynamic parameters of micelle formation are determined. Addition of 5-15 vol % of ethanol or 5-10 vol % of propan-1-ol is shown to result in a lower critical micelle concentration than in the aqueous solution, and in the formation of mixed spherical micelles whose sizes and aggregation numbers are less than those for the systems without alcohol. The contribution from the enthalpy factor to the free energy of sodium tetradecyl sulfate micelle formation is found to dominate in mixed solvents, in contrast to aqueous solutions.

  2. Water soluble sodium sulfate nanorods as a versatile template for the designing of copper sulfide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Das, Gautam; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Karak, Niranjan; Yoon, Young Soo

    2014-06-01

    The present study reports the use of water soluble sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) nanorods as a versatile template for generation of tubular copper sulfide (CuS) nanostructures. The Na2SO4 nanorods were synthesized from ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), under refluxing condition. The shape and morphology control of the Na2SO4 nanorods were studied with respect to nature of surfactant used and reactant mole ratio. While, PVP mole ratio was important to obtain homogeneous nanorods. Uniform and stable nanotubes of CuS were than obtained by the dissolution of the nanorods in water. The use of simple chemicals for synthesis of such nanotube templates opens the prospect for wide scale downstream applications. PMID:24738412

  3. Sclerotherapy using 1% sodium tetradecyl sulfate to treat a vascular malformation: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Min, Hong-Gi; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek

    2015-12-01

    Vascular malformations are the most common congenital and neonatal vascular anomalies in the head and neck region. The demand for simple and esthetic vascular malformation treatments have increased more recently. In this study, two patients that were diagnosed with venous malformations were treated with sodium tetradecyl sulfate as a sclerosing agent. Recurrence was not found one year after the surgery. This article gives a brief case report of sclerotherapy as an effective approach to treat vascular malformations in the oral cavity. PMID:26734559

  4. Sclerotherapy using 1% sodium tetradecyl sulfate to treat a vascular malformation: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the most common congenital and neonatal vascular anomalies in the head and neck region. The demand for simple and esthetic vascular malformation treatments have increased more recently. In this study, two patients that were diagnosed with venous malformations were treated with sodium tetradecyl sulfate as a sclerosing agent. Recurrence was not found one year after the surgery. This article gives a brief case report of sclerotherapy as an effective approach to treat vascular malformations in the oral cavity. PMID:26734559

  5. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

    2000-04-01

    New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

  6. Micellization and synergistic interaction of binary surfactant mixtures based on sodium nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Xiu; Deng, Shao-Ping; Li, Xiao-Kui

    2008-02-15

    Mixed micelle formation and synergistic interactions of binary surfactant combinations of sodium nonylphenol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate (NPES) with typical surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X-100 (TX100), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) at 25 degrees C in the presence of NaCl have been investigated. The critical micelle concentration of the binary mixtures has been quantitatively estimated by steady-state fluorescence measurements. The micellar characteristics such as composition, activity coefficients, and mutual interaction parameters have been estimated following different theoretical treatments. Investigation on the micellization and synergistic interaction of NPES with four kinds of surfactants showed that the behavior of the binary mixture deviated from the ideal state. The analysis revealed that the interaction parameter values (beta) varied with variation of solvent composition. Besides the strong electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged surfactant NPES-CTAB mixture, the interaction between NPES and SDS also showed far more deviation from ideal behavior than that of TX100 and AOT. The reason for the synergism is also discussed and the results show that an ionic and a nonionic surfactant character existed concurrently in NPES due to the combination of a sulfate group and polyoxyethylene as a hydrophilic moiety. Zeta potential and diffusion coefficient measurements of micelles confirmed the synergistic interaction between the binary surfactants. PMID:18005979

  7. Compatibility and stability of cefazolin sodium, clindamycin phosphate, and gentamicin sulfate in two intravenous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zbrozek, A S; Marble, D A; Bosso, J A

    1988-11-01

    We studied the compatibility and stability of clindamycin phosphate admixed with gentamicin sulfate and cefazolin sodium in small-volume diluents under specific storage conditions. In two replicate 100 ml dilutions of NaCl 0.9% injection and dextrose 5% (D5W) injection, clindamycin phosphate 900 mg was admixed with gentamicin sulfate 80 mg and cefazolin sodium 1 g. Drug concentrations were determined at the time of preparation and at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Clindamycin and cefazolin were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gentamicin was assayed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Visual inspections and pH determinations of each solution were performed at each assay time. Test solutions were maintained at constant room temperature and fluorescent lighting. Concentrations of clindamycin and gentamicin remained greater than 90 percent of the original concentrations throughout the study. Cefazolin concentrations dropped below 90 percent in D5W injection at 4 hours after admixture and at 12 hours after admixture in NaCl 0.9% injection. Visual analyses and pH changes revealed no significant changes. The combination of clindamycin phosphate 900 mg, gentamicin sulfate 80 mg, and cefazolin sodium 1 g in D5W 100 ml was found to be compatible for up to 4 hours. The duration of compatibility for these three drugs in 100 ml of NaCl 0.9% was 12 hours. PMID:3234252

  8. Inactivation of HIV-1 in breast milk by treatment with the alkyl sulfate microbicide sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)

    PubMed Central

    Urdaneta, Sandra; Wigdahl, Brian; Neely, Elizabeth B; Berlin, Cheston M; Schengrund, Cara-Lynne; Lin, Hung-Mo; Howett, Mary K

    2005-01-01

    Background Reducing transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk is needed to help decrease the burden of pediatric HIV/AIDS in society. We have previously reported that alkyl sulfates (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) are microbicidal against HIV-1 at low concentrations, are biodegradable, have little/no toxicity and are inexpensive. Therefore, they may be used for treatment of HIV-1 infected breast milk. In this report, human milk was artificially infected by adding to it HIV-1 (cell-free or cell-associated) and treated with ?1% SDS (?10 mg/ml). Microbicidal treatment was at 37C or room temperature for 10 min. SDS removal was performed with a commercially available resin. Infectivity of HIV-1 and HIV-1 load in breast milk were determined after treatment. Results SDS (?0.1%) was virucidal against cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 in breast milk. SDS could be substantially removed from breast milk, without recovery of viral infectivity. Viral load in artificially infected milk was reduced to undetectable levels after treatment with 0.1% SDS. SDS was virucidal against HIV-1 in human milk and could be removed from breast milk if necessary. Milk was not infectious after SDS removal. Conclusion The proposed treatment concentrations are within reported safe limits for ingestion of SDS by children of 1 g/kg/day. Therefore, use of alkyl sulfate microbicides, such as SDS, to treat HIV1-infected breast milk may be a novel alternative to help prevent/reduce transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding. PMID:15888210

  9. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424182

  10. Influence and hydrolysis kinetics in titanyl sulfate solution from the sodium hydroxide molten salt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weijing; Chen, Desheng; Chu, Jinglong; Li, Jie; Xue, Tianyan; Wang, Lina; Wang, Dong; Qi, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Hydrated titanium dioxide (HTD) was precipitated by thermal hydrolysis in purified titanyl sulfate solution (TSS) obtained through the sodium hydroxide molten salt clean method. Various factors including the stirring speed and initial concentrations of TiOSO4, sulfuric acid, and sodium ion were studied. The main influence factors in the hydrolysis process were the initial concentrations of TiOSO4 and sulfuric acid. Contrary to the ferrous ion, the sodium ion improved the ionic activity of Ti4+, but did not decrease the crystal size. The Boltzman growth model (x=A2+(A1-A2)/{1+exp[(t-t0)/dt)]}, which focuses on two main parameters (CTiOSO4 and CH2SO4), fits the hydrolysis process well with R2>0.97. An increase in sulfuric acid concentration negatively affected the hydrolysis rates and the value of A2, while t0 increased. An increase in titanyl sulfate concentration directly reduced the hydrolysis rates and particle size of HTD, contrary to the trend for the value of t0. A simulation software called 1stopt was used to observe the relationship between Z (A1, A2, t0, dt) and a, b (CTiO2 and CH2SO4).

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of chicken sulfite oxidase crystals

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.; Kisker, C.

    1999-05-17

    Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Recently, the crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase has been reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. In contrast to the information available from previous X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies, the active site indicated by crystallography was a mono-oxo species. Because of this the possibility that the crystals did in fact contain a reduced molybdenum species was considered in the crystallographic work. The authors report herein an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of polycrystalline sulfite oxidase prepared in the same manner as the previous single-crystal samples, and compare this with data for frozen solutions of oxidized and reduced enzyme.

  12. Enthalpies of formation for water + sodium dodecyl sulfate + 1-pentanol + triethanolamine mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batov, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    The enthalpies of mixing of water (H2O) + sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDDS) + 1-pentanol (PeOH) + triethanolamine (TEA) mixtures with different compositions at 298.15 K are determined using the thermochemical cycle. The enthalpies of dissolution of NaDDS, H2O, PeOH, TEA, and H2O + TEA + PeOH + NaDDS mixtures in 2-propanol are measured by means of calorimetry. The formation of the studied mixtures from neat components is shown to be mainly an exothermic process. The influence of the nature of components and a mixture's composition on the enthalpies of mixing is discussed.

  13. Testing a direct-contact crystallizer for cold thermal energy storage using sodium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Thermal energy storage systems have the potential permitting more economical and efficient use of intermittent energy sources and off-peak electrical power for applications where energy supply and demand do not coincide. One such application is space cooling of residential buildings. This program investigated a novel approach to an aqueous sodium sulfate system wherein water evaporating directly from the salt solution provides the cooling. A circulation pump outside the combination crystallizer-thermal energy storage tank discharges through nozzles inside the tank to maintain agitation of the crystal slurry. The concept was evaluated analytically and tested experimentally.

  14. Analysis of Furaneol in tomato using dynamic headspace sampling with sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttery, R G; Takeoka, G R; Naim, M; Rabinowitch, H; Nam, Y

    2001-09-01

    High-flow dynamic headspace sampling with excess anhydrous sodium sulfate was found to be an effective method of isolating Furaneol from fresh tomatoes. Quantitative analysis was carried out by gas chromatography using maltol as internal standard. Furaneol was found in the highest concentrations (660-1100 ppb) in the summer crop of home-grown tomatoes and in some of the greenhouse hydroponically grown tomatoes, which are ripened on the plant before being transported to the supermarkets. Furaneol was found in the lowest concentrations (38-180 ppb) in the common ethylene-ripened, field-grown, supermarket tomatoes. PMID:11559136

  15. Critical role of vitamin D in sulfate homeostasis: regulation of the sodium-sulfate cotransporter by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Merry J G; Liu, Wenhua; Qiao, Guilin; Kong, Juan; Zheng, Wei; Krausz, Thomas; Cs-Szabo, Gabriella; Sitrin, Michael D; Li, Yan Chun

    2004-10-01

    As the fourth most abundant anion in the body, sulfate plays an essential role in numerous physiological processes. One key protein involved in transcellular transport of sulfate is the sodium-sulfate cotransporter NaSi-1, and previous studies suggest that vitamin D modulates sulfate homeostasis by regulating NaSi-1 expression. In the present study, we found that, in mice lacking the vitamin D receptor (VDR), NaSi-1 expression in the kidney was reduced by 72% but intestinal NaSi-1 levels remained unchanged. In connection with these findings, urinary sulfate excretion was increased by 42% whereas serum sulfate concentration was reduced by 50% in VDR knockout mice. Moreover, levels of hepatic glutathione and skeletal sulfated proteoglycans were also reduced by 18 and 45%, respectively, in the mutant mice. Similar results were observed in VDR knockout mice after their blood ionized calcium levels and rachitic bone phenotype were normalized by dietary means, indicating that vitamin D regulation of NaSi-1 expression and sulfate metabolism is independent of its role in calcium metabolism. Treatment of wild-type mice with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or vitamin D analog markedly stimulated renal NaSi-1 mRNA expression. These data provide strong in vivo evidence that vitamin D plays a critical role in sulfate homeostasis. However, the observation that serum sulfate and skeletal proteoglycan levels in normocalcemic VDR knockout mice remained low in the absence of rickets and osteomalacia suggests that the contribution of sulfate deficiency to development of rickets and osteomalacia is minimal. PMID:15165995

  16. Sulfite oxidizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Changjian; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes are essential mononuclear molybdenum (Mo) proteins involved in sulfur metabolism of animals, plants and bacteria. There are three such enzymes presently known: (1) sulfite oxidase (SO) in animals, (2) SO in plants, and (3) sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH) in bacteria. X-ray crystal structures of enzymes from all three sources (chicken SO, Arabidopsis thaliana SO, and Starkeya novella SDH) show nearly identical square pyramidal coordination around the Mo atom, even though the overall structures of the proteins and the presence of additional cofactors vary. This structural information provides a molecular basis for studying the role of specific amino acids in catalysis. Animal SO catalyzes the final step in the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids and is critical in detoxifying excess sulfite. Human SO deficiency is a fatal genetic disorder that leads to early death, and impaired SO activity is implicated in sulfite neurotoxicity. Animal SO and bacterial SDH contain both Mo and heme domains, whereas plant SO only has the Mo domain. Intraprotein electron transfer (IET) between the Mo and Fe centers in animal SO and bacterial SDH is a key step in the catalysis, which can be studied by laser flash photolysis in the presence of deazariboflavin. IET studies on animal SO and bacterial SDH clearly demonstrate the similarities and differences between these two types of sulfite oxidizing enzymes. Conformational change is involved in the IET of animal SO, in which electrostatic interactions may play a major role in guiding the docking of the heme domain to the Mo domain prior to electron transfer. In contrast, IET measurements for SDH demonstrate that IET occurs directly through the protein medium, which is distinctly different from that in animal SO. Point mutations in human SO can result in significantly impaired IET or no IET, thus rationalizing their fatal effects. The recent developments in our understanding of sulfite oxidizing enzyme mechanisms that are driven by a combination of molecular biology, rapid kinetics, pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and computational techniques are the subject of this review. PMID:17459792

  17. Involvement of lymphocytes in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woon; Seo, Jae Nam; Suh, Young Ho; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Kwon Ik

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of lymphocytes in the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. METHODS: Using various doses of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we induced colitis in wild-type B6 control and Rag-1 knockout (H-2b haplotype) mice, and evaluated the colitis in terms of symptomatic and histologic parameters, such as weight loss, survival, severity of diarrhea, shortage of colon length and histological changes. Symptomatic parameters were checked daily and histological changes were scored. RESULTS: Although development of colitis in Rag-1 knockout mice treated with high dose (5%) of DSS was comparable to that in B6 control mice, colitis progression was much more tolerable in Rag-1 knockout mice compared to than in B6 mice treated with low dose (1.5%) DSS. Symptomatic parameters as well as histopathologic changes were improved in Rag-1 knockout mice. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the presence of lymphocytes contributes to colitis progression at low dose of DSS stimulation. Lymphocytes may play roles as an aggravating factor in DSS-induced colitis. PMID:16482634

  18. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  19. Beyond the detergent effect: a binding site for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in mammalian apoferritin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Renyu Bu, Weiming; Xi, Jin; Mortazavi, Shirin R.; Cheung-Lau, Jasmina C.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.; Loll, Patrick J.

    2012-05-01

    Using X-ray crystallography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) binds specifically to a pre-formed internal cavity in horse-spleen apoferritin. Although sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as an anionic detergent, it can also exert specific pharmacological effects that are independent of the surfactant properties of the molecule. However, structural details of how proteins recognize SDS are scarce. Here, it is demonstrated that SDS binds specifically to a naturally occurring four-helix bundle protein: horse apoferritin. The X-ray crystal structure of the apoferritin–SDS complex was determined at a resolution of 1.9 Å and revealed that the SDS binds in an internal cavity that has previously been shown to recognize various general anesthetics. A dissociation constant of 24 ± 9 µM at 293 K was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. SDS binds in this cavity by bending its alkyl tail into a horseshoe shape; the charged SDS head group lies in the opening of the cavity at the protein surface. This crystal structure provides insights into the protein–SDS interactions that give rise to binding and may prove useful in the design of novel SDS-like ligands for some proteins.

  20. Effect of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Halide on the Relative Stability between Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanoaggregates.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriel M Dias; Ferreira, Guilherme M Dias; Agudelo, Álvaro J Patiño; Hespanhol da Silva, Maria C; Rezende, Jaqueline de Paula; Pires, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2015-12-24

    It is well-known that ionic liquids (ILs) alter the properties of aqueous systems containing only surfactants. However, the effect of ILs on polymer-surfactant systems is still unknown. Here, the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) and chloride (bmimCl) on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and its interaction with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was evaluated using conductimetry, fluorimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The ILs decreased the critical micellar concentration (cmc) of the surfactant, stabilizing the SDS micelles. A second critical concentration (c2thc) was verified at high SDS concentrations, due to the micelle size decrease. The stability of PEO/SDS aggregates was also affected by ILs, and the critical aggregation concentration (cac) of SDS increased. Integral aggregation enthalpy changed from -0.72 in water to 2.16 kJ mol(-1) in 4.00 mM bmimBr. IL anions did not affect the SDS micellization or the beginning of PEO/SDS aggregation. Nevertheless, when chloride was replaced with bromide, the amount of SDS bound to the polymer increased. At 100.0 mM IL, the PEO-SDS interaction vanished. We suggest that the effect of ILs comes from participating in the structure of the formed aggregates, interacting with the SDS monomers at the core/interface of the micelles, and promoting preferential solvation of the polymer. PMID:26595360

  1. Strategies for overcoming temporary phytotoxic effects of calcium sulfite applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchey, K.D.; Kinraide, T.B.; Wendell, R.R.; Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C.

    1994-12-31

    Calcium sulfite is a major component of scrubber residues produced by lime-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, widely used in the Ohio River Valley. Preliminary studies have shown that calcium sulfite severely decreased corn plant growth when incorporated into acid soils at moderate rates. Evidence is strong that the toxic effect on plant growth is due to generation of sulfur dioxide in acidic soil. Bioassay methods were used to demonstrate that raising soil pH reduced calcium sulfite toxicity. In solution and in soils, calcium sulfite oxidizes to calcium sulfate (gypsum), which is an agricultural soil amendment useful for increasing calcium levels in acidic subsoils. This potential for oxidation indicates the possibility of incorporating calcium sulfite several months before the crop is sown so that the calcium sulfite will transform to gypsum, which should, because of its relatively high solubility, leach below the plow layer and improve the subsoil.

  2. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L{sup −1}) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn{sup 2+} + Cd{sup 2+})/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS{sup −}) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by the SDS concentration which indicated changes to the environment around the DS molecule in LDH interlayer.

  3. Enzymatic determination of sulfite in foods: NMKL interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Edberg, U

    1993-01-01

    An enzymatic method for the determination of sulfite in foods was collaboratively studied in Nordic industry and government laboratories. The sulfite in liquid foods or extracts of solid foods is analyzed according to the following principle: Sulfite ions are oxidized to sulfate ions by oxygen in the presence of sulfite oxidase, thereby forming hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is transformed to water by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in the presence of NADH peroxidase. In this reaction, NAD+ is formed (and NADH is consumed) in amounts proportional to the sulfite concentration. Consumption of NADH can be measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. The method was collaboratively tested in 2 separate studies with high and low levels of sulfite tested. Results of both studies are reported here. The study samples consisted of potato flakes, wine, juice, and dried apples containing between 0 and about 960 mg SO2/kg. Eleven laboratories participated in the full study and analyzed 12 samples. Six laboratories analyzed 8 samples in the complementary study. Before statistical evaluation of the collaborative study data, results were adjusted for the time-dependent decrease of sulfite in the case of materials with high sulfite content (dried apples and wine). For 2 blind duplicate samples of wine containing 75 mg SO2/kg, the relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr, within-laboratory variation) was 3.9%. Relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR, between-laboratory variation) was 7.6%. For 2 samples of dried apples containing 800 and 960 mg SO2/kg, an RSDr value of 13.3% and an RSDR value of 13.9% were calculated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8448446

  4. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Molin, Soeren; Yang, Liang; Ndoni, Sokol

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h) and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week) by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability. PMID:23377015

  5. Renaturation of enzymes after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.; Springhorn, S.S.

    1980-08-10

    A number of enzymes, including amylases, dehydrogenases, and proteases, were shown to be renaturable after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Enzyme activity was detected in situ by action on substrates introduced into the gel and subsequent staining of either the product or unreacted substrate. Enzymes appeared to recover activity as soon as the detergent diffused out of the gel. Renatured enzymes were retained in gels after electrophoresis longer than native enzymes which had been subjected to electrophoresis in the absence of detergent. Re-electrophoresis of the renatured enzymes showed that part of the retained activity was physically anchored to the gel, possibly by the folding of polypeptides around the gel matrix as the enzymes were renatured.

  6. XRD, SEM and infrared study into the intercalation of sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS) into hydrocalumite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Tianqi; Zhang, Longlong; Wu, Daishe; Frost, Ray L

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocalumite (CaAl-LDH-Cl) interacted with a natural anionic surfactant, sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS), was performed using an intercalation method. To understand the intercalation behavior and characterize the resulting products, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique were used. The XRD analysis indicated that SHS was intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl successfully, resulting in an expansion of the interlayer (from 0.78 nm to 2.74 nm). The bands of C-H stretching vibrations of SHS were observed in the near-infrared spectra, which indicated that the resulting products were indeed CaAl-LDH-SHS. In addition, the bands of water stretching vibrations and OH groups shifted to higher wavenumbers when SHS was intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl interlayer space. PMID:26163791

  7. Sequence of Phase Transformations in the Ternary Lyotropic System Sodium Decyl Sulfate/2-Octanol/Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikx, Y.; Pansu, B.

    1996-01-01

    An oriented hexagonal phase of the ternary lyotropic system sodium decyl sulfate/2-octanol/water transforms into a lamellar phase. The transformation occurs in several steps due to a decrease of the water content by slow evaporation in the course of time while the 2-octanol/sodium decyl sulfate molar ratio remains constant. The following sequence is identified by small angle X-ray scattering studies: hexagonal phase to hexagonal phase coexisting with a rectangular phase to cubic phase to cubic phase coexisting with a lamellar phase to lamellar phase. Epitaxial relations between the different phases are pointed out. The diffraction pattern of the lamellar phase exhibits in addition to the characteristic reflections of the latter, diffuse scattering which corresponds to density fluctuations within the amphiphilic bilayers. According to the Bragg reflections the cubic phase is a centred one and we propose a new model for this phase. The structure reminds us of that of the cubic phase which space group is Im3m, but the rods of both sub-lattices are no longer cylinders as in Im3m but ribbons and therefore the space group is Im3. Une phase hexagonale orientée du système lyotrope ternaire, décyl sulfate de sodium/2-octanol/eau, se transforme en une phase lamellaire suite à une lente évaporation de l'eau au cours du temps tandis que le rapport molaire 2-octanol/décyl sulfate de sodium reste constant. La transformation se fait en plusieurs étapes. La séquence suivante est identifiée par diffraction de RX aux petits angles: phase hexagonale to phase hexagonale en coexistence avec une phase rectangulaire to phase cubique to phase cubique en coexistence avec une phase lamellaireto phase lamellaire. Des relations épitaxiales entre les différentes phases sont mises en évidence. Le cliché de diffraction de la phase lamellaire présente en plus des réflexions caractéristiques de cette phase, de l'intensité diffusée en dehors des réflexions de Bragg qui résulte de fluctuations de densité dans les bicouches d'amphiphiles. En accord avec les réflexions de Bragg, la phase cubique est centrée et nous proposons un nouveau modèle pour cette dernière. La structure rappelle celle de la phase cubique dont le groupe d'espace est Im3m, mais les tiges des deux sous-réseaux ne sont plus des cylindres comme dans la Im3m mais des rubans et dans ce cas le groupe d'espace est Im3.

  8. [Effects of sodium doecyl sulfate on the artificial dental plaque in chemostat].

    PubMed

    Wei, G; Qiao, W; Bian, Z

    1997-11-01

    Sodium doecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as a detergent in dentifrices. It has been shown to interfere with the protein adsorption to hydroxyapatite (HA), and inhibit acquired pellicle formation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of SDS on the artificial dental plaque in chemostat. The amount of the 3H-labelled bacteria adhered on the enamel fragment surface was determined with scintillometer. The artificial dental plaque was observed under the scanning electron microscope. The results showed that enamel fragments treated with SDS adsorbed less bacteria than untreated ones, and had no plague formed. It suggested that SDS can inhibit the bacterial adherence on enamel surface and thus reduce dental plaque formation. PMID:11189307

  9. [Study on the interaction of lauryl sodium sulfate and rhodamine-6G before micellar formation].

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Chen, L

    1998-08-01

    The absorption spectra of an aqueous solution of Lauryl sodium sulfate (SDS) and Rhodamine-6G (R6G) over a wide concentration range were studied. The results show that when c(sds) < 1 x 10(-4)mol x L(-1) SDS forms complex with R6G with molar ratio of 1 : 1, but when c(sds) > 1 x 10(-4) mol x L(-1) the premicelle, which affects the aggregate state of R6G obviously, is formed in the solution. With SDS present, the aggregation number and aggregation constant of R6G were determined, and the dissociating of R6G by inorganic salts also investigated. PMID:15825333

  10. Improving the performance of starch-based wood adhesive by using sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Hong, Yan; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to improve the performance of starch-based wood adhesive. The effects of SDS on shear strength, viscosity and storage stability were investigated. It was shown that, although the addition of 1.5-2% (dry starch basis) SDS resulted in a slight decrease in shear strength, the mobility and storage stability of adhesive were significantly enhanced. Possible mechanisms regarding specific action of SDS were discussed. It was proved, using blue value or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, that the amylose-SDS complexes were formed in the adhesive. The complex formation or simple adsorption of SDS with starch molecules might hinder the aggregation of latex particles, as shown by scanning electron microscopy images, and inhibit starch retrogradation, as observed by DSC analysis. As a result, in the presence of SDS, the adhesive had higher mobility and storage stability, indicating that SDS could be used to prepare starch-based wood adhesives with high performance. PMID:24274546

  11. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis for the detection and isolation of amyloid curli fibers.

    PubMed

    Sitaras, Chris; Naghavi, Mahsa; Herrington, Muriel B

    2011-01-15

    Curli are amyloid-like fibers on the surface of some strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. We tested the use of horizontal sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-agarose gel electrophoresis to detect, isolate, and quantitate curli. Cell extracts fractionated in SDS-agarose gels and stained with Coomassie blue exhibited a soluble fraction that entered the gel and an insoluble fraction that remained in the well. Much more insoluble material was observed with curli-proficient strains than with strains that do not make curli. Both highly purified curli and the insoluble material isolated from an SDS-agarose gel could be dissociated into monomers when treated with formic acid. For quantitation, we immobilized samples in SDS-agarose prior to electrophoresis. This avoids losses during the staining of the gel. Our methods provide a rapid and simple fractionation of curli using equipment that is readily available. PMID:20920455

  12. Copper staining: a five-minute protein stain for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Levin, A; Branton, D

    1987-11-01

    We present a new method for visualizing proteins electrophoresed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. After electrophoresis, gels are incubated in CuCl2 to produce a negative image of colorless protein bands against a semiopaque background. Gels are stained completely within 5 min, do not require destaining, and can be stored indefinitely without loss of the image. Because proteins are not permanently fixed within the gel, they can be quantitatively eluted after chelation of Cu with EDTA. The sensitivity of the CuCl2 stain falls between that of Coomassie blue and silver. We anticipate that CuCl2 will be useful in the rapid analysis of proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in the preparation of purified polypeptides by elution from gel slices. PMID:2449094

  13. The effect of medium chain length alcohols on the micellar properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate in sodium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Foerland, G.M.; Hoeiland, H. . Dept. of Chemistry); Samseth, J. ); Mortensen, K. )

    1994-04-01

    The effect of medium chain length alcohols on the micellar size and shape of sodium dodecyl sulfate in electrolyte solutions has been investigated by means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and viscosity measurements. The surfactant content was kept constant throughout, at 0.04 m, and the alcohols used were 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol. The data from the various techniques are qualitatively in agreement. The SANS data generally fit a model for prolate ellipsoids with varying ratios of the major to minor axis. Addition of butanol first leads to a decrease in micellar size, the major to minor axis ratio decreases from about 6 to less than 2. However, as the butanol concentration exceeds 0.5 m, the micelles starts to grow again. The same can be seen from the diffusion coefficient as measured by DLS. Addition of pentanol or hexanol do not bring about this minimum in micellar size. The minor axis decreases and the major axis increases as these alcohols are added. Thus these alcohols make the prolate ellipsoidal micelles grow continuously towards large rod-like structures. The viscosity data are less detailed, but confirm the general trend upon alcohol addition.

  14. Toxicity detection of sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate using electrochemical method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dengbin; Yong, Daming; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-01

    Based on the inhibition effect on the respiratory chain activity of microorganisms by toxicants, an electrochemical method has been developed to measure the current variation of a mediator in the presence of microorganisms contacted with a toxicant. Microelectrode arrays were adopted in this study, which can accelerate the mass transfer rate of an analyte to the electrode and also increase the total current signal, resulting in an improvement in detection sensitivity. We selected Escherichia coli as the testee and the standard glucose-glutamic acid as an exogenous material. Under oxygen restriction, the experiments in the presence of toxicant were performed at optimum conditions (solution pH 7.0, 37 degrees C and reaction for 3 hr). The resulting solution was then separated from the suspended microorganisms and was measured by an electrochemical method, using ferricyanide as a mediator. The current signal obtained represents the reoxidation of ferrocyanide, which was transformed to inhibiting efficiency, IC50, as a quantitative measure of toxicity. The IC50 values measured were 410, 570 and 830 mg/L for sodium nitrite, borax and aluminum potassium sulfate, respectively. The results show that the toxicity sequence for these three food additives is consistent with the value reported by other methods. Furthermore, the order of damage degree to the microorganism was also observed to be: sodium nitrite > borax > aluminum potassium sulfate > blank, according to the atomic force microscopy images of E. coli after being incubated for 3 hr with the toxic compound in buffer solutions. The electrochemical method is expected to be a sensitive and simple alternative to toxicity screening for chemical food additives. PMID:23923788

  15. Over-Expression of CD200 Protects Mice from Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiqi; Yu, Kai; Zhu, Fang; Gorczynski, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim CD200:CD200 receptor (CD200R) interactions lead to potent immunosuppression and inhibition of autoimmune inflammation. We investigated the effect of "knockout"of CD200 or CD200R, or over-expression of CD200, on susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)—induced colitis, a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods Acute or chronic colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in four groups of age-matched C57BL/6 female mice: (1) CD200-transgenic mice (CD200tg); (2) wild-type (WT) mice; (3) CD200 receptor 1-deficient (CD200R1KO) mice; and (4) CD200-deficient (CD200KO) mice. The extent of colitis was determined using a histological scoring system. Colon tissues were collected for quantitative RT-PCR and Immunohistochemical staining. Supernatants from colonic explant cultures and mononuclear cells isolated from colonic tissue were used for ELISA. Results CD200KO and CD200R1KO mice showed greater sensitivity to acute colitis than WT mice, with accelerated loss of body weight, significantly higher histological scores, more severe infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils and CD3+ cells, and greater expression of macrophage-derived inflammatory cytokines, whose production was inhibited in vitro (in WT/CD200KO mouse cells) by CD200. In contrast, CD200tg mice showed less sensitivity to DSS compared with WT mice, with attenuation of all of the features seen in other groups. In a chronic colitis model, greater infiltration of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells was seen in the colon of CD200tg mice compared to WT mice, and anti-CD25 mAb given to these mice attenuated protection. Conclusions The CD200:CD200R axis plays an immunoregulatory role in control of DSS induced colitis in mice. PMID:26841120

  16. Dextran sulfate sodium inhibits amyloid-β oligomer binding to cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Aimi, Takahiro; Suzuki, Koichiro; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-08-01

    Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), especially its oligomeric form, is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To this end, the binding of Aβ oligomer to cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) plays an important role in synaptic dysfunction in a mouse model of AD. Here, we have screened for compounds that inhibit Aβ oligomer binding to PrP(C) from medicines already used clinically (Mizushima Approved Medicine Library 1), and identified dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as a candidate. In a cell-free assay, DSS inhibited Aβ oligomer binding to PrP(C) but not to ephrin receptor B2, another endogenous receptor for Aβ oligomers, suggesting that the drug's action is specific to the binding of Aβ oligomer to PrP(C) . Dextran on the other hand did not affect this binding. DSS also suppressed Aβ oligomer binding to cells expressing PrP(C) but not to control cells. Furthermore, while incubation of mouse hippocampal slices with Aβ oligomers inhibited the induction of long-term potentiation, simultaneous treatment with DSS restored the long-term potentiation. As DSS has already been approved for use in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, and its safety in humans has been confirmed, we propose further analysis of this drug as a candidate for AD treatment. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomer-binding to cellular prion protein (PrP(C) ) is important in synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found here that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) inhibits Aβ oligomer binding to PrP(C) . Simultaneous treatment of hippocampal slices with DSS restored long-term potentiation (LTP) in the presence of Aβ oligomers. Since DSS has already been approved for clinical use, we propose this drug is a candidate drug for AD treatment. PMID:25963375

  17. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of fluorescence labeled propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengli; Li, Chunxia; Xue, Yiting; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hongbing; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi

    2014-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence labeling method was developed and validated for the microanalysis of a sulfated polysaccharide drug,namely propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), in rat plasma. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was selected to label PSS, and 1, 6-diaminohexane was used to link PSS and FITC in order to prepare FITC-labeled PSS (F-PSS) through a reductive amination reaction. F-PSS was identified by UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectrum. The cell stability and cytotoxicity of F-PSS were tested in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The results indicated that the labeling efficiency of F-PSS was 0.522% ± 0.0248% and the absolute bioavailability was 8.39%. F-PSS was stable in MDCK cells without obvious cytotoxicity. The method was sensitive and reliable; it showed a good linearity, precision, recovery and stability. The FITC labeling method can be applied to investigating the absorption and metabolism of PSS and other polysaccharides in biological samples.

  18. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of low-molecular-weight propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS).

    PubMed

    Xin, Meng; Ren, Li; Sun, Yang; Li, Hai-Hua; Guan, Hua-Shi; He, Xiao-Xi; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-05-23

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide derivative, has been used as a heparinoid drug to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia and ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. To extend the applications of PSS, a series of low-molecular-weight PSSs (named FPs) were prepared by oxidative-reductive depolymerization, and the antithrombotic activities were investigated thoroughly in vitro and in vivo. The bioactivity evaluation demonstrated a positive correlation between the molecular weight and the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of FPs. FPs could prolong the APTT and clotting time and reduce platelet aggregation significantly. FPs could also effectively inhibit factor IIa in the presence of AT-III and HC-II. FPs decreased the wet weights and lengths of the thrombus and increased occlusion times in vivo. FP-6k, a PSS fragment with a molecular weight of 6 kDa, is an optimal antithrombotic candidate for further study and showed little chance for hemorrhagic action. PMID:26974373

  19. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions have been measured in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. This corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.

  20. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop Jr, Frederick; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions have been measured in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influencemore » over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. This corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.« less

  1. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. II. Coarsely sandblasted samples.

    PubMed

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2003-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to investigate the corrosion resistance of coarsely sandblasted implant alloys, commercially pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. Coarsely sandblasted samples have a heterogeneous surface constituted by a large number of protrusions and recessions. Impedance spectra collected in sodium sulfate present two time constants (maxima in the phase-angle of the bode plot) associated with the total surface and with the tips, respectively. In bovine serum, the two maxima in the impedance spectra cannot be distinguished because of the formation of an adsorption layer of organic molecules, which causes a decrease in the values of both the total and tips' capacitances as well as an increase in the polarization resistance. Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb show the highest corrosion rate both in serum and in sodium sulfate. Based on the capacitance values obtained in sodium sulfate, the real surface area of the coarsely sandblasted electrodes has been estimated relative to mechanically polished surfaces. The values of the effective electrode area correlate with the mechanical properties of the samples: in fact, the softest electrode (commercially pure titanium) shows the largest effective electrode area, whereas the hardest material (CoCrMo alloy) shows the smallest surface area. PMID:14517883

  2. Corrosion of NiCoCrAlY Coatings and TBC Systems Subjected to Water Vapor and Sodium Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Robert; Yuan, Kang; Li, Xin-Hai; Lin Peng, Ru

    2015-08-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are commonly used in gas turbines for protection against high-temperature degradation. Penetration of the ceramic top coat by corrosive species may cause corrosion damage on the underlying NiCoCrAlY bond coat and cause failure of the TBC system. In the current study, four oxidation/corrosion conditions were tried: (i) lab air, (ii) water vapor, (iii) sodium sulfate deposited on the specimens, and (iv) water vapor + sodium sulfate. The test was done at 750 °C in a cyclic test rig with 48 h cycles. The corrosion damage was studied on NiCoCrAlY-coated specimens, thin APS TBC specimens, and thick APS TBC specimens. Water vapor was found to have very minor influence on the oxidation, while sodium sulfate increased the TGO thickness both for NiCoCrAlY specimens and TBC-coated specimens; the influence of the TBC thickness was found to be very small. Sodium sulfate promoted thicker TGO; more Cr-rich TGO; the formation of Y oxides, and internally, Y sulfides; pore formation in the coating as well as in the substrate; and the formation of a Cr-depleted zone in the substrate.

  3. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  4. Interaction of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate with watermelon chromoplasts and examination of the organization of lycopene within the chromoplasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The properties of plant-derived precipitates of watermelon lycopene were examined in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as part of an ongoing effort to develop simpler, more economical ways to quantify carotenoids in melon fruit. Levels of SDS >0.2% were found to increase the water solubility of ...

  5. Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

  6. Comparison of solubilization capacity of resveratrol in sodium 3α, 12α -dihydroxy-7-oxo-5 β-cholanoate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cvejić, Jelena; Poša, Mihalj; Sebenji, Ana; Atanacković, Milica

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) solubilization with sodium 3α,12 α-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5 β-cholanoate (S7-OD) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The investigation was aimed at determining whether large spherical micelles (SDS) or small longitudinal micelles (S7-OD) are more convenient for incorporation of resveratrol. Also, we studied resveratrol behavior in mixed micelles with mentioned surfactants using spectroflourimetric method as well as the effects of sodium chloride and urea on resveratrol solubilization capacity in the applied surfactants. Resveratrol solubilization curve was different in the investigated surfactants. Resveratrol solubilization curve for sodium 3α,12 α-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5 β-cholanoate at concentration 0.9 CMC reached saturation level of 60% dissolved resveratrol. The curve for sodium dodecyl sulfate was linear within the whole range of the investigated concentration; resveratrol solubilization rate reached 13% at 2 CMC. In S7-OD, NaCl increased capacity of resveratrol solubilization up to 1.4 CMC surfactant concentration, whilst maximum level of dissolved resveratrol (90%) was observed at 0.9 CMC. In SDS, NaCl decreased resveratrol solubilization capacity. Urea reduced resveratrol solubilization rate in sodium 3α ,12 α-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5 β-cholanoate, whereas it had inverse effect in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The obtained results strongly suggest that structure, that is, shape, of the surfactant micelles significantly affects their capacity of resveratrol solubilization. Also, presence of NaCl and urea influences solubilization capacities of investigated surfactants. PMID:24688374

  7. Oxygen reactivity of mammalian sulfite oxidase provides a concept for the treatment of sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Belaidi, Abdel A; Röper, Juliane; Arjune, Sita; Krizowski, Sabina; Trifunovic, Aleksandra; Schwarz, Guenter

    2015-07-15

    Mammalian sulfite oxidase (SO) is a dimeric enzyme consisting of a molybdenum cofactor- (Moco) and haem-containing domain and catalyses the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate. Following sulfite oxidation, electrons are passed from Moco via the haem cofactor to cytochrome c, the terminal electron acceptor. In contrast, plant SO (PSO) lacks the haem domain and electrons shuttle from Moco to molecular oxygen. Given the high similarity between plant and mammalian SO Moco domains, factors that determine the reactivity of PSO towards oxygen, remained unknown. In the present study, we generated mammalian haem-deficient and truncated SO variants and demonstrated their oxygen reactivity by hydrogen peroxide formation and oxygen-consumption studies. We found that intramolecular electron transfer between Moco and haem showed an inverse correlation to SO oxygen reactivity. Haem-deficient SO variants exhibited oxygen-dependent sulfite oxidation similar to PSO, which was confirmed further using haem-deficient human SO in a cell-based assay. This finding suggests the possibility to use oxygen-reactive SO variants in sulfite detoxification, as the loss of SO activity is causing severe neurodegeneration. Therefore we evaluated the potential use of PEG attachment (PEGylation) as a modification method for future enzyme substitution therapies using oxygen-reactive SO variants, which might use blood-dissolved oxygen as the electron acceptor. PEGylation has been shown to increase the half-life of other therapeutic proteins. PEGylation resulted in the modification of up to eight surface-exposed lysine residues of SO, an increased conformational stability and similar kinetic properties compared with wild-type SO. PMID:26171830

  8. Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2010-12-01

    Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment. PMID:21067131

  9. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are added to certain drug products to inhibit the oxidation of the active drug ingredient. Oxidation.... Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

  10. 21 CFR 201.22 - Prescription drugs containing sulfites; required warning statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are added to certain drug products to inhibit the oxidation of the active drug ingredient. Oxidation.... Examples of specific sulfites used to inhibit this oxidation process include sodium bisulfite,...

  11. Catalytic oxidation of aqueous hydrogen sulfide in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.; Chhatre, R.M.

    1985-06-01

    Nickel sulfate catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in aqueous solution. This reaction was studied, and an empirical rate expression and a reaction mechanism were deduced. The rate of oxidation is independent of oxygen concentration and pH over the range investigated. The reaction rate is one half order in nickel, and it changes from second to first order in sulfide with increasing concentration. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfido radical ions propagate the chains. Colloidal sulfur is a major, frequently undesirable reaction product. Sodium sulfite suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. Cobalt is an equally potent catalyst, but a colloidal dispersion of cobalt oxysulfide is produced. Iron compounds are much weaker catalysts; iron citrate and iron HEDTA (n-hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid) were among those tested. 24 references, 15 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C.

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  13. A novel sulfite alternative scavenger and benefits for the use of traced oxygen scavengers

    SciTech Connect

    Batton, C.B.; Riede, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Dissolved oxygen in boiler systems is known to cause corrosion. Mechanical deaeration removes the majority of the dissolved oxygen while oxygen scavengers remove the remaining trace level. Sodium sulfate is a commonly used scavenger, but has several use limitations, such as high solids contribution to boiler water and decomposition products that are corrosive gases which can cause downstream equipment problems. A novel sulfite replacement oxygen scavenger has been developed which addresses the limitations of sulfite. Identification and demonstrated performance of the new scavenger is presented using both research and field data. In addition to oxygen scavenger performance, the success of a boiler water treatment program is dependent upon the correct dosage added to the feedwater. Plant managers and operators often struggle with indirect or inaccurate methods to determine what is occurring within their system. An oxygen scavenger product containing a proprietary fluorescent tracer has been developed. This technology for boilers provides a breakthrough in measurement capability for monitoring the dynamics of a boiler system. These two oxygen scavenger developments represent the result of maintaining desirable performance characteristics and significantly improving current technology. Laboratory and field data supporting these results are presented.

  14. Evaluation of toxicity reduction of sodium dodecyl sulfate submitted to electron beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, M. F.; Moraes, M. C. F.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Surfactants, as detergent active substances, are an important source of pollution causing biological adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Several data have been showing ecological disturbance due to the high concentration of surfactants on receiving waters and on wastewater treatment plants. Ionizing radiation has been proved as an effective technology to decompose organic substances and few papers have included ecotoxicological aspects. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity of a specific surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), when diluted in distilled water and submitted to electron beam radiation. The study included two test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. Radiation processing resulted in an important acute toxicity removal for both assays, which can be summarized between 70% and 96%, using 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 kGy as radiation doses. Nevertheless, lower doses demonstrated better effect than 9.0 and 12.0 kGy and the bacterium assay was more sensitive to SDS than crustacean assay.

  15. Centrifuge-blotting of proteins after separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, L F; Pedersen, O; Sletten, K

    1993-12-01

    A protein transfer method which allows elution and immobilization of polypeptides onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane has been developed. The protein band in a gel is eluted by centrifugation. The centrifuge-blotting procedure involves the following steps: (i) visualization of the protein in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel with 1 M KCl, (ii) excision of the protein band and equilibration for 15 min in a solution of 0.05% SDS/5% methanol/0.02% dithiothreitol in distilled water, (iii) placing the gel piece in direct contact with the PVDF membrane in the receptacle, (iv) centrifugation at 3000 g for 1 h. A 10 kDa cut-off dialysis membrane is placed beneath the PVDF membrane to retain nonimmobilized protein. The N-terminal sequence of the immobilized protein on the PVDF membrane was determined. For proteins with a molecular mass less than 30 kDa, an overall yield between 10%-30% has been obtained. PMID:8137793

  16. Comparison of sodium dodecyl sulfate depletion techniques for proteome analysis by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kachuk, Carolyn; Stephen, Kegan; Doucette, Alan

    2015-10-30

    In proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is favored for protein solubilization and mass-based separation (e.g. GELFrEE or SDS PAGE). Numerous SDS depletion techniques are available to purify proteins ahead of mass spectrometry. The effectiveness of the purification has a controlling influence on the success of the analysis. Here we quantitatively assess eight approaches to SDS depletion: in-gel digestion; protein precipitation in acetone or with TCA; detergent precipitation with KCl; strong cation exchange; protein level and peptide level purification with Pierce detergent removal cartridges; and FASP II. Considering protein purity, FASP II showed the highest degree of SDS removal, matching that of in-gel digestion (over 99.99% depleted). Other methods (acetone, strong cation exchange, Pierce cartridges) also deplete SDS to levels amenable to LC-MS (>99%). Accounting for protein recovery, FASP II revealed significant sample loss (<40% yield); other approaches show even greater protein loss. We further assessed acetone precipitation, having the highest protein recovery relative to FASP II, to process GELFrEE fractionated Escherichia coli ahead of bottom-up mass spectrometry. Acetone precipitation yielded a 17% average increase in identified proteins, and 40% increase in peptides, indicating this approach as a favored strategy for SDS depletion in a proteomics workflow. PMID:26422304

  17. Allicin Alleviates Dextran Sodium Sulfate- (DSS-) Induced Ulcerative Colitis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Salmiah; Saadatdoust, Zeinab; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of allicin (10 mg/kg body weight, orally) in an experimental murine model of UC by administering 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water to BALB/c mice. DSS-induced mice presented reduced body weight, which was improved by allicin administration. We noted increases in CD68 expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and Malonaldehyde (MDA) and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-17, and decrease in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in DSS-induced mice. However, allicin treatment significantly decreased CD68, MPO, MDA, and proinflammatory cytokines and increased the enzymic antioxidants significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, allicin was capable of reducing the activation and nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby preventing degradation of the inhibitory protein IκB and inducing inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB-p65 in the colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that allicin exerts clinically useful anti-inflammatory effects mediated through the suppression of the NF-κB and IL-6/p-STAT3Y705 pathways. PMID:26075036

  18. Effect of Nanometric Lactobacillus plantarum in Kimchi on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Bong, Yeon-Ju; Kim, Hyunung; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Kim, Hee-Young; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-10-01

    Nanometric Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) is a processed form of Lab. plantarum derived from kimchi and is 0.5-1.0 μm in size. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of nLp and kimchi plus nLp (K-nLp) on a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model of colitis. Animals fed nLp or K-nLp had longer colons, but lower colon weights per unit length than DSS controls. In addition, nLp- or K-nLp-fed animals showed lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory genes in serum and in colon tissues, lower populations of total bacteria, but higher populations of lactic acid bacteria in feces, and lower activities of fecal β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase. Furthermore, these suppressive activities of nLp on colitis were equivalent to or higher than those of naive Lab. plantarum. Consequently, nLp was found to exhibit anticolitic effects, and the addition of nLp to kimchi was found to enhance the protective activity of kimchi against DSS-induced colitis. These results suggest that nLp might be an effective substitute for live probiotics and be useful as a functional ingredient with the anticolitic activity by the probiotic and food processing industries. PMID:26305853

  19. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Mohebali, Nooshin; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA. PMID:26251571

  20. Immunological alteration and changes of gut microbiota after dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Å; Tormo-Badia, N; Baridi, A; Xu, J; Molin, G; Hagslätt, M-L; Karlsson, C; Jeppsson, B; Cilio, C M; Ahrné, S

    2015-02-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to animals is a frequently used model to mimic human colitis. Deregulation of the immune response to the enteric microflora or pathogens as well as increased intestinal permeability have been proposed as disease-driving mechanisms. To enlarge the understanding of the pathogenesis, we have studied the effect of DSS on the immune system and gut microbiota in mice. Intestinal inflammation was verified through histological evaluation and myeloperoxidase activity. Immunological changes were assessed by flow cytometry in spleen, Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and through multiplex cytokine profiling. In addition, quantification of the total amount of bacteria on colonic mucosa as well as the total amount of lactobacilli, Akkermansia, Desulfovibrio and Enterobacteriaceae was performed by the use of quantitative PCR. Diversity and community structure were analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) patterns, and principal component analysis was utilized on immunological and T-RFLP patterns. DSS-induced colitis show clinical and histological similarities to UC. The composition of the colonic microflora was profoundly changed and correlated with several alterations of the immune system. The results demonstrate a relationship between multiple immunological changes and alterations of the gut microbiota after DSS administration. These data highlight and improve the definition of the immunological basis of the disease and suggest a role for dysregulation of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of colitis. PMID:24414342

  1. Atomistic Simulation of Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xujun; Marchi, Massimo; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi; Abel, Stéphane

    2016-04-19

    Solubilization of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene (NAP, 2-benzene-ring PAH) and pyrene (PYR, 4-benzene-ring PAH), into a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle was studied through all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that NAP as well as PYR could move between the micelle shell and core regions, contributing to their distribution in both regions of the micelle at any PAH concentration. Moreover, both NAP and PYR prefer to stay in the micelle shell region, which may arise from the greater volume of the micelle shell, the formation of hydrogen bonds between NAP and water, and the larger molecular volume of PYR. The PAHs are able to form occasional clusters (from dimer to octamer) inside the micelle during the simulation time depending on the PAH concentration in the solubilization systems. Furthermore, the micelle properties (i.e., size, shape, micelle internal structure, alkyl chain conformation and orientation, and micelle internal dynamics) are found to be nearly unaffected by the solubilized PAHs, which is irrespective of the properties and concentrations of PAHs. PMID:27049522

  2. Effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on dextran sulfate sodium colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Min; Shen, Zhe; Yu, Chao-Hui; Ye, Hua; Ye, Yue-Fang; Li, You-Ming

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the concomitant effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on colitis. METHODS: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was investigated at a 7-d interval after ovalbumin (OVA) administration and immunization under normal and colitis conditions in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Pathological scores for the colon were graded after ingestion of colon-extracted protein (CEP) and induction of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Thereafter, Th1 and Th2 in Peyer’s patches and spleen lymphocytes were detected in CEP-treated and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-treated control mice. RESULTS: In appendectomized mice, DTH was not inhibited at day 7 after OVA administration and at the initial phase of DSS colitis, whereas it was inhibited at day 14 and day 21. However, in sham-operated mice, it was inhibited during the whole procedure and the onset of DSS colitis. The protective role of CEP against DSS colitis was present in sham-operated mice, with predominant improvement of colonic pathological changes, while vanished in the appendectomized mice. A shift from Th1 to Th2 in Peyer’s patches resulted from a decrease of Th1 cells with the ingestion of CEP. Compared with BSA in the sham-operated group, no predominant changes were observed in the appendectomized mice. CONCLUSION: Appendectomy interferes with the protective role of CEP in DSS colitis via a shift from Th2 to Th1 during oral tolerance induction. PMID:21633645

  3. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. PMID:26713317

  4. Effects of Treatment with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on the Ultrastructure of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Woldringh, C. L.; Van Iterson, Woutera

    1972-01-01

    An electron microscopy study has been made of the effects of dissolution of the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the organization of the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. The alterations observed in time course experiments were related to absorbance changes and to release of macromolecules from the cells. As the cells became plasmolyzed, under the conditions used, the first visible effect of SDS was a collapse of the plasmolysis spaces. This was accompanied by a displacement of the nuclear material which then appeared in broad contact with the redeployed plasma membrane. This initial displacement of nuclear material to the cell border may indicate an association between the nucleoplasm and the plasma membrane. Upon further dissolution of the plasma membrane, the nuclear material receded from the cell margin and contracted into an axial filament. Meanwhile, the cytoplasm dissociated into an amorphous, Pronase-sensitive component and an electron-opaque, granular one sensitive to ribonuclease. The latter represented one continuous area of ribosomal structures surrounding the nucleoplasm, an organization which did not occur when the cells were inhibited with rifamycin before SDS treatment. During prolonged SDS interaction, approximately 65% of the cellular protein, 25% of the ribonucleic acid and 40% of the deoxyribonucleic acid were released from the cells concomitant with the disappearance of the amorphous cytoplasmic part, expansion of the ribosomal aggregate, and rearrangement of the nuclear material at the cell periphery. The observations support the contention that all ribosomal structures bear a direct relationship with the nucleoplasm. Images PMID:4559830

  5. Dietary Uptake of Wedelia chinensis Extract Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Huang, Li-Ting; Lin, Wen-Ching; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Shu-Hui; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Scope Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. Methods and Results C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF) orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12) revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) was not toxic to mice. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23734189

  6. Solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Li, P.; Han, B.; Yan, H.; Liu, R.

    1995-10-01

    The solubilities of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were measured at 313.15 K and at pressures up to 3 MPa. The molalities of SDS (m{sub SDS}) in the aqueous solution were 0.0000, 0.0020, 0.0040, 0.0060, 0.0070, 0.0080, 0.0090, 0.0100, 0.0126, 0.0150, 0.0200, and 0.0300. The effect of SDS on the gas solubility in both concentration regions below and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) was studied. The existence of the micelles of SDS in the solution is favorable to the dissolution of ethane due to the hydrocarbon-like interior of the micelles. The solubilities of ethane in each micelle at different pressures were evaluated based on some assumptions. It was found that the intramicellar solubility of ethane is less than that of the gas in n-dodecane. It was also found that the solubility of ethane in the micelles increases linearly with the partial pressure of ethane. The cmc of SDS was evaluated based on the solubility vs m{sub SDS} curves and the effect of dissolved ethane on the cmc was studied. It was observed that the cmc shifts toward a higher value with the increase in dissolved ethane.

  7. Effect of processed Scutellaria baicalensis on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon-A; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Park, Hye-Jung; Tae, Jin; Kim, Dae-Ki; Kang, Chon Sik; Choi, Suck-Chei; Yun, Ki-Jung; Choi, Suck-Jun; Nah, Yong-Ho; Kim, Young-Ho; Bae, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Young-Mi

    2005-10-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae) has been used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Drug processing (Poje) is the process of treating crude drugs by several methods before use. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of processed Scutellaria baicalensis on experimental ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The types of processed Scutellaria baicalensis used in this study were parched Scutellaria baicalensis (PS) and rice wine-baked Scutellaria baicalensis (RWBS). Experimental colitis was induced in mice using a daily treatment of 5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The water extracts of processed Scutellaria baicalensis (1 g/kg) were administered orally once a day for 7 days. The mice were divided in four groups: i) water plus DSS group, ii) crude Scutellaria baicalensis (CS) plus DSS group, iii) PS plus DSS group, and iv) RWBS plus DSS group. RWBS ameliorated all of the inflammatory symptoms, such as body weight loss, rectal bleeding and histological damage, compared to CS. Furthermore, RWBS significantly reduced the mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2), NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappa B) and chymase expression more than CS. But these effects were not shown in the PS plus DSS group. Efficacy of Scutellaria baicalensis was increased after rice wine baking, but not after parching. The findings in this study suggest that RWBS may be a useful therapeutic agent for ulcerative colitis. PMID:16142402

  8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoresis of proteins using non-cross-linked polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Regnier, F E

    1992-09-11

    Proteins with relative molecular masses of 14,000 to 205,000 were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-capillary gel electrophoresis (SDS-CGE) using non-cross-linked linear polyacrylamide gels on both coated and uncoated fused-silica capillaries. It was determined that viscosity of the acrylamide solution was a major factor affecting column stability with linear acrylamide gels. When the viscosity of the acrylamide solution reaches 100 cP, electro-osmotically driven displacement of the gels is insignificant. Uncoated capillaries provided better resolution, stability, and reproducibility than surface coated capillaries when the concentration of linear polyacrylamide was greater than 4%. At lower gel concentrations, non-cross-linked polyacrylamide is easily displaced from the columns. A calibration plot of log molecular mass vs. mobility with non-linear polyacrylamide was linear, which indicated that resolution was equivalent to that obtained with cross-linked acrylamide. Separations with model proteins indicated that baseline resolution between protein species that vary 10% in molecular mass can be achieved. PMID:1430034

  9. Structural changes of a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle induced by alcohol molecules.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Bermúdez, Jose G; Dominguez, Hector

    2016-01-01

    Coarse-grained dynamical simulations have been performed to investigate the behavior of a surfactant micelle in the presence of six different alcohols: hexanol, octanol, decanol, dodecanol, tetradecanol, and hexadecanol. The self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is modified by the alcohol molecules into cylindrical and bilayer micelles as a function of the alcohol/SDS mass ratio. Therefore, in order to understand, from a molecular point of view, how SDS and alcohol molecules self-organize to form the new micelles, different studies were carried out. Analysis of micelle structures, density profiles, and parameters of order were conducted to characterize the shape and size of those micelles. The density profiles revealed that the alcohol molecules were located at the water-micelle interface next to the SDS molecules at low alcohol/SDS mass ratio. At high alcohol/SDS mass ratios, alcohol molecules moved to the middle of the micelle by increasing their size and by producing a structural change. Moreover, micelle structures and sizes were influenced not only by the alcohol/SDS mass ratio but also by the order of the SDS and alcohol tails. Finally, the size of the micelles and enthalpy calculations were used as order parameters to determine a structural phase diagram of alcohol/SDS mixtures in water. Graphical Abstract Structural transition of SDS/alcohol mixtures. PMID:26768159

  10. Dispersion stability of functionalized graphene in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Andrew G; Korkut, Sibel; Punckt, Christian; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2013-12-01

    The colloidal stability of functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions of different concentrations was studied by optical microscopy and ultraviolet-visible light absorption after first dispersing the FGSs ultrasonically. In up to ∼10 μM SDS solutions, FGSs reaggregated within a few minutes, forming ramified structures in the absence of SDS and increasingly compact structures as the amount of SDS increased. Above ∼10 μM, the rate of reaggregation decreased with increasing SDS concentration; above ∼40 μM, the suspensions were colloidally stable for over a year. The concentration of ∼40 μM SDS lies 2 orders of magnitude below the critical surface aggregation concentration of ∼1.8 mM SDS on FGSs but above the concentration (∼18 μM) at which SDS begins to form a monolayer on FGSs. Neither surface micelle nor dense monolayer coverage is therefore required to obtain stable aqueous FGS dispersions. We support our experimental results by calculating the van der Waals and electrostatic interaction energies between FGSs as a function of SDS concentration and show that the experimentally observed transition from an unstable to a stable dispersion correlates with a transition from negative to positive interaction energies between FGSs in the aggregated state. Furthermore, our calculations support experimental evidence that aggregates tend to develop a compact structure over time. PMID:24188504

  11. Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-11-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:25314953

  12. Hyperbranched exopolysaccharide-enhanced foam properties of sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Quanhua; Li, Haiping; Sun, Haoyang; Sun, Yange; Li, Ying

    2016-05-01

    The foam properties, such as the foamability, foam stability, drainage, coalescence and bulk rheology, of aqueous solutions containing an eco-friendly exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted by a deep-sea mesophilic bacterium, Wangia profunda SM-A87, and an anionic surfactant, sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate (AES), were studied. Both the foamability and foam stability of the EPS/AES solutions are considerably higher than those of single AES solutions, even at very low AES concentrations, although pure EPS solutions cannot foam. The improved foamability and foam stability arise from the formation of the EPS/AES complex via hydrogen bonds at the interfaces. The synergism between the EPS and AES decreases the surface tension, increases the interfacial elasticity and water-carrying capacity, and suppresses the coalescence and collapse of the foams. The EPS/AES foams are more salt-resistant than the AES foams. This work provides not only a new eco-friendly foam with great potential for use in enhanced oil recovery and health-care products but also useful guidance for designing other environmentally friendly foam systems that exhibit high performance. PMID:26852104

  13. American ginseng attenuates azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunhao; Wen, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Zhiyu; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Martin, Adiba; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death, and inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for this malignancy. We previously reported colon cancer chemoprevention potential using American ginseng (AG) in a xenograft mice model. However, the nude mouse model is not a gut-specific colon carcinogenesis animal model. Methods In this study, an experimental colitis and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, chemically induced by azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was established and the effects of oral AG were evaluated. The contents of representative ginseng saponins in the extract were determined. Results AG significantly reduced experimental colitis measured by the disease activity index scores. This suppression of the experimental colitis was not only evident during DSS treatment, but also very obvious after the cessation of DSS, suggesting that the ginseng significantly promoted recovery from the colitis. Consistent with the anti-inflammation data, we showed that ginseng very significantly attenuated azoxymethane/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis by reducing the colon tumor number and tumor load. The ginseng also effectively suppressed DSS-induced proinflammatory cytokines activation using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay array, in which 12 proinflammatory cytokine levels were assessed, and this effect was supported subsequently by real-time polymerase chain reaction data. Conclusion AG, as a candidate of botanical-based colon cancer chemoprevention, should be further investigated for its potential clinical utility. PMID:25535472

  14. Fabrication and surface properties of hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates based on sodium cocoate modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Linna; Wang, Guangxiu; Cao, Rong; Yang, Chun; Chen, Xi

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates were fabricated by the direction of cocoate anions. At 30 °C, when the weight ratio of sodium cocoate to BaSO4 particles was 2.0 wt.%, the active ratio of the product reached 99.43% and the contact angle was greater than 120°. This method could not only simplify the complex modification process, but reduce energy consumption. The surface morphology, chemical structure and composition of BaSO4 aggregates were characterized by SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The results indicated that the as-synthesized BaSO4 particles were almond-liked and were composed of many interconnected nanoballs and that their surfaces were affected by cocoate anions. The adsorption of cocoate anions reversed the charge and weakened the surface polarity of BaSO4 particles, driving the formation of aggregates. And cocoate anions induced a change of the BaSO4 particles surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by a self-assembly and transformation process. Due to the self-assembled structure and the surface hydrophobicity, when adding the hydrophobic BaSO4 into PVC, the mechanical properties of PVC composite materials were significantly improved.

  15. Specific amino acids increase mucin synthesis and microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Faure, Magali; Mettraux, Christine; Moennoz, Denis; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Vuichoud, Jacques; Rochat, Florence; Breuillé, Denis; Obled, Christiane; Corthésy-Theulaz, Irène

    2006-06-01

    During the anabolic response associated with inflammation, mucin synthesis and colonic protection may be compromised by the limited availability of specific amino acids. We therefore determined the effect of dietary amino acid supplementation on the microbiota, mucin status, and mucosal damage in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated rats. From 8 d before to 28 d after colitis induction, male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 mo old, n = 8/group) were fed a control diet supplemented or not with 2 different doses of an amino acid cocktail containing L-threonine, L-serine, L-proline, and L-cysteine. All diets were isonitrogenous (adjusted with L-alanine). The higher dose of amino acids increased the number of Muc2-containing goblet cells in the surface epithelium of the ulcerated area, stimulated mucin production in the colon, and restored the mucin amino acid composition and mucosal content to healthy, control values. The colonic mucin synthesis rate was specifically stimulated by 95%, whereas the protein turnover was unchanged. All bacterial populations, markedly altered by the DSS treatment, were promoted. In conclusion, in inflammatory situations, an increase in threonine, serine, proline, and cysteine dietary supply can promote mucin synthesis, reequilibrate the gut microbiota, and thus favor colonic protection and mucosal healing. PMID:16702321

  16. Myristica fragrans seed extract protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Bu, Youngmin; Lee, Beom-Joon; Bae, Jinhyun; Park, Sujin; Kim, Jinsung; Lee, Kyungjin; Cha, Jae-Myung; Ryu, Bongha; Ko, Seok-Jae; Han, Gajin; Min, Byungil; Park, Jae-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Nutmeg (seed of Myristica fragrans [MF]) is one of the most commonly used spices in the world and also a well-known herb for the treatment of various intestinal diseases, including colitis in traditional Korean medicine. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether water extract of MF (MFE) can protect against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in a mouse model. Colitis was induced by 5% DSS in balb/c mice. MFE (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice twice a day for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, clinical score, and histological score were assessed to determine the effects on colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured to investigate the mechanisms of action. MFE dose dependently inhibited the colon shortening and histological damage to the colon. However, it did not prevent weight loss. MFE also inhibited proinflammatory cytokines. The current results suggest that MFE ameliorates DSS-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines. Further investigation, including the exact mechanisms is needed. PMID:24063406

  17. Effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate on structures of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) at the particle surface.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng Wei

    2015-01-01

    The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) tethered to nanoparticles was experimentally investigated using dynamic light scattering below the lower critical solution temperature. A mean-field analytical model was used to calculate the parameters of interfacial PNIPAM-SDS complexes. Particularly, the magnitude of SDS adsorption energy obtained decreases with decreasing excluded volume parameter, implying that the partially collapsed PNIPAM brush virtually favors the adsorption of SDS onto the PNIPAM chains. A self-consistent field theory (SCFT) model was used to get a detailed quantitative description of monomer density distribution. By lowering the solvent quality, a number of phenomena related to the noncontinuity of monomer density are revealed. These phenomena are either referred to as the vertical phase separation or as its precursor, which can be delayed and eventually eliminated as the SDS coverage is increased. The distribution of free chain ends was calculated using the SCFT model. Increasing the SDS coverage gives rise to a broader and more asymmetric distribution of free chain ends, accompanied by a considerable expansion of the dead zone (below which the free chain ends do not exist), but lowering the solvent quality has opposite influences. The relative thickness of the dead zone can be scaled to a master curve, regardless of SDS coverage. PMID:25493920

  18. Mechanical properties of mouse lungs along organ decellularization by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Paula N; Uriarte, Juan J; Campillo, Noelia; Melo, Esther; Navajas, Daniel; Farr, Ramon; Oliveira, Luis V F

    2014-08-15

    Lung decellularization is based on the use of physical, chemical, or enzymatic methods to break down the integrity of the cells followed by a treatment to extract the cellular material from the lung scaffold. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical changes throughout the different steps of lung decellularization process. Four lungs from mice (C57BL/6) were decellularized by using a conventional protocol based on sodium dodecyl sulfate. Lungs resistance (R(L)) and elastance (E(L)) were measured along decellularization steps and were computed by linear regression fitting of tracheal pressure, flow, and volume during mechanical ventilation. Transients differences found were more distinct in an intermediate step after the lungs were rinsed with deionized water and treated with 1% SDS, whereupon the percentage of variation reached approximately 80% for resistance values and 30% for elastance values. In conclusion, although a variation in extracellular matrix stiffness was observed during the decellularization process, this variation can be considered negligible overall because the resistance and elastance returned to basal values at the final decellularization step. PMID:24837837

  19. Glycyrrhetic Acid Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong-Deok; Kang, Sa-Haeng; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Chang, Young-Nam; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Jin, Jong-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR) is a Korean traditional herb medicine that is widely used in clinical health care. Glycyrrhetic acid (GA) is an aglycone saponin extracted from GR that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of GA in colitis have not been reported. This study investigated the role of GA on ulcerative colitis in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. DSS-treated mice displayed weight loss and shortened colon length compared with control mice. Mice administered GA showed less weight loss and longer colon length than the DSS-treated group. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were decreased by GA treatment. GA treatment also reduced DSS-induced microscopic damage to colon tissue. GA regulates the phosphorylation of transcription factors including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and IκB alpha, and regulates the expression of cycloxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E₂. GA thus showed beneficial effects in a mouse model of colitis, implicating GA might be a useful herb-derived medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:27110761

  20. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis. PMID:27058552

  1. Amelioration of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by Rhodobacter sphaeroides extract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Man-Chin; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Lee, Che-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria can produce some compounds in response to their environment. These compounds are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Some probiotics have immunomodulatory activities and modulate the symptoms of several diseases. Autoimmune diseases represent a complex group of conditions that are thought to be mediated through the development of autoreactive immunoresponses. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is common autoimmune disease that affects many individuals worldwide. Previously, we found that the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Lycogen) inhibited nitric oxide production and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression in activated macrophages. In this study, the effect of Lycogen, a potent anti-inflammatory agent, was evaluated in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of Lycogen reduced the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) in female BABL/c mice. In addition, the increased number of bacterial flora in the colon induced by DSS was amelirated by Lycogen. The histological score of intestinal inflammation in 5% DSS-treated mice after oral administration of Lycogen was lower than that of control mice. Meanwhile, Lycogen dramatically prolonged the survival of mice with severe colitis. These findings identified that Lycogen is an anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to ameliorate DSS-induced colitis. PMID:23159923

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration with Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Liquid Sclerotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Il Soo; Kwon, So Young; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Shim, Chan Sup; Lee, Tae Yoon; Kim, Jeong Han

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) liquid sclerotherapy of gastric varices. Materials and Methods Between February 2012 and August 2014, STS liquid sclerotherapy was performed in 17 consecutive patients (male:female = 8:9; mean age 58.6 years, range 44–86 years) with gastric varices. Retrograde venography was performed after occlusion of the gastrorenal shunt using a balloon catheter and embolization of collateral draining veins using coils or gelfoam pledgets, to evaluate the anatomy of the gastric varices. We prepared 2% liquid STS by mixing 3% STS and contrast media in a ratio of 2:1. A 2% STS solution was injected into the gastric varices until minimal filling of the afferent portal vein branch was observed (mean 19.9 mL, range 6–33 mL). Patients were followed up using computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy. Results Technical success was achieved in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%). The procedure failed in one patient because the shunt could not be occluded due to the large diameter of gastrorenal shunt. Complete obliteration of gastric varices was observed in 15 of 16 patients (93.8%) with follow-up CT or endoscopy. There was no rebleeding after the procedure. There was no procedure-related mortality. Conclusion BRTO using STS liquid can be a safe and useful treatment option in patients with gastric varices. PMID:26957907

  3. Simple Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Assisted Sample Preparation Method for LC-MS-based Proteomic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Shi, Tujin; Wang, Lu; Gao, Xiaoli; Su, Dian; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Liu, Tao; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-03-10

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most popular laboratory reagents used for highly efficient biological sample extraction; however, SDS presents a significant challenge to LC-MS-based proteomic analyses due to its severe interference with reversed-phase LC separations and electrospray ionization interfaces. This study reports a simple SDS-assisted proteomic sample preparation method facilitated by a novel peptide-level SDS removal protocol. After SDS-assisted protein extraction and digestion, SDS was effectively (>99.9%) removed from peptides through ion substitution-mediated DS- precipitation with potassium chloride (KCl) followed by {approx}10 min centrifugation. Excellent peptide recovery (>95%) was observed for less than 20 {mu}g of peptides. Further experiments demonstrated the compatibility of this protocol with LC-MS/MS analyses. The resulting proteome coverage from this SDS-assisted protocol was comparable to or better than those obtained from other standard proteomic preparation methods in both mammalian tissues and bacterial samples. These results suggest that this SDS-assisted protocol is a practical, simple, and broadly applicable proteomic sample processing method, which can be particularly useful when dealing with samples difficult to solubilize by other methods.

  4. Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rashad, A.M.; Bai, Y.; Basheer, P.A.M.; Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B.

    2012-02-15

    The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

  5. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103(-)CD11c⁺ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103⁺CD11c⁺ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis. PMID:27058552

  6. Panax notoginseng attenuates experimental colitis in the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yu, Chunhao; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyu; Matin, Adiba; Wang, Yunwei; Li, Ping; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Du, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-06-01

    Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease are at a high risk of developing colorectal cancer. To assess the anticancer potential of botanicals, in this study, we evaluated the effects of Panax notoginseng on azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. One week after A/J mice received azoxymethane, the animals received DSS for 8?days or were supplemented with P.?notoginseng extract, at 30 or 90?mg/kg. DSS-induced colitis was scored with the disease activity index. The severity of the inflammatory lesions was evaluated by a colon tissue histological assessment. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also explored. We observed that the effects of P.?notoginseng on the reduction of colon inflammation, expressed in disease activity index score, were in a dose-related manner (p?

  7. Diplacone and mimulone ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Vochyánová, Zora; Bartošová, Ladislava; Bujdáková, Veronika; Fictum, Petr; Husník, Roman; Suchý, Pavel; Šmejkal, Karel; Hošek, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Diplacone (1) and mimulone (2), two geranylated flavanones, have previously shown anti-inflammatory and antiradical activity in vitro. The present study aimed to evaluate their activity in vivo on a model of colitis induced in Wistar rats by an oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Diplacone (1) and mimulone (2) were administered at a bolus dose of 25mg/kg by gastric gavage 48 and 24h prior to the induction of colitis by DSS and every 24h on the following days of the experiment. The effect of the treatment was assessed by monitoring the disease activity index (DAI), histopathological examination, evaluation of the weight and length of the colon and by analysis of the levels and activities of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and catalase (CAT) in the inflamed tissue. Administration of the test compounds prior and after induction of colitis ameliorated the symptoms of colitis (diarrhea, presence of the blood in the stool) and delayed their onset. The ability of compounds 1 and 2 to reduce the levels of COX-2 and to increase the ratio of pro-MMP2/MMP2 activity correlates with the values of the DAI. The lowering of the levels of the antioxidant enzymes SOD2 and CAT reflects the ability of the test compounds to scavenge reactive oxygen species. PMID:25623260

  8. Surface modification to produce hydrophobic nano-silica particles using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a modifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Bing; Liang, Yong; Wang, Ting-Jie; Jiang, Yanping

    2016-02-01

    Hydrophobic silica particles were prepared using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a modifier by a new route comprising three processes, namely, aqueous mixing, spray drying and thermal treatment. Since SDS dissolves in water, this route is free of an organic solvent and gave a perfect dispersion of SDS, that is, there was excellent contact between SDS and silica particles in the modification reaction. The hydrophobicity of the modified surface was verified by the contact angle of the nano-sized silica particles, which was 107°. The SDS grafting density reached 1.82 nm-2, which is near the highest value in the literature. The optimal parameters of the SDS/SiO2 ratio in the aqueous phase, process temperature and time of thermal treatment were determined to be 20%, 200 °C and 30 min, respectively. The grafting mechanism was studied by comparing the modification with that on same sized TiO2 particles, which indicated that the protons of the Brønsted acid sites on the surface of SiO2 reacted with SDS to give a carbocation which then formed a Si-O-C structure. This work showed that the hydrophilic surface of silica can be modified to be a hydrophobic surface by using a water soluble modifier SDS in a new modification route.

  9. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kanbe, Takamasa |; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki |; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Shiota, Goshi . E-mail: gshiota@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SR{alpha} promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes.

  10. Coupled spectral and electrochemical evaluation of the anticancer drug mitoxantrone-sodium dodecyl sulfate interaction.

    PubMed

    Enache, M; Anghelache, I; Volanschi, E

    2010-05-10

    In-vitro evaluation of the interaction of anticancer drug mitoxantrone with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was performed in physiological conditions (phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) by spectral (UV-vis absorption) and electrochemical (cyclic and linear voltammetry) methods. The stoichiometry of interaction, the binding constants and diffusion coefficients of free and bound drug were determined. The partition coefficient of mitoxantrone between aqueous phase and SDS micelles was calculated, and the results indicated that it is strongly dependent on the drug concentration. Both absorption and cyclic voltammetry results have outlined two distinct processes depending on the surfactant concentration: process I in premicellar range, assigned to the interaction of the drug with the surfactant molecules, when electrostatic forces play an important role in the formation of the mitoxantrone-SDS complex with a defined stoichiometry; and process II in micellar range, when the surfactant micelles are formed and the drug is encapsulated in micelles in monomer form. The spectral results have indicated that the drug is most probably located in the micelle surface layer, both electrostatic and polar interactions playing important role in the binding of drug to SDS micelles. Possible application of this system as a micellar drug-carrier was also considered. PMID:20219654

  11. Platelets to rings: Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on Zn-Al layered double hydroxide morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Ceren; Unal, Ugur; Yagci Acar, Havva

    2012-03-15

    In the current study, influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the crystallization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated. Depending on the SDS concentration coral-like and for the first time ring-like morphologies were obtained in a urea-hydrolysis method. It was revealed that the surfactant level in the starting solution plays an important role in the morphology. Concentration of surfactant equal to or above the anion exchange capacity of the LDH is influential in creating different morphologies. Another important parameter was the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant. Surfactant concentrations well above CMC value resulted in ring-like structures. The crystallization mechanism was discussed. - Graphical abstract: Dependence of ZnAl LDH Morphology on SDS concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ intercalation of SDS in ZnAl LDH was achieved via urea hydrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology of ZnAl LDH intercalated with SDS depended on the SDS concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ring like morphology for SDS intercalated ZnAl LDH was obtained for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth mechanism was discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Template assisted growth of ZnAl LDH was proposed.

  12. Sulfur Isotope Effects of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, William D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Santos, André A.; Pereira, Inês A. C.; Johnston, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The precise interpretation of environmental sulfur isotope records requires a quantitative understanding of the biochemical controls on sulfur isotope fractionation by the principle isotope-fractionating process within the S cycle, microbial sulfate reduction (MSR). Here we provide the only direct observation of the major (34S/32S) and minor (33S/32S, 36S/32S) sulfur isotope fractionations imparted by a central enzyme in the energy metabolism of sulfate reducers, dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB). Results from in vitro sulfite reduction experiments allow us to calculate the in vitro DsrAB isotope effect in 34S/32S (hereafter, 34εDsrAB) to be 15.3 ± 2‰, 2σ. The accompanying minor isotope effect in 33S, described as 33λDsrAB, is calculated to be 0.5150 ± 0.0012, 2σ. These observations facilitate a rigorous evaluation of the isotopic fractionation associated with the dissimilatory MSR pathway, as well as of the environmental variables that govern the overall magnitude of fractionation by natural communities of sulfate reducers. The isotope effect induced by DsrAB upon sulfite reduction is a factor of 0.3–0.6 times prior indirect estimates, which have ranged from 25 to 53‰ in 34εDsrAB. The minor isotope fractionation observed from DsrAB is consistent with a kinetic or equilibrium effect. Our in vitro constraints on the magnitude of 34εDsrAB is similar to the median value of experimental observations compiled from all known published work, where 34εr−p = 16.1‰ (r–p indicates reactant vs. product, n = 648). This value closely matches those of MSR operating at high sulfate reduction rates in both laboratory chemostat experiments (34εSO4−H2S =  17.3 ± 1.5‰, 2σ) and in modern marine sediments (34εSO4−H2S =  17.3 ± 3.8‰). Targeting the direct isotopic consequences of a specific enzymatic processes is a fundamental step toward a biochemical foundation for reinterpreting the biogeochemical and geobiological sulfur isotope records in modern and ancient environments. PMID:26733949

  13. Antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate in apple slices.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q

    2009-01-01

    There are few available compounds that can both control browning and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut fruits. In the present study, the antibrowning ability of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) on "Granny Smith" apple slices was first investigated in terms of optimum concentration and treatment time. In a separate experiment, the apple slices were treated with water or 3% of SAS, calcium ascorbate, citric acid, or acidified calcium sulfate for 5 min. Total plate count, color, firmness, and tissue damage were assessed during a 21-d storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that the efficacy of SAS in inhibiting browning of apple slices increased with increasing concentration. A minimum 3% of SAS was needed to achieve 14 d of shelf life. Firmness was not significantly affected by SAS at 3% or lower concentrations. Antibrowning potential of SAS was similar for all treatment times ranging from 2 to 10 min. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. When cut surface of apple slices were stained with a fluorescein diacetate solution, tissue damage could be observed under a microscope even though visual damage was not evident. Among the antibrowning agents tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for the first 14 d. Total plate count of samples treated with 3% SAS was significantly lower than those treated with calcium ascorbate, a commonly used antibrowning agent. Our results suggested that it is possible to use SAS to control browning while inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the apple slices if the skin damage can be minimized. Practical Application: Fresh-cut apples have emerged as one of the popular products in restaurants, schools, and food service establishments as more consumers demand fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Processing of fresh-cut apples induces mechanical damage to the fruit and exposes apple tissue to air, resulting in the development of undesirable tissue browning. The fresh-cut industry currently uses antibrowning agents to prevent discoloration. However, the antibrowning solutions can become contaminated with human pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, and washing of apple slices with the contaminated solutions can result in the transfer of pathogens to the product. It would be ideal if an antibrowning compound prevented the proliferation of human pathogens in solutions and minimized the growth of pathogens during storage. The study was conducted to investigate antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) in comparison with other common antibrowning agents on Granny Smith apples. Results showed that among the antimicrobial agents we tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for 14 d at 4 degrees C. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. Overall, SAS can potentially be used to inhibit tissue browning while reducing the microbial growth on apple slices. The information is useful for the fresh-cut produce industry to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut apples while minimizing browning, thus increasing the consumption of the health benefiting fresh fruit. PMID:20492119

  14. Corrosion resistance of sodium sulfate coated cobalt-chromium-aluminum alloys at 900 C, 1000 C, and 1100 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion of sodium sulfate coated cobalt alloys was measured and the results compared to the cyclic oxidation of alloys with the same composition, and to the hot corrosion of compositionally equivalent nickel-base alloys. Cobalt alloys with sufficient aluminum content to form aluminum containing scales corrode less than their nickel-base counterparts. The cobalt alloys with lower aluminum levels form CoO scales and corrode more than their nickel-base counterparts which form NiO scales.

  15. Effects of Sodium Citrate on the Ammonium Sulfate Recycled Leaching of Low-Grade Zinc Oxide Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Li, Shi-wei; Zhang, Li-bo; Peng, Jin-hui; Ma, Ai-yuan; Wang, Bao-bao

    2016-03-01

    The effects of sodium citrate on ammonium sulfate recycled leaching of low-grade zinc oxide ores were studied. By applying various kinds of detection and analysis techniques such as chemical composition analysis, chemical phase method, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrum (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transforming infrared spectrum (FT-IR), zinc raw ore, its leaching slag and the functional mechanism of sodium citrate were investigated. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it can be concluded that in contrast to hemimorphite (Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O), amorphous smithsonite (ZnCO3) and zinc silicate (Zn2SiO4) prove to be refractory phases under ammonium sulfate leaching, while sodium citrate has a better chelating action with the refractory phases, resulting in a higher zinc leaching rate. Under conditions of [NH3]/[NH3]T molar ratio being 0.5, [NH3]T being 7.5 mol/L, [Na3C6H5O7] being 0.2 mol/L, S/L ratio being 1:5, temperature being 303 K, holding time being 1 h in each of the two stages, and stirring rate being 300 rpm, the leaching rate of zinc reached 93.4%. In this article, sulfate ammonium recycled technology also reveals its unique advantage in processing low-grade zinc oxide ores accompanied by high silicon and high alkaline gangue.

  16. The effect of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status of brain in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Ozlem; Aras, Sinem; Ozkan, Ayse; Parlak, Hande; Aslan, Mutay; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Agar, Aysel

    2014-10-23

    Sulfite, commonly used as a preservative in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals, is a very reactive and potentially toxic molecule which is detoxified by sulfite oxidase (SOX). Changes induced by aging may be exacerbated by exogenous chemicals like sulfite. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and brain antioxidant statuses by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Brain lipid oxidation status was also determined via thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in normal- and SOX-deficient aged rats. Rats do not mimic the sulfite responses seen in humans because of their relatively high SOX activity level. Therefore this study used SOX-deficient rats since they are more appropriate models for studying sulfite toxicity. Forty male Wistar rats aged 24 months were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), sulfite (S), SOX-deficient (D) and SOX-deficient + sulfite (DS). SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats with low molybdenum (Mo) diet and adding 200 ppm tungsten (W) to their drinking water. Sulfite in the form of sodium metabisulfite (25 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was given by gavage. Treatment continued for 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, flash VEPs were recorded. Hepatic SOX activity was measured to confirm SOX deficiency. SOX-deficient rats had an approximately 10-fold decrease in hepatic SOX activity compared with the normal rats. The activity of SOX in deficient rats was thus in the range of humans. There was no significant difference between control and treated groups in either latence or amplitude of VEP components. Brain SOD, CAT, and GPx activities and brain TBARS levels were similar in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Our results indicate that exogenous administration of sulfite does not affect VEP components and the antioxidant/oxidant status of aged rat brains. PMID:25342669

  17. Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Antoinette Weil

    The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of sodium sulfite injection to remove flue gas NO prior to sodium bicarbonate injection.

  18. Fabrication and study of properties of magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of polystyrene- block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginova, T. P.; Timofeeva, G. I.; Lependina, O. L.; Shandintsev, V. A.; Matyushin, A. A.; Khotina, I. A.; Shtykova, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been formed for the first time in hybrid micelles of polystyrene- block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate in water by ultrasonic treatment at room temperature. An analysis by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of block copolymer and sodium dodecyl sulfate are polydesperse (have sizes from 0.5 to 20 nm). The specific magnetization of solid samples has been measured.

  19. Bifidobacterium breve Attenuates Murine Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases Regulatory T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bin; van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen; Overbeek, Saskia; van de Kant, Hendrik J. G.; Garssen, Johan; Folkerts, Gert; Vos, Paul; Morgan, Mary E.; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

    2014-01-01

    While some probiotics have shown beneficial effects on preventing or treating colitis development, others have shown no effects. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulating effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve) on T cell polarization in vitro, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and in vivo, using murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. With respect to the latter, the mRNA expression of T cell subset-associated transcription factors and cytokines in the colon was measured and the T helper type (Th) 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets were determined in the Peyer's patches. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve incubations in vitro reduced Th17 and increased Th2 cell subsets in human PBMCs. In addition, B. breve incubation was also able to reduce Th1 and increase Treg cell subsets in contrast to L. rhamnosus. In vivo intervention with B. breve, but not L. rhamnosus, significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice, intervention with B. breve increased the expression of mRNA encoding for Th2- and Treg-associated cytokines in the distal colon. In addition, intervention with B. breve led to increases of Treg and decreases of Th17 cell subsets in Peyer's patches of DSS-treated mice. B. breve modulates T cell polarization towards Th2 and Treg cell-associated responses in vitro and in vivo. In vivo B. breve intervention ameliorates DSS-induced colitis symptoms and this protective effect may mediated by its effects on the T-cell composition. PMID:24787575

  20. Porcine ?-defensin 2 attenuates inflammation and mucosal lesions in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Han, Feifei; Zhang, Haiwen; Xia, Xi; Xiong, Haitao; Song, Deguang; Zong, Xin; Wang, Yizhen

    2015-02-15

    Intestinal permeability plays a critical role in the etiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Defensins, including porcine ?-defensin (pBD)2, are crucial antimicrobial peptides for gut protection owing to their antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of pBD2 on mucosal injury and the disruption of the epithelial barrier during the pathological process of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The effects and mechanism of pBD2 were evaluated both using a DSS-induced C57BL/6 mouse model and, in vitro, using Caco-2 and RAW264.7 cells. DSS-induced colitis was characterized by higher disease activity index, shortened colon length, elevated activities of myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, histologic evidence of inflammation, and increased expression levels of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-8. pBD2 increased the expression of zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-2, claudin-1, mucin-1, and mucin-2 mRNA and proteins, and it decreased permeability to FITC-D, as well as apoptosis, in DSS-treated mice. pBD2 also decreased inflammatory infiltrates of the colon epithelium. In Caco-2 cells, pBD2 increased transepithelial electrical resistance and mucin mRNA expression, and it decreased the permeability of FITC-D while preserving the structural integrity of the tight junctions. The effects of pBD2 appeared to be through upregulation of the expression of genes associated with tight junctions and mucins, and by suppressing DSS-induced increases in inflammation, inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and apoptosis. These results show that pBD2 improves DSS-induced changes in mucosal lesions and paracellular permeability, possibly by affecting the activation of NF-?B signaling. The present study demonstrates that intrarectal administration of pBD2 may be a novel preventive option for ulcerative colitis. PMID:25601921

  1. L-arginine Supplementation Improves Responses to Injury and Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Lori A.; Gong, Xue; Singh, Kshipra; Asim, Mohammad; Scull, Brooks P.; Allaman, Margaret M.; Williams, Christopher S.; Rosen, Michael J.; Washington, M. Kay; Barry, Daniel P.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Casero, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Zhao, Zhongming; Wilson, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), results in substantial morbidity and is difficult to treat. New strategies for adjunct therapies are needed. One candidate is the semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg), a complementary medicine purported to be an enhancer of immunity and vitality in the lay media. Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as a murine colonic injury and repair model with similarities to human UC, we assessed the effect of L-Arg, as DSS induced increases in colonic expression of the y+ cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) and L-Arg uptake. L-Arg supplementation improved the clinical parameters of survival, body weight loss, and colon weight, and reduced colonic permeability and the number of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in DSS colitis. Luminex-based multi-analyte profiling demonstrated that there was a marked reduction in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression with L-Arg treatment. Genomic analysis by microarray demonstrated that DSS-treated mice supplemented with L-Arg clustered more closely with mice not exposed to DSS than to those receiving DSS alone, and revealed that multiple genes that were upregulated or downregulated with DSS alone exhibited normalization of expression with L-Arg supplementation. Additionally, L-Arg treatment of mice with DSS colitis resulted in increased ex vivo migration of colonic epithelial cells, suggestive of increased capacity for wound repair. Because CAT2 induction was sustained during L-Arg treatment and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) requires uptake of L-Arg for generation of NO, we tested the effect of L-Arg in iNOS−/− mice and found that its benefits in DSS colitis were eliminated. These preclinical studies indicate that L-Arg supplementation could be a potential therapy for IBD, and that one mechanism of action may be functional enhancement of iNOS activity. PMID:22428068

  2. Betaine reduces the irritating effect of sodium lauryl sulfate on human oral mucosa in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Irma; Nicander, Ingrid; Jutila, Kirsti; Ollmar, Stig; Tenovuo, Jorma; Söderling, Eva

    2002-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate whether betaine has a protective effect during exposure of the human oral mucosa in vivo to sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or cocoamidopropylbetaine (CAPB) as measured with a multifrequency electrical impedance spectrometer (EI). Both detergents were used at the concentration of 2.0% w/v with and without 4.0% w/v betaine in distilled water in 20 volunteers, and 0.5% and 1.0% w/v SLS combined with 4.0% w/v betaine in 5 volunteers. EI measurements were taken before application of the test solutions, after their removal, and every 15 min up to 45 min. Both 0.5% and 1% SLS solutions showed a significant reduction in 3 of the 4 indices, indicating mucosal irritation after the 15-min exposure (P < 0.05), whereas 2% SLS did so in all 4 indices (P < 0.001). Betaine had no effect on the detergent-induced decline with either the 2% or the 0.5% SLS solutions. However, when combined with the 1% SLS solution, betaine significantly (P < 0.05) reduced mucosal irritation by abolishing decreases in indices MIX (magnitude index) and IMIX (imaginary part index) and lowering it for PIX (phase index). The 2% CAPB solution showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all 4 indices after the 15-min exposure, but the effect was significantly weaker than that of 2% SLS (P < 0.05). Betaine did not reduce the irritating effect of 2% CAPB. These findings can be used in the development of less irritating products for oral health care. PMID:12418722

  3. Adequate Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Colitis Model in Mice and Effective Outcome Measurement Method

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung; Shim, Young Kwang; Choi, Yoon Jin; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Ham, Min Hee; Suh, Ji Hyung; Lee, Sun Min; Lee, Chang Min; Yoon, Hyuk; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model is used for research of inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to establish the adequate conditions for DSS mice model, and to find useful tool to measure inflammation. Methods: The 2.5% DSS was administered to six male C57BL/6 mice and 4% DSS to eight mice at 5 or 9 weeks of age. Each group was consisted of 6 mice with control group in which vehicle was administered instead of DSS. The mice were sacrificed on the 7th day after DSS or vehicle administration. Body weight, diarrhea, and hematochezia were recorded daily. Disease activity index (DAI) score which was composed of body weight change, diarrhea, and hematochezia was measured every day. Colon length was measured after sacrifice and colon mucosal level of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) was measured by ELISA assay. Histological score was compared between ascending and descending colon in the DSS group. Results: Colon length of five- and nine-week DSS group was significantly shorter than each control group but there was no statistical significance depending on DSS concentration or age. DAI score of 4% DSS group in nine-week was significantly higher than that five-week (P = 0.012) but there was no difference between 2.5% and 4% DSS group. The level of IL-1β in DSS mice was much higher than control group (P < 0.01), but there was no difference among several DSS groups. The histological score was higher in the descending colon than in the ascending colon but there was no statistical difference between each pair of DSS groups. Conclusions: The 4% DSS mice in nine-week was adequate for DSS-induced colitis model. DAI score was useful tool and descending colon was more appropriate site for histological evaluation of colitis than ascending colon. PMID:26734588

  4. Transcatheter Foam Sclerotherapy of Symptomatic Female Varicocele with Sodium-Tetradecyl-Sulfate Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Chiocchi, Marcello Konda, Daniel; Pampana, Enrico; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-07-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of transcatheter foam sclerotherapy (TCFS) in pelvic varicocele using sodium-tetradecyl-sulfate foam (STSF), we conducted a retrospective study in 38 patients (mean age, 36.9 years; range, 22-44 years) with pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) treated between January 2000 and June 2005 by TCFS. Pelvic pain was associated with dyspareunia in 23 (60.5%) patients, urinary urgency in 9 (23.7%) patients, and worsening of pain during menstruation and at the end of a day of work in 7 (18.4%) and 38 (100%) patients, respectively. Diagnosis was made by pelvic and transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound examination, demonstrating ovarian or pelvic varices with a diameter >5 mm presenting venous reflux. TCFS was performed in all patients, using 3% STSF. Follow-up was performed by physical examination, pelvic and transvaginal Doppler ultrasound examination and by a questionnaire-based assessment of pain at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Technical success was achieved in all patients (100%). In three patients a pelvic colic-like pain occurred immediately after sclerotic agent injection, disappearing spontaneously after a few minutes. No recurrent varicoceles were observed during a 12-month follow-up. A statistically significant improvement in each category of specific symptoms was observed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. We conclude that TCFS of female varicocele using a 3% STSF is safe and effective for the treatment of PCS. It is associated with a significant reduction of symptoms and can be regarded as a valid alternative to other endovascular and surgical techniques.

  5. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Monomers Induce XAO Peptide Polyproline II to α-Helix Transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    XAO peptide (Ac–X2A7O2–NH2; X: diaminobutyric acid side chain, −CH2CH2NH3+; O: ornithine side chain, −CH2CH2CH2NH3+) in aqueous solution shows a predominantly polyproline II (PPII) conformation without any detectable α-helix-like conformations. Here we demonstrate by using circular dichroism (CD), ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) monomers bind to XAO and induce formation of α-helix-like conformations. The stoichiometry and the association constants of SDS and XAO were determined from the XAO–SDS diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. We developed a model for the formation of XAO–SDS aggregate α-helix-like conformations. Using UVRR spectroscopy, we calculated the Ramachandran ψ angle distributions of aggregated XAO peptides. We resolved α-, π- and 310- helical conformations and a turn conformation. XAO nucleates SDS aggregation at SDS concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration. The XAO4–SDS16 aggregates have four SDS molecules bound to each XAO to neutralize the four side chain cationic charges. We propose that the SDS alkyl chains partition into a hydrophobic core to minimize the hydrophobic area exposed to water. Neutralization of the flanking XAO charges enables α-helix formation. Four XAO–SDS4 aggregates form a complex with an SDS alkyl chain-dominated hydrophobic core and a more hydrophilic shell where one face of the α-helix peptide contacts the water environment. PMID:25121643

  6. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption onto Positively Charged Surfaces: Monolayer Formation With Opposing Headgroup Orientations

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Hun; Koelsch, Patrick; Weidner, Tobias; Wagner, Matthew S.; Castner, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption and structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) layers onto positively charged films have been monitored in situ with vibrational sum-frequency-generation (SFG) spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. Substrates with different charge densities and polarities used in these studies include CaF2 at different pH values as well as allylamine and heptylamine films deposited onto CaF2 and Au substrates by radio frequency glow discharge deposition. The SDS films were adsorbed from aqueous solutions ranging in concentration from 0.067 to 20 mM. In general the SFG spectra exhibited well resolved CH and OH peaks. However, at SDS concentrations between 1–8 mM the SFG CH and OH intensities decreased close to background levels. Combined data sets from molecular conformation, orientation, and order sensitive SFG with mass sensitive SPR suggest that the observed changes in SFG intensities above 0.2 mM are related to structural arrangements in the SDS layer. A model is proposed where the SFG intensity minimum between 1–8 mM is associated with a monolayer containing two head group orientations, one pointing towards the substrate and one pointing towards the solution phase. The SFG peaks observed at concentrations below 0.2 mM are dominated by the presence of adsorbed contaminants such as fatty alcohols (e.g., dodecanol), which are more surface active than SDS. As SDS solution concentration is increased above 1 mM SDS molecules are incorporated in the surface layer, with dodecanol continuing to be present in the surface layer for solution concentrations up to at least critical micelle concentration. PMID:24024777

  7. Chondroitin sulfate-chitosan nanoparticles for ocular delivery of bromfenac sodium: Improved permeation, retention, and penetration

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Tara Abdulrahman; Ibrahim, Naz Jamal; Warsi, Musarrat Husain

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Superiority of topical instillation of drug into the cul-de-sac for the treatment of various ophthalmic complications can be validated with commercial availability of a large number of conventional formulations even though this mode of instillation still elicits limitations owing to poor ocular bioavailability. To overcome the drawbacks of conventional formulations, a large number of novel carriers have been investigated. In this perspective, a new novel nanocarrier, chondroitin sulfate (ChS)-chitosan (CS)-nanoparticles (NPs) are being evaluated for improved delivery of bromfenac sodium. Materials and Methods: Formulation was developed and optimized for CS, chondroitin, and initial drug concentration. Optimized formulation was evaluated for various in vitro aspects i.e., particles’ size, size distribution, zeta potential, shape and morphology, in vitro release profile, corneal permeation, corneal retention, corneal uptake, and ocular tolerance test. Results: The mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of optimized formulation were found to be 245.6 ± 14.22 nm, 0.187 ± 0.016, +37.59 ± 4.05 mV, and 71.72 ± 4.43%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed a spherical shape of developed formulation. Further, formulation exhibited biphasic release profile and Korsmeyer–Peppas model was found to be the best fit model. Significantly high transcorneal permeation (1.62-fold) and corneal retention (1.92-fold) of bromfenac was observed through ChS-CS-NPs when compared with marketed eyedrops (P < 0.01). Furthermore, high corneal uptake of CHS-CS-NPs was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Safety profile of the developed formulation was established by hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane test. Conclusion: Encouraging outcomes of in vitro and ex vivo studies indicated that CHS-CS-NPs could be a potential substitute for improved ocular delivery. PMID:27051629

  8. Isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida capable of metabolizing anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, V; Kumar, A

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) is one of the most widely used anionic detergents. The present study deals with isolation and identification of SDS-degrading bacteria from a detergent contaminated pond situated in Varanasi city, India. Materials and Methods Employing enrichment technique in minimal medium (PBM), SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated from pond water sample. Rate of degradation of SDS was studied in liquid PBM and also degradation of different concentrations of SDS was also studied to find out maximum concentration of SDS degraded by the potent isolates. Alkyl sulfatase activity (key enzyme in SDS degradation) was estimated in crude cell extracts and multiplicity of alkyl sulfatase was studied by Native PAGE Zymography. The potent isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Results Using enrichment technique in minimal medium containing SDS as a sole carbon source, initially three SDS degrading isolates were recovered. However, only one isolate, SP3, was found to be an efficient degrader of SDS. It was observed that this strain could completely metabolize 0.1% SDS in 16 h, 0.2% SDS in 20 h and 0.3% SDS in 24 h of incubation. Specific activity of alkyl sulfatase was 0.087±0.004 µmol SDS/mg protein/min and Native PAGE Zymography showed presence of alkyl sulfatase of Rf value of 0.21. This isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida strain SP3. Conclusion This is the report of isolation of SDS-degrading strain of P. putida, which shows high rate of SDS degradation and can degrade up to 0.3% SDS. It appears that this isolate can be exploited for bioremediation of this detergent from water systems. PMID:22347583

  9. Modulation of partition and localization of perfume molecules in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaxun; Tang, Haiqiu; Strand, Ross; Wang, Yilin

    2016-01-01

    The influence of perfume molecules on the self-assembly of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and their localization in SDS micelles have been investigated by ζ potential, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), one- and two-dimensional NMR and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC). A broad range of perfume molecules varying in octanol/water partition coefficients P are employed. The results indicate that the surface charge, size and aggregation number of the SDS micelles strongly depend on the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity degree of perfume molecules. Three distinct regions along the log P values are identified. Hydrophilic perfumes (log P < 2.0) partially incorporate into the SDS micelles and do not lead to micelle swelling, whereas hydrophobic perfumes (log P > 3.5) are solubilized close to the end of the hydrophobic chains in the SDS micelles and enlarge the micelles with higher ζ potential and a larger aggregation number. The incorporated fraction and micelle properties show increasing tendency for the perfumes in the intermediate log P region (2.0 < log P < 3.5). Besides, the molecular conformation of perfume molecules also affects these properties. The perfumes with a linear chain structure or an aromatic group can penetrate into the palisade layer and closely pack with the SDS molecules. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters obtained from ITC show that the binding of the perfumes in the intermediate log P region is more spontaneous than those in the other two log P regions, and the micellization of SDS with the perfumes is driven by entropy. PMID:26458054

  10. Comparative thermodynamic studies of aqueous glutaric acid, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at high humidity.

    PubMed

    Hanford, Kate L; Mitchem, Laura; Reid, Jonathan P; Clegg, Simon L; Topping, David O; McFiggans, Gordon B

    2008-10-01

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to simultaneously characterize and compare the hygroscopic properties of two aerosol droplets, one containing inorganic and organic solutes and the second, referred to as the control droplet, containing a single inorganic salt. The inorganic solute is either sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate and the organic component is glutaric acid. The time variation in the size of each droplet (3-7 microm in radius) is recorded with 1 s time resolution and with nanometre accuracy. The size of the control droplet is used to estimate the relative humidity with an accuracy of better than +/-0.09%. Thus, the Kohler curve of the multicomponent inorganic/organic droplet, which characterizes the variation in equilibrium droplet size with relative humidity, can be determined directly. The measurements presented here focus on high relative humidities, above 97%, in the limit of dilute solutes. The experimental data are compared with theoretical treatments that, while ignoring the interactions between the inorganic and organic components, are based upon accurate representations of the activity-concentration relationships of aqueous solutions of the individual salts. The organic component is treated by a parametrized fit to experimental data or by the UNIFAC model and the water activity of the equilibrium solution droplet is calculated using the approach suggested by Clegg, Seinfeld and Brimblecombe or the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson approximation. It is shown that such an experimental strategy, comparing directly droplets of different composition, enables highly accurate measurements of the hygroscopic properties, allowing the theoretical treatments to be rigorously tested. Typical deviations of the experimental measurements from theoretical predictions are shown to be around 1% in equilibrium size, comparable to the variation between the theoretical frameworks considered. PMID:18593140

  11. Marine Hydroquinone Zonarol Prevents Inflammation and Apoptosis in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Mice Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Ueda, Yuki; Kitsuyama, Ryo; Shimizu, Hiroya; Tanimoto, Akihide; Wang, Ke-Yong; Nawata, Aya; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Satoh, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim We previously identified an anti-inflammatory compound, zonarol, a hydroquinone isolated from the brown algae Dictyopteris undulata as a marine natural product. To ascertain the in vivo functions of zonarol, we examined the pharmacological effects of zonarol administration on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). Our goal is to establish a safe and effective cure for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using zonarol. Methods and Results We subjected Slc:ICR mice to the administration of 2% DSS in drinking water for 14 days. At the same time, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) at a dose of 50 mg/kg (positive control) and zonarol at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, were given orally once a day. DSS-treated animals developed symptoms similar to those of human UC, such as severe bloody diarrhea, which were evaluated by the disease activity index (DAI). Treatment with 20 mg/kg of zonarol, as well as 5-ASA, significantly suppressed the DAI score, and also led to a reduced colonic ulcer length and/or mucosal inflammatory infiltration by various immune cells, especially macrophages. Zonarol treatment significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory signaling molecules, and prevented the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, zonarol protected against in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation in the RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. Conclusions This is the first report that a marine bioproduct protects against experimental UC via the inhibition of both inflammation and apoptosis, very similar to the standard-of-care sulfasalazine, a well-known prodrug that releases 5-ASA. We believe that the oral administration of zonarol might offer a better treatment for human IBDs than 5-ASA, or may be useful as an alternative/additive therapeutic strategy against UC, without any evidence of side effects. PMID:25409433

  12. Characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate-resistant proteolytic activity in the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed Central

    Blumentals, I I; Robinson, A S; Kelly, R M

    1990-01-01

    Cell extracts from Pyrococcus furiosus were found to contain five proteases, two of which (S66 and S102) are resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) denaturation. Cell extracts incubated at 98 degrees C in the presence of 1% SDS for 24 h exhibited substantial cellular proteolysis such that only four proteins could be visualized by amido black-Coomassie brilliant blue staining of SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The SDS-treated extract retained 19% of the initial proteolytic activity as represented by two proteases, S66 (66 kilodaltons [kDa]) and S102 (102 kDa). Immunoblot analysis with guinea pig sera containing antibodies against protease S66 indicated that S66 is related neither to S102 nor to the other proteases. The results of this analysis also suggest that S66 might be the hydrolysis product of a 200-kDa precursor which does not have proteolytic activity. The 24-h SDS-treated extract showed unusually thermostable proteolytic activity; the measured half-life at 98 degrees C was found to be 33 h. Proteases S66 and S102 were also resistant to denaturation by 8 M urea, 80 mM dithiothreitol, and 5% beta-mercaptoethanol. Purified protease S66 was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate but not by EDTA, ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, or iodoacetic acid. These results indicate that S66 is a serine protease. Amino acid ester hydrolysis studies showed that protease S66 was hydrolytically active towards N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester. Images PMID:2117873

  13. L-arginine supplementation improves responses to injury and inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium colitis.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Lori A; Gong, Xue; Singh, Kshipra; Asim, Mohammad; Scull, Brooks P; Allaman, Margaret M; Williams, Christopher S; Rosen, Michael J; Washington, M Kay; Barry, Daniel P; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Casero, Robert A; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Zhao, Zhongming; Wilson, Keith T

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), results in substantial morbidity and is difficult to treat. New strategies for adjunct therapies are needed. One candidate is the semi-essential amino acid, L-arginine (L-Arg), a complementary medicine purported to be an enhancer of immunity and vitality in the lay media. Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) as a murine colonic injury and repair model with similarities to human UC, we assessed the effect of L-Arg, as DSS induced increases in colonic expression of the y(+) cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) and L-Arg uptake. L-Arg supplementation improved the clinical parameters of survival, body weight loss, and colon weight, and reduced colonic permeability and the number of myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils in DSS colitis. Luminex-based multi-analyte profiling demonstrated that there was a marked reduction in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression with L-Arg treatment. Genomic analysis by microarray demonstrated that DSS-treated mice supplemented with L-Arg clustered more closely with mice not exposed to DSS than to those receiving DSS alone, and revealed that multiple genes that were upregulated or downregulated with DSS alone exhibited normalization of expression with L-Arg supplementation. Additionally, L-Arg treatment of mice with DSS colitis resulted in increased ex vivo migration of colonic epithelial cells, suggestive of increased capacity for wound repair. Because CAT2 induction was sustained during L-Arg treatment and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) requires uptake of L-Arg for generation of NO, we tested the effect of L-Arg in iNOS(-/-) mice and found that its benefits in DSS colitis were eliminated. These preclinical studies indicate that L-Arg supplementation could be a potential therapy for IBD, and that one mechanism of action may be functional enhancement of iNOS activity. PMID:22428068

  14. Dietary flaxseed intake exacerbates acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Zhang, Claire; Wu, Wenqing; Lepp, Dion; Robinson, Lindsay; Wanasundara, Janitha; Cui, Steve; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Fofana, Bourlaye; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Power, Krista A

    2014-06-15

    Flaxseed (FS), a dietary oilseed, contains a variety of anti-inflammatory bioactives, including fermentable fiber, phenolic compounds (lignans), and the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) α-linolenic acid. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of FS and its n-3 PUFA-rich kernel or lignan- and soluble fiber-rich hull on colitis severity in a mouse model of acute colonic inflammation. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a basal diet (negative control) or a basal diet supplemented with 10% FS, 6% kernel, or 4% hull for 3 wk prior to and during colitis induction via 5 days of 2% (wt/vol) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in their drinking water (n = 12/group). An increase in anti-inflammatory metabolites (hepatic n-3 PUFAs, serum mammalian lignans, and cecal short-chain fatty acids) was associated with consumption of all FS-based diets, but not with anti-inflammatory effects in DSS-exposed mice. Dietary FS exacerbated DSS-induced acute colitis, as indicated by a heightened disease activity index and an increase in colonic injury and inflammatory biomarkers [histological damage, apoptosis, myeloperoxidase, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β), and NF-κB signaling-related genes (Nfkb1, Ccl5, Bcl2a1a, Egfr, Relb, Birc3, and Atf1)]. Additionally, the adverse effect of the FS diet was extended systemically, as serum cytokines (IL-6, IFNγ, and IL-1β) and hepatic cholesterol levels were increased. The adverse effects of FS were not associated with alterations in fecal microbial load or systemic bacterial translocation (endotoxemia). Collectively, this study demonstrates that although consumption of a 10% FS diet enhanced the levels of n-3 PUFAs, short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and lignans in mice, it exacerbated DSS-induced colonic injury and inflammation. PMID:24763556

  15. Unfolding and folding pathway of lysozyme induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Filho, Pedro L O; Bozelli, Jos C; Carvalho, Juliana; Schreier, Shirley; Oliveira, Cristiano L P

    2015-10-21

    Proteins may exhibit an unfolding or folding state in the presence of a surfactant. In the present study, the unfolding and folding pathway of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is studied. The stoichiometry obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides guidelines for other techniques. The fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism show that the fluorescence properties and secondary structure of proteins undergo a two-step change upon binding with SDS, in which the intensity decreases, the emission blue shifts and the helical conformation decreases at low ratios of SDS to HEWL, while all of them return to the native-like state upon the addition of SDS at higher ratios. At the end of the binding, HEWL presents a higher ?-helical content but its tertiary structure is lost compared to its native state, which is namely a molten globule state. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis and the derived model reveal that the complexes possess a decorated core-shell structure, with the core composed of dodecyl chains and the shell consisting of SDS head groups with a protein in molten globule state. Five binding steps, including the individual details involved in the denaturation, were obtained to describe the unfolding and folding pathway of HEWL induced by SDS. The results of this study not only present details about the denaturation of protein induced by SDS and the structure of the complexes involved in each binding step, but also provide molecular insights into the mechanism of the higher helical conformation of proteins in the presence of surfactant micelles. PMID:26308474

  16. Impairment in Sulfite Reductase Leads to Early Leaf Senescence in Tomato Plants1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Brychkova, Galina; Kurmanbayeva, Assylay; Bekturova, Aizat; Ventura, Yvonne; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Eppel, Amir; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Sulfite reductase (SiR) is an essential enzyme of the sulfate assimilation reductive pathway, which catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Here, we show that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with impaired SiR expression due to RNA interference (SIR Ri) developed early leaf senescence. The visual chlorophyll degradation in leaves of SIR Ri mutants was accompanied by a reduction of maximal quantum yield, as well as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, messenger RNA transcripts and proteins involved in chlorophyll breakdown in the chloroplasts were found to be enhanced in the mutants, while transcripts and their plastidic proteins, functioning in photosystem II, were reduced in these mutants compared with wild-type leaves. As a consequence of SiR impairment, the levels of sulfite, sulfate, and thiosulfate were higher and glutathione levels were lower compared with the wild type. Unexpectedly, in a futile attempt to compensate for the low glutathione, the activity of adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase was enhanced, leading to further sulfite accumulation in SIR Ri plants. Increased sulfite oxidation to sulfate and incorporation of sulfite into sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols were not sufficient to maintain low basal sulfite levels, resulting in accumulative leaf damage in mutant leaves. Our results indicate that, in addition to its biosynthetic role, SiR plays an important role in prevention of premature senescence. The higher sulfite is likely the main reason for the initiation of chlorophyll degradation, while the lower glutathione as well as the higher hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde additionally contribute to premature senescence in mutant leaves. PMID:24987017

  17. Water-dissolvable sodium sulfate nanowires as a versatile template for the fabrication of polyelectrolyte- and metal-based nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Pu, Ying-Chih; Hwu, Jih Ru; Su, Wu-Chou; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Tzeng, Yonhua; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2006-09-01

    This study presents the synthesis of water-dissolvable sodium sulfate nanowires, where Na(2)SO(4) nanowires were produced by an easy reflux process in an organic solvent, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and formed from the coexistence of AgNO(3), SnCl(2), dodecylsodium sulfate (SDS), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Na(2)SO(4) nanowires were derived from SDS, and the morphology control of the Na(2)SO(4) nanowires was established by the cooperative effects of Sn and NO(3)(-), while CTAB served as the template and led to homogeneous nanowires with a smooth surface. Since the as-synthesized sodium sulfate nanowires are readily dissolved in water, these nanowires can be treated as soft templates for the fabrication of nanotubes by removing the Na(2)SO(4) core. This process is therefore significantly better than other reported methodologies to remove the templates under harsh condition. We have demonstrated the preparation of biocompatible polyelectrolyte (PE) nanotubes using a layer-by-layer (LbL) method on the Na(2)SO(4) nanowires and the formation of Au nanotubes by the self-assembly of Au nanoparticles. In both nanotube synthesis processes, PEI (polyethylenimine), PAA (poly(acrylic acid)), and Au nanoparticles served as the building blocks on the Na(2)SO(4) templates, which were then rinsed with water to remove the core templates. This unique water-dissolvable template is anticipated to bring about versatile and flexible downstream applications. PMID:16939285

  18. Immobilization of sodium alginate sulfates on polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes for selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Cao, Jian-Da; Lan, Ping; Wu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for the immobilization of sodium alginate sulfates (SAS) on polysulfone (PSu) ultrafiltration membranes to achieve selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was developed, which involved the photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylamide on the membrane and the Hofmann rearrangement reaction of grafted acrylamide followed by chemical binding of SAS with glutaraldehyde. The surface modification processes were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization. Zeta potential and water contact angle measurements were performed to investigate the surface charge and wettability of the membranes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the binding of LDL on plain and modified PSu membranes. It was found that the PSu membrane immobilized with sodium alginate sulfates (PSu-SAS) greatly enhanced the selective adsorption of LDL from protein solutions and the absorbed LDL could be easily eluted with sodium chloride solution, indicating a specific and reversible binding of LDL to SAS, mainly driven by electrostatic forces. Furthermore, the PSu-SAS membrane showed good blood compatibility as examined by platelet adhesion. The results suggest that the PSu-SAS membranes are promising for application in simultaneous hemodialysis and LDL apheresis therapy. PMID:24008179

  19. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. METHODS: Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. RESULTS: Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired uptake of a lipid tracer within mesenteric lymphatics. Our in vivo NIRF imaging data demonstrated dilated dermal lymphatic vessels, which were confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of lymphatic vessels, and significantly reduced lymphatic contractile function in the skin of mice with DSS-induced acute colitis. Quantification of the fluorescent intensity remaining in the depot as a function of time showed that there was significantly higher Alexa680-BSA fluorescence in mice with DSS-induced acute colitis compared to pre-treatment with DSS, indicative of impaired lymphatic drainage. CONCLUSION: The lymphatics are locally and systemically altered in acute colitis, and functional NIRF imaging is useful for noninvasively monitoring systemic lymphatic changes during inflammation. PMID:26668501

  20. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15th day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. RESULTS: The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3rd and 5th days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6th day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0.05). Kefir treatment significantly reduced the DSS colitis-induced TNF-α increase (P < 0.01). No statistically significant differences were observed among groups for IL-10 and MDA levels. Colon tissue iNOS levels in the colitis group were significantly higher than those in the control and kefir-colitis groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Kefir reduces the clinical DAI and histologic colitis scores in a DSS-induced colitis model, possibly via reduction of MPO, TNF-α, and iNOS levels. PMID:26676086

  1. Oral tolerance is inducible during active dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ino, Satoshi; Kohda, Chikara; Takeshima, Kosuke; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Norose, Tomoko; Yamochi, Toshiko; Takimoto, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether oral tolerance is inducible during the active phase of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in 6- to 8-wk-old female BALB/c mice by the administration of 2% DSS. To induce oral tolerance, mice that received water with DSS [DSS (+)] and mice that received autoclaved water [DSS (-)] were intragastrically (i.g.) administered ovalbumin (OVA) as a tolerogen before systemic challenge with OVA. Following this, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE antibodies were measured. In mice with active colitis, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cell and B10 cell frequencies were evaluated using flow cytometry. Cytokine mRNA expression profiles were evaluated by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Regardless of the presence of DSS colitis, OVA-specific immunoglobulin E concentrations were significantly reduced in mice that were i.g. administered OVA compared to mice that were i.g. administered PBS [DSS (+): 4.4 (4.2-9.5) ng/mL vs 83.9 (66.1-123.2) ng/mL, P < 0.01; DSS (-): 27.7 (0.1-54.5) ng/mL vs 116.5 (80.6-213.6) ng/mL, P < 0.01]. These results demonstrated that oral tolerance was induced in both the presence and absence of colitis. In the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), the frequencies of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells and B10 cells, both of which are associated with oral tolerance, did not significantly change. In the spleen, interferon-γ mRNA expression significantly decreased in mice with colitis [DSS (+): 0.42 (0.31-0.53) vs DSS (-): 1.00 (0.84-1.39), P < 0.01]. The expression levels of other cytokines did not significantly change. CONCLUSION: Oral tolerance is inducible during active DSS colitis. The stability of regulatory cell populations in the spleen and MLN in colitis might correlate with these results. PMID:27158540

  2. DISSOLUTION AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM SULFITE PLATELETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the dissolution and crystallization of calcium sulfite platelets. The rates of calcium sulfite dissolution and crystallization are important in slurry scrubbing processes for flue gas desulfurization. The rates affect the scrubber solution composition, SO2 abs...

  3. Speciation and Structural Properties of Hydrothermal Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Sulfate Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Joachim; Vogel, Frédéric; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew

    2016-05-18

    Aqueous solutions of salts at elevated pressures and temperatures play a key role in geochemical processes and in applications of supercritical water in waste and biomass treatment, for which salt management is crucial for performance. A major question in predicting salt behavior in such processes is how different salts affect the phase equilibria. Herein, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate molecular-scale structures of solutions of sodium and/or potassium sulfate, which show contrasting macroscopic behavior. Solutions of Na-SO4 exhibit a tendency towards forming large ionic clusters with increasing temperature, whereas solutions of K-SO4 show significantly less clustering under equivalent conditions. In mixed systems (Nax K2-x SO4 ), cluster formation is dramatically reduced with decreasing Na/(K+Na) ratio; this indicates a structure-breaking role of K. MD results allow these phenomena to be related to the characteristics of electrostatic interactions between K(+) and SO4 (2-) , compared with the analogous Na(+) -SO4 (2-) interactions. The results suggest a mechanism underlying the experimentally observed increasing solubility in ternary mixtures of solutions of Na-K-SO4 . Specifically, the propensity of sodium to associate with sulfate, versus that of potassium to break up the sodium-sulfate clusters, may affect the contrasting behavior of these salts. Thus, mutual salting-in in ternary hydrothermal solutions of Na-K-SO4 reflects the opposing, but complementary, natures of Na-SO4 versus K-SO4 interactions. The results also provide clues towards the reported liquid immiscibility in this ternary system. PMID:26888426

  4. Elucidating the Catalytic Mechanism of Sulfite Oxidizing Enzymes using Structural, Spectroscopic and Kinetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs) are molybdenum cofactor dependent enzymes that are found in plants, animals and bacteria. Sulfite oxidase (SO) is found in animals and plants, while sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH) is found in bacteria. In animals, SO catalyzes the oxidation of toxic sulfite to sulfate as the final step in the catabolism of the sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. In humans, sulfite oxidase deficiency is an inherited recessive disorder that produces severe neonatal neurological problems that lead to early death. Plant SO (PSO) also plays an important role in sulfite detoxification, but in addition serves as an intermediate enzyme in the assimilatory reduction of sulfate. In vertebrates the proposed catalytic mechanism of SO involves two intramolecular one-electron transfer (IET) steps from the molybdenum cofactor to the iron of the integral b-type heme. A similar mechanism is proposed for SDH, involving its molybdenum cofactor and c-type heme. However, PSO, which lacks an integral heme cofactor, uses molecular oxygen as its electron acceptor. Here we review recent results for SOEs from kinetic measurements, computational studies, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, electrochemical measurements, and site-directed mutagenesis on active site residues of SOEs and of the flexible polypepetide tether that connects the heme and molybdenum domains of human SO. Rapid-kinetic studies of PSO are also discussed. PMID:20666399

  5. The effects of sodium sulfate in the water of nursery pigs and the efficacy of nonnutritive feed additives to mitigate those effects.

    PubMed

    Flohr, J R; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2014-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of sodium sulfate water and the efficacy of nonnutritive feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 320 barrows (5.4 0.1 kg BW and 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 8 treatments for 24 d in a 2 4 factorial with 2 levels of sodium sulfate water (control or 3,000 mg sodium sulfate/L added), and 4 dietary zeolite (clinoptilolite) levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, or 1%). Fecal samples were collected on d 5, 9, 16, and 23; visually scored for consistency (1 = firm and 5 = watery); and analyzed for DM. No interactions of sodium sulfate zeolite were observed for any response criteria. Overall (d 0 to 24), pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F compared with pigs drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water also had increased (P < 0.01) fecal scores and lower (P < 0.04) fecal DM on d 5, 9, and 16 compared with pigs drinking control water. Increasing dietary zeolite increased (linear; P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI but had no effect on G:F. In Exp. 2, 350 barrows (5.7 0.1 kg BW and 21 d of age) were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments in a 2 5 factorial for 21 d with 2 levels of sodium sulfate water (control or 2,000 mg sodium sulfate/L added) and 5 dietary treatments (control, 1 or 2% zeolite, 1% humic acid substance [HA], and 1% humic and fulvic acid substance [HFB]). Fecal samples were collected on d 5, 8, 15, and 21; visually scored for consistency (1 = firm and 5 = watery); and analyzed for DM. Overall (d 0 to 21), a water source diet interaction was observed for ADG and G:F because pigs fed the 1% HA had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F when drinking sodium sulfate water compared with other treatments but increased ADG and G:F when drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had decreased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F and tended (P < 0.08) to have decreased ADFI compared with pigs drinking control water. Pigs drinking sodium sulfate water had increased (P < 0.01) fecal scores and decreased (P < 0.01) fecal DM on d 5 and 8. In conclusion, water high in sodium sulfate concentrations decreased growth performance and increased fecal moisture in newly weaned pigs. Although zeolite improved growth performance in the first experiment, it did not influence growth in the second study. The nonnutritive feed additives used in both experiments were unsuccessful in ameliorating the increased osmotic diarrhea observed from high sodium sulfate water. PMID:24981569

  6. Stability of apigeninidin and its methoxylated derivatives in the presence of sulfites.

    PubMed

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Awika, Joseph M

    2010-08-25

    3-Deoxyanthocyanin pigments are more stable than anthocyanins and show promising bioactive properties. However, little is known about their stability in the presence of food additives such as sulfites. This work investigates the stability of apigeninidin and its derivatives in the presence of sulfites. Pigment (apigeninidin, 5-mono-, and 5,7-dimethoxyapigeninidin) stability at pH 1.8, 3.0, and 5.0, in the presence of sodium metabisulfite (molar ratio ∼ 1:40, pigment/SO2) was monitored over 21 days at room temperature. The structure of sulfite complexation products was monitored using HPLC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. All pigments were significantly bleached within 30 min in the presence of sulfites; the bleaching effect was more severe at pH 5.0 and 3.0 compared to pH 1.8. Apigeninidin was more resistant to bleaching than its methoxylated derivatives. However, all pigments regained some or all of the bleached color within 14-21 days at pH 3.0 and 1.8 in the presence of sulfites, indicating equilibrium favored flavylium cation at these pH values. Formation of colorless sulfonates via bisulfite ion addition at C-4 was responsible for the bleaching effect. Both structure and pH significantly affected stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins in the presence of sulfites. The pigments may have potential applications in low pH systems containing sulfites. PMID:20681551

  7. Therapeutic effect of a hydroxynaphthoquinone fraction on dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Liang; Fan, Hua-Ying; Yang, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Zuo-Kai; Liu, Ke

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of hydroxynaphthoquinone mixture (HM) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: BALB/c mice received 3.5% DSS for 6 d to induce ulcerative colitis. Groups of mice were orally administered HM 3.5, 7 and 14 mg/kg and mesalazine 200 mg/kg per day for 7 d. During the experiment, clinical signs and body weight, stool consistency and visible fecal blood were monitored and recorded daily. A disease activity index score was calculated for each animal. At the conclusion of the experiment, the colonic histopathological lesions were evaluated. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were determined. Protein expression levels of TNF-α, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, inhibitor of κB (IκB) and phosphorylation of IκB (p-IκB) were analyzed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Administration of 3.5% DSS for 6 d successfully induced acute colitis associated with soft stool, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and colon shortening, as well as a loss of body weight. Administration of HM effectively attenuated the severity of colonic mucosa injury. For histopathological analysis, HM treatment improved histological alterations and lowered pathological scores compared with the DSS only group. This manifested as a reduction in the extent of colon injury and inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the degree of mucosal destruction. In addition, HM at doses of 7 and 14 mg/kg significantly decreased MPO activity in colonic tissue (0.98 ± 0.22 U/g vs 1.32 ± 0.24 U/g, 0.89 ± 0.37 U/g vs 1.32 ± 0.24 U/g tissue, P < 0.05) and serum TNF-α levels (68.78 ± 7.34 ng/L vs 88.98 ± 17.79 ng/L, 64.13 ± 14.13 ng/L vs 88.98 ± 17.79 ng/L, P < 0.05). Furthermore, HM down-regulated the expression of TNF-α, NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα in colonic tissue while up-regulating IκBα protein expression. These results suggest that the significant anti-inflammatory effect of HM may be attributable to its inhibition of TNF-α production and NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: HM had a favorable therapeutic effect on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, supporting its further development and clinical application in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25386079

  8. Purification of papain by metal affinity partitioning in aqueous two-phase polyethylene glycol/sodium sulfate systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hai-De; Wang, Wei-Tao

    2015-05-01

    A simple and inexpensive aqueous two-phase affinity partitioning system using metal ligands was introduced to improve the selectivity of commercial papain extraction. Polyethylene glycol 4000 was first activated using epichlorohydrin, then it was covalently linked to iminodiacetic acid. Finally, the specific metal ligand Cu(2+) was attached to the polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid. The chelated Cu(2+) content was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry as 0.88 mol/mol (polyethylene glycol). The effects on the purification at different conditions, including polyethylene glycol molecular weight (2000, 4000, and 6000), concentration of phase-forming components (polyethylene glycol 12-20% w/w and sodium sulfate 12-20%, w/w), metal ligand type, and concentration, system pH and the commercial papain loading on papain extraction, were systematically studied. Under optimum conditions of the system, i.e. 18% w/w sodium sulfate, 18% w/w polyethylene glycol 4000, 1% w/w polyethylene glycol-iminodiacetic acid-Cu(2+) and pH 7, a maximum yield of 90.3% and a degree of purification of 3.6-fold were obtained. Compared to aqueous two phase extraction without ligands, affinity partitioning was found to be an effective technique for the purification of commercial papain with higher extraction efficiency and degree of purification. PMID:25641671

  9. Proteomic profiling of dextran sulfate sodium induced acute ulcerative colitis mice serum exosomes and their immunomodulatory impact on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wing-Yan; Lee, Magnolia Muk-Lan; Chan, Brandon Dow; Kam, Richard Kin-Tin; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Ai-Ping; Tai, William Chi-Shing

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, and their activation has been proposed to be critical to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although there are many recognized mediators of macrophage activation, increasing evidence suggests that macrophages respond to exosome stimulation. Exosomes are 40-150 nm microvesicles released from different cell types and are found in a variety of physiological fluids, including serum. As studies have shown that circulating exosomes participate in intercellular communication and can mediate the immune response, we hypothesized that exosomes may play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD though modulation of macrophage activity. In this study, we used the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis mice model to investigate the effect of serum exosomes on macrophages and identify exosome proteins potentially involved in macrophage activation. We treated RAW264.7 macrophages with serum exosomes isolated from dextran sulfate sodium induced mice and found that treatment induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK and production of tumor necrosis factor α when compared to treatment with exosomes isolated from control mice. Subsequent proteomic analysis identified 56 differentially expressed proteins, a majority of which were acute-phase proteins and immunoglobulins. Bioinformatics analysis suggested these proteins were mainly involved in the complement and coagulation cascade, which has been implicated in macrophage activation. Our findings provide new insight into the role of circulating serum exosomes in acute colitis and contribute to the understanding of macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:26806198

  10. Electron spin echo modulation of doxylstearic acid probes of the surface and internal structure of lithium dodecyl sulfate micelles: comparison with sodium dodecyl sulfate and tetramethylammonium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.R.M.; Maldonado, R.; Szajdzinska-Pietek, E.; Kevan, L.

    1986-03-13

    Two-pulse electron spin echo modulation analyses of x-doxylstearic acid spin probes (x = 5, 7, 10, 12, and 16) in frozen lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) micelles in D/sub 2/O and lithium dodecyl-12,12,12-d/sub 3/ sulfate micelles in H/sub 2/O have been carried out. The results give information on the average conformation of the stearic acid chains and the distribution of D/sub 2/O and the -CD/sub 3/ end groups in the micellar aggregates. These are compared to data from dodecyl sulfate micelles with sodium or tetramethylammonium counterions (SDS and TMADS, respectively) which were studied previously in a similar fashion. The LDS micelles show a less compact and more hydrated headgroup region than SDS micelles. The -CD/sub 3/ surfactant end groups in LDS micelles are not concentrated at the micelle center but are broadly distributed throughout the micellar volume. The surface and internal structure of LDS micelles is quite comparable to that of TMADS micelles and is different from that of SDS micelles. 23 references, 2 figures.

  11. Immunological comparison of sulfite oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, V.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Polyclonal antibodies (rabbit), elicited against FPLC-purified chicken and rat liver sulfite oxidase (SO), have been examined for inhibition and binding to purified chicken (C), rat (R), bovine (B), alligator (A) and shark (S) liver enzymes. Anti-CSO IgG cross-reacted with all five enzymes, with varying affinities, in the order CSO=ASO{gt}RSO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-ROS IgG also cross-reacted with all five enzymes in the order RSO{gt}CSO=ASO{gt}BSO{gt}SSO. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited sulfite:cyt. c reductase (S:CR), sulfite:ferricyanide reductase (S:FR) and sulfite:dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (S:DR) activities of CSO to different extents (S:CR{gt}S:FR=S:DR). Similar differential inhibition was found for anti-ROS IgG and RSO S:CR, S:FR and S:DR activities. Anti-CSO IgG inhibited S:CR activities in the order CSO=ASO{much gt}SSO{gt}BSO. RSO was uninhibited. For anti-RSO IgG the inhibition order was RSO{gt}SSO{gt}BSO{gt}ASO. CSO was uninhibited. Anti-CSO and RSO IgGs partially inhibited Chlorella nitrate reductase (NR). Minor cross-reactivity was found for xanthine oxidase. Common antigenic determinants for all five SO's and NR are indicated.

  12. Anticoagulant and FGF/FGFR signal activating activities of the heparinoid propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate and its oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Yiran; Zeng, Yangyang; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhao, Xia

    2016-01-20

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), prepared by chemical sulfation of alginate, has been used for treating cardiovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. In the current study, the PSS was hydrolyzed partially by an environment-friendly solid phase acid degradation method, and then separated by using a Bio-Gel P6 chromatographic column. Thirteen PSS oligosaccharide fractions were obtained and characterized by ESI-MS. The results of different coagulation assays showed that a high molecular weight and a higher degree of sulfation were essential for the anticoagulant activity of the PSS because the PSS oligosaccharides exhibited no detectable anticoagulant activity. In contrast, not only PSS but also certain oligosaccharides showed significant activities in stimulation of FGF1, 2, 7, 8, 9 or 10 induced cell proliferation in FGFR1c-expressing BaF3 cells. Such properties made the PSS and its oligosaccharides promising compounds in the regulation of FGF-dependent development, treatment of cancer, and wound healing processes. PMID:26572396

  13. An Essential Role for Tomato Sulfite Oxidase and Enzymes of the Sulfite Network in Maintaining Leaf Sulfite Homeostasis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brychkova, Galina; Grishkevich, Vladislav; Fluhr, Robert; Sagi, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the homeostasis of sulfite levels, a cytotoxic by-product of plant sulfur turnover. By employing extended dark to induce catabolic pathways, we followed key elements of the sulfite network enzymes that include adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase and the sulfite scavengers sulfite oxidase (SO), sulfite reductase, UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase, and β-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferases. During extended dark, SO was enhanced in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) wild-type leaves, while the other sulfite network components were down-regulated. SO RNA interference plants lacking SO activity accumulated sulfite, resulting in leaf damage and mortality. Exogenous sulfite application induced up-regulation of the sulfite scavenger activities in dark-stressed or unstressed wild-type plants, while expression of the sulfite producer, adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase, was down-regulated. Unstressed or dark-stressed wild-type plants were resistant to sulfite applications, but SO RNA interference plants showed sensitivity and overaccumulation of sulfite. Hence, under extended dark stress, SO activity is necessary to cope with rising endogenous sulfite levels. However, under nonstressed conditions, the sulfite network can control sulfite levels in the absence of SO activity. The novel evidence provided by the synchronous dark-induced turnover of sulfur-containing compounds, augmented by exogenous sulfite applications, underlines the role of SO and other sulfite network components in maintaining sulfite homeostasis, where sulfite appears to act as an orchestrating signal molecule. PMID:23148079

  14. [Colorimetric determination of sulfite in "kanpyo" (dried gourd shavings) and "konnyakuseiko" (devil's-tongue fine powder) using sulfite oxidase and catalase].

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazuko; Ueno, Seiichi; Ishizaki, Mutsuo

    2002-06-01

    A simple and convenient method for colorimetric determination of sulfite in foods based on its conversion to formaldehyde with sulfite oxidase and catalase was developed. Sulfite in a sample was extracted with water and then diluted with methanol. One mL of sample solution containing about 5-10 micrograms of sulfite was taken into a test tube with a ground-glass stopper, and 3 mL of 0.04 mol/L borate buffer (pH 8.7), 1 mL of 0.4% 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) solution, 2,000 units of catalase solution and 1.0 units of sulfite oxidase were added. The mixture was incubated for 35 minutes at 37 degrees C. Then 0.15 mL of 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid and 5 mL of 0.2% iron(III) nitrate solution were added. The reaction mixture was transferred to a measuring flask after standing for 5 minutes at room temperature, and diluted to 20 mL with methanol. The absorbance of this solution was measured using a spectrophotometer at the wavelength of 635 nm. The calibration curve prepared with sodium sulfite showed linearity between 0 to 16 micrograms/mL as sulfur dioxide. The recoveries of sulfite in "Kanpyo" (dried gourd shavings) and "Konnyaku-seiko" (devil's-tongue fine powder) by the proposed method were 97-104%, and the coefficients of variation were below 6%. The sulfite values in these foods determined by the proposed method were reasonably consistent with those obtained by the bubbling distillation-alkaline titration method. PMID:12238155

  15. Chemistry of Frozen Sodium-Magnesium-Sulfate-Chloride Brines: Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Tuan H.; Hodyss, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu; Johnson, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of Europa’s subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability. However, our current understanding of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the surface. This work investigates experimentally the composition of mixed sodium-magnesium-sulfate-chloride solutions when frozen to 100 K, simulating conditions that likely occur as ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa’s surface. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize phase composition of the frozen brines at 100 K. Our results show that solutions containing Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, and {{{SO}}4}2- preferentially crystallize into Na2SO4 and MgCl2 hydrated minerals upon freezing, even at elevated [Mg2+]/[Na+] ratios. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) on Europa’s surface, if confirmed, may thus imply a relatively sodium-poor ocean composition or a radiolytic process that converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Brown & Hand. The formation of NaCl on the surface, while dependent upon a number of factors such as freezing rate, may indicate an ocean significantly more concentrated in sodium than in magnesium.

  16. Microscopic evidence of "necklace and bead"-like morphology of polymer-surfactant complexes: a comparative study on poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-sodium dodecyl sulfate and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-sodium dodecyl sulfate systems.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Surajit; Prajapati, Roopali; Bhattacharya, Arpan; Mukherjee, Tushar K

    2014-08-19

    Here, we report the microscopic evidence of "necklace and bead"-like morphology, which has long been the most widely accepted model for polymer-surfactant complexes. The lack of microscopic evidence of the initial complexation between surfactant and polymer has resulted in many contradictory reports in the literature. In this paper, we visualized these initial complexes formed between negatively charged surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with neutral poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) polymer through photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) using silicon quantum dot (Si QD) as an external PL marker. It is observed that, for the PVP-SDS system, SDS molecules bind at the hydrophobic sites on the random-coiled PVP chain through their hydrocarbon tails, while for the PDADMAC-SDS system, SDS head groups are associated with the positively charged nitrogen centers of the polymer, where the polymer chain wraps around the surfactant head groups. PMID:25105837

  17. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-12-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain lengths, the slower the sphere-to-rod transition. PMID:17904570

  18. Adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide in water under the effect of the potassium persulfate-sodium metabisulfite-copper sulfate system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurenkov, V.F.; Baiburdov, T.A.; Stupen'kova, L.L.

    1988-04-10

    Since adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide (AA) has been studied very little and the information on the effect of copper ions on polymerization of AA prepared in dilute aqueous solutions is very limited, the features of adiabatic polymerization of AA in concentrated aqueous solutions in the presence of the potassium persulfate-sodium metabisulfite-copper sulfate redox initiating system were investigated in this study. The empirical equation for the overall rate of adiabatic polymerization of acrylamide in concentrated aqueous solutions was found, and the effective total activation energy, which decreases with an increase in the concentration of CuSO/sub 4/, was determined. An increase in the molecular weight of the polymer with an increase in the concentration of the monomer and a decrease in the concentration of the components of the initiating system was demonstrated.

  19. Classification of Clostridium butyricum based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yokota, K; Fujinaga, Y; Inoue, K; Shimazaki, S; Seo, G; Takeshi, K; Nagamachi, E; Oguma, K

    1998-08-01

    Eleven strains of Clostridium butyricum collected from different sources were analysed by both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The strains could be classified into four groups based on their banding profiles of the proteins extracted from the cells on SDS-PAGE. Group I consisted of seven strains, and these strains were further divided into five subgroups by PFGE. The strains belonging to groups II, III, and IV on SDS-PAGE were also classified into the same II to IV groups by PFGE. These data indicate that grouping of the strains of C. butyricum can be performed by employing both SDS-PAGE and PFGE. PMID:16887639

  20. Adsorption of phenol molecules by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants deposited on solid surfaces: A computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Peredo-Mancilla, Deneb; Dominguez, Hector

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption studies of phenol molecules on a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations were carried out in bulk and on three distinct solid surfaces, silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide and graphite. It was observed that different surfactant micellar shapes were formed on the surfaces. For the silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide surfaces the surfactants were adsorbed by their headgroups whereas for the graphite surface they were adsorbed mainly by their tail groups. It was found that the amount of phenol adsorbed on the SDS micelle was altered by the surfactant shape deposited on the solid surface. However, the best phenol adsorption was obtained by the surfactant modified silicon dioxide surface. Moreover, in all cases, from structural investigations, it was determined that the phenol molecules were located inside the surfactant micelle with their hydroxyl groups close to the SDS headgroups. PMID:26973047

  1. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M.; Hussein, Lobna A.; Sedki, Nehal G.; Salama, Nahla N.

    2016-01-01

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λex 257 nm and λem 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH 3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  2. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent.

    PubMed

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Sedki, Nehal G; Salama, Nahla N

    2016-01-15

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λ(ex) 257 nm and λ(em) 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance. PMID:26356788

  3. Sodium lauryl sulfate-ruthenium(II) interactions: Photogalvanic and photophysical behavior of Ru(II)-diimine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Akasheh, T.S.; Al-Rawashdeh, N.A.F. )

    1990-11-15

    The photogalvanic and photophysical behavior of a number of mixed-ligand ruthenium(II) complexes of 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy), 3,3{prime}-bipyradzine (bpd), 2-(2{prime}-pyridyl)quinoline (pyrq), 4,4{prime}-dimethyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine (dmbpy), and 2,3-bis(2{prime}-pyridyl)pyrazine (dpp) is reported both in water and in sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The effect of SDS on the photogalvanic experiment is predominantly an enhancement and/or modification of the photochemical and electrochemical processes. Luminescence, lifetime measurements, and photochemical behavior are affected by SDS and are used to predict possible modes of micelle-complex interactions.

  4. Effects of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate as a Co-Adsorbate on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ju Hee; Sung, Shi-Joon; Han, Yoon Soo

    2015-10-01

    As a surface modifier, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and its effects on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells were investigated. When the SDS was co-adsorbed with dye (N719) onto TiO2 surface, the DSSCs with SDS showed an increase in short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor, leading to a considerable improvement of over 23% in power conversion efficiency, compared to the reference cell without SDS. Incorporation of SDS on TiO2 surface induced longer lifetime of electrons injected from excited dyes to conduction band of TiO2, leading to an increase in the electron collection efficiency and thus an enhancement in Jsc. The longer lifetime by a suppression of the interfacial charge recombination could also contribute to an increment in Voc. PMID:26726402

  5. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. PMID:26796977

  6. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a trypanocidal drug quinapyramine sulfate loaded-sodium alginate nanoparticles in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Manuja, Anju; Kumar, Balvinder; Chopra, Meenu; Bajaj, Anshu; Kumar, Rajender; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sandeep; Riyesh, T; Yadav, Suresh C

    2016-07-01

    We synthesized quinapyramine sulfate loaded-sodium alginate nanoparticles (QS-NPs) to reduce undesirable toxic effects of QS against the parasite Trypanosoma evansi, a causative agent of trypanosomosis. To determine the safety of the formulated nanoparticles, biocompatibility of QS-NPs was determined using Vero, Hela cell lines and horse erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Our experiments unveiled a concentration-dependent safety/cytotoxicity (metabolic activity), genotoxicity (DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations), production of reactive oxygen species and hemolysis in QS-NPs treated cells. Annexin-V propidium iodide (PI) staining showed no massive apoptosis or necrosis. However, at very high doses (more than 300 times than the effective doses), we observed more toxicity in QS-NPs treated cells as compared to QS treated cells. QS-NPs were safe at effective trypanocidal doses and even at doses several times higher than the effective dose. PMID:27000439

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of interactions between a sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle and a poly(ethylene oxide) polymer.

    PubMed

    Shang, Barry Z; Wang, Zuowei; Larson, Ronald G

    2008-03-13

    We have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of an anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle and a nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer in aqueous solution. The micelle consisted of 60 surfactant molecules, and the polymer chain lengths varied from 20 to 40 monomers. The force field parameters for PEO were adjusted by using 1,2-dimethoxymethane (DME) as a model compound and matching its hydration enthalpy and conformational behavior to experiment. Excellent agreement with previous experimental and simulation work was obtained through these modifications. The simulated scaling behavior of the PEO radius of gyration was also in close agreement with experimental results. The SDS-PEO simulations show that the polymer resides on the micelle surface and at the hydrocarbon-water interface, leading to a selective reduction in the hydrophobic contribution to the solvent-accessible surface area of the micelle. The association is mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions between the polymer and surfactant tails, while the interaction between the polymer and sulfate headgroups on the micelle surface is weak. The 40-monomer chain is mostly wrapped around the micelle, and nearly 90% of the monomers are adsorbed at low PEO concentration. Simulations were also performed with multiple 20-monomer chains, and gradual addition of polymer indicates that about 120 monomers are required to saturate the micelle surface. The stoichiometry of the resulting complex is in close agreement with experimental results, and the commonly accepted "beaded necklace" structure of the SDS-PEO complex is recovered by our simulations. PMID:18275181

  8. Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceburg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies showed that levulinic acid (LA) and sodium acid sulfate (SAS) were effective in inactivating human pathogens on fresh produce. The present study investigated the effects of LA and SAS in comparison with citric acid and chlorine on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and the sensory qu...

  9. TREATMENT OF A SATURATED ZONE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM SOURCE AREA USING A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE MIXTURE: A FIELD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a combined ferrous sulfate/sodium dithionite solution for in situ treatment of a saturated zone hexavalent chromium source area at a former ferrochromium alloy production facility in Charleston, S.C. The saturate...

  10. Control of pathogens in biofilms on the surface of stainless steel by levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-08-17

    The efficacy of levulinic acid (LVA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to remove or inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in biofilms on the surface of stainless steel coupons was evaluated. Five- or six-strain mixtures (ca. 9.0 log CFU/ml) of the three pathogens were separately inoculated on stainless steel coupons. After incubation at 21 °C for 72 h, the coupons were treated for 10 min by different concentrations of LVA plus SDS (0.5% LVA+0.05% SDS, 1% LVA+0.1% SDS, and 3% LVA+2% SDS) and other commonly used sanitizers, including a commercial quaternary ammonium-based sanitizer (150 ppm), lactic acid (3%), sodium hypochlorite (100 ppm), and hydrogen peroxide (2%). The pathogens grew in the biofilms to ca. 8.6 to 9.3 log CFU/coupon after 72 h of incubation. The combined activity of LVA with SDS was bactericidal in biofilms for cells of the three pathogens evaluated, with the highest concentrations (3% LVA+2% SDS) providing the greatest log reduction. Microscopic images indicated that the cells were detached from the biofilm matrix and the integrity of cell envelopes were decreased after the treatment of LVA plus SDS. This study is conducive to better understanding the antimicrobial behavior of LVA plus SDS to the foodborne pathogens within biofilms. PMID:25950851

  11. Analysis of partitioning of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems in terms of solute-solvent interactions.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-10-01

    Partition behavior of nine small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. It was found out that the partition coefficient of all compounds examined (including proteins) may be described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system differ from those in polyethylene glycol-dextran system. PMID:26342872

  12. The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species - Ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of problems which are related to a use of measured optical constants in the simulation of the optical constants of real atmospheric aerosols. The techniques of measuring optical constants are discussed, taking into account transmission measurements through homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, the immersion of a material in a liquid of a known refractive index, the consideration of the minimum deviation angle of prism measurement, the interference of multiply reflected light, reflectivity measurements, and aspects of mathematical analysis. Graphs show the real and the imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of wavelength for aluminum oxide, NaCl, and ammonium sulfate. Tables are provided for the dispersion parameters and the optical constants.

  13. The wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene by aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate and propanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zdziennicka, Anna; Jańczuk, Bronisław; Wójcik, Wiesław

    2005-01-15

    Advancing contact-angle (theta) measurements were carried out with aqueous solutions of propanol and four series of aqueous solutions of dodecyl sulfate (SDDS) and propanol mixtures at constant dodecyl sulfate concentrations equal to 1 x 10(-5), 6 x 10(-4), 1 x 10(-3), and 1 x 10(-2)M, respectively. The obtained results indicate that in the range of propanol concentrations studied there were considerable contact-angle changes, with exception of the solution series at a constant concentration value of SDDS higher than its critical micelle concentration. From the results of contact-angle measurements and application of the Gibbs and Young equations the ratio of the excess concentration of surfactant and propanol at the solid-aqueous solution interface to the excess of their concentration at the aqueous solution-air interface was calculated. From the calculations it appears that there is a straight linear dependence between the adhesion tension and surface tension of aqueous solutions of SDDS and propanol mixtures, and the slope of the line is equal to -1, which suggests that the surface excess of the SDDS and propanol mixture at the polytetrafluoroethylene-solution interface is the same as the at the solution-air interface. The extrapolation of the straight line to the point corresponding to the surface tension of the aqueous solution, which completely spreads over the polytetrafluoroethylene surface, gives a critical surface tension of wetting equal to 23.7 mN/m. On the basis of the critical surface tension and the Young and modified Szyszkowski equations it was found that in a polytetrafluoroethylene-aqueous solution of the SDDS and propanol mixture, the interface tension can be predicted by the modified Szyszkowski equation. PMID:15571704

  14. Adhesion of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant monolayers with TiO2 (rutile and anatase) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L.; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M.

    2013-09-17

    Surfactants are widely used as templates to control the nucleation and growth of nanostructured metal oxides such as titania. To gain insight into the origin of surfactant-titania interactions responsible for polymorph and orientation selection, we simulate the self-assembly of an anionic surfactant monolayer on various low-index titania surfaces and for a range of densities. We characterize the binding in each case and compute the adhesion energies, finding anatase (100) and rutile (110) to be the strongest-binding surfaces. The sodium counterions in the monolayer are found to dominate the adhesion. It is also observed that the assembly is directed predominantly by surface-monolayer electrostatic complementarity.

  15. Characterization of anaerobic sulfite reduction by Salmonella typhimurium and purification of the anaerobically induced sulfite reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, P.C. ); Clark, M.A.; Barrett, E.L. )

    1989-06-01

    Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that lack the biosynthetic sulfite reductase (cysI and cysJ mutants) retain the ability to reduce sulfite for growth under anaerobic conditions. Here we report studies of sulfite reduction by a cysI mutant of S. typhimurium and purification of the associated anaerobic sulfite reductase. Sulfite reduction for anaerobic growth did not require a reducing atmosphere but was prevented by an argon atmosphere contaminated with air (<0.33%). It was also prevented by the presence of 0.1 mM nitrate. Anaerobic growth in liquid minimal medium, but not on agar, was found to require additions of trace amounts (10{sup {minus}7} M) of cysteine. Spontaneous mutants that grew under the argon contaminated with air also lost the requirement for 10{sup {minus}7}M cysteine for anaerobic growth in liquid. A role for sulfite reduction in anaerobic energy generation was contraindicated by the findings that sulfite reduction did not improve cell yields, and anaerobic sulfite reductase activity was greatest during the stationary phase of growth. Sulfite reductase was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of the anaerobically grown cysI mutant and was purified 190-fold. The most effective donor in crude extracts was NADH. NADHP and methyl viologen were, respectively, 40 and 30% as effective as NADH. Oxygen reversibly inhibited the enzyme. The anaerobic sulfite reductase showed some resemblance to the biosynthetic sulfite reductase, but apparently it has a unique, as yet unidentified function.

  16. Sulfite oxidation in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeremy J; Kappler, Ulrike

    2009-12-01

    Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes (SOEs) are crucial for the metabolism of many cells and are particularly important in bacteria oxidizing inorganic or organic sulfur compounds. However, little is known about SOE diversity and metabolic roles. Sinorhizobium meliloti contains four candidate genes encoding SOEs of three different types, and in this work we have investigated the role of SOEs in S. meliloti and their possible link to the metabolism of the organosulfonate taurine. Low level SOE activity (approximately 1.4 U/mg) was present under all conditions tested while growth on taurine and thiosulfate induced high activities (5.5-8.8 U/mg) although S. meliloti cannot metabolize thiosulfate. Protein purification showed that although expression of two candidate genes matched SOE activity patterns, only a single group 2 SOE, SorT (SMc04049), is responsible for this activity. SorT is a heme-free, periplasmic homodimer (78 kDa) that has low homology to other bacterial SOEs. SorT has an apparent k(cat) of 343 s(-1) and high affinities for both sulfite (K(Mapp_pH8) 15.5 microM) and ferricyanide (K(Mapp_pH8) 3.44 microM), but not cytochrome c, suggesting a need for a high redox potential natural electron acceptor. K(Mapp_sulfite) was nearly invariant with pH which is in contrast to all other well characterized SOEs. SorT is part of an operon (SMc04049-04047) also containing a gene for a cytochrome c and an azurin, and these might be the natural electron acceptors for the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of SorT-related SOEs and enzymes of taurine degradation indicate that there is no link between the two processes. PMID:19632192

  17. Mercury displacement detection for the determination of picogram amounts of sulfite ion or sulfur dioxide by atomic spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.; Midgley, D.

    1981-10-01

    An analytical method has been developed that can determine picogram amounts of sulfite in aqueous solution or sulfur dioxide in solution. The technique is based on the reaction of sulfite ion in solution with mercury(I) ion to promote its disproportionation to metallic mercury and mercury(II) ions. By monitoring the Hg/sup 0/ released it is possible to determine the concentration of sulfite added. The method gives a linear calibration over the range tested (0 to 5 ng of sulfite) and the within-batch cefficients of variation for the determination of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 ng of sulfite are 4, 3, 2.5, and 1.8%, respectively. Fifteen analyses can be carried out each hour. The limit of detection is 30 pg of sulfite, which is several orders of magnitude lower than can be obtained by other manual methods of sulfite determination. The method is very selective. Sulfate ion does not interfere, which is especially important in the determination of atmospheric sulfur dioxide.

  18. The effect of sulfite and chronic restraint stress on brain lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Derin, Narin; Yargiçoğlu, Piraye; Aslan, Mutay; Elmas, Oğuz; Agar, Aysel; Aicigüzel, Yakup

    2006-07-01

    Sulfites are used as anti-microbial and anti-oxidant agents in a variety of drugs, and function as a preservative in many food preparations. In addition to these effects, sulfites oxidize to sulfite radicals initiating lipid peroxidation. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of restraint stress and sulfite on brain lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities. Forty male Wistar rats, aged three months, were randomized to one of the following groups: control, restraint stress, sulfite-treated and restraint stress + sulfite-treated. Chronic restraint stress was applied for 21 days (1 h/day) and sodium metabisulfite (520 mg/kg per day) was given by gavage for the same period. Lipid peroxidation was measured using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) fluorometric assay. TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) were found increased in all treatment groups when compared to the control group. Spectrophotometric measurement of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT) revealed decreased enzyme activities in rats exposed to restraint stress compared to control and sulfite-treated rats. GSH-Px activities were significantly decreased in the restraint stress and sulfite-treated rats compared with the control rats. GSH-Px activity measured in restraint stress + sulfite-treated rats was significantly lower than in the other groups. The presented data confirms the pro-oxidant activity of restraint stress and establishes that decreased anti-oxidant enzyme activities in restraint stress-treated rats enhances brain lipid peroxidation caused via the ingestion of sulfites. PMID:16924954

  19. Use of sulfate reducing cell suspension bioreactors for the treatment of SO2 rich flue gases.

    PubMed

    Lens, P N L; Gastesi, R; Lettinga, G

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes a novel bioscrubber concept for biological flue gas desulfurization, based on the recycling of a cell suspension of sulfite/sulfate reducing bacteria between a scrubber and a sulfite/sulfate reducing hydrogen fed bioreactor. Hydrogen metabolism in sulfite/sulfate reducing cell suspensions was investigated using batch activity tests and by operating a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The maximum specific hydrogenotrophic sulfite/sulfate reduction rate increased with 10% and 300%, respectively, by crushing granular inoculum sludge and by cultivation of this sludge as cell suspension in a CSTR. Operation of a sulfite fed CSTR (hydraulic retention time 4 days; pH 7.0; sulfite loading rate 0.5-1.5 g SO3(2-) l(-1) d(-1)) with hydrogen as electron donor showed that high (up to 1.6 g l(-1)) H2S concentrations can be obtained within 10 days of operation. H2S inhibition, however, limited the sulfite reducing capacity of the CSTR. Methane production by the cell suspension disappeared within 20 days reactor operation. The outcompetition of methanogens in excess of H2 can be attributed to CO2 limitation and/or to sulfite or sulfide toxicity. The use of cell suspensions opens perspectives for monolith or packed bed reactor configurations, which have a much lower pressure drop compared to air lift reactors, to supply H2 to sulfite/sulfate reducing bioreactors. PMID:12889613

  20. Adhesion of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant monolayers with TiO(2) (rutile and anatase) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Darkins, Robert; Sushko, Maria L; Liu, Jun; Duffy, Dorothy M

    2013-09-17

    Surfactants are widely used as templates to control the nucleation and growth of nanostructured metal oxides such as titania. To gain insight into the origin of the surfactant-titania interactions responsible for polymorph and orientation selection, we simulate the self-assembly of an anionic surfactant monolayer on various low-index titania surfaces, for a range of densities. We characterize the binding in each case and compute the adhesion energies, finding anatase (100) and rutile (110) to be the strongest-binding surfaces. The sodium counterions in the monolayer are found to dominate the adhesion. It is also observed that the assembly is directed predominantly by surface-monolayer electrostatic complementarity. Incorporating water displacement into the calculations does not alter the general findings but does cause the adhesion energies to fall within a smaller range. PMID:24004277

  1. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

  2. Mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrenyl-1-sulfate in the Ames test

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, S.E.; Kwei, G.Y.; Kauffman, F.C. ); Blackburn, G.R. ); Thurman, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of the mutagenicity of nine isomeric benzo(a)pyrenyl [B(a)P] phenols conjugated with either sulfate or glucuronide was carried out using strain Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Of the nine conjugates tested, only B(a)P-1-sulfate was mutagenic. Accordingly, the mutagenicity of B(a)P-1-sulfate was compared with that of B(a)P and 1-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P-1-OH] in the presence and absence of rat lung S9 and Aroclor-induced liver S9 with and without an NADPH-generating system. B(a)P-1-sulfate was slightly mutagenic, whereas B(a)P and the 1-hydroxy derivative were nonmutagenic when S9 fractions and NADPH were omitted. Addition of induced liver S9 with NADPH caused mutagenicity with B(a) -1-OH>B(a)P>B(a)P-1-sulfate. B(a)P-1-sulfate was the only mutagenic species when lung S9 was added. This mutagenicity did not require NADPH. Sodium sulfite, an inhibitor of arylsulfatase, decreased the mutagenicity of B(a)P-1-sulfate. These data suggest that a unique mutagenic species is generated from B(a)P-1-sulfate via arylsulfatase in rat lung. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Comparison of surfactant-assisted shotgun methods using acid-labile surfactants and sodium dodecyl sulfate for membrane proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Sun, Difei; Wang, Nan; Gong, Yan; Li, Liang

    2011-07-18

    Three surfactant-assisted shotgun methods using acid labile surfactants, sodium-3-[(2-methyl-2-undecyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)-methoxyl]-1-propanesulfonate (RapiGest) and 3-[3-(1,1-bisalkyloxyethyl)pyridin-1-yl]propane-1-sulfonate (PPS), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were investigated for their applicability to membrane proteome analysis. It is shown that RapiGest is a preferred reagent for handling membrane proteomes of Escherichia coli and MCF7 cells for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) analysis of tryptic digests. The RapiGest method allowed identification of more peptides and proteins than the SDS and PPS methods and there was no apparent bias for the type of peptides and proteins identified by the RapiGest and SDS methods, while a slightly higher proportion of hydrophilic peptides and proteins were identified by the PPS method. The performance of the SDS and PPS methods is similar in terms of the numbers of peptides and proteins identified. Since the SDS method required the removal of SDS using a technique such as strong-cation exchange (SCX), we further investigated the effect of SCX on sample loss through analyzing the digest of an enriched E. coli membrane fraction as well as a standard protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that extensive sample loss (as much as 62%) was encountered during the SCX cleaning step. We then applied the RapiGest method in combination with two-dimensional LC MS/MS to characterize the E. coli membrane proteome. In total, 1626 unique proteins (5799 unique peptides) were identified with a peptide false discovery rate of 2.4%. About 60% of the identified proteins with known cellular locations were found to be membrane proteins. Among them, about 75% were integral membrane proteins. This work represents one of the most comprehensive profiles of E. coli membrane proteome generated by a proteomic technique. PMID:21645657

  4. How are “Atypical” Sulfite Dehydrogenases Linked to Cell Metabolism? Interactions between the SorT Sulfite Dehydrogenase and Small Redox Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ulrike, Kappler

    2011-01-01

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of the toxic and mutagenic compound sulfite to sulfate, thereby protecting cells from adverse effects associated with sulfite exposure. While some bacterial SDHs that have been characterized to date are able to use cytochrome c as an electron acceptor, the majority of these enzymes prefer ferricyanide as an electron acceptor and have therefore been termed “atypical” SDHs. Identifying the natural electron acceptor of these enzymes, however, is crucial for understanding how the “atypical” SDHs are integrated into cell metabolism. The SorT sulfite dehydrogenase from Sinorhizobium meliloti is a representative of this enzyme type and we have investigated the interactions of SorT with two small redox proteins, a cytochrome c and a Cu containing pseudoazurin, that are encoded in the same operon and are co-transcribed with the sorT gene. Both potential acceptor proteins have been purified and characterized in terms of their biochemical and electrochemical properties, and interactions and enzymatic studies with both the purified SorT sulfite dehydrogenase and components of the respiratory chain have been carried out. We were able to show for the first time that an “atypical” sulfite dehydrogenase can couple efficiently to a cytochrome c isolated from the same organism despite being unable to efficiently reduce horse heart cytochrome c, however, at present the role of the pseudoazurin in SorT electron transfer is unclear, but it is possible that it acts as an intermediate electron shuttle between. The SorT system appears to couple directly to the respiratory chain, most likely to a cytochrome oxidase. PMID:21833314

  5. Ablation of Doublecortin-Like Kinase 1 in the Colonic Epithelium Exacerbates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    May, Randal; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Madhoun, Mohammad; Ali, Naushad; Sureban, Sripathi M.; An, Guangyu; Schlosser, Michael J.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1), a microtubule-associated kinase, marks the fifth lineage of intestinal epithelial cells called tuft cells that function as tumor stem cells in Apc mutant models of colon cancer. In order to determine the role of Dclk1 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colonic inflammation both intestinal epithelial specific Dclk1 deficient (VillinCre;Dclk1f/f) and control (Dclk1f/f) mice were fed 3% DSS in drinking water for 9 days, allowed to recover for 2 days, and killed. The clinical and histological features of DSS-induced colitis were scored and immunohistochemical, gene expression, pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and immunoblotting analyses were used to examine epithelial barrier integrity, inflammation, and stem and tuft cell features. In DSS-induced colitis, VillinCre;Dclk1f/f mice demonstrated exacerbated injury including higher clinical colitis scores, increased epithelial barrier permeability, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, decreased levels of Lgr5, and dysregulated Wnt/b-Catenin pathway genes. These results suggest that Dclk1 plays an important role in regulating colonic inflammatory response and colonic epithelial integrity. PMID:26285154

  6. Enhancing the transdermal delivery of rigid nanoparticles using the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Renata F.V.; Seto, Jennifer E.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The potential of rigid nanoparticles to serve as transdermal drug carriers can be greatly enhanced by improving their skin penetration. Therefore, the simultaneous application of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) was evaluated as a skin pre-treatment method for enhancing the passive transdermal delivery of nanoparticles. We utilized inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and an improved application of confocal microscopy to compare the delivery of 10- and 20-nm cationic, neutral, and anionic quantum dots (QDs) into US/SLS-treated and untreated pig split-thickness skin. Our findings include: (a) ~0.01% of the QDs penetrate the dermis of untreated skin (which we quantify for the first time), (b) the QDs fully permeate US/SLS-treated skin, (c) the two cationic QDs studied exhibit different extents of skin penetration and dermal clearance, and (d) the QD skin penetration is heterogeneous. We discuss routes of nanoparticle skin penetration and the application of the methods described herein to address conflicting literature reports on nanoparticle skin penetration. We conclude that US/SLS treatment significantly enhances QD transdermal penetration by 500–1300%. Our findings suggest that an optimum surface charge exists for nanoparticle skin penetration, and motivate the application of nanoparticle carriers to US/SLS-treated skin for enhanced transdermal drug delivery. PMID:20971504

  7. Gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate: a practical approach to muscle contractile and regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Sobieszek, A

    1994-01-01

    Two gradient systems for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are described, with emphasis on improvements accumulated over two decades of studies on contractile proteins and regulatory enzymes from smooth muscle. The first "big slab" system utilizes 18 x 20 x 0.1 cm3 gels and a 10-18% acrylamide gradient, optimized for a high resolution of 10 to 500 kDa polypeptides. Eight (or more) gels are cast simultaneously with a gradient formation from "bottom to top" and 20% glycerol is added to the 18% acrylamide solution. The second "minislab" system represents an improved version of the system of Matsudaira and Burgess (Anal. Biochem. 1978, 87, 386-396), with 8 x 10 x 0.05 cm3 gels and 5-15% or 9-18% acrylamide gradient ranges. They are cast from "top to bottom" in 28-piece batches also with the addition of glycerol for improved gradient formation. Both types of gels can also be cast individually using a specially designed pestle-type gradient maker. For gel destaining, a convenient continuous hydrodynamic destainer is also described. PMID:7859701

  8. Spontaneous Emulsification of Triolein Induced by Mixed Micellar Solutions of Sodium Polyoxyethylene Alkyl Ether Sulfate and Dodecyldimethyl Amine Oxide.

    PubMed

    Endo, Chika; Ito, Yoshiko; Akabane, Chika; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Sakai, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    A new mechanism of spontaneous emulsification without any salts or co-solvents is described, and is related to the dilatational behavior. Spontaneous emulsification can reduce the time required to remove oily soils from hard surfaces and enhance the detergency, because this type of emulsification requires no external mechanical work. In this paper, we focused on triolein, the main component of food oils and human sebum soil, and tried to induce spontaneous emulsification by using mixed micellar solutions of sodium polyoxyethylene alkyl ether sulfate and N, N-dimethyldodecylamine oxide (AES/DDAO). We characterized the dilatation of the oil/water interface using dynamic interfacial tension and elasticity measurements. This study confirmed that the degree of spontaneous emulsification can be enhanced by controlling the molar ratio of DDAO to AES. This enhancement can be attributed to an increased rate of decrease in the dynamic interfacial tension (i.e., a decreased interface dilatational elasticity), allowing for much greater suppression of the Marangoni effect. Further, we determined that one of the reasons for the decrease in the interface dilatational elasticity is the increasing number of micelles near the oil drop interface, which results from a decrease in the electrostatic repulsion between the micelles and the drop interface. Therefore, controlling the molar ratio of a mixed anionic/amphoteric surfactant solution is an effective way to induce spontaneous emulsification in the absence of salts or co-solvents. PMID:26250425

  9. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases. PMID:16256467

  10. Ingestion of low dose pyroglutamyl leucine improves dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and intestinal microbiota in mice.

    PubMed

    Wada, Sayori; Sato, Kenji; Ohta, Ryoko; Wada, Eri; Bou, Yukiho; Fujiwara, Miki; Kiyono, Tamami; Park, Eun Young; Aoi, Wataru; Takagi, Tomohisa; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-09-18

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are based on chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. We previously found anti-inflammatory peptide pyroGlu-Leu in the enzymatic hydrolysate of wheat gluten. The objective of present study is to elucidate improvement of colitis by oral administration of pyroGlu-Leu in an animal model. Acute colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), and various concentrations of pyroGlu-Leu were administrated by oral gavage for 7 days. A dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight/day showed the most significant improvement. The pyroGlu-Leu concentration was significantly increased 24 h after oral administration both in the small intestine and the colon compared with the baseline. It was 20-fold higher in the small intestine than the colon. Administration of pyroGlu-Leu normalized population of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in the colon. These results indicate that pyroGlu-Leu has a potential therapeutic effect against IBD at a practical dose. PMID:23964746

  11. Electrosynthesis of polyaniline-mutilwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite films in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate for glucose biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyen Le, Trong; Thang Trinh, Ngoc; Nguyen, Le Huy; Binh Nguyen, Hai; Nguyen, Van Anh; Tran, Dai Lam; Dung Nguyen, Tuan

    2013-06-01

    Polyaniline-mutilwalled carbon nanotube (PANi-MWCNT) nanocomposites were electropolymerized in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) onto interdigitated platinum-film planar microelectrodes (IDμE). The MWCNTs were first dispersed in SDS solution then mixed with aniline and H2SO4. This mixture was used to electro-synthesize PANi-MWCNT films with potentiostatic method at E = + 0.90 V (versus SCE). The PANi-MWCNT films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the PANi-MWCNT films have a high electroactivity, and a porous and branched structure that can increase the specific surface area for biosensing application. In this work the PANi-MWCNT films were applied for covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) via glutaraldehyde agent. The GOx/PANi-MWCNT/IDμE was studied using cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques. The effect of several interferences, such as ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and acetaminophen (AAP) on the glucosensing at +0.6 V (versus SCE) is not significant. The time required to reach 95% of the maximum steady-state current was less than 5 s. A linear range of the calibration curve for the glucose concentration lies between 1 and 12 mM which is a suitable level in the human body.

  12. Ascorbic acid ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Haiyan; Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaoqin; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) has been shown to exert beneficial effects, including mitigating oxidative stress and inhibiting inflammation. However, the preventative effect of vitamin C in chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. In our study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of AA and possible mechanism involved in inhibiting dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided to three groups: control group, DSS group, and DSS plus ascorbic acid treated group. Several clinical and inflammatory parameters as well as oxidative stress were evaluated. The results demonstrated that ascorbic acid significantly reduced clinical signs, inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) activities, whereas the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in DSS-induced mice. In addition, ascorbic acid was capable of inhibiting NF-κB, COX-2 and iNOS expression in the colonic. Taken together, these findings suggest that ascorbic acid contributes to the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in DSS-induced colitis and exerts the potential to prevent and clinical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26884937

  13. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium for isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish.

    PubMed

    Bryant, R G; Jarvis, J; Janda, J M

    1987-07-01

    The differential and selective sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium (SPS) of Kitaura et al. (T. Kitaura, S. Doke, I. Azuma, M. Imaida, K. Miyano, K. Harada, and E. Yabuuchii, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 17:205-209, 1983), which highlights alkylsulfatase activity, was evaluated for its potential use in the direct isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish. V. vulnificus was detected by this method in six of nine shellfish samples collected from diverse geographic locales during the summer of 1986. Direct enumeration of V. vulnificus at 7.0 X 10(2) to 2.2 X 10(4) CFU/g of shellfish was achieved on SPS agar. All sample results were confirmed in parallel examinations by using conventional glucose-salt-Teepol (Shell Oil Co.) broth and alkaline peptone water enrichment with plating onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. Additionally, alkylsulfatase activity was evaluated in vitro for 97 strains representing 14 Vibrio spp. V. vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae-01 were the only species consistently found to possess this activity. The range of plating efficiencies for random V. vulnificus strains analyzed on SPS was 11 to 74% (mean, 39%). The use of SPS shows great promise for the study of shellfish and other environmental sources for V. vulnificus. PMID:3662506

  14. Monocolonization of germ-free mice with Bacteroides fragilis protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chien-Chao; Ching, Yung-Hao; Wang, Yu-Chih; Liu, Ju-Yun; Li, Yen-Peng; Huang, Yen-Te; Chuang, Hsiao-Li

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is inflammatory conditions of the colon caused by interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies indicated that the gut microflora may be involved in the colonic inflammation. Bacteroides fragilis (BF) is a Gram-negative anaerobe belonging to the colonic symbiotic. We aimed to investigate the protective role of BF in a colitis model induced in germ-free (GF) mice by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). GF C57BL/6JNarl mice were colonized with BF for 28 days before acute colitis was induced by DSS. BF colonization significantly increased animal survival by 40%, with less reduction in colon length, and decreased infiltration of inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils) in colon mucosa following challenge with DSS. In addition, BF could enhance the mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory-related cytokine such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) with polymorphism cytokine IL-17 and diminish that of proinflammatory-related tumor necrosis factor α with inducible nitric oxide synthase in the ulcerated colon. Myeloperoxidase activity was also decreased in BF-DSS mice. Taking these together, the BF colonization significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis by suppressing the activity of inflammatory-related molecules and inducing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. BF may play an important role in maintaining intestinal immune system homeostasis and regulate inflammatory responses. PMID:24971344

  15. Evaluation of the Role of Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate as a Sclerosant in the Treatment of Primary Hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Musa, Osman; Roy, Arijit; Ansari, Nisar Ahmad; Sharan, Jagadamba

    2015-12-01

    The present study was carried out with an aim to perform a prospective study to establish the role of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (3 %) (STDS) as a safe and effective sclerosant in the management of primary hydrocele. Sclerotherapy was performed with 3 % STDS on an outdoor basis. The amount of sclerosant injected depended on the amount of fluid drained. All patients were given prophylactic antibiotics. Patients were clinically reassessed at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months and earlier if complications occur. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. The data have been represented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to compare the data. A total of 57 patients with primary vaginal hydrocele gave consent for being enrolled in the study. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 65 years with a mean age of 35.72 ± 13.18 years. The success rate at the end of the study was observed to be 84.2 %. As regards patient satisfaction, in present study, in a limited time period of follow up, all the patients who had a successful procedure were satisfied. Overall, sclerotherapy was observed to be a relatively cost-effective (including both direct and indirect costs) procedure with low complications, high satisfaction, and a high success rate within the limited period of follow-up. PMID:26730040

  16. Live and heat-killed probiotic: effects on chronic experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Li-Xuan; Chang, Bing; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Liu, Wei-Xin; Jiang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although a series of studies have shown that VSL#3 (L plantarum, L Bulgaricus, L casei and L. acidophilus, B breve, B longum and B infantis and S salivarius subspecies thermophilus) can exert therapeutic effects on colitis, whether heat-killed VSL#3 also can exert similar effects has never been tested. The aim of the study was to investigate whether heat-killed VSL#3 exert therapeutic effects in chronic experimental colitis by inhibiting STAT3 pathway. Chronic experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. Rats underwent gavage once daily for seven days with heat-killed VSL#3 (0.6 g/kg/day). The disease activity index (DAI), histological score, colon length and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was observed. Expression of inflammatory related mediators (STAT3, P-STAT3) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-23) in colonic tissue were detected. The results showed that live and heat-killed VSL#3 have identical anti-inflammatory effects by the assessed DAI, colon length, histological score and MPO activity. Live and heat-killed VSL#3 results in reduced IL-6, IL-23, STAT3 and P-STAT3 expression in colonic tissue. Heat-killed VSL#3 have showed significant anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing STAT3 pathway. PMID:26884919

  17. Human and Environmental Toxicity of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Evidence for Safe Use in Household Cleaning Products.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Cara Am; Marks, Julia L; Wroblewski, Lauren B; Raatikainen, Heidi S; Lenox, Shannon R; Gebhardt, Kay E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemical exposure is a major concern for consumers of packaged goods. The complexity of chemical nomenclature and wide availability of scientific research provide detailed information but lends itself to misinterpretation by the lay person. For the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), this has resulted in a misunderstanding of the environmental health impact of the chemical and statements in the media that are not scientifically supported. This review demonstrates how scientific works can be misinterpreted and used in a manner that was not intended by the authors, while simultaneously providing insight into the true environmental health impact of SLS. SLS is an anionic surfactant commonly used in consumer household cleaning products. For decades, this chemical has been developing a negative reputation with consumers because of inaccurate interpretations of the scientific literature and confusion between SLS and chemicals with similar names. Here, we review the human and environmental toxicity profiles of SLS and demonstrate that it is safe for use in consumer household cleaning products. PMID:26617461

  18. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-β-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis. PMID:26013555

  19. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Luigia; Spisni, Enzo; Cavazza, Elena; Strillacci, Antonio; Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Ricci, Chiara; Rizzello, Fernando; Campieri, Massimo; Valerii, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120 mg kg(−1) body weight, starting 6 days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg(−1) dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis. PMID:26973525

  20. Human and Environmental Toxicity of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Evidence for Safe Use in Household Cleaning Products

    PubMed Central

    Bondi, Cara AM; Marks, Julia L; Wroblewski, Lauren B; Raatikainen, Heidi S; Lenox, Shannon R; Gebhardt, Kay E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemical exposure is a major concern for consumers of packaged goods. The complexity of chemical nomenclature and wide availability of scientific research provide detailed information but lends itself to misinterpretation by the lay person. For the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), this has resulted in a misunderstanding of the environmental health impact of the chemical and statements in the media that are not scientifically supported. This review demonstrates how scientific works can be misinterpreted and used in a manner that was not intended by the authors, while simultaneously providing insight into the true environmental health impact of SLS. SLS is an anionic surfactant commonly used in consumer household cleaning products. For decades, this chemical has been developing a negative reputation with consumers because of inaccurate interpretations of the scientific literature and confusion between SLS and chemicals with similar names. Here, we review the human and environmental toxicity profiles of SLS and demonstrate that it is safe for use in consumer household cleaning products. PMID:26617461

  1. Quantification of AAV particle titers by infrared fluorescence scanning of coomassie-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Kohlbrenner, Erik; Henckaerts, Els; Rapti, Kleopatra; Gordon, Ronald E; Linden, R Michael; Hajjar, Roger J; Weber, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors have gained increasing attention as gene delivery vehicles in basic and preclinical studies as well as in human gene therapy trials. Especially for the latter two-for both safety and therapeutic efficacy reasons-a detailed characterization of all relevant parameters of the vector preparation is essential. Two important parameters that are routinely used to analyze recombinant AAV vectors are (1) the titer of viral particles containing a (recombinant) viral genome and (2) the purity of the vector preparation, most commonly assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by silver staining. An important, third parameter, the titer of total viral particles, that is, the combined titer of both genome-containing and empty viral capsids, is rarely determined. Here, we describe a simple and inexpensive method that allows the simultaneous assessment of both vector purity and the determination of the total viral particle titer. This method, which was validated by comparison with established methods to determine viral particle titers, is based on the fact that Coomassie Brilliant Blue, when bound to proteins, fluoresces in the infrared spectrum. Viral samples are separated by SDS-PAGE followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and gel analysis with an infrared laser-scanning device. In combination with a protein standard, our method allows the rapid and accurate determination of viral particle titers simultaneously with the assessment of vector purity. PMID:22816378

  2. Origin of salt additive effect on solute partitioning in aqueous polyethylene glycol-8000-sodium sulfate two-phase system.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Mikheeva, Larissa M; Teixeira, José A; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2014-04-11

    Partitioning of a homologous series of dinitrophenylted (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic side chains was examined in aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000-sodium sulfate two-phase systems (ATPS) with the additives NaSCN, NaClO4, and NaH2PO4 at concentrations varied from 0.025M up to 0.54M. The differences between the relative hydrophobicities and electrostatic properties of the two phases in all ATPS were estimated. Partitioning of adenine, adenosine mono-, di- and tri-phosphates was also examined in all ATPSs, including those with NaCl additive. Partition coefficients for these compounds and for nonionic organic compounds previously reported [L.A. Ferreira, P. Parpot, J.A. Teixeira, L.M. Mikheeva, B.Y. Zaslavsky, J. Chromatogr. A 1220 (2012) 14.] were analyzed in terms of linear solvent regression relationship. The results obtained suggest that the effects of the salts additives are related to their influence on the water structure. PMID:24613040

  3. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    PubMed Central

    Halmi, M. I. E.; Zuhainis, S. W.; Yusof, M. T.; Shaharuddin, N. A.; Helmi, W.; Shukor, Y.; Syed, M. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

  4. To evaluate the change in release from solid dispersion using sodium lauryl sulfate and model drug sulfathiazole.

    PubMed

    Dave, Rutesh H; Patel, Hardikkumar H; Donahue, Edward; Patel, Ashwinkumar D

    2013-10-01

    The solubility of drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects of formulation development. There are numerous ways to improve the solubility of drugs amongst which the most promising strategy is solid dispersion. Different ratios of sulfathiazole: PVP-K29/32: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were prepared (1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.5, 1:1:1) and various methods were employed to characterize the prepared solid dispersions, namely modulated differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and dissolution studies. Lack of crystallinity was observed in internal and external systems suggesting a loss of crystallinity, whereas the physical mixtures showed a characteristic peak of sulfathiazole. In vitro dissolution results clearly showed that the incorporation of a relatively small amount of surfactants (5, 20 or 33% w/w) into a solid dispersion can improve its dissolution rates compared to binary solid dispersion (SD) alone and pure sulfathiazole. In all ratios solid dispersion internal shows a higher dissolution rate compared to a physical mixture and solid dispersion external which suggests that the way that the surfactant is incorporated into the solid dispersion plays an important role in changing the solubility of a drug. The solubilization mechanism is mainly responsible for this higher dissolution rate when we incorporate the SLS in SD. PMID:23030270

  5. Tanshinone IIA Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium- (DSS-) Induced Colitis in Mice by Modulation of Neutrophil Infiltration and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaowei; He, Haiyue; Huang, Tingting; Lei, Zhen; Liu, Fuquan; An, Guangyu; Wen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of intestinal inflammation. However, conventional neutrophil-targeted therapies can impair normal host defense. Tanshinone IIA has been recently revealed to act directly on neutrophils. Hence, we aimed at investigating whether Tanshinone IIA can protect against experimental colitis through modulation of neutrophils. We induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) orally, and meanwhile, we treated mice daily with Tanshinone IIA intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was evaluated by calculating disease activity index (DAI) and histological parameters. Neutrophil infiltration and activation in the colons of mice were measured. Moreover, whether Tanshinone IIA has direct effects on neutrophil migration and activation was determined in vitro. Our data showed that Tanshinone IIA significantly ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice, evidenced by the reduced DAI and improved colonic inflammation. In addition, Tanshinone IIA decreased neutrophil infiltration of intestinal mucosa and activation and reduced colonic inflammatory cytokines in DSS-treated mice. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA was demonstrated to significantly suppress neutrophil migration and activation. These results provide compelling evidence that Tanshinone IIA has a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice, which is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of neutrophils. PMID:26881040

  6. A comparative study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and freezing/thawing treatment on wheat starch: The role of water absorption.

    PubMed

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-01

    The effect of freezing on functionality of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-treated wheat starches was investigated, with the aim of understanding the role of water absorption during freezing process. SDS is one of most efficient detergents to remove non-starch components (such as proteins and lipids) for starches but does not cause any apparent damage on granular structure. Slow swelling could be converted to rapid swelling by SDS washing, indicating higher water absorption. Freezing process induced slight roughness on starch granules but the non-starch components content was little affected. Combined SDS+freezing treatment significantly decreased both amylose and proteins non-starch components contents, which was accompanied with high gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from SDS+freezing-treated starches while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p<0.05). SDS mainly extracted the surface components from starch granules, leading to high water absorption and making granules sensitive to the freezing treatment. PMID:27083354

  7. Caspase-11 is expressed in the colonic mucosa and protects against dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Demon, D; Kuchmiy, A; Fossoul, A; Zhu, Q; Kanneganti, T-D; Lamkanfi, M

    2014-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are major inflammatory syndromes that affect millions of patients. Caspase-11 confers protection against Gram-negative enteropathogens, but its role during colitis is unknown. Here, we show that caspase-11 was constitutively expressed in the colon, and that caspase-11-deficient (caspase-11(-/-)) mice were hypersusceptible to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Notably, pro-inflammatory Prevotella species were strongly reduced in the gut microbiota of caspase-11(-/-) mice. Co-housing with wild-type mice leveled Prevotella contents, but failed to protect caspase-11(-/-) mice from increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. We therefore addressed the role of caspase-11 in immune signaling. DSS-induced tissue damage and inflammatory cell infiltration in the gut were markedly increased in caspase-11−/− mice, while release of the pyroptosis/necroptosis marker HMGB1 was abolished [Corrected]. Moreover, caspase-11(-/-) mice showed normal or increased production of mature interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, whereas IL-1β and IL-18 secretion was blunted in animals lacking both caspases 1 and 11. In conclusion, we showed that caspase-11 shapes the gut microbiota composition, and that caspase-11(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, DSS-induced inflammasome activation relied on caspase-1, but not caspase-11. These results suggest a role for other caspase-11 effector mechanisms such as pyroptosis in protection against intestinal inflammation. PMID:24850431

  8. Beneficial effect of shikonin on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Andújar, Isabel; Ríos, José Luis; Giner, Rosa María; Miguel Cerdá, José; Recio, María Del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The naphthoquinone shikonin, a major component of the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, now is studied as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Acute UC was induced in Balb/C mice by oral administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). The disease activity index was evaluated, and a histologic study was carried out. Orally administered shikonin reduces induced UC in a dose-dependent manner, preventing the shortening of the colorectum and decreasing weight loss by 5% while improving the appearance of feces and preventing bloody stools. The disease activity index score was much lower in shikonin-treated mice than in the colitic group, as well as the myeloperoxidase activity. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was reduced by 75%, activation of NF-κB was reduced by 44%, and that of pSTAT-3 by 47%, as well as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production. Similar results were obtained in primary macrophages culture. This is the first report of shikonin's ability to attenuate acute UC induced by DSS. Shikonin acts by blocking the activation of two major targets: NF-κB and STAT-3, and thus constitutes a promising potential therapeutic agent for the management of the inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23346196

  9. Strawberry phytochemicals inhibit azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-03-01

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg-1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. PMID:25763529

  10. Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to mo-blue by a sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-degrading Klebsiella oxytoca strain DRY14.

    PubMed

    Halmi, M I E; Zuhainis, S W; Yusof, M T; Shaharuddin, N A; Helmi, W; Shukor, Y; Syed, M A; Ahmad, S A

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS-) degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v), between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant. PMID:24383052

  11. Modifying effect of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on surface activity and self-assembled nanostructures of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Javadian, Soheila; Nasiri, Fayezeh; Heydari, Akbar; Yousefi, Ali; Shahir, Afshin Asadzadeh

    2014-04-17

    The effect of four cationic ionic liquids (ILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMImCl), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BMImBr), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (HMImCl), and 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bromide (HMImBr) on surface activity and micellization of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), is studied. The thermodynamic data on micellization and surface adsorption are obtained from tensiometry and conductometry. The applicability of UV-visible spectroscopy to study of SDS/IL systems is also investigated using Crystal Violet as the probe. Cyclic voltammetry, dynamic light scattering, and TEM imaging are employed to investigate the size and morphology of aggregates. According to the findings, addition of butyl-chained ILs to aqueous SDS results in only a slight gradual increase in average aggregate size whereas the size of SDS assemblies are dramatically increased upon addition of hexyl-chained ILs. It is proposed that BMIm(+) cations of the IL undergo Coulombic attractive interactions with anionic headgroups adsorbed at the micellar surface in aqueous SDS whereas HMIm(+) interact through hydrophobic chain-chain attractions as well. Thus, mixed micellization results in formation of vesicles. A micellar phase change from vesicles to micelles takes place at higher [SDS]/[IL] ratios. All of these processes are successfully tracked by the employed techniques. PMID:24635046

  12. Oral administration of hen egg white ovotransferrin attenuates the development of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaro; Rupa, Prithy; Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Turner, Patricia V; Matsui, Toshiro; Mine, Yoshinori

    2015-02-11

    Ovotransferrin (OVT), one of the major hen egg white proteins, was shown to possess antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in vitro. However, there is no information regarding the in vivo preventative effect in chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of OVT in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. OVT (50 or 250 mg/kg BW) was given orally for 14 days to female BALB/c mice, and 5% DSS (MW 36-50 kDa) was used to induce acute colitis (days 7-14) via drinking water. The current in vivo study demonstrated that OVT significantly reduced clinical signs, weight loss, shortening of the colon, and inflammatory cytokine markers of disease. The histopathological analysis of the colon revealed that OVT reduced histological scores. These results indicate that the use of OVT may be a potential promising candidate for the prevention of IBD. PMID:25602920

  13. Heat-killed VSL#3 Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Acute Experimental Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Li-Xuan; Chang, Bing; Dai, Cong; Gao, Nan; Liu, Wei-Xin; Jiang, Min

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of heat-killed VSL#3 (B. breve, B. longum and B. infantis; L. plantarum, L. bulgaricus, L. casei and L. acidophilus; S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus) therapy in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in rats. Acute experimental colitis was induced in rats by 5% DSS and freely drink for seven days. Beginning on Day 8, rats underwent gavage once daily for seven days with heat-killed probiotic VSL#3 (0.6 g/kg/day), colonic damage was evaluated histologically and biochemically seven days after gavage. Expression of inflammatory related mediators (STAT3, P-STAT3) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-23, TGFβ) in colonic tissue were detected. The results revealed that heat-killed and live VSL#3 have identical anti-inflammatory properties by the assessed DAI (disease activity index), colon length, histological tissue and MPO activity. Heat-killed and live VSL#3 results in reduced IL-6, IL-23, TGFβ, STAT3 and P-STAT3 expression in colonic tissue. Heat-killed and live VSL#3 have showed the similar anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 pathway in the DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in rats. PMID:24451125

  14. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium for isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, R G; Jarvis, J; Janda, J M

    1987-01-01

    The differential and selective sodium dodecyl sulfate-polymyxin B-sucrose medium (SPS) of Kitaura et al. (T. Kitaura, S. Doke, I. Azuma, M. Imaida, K. Miyano, K. Harada, and E. Yabuuchii, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 17:205-209, 1983), which highlights alkylsulfatase activity, was evaluated for its potential use in the direct isolation and enumeration of Vibrio vulnificus from shellfish. V. vulnificus was detected by this method in six of nine shellfish samples collected from diverse geographic locales during the summer of 1986. Direct enumeration of V. vulnificus at 7.0 X 10(2) to 2.2 X 10(4) CFU/g of shellfish was achieved on SPS agar. All sample results were confirmed in parallel examinations by using conventional glucose-salt-Teepol (Shell Oil Co.) broth and alkaline peptone water enrichment with plating onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. Additionally, alkylsulfatase activity was evaluated in vitro for 97 strains representing 14 Vibrio spp. V. vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae-01 were the only species consistently found to possess this activity. The range of plating efficiencies for random V. vulnificus strains analyzed on SPS was 11 to 74% (mean, 39%). The use of SPS shows great promise for the study of shellfish and other environmental sources for V. vulnificus. Images PMID:3662506

  15. Multiscale molecular dynamics simulations of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles: from coarse-grained to all-atom resolution.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Guillaume; Michaux, Catherine; Perpète, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is a well-known anionic detergent widely used in both experimental and theoretical investigations. Many molecular dynamics (MD) simulation have been performed on the SDS molecule at coarse-grained (CG), united-atom (UA), and all-atom (AA) resolutions. However, these simulations are usually based on general parameters determined from large sets of molecules, and as a result, peculiar molecular specificities are often poorly represented. In addition, the parameters (ideal bond lengths, angles, dihedrals and charge distribution) differ according to the resolution, highlighting a lack of coherence. We therefore propose a new set of parameters for CG, UA, and AA resolutions based on a high quantum mechanics (QM) level optimization of the detergent structure and the charge distribution. For the first time, QM-optimized parameters were directly applied to build the AA, UA, and CG model of the SDS molecule, leading to a more coherent description. As a test case, MD simulations were then performed on SDS preformed micelles as previous experimental and theoretical investigations allow direct comparison with our new sets of parameters. While all three models yield similar macromolecular properties (size, shape, and accessible surface) perfectly matching previous results, the attribution of more coherent parameters to SDS enables the description of the specific interactions inside and outside the micelle. These more consistent parameters can now be used to accurately describe new multi-scale systems involving the SDS molecule. PMID:25300995

  16. Inhibition of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) induces resistance to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Vu, John P; Million, Mulugeta; Larauche, Muriel; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Waschek, James A; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2014-01-01

    VIP is highly expressed in the colon and regulates motility, vasodilatation, and sphincter relaxation. However, its role in the development and progress of colitis is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the participation of VIP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colonic mucosal inflammation using VIP(-/-) and WT mice treated with VIP antagonists. Colitis was induced in 32 adult VIP(-/-) and 14 age-matched WT litter-mates by giving 2.5 % DSS in the drinking water. DSS-treated WT mice were injected daily with VIP antagonists, VIPHyb (n?=?22), PG 97-269 (n?=?9), or vehicle (n?=?31). After euthanasia, colons were examined; colonic cytokines mRNA were quantified. VIP(-/-) mice were remarkably resistant to DSS-induced colitis compared to WT. Similarly, DSS-treated WT mice injected with VIPHyb (1 ?M) or PG 97-269 (1 nM) had significantly reduced clinical signs of colitis. Furthermore, colonic expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and IL-6 was significantly lower in VIP(-/-) and VIPHyb or PG 97-269 compared to vehicle-treated WT. Genetic deletion of VIP or pharmacological inhibition of VIP receptors resulted in resistance to colitis. These data demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role for VIP in murine colitis and suggest that VIP antagonists may be an effective clinical treatment for human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:24395090

  17. Genetic diversity analysis of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasms using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hou, W W; Zhang, X J; Shi, J B; Liu, Y J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate genetic diversity and relationships of 101 faba bean (Vicia faba L.), landraces and varieties from different provinces of China and abroad were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). A total of 2625 unambiguous and stable bands from 101 germplasms were detected, and 36 different bands were classified according to the electrophoretic mobility patterns of the proteins as determined by the SDS-PAGE analysis, of which 16 were polymorphic. Besides the common bands, the protein bands of 92, 75, 62, 40, 34, 17, and 13 kDa presented the highest frequencies of 92.08, 90.10, 99.01, 95.05, 95.05, 98.02, and 95.05%, respectively. The other 29 polymorphic protein bands showed higher polymorphism with 16.09 polymorphic bands in average. The genetic similarity of the 101 genotypes tested varied from 0.6111 to 0.9722, with an average of 0.7122. Cluster analysis divided the 101 genotypes into six major clusters, which was consistent with the systematic classification of faba bean done in previous studies. The overall results indicated that SDS-PAGE was a useful tool for genetic diversity analysis and laid a solid foundation for future faba bean breeding. PMID:26535710

  18. Dextran sulfate sodium upregulates MAPK signaling for the uptake and subsequent intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses worldwide that inflicts important health problems in animal and human. Here, we demonstrated that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) significantly increased adhesion of Brucella (B.) abortus in murine macrophages compared to untreated cells. Even without infection, Brucella uptake into macrophages increased and F-actin reorganization was induced compared with untreated cells. Furthermore, DSS increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38α) in Brucella-infected, DSS-treated cells compared with the control cells. Lastly, DSS markedly increased the intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in macrophages by up to 48 h. These results suggest that DSS enhanced the adhesion and phagocytosis of B. abortus into murine macrophages by stimulating the MAPK signaling proteins phospho-ERK1/2 and p38α and that DSS increased the intracellular survival of B. abortus by inhibiting colocalization of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) with the late endosome marker LAMP-1. This study emphasizes the enhancement of the phagocytic and intracellular modulatory effects of DSS, which may suppress the innate immune system and contribute to prolonged Brucella survival and chronic infection. PMID:26626959

  19. Interleukin-6, but not the interleukin-6 receptor plays a role in recovery from dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    SOMMER, JAN; ENGELOWSKI, ERIKA; BARAN, PAUL; GARBERS, CHRISTOPH; FLOSS, DOREEN M.; SCHELLER, JÜRGEN

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6-deficient, but not IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)-deficient mice present with a delayed skin wound healing phenotype. Since IL-6 solely signals via the IL-6R and glycoprotein 130 (gp130), Il-6r-deficient mice are expected to exhibit a similar phenotype as Il-6-deficient mice. However, p28 (IL-30) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have been identified as additional low-affinity ligands of the IL-6R/gp130/LIFR complex. IL-6 plays an inflammatory and regenerative role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we compared Il-6r-deficient mice with mice treated with neutralizing IL-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Our results, in agreement with those of previous reports, demonstrated that IL-6 mAbs slightly attenuated DSS-induced colitis during the regeneration phase. Il-6r-deficient mice and mice with tissue-specific deletion of the Il-6r in the myeloid cell lineage (LysMCre) with acute and chronic DSS-induced colitis were, however, indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Our data suggest that IL-6 and IL-6R have an additional role in colitis, apart from the IL-6/IL-6R classic and trans-signaling. PMID:24993179

  20. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ni; Clinton, Steven K.; Liu, Zhihua; Wang, Yongquan; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Pan, Zui; Chen, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg−1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. PMID:25763529

  1. Increased Susceptibility to Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Transducer OASIS Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hino, Kenta; Saito, Atsushi; Asada, Rie; Kanemoto, Soshi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    OASIS is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transmembrane transcription factor that is activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Previously, we showed that OASIS regulates final maturation of goblet cells in the large intestine. In the present study, to elucidate the roles of OASIS under pathophysiological conditions, we examined the stress response and inflammatory responses in Oasis deficient (Oasis−/−) mice exposed to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis. A significant loss of body weight and an increase of mortality were observed in Oasis−/− mice with DSS-induced colitis compared with those in WT mice. The mucosa of the large intestine in Oasis−/− mice exhibited severe damage involving inflammatory cell infiltration. The expression levels of ER stress and apoptosis markers in intestinal epithelial cells were upregulated in Oasis−/− mice. These abnormalities were improved by treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a chemical chaperone that facilitates protein folding. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that OASIS plays important roles in protection of the large intestinal mucosa in DSS-induced colitis through attenuation of ER stress and inflammation. PMID:24498426

  2. Expression of Blimp-1 in dendritic cells modulates the innate inflammatory response in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Jung; Goldstein, Jordan; Dorso, Kimberly; Merad, Miriam; Mayer, Lloyd; Crawford, James M; Gregersen, Peter K; Diamond, Betty

    2014-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism of PRDM1, the gene encoding Blimp-1, is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we demonstrate that Blimp-1 in CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) critically contributes to the regulation of macrophage homeostasis in the colon. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-exposed Blimp-1(cko) mice with a deletion of Blimp-1 in CD103(+) DCs and CD11c(hi) macrophages exhibited severe inflammatory symptoms, pronounced weight loss, high mortality, robust infiltration of neutrophils in epithelial regions of the colon, an increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and a significant decrease in CD103(+) DCs in the colon compared with DSS exposed wild-type (WT) mice. Purified colonic macrophages from Blimp-1(cko) mice expressed increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase 8, 9 and 12 mRNA. WT macrophages cocultured with colonic DCs but not bone marrow-derived DCs from Blimp-1(cko) produced increased matrix metalloproteinases in an interleukin (IL)-1?- and IL-6-dependent manner. Treatment of Blimp-1(cko) mice with anti-IL-1? and anti-IL-6 abrogated the exaggerated clinical response. Overall, these data demonstrate that Blimp-1 expression in DCs can alter an innate inflammatory response by modulating the activation of myeloid cells. This is a novel mechanism of contribution of Blimp-1 for the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, implicating another therapeutic target for the development of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25826676

  3. Tanshinone IIA Protects against Dextran Sulfate Sodium- (DSS-) Induced Colitis in Mice by Modulation of Neutrophil Infiltration and Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; He, Haiyue; Huang, Tingting; Lei, Zhen; Liu, Fuquan; An, Guangyu; Wen, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of intestinal inflammation. However, conventional neutrophil-targeted therapies can impair normal host defense. Tanshinone IIA has been recently revealed to act directly on neutrophils. Hence, we aimed at investigating whether Tanshinone IIA can protect against experimental colitis through modulation of neutrophils. We induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by giving 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) orally, and meanwhile, we treated mice daily with Tanshinone IIA intraperitoneally. The severity of colitis was evaluated by calculating disease activity index (DAI) and histological parameters. Neutrophil infiltration and activation in the colons of mice were measured. Moreover, whether Tanshinone IIA has direct effects on neutrophil migration and activation was determined in vitro. Our data showed that Tanshinone IIA significantly ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice, evidenced by the reduced DAI and improved colonic inflammation. In addition, Tanshinone IIA decreased neutrophil infiltration of intestinal mucosa and activation and reduced colonic inflammatory cytokines in DSS-treated mice. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA was demonstrated to significantly suppress neutrophil migration and activation. These results provide compelling evidence that Tanshinone IIA has a therapeutic potential for alleviating inflammatory colitis in mice, which is possibly mediated by the immunomodulation of neutrophils. PMID:26881040

  4. Effect of Glu-B3 allelic variation on sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation volume in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Si, Hongqi; Zhao, Manli; He, Fuxia; Ma, Chuanxi

    2013-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation volume has long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. In order to survey the influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) at Glu-B3 locus on wheat SDS sedimentation volume, a total of 283 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties including landraces and improved and introduced cultivars were analyzed using 10 allele-specific PCR markers at the Glu-B3 locus. The highest allele frequency observed in the tested varieties was Glu-B3i with 21.9% in all varieties, 21.1% in landraces, 25.5% in improved cultivars, and 12% in introduced cultivars. Glu-B3 locus represented 8.6% of the variance in wheat SDS sedimentation volume, and Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g, and Glu-B3h significantly heightened the SDS sedimentation volume, but Glu-B3a, Glu-B3c, and Glu-B3j significantly lowered the SDS sedimentation volume. For the bread-making quality, the most desirable alleles Glu-B3b and Glu-B3g become more and more popular and the least desirable alleles Glu-B3a and Glu-B3c got less and less in modern improved cultivars, suggesting that wheat grain quality in China has been significantly improved through breeding effort. PMID:23861659

  5. Direct observation of chemical oscillation at a water/nitrobenzene interface with a sodium-alkyl-sulfate system.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Ishizaki, Sadahiro; Yui, Hiroharu; Fujinami, Masanori; Sawada, Tsuguo

    2004-03-01

    The oscillation of the interfacial tension and electrical potential at a water/nitrobenzene interface was observed with homologous anionic surfactant molecules, sodium-alkyl-sulfates. Concerning small molecules with a short hydrophobic carbon chain, the oscillation period and amplitude decreased with a decrease of the length of the alkyl chain. On the other hand, when surfactant molecules with a long hydrophobic carbon chain were used, no remarkable periodic oscillation occurred after the first oscillation. In all systems, an interfacial flow by Marangoni convection was observed when the oscillation took place. By monitoring the movement of carbon powder scattered on the liquid/liquid interface with a CCD camera, we could observe that the liquid/liquid interface expanded outward from the area on which the surfactant molecules adsorbed when the oscillation occurred. When the small molecule was used, the speed of expansion of the interface (flow speed) was small and shrinkage followed by expansion of the interface repeatedly occurred. However, when the large molecule was used, the flow speed was large and expansion occurred only one time. These results show that hydrodynamic factors and surface activities are important in chemical oscillation systems. PMID:15068283

  6. Interaction of poly(ethylene oxide) with the sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle interface studied with nitroxide spin probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.S.; Kevan, L. )

    1994-08-04

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) line widths of 5-, 7-, 12-, and 16-doxylstearic acid (x-DSA) and tempo nitroxides versus the concentration of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles show different trends. The ESR line widths of 5-, 7-, and 16-DSA increase with increasing concentration of PEO, which is interpreted as due to increasing viscosity in the environment of the nitroxide spin probe. The tempo and 12-DSA line widths were independent of the concentration of PEO. The line width showed the highest value for 5-DSA and the lowest value of tempo. The line width of x-DSA decreases from 5-DSA to a minimum value for 12-DSA and then increases somewhat for 16-DSA. This is interpreted as bending of the alkyl chain to provide different locations for the nitroxide moiety relative to the micelle interface. The relative distances of the nitroxide moiety of [chi]-DSA from deuterated water at the SDS micelle interface was measured by deuterium electron spin echo modulation. The distances increased from 5-DSA to 12-DSA and then decreased for 16-DSA. The interpretation of the DSR line width trend is supported by the deuterium modulation depth trend. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Quantitation of antihistamines in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography with a micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate and pentanol.

    PubMed

    Gil-Agustí, M; Monferrer-Pons, L; Esteve-Romero, J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2001-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic procedure with a micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), containing a small amount of pentanol, was developed for the control of 7 antihistamines of diverse action in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, capsules, powders, solutions, and syrups): azatadine, carbinoxamine, cyclizine, cyproheptadine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, and tripelennamine. The retention times of the drugs were <9 min with a mobile phase of 0.15M SDS-6% (v/v) pentanol. The recoveries with respect to the declared compositions were in the range of 93-110%, and the intra- and interday repeatabilities and interday reproducibility were <1.2%. The results were similar to those obtained with a conventional 60 + 40 (v/v) methanol-water mixture, with the advantage of reduced toxicity, flammability, environmental impact, and cost of the micellar-pentanol solutions. The lower risk of evaporation of the organic solvent dissolved in the micellar solutions also increased the stability of the mobile phase. PMID:11767132

  8. Ion-enhanced fluorescence staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using bis(8-p-toluidino-1-naphthalenesulfonate).

    PubMed

    Horowitz, P M; Bowman, S

    1987-09-01

    A method for the sensitive fluorescent staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels that extends the applicability and sensitivity of existing procedures has been developed. SDS-protein complexes are able to bind the noncovalent hydrophobic probe, bis(8-p-toluidino-1-naphthalenesulfonate) (bisANS) with an increase in quantum yield that is considerably larger than that observed with the commonly used monomeric form, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS). The quantum yield of bisANS bound to the SDS-protein complex is greatly enhanced by incubation with one of a number of cations including potassium and barium. The use of bisANS with metal ion enhancements provides a method for staining SDS gels that can be more sensitive than commonly used methods based on the binding of Coomassie blue, and provides a simple and rapid method for the detection and quantitation of proteins. The use of metal ion enhancements also greatly increases the sensitivity of staining methods based on the use of 1,8-ANS. The present method is much more sensitive than previous noncovalent, flourescent, postelectrophoresis stains, but it retains their considerable advantages of speed, simplicity, and the ability to perform secondary procedures on the separated materials. PMID:3425913

  9. A method for in-gel fluorescent visualization of proteins after native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pristov, Jelena Bogdanović; Opačić, Miloš; Dimitrijević, Milena; Babić, Nikolina; Spasojević, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a simple one-step 30-min method for fluorescent visualization of proteins in native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gels. The method is based on formation of strong fluorophores via potassium ferricyanide-provoked oxidation of tryptophan (Trp). Following PAGE, gels are soaked in water solution of potassium ferricyanide (100 mM) and NaOH (1 M) and are kept in the dark for 30 min. Gels are then transferred to water and scanned. The sensitivity of the method was slightly lower compared with standard Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining. The method can be useful when rapid acquisition of data is of the essence. After preview, gels can be post-stained using the CBB protocol for further analysis. The intensity of fluorescence is dependent on Trp number, so the protocol might find application in the quantification of Trp residues as illustrated here. Importantly, there is room for improvement of the method. Namely, according to excitation-emission matrix analysis of stained protein bands, maximal fluorescence intensity (at 345/460 nm) was 3.5-fold higher compared with the settings that were available on a commercial imager (395/525 nm). As a supplement, we present an upgrade of the previously described method for in-gel detection of non-heme iron-binding proteins that also employs potassium ferricyanide. PMID:25862081

  10. About the singular behavior of the ionic condensation of sodium chondroitin sulfate: Conductivity study in water and water dioxane mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M'halla, Jalel; Besbes, Rafik; Bouazzi, Ramzi; Boughammoura, Sondes

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we generalized the (Bjerrum-Debye-Fuoss-MSA) double layer model to an ellipsoidal polyion (chondroitin sulfate) of (∣ Zs∣ e) structural charge, Ls structural length, R minor axe and ( R2 + L2/4) 1/2 major axe. With L ⩽ Ls. Na + counter ions are distributed on the contact (or condensed) layer and on the Debye layer (ionic atmosphere). Both layers are ellipsoidal equipotentials of, respectively, R and d minor axes and are concentric to the polyion. With d = ( R + 1/2 Γ), Γ is the Debye-MSA screen parameter. The equilibrium distribution of Na + ions is derived from a "two states" statistical approach, leading to a general implicit expression for the rate of condensation (1 - α). The generality of this formula results from the fact that it takes into account the finite size of the polyion ( L ≠ ∞ and R ≠ 0) and allows to calculate α for different conformations of the polyion: (ellipsoidal L ≠ 0, cylindrical: L = Ls, spherical: L → 0, and Manning's model: RL-1 → 0). The main conclusion of this model is that, α obeys to the Ostwald's principle of dilution ( α → 1 when CNa+ → 0). This result is contrary to Manning's theory, for which α is a constant αM independent on the concentration Ci: αM = bS/(∣ Zi∣ Lb), with bS = Ls/∣ Zs∣ and Lb = e2/( ɛkT) is the Bjerrum length. However, our analysis shows that the rate of variation: (∂ α/∂ Ci) in a given range of concentration, depends on the structural parameter bS. Indeed, the critical Manning condition ( α-1αM = 1, ⇒(∂ α/∂ Ci) ≈ 0), is compatible with the general following "rod-like model" approximation: (1-α)≈|Zi|(πbS)[4πZi2Lb][αCiR2];withbS″=αM-1 only for some peculiar values of bS and Lb (i.e., dielectric constant: ɛ). In water at 25 °C ( ɛ = 78.3), this singular behavior occurs for a range of a relative low or moderate concentration for some polyelectrolytes of bS structural parameter of about 5.8 Å. This is the case of sodium chondroitin sulfate in water ( bS = 5.72 Å). The addition of dioxane increases Lb, consequently, α is shifted from its Manning's value. In order to verify this dioxane effect, we have compared experimental equivalent conductibilities Λexp of sodium chondroitin sulfate in water ( no shift) and water-dioxane (60 wt%) mixture ( positive shift), to their theoretical values ΛM, ΛcthandΛsth corresponding, respectively, to the Manning, cylindrical and spherical models. This comparison allows also, to explain the conformation "chosen" by the polyion, in order to minimizing the friction effects (due to: viscosity; ionic and dielectric relaxations) and therefore, to optimize its mobility by the shift of its rate of ionic condensation α.

  11. Changes in tyrosinase specificity by ionic liquids and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Goldfeder, Mor; Egozy, Mor; Shuster Ben-Yosef, Vered; Adir, Noam; Fishman, Ayelet

    2013-03-01

    Tyrosinase is a member of the type 3 copper enzyme family involved in the production of melanin in a wide range of organisms. The ability of tyrosinases to convert monophenols into diphenols has stimulated studies regarding the production of substituted catechols, important intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, polymerization inhibitors, and antioxidants. Despite its enormous potential, the use of tyrosinases for catechol synthesis has been limited due to the low monophenolase/diphenolase activity ratio. In the presence of two water miscible ionic liquids, [BMIM][BF(4)] and ethylammonium nitrate, the selectivity of a tyrosinase from Bacillus megaterium (TyrBm) was altered, and the ratio of monophenolase/diphenolase activity increased by up to 5-fold. Furthermore, the addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at levels of 2-50 mM increased the activity of TyrBm by 2-fold towards the natural substrates L-tyrosine and L-Dopa and 15- to 20-fold towards the non-native phenol and catechol. The R209H tyrosinase variant we previously identified as having a preferential ratio of monophenolase/diphenolase activity was shown to have a 45-fold increase in activity towards phenol in the presence of SDS. We propose that the effect of SDS on the ability of tyrosinase to convert non-natural substrates is due to the interaction of surfactant molecules with residues located at the entrance to the active site, as visualized by the newly determined crystal structure of TyrBm in the presence of SDS. The effect of SDS on R209 may enable less polar substrates such as phenol and catechol, to penetrate more efficiently into the enzyme catalytic pocket. PMID:22539021

  12. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation and sodium sulfate on the IGSCC susceptibility of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel in high-temperature water

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, N.; Ichikawa, N.; Hemmi, Y. ); Sudo, A.; Itow, M.; Okada, T. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports the effects of gamma- ray irradiation and sodium sulfate as an aqueous impurity on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of sensitized type 304 (UNS{sup (1)} S30400) stainless steel (SS) studied through slow strain rate tests (SSRT) and corrosion potential measurements in high- temperature water that simulated the BWR normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) conditions. The SSRT results demonstrated that IGSCC was accelerated by gamma-ray irradiation under the NWC condition, while it was suppressed under the HWC condition. These different effects are attributable to the radiation-induced corrosion potential shifts in the opposite directions depending on the water chemistry condition. When the sodium sulfate as injected up to 0.32{mu}S/cm of conductivity, IGSCC was observed even under the HWC condition, but it was suppressed by gamma-ray irradiation.

  13. Sensitization of Colicin K-Treated Bacteria By Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: Presence of Free Colicin in Colicin K-Treated Cultures of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cavard, Danièle

    1976-01-01

    A method of assaying colicin K is described. It makes use of two properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate to protect bacteria against colicin action and to dissolve those bacteria on which colicin K had started its action. By this method, the kinetics of bacterial killing by colicin K have been measured directly in the treated culture without intervening dilution. The kinetics are exponential with time and are a function of the colicin multiplicity, as described previously, but do not reach a final plateau. At any time during colicin treatment, free colicin is found in the medium. Procedures that eliminate or destroy this free colicin, such as centrifugation and resuspension of the treated bacteria in a fresh medium, or addition of trypsin or sodium dodecyl sulfate to the treated culture stop bacterial killing. PMID:773302

  14. Diagnostic use of an analysis of urinary proteins by a practicable sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis method and rapid two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lapin, A; Gabl, F; Kopsa, H

    1989-01-01

    Two methods suitable for routine clinical analyses of urinary proteins are presented and compared. The first is a horizontal sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, suitable for simultaneous analysis of 20 native urinary samples. This method uses polyacrylamide gradient gels, prepared with a laboratory-built gel casting device. The second method is a rapid two-dimensional electrophoresis procedure, combining cellulose acetate electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-electrophoresis. The first step uses a routine system (Chemetron), the second separation step followed by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R is performed on the PhastSystem. The resulting two-dimensional patterns reveal urinary proteins distributed according to the 5-zone pattern of native proteins (albumin, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma-globulin) as well as to the logarithm of their molecular weights. Examples of (routine) diagnoses with a special interest in the monitoring of kidney transplant patients are shown. PMID:2806208

  15. Sulfite sensitivity: significance in human health.

    PubMed

    Lester, M R

    1995-06-01

    Endogenous sulfite is generated as a consequence of the body's normal processing of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfites occur as a consequence of fermentation and also occur naturally in a number of foods and beverages. As food additives, sulfiting agents were first used in 1664 and approved in the United States as long ago as the 1800s. With such long experience with their use, it is easy to understand why these substances have been regarded as safe. They are currently used for a variety of preservative properties, including controlling microbial growth, preventing browning and spoilage, and bleaching some foods. It is estimated that up to 500,000 (< .05% of the population) sulfite-sensitive individuals live in the United States. Sulfite sensitivity occurs most often in asthmatic adults--predominantly women; it is uncommonly reported in preschool children. Adverse reactions to sulfites in nonasthmatics are extremely rare. Asthmatics who are steroid-dependent or who have a higher degree of airway hyperreactivity may be at greater risk of experiencing a reaction to sulfite-containing foods. Even within this limited population, sulfite sensitivity reactions vary widely, ranging from no reaction to severe. The majority of reactions are mild. These manifestations may include dermatologic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. Severe nonspecific signs and symptoms occur less commonly. Broncho-constriction is the most common sensitivity response in asthmatics. The precise mechanisms of the sensitivity responses have not been completely elucidated. Inhalation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) generated in the stomach following ingestion of sulfite-containing foods or beverages, a deficiency in a mitochondrial enzyme, and an IgE-mediated immune response have all been implicated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8586770

  16. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Susan; Rapson, Trevor; Johnson-Winters, Kayunta; Astashkin, Andrei; Enemark, John; Kappler, Ulrike

    2008-11-10

    Sulfite dehydrogenases (SDHs) catalyze the oxidation and detoxification of sulfite to sulfate, a reaction critical to all forms of life. Sulfite-oxidizing enzymes contain three conserved active site amino acids (Arg-55, His-57, and Tyr-236) that are crucial for catalytic competency. Here we have studied the kinetic and structural effects of two novel and one previously reported substitution (R55M, H57A, Y236F) in these residues on SDH catalysis. Both Arg-55 and His-57 were found to have key roles in substrate binding. An R55M substitution increased Km(sulfite)(app) by 2-3 orders of magnitude, whereas His-57 was required for maintaining a high substrate affinity at low pH when the imidazole ring is fully protonated. This effect may be mediated by interactions of His-57 with Arg-55 that stabilize the position of the Arg-55 side chain or, alternatively, may reflect changes in the protonation state of sulfite. Unlike what is seen for SDHWT and SDHY236F, the catalytic turnover rates of SDHR55M and SDHH57A are relatively insensitive to pH (~;;60 and 200 s-1, respectively). On the structural level, striking kinetic effects appeared to correlate with disorder (in SDHH57A and SDHY236F) or absence of Arg-55 (SDHR55M), suggesting that Arg-55 and the hydrogen bonding interactions it engages in are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. The structure of SDHR55M has sulfate bound at the active site, a fact that coincides with a significant increase in the inhibitory effect of sulfate in SDHR55M. Thus, Arg-55 also appears to be involved in enabling discrimination between the substrate and product in SDH.

  17. Spectral analysis of EEG in normal and sulfite oxidase deficient rats under sulfite administration.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Yaşar Gül; Küçükatay, Vural; Savcioğlu, Feyza; Ağar, Aysel; Yargicoğlu, Piraye; Onal, Mehmet Zülküf

    2006-11-01

    This article investigated the possible neurotoxic effect of sulfite in normal and sulfite oxidase (SOX) deficients rats by evaluating EEG spectral analysis. Rats were divided into four groups: control (C), sulfite treated (25 mg/kg) (ST), SOX deficient (SD), and sulfite treated SOX deficient (STSD) groups. The qEEG spectral analyses of two spectral parameters including power and relative power were performed. The mean power of SD group was found to be increased compared to the all other groups and returned to control levels after sulfite administration. The power of the four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta) of the SD group corresponds to the mean power. EEG relative power increased in the delta band with concomitant decreases in power measured in the alpha frequency range. It was concluded that exogenous administration of sulfite affected the brain electrical activity in SOX deficiency, and improved neuroprotection. PMID:17000536

  18. Spatial-dependent electron scavenging by stearic acid nitroxide spin-labels in the photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, B.L.; Kevan, L.

    1982-09-16

    Various n-doxylstearic acids are used as electron acceptors for electrons produced by photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in order to probe the location of TMB in the micelle. The results indicate that TMB is solubilized in an asymmetric location near one side of the approximately spherical micelle in the liquid phase. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  19. Highly sensitive method for specific, brief, and economical detection of glycoproteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by the synthesis of a new hydrazide derivative.

    PubMed

    Cong, Weitao; Zhou, Ayi; Liu, Zhiguo; Shen, Jiayi; Zhou, Xuan; Ye, Weijian; Zhu, Zhongxin; Zhu, Xinliang; Lin, Jianjun; Jin, Litai

    2015-02-01

    A new hydrazide derivative was synthesized and used for the first time as a specific, brief, and economical probe to selectively visualize glycoproteins in 1-D and 2-D sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with high sensitivity. The detection limit of the newly developed staining method is 2- and 4-fold higher than that of the widely used Pro-Q Emerald 300 and 488 stains, respectively. PMID:25565298

  20. Metachromatic staining patterns of basic proline-rich proteins from rat and human saliva in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Humphreys-Beher, M G; Wells, D J

    1984-01-01

    A series of basic proteins, rich in proline, were isolated from the salivary secretions of humans and rats. These proteins underwent metachromasia after staining with Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The technique of destaining gels in several changes of 10% acetic acid after a 30-min staining period is a rapid method of general utility for the identification of proline-rich proteins from total cell lysates from other sources besides saliva. PMID:6085627

  1. Simulation of blood oxygenation in capillary membrane oxygenators using modified sulfite solution.

    PubMed

    Tabesh, Hadi; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Rasouli, Ali; Ramedani, Arash; Poorkhalil, Ali; Kashefi, Ali; Mottaghy, Khosrow

    2014-12-01

    Blood oxygenation is the main performance characteristic of capillary membrane oxygenators (CMOs). Handling of natural blood in in vitro investigations of CMOs is quite complex and time-consuming. Since the conventional blood analog fluids (e.g. water/glycerol) lack a substance with an affinity to capture oxygen comparable to hemoglobin's affinity, in this study a novel approach using modified sulfite solution is proposed to address this challenge. The solution comprises sodium sulfite as a component, simulating the role of hemoglobin in blood oxygenation. This approach is validated by OTR (oxygen transfer rate) measured using native porcine blood, in two types of commercially available CMOs. Consequently, the number of complicated natural blood investigations in the evolution procedure of newly developed oxygenators would considerably decrease. Moreover, the reassessing of failed devices, in clinics, would be performed more precisely using a modified sulfite solution than simple water/glycerol testing. PMID:25159916

  2. Partial replacement of dietary linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Anupama; Kumar, Uday; Santosh, Vadakattu Sai; Reddy, Suryam; Mohammed, Saazida Bhanu; Ibrahim, Ahamed

    2014-12-01

    Imbalances in the dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of substitution of linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence decreasing n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets with n-6:n-3 fatty acid in the ratios of 215,50,10 or 5 for 3 months and colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water during last 11 days. Decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio to 10 and 5 significantly attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by improvements in clinical symptoms, reversal of shortening of colon length, reduced severity of anemia, preservation of colonic architecture as well as reduced colonic mucosal myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with suppression of colonic mucosal proinflammatory mediators such as TNF?, IL-1? and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 3.0 g/kg diet (n-6:n-3 ratio of 10) prevents dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators. PMID:25451558

  3. Visual evoked potentials in normal and sulfite oxidase deficient rats exposed to ingested sulfite.

    PubMed

    Küçükatay, Vural; Hacioğlu, Gülay; Savcioğlu, Feyza; Yargiçoğlu, Piraye; Ağar, Aysel

    2006-01-01

    Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfur amino acids, and protects cells from sulfite (SO(3)(2-)) toxicity. Rats do not mimic responses seen in human, because of their relatively high SOX activity levels. Therefore, the present study used SOX deficient rats since they are a more appropriate model for studying sulfite toxicity. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of sulfite exposure on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in normal and sulfite oxidase deficient rats. Rats were assigned to six groups (n=10 rats/group) as follows; control (C), sulfite (S), sulfite+vitamin E (SE), deficient (D), deficient+sulfite (DS) and deficient+sulfite+vitamin E (DSE). Sulfite oxidase deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten (W). Sulfite (25img/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. At the end of the experimental period, flash visual evoked potentials were recorded, and TBARS, hepatic sulfite oxidase levels and plasma S-sulphonate concentrations were determined. Sulfite treatment caused a significant delay in P1, N1P2, and P3 components of VEPs in the S and DS groups compared with the C group. These prolonged mean latencies of VEP components were reversed by vitamin E treatment in SE and DSE groups. In addition, the mean latencies of P1 and P3 components were increased in SOX deficient groups compared with the C group. Lipid peroxidation was increased in the brain in S, D, DS and DSE groups compared with the control group. There were also significant increases in the retina TBARS levels of S and DS groups. Vitamin E caused a significant decrease in brain and retina TBARS levels of SE and DSE groups with respect to their corresponding controls. However, there were no important changes in amplitudes of other groups. In conclusion, our results showed that sulfite treatment caused an increase in the lipid peroxidation process that was accompanied by changes in VEPs. Furthermore, sulfite exposure resulted in greater lipid peroxidation and more electrophysiological alterations in the SOX deficient rats than in the control rats. Additionally, the reduction of all VEP latencies in the DSE group with respect to the DS group clearly indicated that vitamin E has the potential to prevent sulfite induced-VEP changes arising from dysfunction of the SOX enzyme. PMID:16150492

  4. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on visual evoked potentials in rats exposed to sulfite.

    PubMed

    Derin, Narin; Akpinar, Deniz; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Agar, Aysel; Aslan, Mutay

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) administration on sulfite-induced alterations in visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Fifty two male albino Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups as follows; control (C), LA treated (L), sodium metabisulfite (Na(2)S(2)O(5)) treated (S), Na(2)S(2)O(5)+LA treated (SL). Na(2)S(2)O(5) (260 mg/kg/day) and LA (100 mg/kg/day) were given by intragastric intubation for 5 weeks. The latencies of VEP components were significantly prolonged in the S group and returned to control levels following LA administration. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in the S group were significantly higher than those detected in controls. LA significantly decreased brain and retina TBARS levels in the SL group compared with the S group. Sulfite caused a significant decrease in retina and brain glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities which was restored to control levels via LA administration. Brain glutathione (GSH):glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio was significantly increased in rats jointly treated with sulfite and LA compared to rats treated with sulfite alone. Though not significant, a similar increase in GSH:GSSG ratio was also observed in the retina of SL group. This study showed that LA is protective against sulfite-induced VEP alterations and oxidative stress in the brain and retina. PMID:18761084

  5. Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2009-07-01

    Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate. PMID:19369292

  6. Suppressive effects of Moringa oleifera Lam pod against mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Budda, Sirintip; Butryee, Chaniphun; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Wangnaithum, Supradit; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Kupradinun, Piengchai

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a major ingredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. Previous studies have shown potentially antioxidant, antitumor promoter, anticlastogen and anticarcinogen activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was conducted to investigate chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 8 groups: Group 1 served as a negative control; Group 2 received AOM/DSS as a positive control; Groups 3-5 were fed boiled freeze-dried M. oleifera (bMO) at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively supplemented in basal diets for 5 weeks; Groups 6-8 were fed with bMO diets at the designed doses above for 2 weeks prior to AOM, during and 1 week after DSS administration. At the end of the study, colon samples were processed for histopathological examination. PCNA indices, and iNOS and COX-2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the incidences and multiplicities of tumors in Groups 6-8 to be decreased when compared to Group 2 in a dose dependent manner, but this was significant only in Group 8. The PCNA index was also significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M. oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:22471457

  7. Alanyl-glutamine administration suppresses Th17 and reduces inflammatory reaction in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu-Chen; Liu, Jun-Jen; Pai, Man-Hui; Tsou, Shung-Sheng; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2013-09-01

    T helper (Th) cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Glutamine (Gln) is known to have immunomodulatory effects in metabolic stressed conditions. This study investigated the effects of post-treatment of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) on Th cell-associated cytokine expressions and inflammatory reaction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice received distilled water containing 3% DSS for 5 days to induce colitis, whereas the normal control (NC) group received distilled water. After induction of colitis, one of the colitis groups (DG) was intraperitoneally injected with an Ala-Gln solution (0.5 g Gln/kg/d), and the saline DSS group (DS) received an identical volume of saline. After treatment for 3 days, mice were sacrificed, and the blood and tissue samples were collected for further analysis. DSS colitis resulted in higher percentages of blood interleukin (IL)-17-secreting Th cells and greater expression of Th cell-associated cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Also, luminal immunoglobin (Ig) G, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 levels were higher in the DS group than the NC group, whereas these parameters did not differ between the DG and NC groups. The DG group had lower blood IL-17A, 17F, MLN IL-17 mRNA and macrophage percentage in the peritoneal lavage fluid than those of the DS group. These results suggest that post-treatment with Ala-Gln suppressed Th17-associated cytokine expressions, reduced macrophage infiltration into the peritoneal cavity and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the colon, thus may have attenuated inflammatory response in DSS-induced colitis. PMID:23721689

  8. The Sasa quelpaertensis Leaf Extract Inhibits the Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Mouse Colitis Through Modulation of Antioxidant Enzyme Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Yiseul; Kim, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) against oxidative stress in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods: Mice were treated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage in advance two weeks before inflammation was induced. Then, the mice were administered with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days and normal drinking water for 7 days between two DSS treatment. Disease activity index values, gut motility, and severity of the resulting oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. The antioxidant effect of SQE was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma samples. Catalase activity and expressions levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), SOD1, and SOD2 were also detected in colon tissues. Results: Administration of SQE significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis compared to the control (Ctrl) group. Levels of 8-oxo-dG, an oxidative DNA damage marker, were significantly lower in the SQE group compared to the untreated DSS Ctrl group. In the SQE (300 mg/kg) group, MDA levels were significantly lower, while SOD and catalase activity levels in the plasma samples were significantly higher compared with the DSS Ctrl group. The expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD2 and Gpx1, were significantly higher, while the levels of SOD 1 expression were lower, in the colon tissues of the DSS Ctrl group compared with those of the Ctrl group. In contrast, administration of SQE significantly down-regulated SOD2 and Gpx1 expressions and up-regulated SOD1 expression. Conclusions: These results indicate that SQE efficiently suppresses oxidative stress in DSS-induced colitis in mice, and its action is associated with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:26151047

  9. Sarcodon aspratus Extract Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mouse Colon and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Yu; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kim, Jin Hee; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Ku

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms have been previously investigated for their immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory properties. We examined whether the anti-inflammatory properties of Sarcodon aspratus ethanol extract (SAE) could elicit protective effects against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. Male C57/BL6 mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: control (CON; n = 8), DSS-treated (DSS; n = 9), DSS+SAE at 50 mg/kg BW (SAE50; n = 8), and DSS+SAE at 200 mg/kg BW groups (SAE200; n = 9). DSS treatment induced significant weight loss, which was significantly recovered by SAE200. Although SAE did not affect DSS-mediated reductions in colon length, it improved diarrhea and rectal bleeding induced by DSS. SAE at 200 mg/kg BW significantly attenuated IL-6 and enhanced IL-10 expression in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and significantly reduced IL-6 levels in splenocytes. SAE200 also significantly attenuated DSS-induced increase in IL-6 and IL-1β, and reductions in IL-10 in colon tissue. High levels of SAE were also observed to significantly decrease inflammatory COX-2 expression that was upregulated by DSS in mice colon. These findings may have relevance for novel therapeutic strategies to mitigate inflammatory bowel disease-relevant inflammatory responses, via the direct and indirect anti-inflammatory activity of SAE. We also found that SAE harbors significant quantities of total fiber and β-glucan, suggesting a possible role for these components in protection against DSS-mediated colitis. PMID:27074537

  10. Low dietary calcium levels modulate mucosal caspase expression and increase disease activity in mice with dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Pele, Laetitia C; Thoree, Vinay; Mustafa, Feras; He, Shijun; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Punchard, Neville A; Thompson, Richard P H; Evans, Stephen M; Powell, Jonathan J

    2007-11-01

    Dietary calcium (Ca) positively modulates the susceptibility to colon cancer, but its effects on related or earlier colonic pathologies, such as inflammation and mucosal dysregulation, are poorly understood. We tested the effects of differing dietary Ca levels on acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. BALB/c mice received a normal Ca (NCa) diet (0.5% Ca), a high Ca (HCa) diet (1.5% Ca), a low Ca (LCa) diet (0.05% Ca), or a very low Ca (VLCa) diet (0.009% Ca) for 3 wk. Mucosal caspases 1, 3, and 9 were assessed by Western blotting, and the histological crypt score was assessed by microscopy. Half of the mice in each group received DSS (1.5%) for 20 d in their drinking water, and disease activity was assessed. Increasing or lowering dietary Ca increased mucosal caspases (P < 0.0001 vs. NCa). Crypt scores increased with decreasing dietary Ca levels (P < 0.0001, r = -0.675), indicating that elevated caspases in LCa groups reflected early subclinical inflammation. DSS-induced disease activity was higher in mice fed low dietary Ca levels [P < 0.0001, VLCa and DSS vs. NCa and DSS (NCaDSS) and P < 0.005, LCa and DSS vs. NCaDSS], and mice from the VLCa group were moribund within 11 d of DSS administration. Those in the HCa group did not differ greatly from controls. Together, these data indicate that Ca protects against DSS-induced colitis in mice. The mechanisms are unclear, but the calcium-sensing receptor and/or luminal precipitates of calcium phosphate microparticles may be involved. Whether these observations can be extended to patients with colitis or infectious diarrhea deserves consideration. PMID:17951488

  11. Sodium dodecyl sulfate reduces bacterial contamination in goat colostrum without negative effects on immune passive transfer in goat kids.

    PubMed

    Morales-delaNuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Sánchez-Macías, D; Capote, J; Juste, M C; Castro, N; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Argüello, A

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a biocide on goat colostrum, 2 experiments were performed. In the first, 20 goat colostrum samples were divided into 3 aliquots. A different treatment was performed on each aliquot: pasteurization (56°C, 30 min) or addition of SDS to a final concentration of either 0.1 or 1% (36°C, 10 min). Immunoglobulin G and colony-forming units were evaluated before and after treatment. Both pasteurization and treatment with 1% SDS significantly reduced the colony-forming units in colostrum. Treatment with 0.1% SDS was not effective at reducing the colony-forming units in colostrum. The IgG concentration of pasteurized colostrum was significantly lower than that of untreated colostrum, whereas treatment with 1% SDS did not affect the colostrum IgG concentration. In the second experiment, the effects of SDS colostrum treatment on immune passive transfer were evaluated. Forty goat kids were fed either refrigerated colostrum or colostrum treated with 1% SDS twice daily for 2 d. Blood samples were obtained at birth and every day for 5 d. IgG, IgM, and IgA were measured in blood serum to monitor the passive immune transfer process. Creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, and aspartate transaminase were also monitored to evaluate the health of kids. No differences in serum IgG, IgM, IgA, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, or aspartate transaminase levels were observed between groups. Our findings indicate that SDS is an efficient colostrum biocide that, unlike pasteurization, does not affect immune passive transfer or goat kid health. PMID:21183051

  12. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-modified electrochemical paper-based analytical device for determination of dopamine levels in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Rattanarat, Poomrat; Dungchai, Wijitar; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon; Henry, Charles S

    2012-09-26

    We report the development of an electrochemical paper-based analytical device (ePAD) for the selective determination of dopamine (DA) in model serum sample. The ePAD device consists of three layers. In the top layer, SU-8 photoresist defines a hydrophilic sample application spot on the filter paper. The middle layer was made from transparency film and contained two holes, one for sample preconcentration and the other for the surfactant to allow transfer to the third layer. A screen-printed carbon electrode formed the bottom layer and was used for electrochemical measurements. In the absence of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the oxidation peaks of DA, ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) overlapped. With the addition of SDS, the DA oxidation peak shifted to more negative values and was clearly distinguishable from AA and UA. The oxidation potential shift was presumably due to preferential electrostatic interactions between the cationic DA and the anionic SDS. Indeed, whilst the SDS-modified paper improved the DA current five-fold, the non-ionic Tween-20 and cationic tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactants had no effect or reduced the current, respectively. Furthermore, only the SDS-modified paper showed the selective shift in oxidation potential for DA. DA determination was carried out using square-wave voltammetry between -0.2 and 0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl, and this ePAD was able to detect DA over a linear range of 1-100 μM with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.37 μM. The ePAD seems suitable as a low cost, easy-to-use, portable device for the selective quantitation of DA in human serum samples. PMID:22935367

  13. Supersaturated polymeric micelles for oral cyclosporine A delivery: The role of Soluplus-sodium dodecyl sulfate complex.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dengning; Yu, Hongzhen; Tao, Jinsong; Zeng, Jianrong; Zhu, Quanlei; Zhu, Chunliu; Gan, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that the retention of drug in the hydrophobic core of Soluplus micelle greatly impeded drug absorption from gastrointestinal tract. Using supersaturated polymeric micelles can improve drug release, however, insufficient maintaining of supersaturation of drug is still unfavorable for drug absorption. Here, we report adding small amount of small molecule, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), to Soluplus solution can form a Soluplus-SDS complex. This complex not only showed a higher solubilization capability for the model drug cyclosporine A (CsA), but also maintained a longer period of and higher supersaturation than was achieved with Soluplus alone. The Soluplus-SDS interactions were characterized by analyzing surface tension, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the formation of Soluplus-SDS complex via SDS adsorption on hydrophobic segments of Soluplus, which have more hydrophobic domain than that of Soluplus micelle, contributed significantly to the solubilization and stabilization of supersaturated CsA. Using this amphiphilic copolymer-small molecule surfactant system, the cellular uptake and rat in vivo absorption of CsA were more effectively achieved than pure Soluplus. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) achieved by CsA-loaded Soluplus-SDS complex were 1.58- and 1.8-times higher than the corresponding values for CsA-loaded pure Soluplus, respectively. This study highlighted the benefits of Soluplus-SDS complex for optimizing the solubilization and oral absorption of a drug with low aqueous solubility. PMID:26866892

  14. Protective role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis through generating gut-homing macrophages.

    PubMed

    Meshkibaf, Shahab; Martins, Andrew J; Henry, Garth T; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine best known for its role in promoting the generation and function of neutrophils. G-CSF is also found to be involved in macrophage generation and immune regulation; however, its in vivo role in immune homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis using G-CSF receptor-deficient (G-CSFR(-/-)) mice. Mice were administered with 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 5days, and the severity of colitis was measured for the next 5days. GCSFR(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis than G-CSFR(+/+) or G-CSFR(-/+) mice. G-CSFR(-/-) mice harbored less F4/80(+) macrophages, but a similar number of neutrophils, in the intestine. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of both G-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (G-BMDM) expressed higher levels of regulatory macrophage markers such as programmed death ligand 2 (PDL2), CD71 and CD206, but not in arginase I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, Ym1 (chitinase-like 3) and FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), and lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD80 and CD86 than bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of M-CSF alone (BMDM), in response to interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ, respectively. Adoptive transfer of G-BMDM, but not BMDM, protected G-CSFR(-/-) mice from DSS-induced colitis, and suppressed expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β and iNOS in the intestine. These results suggest that G-CSF plays an important role in preventing colitis, likely through populating immune regulatory macrophages in the intestine. PMID:26687628

  15. Multifunctional activity of a small tellurium redox immunomodulator compound, AS101, on dextran sodium sulfate-induced murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Halpert, Gilad; Eitan, Tom; Voronov, Elena; Apte, Ron N; Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Albeck, Michael; Kalechman, Yona; Sredni, Benjamin

    2014-06-13

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a group of idiopathic, chronic immune-mediated diseases characterized by an aberrant immune response, including imbalances of inflammatory cytokine production and activated innate and adaptive immunity. Selective blockade of leukocyte migration into the gut is a promising strategy for the treatment of IBD. This study explored the effect of the immunomodulating tellurium compound ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-o,o') tellurate (AS101) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine colitis. Both oral and intraperitoneal administration of AS101 significantly reduced clinical manifestations of IBD. Colonic inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-17 and IL-1β) were significantly down-regulated by AS101 treatment, whereas IFN-γ was not affected. Neutrophil and α4β7(+) macrophage migration into the tissue was inhibited by AS101 treatment. Adhesion of mesenteric lymph node cells to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (MAdCAM-1), the ligand for α4β7 integrin, was blocked by AS101 treatment both in vitro and in vivo. DSS-induced destruction of colonic epithelial barrier/integrity was prevented by AS101, via up-regulation of colonic glial-derived neurotrophic factor, which was found previously to regulate the intestinal epithelial barrier through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Indeed, the up-regulation of glial-derived neurotrophic factor by AS101 was associated with increased levels of colonic pAKT and BCL-2 and decreased levels of BAX. Furthermore, AS101 treatment reduced colonic permeability to Evans blue and decreased colonic TUNEL(+) cells. Our data revealed multifunctional activities of AS101 in the DSS-induced colitis model via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. We suggest that treatment with the small, nontoxic molecule AS101 may be an effective early therapeutic approach for controlling human IBD. PMID:24764299

  16. Fluorescence detection of proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using environmentally benign, nonfixative, saline solution.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, T H; Lauber, W M; Berggren, K; Kemper, C; Yue, S; Patton, W F

    2000-02-01

    SYPRO Tangerine stain is an environmentally benign alternative to conventional protein stains that does not require solvents such as methanol or acetic acid for effective protein visualization. Instead, proteins can be stained in a wide range of buffers, including phosphate-buffered saline or simply 150 mM NaCl using an easy, one-step procedure that does not require destaining. Stained proteins can be excited by ultraviolet light of about 300 nm or with visible light of about 490 nm. The fluorescence emission maximum of the dye is approximately 640 nm. Noncovalent binding of SYPRO Tangerine dye is mediated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and to a lesser extent by hydrophobic amino acid residues in proteins. This is in stark contrast to acidic silver nitrate staining, which interacts predominantly with lysine residues or Coomassie Blue R, which in turn interacts primarily with arginine and lysine residues. The sensitivity of SYPRO Tangerine stain is similar to that of the SYPRO Red and SYPRO Orange stains - about 4-10 ng per protein band. This detection sensitivity is comparable to colloidal Coomassie blue staining and rapid silver staining procedures. Since proteins stained with SYPRO Tangerine dye are not fixed, they can easily be eluted from gels or utilized in zymographic assays, provided that SDS does not inactivate the protein of interest. This is demonstrated with in-gel detection of rabbit liver esterase activity using alpha-naphthyl acetate and Fast Blue BB dye as well as Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase activity using ELF-97 beta-D-glucuronide. The dye is also suitable for staining proteins in gels prior to their transfer to membranes by electroblotting. Gentle staining conditions are expected to improve protein recovery after electroelution and to reduce the potential for artifactual protein modifications such as the alkylation of lysine and esterification of glutamate residues, which complicate interpretation of peptide fragment profiles generated by mass spectrometry. PMID:10726749

  17. Isotope effects associated with the anaerobic oxidation of sulfite and thiosulfate by the photosynthetic bacterium, Chromatium vinosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The purple photosynthetic bacterium Chromatium vinosum, strain D, catalyzes several oxidations of reduced sulfur compounds under anaerobic conditions in the light: e.g., sulfide --> sulfur --> sulfate, sulfite --> sulfate, and thiosulfate --> sulfur + sulfate. Here it is shown that no sulfur isotope effect is associated with the last of these processes; isotopic compositions of the sulfur and sulfate produced can differ, however, if the sulfane and sulfonate positions within the thiosulfate have different isotopic compositions. In the second process, an observed change from an inverse to a normal isotope effect during oxidation of sulfite may indicate the operation of 2 enzymatic pathways. In contrast to heterotrophic anaerobic reduction of oxidized sulfur compounds, anaerobic oxidations of inorganic sulfur compounds by photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by relatively small isotope effects.

  18. Involvement of active sodium transport in the rectal absorption of gentamicin sulfate in the presence and absence of absorption-promoting adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Fix, J A; Porter, P A; Leppert, P S

    1983-06-01

    The involvement of active sodium transport in the rectal absorption of gentamicin sulfate was examined in rats, employing aqueous microenemas of known total ionic strength (mu) in the presence or absence of absorption-promoting adjuvants. Rectal gentamicin bio-availability, which is negligible (1 +/- 1.2%) at an ionic strength of 0.15 without adjuvants, is significantly (p less than 0.01) increased by including adjuvants in the formulation (sodium salicylate, 12 +/- 4.0%; sodium-5-bromosalicylate, 59 +/- 15.1%; disodium ethylene (dinitrilo)tetraacetate, 24 +/- 9.3%). Pretreating the rectal mucosa cells with ouabain, a specific inhibitor of active sodium transport, significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced gentamicin absorption in response to all three adjuvants. In contrast to previous findings with sodium chloride, high ionic strength choline chloride (mu = 1.056) did not promote gentamicin absorption. The data indicate that active sodium transport is an integral component of rectal absorption of water-soluble compounds and may be involved in the mechanism of action of absorption-promoting adjuvants. PMID:6875833

  19. Determination and application of the equilibrium oxygen isotope effect between water and sulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankel, Scott D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Eldridge, Daniel L.; Johnston, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The information encoded by the two stable isotope systems in sulfate (δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4) has been widely applied to aid reconstructions of both modern and ancient environments. Interpretation of δ18OSO4 records has been complicated by rapid oxygen isotope equilibration between sulfoxyanions and water. Specifically, the apparent relationship that develops between δ18OSO4 and δ18Owater during microbial sulfate reduction is thought to result from rapid oxygen isotope equilibrium between intracellular water and aqueous sulfite - a reactive intermediate of the sulfate reduction network that can back-react to produce sulfate. Here, we describe the oxygen equilibrium isotope effect between water and sulfite (referring to all the sum of all S(IV)-oxyanions including sulfite and both isomers and the dimer of bisulfite). Based on experiments conducted over a range of pH (4.5-9.8) and temperature (2-95 °C), where ε = 1000 * (α - 1), we find εSO3-H2O=13.61-0.299∗pH-0.081∗T °C. Thus, at a pH (7.0) and temperature (25 °C) typifying commonly used experimental conditions for sulfate reducing bacterial cultures, sulfite is enriched in 18O by 9.5‰ (±0.8‰) relative to ambient water. We examine the implication of these results in a sulfate reduction network that has been revised to reflect our understanding of the reactions involving oxygen. By evaluating previously published data within this new architecture, our results are consistent with previous suggestions of high reversibility of the sulfate reduction biochemical network. We also demonstrate that intracellular exchange rates between SO32- and water must be on average 1-3 orders of magnitude more rapid than intracellular fluxes of sulfate reduction intermediates and that kinetic isotope effects upstream of SO32- are required to explain previous laboratory and environmental studies of δ18OSO4 resulting as a consequence of sulfate reduction.

  20. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite... at dissolving sulfite mills....

  1. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite... at dissolving sulfite mills....

  2. Fed-batch cultivation of the marine bacterium Sulfitobacter pontiacus using immobilized substrate and purification of sulfite oxidase by application of membrane adsorber technology.

    PubMed

    Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland

    2008-03-01

    Sulfitobacter pontiacus, a gram-negative heterotrophic bacterium isolated from the Black Sea is well known to produce a soluble AMP-independent sulfite oxidase (sulfite: acceptor oxidoreductase) of high activity. Such an enzyme can be of great help in establishing biosensor systems for detection of sulfite in food and beverages considering the high sensitivity of biosensors and the increasing demand for such biosensor devices. For obtaining efficient amounts of the enzyme, an induction of its biosynthesis by supplementing sufficient concentrations of sodium sulfite to the fermentation broth is required. Owing to the fact that a high initial concentration of sodium sulfite decreases dramatically the enzyme expression, different fed-batch strategies can be applied to circumvent such inhibition or repression of the enzyme respectively. By the use of sulfite species immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol gels, an approach to the controlled and continuous feeding of sulfite to the cultivation media could be established to diminish inhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the purification of the enzyme is described by using membrane adsorber technology. PMID:17705251

  3. Isolation and characterization of sulfite oxidase from Alligator mississipiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, A.; Neame, P.J.; Barber, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Sulfite oxidase has been isolated from fresh alligator liver using ammonium sulfate and acetone fractionation, DEAE chromatography and FPLC on Mono Q. The enzyme is dimeric and exhibits a subunit M. Wt. of approximately 58 kDa, larger than that of chicken SO. EPR spectroscopy of the partially-reduced enzyme revealed a single Mo(V) species while visible spectroscopy revealed the presence of cytochrome b{sub 557}. Maximal activities were obtained at pH 8 and 9, respectively. K{sub m}'s for SO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}, cyt. c and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3 {minus}} were 23.5 uM, 2.9 uM and 8.0 uM, respectively. Sequencing of peptides obtained by endoprotease K digestion indicated regions of extensive sequence similarity to chicken and rat enzymes in both heme and Mo-pterin domains. Regions of sequence dissimilarity were also found.

  4. The corrosion properties of phosphate coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy: The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an eco-friendly accelerating agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, R.; Sarabi, A. A.

    2011-06-01

    Sodium nitrite has been used as an accelerating agent in phosphating bath to improve its properties. However, it is well known that sodium nitrite is a carcinogenic component in phosphating sludge. In this study, it has been aimed to replace sodium nitrite by an environmentally friendly accelerating agent. To this end, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used in phosphating bath to improve the phosphate coating formation on an AZ31 magnesium alloy. The effect of SDS/sodium nitrite ratio on the phosphated samples properties was also studied. Using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), direct current (DC) polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) the properties of phosphated magnesium samples were studied. Results showed uniform phosphate coating formation on the magnesium sample mostly in hopeite phase composition. In addition, a denser and less permeable coating can be obtained at these conditions. The corrosion resistance of the phosphated samples was superiorly improved using higher SDS concentration in the phosphating bath.

  5. Acid-base equilibria and dynamics in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles: geminate recombination and effect of charge stabilization.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Adilson A; Paulo, Luisa; Maçanita, Antonio L; Quina, Frank H

    2006-09-12

    The synthetic flavylium salt 4-carboxy-7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavylium chloride (CHMF) exhibits two acid-base equilibria in the range of pH 1-8 in both aqueous and micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The values of pK(a1) and pK(a2) for the cation-zwitterion (AH(2)(+) <--> Z + H(+)) and the zwitterion-base (Z <--> A(-) + H(+)) equilibria increase from 0.73 and 4.84 in water to 2.77 and 5.64 in SDS micelles, respectively. The kinetic study of the Z <--> A(-) + H(+) ground-state reactions in SDS points to the diffusion-controlled protonation of A(-) in the aqueous phase (k(p2w) = 4.2 x 10(10) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and in the micelle (k(p2m) = 2.3 x 10(11) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). The deprotonation rate of Z did not significantly change upon going from water (k(d2) = 6.3 x 10(5) s(-)(1)) to SDS (k(d2) = 5.2 x 10(5) s(-)(1)), in contrast with the behavior of ordinary cationic flavylium salts, for which k(d2) strongly decreases in SDS micelles. These results suggest that deprotonation of the zwitterionic acid is not substantially perturbed by the micellar charge. Electronic excitation of the Z form of CHMF induces fast adiabatic deprotonation of the hydroxyl group of Z() (2.9 x 10(10) s(-)(1) in water and 8.4 x 10(9) s(-)(1) in 0.1 M SDS), followed by geminate recombination on the picosecond time scale. Interestingly, while recombination in water (k(rec) = 1.7 x 10(9) s(-)(1)) occurs preferentially at the carboxylate group, at the SDS micelle surface, recombination (k(rec) = 9.2 x 10(9) s(-)(1)) occurs at the hydroxyl group. The important conclusion is that proton mobility at the SDS micelle surface is substantially reduced with respect to the mobility in water, which implies that geminate recombination should be a general phenomenon in SDS micelles. PMID:16952232

  6. Different Effects of Three Selected Lactobacillus Strains in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Wei, Hongyun; Lu, Fanggen; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Deliang; Gu, Li; Ouyang, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the changes of different Lactobacillus species in ulcerative colitis patients and to further assess the therapeutic effects of selected Lactobacillus strains on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice. Methods Forty-five active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 45 population-based healthy controls were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and real-time PCR were performed for qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively, of the Lactobacillus species in UC patients. Three Lactobacillus strains from three species were selected to assess the therapeutic effects on experimental colitis. Sixty 8-week-old BALB/c mice were divided into six groups. The five groups that had received DSS were administered normal saline, mesalazine, L. fermentum CCTCC M206110 strain, L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 strain, or L. plantarum NCIMB8826 strain. We assessed the severity of colitis based on disease activity index (DAI), body weight loss, colon length, and histologic damage. Results The detection rate of four of the 11 Lactobacillus species decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the detection rate of two of the 11 Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05) in UC patients. Relative quantitative analysis revealed that eight Lactobacillus species declined significantly in UC patients (P < 0.05), while three Lactobacillus species increased significantly (P < 0.05). The CCTCC M206110 treatment group had less weight loss and colon length shortening, lower DAI scores, and lower histologic scores (P < 0.05), while the CCTCC M206119 treatment group had greater weight loss and colon length shortening, higher histologic scores, and more severe inflammatory infiltration (P < 0.05). NCIMB8826 improved weight loss and colon length shortening (P < 0.05) with no significant influence on DAI and histologic damage in the colitis model. Conclusions Administration of an L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 supplement aggravated DSS-induced colitis. L. fermentum CCTCC M206110 proved to be effective at attenuating DSS-induced colitis. The potential probiotic effect of L. plantarum NCIMB8826 on UC has yet to be assessed. PMID:26840426

  7. Interactions between hydrophobically modified alkali-swellable emulsion polymers and sodium dodecyl sulfate probed by fluorescence and rheology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaohua; Siu, Howard; Duhamel, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between a pyrene-labeled hydrophobically modified alkali-swellable emulsion (Py-HASE) polymer and the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution were investigated with a fluorometer, a rheometer, and a combination of both instruments to probe the fluorescence of the polymer while the solution was being sheared. Different amounts of SDS were added to two solutions with Py-HASE concentrations of 8 and 57 g/L. The pyrene monomer and excimer decays of the Py-HASE solutions were acquired and globally fitted according to the fluorescence blob model (FBM) and the model free (MF) analysis. Both models yielded the same molar fractions of pyrenes that were isolated, aggregated, or forming excimer by diffusion. The average number of pyrenes per micelle, , was determined according to the FBM and found to equal 2.0 at the SDS concentration corresponding to a maximum in solution viscosity. For a Py-HASE concentration of 57 g/L, the solution viscosities at different SDS concentrations were measured from the Newtonian plateau regions and were found to peak at an SDS concentration of 11 mM. The steady-state fluorescence spectra were acquired at SDS concentrations of 0.1, 6.0, 11.1, and 17 mM while the 57 g/L Py-HASE solution was sheared. Although the solutions of Py-HASE and SDS were found to shear-thin substantially with the solution viscosity decreasing by up to 4 orders of magnitude, no change was observed in the fluorescence spectra acquired at shear rates ranging from 0.005 to 500 s(-1). The overlap of the fluorescence spectra under conditions where the solution viscosity decreased by 4 orders of magnitude suggested that the rearrangement of the hydrophobes from inter- to intramolecular associations that leads to shear-thinning occurs on a time scale that is much faster than that over which the rheology experiments are being conducted. PMID:24364758

  8. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on mineralization and mobility of nonylphenol and sodium dodecyl sulfate in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillotte, Julia; Marschner, Bernd; Stumpe, Britta

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the major scientific research fields in this decade. One of the most wide-spread nanomaterials are carbon based nanoparticles (CNPs) which are increasingly be used in industry. Several studies shows that CNPs are interacting with other chemical compounds and organic pollutants in the environment. It is assumed that the interactions between CNPs and organic pollutants are affected by solution and aggregate behavior. Based on the knowledge of the behavior of CNPs and organic pollutants in aquatic systems the interactions of CNPs and organic pollutants in agricultural soils have to be studied. As organic pollutants two environmental substances, nonylphenol (NP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were selected as model substances. They occur frequently in aqueous systems and also show different solubility behavior. As CNP representatives, two different multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were selected. They differed either in length or outer diameter. Conclusions therefrom are to be closed the influence of length and diameter of the sorption capacity of different organic pollutants. In addition, two agricultural soils (sandy and silty soil) and one forest soil (sandy soil) were chosen. Mineralization and sorption experiments were conducted to provide information about the degradation of organic pollutants in presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in soils. To analyze the CNPs mineralization potential, peroxidase activity was measured. Further extraction experiments were conducted to detect the extractable part of organic pollutants. The results show that the surface area of the MWNT has a significant impact on the sorption behav-ior of NP and SDS in soils. The sorption of NP and SDS is much higher than without MWNT. However, the properties of the organic pollutants (different water solubility and hydrophobicity) are equally important and should be noted. The degradation of both pollutants is influenced by MWNT. Due to the strong sorption of NP and SDS on the MWNT, the degradation of these pollutants in soils, is slower than without MWNT. The peroxidase activity did not contribute to NP and SDS degradation. But the peroxidase activity in agricultural soils is higher than in forest soils. The extractable fraction of NP and SDS is very low and amounts to a maximum of 2 %. Due to the lower degradation of NP and SDS in the presence of MWNT a longer retention of the substances in the soils and potential toxic effects for humans and animals, as a result of plant uptake may be taken into account.

  9. Applications of pulsed EPR spectroscopy to structural studies of sulfite oxidizing enzymes?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eric L.; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Raitsimring, Arnold M.; Enemark, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), including sulfite oxidase (SO) and bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), catalyze the oxidation of sulfite (SO32?) to sulfate (SO42?). The active sites of SO and SDH are nearly identical, each having a 5-coordinate, pseudo-square-pyramidal Mo with an axial oxo ligand and three equatorial sulfur donor atoms. One sulfur is from a conserved Cys residue and two are from a pyranopterindithiolene (molybdopterin, MPT) cofactor. The identity of the remaining equatorial ligand, which is solvent-exposed, varies during the catalytic cycle. Numerous in vitro studies, particularly those involving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the Mo(V) states of SOEs, have shown that the identity and orientation of this exchangeable equatorial ligand depends on the buffer pH, the presence and concentration of certain anions in the buffer, as well as specific point mutations in the protein. Until very recently, however, EPR has not been a practical technique for directly probing specific structures in which the solvent-exposed, exchangeable ligand is an O, OH?, H2O, SO32?, or SO42? group, because the primary O and S isotopes (16O and 32S) are magnetically silent (I = 0). This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of isotopic labeling, variable-frequency high resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, synthetic model compounds, and DFT calculations to elucidate the roles of various anions, point mutations, and steric factors in the formation, stabilization, and transformation of SOE active site structures. PMID:23440026

  10. Applications of pulsed EPR spectroscopy to structural studies of sulfite oxidizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric L.; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Raitsimring, Arnold; Enemark, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), including sulfite oxidase (SO) and bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), catalyze the oxidation of sulfite (SO32−) to sulfate (SO42−). The active sites of SO and SDH are nearly identical, each having a 5-coordinate, pseudo-square-pyramidal Mo with an axial oxo ligand and three equatorial sulfur donor atoms. One sulfur is from a conserved Cys residue and two are from a pyranopterindithiolene (molybdopterin, MPT) cofactor. The identity of the remaining equatorial ligand, which is solvent-exposed, varies during the catalytic cycle. Numerous in vitro studies, particularly those involving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the Mo(V) states of SOEs, have shown that the identity and orientation of this exchangeable equatorial ligand depends on the buffer pH, the presence and concentration of certain anions in the buffer, as well as specific point mutations in the protein. Until very recently, however, EPR has not been a practical technique for directly probing specific structures in which the solvent-exposed, exchangeable ligand is an O, OH−, H2O, SO32−, or SO42− group, because the primary O and S isotopes (16O and 32S) are magnetically silent (I = 0). This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of isotopic labeling, variable-frequency high resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, synthetic model compounds, and DFT calculations to elucidate the roles of various anions, point mutations, and steric factors in the formation, stabilization, and transformation of SOE active site structures.

  11. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Protein Banding Patterns among Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli Strains Isolated from the Mexican Bean Phaseolus coccineus

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, R.; Escamilla, E.

    1993-01-01

    Several rhizobial strains were isolated from Phaseolus coccineus root nodules and were determined to be Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli strains after reinfection of the same host plant. These strains were characterized by cultural procedures (growth on different carbon sources and intrinsic antibiotic resistance) and electrophoretic procedures (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total proteins). Our results showed that these rhizobia are very similar to each other, especially in their electrophoretic protein banding patterns, suggesting that they might belong to isolated populations. Images PMID:16349098

  12. Hydrogen sulfide from a NaHS source attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation via inhibiting nuclear factor-κB

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Xi-shuang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), derived from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that NaHS injection markedly decreased rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and histological injury in DSS-challenged mice. NaHS (20 μmol/L) reversed DSS-induced inhibition in cell viability in Caco-2 cells and alleviated pro-inflammation cytokine expression in vivo and in vitro, indicating an anti-inflammatory function for H2S. It was also found that H2S may regulate cytokine expression by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that H2S alleviated DSS-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro and that the signal mechanism might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26984841

  13. Hydrogen sulfide from a NaHS source attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation via inhibiting nuclear factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Xi-Shuang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the alleviating effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), derived from sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), on inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in both in vivo and in vitro models. We found that NaHS injection markedly decreased rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and histological injury in DSS-challenged mice. NaHS (20 μmol/L) reversed DSS-induced inhibition in cell viability in Caco-2 cells and alleviated pro-inflammation cytokine expression in vivo and in vitro, indicating an anti-inflammatory function for H2S. It was also found that H2S may regulate cytokine expression by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that H2S alleviated DSS-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro and that the signal mechanism might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26984841

  14. Bio/organic compound detection using sodium sulfate minerals: Implications in the search for life on Mars and Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Charles Doc

    With the discovery of Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) on Mars and Europa, recent studies using these minerals have focused on their ability to assist in the detection of biosignatures. On Earth, biotic and biotic processes can assist in the formation and deposition of these minerals. A primary objective of these studies is the detection of bio/organic compounds that may be associated with the mineral. These biosignatures would imply biological involvement during mineral formation. The following research presents a series of natural and synthetic investigations to determine if biological activity is associated with Na-sulfate mineralization, and if these minerals can assist in detecting bio/organic compounds. Biological activity associated with the formation of Na-sulfate deposits in the basaltic subsurface of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho was examined by laser desorption Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LD-FTMS), infrared spectroscopy and sulfur isotopic fractionation. These experiments conclude that bio/organic compounds are associated with the secondary Na-sulfate minerals, giving evidence of biological involvement in the mineralization of these deposits. LD-FTMS results of the synthetic bio/organic-mineral combinations show the potential of Na-sulfate minerals to assist in the detection and identification of bio/organic compounds. These results prove the importance of Na-sulfate minerals for future exploration missions that are likely to use LDMS to search for signs of life in the solar system.

  15. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice by forming nano-lipocomplexes with medium-chain-length fatty acids in the colon.

    PubMed

    Laroui, Hamed; Ingersoll, Sarah A; Liu, Hong Chun; Baker, Mark T; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Charania, Moiz A; Laroui, Famina; Yan, Yutao; Sitaraman, Shanthi V; Merlin, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), primarily ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are inflammatory disorders caused by multiple factors. Research on IBD has often used the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. DSS induces in vivo but not in vitro intestinal inflammation. In addition, no DSS-associated molecule (free glucose, sodium sulfate solution, free dextran) induces in vitro or in vivo intestinal inflammation. We find that DSS but not dextran associated molecules established linkages with medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), such as dodecanoate, that are present in the colonic lumen. DSS complexed to MCFAs forms nanometer-sized vesicles ~200 nm in diameter that can fuse with colonocyte membranes. The arrival of nanometer-sized DSS/MCFA vesicles in the cytoplasm may activate intestinal inflammatory signaling pathways. We also show that the inflammatory activity of DSS is mediated by the dextran moieties. The deleterious effect of DSS is localized principally in the distal colon, therefore it will be important to chemically modify DSS to develop materials beneficial to the colon without affecting colon-targeting specificity. PMID:22427817

  16. An experimental model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium from acute progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6: correlation between conditions of mice and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Niloofar; Molaei, Mahsa; Mosaffa, Nariman; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Anissian, Ali; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To induce acute colitis progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6 mice by dextran sulfate sodium. Background: Murine models are essential tools to understand IBD pathogenesis. Among different types of chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most common model of IBD, due to its simplicity. Patients and methods: Male C57BL/6 mice 6–8 weeks old, were collected and matched by age with controls. C57BL/6 mice treated with 2 cycles of 3.5% DSS for 4 days and 4 days of pure water between each cycle. After that, mice were sacrificed and the entire colon was removed. Small sections of the colon were fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and sectioned with a microtome. Sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin to analyses the degree of inflammation. Results: After the first cycle oral administration of DSS, mice with severe and visible rectal bleeding and diarrhea entered into the acute phase. After day 4-5, bleeding and diarrhea were improved and mice entered into the chronic phase with peak levels of weight loss. Macroscopically, the inflammation was predominantly located in the distal colon. Microscopically, examination of the distal colon sections showed a decrease number of goblet cells, loss of crypts, signs of surface epithelial regeneration and moderate to severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: In order to achieve an experimental colitis model, our protocol is recommended for future therapies in IBD experimental modeling. PMID:26744614

  17. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  18. Sulfite-containing Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, M; Schuster, B; Schellenberg, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compile an inclusive list of Canadian pharmaceutical products available in 1991 that contained sulfites. DATA SOURCES: Written and oral responses from 94 pharmaceutical companies selected from the 1989 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. RESULTS: A list of sulfite-containing pharmaceutical products was compiled from data supplied by the 90 responding companies. Companies whose products contained no sulfites were separately identified. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfites are present in many pharmaceutical products and are one of many excipients and additives that have been reported to cause severe adverse reactions. The provided list should be a useful aid for health care practitioners when prescribing pharmaceutical products for sulfite-sensitive patients. PMID:1483237

  19. Developmental toxicity evaluations of whole mixtures of disinfection by-products using concentrated drinking water in rats: gestational and lactational effects of sulfate and sodium.

    PubMed

    Narotsky, Michael G; Pressman, Jonathan G; Miltner, Richard J; Speth, Thomas F; Teuschler, Linda K; Rice, Glenn E; Richardson, Susan D; Best, Deborah S; McDonald, Anthony; Hunter, E Sidney; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2012-06-01

    A developmental toxicity bioassay was used in three experiments to evaluate water concentrates for suitability in multigenerational studies. First, chlorinated water was concentrated 135-fold by reverse osmosis; select lost disinfection by-products were spiked back. Concentrate was provided as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley and F344 rats from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 6. Maternal serum levels of luteinizing hormone on gestation day 10 were unaffected by treatment for both strains. Treated dams had increased water consumption, and increased incidences of polyuria, diarrhea, and (in Sprague-Dawley rats) red perinasal staining. Pup weights were reduced. An increased incidence of eye defects was seen in F344 litters. Chemical analysis of the concentrate revealed high sodium (6.6 g/l) and sulfate (10.4 g/l) levels. To confirm that these chemicals caused polyuria and osmotic diarrhea, respectively, Na₂SO₄ (5-20 g/l) or NaCl (16.5 g/l) was provided to rats in drinking water. Water consumption was increased at 5- and 10-g Na₂SO₄/l and with NaCl. Pup weights were reduced at 20-g Na₂SO₄/l. Dose-related incidences and severity of polyuria and diarrhea occurred in Na₂SO₄-treated rats; perinasal staining was seen at 20 g/l. NaCl caused polyuria and perinasal staining, but not diarrhea. Subsequently, water was concentrated ∼120-fold and sulfate levels were reduced by barium hydroxide before chlorination, yielding lower sodium (≤1.5 g/l) and sulfate (≤2.1 g/l) levels. Treatment resulted in increased water consumption, but pup weight and survival were unaffected. There were no treatment-related clinical findings, indicating that mixtures produced by the second method are suitable for multigenerational testing. PMID:22495758

  20. VOLATILE COMPONENT RECOVERY FROM SULFITE EVAPORATOR CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is on the operation and modification of a demonstration unit to remove sulfur dioxide, methanol, furfural, and acetic acid from its sulfite evaporator condensate. This unit consisted of a steam stripper, vent tank SO2 recovery, activated carbon adsorption columns, and ...

  1. Zinc absorption from zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when added as fortificants to maize tortillas.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christine; DeHaene, Jessica; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Villalpando, Salvador; Rivera, Juan A; King, Janet C

    2005-05-01

    The fortification of staple foods with zinc may play an important role in achieving adequate zinc intakes in countries at risk of zinc deficiency. However, little is known about the relative bioavailability of different zinc compounds that may be used in food fortification. The objective of this study was to measure and compare fractional zinc absorption from a test meal that included a maize tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA. A double isotopic tracer ratio method ((67)Zn as oral tracer and (70)Zn as intravenous tracer) was used to estimate zinc absorption in 42 Mexican women living in a periurban community of Puebla State, Mexico. The test meal consisted of maize tortillas, yellow beans, chili sauce, and milk with instant coffee; it contained 3.3 mg zinc and had a phytate:zinc molar ratio of 17. Fractional zinc absorption did not differ significantly between the test groups (ANOVA; P > 0.05). Percent absorptions were (mean +/- SD) zinc oxide, 10.8 +/- 0.9; zinc sulfate, 10.0 +/- 0.02; zinc oxide + EDTA, 12.7 +/- 1.5; and sodium-zinc EDTA, 11.1 +/- 0.7. We conclude that there was no difference in zinc absorption from ZnO and ZnSO(4) when added as fortificants to maize tortillas and consumed with beans and milk. The addition of EDTA with zinc oxide or the use of prechelated sodium-zinc EDTA as fortificants did not result in higher zinc absorption from the test meal. PMID:15867288

  2. Phylogenetic and environmental diversity of DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductases

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Albert Leopold; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Rattei, Thomas; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional marker showed that dsrAB richness in many environments is dominated by novel sequence variants and collectively represents an extensive, largely uncharted sequence assemblage. Here, we established a comprehensive, manually curated dsrAB/DsrAB database and used it to categorize the known dsrAB diversity, reanalyze the evolutionary history of dsrAB and evaluate the coverage of published dsrAB-targeted primers. Based on a DsrAB consensus phylogeny, we introduce an operational classification system for environmental dsrAB sequences that integrates established taxonomic groups with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at multiple phylogenetic levels, ranging from DsrAB enzyme families that reflect reductive or oxidative DsrAB types of bacterial or archaeal origin, superclusters, uncultured family-level lineages to species-level OTUs. Environmental dsrAB sequences constituted at least 13 stable family-level lineages without any cultivated representatives, suggesting that major taxa of sulfite/sulfate-reducing microorganisms have not yet been identified. Three of these uncultured lineages occur mainly in marine environments, while specific habitat preferences are not evident for members of the other 10 uncultured lineages. In summary, our publically available dsrAB/DsrAB database, the phylogenetic framework, the multilevel classification system and a set of recommended primers provide a necessary foundation for large-scale dsrAB ecology studies with next-generation sequencing methods. PMID:25343514

  3. Phylogenetic and environmental diversity of DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductases.

    PubMed

    Müller, Albert Leopold; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Rattei, Thomas; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The energy metabolism of essential microbial guilds in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle is based on a DsrAB-type dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase that either catalyzes the reduction of sulfite to sulfide during anaerobic respiration of sulfate, sulfite and organosulfonates, or acts in reverse during sulfur oxidation. Common use of dsrAB as a functional marker showed that dsrAB richness in many environments is dominated by novel sequence variants and collectively represents an extensive, largely uncharted sequence assemblage. Here, we established a comprehensive, manually curated dsrAB/DsrAB database and used it to categorize the known dsrAB diversity, reanalyze the evolutionary history of dsrAB and evaluate the coverage of published dsrAB-targeted primers. Based on a DsrAB consensus phylogeny, we introduce an operational classification system for environmental dsrAB sequences that integrates established taxonomic groups with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at multiple phylogenetic levels, ranging from DsrAB enzyme families that reflect reductive or oxidative DsrAB types of bacterial or archaeal origin, superclusters, uncultured family-level lineages to species-level OTUs. Environmental dsrAB sequences constituted at least 13 stable family-level lineages without any cultivated representatives, suggesting that major taxa of sulfite/sulfate-reducing microorganisms have not yet been identified. Three of these uncultured lineages occur mainly in marine environments, while specific habitat preferences are not evident for members of the other 10 uncultured lineages. In summary, our publically available dsrAB/DsrAB database, the phylogenetic framework, the multilevel classification system and a set of recommended primers provide a necessary foundation for large-scale dsrAB ecology studies with next-generation sequencing methods. PMID:25343514

  4. The effect of chronic restraint stress and sulfite on visual evoked potentials (VEPs): relation to lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Selcen; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Derin, Narin; Aliciguzel, Yakup; Abidin, Ismail; Agar, Aysel

    2005-07-01

    Stress and sulfite can stimulate numerous pathways leading to an increased production of free radicals which generate a peroxidation cascade producing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, DNA damage and cell death, and contribute to the occurrence of pathologic conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of stress and sulfite on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and to examine the relationship between lipid peroxidation and VEP changes. Forty male wistar rats, aged three months were used. They were equally divided into four groups: control (C), the group exposed to restraint stress (R), the group treated with sulfite (S) and the group exposed to stress and treated with sulfite (RS). Chronic restraint stress was applied for 21 days (1h/day) and sodium metabisulfite (520 mg/kg/day) was given by gavage for the same period. All latencies of VEP components were prolonged in the R, S and RS groups with respect to the C group. Brain and retina TBARS levels were found to be increased in those groups compared to the C group. Our results strongly suggest that the latency prolongations of all VEP components may have resulted from the enhancement of lipid peroxidation. Correlation analysis between brain and retina TBARS levels and VEP latencies also support this conclusion. Our data in regard to latency prolongations of all VEP components in the stress group exposed to sulfite, reflected an additive effect of sulfite toxicity on VEP components. Therefore it could be suggested that chronic exposure to stress and sulfite together is associated with a considerable health risk. PMID:15833385

  5. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    PubMed

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-01

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules. PMID:16262297

  6. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  7. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular cobinamide sulfite rapidly and effectively reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide poisoning, suggesting that a compact cyanide antidote kit can be developed for mass casualty cyanide exposures. PMID:20045579

  8. A protein trisulfide couples dissimilatory sulfate reduction to energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andr A; Venceslau, Sofia S; Grein, Fabian; Leavitt, William D; Dahl, Christiane; Johnston, David T; Pereira, Ins A C

    2015-12-18

    Microbial sulfate reduction has governed Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle for at least 2.5 billion years. However, the enzymatic mechanisms behind this pathway are incompletely understood, particularly for the reduction of sulfite-a key intermediate in the pathway. This critical reaction is performed by DsrAB, a widespread enzyme also involved in other dissimilatory sulfur metabolisms. Using in vitro assays with an archaeal DsrAB, supported with genetic experiments in a bacterial system, we show that the product of sulfite reduction by DsrAB is a protein-based trisulfide, in which a sulfite-derived sulfur is bridging two conserved cysteines of DsrC. Physiological studies also reveal that sulfate reduction rates are determined by cellular levels of DsrC. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction couples the four-electron reduction of the DsrC trisulfide to energy conservation. PMID:26680199

  9. The Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) on the Properties of ZnO Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    PubMed Central

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed. PMID:23202952

  10. Sensitive silver staining of protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using an azo dye, calconcarboxylic acid, as a silver-ion sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Tai; Hwang, Sun-Young; Yoo, Gyurng-Soo; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2004-08-01

    A highly sensitive silver staining method for detecting proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was developed. It is based on the silver nitrate staining method but also employs an azo dye, calconcarboxylic acid (NN), as a silver-ion sensitizer. It increases silver binding on protein bands or spots by the formation of a silver-dye complex and also increases the reducing power of silver ions to metallic silver by NN itself with formaldehyde. After a 2 h gel fixing step, the protocol including sensitization, silver-ion impregnation, and reduction steps can be completed in 1 h. The sensitivity is superior to that of silver stain with glutardialdehyde as a silver-ion sensitizer. The detection limit of NN-silver stain is 0.05-0.2 ng protein. Considering the high sensitivity without using glutardialdehyde, the NN-silver stain would be useful for routine silver staining of proteins. PMID:15300767

  11. 20 kHz sonoelectrochemical degradation of perchloroethylene in sodium sulfate aqueous media: influence of the operational variables in batch mode.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Verónica; Esclapez, María Deseada; Tudela, Ignacio; Bonete, Pedro; Louisnard, Olivier; González-García, José

    2010-11-15

    A preliminary study of the 20 kHz sonoelectrochemical degradation of perchloroethylene in aqueous sodium sulfate has been carried out using controlled current density degradation sonoelectrolyses in batch mode. An important improvement in the viability of the sonochemical process is achieved when the electrochemistry is implemented, but the improvement of the electrochemical treatment is lower when the 20 kHz ultrasound field is simultaneously used. A fractional conversion of 100% and degradation efficiency around 55% are obtained independently of the ultrasound power used. The current efficiency is also enhanced compared to the electrochemical treatment and a higher speciation is also detected; the main volatile compounds produced in the electrochemical and sonochemical treatment, trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene, are not only totally degraded, but also at shorter times than in the sonochemical or electrochemical treatments. PMID:20705391

  12. Labile sulfide and sulfite in phytochelatin complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Eannetta, N.T.; Steffens, J.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium induce tomato cell cultures to synthesize the metal binding polypeptides ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 3} and ({gamma}-Glu-Cys){sub 4}-Gly (phytochelatins). Tomato cells selected for growth on normally lethal concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} synthesize higher quantities of these polypeptides. Cd{sup r} cells are not cross-resistant to other heavy metals, and recent work suggests that metal detoxification by these peptides may be Cd-specific. The occurrence of labile sulfur as a component of the metal complex raises questions concerning possible functions of phytochelatins besides that of Cd binding. The presence of acid-labile sulfide ion in phytochelatin complexes has been reported by several groups. We report the additional finding that labile sulfite is also present in these complexes and in higher amounts than sulfide. Sulfide and sulfite are both released from the metal binding complex by acidification or by treatment with EDTA.

  13. Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate-Fumaric Acid Coupled Addition on the In Vitro Rumen Fermentation with Special Regard to Methanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abdl-Rahman, M. A.; Sawiress, F. A. R.; Abd El-Aty, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate-fumaric acid coupled addition on in vitro methangenesis and rumen fermentation. Evaluation was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Ruminal contents were collected from five steers immediately after slaughtering and used for preparation of inoculums of mixed rumen microorganisms. Rumen fluid was then mixed with the basal diet of steers and used to generate four treatments, negative control (no additives), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) treated, fumaric acid treated, and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition treated. The results revealed that, relative to control, efficiency in reduction of methanogenesis was as follows: coupled addition > SLS-addition > fumaric acid addition. Both SLS-addition and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition demonstrated a decremental effect on ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N), total short chain volatile fatty acids (SCVFAs) concentrations and the amount of substrate degraded, and an increment effect on microbial mass and microbial yield (YATP). Nevertheless, fumaric acid did not alter any of the previously mentioned parameters but induced a decremental effect on NH3–N. Furthermore, both fumaric acid and SLS-fumaric acid coupled addition increased propionate at the expense of acetate and butyrate, while, defaunation increased acetate at the expense of propionate and butyrate. The pH value was decreased by all treatments relative to control, while, cellulase activity did not differ by different treatments. The current study can be promising strategies for suppressing ruminal methane emissions and improving ruminants feed efficiency. PMID:20445794

  14. The complement anaphylatoxin C3a receptor (C3aR) contributes to the inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wende, Elisabeth; Laudeley, Robert; Bleich, Andr; Bleich, Eva; Wetsel, Rick A; Glage, Silke; Klos, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are a critical public health issue, and as treatment options remain limited, there is a need to unravel the underlying pathomechanisms in order to identify new therapeutic targets. Complement activation was found in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, and the complement anaphylatoxin C5a and its receptor C5aR have been implicated in disease pathogenesis in animal models of bowel inflammation. To further characterize complement-related pathomechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease, we have investigated the role of the anaphylatoxin C3a receptor in acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. For this, colitis was induced in C3a receptor-deficient BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and disease severity was evaluated by clinical and histological examination, and by measuring the mRNA expression or protein levels of inflammatory mediators in the tissue. C3a receptor deficiency was partially protective in BALB/c mice, which had significantly reduced weight loss, clinical and histological scores, colon shortening, and CXCL-1/KC mRNA, myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 tissue levels compared to the corresponding wild type mice. In C57BL/6 mice the differences between wild type and C3a receptor-deficient animals were much smaller and reached no significance. Our data demonstrate that the contribution of C3a receptor to disease pathogenesis and severity of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice depends on the genetic background. Further studies will be required to clarify whether targeting of C3a receptor, possibly in combination with C5a receptor, might be considered as a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23638016

  15. Differential sensitivity of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) to sulfite: I. Carbon assimilation and frond replication rate as factors influencing sulfite phytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, B.K.; Noble, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The thiol content and hydrogen sulfide emission responses of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) differentially sensitive to sulfite enrichment were studied, at two levels of irradiance. The objectives were to examine the relationship of selected parameters of sulfite metabolism to sulfite sensitivity, and the role of light level on modifying sulfite metabolic responses and duckweed sulfite sensitivity. Under low light, thiol contents were increased 30 to 40% by sulfite in all three duckweeds examined. Hydrogen sulfide was emitted by all three species, and emission rates were up to four times higher in the sulfite tolerant duckweed Lemna valdiviana. Under high light, sulfite increased thiol contents by an average of 40% in L. valdiviana and Spirodela oligorhiza, but only 20% in Lemna gibba. The greater light enhancement of thiol content exhibited by L. valdiviana and S. oligorhiza may be indicative of larger or more numerous sulfur sinks. Hydrogen sulfide emission rates were also enhanced under high light, and L. gibba exhibited a 17% increase relative to its low light rate. In comparison, L. valdiviana and S. oligorhiza exhibited 55% and 60% increases, respectively. The ability to form elevated internal thiols and hydrogen sulfide were found to be important to sulfite tolerance in duckweeds. Enhancement of both processes under high light may contribute to increased tolerance of sulfite in L. gibba and S. oligorhiza. It is hypothesized that thiol production and hydrogen sulfide emission are important sulfite detoxification processes in duckweeds, and enhancement of sulfite detoxification is fundamental to the modification of duckweed sulfite sensitivity by the photoenvironment. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Identification of novel inhibitors of the steroid sulfate carrier 'sodium-dependent organic anion transporter' SOAT (SLC10A6) by pharmacophore modelling.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Gary; Baringhaus, Karl-Heinz; Döring, Barbara; Kramer, Werner; Petzinger, Ernst; Geyer, Joachim

    2016-06-15

    The sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT specifically transports sulfated steroid hormones and is supposed to play a role in testicular steroid regulation and male fertility. The present study aimed to identify novel specific SOAT inhibitors for further in vitro and in vivo studies on SOAT function. More than 100 compounds of different molecular structures were screened for inhibition of the SOAT-mediated transport of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in stably transfected SOAT-HEK293 cells. Twenty-five of these with IC50 values covering four orders of magnitude were selected as training set for 3D pharmacophore modelling. The SOAT pharmacophore features were calculated by CATALYST and consist of three hydrophobic sites and two hydrogen bond acceptors. By substrate database screening, compound T 0511-1698 was predicted as a novel SOAT inhibitor with an IC50 of 15 μM. This value was confirmed by cell-based transport assays. Therefore, the developed SOAT pharmacophore model demonstrated its suitability in predicting novel SOAT inhibitors. PMID:27033324

  17. Effect of induced synovial inflammation on pharmacokinetics and synovial concentration of sodium ampicillin and kanamycin sulfate after systemic administration in ponies.

    PubMed

    Firth, E C; Klein, W R; Nouws, J F; Wensing, T

    1988-03-01

    Single doses of sodium ampicillin (10 mg/kg) and kanamycin sulfate (5 mg/kg) were administered intramuscularly (i.m.) separately, and then together, to five pony mares. The plasma antibiotic concentration-time curves were constructed. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the antibiotics given separately were not altered by concurrent administration. Four of the five pony mares were then given the i.m. kanamycin/ampicillin combination 4 h after acute synovitis and fever had been induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide into the left intercarpal joint. The plasma concentration-time curves and the synovial concentration-time curves of inflamed and normal joints were constructed. The Cmax of ampicillin in the lipopolysaccharide experiment was significantly higher than in the other experiments. The antibiotics entered the synovial fluid of the inflamed joints more quickly and attained higher concentrations than in the uninflamed joints. The ampicillin concentration exceeded 5 micrograms/ml in inflamed synovial fluid for some 2.5 h after injection, and kanamycin sulfate concentration exceeded 2 micrograms/ml for 7 h. PMID:3288768

  18. A fiber optic biosensor for sulfite analysis in food.

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Shakhsher, Z; Suleiman, A A; Guilbault, G G; Yang, Z; Sun, Z A

    1994-02-01

    The sulfite fiber optic biosensor developed herein is based on the enzymatic oxidation reaction of sulfite catalyzed by sulfite oxidase (SOD). The consumption of O(2) is measured with an O(2) fiber optic sensor which monitors the fluorescence quenching of the indicator, perylene, by molecular oxygen. Perylene is immobilized into a polymer matrix and attached to the end of a fiber bundle forming an O(2) sensor. The enzyme, sulfite oxidase is immobilized on a pre-activated membrane and mounted onto the O(2) sensor. Several analytical characteristics of this sulfite biosensor were investigated including dynamic range, reversibility, reproducibility, stability and selectivity. The sulfite contents of various food samples, e.g. dried fruits, potato flakes, lemon juice were determined and the results obtained were in good agreement with the standard AOAC method. PMID:18965928

  19. Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Peña, P; Astiarsarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-02-01

    The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes. PMID:7792261

  20. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving... production of pulp at dissolving sulfite mills....

  1. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving... production of pulp at dissolving sulfite mills....

  2. 40 CFR 430.40 - Applicability; description of the dissolving sulfite subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dissolving sulfite subcategory. 430.40 Section 430.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Dissolving Sulfite Subcategory § 430.40 Applicability; description of the dissolving... production of pulp at dissolving sulfite mills....

  3. [Sulfite oxidase activity deficiency caused by cofactor molybdenum deficiency: A case of early severe encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Durousset, C; Gay, C; Magnin, S; Acquaviva, C; Patural, H

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal seizure incidence is approximately 3.5/1000 live births. Inborn metabolic diseases account for approximately 1-4 % of neonatal seizure cases. Among them, the catabolism anomaly of sulfite to sulfate caused by sulfite oxidase or cofactor molybdenum deficiency (MoCD) is a rare metabolic disorder in which neurological damage is similar to that found in neonatal asphyxia. We report the case of a newborn child with a MoCD. Born of related parents, this child had intrauterine growth retardation predominating on size diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy. After an uneventful birth, he presented convulsions at the 12th hour of life, confirmed by an electroencephalogram. Anticonvulsants and adjuvant treatments were ineffective; the child then required intubation at day 5 of life. The initial biological assessment found an elevated blood lactate level and the chromatography of amino acids showed a significant decrease of cystine and the abnormal presence of sulfocysteine, suggestive of a lack of sulfite oxidase activity. The uric acid level measured secondarily was low, suggesting a MoCD. Brain MRI was performed at day 5 for diffuse ischemic injury of different ages. After limiting acute care, the child died at day 14 of life. The genetic study of the child found a homozygous mutation c.564+1G>A in the MOCS2 gene, confirming the diagnosis of MoCD, present in the heterozygous state in both parents. Investigations in a logical sequence quickly suggested the MoCD diagnosis in presence of a low plasma concentration of cysteine, the abnormal presence of sulfocysteine, and low uric acid levels. The diagnosis of sulfite oxidase deficiency was made. Until now, no treatment has proven effective but a new treatment appears to be effective in cases with a MOCS1 mutation. PMID:26775885

  4. Glucosamine sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucosamine Sulphate KCl, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate, GS, Mono-Sulfated Saccharide, Poly-(1->3)-N-Acetyl-2-Amino- ... Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de Glucosamine 2KCl, SG, Sulfated Monosaccharide, Sulfated Saccharide, Sulfato de Glucosamina. Glucosamine Hydrochloride ...

  5. Ion Association in Hydrothermal Sodium Sulfate Solutions Studied by Modulated FT-IR-Raman Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Joachim; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Wambach, Jörg M; Vogel, Frédéric

    2015-07-30

    Saline aqueous solutions at elevated pressures and temperatures play an important role in processes such as supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water gasification (SCWG), as well as in natural geochemical processes in Earth and planetary interiors. Some solutions exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of solubility at high temperatures, thereby leading to salt precipitation with increasing temperature. Using modulated FT-IR Raman spectroscopy and classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD), we studied the solute speciation in solutions of 10 wt % Na2SO4, at conditions close to the saturation limit. Our experiments reveal that ion pairing and cluster formation are favored as solid saturation is approached, and ionic clusters form prior to the precipitation of solid sulfate. The proportion of such clusters increases as the phase boundary is approached either by decreasing pressure or by increasing temperature in the vicinity of the three-phase (vapor-liquid-solid) curve. PMID:26125627

  6. Stable isotope studies of vent fluids and chimney minerals, southern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Sodium metasomatism and seawater sulfate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks W.C. III; Seyfried W.E. Jr.

    1987-10-10

    Sulfur isotope values (delta/sup 34/S) or H/sub 2/S in vent fluids from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal sites range from 4.0 to 7.4% and are variably /sup 34/S-enriched with respect to coexisting inner wall chimney sulfides. Chimney sulfides range from 1.6 to 5.7%. The chimneys consist of Fe-sphalerite zoned to inner zinc sulfide and chalcopyrite ( +- isocubanite)-pyrrhotite lining channels. Sulfide from inner walls of type A chimneys have the lightest delta/sup 34/S values. Type B chimneys (porous, unzoned, low-Fe-sphalerite) have the isotopically heaviest chimney sulfides and occur at vent sites distal to the along-axis shallow point of the ridge crest, hence distal to the magma chamber. These variations are largely ascribed to sulfate reduction by ferrous iron in the hydrothermal fluid in chimneys of substrate mounds, probably due to transitory entrainment of ambient sulfate-bearing seawater. The delta/sup 18/O values of end-member hydrothermal fluids range from 0.6 to 0.8%, significantly lower than the delta/sup 18/O values at 21 /sup 0/N vent fluids. The deltaD values of the fluid samples range from -2.5 to 0.5%. Isotopic differences from the 21 /sup 0/N fluids may be due to slightly higher water/rock ratios, approximately 1.0, in the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge hydrothermal system. Admixture of a small amount of residual brine from an earlier phase separation even may have contributed water with low deltaD values.

  7. Dose-dependent effect of nutritional sulfite intake on visual evoked potentials and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Nihal; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Derin, Narin; Akpinar, Deniz; Agar, Aysel; Aslan, Mutay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the dose-dependent effect of sulfite (SO₃²⁻) ingestion on brain and retina by means of electrophysiological and biochemical parameters. Fifty two male Wistar rats, aged 3 months, were randomized into four experimental groups of 13 rats as follows; control (C), sulfite treated groups (S(1); 10 mg/kg/day, S₂; 100mg/kg/day, S₃; 260 mg/kg/day). Control rats were administered distilled water, while the other three groups were given sodium metabisulfite (Na₂S₂O₅) of amounts mentioned above, via gavage for a period of 35 days. All components of visual evoked potential (VEP) were prolonged in S₂ and S₃ groups compared with S₁ and C groups. Plasma-S-sulfonate levels, which are an indicator of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) exposure, were increased in Na₂S₂O₅ treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the significant increments in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) levels occurred with increasing intake of Na₂S₂O₅. Though not significant, glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were observed to decrease with increasing doses of Na₂S₂O₅. In conclusion, Na₂S₂O₅ treatment in rats caused a dose-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation and all VEP latencies. The data indicate that lipid peroxidation could play an important role in sulfite toxicity. PMID:20875852

  8. Sodium lauryl sulfate enhances nickel penetration through guinea-pig skin. Studies with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.; Sagstroem, S.R.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), a common ingredient of detergents, on the penetration of nickel through the stratum corneum in the guinea-pig skin model was studied with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) to evaluate the barrier-damaging properties of this common detergent. The EDX technique allows a simultaneous determination of physiologically important elements, e.g., Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca and S in addition to Ni at each point of measurement in epidermal cell strata. Our results show that SLS reduces the barrier function to Ni-ion penetration of the stratum corneum. In addition we have shown that EDX allows analysis of the influence of different factors involved in nickel penetration through the skin by giving data on the physiological effects on the epidermal cells caused by the applied substances.

  9. Effects on the development of offspring of female mice exposed to platinum sulfate or sodium hexachloroplatinate during pregnancy or lactation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostino, R.B.; Lown, B.A.; Morganti, J.B.; Chapin, E.; Massaro, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    On d 7 or 12 of gestation or on d 2 postpartum, Swiss ICR dams were administered either (1) a single intragastric dose of Pt(SO/sub 4/) at the LD1 level or dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at an equivalent volume, pH, and sulfate content, or (2) a single subcutaneous dose of Na/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ or phosphate-buffered saline at an equivalent volume and pH. To differentiate prenatal from postnatal effects of the compounds on the offspring, a full cross-fostering design was employed. Rate of growth (as a function of weight gain) and gross activity of the neonates were assessed on d 8 or 13 postpartum. On d 60-65 postpartum, open-field behavior (ambulations and rearings), rotarod performance, and passive avoidance learning of the adult offspring were investigated. Exposure to Pt(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ resulted in reduced offspring weight from d 8 to 45 postpartum, whereas the major effect of Na/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ was a reduction in activity level of the offspring of mothers exposed on d 12 of gestation. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Melt-Grown Grain Textures of Eutectic Mixtures of Water Ice with Magnesium- and Sodium-Sulfate Hydrates and Sulfuric-Acid Hydrate Using Cryogenic SEM (CSEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, C.; Kirby, S.; Durham, W.; Stern, L.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic processes on Europa are influenced by the rheology of ice and icy compounds. The rheology of water ice alloyed with one or more hydrates at planetary conditions is not well known. We investigate grain size effects on ice rheology in Europan eutectic systems. Although much is known about the rheology of pure ice, the addition of other phases can potentially affect the grain textures and rheologies of polyphase mixtures. We make such alloys by cooling and crystallizing aqueous binaries of water with sodium-sulfate hydrate, magnesium-sulfate hydrate or sulfuric acid hydrate. Using a precision cryobath and seeded growth, we can make eutectic mixtures of ice with these hydrates by precisely controlled freezing of these solutions. This method of controlled growth with only small undercooling of the eutectics avoids the problem of rapid, uncontrolled growth that occurs when no seed material is used. A field-emission SEM fitted with a cryogenic prepping station and observation stage permits detailed SEM microscopy on fractured surfaces of these specimens without decomposition under the electron beam. We also use energy dispersive x-ray spectra to distinguish between the ice and sulfate-hydrate phases. We see reproducible eutectic grain textures developed using these methods and observe two types of grain morphologies made evident by differences in surface relief: (1) Large ice grains; (2) Fine eutectoid intergrowths associated with simultaneous growth of ice and hydrate. Grain sizes of the eutectic intergrowths range from approximately 5 to 50 microns, far smaller than developed during free growth of ice from the melt and apparently stable at temperatures near eutectic. We plan deformation tests on such samples to investigate the effects of these fine grain sizes on sample strengths compared to the strenths of cold-pressed mixtures of these same phases. This ongoing work is a first look at these important grain textures in chemical systems that are probably volumetrically important in Europa. Understanding the effects of these complex and intriguing intergrowths on rheology may enable prediction of the behavior of such material under stress and better explain morphological features on Europa's surface.

  11. Degradation of yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings by vanadium pentoxide, phosphorous pentoxide, and sodium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, P.; Yuan, B.; Patterson, T.; Desai, V.H.; Sohn, Y.H.

    2007-11-15

    The presence of vanadium, phosphorus, and sodium impurities in petcoke and coal/petcoke blends used in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants warrants a clear understanding of high-temperature material degradation for the development of fuel-flexible gas turbines. In this study, degradation reactions of free-standing air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in contact with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were investigated at temperatures up to 1200{sup o}C. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Molten V{sub 2}O{sub 5} reacted with solid YSZ to form ZrV{sub 2}O{sub 7} at temperatures below 747{sup o}C. However, at temperatures above 747{sup o}C, molten V{sub 2}O{sub 5} reacted with YSZ to form yttrium vanadate (YVO{sub 4}). The formation of YVO{sub 4} led to the depletion of the Y2O{sub 3} stabilizer and deleterious transformation to the monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} phase. In addition, studies on YSZ degradation by Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and a Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+V{sub 2}O{sub 5} mixture (50-50 mol%) showed that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} itself had no effect on the degradation of YSZ. However, in the presence of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at high temperatures, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} forms vanadate compounds having a lower melting point such as sodium metavanadate (610{sup o}C), which was found to degrade YSZ by the formation of YVO{sub 4} at a relatively lower temperature of 700{sup o}C. P{sub 2}O{sub 5} was found to react with APS YSZ by the formation of ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} at all the temperatures studied. At temperatures as low as 200{sup o}C and as high as 1200{sup o}C, molten P{sub 2}O{sub 5} was observed to react with solid YSZ to yield ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which led to the depletion of ZrO{sub 2} in YSZ that promoted the formation of the fluorite-cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase.

  12. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Y. L.; Dick, W. A.; Stehouwer, R. C.; Bigham, J. M.

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3∙0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This combination effect was partially due to the positive interaction of CaS03 with CaC03 and fly ash on inhibition of acid leaching. In Chapter 3, CaS03-containing FGD was found to inhibit acid leaching from both fresh and aged coal refuse in large scale columns under simulated field conditions. During 39 weeks of leaching, the reduction of leachate acidity and Fe concentration and the increase ofleachate pH were significant (p <0.05) for the 22% FGD treatment with a linear response to increasing FGD rates (0%, 5.5%, 11%, and 22%). I conclude that CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD have the ability to inhibit acid production in coal refuse and the inhibitory effect shown in this experiment is likely to occur under field conditions. Thus, the research results present a potential new method for mitigation of acid production in coal refuse and another beneficial utilization of FGD by-products.

  13. Kinetic and structural studies reveal a unique binding mode of sulfite to the nickel center in urease.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Luca; Cianci, Michele; Benini, Stefano; Bertini, Leonardo; Musiani, Francesco; Ciurli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Urease is the most efficient enzyme known to date, and catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea using two Ni(II) ions in the active site. Urease is a virulence factor in several human pathogens, while causing severe environmental and agronomic problems. Sporosarcina pasteurii urease has been used extensively in the structural characterization of the enzyme. Sodium sulfite has been widely used as a preservative in urease solutions to prevent oxygen-induced oxidation, but its role as an inhibitor has also been suggested. In the present study, isothermal titration microcalorimetry was used to establish sulfite as a competitive inhibitor for S. pasteurii urease, with an inhibition constant of 0.19mM at pH7. The structure of the urease-sulfite complex, determined at 1.65 resolution, shows the inhibitor bound to the dinuclear Ni(II) center of urease in a tridentate mode involving bonds between the two Ni(II) ions in the active site and all three oxygen atoms of the inhibitor, supporting the observed competitive inhibition kinetics. This coordination mode of sulfite has never been observed, either in proteins or in small molecule complexes, and could inspire synthetic coordination chemists as well as biochemists to develop urease inhibitors based on this chemical moiety. PMID:26580226

  14. Production of basic chromium sulfate by using recovered chromium from ashes of thermally treated leather.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Aline; Nunes, Keila Guerra Pacheco; Gutterres, Mariliz; Marcílio, Nilson Romeu

    2010-04-15

    Leather wastes tanned with chromium are generated during the production process of leather, hence the wastes from hand crafted goods and footwear industries are a serious environmental problem. The thermal treatment of leather wastes can be one of the treatment options because the wastes are rich in chromium and can be used as a raw material for sodium chromate production and further to obtain several chromium compounds. The objective of this study was to utilize the chromium from leather wastes via basic chromium sulfate production to be subsequently applied in a hide tanning. The obtained results have shown that this is the first successful attempt to achieve desired base properties of the product. The result was achieved when the following conditions were applied: a molar ratio between sodium sulfite and sodium dichromate equal to 6; reaction time equal to 5 min before addition of sulfuric acid; pH of sodium dichromate solution equal to 2. Summarizing, there is an opportunity to utilize the dangerous wastes and reused them in the production scheme by minimizing or annulling the environmental impact and to attend a sustainable process development concept. PMID:20031309

  15. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace amounts of heavy metal ions after solid phase extraction using modified sodium dodecyl sulfate coated on alumina.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Niknam, Khodabakhsh; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Niknam, Ebrahim; Rajabi, Hamid Reza; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-06-30

    A sensitive and selective solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of traces of Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Fe(III) has been developed. An alumina-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated on with meso-phenyl bis(indolyl) methane (MPBIM) was used for preconcentration and determination of Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Fe(III) ions by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The analyte ions were adsorbed quantitatively on adsorbent due to their complexation with MPBIM. Adsorbed metals were quantitatively eluted using 6 mL of 4 mol L(-1) nitric acid. The effects of parameters such as pH, amount of alumina, amount of MBITP, flow rate, type and concentration of eluting agent were examined. The effects of interfering ions on the separation-preconcentration of analytes were also investigated. The relative standard deviation of the method was found to be less than 3.0%. The presented procedure was successfully applied for determination of analytes in real samples. PMID:18155354

  16. Temporal study of staphylococcal species on the skin of human subjects in isolation and clonal analysis of Staphylococcus capitis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Maggs, A F; Pennington, T H

    1989-01-01

    The staphylococcal skin floras of an isolated group of subjects were studied for 1 year. A wide variation in isolation patterns was found for different species. Staphylococcus intermedius, previously thought to be of veterinary origin, was found to be part of the resident flora of some subjects, and this may indicate a wider role for it in clinical infection. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of S. capitis isolates indicated persistent skin colonization at some sites; each region was colonized by only one clone of that species, although an adjacent area could be inhabited by a separate clone. Nine clonal groups were identified by SDS-PAGE; there was a degree of specialization between the groups with regard to the sites which they colonized. The interaction between species at a single site was less well defined. Noncolonizing isolates often exhibited phenotypic similarities that were lower than expected when compared with their presumed source. The results of SDS-PAGE analysis were compared with immunoblotting, antibiograms, and biotyping, and SDS-PAGE analysis was found to be a useful and practical tool for epidemiological work. Images PMID:2687313

  17. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 on alfalfa seeds by levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Doyle, Michael P

    2010-11-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the best concentration and exposure time for treatment of alfalfa seeds with levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella without adversely affecting seed germination. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with a five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium were dried in a laminar flow hood at 21C for up to 72 h. Inoculated alfalfa seeds dried for 4 h then treated for 5 min at 21C with 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% SDS reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium by 5.6 and 6.4 log CFU/g, respectively. On seeds dried for 72 h, treatment with 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% SDS for 20 min at 21C reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations by 4 log CFU/g. Germination rates of alfalfa seeds treated with 0.5% levulinic acid plus 0.05% SDS for up to 1 h at 21C were compared with a treatment of 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite or tap water only. Treatment of alfalfa seeds with 0.5% levulinic acid plus 0.05% SDS for 5 min at 21C resulted in a >3.0-log inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. PMID:21219712

  18. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 μm. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion. PMID:26595186

  19. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets for the spectrophotometric determination of Fingolomid in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Azari, Zhila; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Beheshti, Abolghasem

    2016-01-15

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the separation and determination of Fingolimod (FLM) in water, urine and plasma samples prior to spectrophotometeric determination. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory extraction recoveries can be produced. The main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent amounts, ionic strength, extraction time and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the selected conditions, FLM has been quantitatively extracted. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and good recoveries of 96%, 95% and 88% were observed for water, urine and plasma respectively. Proper linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges of 2-26, 2-17 and 2-13 mg/L with good coefficients of determination, 0.998, 0.997 and 0.995 were achieved for water, urine and plasma samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a mixed hemimicelles SPE method based on magnetic separation and nanoparticles has been used as a simple and sensitive method for monitoring of FLM in water and biological samples. PMID:26439525

  20. Detection of possible DNA repair enzymes on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels by protein blotting to damaged DNA-fixed membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, S.; Seki, S.; Watanabe, S.; Hatsushika, M.; Tsutsui, K. )

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for detecting possible DNA repair enzymes on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels by blotting them onto a damaged DNA-fixed membrane is presented. To prepare the membrane, highly polymerized calf thymus DNA immobilized on a nylon membrane is damaged chemically. Enzymes, either homogeneous or crude, that are possibly involved in the priming step of DNA repair are fractionated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and are renatured to active form by incubating the gel in an appropriate buffer. The renatured enzyme is then blotted onto the damaged DNA-fixed membrane, a process during which incision and/or excision are introduced to the damaged DNA by the enzymes. The incision and/or excision provide priming sites for repair DNA synthesis in the subsequent step in which the membrane is incubated with DNA polymerase in the presence of alpha-{sup 32}P-labeled substrate. The site of substrate incorporation on the membrane reflecting the molecular weight of the repair enzyme is finally visualized by autoradiography. The present technique is established using Escherichia coli exonuclease III and a DNA-fixed membrane treated with bleomycin or acid-depurinated. By application of this method, a priming factor (an exonuclease) involved in the initiation of bleomycin-induced DNA repair is detected in the extract of mouse ascites sarcoma cells, and thus the molecular weight of the enzyme is estimated. Some apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases of mammals are also detected by the present procedure.

  1. Anomalous electrophoretic behavior of a chitinase isoform from grape berries and wine in glycol chitin-containing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Simone; Curioni, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    An anomalous electrophoretic behavior of a chitinase isoform present in both grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine was observed in glycol chitin-containing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. A progressive shift of the relative molecular mass M(r) of the enzyme (from approximately 30,500 up to approximately 57,700) with increasing glycol chitin concentration in the gels up to 0.1% was revealed when samples were electrophoresed under nonreducing conditions, whereas the presence of glycol chitin had no effects when samples were reduced before SDS-PAGE separation. The M(r) of other grape and wine chitinase isoforms as well as that of the chitinase from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit was unaffected by the presence of the substrate in the gel under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. Since the enzymes were inactive during the electrophoretic separation, it is likely that the retarding effect of glycol chitin observed specifically for the unreduced chitinase band from grape and wine was due to an interaction between the substrate and a chitin-binding domain different from the catalytic site, such as that typical of class I and class IV chitinases. PMID:15624140

  2. Long-Term Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Murine Chronic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Oh, Sun-Hee; Jang, Hui Won; Kwon, Ji-Hee; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Chung Hee; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have shown beneficial effects in experimental colitis models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the long-term effects of BM-MSCs, particularly in mice with chronic colitis. Methods Chronic colitis was induced by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in a series of three cycles. BM-MSCs were injected intravenously into DSS-treated mice three times during the first cycle. On day 33, the therapeutic effects were evaluated with clinicopathologic profiles and histological scoring. Inflammatory mediators were measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Systemic infusion of BM-MSCs ameliorated the severity of colitis, and body weight restoration was significantly promoted in the BM-MSC-treated mice. In addition, BM-MSC treatment showed a sustained beneficial effect throughout the three cycles. Microscopic examination revealed that the mice treated with BM-MSCs had fewer inflammatory infiltrates, a lesser extent of inflammation, and less crypt structure damage compared with mice with DSS-induced colitis. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels of interleukin-10 were significantly increased in the inflamed colons of BM-MSC-treated mice compared with DSS-induced colitis mice. Conclusions Systemic infusion of BM-MSCs at the onset of disease exerted preventive and rapid recovery effects, with long-term immunosuppressive action in mice with repeated DSS-induced chronic colitis. PMID:27114436

  3. Interrelationship between partition behavior of organic compounds and proteins in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luisa A; da Silva, Nuno R; Wlodarczyk, Samarina R; Loureiro, Joana A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2016-04-22

    Partition behavior of adenosine and guanine mononucleotides was examined in aqueous dextran-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEG-sodium sulfate two-phase systems. The partition coefficients for each series of mononucleotides were analyzed as a functions of the number of phosphate groups and found to be dependent on the nature of nucleic base and on the type of ATPS utilized. It was concluded that an average contribution of a phosphate group into logarithm of partition coefficient of a mononucleotide cannot be used to estimate the difference between the electrostatic properties of the coexisting phases of ATPS. The data obtained in this study were considered together with those for other organic compounds and proteins reported previously, and the linear interrelationship between logarithms of partition coefficients in dextran-PEG, PEG-Na2SO4 and PEG-Na2SO4-0.215M NaCl (all in 0.01M Na- or K/Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 or 6.8) was established. Similar relationship was found for the previously reported data for proteins in Dex-PEG, PEG-600-Na2SO4, and PEG-8000-Na2SO4 ATPS. It is suggested that the linear relationships of the kind established in ATPS may be observed for biological properties of compounds as well. PMID:27016118

  4. Chemical and physical stability of citral and limonene in sodium dodecyl sulfate-chitosan and gum arabic-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Darinka; Cercaci, Luisito; Alamed, Jean; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2007-05-01

    Citral and limonene are the major flavor components of citrus oils. Both of these compounds can undergo chemical degradation leading to loss of flavor and the formation of undesirable off-flavors. Engineering the interface of emulsion droplets with emulsifiers that inhibit chemical reactions could provide a novel technique to stabilize citral and limonene. At present, emulsified flavor oils are usually stabilized by gum arabic (GA), which is a naturally occurring polysaccharide-protein complex. The objective of this study was to examine if citral and limonene were more stable in emulsions stabilized with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-chitosan complex than GA. Citral degraded less in GA-stabilized than in SDS-chitosan-stabilized emulsions at pH 3.0. However, SDS-chitosan-stabilized emulsions were more effective at retarding the formation of the citral oxidation product, p-cymene, than GA-stabilized emulsions. Limonene degradation and the formation of limonene oxidation products, limonene oxide and carvone, were lower in the SDS-chitosan- than GA-stabilized emulsions at pH 3.0. The ability of an SDS-chitosan multilayer emulsifier system to inhibit the oxidative deterioration of citral and limonene could be due to the formation of a cationic and thick emulsion droplet interface that could repel prooxidative metals, thus decreasing prooxidant-lipid interactions. PMID:17419641

  5. Variation and Genomic Localization of Genes Encoding DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Male Accessory Gland Proteins Separated by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Michael; Wilson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Accessory gland proteins from Drosophila melanogaster males have been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into nine major bands. When individual males from 175 strains were examined, considerable polymorphism for nearly one-half of the major protein bands was seen, including null alleles for three bands. Variation was observed not only among long-established laboratory strains but also among stocks recently derived from natural populations. There was little difference in the amount of variation between P and M strains, indicating that P element mutagenesis is not a factor producing the variation. Codominant expression of variants for each of five bands was found in heterozygotes, suggesting structural gene variation and not posttranslational modification variation. Stocks carrying electrophoretic variants of four of the major proteins were used to map the presumed structural genes for these proteins; the loci were found to be dispersed on the second chromosome. Since males homozygous for variant proteins were fertile, the polymorphism seems to have little immediate effect on successful sperm transfer. We propose that a high degree of polymorphism can be tolerated because these proteins play a nutritive rather than enzymatic role in Drosophila reproduction. PMID:3095182

  6. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine functionalized sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated magnetite nanoparticles for effective removal of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from water samples.

    PubMed

    Sobhanardakani, Soheil; Zandipak, Raziyeh

    2015-07-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine immobilized on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated magnetite and was used for removal of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. The prepared product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size of the nanoparticles according to SEM was obtained around 20-35 nm. In batch tests, the effects of pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature were studied. The kinetic and equilibrium data were modeled with recently developed models. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were well fitted by the fractal-like pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir-Freundlich model, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity by this adsorbent is 255.1 mg g(-1) for Cd(II) ion and 319.6 mg g(-1) for Ni(II) ion at pH 7.0 and 25 °C. The method was successfully applied to the removal of metal cations in real samples (tap water, river water, and petrochemical wastewater). PMID:26050063

  7. Inhibitory effects of resistant starch (RS3) as a carrier for stachyose on dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    QIAN, YU; ZHAO, XIN; SONG, JIA-LE; ZHU, KAI; SUN, PENG; LI, GUI-JIE; WANG, RUI; KAN, JIAN-QUAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistant starch 3 (RS3) as a carrier for stachyose on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. RS3 microspheres carrying stachyose (RS3 + stachyose) were produced and evaluated as a potentially improved colitis therapy for this study. The body weights of the mice treated with RS3 + stachyose were higher compared with those of DSS-treated control mice. RS3 + stachyose reduced the levels of the serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α to a greater extent compared with the same concentration of stachyose combined with ordinary starch (stachyose + starch). Histopathological examination of sections of colon tissues showed that the RS3 + stachyose group recovered well from colitis; however, the tissue sections of the stachyose + starch group presented necrosis to a more serious degree. These results suggest that stachyose with an RS3 carrier has better preventative effects on colitis than stachyose alone in mice. PMID:24223664

  8. Temperature-dependent phase transition and desorption free energy of sodium dodecyl sulfate at the water/vapor interface: approaches from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Xiandong; Hou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Youyi; Zhou, Huiqun

    2014-09-01

    Adsorption of surfactants at the water/vapor interface depends upon their chemical potential at the interface, which is generally temperature-dependent. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to reveal temperature influences on the microstructure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecule adsorption layer. At room temperature, SDS molecules aggregate at the interface, being in a liquid-expanded phase, whereas they tend to spread out and probably transit to a gaseous phase as the temperature increases to above 318 K. This phase transition has been confirmed by the temperature-dependent changes in two-dimensional array, tilt angles, and immersion depths to the aqueous phase of SDS molecules. The aggregation of SDS molecules accompanies with larger immersion depths, more coordination of Na(+) ions, and less coordination of water. Desorption free energy profiles show that higher desorption free energy appears for SDS molecules at the aggregate state at low temperatures, but no energy barrier is observed. The shapes of desorption free energy profiles depend upon the distribution of SDS at the interface, which, in turn, is related to the phase state of SDS. Our study sheds light on the development of adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics theories. PMID:25127193

  9. Interaction between hydrophobically modified 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium dodecyl sulfate studied by viscometry and two-dimensional NOE NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Jen-Ting; Yen, Hsiao-Ting; Tsai, Chih-Chang; Chen, Bing-Hung; Hou, Sheng-Shu

    2014-06-19

    Interaction between an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a nonionic polymer, 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) hydrophobically modified with benzoyl chloride (bmHEC), is studied by viscometry and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect NMR spectroscopy (2D NOESY) in a semidilute regime of bmHEC. The hydrophobicity of bmHEC was varied with different substitution of benzoyl group to HEC macromolecules. In general, the low-shear viscosity of 1 wt % bmHEC aqueous solution is increased with added SDS surfactant having concentration from 0 to 0.5 wt %, and then decreased significantly with a further addition of surfactant to 3 wt %. The activation energy of transient network formation in 1 wt % bmHEC aqueous solution present with SDS surfactant is found to be dependent with SDS concentration, which varies from 32.7 to 69.80 kJ/mol. The maximum activation energy takes place when 0.5 wt % SDS is added, which coincides with that of the maximal viscosity. The 2D NOESY displays that the surfactants actually interact with bmHEC not only on the hydrophobes, namely benzoyl groups, but also the polymer backbone, i.e., glucose units. In contrast, no interaction is revealed by 2D NOESY in the aqueous system containing SDS surfactant and HEC polymer. PMID:24852815

  10. Bifidobacterium longum Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing IL-17A Response: Involvement of Intestinal Epithelial Costimulatory Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Eiji; Ogita, Tasuku; Miyamoto, Junki; Kawamoto, Seiji; Morita, Hidetoshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takuya; Tanabe, Soichi

    2013-01-01

    Although some bacterial strains show potential to prevent colitis, their mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the anti-colitic mechanisms of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis JCM 1222T, focusing on the relationship between interleukin (IL)-17A secreting CD4+ T cells and intestinal epithelial costimulatory molecules in mice. Oral administration of JCM 1222T to mice alleviated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. The expression of type 1 helper T (Th1)- and IL-17 producing helper T (Th17)-specific cytokines and transcriptional factors was suppressed by JCM 1222T treatment. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from colitic mice induced IL-17A production from CD4+ T cells in a cell-cell contact-dependent manner, and this was suppressed by oral treatment with JCM 1222T. Using blocking antibodies for costimulatory molecules, we revealed that epithelial costimulatory molecules including CD80 and CD40, which were highly expressed in IECs from colitic mice, were involved in IEC-induced IL-17A response. Treatment of mice and intestinal epithelial cell line Colon-26 cells with JCM 1222T decreased the expression of CD80 and CD40. Collectively, these data indicate that JCM 1222T negatively regulate epithelial costimulatory molecules, and this effect might be attributed, at least in part, to suppression of IL-17A in DSS-induced colitis. PMID:24255712

  11. Enhanced Binding of Phenosafranin to Triblock Copolymer F127 Induced by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: A Mixed Micellar System as an Efficient Drug Delivery Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Ramakanta; Ghosh, Narayani; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2016-03-24

    In this study, we explored the interaction of a cationic phenazinium dye, phenosafranin (PSF, here used as a model drug), with pluronic block copolymer F127, both in the presence and in the absence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which forms mixed micelles with F127. We applied both steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, along with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), to demonstrate the binding of the probe PSF to both the pluronic and F127/SDS mixed micelles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) study revealed that, upon interaction with SDS, the hydrodynamic diameter (dH) of F127 micelles decreased due to the formation of the mixed micelles. The PSF penetrated to the more hydrophobic interior of the mixed micellar system as compared to F127 micelles alone. Micropolarity and fluorescence-quenching experiments revealed that PSF is more deeply seated in the case of F127/SDS mixed micelles. Through a partition coefficient, lifetime measurements, and time-resolved anisotropy experiments, we also established that the partitioning of the probe within the F127 micelles in the presence of SDS is almost double than that in its absence. ITC data corroborates the fact that the binding of PSF is the strongest and most thermodynamically favorable when mixed micelles are formed, which enables our system to serve as an excellent drug delivery vehicle when compared to F127 alone. PMID:26936205

  12. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  13. Highly sensitive and simple fluorescence staining of proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-based gels by using hydrophobic tail-mediated enhancement of fluorescein luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kang, Donghoon; Jung, Duk Young; Suh, Myungkoo

    2003-10-01

    Fluorescein has an extremely low luminescence intensity in acidic aqueous media. However, when it was bound to proteins, subsequent increase of luminescence intensity took place. Furthermore, when a hydrophobic tail, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, was introduced to fluorescein, more dramatic increase of luminescence intensity was observed upon binding to proteins. In the present study, by utilizing this luminescence enhancement, three hydrophobic fluorescein dyes (5-dodecanoyl amino fluorescein, 5-hexadecanoyl amino fluorescein, and 5-octadecanoyl amino fluorescein) were examined as noncovalent fluorescent stains of protein bands in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Effective incorporation of the dyes to proteins in gels was accomplished either simply by adding dyes at the protein fixation step, or by treating gels with a staining solution after the fixation. The sensitivity of this staining method using the fluorescein derivatives was approximately 1 ng/band for most proteins. For some cases, protein bands containing as low as 0.1 ng were successfully visualized. In addition, the detection sensitivity showed much less protein-to-protein variation than silver staining. This new staining method was also successfully applied to two-dimensional electrophoresis of rat brain proteins. Its overall sensitivity was comparable to that of silver staining. PMID:14595675

  14. In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction of some fluoroquinolones based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube.

    PubMed

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid

    2015-07-23

    In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction (in-tube MSPME) of fluoroquinolones from water and urine samples based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube has been reported. After the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by a batch synthesis, these NPs were introduced into a stainless steel tube by a syringe and then a strong magnet was placed around the tube, so that the Fe3O4 NPs were remained in the tube and the tube was used in the in-tube SPME-HPLC/UV for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in water and urine samples. Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening the variables significantly affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were more investigated by Box-Behnken design. Calibration curves were linear (R(2)>0.990) in the range of 0.1-1000μgL(-1) for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 0.5-500μgL(-1) for enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL), respectively. LODs for all studied fluoroquinolones ranged from 0.01 to 0.05μgL(-1). The main advantages of this method were rapid and easy automation and analysis, short extraction time, high sensitivity, possibility of fully sorbent collection after analysis, wide linear range and no need to organic solvents in extraction. PMID:26231896

  15. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (rpore) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 – 18.5 Å, but significantly larger than rpore of native skin samples (13.6 Å). Conversely, rpore within LTRs increases significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 Å, to 276 Å, and to ∞ (>300Å) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60 kHz, 40 kHz, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, while the increased rpore values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming. PMID:20740667

  16. Die-Away Kinetic Analysis of the Capacity of Epilithic and Planktonic Bacteria from Clean and Polluted River Water To Biodegrade Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David J.; Day, Martin J.; Russell, Nicholas J.; White, Graham F.

    1990-01-01

    The capacities of epilithic and planktonic river bacterial populations to degrade sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in samples taken at two times during 1987 from one clean and four polluted sites in a South Wales river were estimated in die-away tests under simulated environmental conditions. There was a relatively slow disappearance of SDS in die-away tests for both planktonic and epilithic populations taken from the clean source site, as compared with those taken from the downstream polluted sites, for which the rate of biodegradation was accelerated, sometimes after an apparent initial lag period. The kinetic components contributing to the die-away curves were quantified by nonlinear regression analysis in which the experimental data were fitted to a variety of possible kinetic models. All samples except for one from the polluted sites best fitted a model which describes the biodegradation of SDS at concentrations well below its Km by bacteria whose growth is exponential and unaffected by the addition of a test substrate. Each sample from the clean source site fitted a different model, but there was generally little or no growth on endogenous carbon. A consideration of the numerical values of constants derived from the modeling of epilithic and planktonic populations from polluted sites indicated clearly that the biodegradative capacity of epilithic bacterial populations towards SDS is more stable than that of planktonic bacterial populations. PMID:16348149

  17. A rapid method of species identification of wild chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) via electrophoresis of hemoglobin proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE).

    PubMed

    Oh, J T; Epler, J H; Bentivegna, C S

    2014-10-01

    Studying aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates (BMIs) in the field requires accurate taxonomic identification, which can be difficult and time consuming. Conventionally, head capsule morphology has been used to identify wild larvae of Chironomidae. However, due to the number of species and possible damage and/or deformity of their head capsules, another supporting approach for identification is needed. Here, we provide hemoglobin (Hb) protein in hemolymph of chironomids as a new biomarker that may help resolve some of the ambiguities and difficulties encountered during taxonomic identification. Chironomids collected from two locations in Maine and New Jersey, USA were identified to the genus level and in some cases to the species-level using head capsule and body morphologies. The head capsule for a particular individual was then associated with a corresponding Hb protein profile generated from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Distinct Hb profiles were observed from one group (Thienemannimyia) and four genera (Chironomus, Cricotopus, Dicrotendipes, and Glyptotendipes) of chironomids. Several species were polymorphic, having more than one Hb profile and/or having bands of the same size as those of other species. However, major bands and the combination of bands could distinguish individuals at the genus and sometimes species-level. Overall, this study showed that Hb profiles can be used in combination with head capsule morphology to identify wild chironomids. PMID:24923437

  18. Sodium sulfate-induced corrosion of pure nickel and superalloy Udimet 700 in a high velocity burner rig at 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Sodium sulfate-induced corrosion of pure nickel and a commercial nickel-base superalloy, Udimet 700 (U-700), were studied at 900 C in a Mach 0.3 burner rig with different Na levels in the combustor. The corrosion rate of Ni was independent of the Na level in the combustor and considerably lower than that measured in laboratory salt spray tests. The lower rates are associated with the deposition of only a small amount of Na2SO4 on the surface of the NiO scale. Corrosion of U-700 was observed to occur in two stages. During the first stage, the corrosion proceeds by reaction of Cr2O3 scale with the Na2SO4 and evaporation of the Na2CrO4 reaction product from the surface of the corroding sample. Cr depletion in the alloy occurs and small sulfide particles are formed in the Cr depletion zone. Extensive sulfidation occurs during the second state of corrosion, and a thick scale forms. The relationship between the corrosion rate of U-700 and the Na level in the combustor gives a good correlation in the range of 0.3 to 1.5 ppm by weight Na. Very low levels of Na in the combustor cause accelerated oxidation of U-700 without producing the typical hot corrosion morphology.

  19. Solubilization of 1-hexanol in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate at pressures up to 140 MPa: partial molar volumes, compressibilities, and partition coefficients.

    PubMed

    Høiland, Harald; Alagic, Edin; Førland, Geir Martin

    2014-07-15

    Partial molar volumes and partial molar compressibilities of aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1-hexanol at pressure up to 140 MPa have been determined. For aqueous SDS solutions the partial molar compressibility increases with pressure below the cmc and decreases with pressure above the cmc. The partial molar compressibility of aqueous 1-hexanol increases with pressure. The increased partial molar compressibility reflects that the structure of water is gradually broken down by increased pressure. Thus, the negative effect of electrostriction around the charged parts of SDS decreases as do the effects of hydrophobic hydration around the CH2 groups. In the micellar state the compressibility of the aggregate is the main factor, becoming less compressible as pressure increases. The cmc of SDS, as determined by speed of sound measurements, increases with pressure and goes through a shallow maximum at about 110 MPa. When 1-hexanol is added to SDS solutions, it will be partitioned between the aqueous and micellar (pseudo) phases. The partition coefficient has been determined from partial molar compressibilites, and it appears to decrease with pressure, reach a minimum around 80 MPa, and then increase, though the change with pressure is small. PMID:24941422

  20. Analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor membrane proteome using two-dimensional native/native and native/sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuhou; Liang, Jingdan; Wang, Weixia; Zhou, Xiufen; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Zhijun

    2014-11-15

    Analysis of the oligomeric state of a protein may provide insights into its physiological functions. Because membrane proteins are considered to be the workhorses of energy generation and polypeptide and nutrient transportation, in this study we characterized the membrane-associated proteome of Streptomyces coelicolor by two-dimensional (2D) blue native/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), high-resolution clear native/native PAGE, and native/SDS-PAGE. A total of 77 proteins were identified, and 20 proteins belonging to 15 complexes were characterized. Moreover, the resolution of high-resolution clear native/SDS-PAGE is much higher than that of blue native/SDS-PAGE. OBP (SCO5477) and BldKB (SCO5113) were identified as the main protein spots from the membrane fractions of S. coelicolor M145, suggesting that these two proteins are involved in extracellular peptide transportation. These two transporters exhibited multiple oligomeric states in the native PAGE system, which may suggest their multiple physiological functions in the development of S. coelicolor. PMID:25150108

  1. Polyphenol-rich sorghum brans alter colon microbiota and impact species diversity and species richness after multiple bouts of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lauren E; Sturino, Joseph M; Carroll, Raymond J; Rooney, Lloyd W; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Turner, Nancy D

    2015-03-01

    The microbiota affects host health, and dysbiosis is involved in colitis. Sorghum bran influences butyrate concentrations during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, suggesting microbiota changes. We aimed to characterize the microbiota during colitis, and ascertain if polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets mitigate these effects. Rats (n = 80) were fed diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins), or Hi Tannin black (both) sorghum bran. Inflammation was induced three times using 3% DSS for 48 h (40 rats, 2 week separation), and the microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher in Cellulose DSS rats. Colonic injury negatively correlated with Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus, and positively correlated with Unknown/Unclassified. Post DSS#2, richness was significantly lower in Sumac and Hi Tannin black. Post DSS#3 Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus were reduced, with no Clostridium identified. Diet significantly affected Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales and Lactobacillus post DSS#2 and #3. Post DSS#3 diet significantly affected all genus, including Bacteroides and Lactobacillus, and diversity and richness increased. Sumac and Hi Tannin black DSS had significantly higher richness compared to controls. Thus, these sorghum brans may protect against alterations observed during colitis including reduced microbial diversity and richness, and dysbiosis of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. PMID:25764457

  2. Orally administered lactoperoxidase ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by up-regulating colonic interleukin-10 and maintaining peripheral regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2009-11-01

    We previously demonstrated orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Here, we examine the mechanism of action of LPO. Three days after colitis induction, expression of interferon-gamma mRNA in colonic tissue was significantly decreased in mice administered LPO; while mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and regulatory T cell (Treg) marker, Foxp3, were significantly increased. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral CD4+ T cells was also significantly elevated when LPO was administered. Nine days after colitis induction, the severity of colitis symptoms, including body weight loss and colon shortening, was reduced and expression of IL-10 mRNA was increased in mice administered LPO. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral leukocytes was also significantly elevated when LPO was administered. These results suggest LPO ameliorates colitis by up-regulating colonic anti-inflammatory cytokines and maintaining peripheral regulatory T cells. PMID:19723594

  3. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2-10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30-50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  4. Evidence for recombination between N- and B-tropic murine leukemia viruses: analysis of three virion proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, J; Hynes, R; Hopkins, N

    1977-01-01

    We have sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to analyze the virion proteins of an N- and a B-tropic C-type virus derived from the BALB/c mouse and 21 putative recombinants, designated XLP-N viruses, obtained from seven crosses between these N- and B-tropic viruses. All the XLP-N viruses are N-tropic but posses the XC plaque morphology of their B-tropic virus parent. Three virion proteins, p15, p30, and gp70, of the parental viruses each differ in electrophoretic mobility. Two recombinants were found that possess a p15 that comigrates with p15 of the B virus; 19 possess a p15 that comigrates with N virus p15. Sixteen recombinants possess a gp70 that migrates like the gp70 of the B virus: four have gp70 with an electrophoretic mobility like that of the N virus gp70. All 21 recombinants possess a p30 that comigrates with p30 of their N virus parent. Given the origin and phenotype of XLP-N viruses, these results would seem to provide good evidence that these viruses are recombinants. Images PMID:197267

  5. Pre-labeling of diverse protein samples with a fixed amount of Cy5 for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Erik J; Johansson, Johan D; Laurin, Ylva; Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Rönn, Ola; Karlsson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    A pre-labeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester labeling of proteins has been developed for one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. We show that a fixed amount of sulfonated Cy5 can be used in the labeling reaction to label proteins over a broad concentration range-more than three orders of magnitude. The optimal amount of Cy5 was found to be 50 to 250pmol in 20μl using a Tris-HCl labeling buffer at pH 8.7. Labeling protein samples with a fixed amount of dye in this range balances the requirements of sub-nanogram detection sensitivity and low dye-to-protein (D/P) ratios for SDS-PAGE. Simulations of the labeling reaction reproduced experimental observations of both labeling kinetics and D/P ratios. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to examine the labeling of proteins in a cell lysate using both sulfonated and non-sulfonated Cy5. For both types of Cy5, we observed efficient labeling across a broad range of molecular weights and isoelectric points. PMID:25957128

  6. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets for the spectrophotometric determination of Fingolomid in biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azari, Zhila; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Beheshti, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the separation and determination of Fingolimod (FLM) in water, urine and plasma samples prior to spectrophotometeric determination. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory extraction recoveries can be produced. The main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent amounts, ionic strength, extraction time and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the selected conditions, FLM has been quantitatively extracted. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and good recoveries of 96%, 95% and 88% were observed for water, urine and plasma respectively. Proper linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges of 2-26, 2-17 and 2-13 mg/L with good coefficients of determination, 0.998, 0.997 and 0.995 were achieved for water, urine and plasma samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a mixed hemimicelles SPE method based on magnetic separation and nanoparticles has been used as a simple and sensitive method for monitoring of FLM in water and biological samples.

  7. Polyphenol-rich sorghum brans alter colon microbiota and impact species diversity and species richness after multiple bouts of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Lauren E.; Sturino, Joseph M.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Rooney, Lloyd W.; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Turner, Nancy D.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota affects host health, and dysbiosis is involved in colitis. Sorghum bran influences butyrate concentrations during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, suggesting microbiota changes. We aimed to characterize the microbiota during colitis, and ascertain if polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets mitigate these effects. Rats (n = 80) were fed diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins), or Hi Tannin black (both) sorghum bran. Inflammation was induced three times using 3% DSS for 48 h (40 rats, 2 week separation), and the microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher in Cellulose DSS rats. Colonic injury negatively correlated with Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus, and positively correlated with Unknown/Unclassified. Post DSS#2, richness was significantly lower in Sumac and Hi Tannin black. Post DSS#3 Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Lactobacillus were reduced, with no Clostridium identified. Diet significantly affected Bacteroidales, Bacteroides, Clostridiales and Lactobacillus post DSS#2 and #3. Post DSS#3 diet significantly affected all genus, including Bacteroides and Lactobacillus, and diversity and richness increased. Sumac and Hi Tannin black DSS had significantly higher richness compared to controls. Thus, these sorghum brans may protect against alterations observed during colitis including reduced microbial diversity and richness, and dysbiosis of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. PMID:25764457

  8. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption on the Behavior of Water inside Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Vo, Minh D; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were utilized to investigate the ability of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to adsorb inside a single-walled, arm-chair carbon nanotube (SWCNT), as well as the effect of surfactant on the properties of water inside the SWCNT. The diameter of the SWCNT varied from 1 to 5 nm. The radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNTs were computed and compared with published molecular dynamics results. The average residence time and diffusivity were also calculated to show the size effect on mobility of water inside the SWCNT. It was found that nanotubes with diameter smaller than 3 nm do not allow SDS molecules to enter the SWCNT space. For larger SWCNT diameter, SDS adsorbed inside and outside the nanotube. When SDS was adsorbed in the hollow part of the SWCNT, the behavior of water inside the nanotube was found to be significantly changed. Both radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNT fluctuated strongly and were different from those in bulk phase. In addition, SDS molecules increased the retention of water beads inside SWCNT (d ≥ 3nm) while water diffusivity was decreased. PMID:27092476

  9. Molecular mechanism of catalase activity change under sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced oxidative stress in the mouse primary hepatocytes(†).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Chi; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-04-15

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via changing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). But the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. This study characterized the harmful effects of SDS-induced oxidative stress on the mouse primary hepatocytes as well as the structure and function of CAT molecule and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. After 12h SDS (0.1μM to 0.2mM) exposure, no significant change was observed in CAT activity of the hepatocytes. After 0.5 and 0.8mM SDS exposure, the state of oxidative stress stimulated CAT production in the hepatocytes. The inhibition of CAT activity induced by directly interacting with SDS was unable to catch the synthesis of CAT and therefore resulted in the increased activity and elevated ROS level. Further molecular experiments showed that SDS prefers to bind to the interface with no direct effect on the active site and the structure of heme groups of CAT molecule. When the sites in the interface is saturated, SDS interacts with VAL 73, HIS 74, ASN 147 and PHE 152, the key residues of the enzyme activity, and leads to the decrease of CAT activity. PMID:26780704

  10. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis alters stress-associated behaviour and neuropeptide gene expression in the amygdala-hippocampus network of mice

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Hassan, Ahmed Mostafa; Farzi, Aitak; Jain, Piyush; Schuligoi, Rufina; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress causes disease exacerbation and relapses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Since studies on stress processing during visceral inflammation are lacking, we investigated the effects of experimental colitis as well as psychological stress on neurochemical and neuroendocrine changes as well as behaviour in mice. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS) were used as mouse models of colitis and mild psychological stress, respectively. We measured WAS-associated behaviour, gene expression and proinflammatory cytokine levels within the amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus as well as plasma levels of cytokines and corticosterone in male C57BL/6N mice. Animals with DSS-induced colitis presented with prolonged immobility during the WAS session, which was associated with brain region-dependent alterations of neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptor Y1, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor gene expression. Furthermore, the combination of DSS and WAS increased interleukin-6 and growth regulated oncogene-α levels in the brain. Altered gut-brain signalling in the course of DSS-induced colitis is thought to cause the observed distinct gene expression changes in the limbic system and the aberrant molecular and behavioural stress responses. These findings provide new insights into the effects of stress during IBD. PMID:26066467

  11. Oleanolic acid ameliorates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice by restoring the balance of Th17/Treg cells and inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Geum-Dan; Lim, Sumin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    In a preliminary experiment, it was found that oleanolic acid (OA), which is widely distributed in food and medicinal plants, inhibited interleukin (IL)-6/tumor growth factor beta-induced differentiation of splenic T cells into Th17 cells. Moreover, OA induced the differentiation of splenic T cells into Treg cells. Therefore, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of OA in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Oral administration of OA significantly inhibited DSS-induced colon shortening, macroscopic score, and myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with OA inhibited DSS-induced differentiation to Th17 cells and downregulated the expression of RORγt and IL-17 in the lamina propria of colon and Treg cell differentiation and Foxp3 and IL-10 expression were increased. OA treatment increased the DSS-suppressed expression of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 in the colon. Moreover, OA treatment inhibited DSS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-17, the activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases, and increased IL-10 expression. OA also inhibited the activation of NF-κB and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest that OA may ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as colitis by inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation and increasing Treg cell differentiation. PMID:26514300

  12. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for analysis of SYPRO Red labeled sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tai-Chia; Lin, Yang-Wei; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chrambach, Andreas; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2003-06-01

    We describe a segmental filling method for the analysis of SYPRO Red labeled sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-proteins (SRSPs) by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) with electroosmotic counterflow of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). It is shown that SDS and salt play a crucial role in determining the fluorescence intensity of the SRSP. Although the fluorimetric measurements reveal that the SRSPs fluoresce strongly in Tris-borate (TB) buffer containing 0.1% SDS and high concentrations of NaCl (100 mM), these conditions are not appropriate to CE in view of Joule heating. To overcome that impediment, we applied a plug of 0.1% SDS (1/5 to 1/3 of the injection volume) prior to injection of samples (0.64 microL) prepared in TB buffer containing 50 mM NaCl and SYPRO Red. When using a background electrolyte of 0.6% PEO in TB buffer containing NaCl, electroosmotic counterflow of the analytes allows one to concentrate large sample volumes (up to 1/3 of effective capillary length) in 21 min, with detection of 0.35 and 0.10 nM for bovine serum albumin and casein, respectively. With a linear dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 microM, this method provides the capability of determining the concentration of casein in cow's milk as 0.45 +/- 0.03 mM (n = 5). PMID:12783449

  13. Photoinduced electron transfer from N-alkylphenothiazines to interface water of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles as a function of poly(ethylene oxide) interaction with the interface

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.K.; Kevan, L. )

    1994-03-03

    Photoinduced electron transfer from N-alkylphenothiazines (PC[sub n], n = 1, 3, 6, 12, and 16) solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle interacting with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to interface D[sub 2]O as an electron acceptor is studied with electron spin resonance (ESR) and electron spin echo modulation. The photoproduced radicals are identified as the N-alkylphenothiazine cation radical and the surfactant alkyl chain radical of SDS. The total photoyield decreased from PC[sub 1] to PC[sub 3] and then increased to PC[sub 16]. The photoyields increased monotonically with increasing PEO concentration. The photoyields are correlated with the deuterium modulation depth of PC[sub n][sup +] with D[sub 2]O at the micelle interface as a function of the alkyl chain length of PC[sub n] and the concentration of PEO since the modulation depth measures relative changes in the interaction distance between the phenothiazine moiety and interface D[sub 2]O. The photoyield and deuterium modulation depth trends show a good correlation. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Electron spin echo modulation study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide micellar solutions in the presence of urea: Evidence for urea interaction at the micellar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Baglioni, P. ); Ferroni, E. ); Kevan, L. )

    1990-05-17

    Electron spin echo studies have been carried out for a series of x-doxylstearic acid (x-DSA, x = 5,7,10,12,16) and 4-octanoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy (C{sub 8}-TEMPO) spin probes in micellar solutions of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) in D{sub 2}O and in the presence of 2 or 6 M urea or urea-d{sub 4}. Modulation effects due to the interaction of the unpaired electron with urea and water deuteriums show that urea does not affect the bent conformation of the x-DSA probe in the micelle. The analysis of the deuterium modulation depth and the Fourier transformation of the two-pulse electron spin echo spectra show that urea interacts with the surfactant polar headgroups at the micelle surface. These results support recent molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo calculations of micellar systems and are in agreement with direct interaction of urea at micellar surfaces in which it replaces some water molecules in the surface region.

  15. White and dark kidney beans reduce colonic mucosal damage and inflammation in response to dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jennifer M; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Liu, Ronghua; Pauls, K Peter; Wood, Geoffrey A; Tsao, Rong; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2015-07-01

    Common beans are a rich source of nondigestible fermentable components and phenolic compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed the gut-health-promoting potential of kidney beans in healthy mice and their ability to attenuate colonic inflammation following dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) exposure (via drinking water, 2% DSS w/v, 7 days). C57BL/6 mice were fed one of three isocaloric diets: basal diet control (BD), or BD supplemented with 20% cooked white (WK) or dark red kidney (DK) bean flour for 3 weeks. In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relmβ) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response. During colitis, both bean diets reduced (a) disease severity, (b) colonic histological damage and (c) increased mRNA expression of antimicrobial and barrier integrity-promoting genes (Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), MUC1-3, Relmβ and Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)) and reduced proinflammatory mediator expression [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], which correlated with reduced colon tissue protein levels. Further, bean diets exerted a systemic anti-inflammatory effect during colitis by reducing serum levels of IL-17A, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6. In conclusion, both WK and DK bean-supplemented diets enhanced microbial-derived SCFA metabolite production, gut barrier integrity and the microbial defensive response in the healthy colon, which supported an anti-inflammatory phenotype during colitis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a beneficial colon-function priming effect of bean consumption that mitigates colitis severity. PMID:25841250

  16. Catalytic oxidation of calcium sulfite in solution/aqueous slurry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Qin; Wu, Zhong-Biao; Wang, Da-Hui

    2004-01-01

    Forced oxidation of calcium sulfite aqueous slurry is a key step for the calcium-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residue. Experiments were conducted in a semi-batch system and a continuous flow system on lab scales. The main reactor in semi-batch system is a 1000 ml volume flask. It has five necks for continuous feeding of gas and a batch of calcium sulfite solution/aqueous slurry. In continuous flow system, the main part is a jacketed Pyrex glass reactor in which gas and solution/aqueous slurry are fed continuously. Calcium sulfite oxidation is a series of complex free-radical reactions. According to experimental results and literature data, the reactions are influenced significantly by manganese as catalyst. At low concentration of manganese and calcium sulfite, the reaction rate is dependent on 1.5 order of sulfite concentration, 0.5 order of manganese concentration, and zero order of oxygen concentration in which the oxidation is controlled by chemical kinetics. With concentrations of calcium sulfite and manganese increasing, the reactions are independent gradually on the constituents in solution but are impacted by oxygen concentration. Manganese can accelerate the free-radical reactions, and then enhances the mass transfer of oxygen from gas to liquid. The critical concentration of calcium sulfite is 0.007 mol/L, manganese is 10(-4) nol/L, and oxygen is of 0.2-0.4 atm. PMID:15900731

  17. Longitudinal analysis of inflammation and microbiota dynamics in a model of mild chronic dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Luigia; Cavazza, Elena; Spisni, Enzo; Strillacci, Antonio; Centanni, Manuela; Candela, Marco; Praticò, Chiara; Campieri, Massimo; Ricci, Chiara; Valerii, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To characterize longitudinally the inflammation and the gut microbiota dynamics in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: In animal models, the most common method used to trigger colitis is based on the oral administration of the sulfated polysaccharides DSS. The murine DSS colitis model has been widely adopted to induce severe acute, chronic or semi-chronic colitis, and has been validated as an important model for the translation of mice data to human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it is now clear that models characterized by mild intestinal damage are more accurate for studying the effects of therapeutic agents. For this reason, we have developed a murine model of mild colitis to study longitudinally the inflammation and microbiota dynamics during the intestinal repair processes, and to obtain data suitable to support the recovery of gut microbiota-host homeostasis. RESULTS: All plasma cytokines evaluated, except IL-17, began to increase (P < 0.05), after 7 d of DSS administration. IL-17 only began to increase 4 d after DSS withdrawal. IL-1β and IL-17 continue to increase during the recovery phase, even when clinical signs of colitis had disappeared. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ reached their maxima 4 d after DSS withdrawal and decreased during the late recovery phase. TNFα reached a peak (a three- fold increase, P < 0.05), after which it slightly decreased, only to increase again close to the end of the recovery phase. DSS administration induced profound and rapid changes in the mice gut microbiota. After 3 d of DSS administration, we observed a major reduction in Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and a corresponding increase in Bacillaceae, with respect to control mice. In particular, Bacteroidetes/Prevotella decreased from a relative abundance of 59.42%-33.05%, while Bacillaceae showed a concomitant increase from 2.77% to 10.52%. Gut microbiota rapidly shifted toward a healthy profile during the recovery phase and returned normal 4 d after DSS withdrawal. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression started to increase 4 d after DSS withdrawal (P < 0.05), when dysbiosis had recovered, and continued to increase during the recovery phase. Taken together, these data indicated that a chronic phase of intestinal inflammation, characterized by the absence of dysbiosis, could be obtained in mice using a single DSS cycle. CONCLUSION: Dysbiosis contributes to the local and systemic inflammation that occurs in the DSS model of colitis; however, chronic bowel inflammation is maintained even after recovery from dysbiosis. PMID:24587679

  18. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 2: An electrospray mass spectrometry investigation into the chemical composition of sulfited quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii and Schinopsis balansae) heartwood extract.

    PubMed

    Venter, Pieter B; Senekal, Nadine D; Amra-Jordaan, Maryam; Bonnet, Susan L; Van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2012-06-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are natural plant-derived polymers used in leather tanning, wood adhesives, water purification, and mud additives for oil drilling. Quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii and Schinopsis balansae) heartwood and mimosa (Acacia mearnsii) bark extracts are the major industrial sources of PACs. These commercial extracts are often sulfited via treatment with sodium hydrogen sulfite to reduce their viscosity and increase their solubility in water. An ESI-MS investigation into the molecular composition of sulfited (cold-water-soluble) quebracho heartwood extract indicates that sulfitation of the PACs occurs via S(N)2 attack of a sulfite ion at both C-2 and C-4 of the constituent flavan-3-ol monomer extender units. Attack at C-2 leads to the opening of the pyran ring. This releases an additional electron-donating phenolic hydroxy group on the A-ring and renders the extract more nucleophilic and suitable for the manufacturing of adhesives. Attack at C-4 leads to interflavanyl bond fission and decrease of the PAC oligomer chain length. The introduction of sulfonic acid moieties at C-2 or C-4 increases the polarity and water solubility of the hot water soluble (unsulfited) extract and transforms it into a cold-water-soluble extract. PMID:22513010

  19. The Noncommensal Bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate (Sodium Salt)-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by Influencing Mechanisms Essential for Maintenance of the Colonic Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Hult, Lene T. Olsen; Spetalen, Signe; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Christofferesen, Trine Eker; Bengtsson, Oskar; Romarheim, Odd Helge; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2013-01-01

    Dietary inclusion of a bacterial meal has recently been shown to efficiently abolish soybean meal-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon. The objective of this study was to investigate whether inclusion of this bacterial meal in the diet could abrogate disease development in a murine model of epithelial injury and colitis and thus possibly have therapeutic potential in human inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6N mice were fed ad libitum a control diet or an experimental diet containing 254 g/kg of body weight BioProtein, a bacterial meal consisting of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), together with the heterogenic bacteria Ralstonia sp., Brevibacillus agri, and Aneurinibacillus sp. At day 8, colitis was induced by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ad libitum in the drinking water for 6 days. Symptoms of DSS treatment were less profound after prophylactic treatment with the diet containing the BioProtein. Colitis-associated parameters such as reduced body weight, colon shortening, and epithelial damage also showed significant improvement. Levels of acute-phase reactants, proteins whose plasma concentrations increase in response to inflammation, and neutrophil infiltration were reduced. On the other, increased epithelial cell proliferation and enhanced mucin 2 (Muc2) transcription indicated improved integrity of the colonic epithelial layer. BioProtein mainly consists of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) (88%). The results that we obtained when using a bacterial meal consisting of M. capsulatus (Bath) were similar to those obtained when using BioProtein in the DSS model. Our results show that a bacterial meal of the noncommensal bacterium M. capsulatus (Bath) has the potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing colonic barrier function, as judged by increased epithelial proliferation and increased Muc2 transcription. PMID:23064342

  20. Addition of Berberine to 5-Aminosalicylic Acid for Treatment of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Chronic Colitis in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-hong; Zhang, Man; Xiao, Hai-tao; Fu, Hai-bo; Ho, Alan; Lin, Cheng-yuan; Huang, Yu; Lin, Ge; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common chronic remitting disease but without satisfactory treatment. Alternative medicine berberine has received massive attention for its potential in UC treatment. Conventional therapies with the addition of berberine are becoming attractive as novel therapies in UC. In the present study, we investigated the preclinical activity of a conventional oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy plus berberine in experimental colitis. A subclinical dose of 5-ASA (200 mg/kg/day) alone or 5-ASA plus berberine (20 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 30 days to C57BL/6 mice with colitis induced by three cycles of 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The disease severity, inflammatory responses, drug accumulation and potential toxicity of colitis mice were examined. The results showed that comparing to 5-ASA alone, 5-ASA plus berberine more potently ameliorated DSS-induced disease severity, colon shortening, and colon histological injury. Further, the up-regulation in mRNA level of colonic TNF-α as well as NFκB and JAK2 phosphorylation caused by DSS were more pronouncedly reversed in animals treated with the combination therapy than those treated with 5-ASA alone. Moreover, the addition of berberine to 5-ASA more significantly inhibited lymphocyte TNF-α secretion of DSS mice than 5-ASA alone. In the meanwhile, no extra drug accumulation or potential toxicity to major organs of colitis mice was observed with this combination treatment. In summary, our studies provide preclinical rationale for the addition of berberine to 5-ASA as a promising therapeutic strategy in clinic by reducing dose of standard therapy. PMID:26642326

  1. Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lim, Ji Ye; Min, Soo Jin; Shin, Jae-Ho; Ko, Hee-Chul; Kim, Se-Jae; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Yuri

    2014-10-01

    Sasa quelpaertensis leaves exert anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects, although it remains unclear whether these leaves can suppress inflammation-related intestinal diseases. This study hypothesized that Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) exerts a protective effect against inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Therefore, colon tissues of DSS-induced colitis mice that were treated with SQE were assayed for levels of proinflammatory markers, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and activation of nuclear factor κB. For this purpose, mice were pretreated with SQE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage for a 2-week period. Mice then received either SQE or sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg body weight) with 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days twice daily and 7 days of tap water ad libitum between DSS treatment. Treatment with SQE was found to attenuate the severity of DSS-induced colitis, as assessed by disease activity index scores, shrinkage of colon length, and histopathologic changes. SQE reduced DSS-induced proliferation in distal colon tissues. It also significantly suppressed levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in serum and colon tissues, nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, and levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases, p38, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and IκBα in colon tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that SQE supplementation can exert an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental chronic colitis. PMID:25287291

  2. Acute colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6 but not in BALB/c mice: correlation between symptoms and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Melgar, Silvia; Karlsson, Agneta; Michaëlsson, Erik

    2005-06-01

    Exposure to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induces acute colitis, which is normally resolved after DSS removal. To study chronicity, mice are typically subjected to three to five cycles of weekly DSS exposures, each followed by a 1- to 2-wk rest period. Here, we describe a novel and convenient way of inducing chronic, progressive colitis by a single exposure to DSS. C57BL/6 mice exposed to DSS for 5 days developed acute colitis that progressed to severe chronic inflammation. The plasma haptoglobin levels remained high during the chronic phase, showing that the inflammation was active. Surprisingly, the mice regained their original weight along with the progression of colitis, and the only apparent symptom was loose feces. Histopathological changes 4 wk after DSS removal were dense infiltrates of mononuclear cells, irregular epithelial structure, and persistent deposits of collagen. A progressive production of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-12 p70, and IL-17 correlated with the extensive cellular infiltration, whereas high IFN-gamma production was mainly found late in the chronic phase. Similar to C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice exposed to 5 days of DSS developed acute colitis as previously described. The acute colitis was accompanied by elevated plasma levels of haptoglobin and increased colonic levels of IL-1alpha/beta, IL-6, IL-18, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. However, soon after DSS removal, BALB/c mice recovered and were symptom free within 2 wk and completely recovered 4 wk after DSS removal in terms of histopathology, haptoglobin levels, and local cytokine production. In summary, these data stress the effect of genetic background on the outcome of DSS provocation. We believe that the present protocol to induce chronic colitis in C57BL/6 mice offers a robust model for validating future therapies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:15637179

  3. Amelioration of dextran sulfate sodium-induced chronic colitis by sulfasalazine salicylazosulfapyridine via reducing NF-kappaB transcription factor p65 recruitment to ICAM-1 gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenchang; Song, Lijun; Hongzhu, Deng

    2010-09-01

    Sulfasalazine salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP), consisting of 5-aminosalicylic acid bound to sulfapyridine by a diazo bond, is an effective drug in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, its mechanism of action remains a matter of debate. The objective of our work was to investigate SASP's effect on NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway in transcriptional regulation level. Repeated colitis was induced by administration of 4 cycles of 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS); The severity of colitis was assessed on the basis of clinical signs, colon length, and histology scores. Moreover, sIgA and haptoglobin (HP) were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and ICAM-1 gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using SYBA green I. NF-kappaB signal transduction proteins and transcriptional factor p65 interaction with promoter of ICAM-1 were assessed by western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. SASP administration significantly attenuated the colitis signs and caused substantial reductions of HP expression, and maintained the level of cecum sIgA. SASP inhibited ICAM-1 gene expression and had no effect on MIF gene expression. Also, SASP was able to reduce p-IkBalpha protein expression; however, no change in the activation of IKKalpha, IKKbeta, p65, and IKBalpha was noted. SASP inhibited p65 recruitment to the gene ICAM-1 promoter. In conclusion, inhibition of NF-kappaB pathway signal proteins and blockade of p65 binding to gene ICAM-1 promoter might explain the effect and mechanisms of SASP at alleviating DSS-induced colitis in mice. PMID:20823682

  4. Spontaneous formation of nanocubic particles and spherical vesicles in catanionic mixtures of ester-containing gemini surfactants and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Aghdastinat, Hasti; Javadian, Soheila; Tehrani-Bagha, Alireza; Gharibi, Hussein

    2014-03-20

    Self-assembly of pure ester-containing cationic gemini surfactants, dodecyl esterquat, and dodecyl betainate geminis, and cation-rich catanionic mixtures of them with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were investigated using surface tension, electrical conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements in the absence and presence of KCl. Different physicochemical properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC), degree of counterion dissociation (αdiss), interfacial properties, morphology of aggregates, and interparticle interaction parameters were determined. Both geminis formed micelles in the absence of KCl, and mixing with SDS did not change the morphology; just a growth in micelle size was observed. However, the aggregation behavior of these geminis with respect to the position of the ester bond in the alkyl chain appeared completely different in the presence of KCl. Esterquat gemini formed cubic nanoparticles (or cobosomes) in the presence of [KCl] = 0.05 M and transformed into spherical micelles upon increasing the surfactant concentration. By contrast, betainate gemini formed vesicles in the presence of [KCl] = 0.05 M and subsequently converted to micelles as the surfactant concentration increased. The morphology of esterquat gemini (in the presence of 0.05 M KCl) after mixing with SDS changed from cubic nanoparticles (or cobosomes) to cylindrical nanoparticles coexistent with cobosomes. Betainate gemini remained vesicular upon mixing with SDS, and no dramatic structural change of aggregates took place. The morphology changes of aggregates upon mixing with SDS were explained from calculating the interactions between two gemini surfactants and SDS on the basis of regular solution theory. PMID:24547744

  5. Anti-Colitic Effects of Kanjangs (Fermented Soy Sauce and Sesame Sauce) in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Yaung-Iee

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17α. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4 mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8 mL/kg) of the sauces. PMID:25188463

  6. Oroxyloside prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Ding, Youxiang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Kong, Lingyi; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Zhao, Li

    2016-04-15

    Oroxyloside, as a metabolite of oroxylin A, may harbor various beneficial bioactivities which have rarely been reported in the previous studies. Here we established the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis and evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of oroxyloside in vivo. As a result, oroxyloside attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage. Furthermore, oroxyloside inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities as well. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon was also significantly reduced by oroxyloside. We unraveled the underlying mechanisms that oroxyloside inhibited NF-κB pathway by activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) to attenuate DSS-induced colitis. Moreover, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of oroxyloside in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM). Oroxyloside decreased several LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW264.7 and BMDM. We also found that oroxyloside inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway via activating PPARγ in RAW 264.7 and BMDM. Docking study showed that oroxyloside could bind with PPARγ. GW9662, the inhibitor of PPARγ, and PPARγ siRNA transfection blocked the effect of oroxyloside on PPARγ activation. Our study suggested that oroxyloside prevented DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through PPARγ activation. Therefore, oroxyloside may be a promising and effective agent for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PMID:26947454

  7. Ginsenoside Metabolite Compound K Promotes Recovery of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis and Inhibits Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoping; Yuan, Jiahui; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Tianhui; Song, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Phytogenic compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as ginsenoside metabolite compound K (CK) or berberine (BBR), are currently discussed as promising complementary agents in the prevention and treatment of cancer and inflammation. The latest study showed that ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites could inhibit TNBS-induced colitis injury. However, the functional mechanisms of anti-inflammation effects of ginsenoside, particularly its metabolite CK are still not clear. Here, using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, clinical parameters, intestinal integrity, pro-inflammatory cytokines production, and signaling pathways in colonic tissues were determined. In mild and sever colitis mice, CK and BBR (as a positive agent) alleviated colitis histopathology injury, ameliorated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines production, such as, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in both mice colon tissues and blood. Nevertheless, the results revealed that CK and BBR inhibited NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, downregulated p-IκBα and upregulated IκBα, indicating that CK, as well as BBR, suppressed the activation of the NF-κB pathway in the progression of colitis with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis. Furthermore, CK inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines production in LPS-activated macrophages via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our results not only reveal that CK promotes the recovery of the progression of colitis and inhibits the inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-κB activation, but also suggest that CK downregulates intestinal inflammation through regulating the activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. PMID:24504372

  8. Arctigenin but not arctiin acts as the major effective constituent of Arctium lappa L. fruit for attenuating colonic inflammatory response induced by dextran sulfate sodium in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Yang, Yan; Dou, Yannong; Ye, Jun; Bian, Difei; Wei, Zhifeng; Tong, Bei; Kong, Lingyi; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2014-12-01

    The crude powder of the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (ALF) has previously been reported to attenuate experimental colitis in mice. But, its main effective ingredient and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. In this study, ALF was extracted with ethanol, and then successively fractionated into petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction. Experimental colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Among the four fractions of ALF, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the most significant inhibition of DSS-induced colitis in mice. The comparative studies of arctigenin and arctiin (the two main ingredients of ethyl acetate fraction) indicated that arctigenin rather than arctiin could reduce the loss of body weight, disease activity index and histological damage in the colon. Arctigenin markedly recovered the loss of intestinal epithelial cells (E-cadherin-positive cells) and decreased the infiltration of neutrophils (MPO-positive cells) and macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Arctigenin could down-regulate the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2, MCP-1, MAdCAM-1, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at both protein and mRNA levels in colonic tissues. Also, it markedly decreased the MDA level, but increased SOD activity and the GSH level. Of note, the efficacy of arctigenin was comparable or even superior to that of the positive control mesalazine. Moreover, it significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs and the activation of NF-κB, including phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, p65 translocation and DNA binding activity. In conclusion, arctigenin but not arctiin is the main active ingredient of ALF for attenuating colitis via down-regulating the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways. PMID:25284342

  9. Anisometric Polyelectrolyte/Mixed Surfactant Nanoassemblies Formed by the Association of Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Dodecyl Maltoside.

    PubMed

    Plazzotta, Beatrice; Fegyver, Edit; Mészáros, Róbert; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2015-07-01

    The soluble complexes of oppositely charged macromolecules and amphiphiles, formed in the one-phase concentration range, are usually described on the basis of the beads on a string model assuming spherelike bound surfactant micelles. However, around and above the charge neutralization ionic surfactant to polyion ratio, a variety of ordered structures of the precipitates and large polyion/surfactant aggregates have been reported for the different systems which are difficult to connect to globular-like surfactant self-assembly units. In this article we have demonstrated through SAXS measurements that the structure of precipitates and those of the soluble polyion/mixed surfactant complexes of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and dodecyl-maltoside (DDM) are strongly correlated. Specifically, SDS binds to the PDADMAC molecules in the form of small cylindrical surfactant micelles even at very low SDS-to-PDADMAC ratios. In this way, these anisometric surfactant self-assemblies formed in excess polyelectrolyte mimic the basic building units of the hexagonal structure of the PDADMAC/SDS precipitate and/or suspensions formed at charge equivalence or at higher SDS-to-PDADMAC ratios. The presence of DDM reduces the cmc and cac for the system but does not alter significantly the structure of the complexes in either the one-phase or two-phase region. The only exception is for samples at SDS-to-PDADMAC ratios close to charge neutralization and a high concentration of DDM where the precipitate forms a multiphasic or distorted hexagonal structure. PMID:26057578

  10. Calcium/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/c-Src signalling cascade mediates disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA/AM) or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (Ask1) or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation of c-Src. The present study demonstrates that Ca(2+)/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/cSrc signalling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. PMID:25377781

  11. mTOR Inhibition Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Suppressing T Cell Proliferation and Balancing TH1/TH17/Treg Profile

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yilin; Wang, Zhengting; Pei, Yaofei; Fan, Rong; Liu, Xiqiang; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Sichang; Zhang, Tianyu; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Maochen; Tao, Ran; Zhong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects in models of experimental colitis. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In this research, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AZD8055, a potent mTOR inhibitor, on T cell response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, a commonly used animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Severity of colitis is evaluated by changing of body weight, bloody stool, fecal consistency, histology evaluation and cytokine expression. We find that AZD8055 treatment attenuates DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening and pathological damage of the colon. And AZD8055 treatment decreases colonic expression of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-1β,IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-a and increases colonic expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10. We show that AZD8055 treatment decreases the percentages of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in spleen, lymph nodes and peripheral blood of mice. We also find that AZD8055 treatment significantly reduces the number of T helper 1(TH1) cells and TH17 cells and increases regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, we demonstrates that AZD8055 suppresses the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the differentiation of TH1/TH17 cells and expands Treg cells in vitro. The results suggest that, in experimental colitis, AZD8055 exerts anti-inflammatory effect by regulating T helper cell polarization and proliferation. PMID:27128484

  12. The Influence of Fluorocarbon and Hydrocarbon Acyl Groups at the Surface of Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase II on the Kinetics of Denaturation by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andrew; Mirica, Katherine A.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of acylation of the Lys-ε-NH3+ groups of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA, E.C. 4.2.1.1) to Lys-ε-NHCOR (R = -CH3, -CH2CH3, and -CH(CH3)2, -CF3) on the rate of denaturation of this protein in buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Analysis of the rates suggested separate effects due to electrostatic charge and hydrophobic interactions. Rates of denaturation (kAc,n) of each series of acylated derivatives depended on the number of acylations (n). Plots of log kAc,n vs. n followed U-shaped curves. Within each series of derivatives, rates of denaturation decreased as n increased to ~7; this decrease was compatible with increasingly unfavorable electrostatic interactions between SDS and protein. In this range of n, rates of denaturation also depended on the choice of the acyl group as n increased to ~7, in a manner compatible with favorable hydrophobic interactions between SDS and the -NHCOR groups. As n increased in the range 7 < n < 14 however, rates of denaturation stayed approximately constant; analysis suggested these rates were compatible with an increasingly important contribution to denaturation that depended both on the net negative charge of the protein and on the hydrophobicity of the R group. The mechanism of denaturation thus seems to change with the extent of acylation of the protein. For derivatives with the same net electrostatic charge, rates of denaturation increased with the acyl group (by a factor of ~3 for n ~ 14) in the order CH3CONH- < CH3CH2CONH- < (CH3)2CHCONH- < CF3CONH-. These results suggested that the hydrophobicity of CF3CONH- is slightly greater (by a factor of < 2) than that of RHCONH- similar in surface area. PMID:21182314

  13. Chromatographic analysis of phenethylamine-antihistamine combinations using C8, C18 or cyano columns and micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate-pentanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gil-Agustí, M; Capella-Peiró, E; Monferrer-Pons, L; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C; Esteve-Romero, J

    2001-04-01

    The chromatographic behaviour of binary and ternary mixtures of several phenethylamines (phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and methoxyphenamine) and antihistamines (pheniramine, carbinoxamine, doxylamine, chlorpheniramine, dexchlorpheniramine, dexbrompheniramine, diphenhydramine, tripolidine, azatadine and phenyltoloxamine), found in cough-cold pharmaceutical preparations, was studied using C8, C18 and cyano columns, micellar mobile phases of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and pentanol and UV detection. Using a C8 column and mobile phases of 0.05 mol l-1 SDS-6% v/v pentanol or 0.15 mol l-1 SDS-2% v/v pentanol at pH 7, more than 30 different phenethylamine-antihistamine combinations can be resolved in < 15 min. Intra- and inter-day repeatabilities and reproducibilities evaluated at three different drug concentrations (0.5, 5 and 25 micrograms ml-1, n = 10) were below 1.6, 2.5 and 2.4%, respectively. The drug amounts found in 18 formulations agreed with those declared by the manufacturers within the tolerance limits, and with those obtained using a mobile phase of 55% v/v methanol at pH 7. No interference was observed from other accompanying drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid, ascorbic acid, betamethasone, bromhexine, caffeine, codeine, dextromethorphan, paracetamol, prednisolone, salicylamide and tartrazine. The proposed procedure has the advantage over the conventional aqueous-organic procedure of using a small amount of organic solvent, which is highly retained in the SDS solution. The efficiencies are also greater. On the other hand, in the micellar system, the retentions of phenethylamines and antihistamines are similar, although the compounds can be easily resolved. In contrast, using the methanol-water mobile phase, the phenethylamines are weakly retained, whereas the antihistamines usually show a high retention. PMID:11340978

  14. Mangiferin attenuates the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice via NF-κB and MAPK signaling inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Wei; Zhang, Jingjing; Ren, Gaiyan; Ding, Lili; Sun, Aning; Deng, Chao; Wu, Xiaojun; Wei, Xiaohui; Mani, Sridhar; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and currently no curative treatment available. Mangiferin, a natural glucosylxanthone mainly from the fruit, leaves and stem bark of the mango tree, has strong anti-inflammatory activity. We sought to investigate whether mangiferin attenuates inflammation in a mouse model of chemically induced IBD. Pre-administration of mangiferin significantly attenuated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced body weight loss, diarrhea, colon shortening and histological injury, which correlated with the decline in the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the colon. DSS-induced degradation of inhibitory κBα (IκBα) and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 as well as the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (inducible NO synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6) in the colon were also downregulated by mangiferin treatment. Additionally, the phosphorylation/activation of DSS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins was also inhibited by mangiferin treatment. In accordance with the in vivo results, mangiferin exposure blocked TNF-α-stimulated nuclear translocation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Transient transfection gene reporter assay performed in TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells indicated that mangiferin inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. The current study clearly demonstrates a protective role for mangiferin in experimental IBD through NF-κB and MAPK signaling inhibition. Since mangiferin is a natural compound with little toxicity, the results may contribute to the effective utilization of mangiferin in the treatment of human IBD. PMID:25194678

  15. Separation of neutralizing and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody activities and specificity of antisera to sodium dodecyl sulfate-derived polypeptides of polyoma virions.

    PubMed Central

    Bolen, J B; Consigli, R A

    1980-01-01

    Antisera to the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel-derived polyoma virion polypeptides were used in immunoprecipitation experiments with ethylene glycol-bis-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-dissociated polyoma virions and capsids to determine the specificity of the antipolyoma polypeptide sera. Additionally, a technique for applying 125I-labeled immunoglobulins to SDS-polyacrylamide gels was used to explore the antigenic specificities of the antisera. The results demonstrated that antisera directed against the SDS-gel-derived VP1, VP2, and VP3 did not react with native polyoma proteins, but would react with the appropriate antigens on denatured polyoma proteins. Antisera against the histone region of such gels reacted with native and denatured polyoma VP1. Separation of neutralizing antibodies from hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies to polyoma in antisera directed against the histone region of polyacrylamide gels was done by using a polyoma capsid affinity column. The antibodies eluted from this column which did not react with capsids possessed only neutralizing activity, whereas antibodies which bound to capsids possessed only HAI activity. These isolated immunoglobulin G fractions were then used in immunoprecipitation experiments to demonstrate that the antigenic determinants responsible for the HAI activity of the serum were contained on a 16,000-dalton polypeptide, whereas those antigenic determinants responsible for neutralizing activity were contained on a 14,000-dalton polypeptide. Both of these polypeptides present in the histone region of the SDS-gels appeared to be derived from the major virion protein VP1. PMID:6154803

  16. Wif1 and Ifitm3 gene expression preferentially altered in the colon mucosa of benzo[a]pyrene pre-treated mice following exposure to dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Naoki; Hakura, Atsushi; Toritsuka, Naoki; Sonoda, Jiro; Seki, Yuki; Tohyama, Osamu; Asakura, Shoji; Nakano-Ito, Kyoko; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-10-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is highly mutagenic and yet does not lead to tumor development in the murine colon. We recently reported the generation of colonic tumors one week after treatment with BP followed by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), a colitis-inducer. In this BP/DSS model, male CD2F1 mice were treated orally with BP at 125 mg/kg/day for 5 days, followed by 4% DSS in drinking water for one week. There has been no report so far on the molecular mechanisms involved in tumor development in this model. In the present study, we performed global gene expression analysis on the colonic mucosae obtained from BP-exposed mice one week after treatment with DSS and those treated with the vehicle, BP, or DSS alone. Global gene expression analysis revealed that there were 563 genes preferentially altered (≥2-fold vs vehicle group) in the colonic mucosae exposed to both BP and DSS. Furthermore, comparative gene expression analysis combined with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis™ identified 2 genes associated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that were preferentially up-regulated (≥2-fold vs vehicle group) when BP and DSS were treated in combination in the distal part (site of predilection for tumor induction) of the colonic mucosae, especially in colonic tumors: WNT inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1; 14.6-fold increase) and interferon induced membrane protein 3 (Ifitm3; 5.7-fold increase). In colonic tumors, expression of Wif1 and Ifitm3 proteins were both confirmed by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that these genes are associated with rapid induction of colonic tumors in mice after exposure to BP/DSS, providing insights into the mechanisms of the BP/DSS short-term colon carcinogenesis. PMID:26271895

  17. Effects of Dietary Glutamine on the Homeostasis of CD4+ T Cells in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, Yuan-Chin; Liu, Jun-Jen; Hou, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on T-helper (Th) and T regulatory (Treg) cell homeostasis and colonic inflammatory mediator expression in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 2 normal control (C and G) and 2 DSS-treated groups (DC and DG). The C and DC groups were fed a common semipurified diet, while the G and DG groups received an identical diet except that part of the casein was replaced by Gln, which provided 25% of the total amino acid nitrogen. Mice were fed the diets for 10 days. On day 6, mice in the normal control groups were given distilled water, while those in the DSS groups were given distilled water containing 1.5% DSS for 5 d. At the end of the experiment, the mice were sacrificed for further examination. Results showed that DC group had higher plasma haptoglobin, colonic weight, immunoglobulin G, inflammatory cytokine and nuclear factor (NF)-κB protein levels. Gln administration lowered inflammatory mediators and NF-κB/IκBα ratio in colitis. Compared with the DC group, the percentages of interleukin-17F and interferon-γ in blood and transcription factors, T-bet and RAR-related orphan receptor-γt, gene expressions in mesenteric lymph nodes were lower, whereas blood Foxp3 was higher in the DG group. Also, DG group had lower colon injury score. These results suggest that Gln administration suppressed Th1/Th17 and Th-associated cytokine expressions and upregulated the expression of Tregs, which may modulate the balance of Th/Treg and reduce inflammatory reactions in DSS-induced colitis. PMID:24416230

  18. Effects of the methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on phenolic and miscanthus composites containing calcium sulfite scrubber material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sean

    The purpose of this research is to test the effects of methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on composite material containing calcium sulfite obtained from the Southern Illinois Power Co-operative. This scrubber material and the miscanthus plant are of interest due to their use in coal burning power plants to reduce toxic emission. When calcium sulfate is passed through coal fire gas emissions it absorbs mercury and sulfur. In these composites it is used as filler to reduce cost. Miscanthus is a source of both cellulose reinforcement and some natural resin. This plant has low care requirements, little mineral content, useful energy return, and positive environmental effects. Under investigation is whether a post-cure procedure or a silane coupling agent will positively impact the composite. Hot pressing alone may not be enough to fully cure the phenolic. It is hoped that the silane will increase the strength characteristics of the composite by enhancing adhesion between the calcium sulfite and phenolic resin. Possible effects on the miscanthus by the silane will also be tested. Phenolic is being utilized because of its recycling and biodegradable properties along with cost effectiveness in mass production. Composite mechanical performance was measured through 3-point bending to measure flexural strength and strain at breakage. A dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to find thermomechanical properties. The post-cure was found to be effective, particularly on the final composite containing silane. When methyltrimethoxysilane was added to the miscanthus prior to fabrication, it was found to reduce flexural strength and density. However the addition of methyltrimethoxysilane to the calcium sulfite altered thermo-mechanical properties to a state more like pure phenolic, with added flexibility and thermal stability.

  19. The octaheme SirA catalyses dissimilatory sulfite reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shirodkar, Sheetal; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad

    2011-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a metal reducer that uses a large number of electron acceptors that include thiosulfate, polysulfide, and sulfite. The enzyme required for thiosulfate and polysulfide respiration has been recently identified, but the mechanisms of sulfite reduction remained unexplored. Analysis of MR-1 cultures grown anaerobically with sulfite suggested that the dissimilatory sulfite reductase catalyzes six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Reduction of sulfite required menaquinones and c cytochromes but appeared to be independent of the intermediate electron carrier CymA. Furthermore, the terminal sulfite reductase, SirA, was identified as an octaheme c cytochrome with an atypical heme binding site that represents a new class of sulfite reductases. The sirA locus was identified in the genomes of several sequenced Shewanella genomes, and its presence appears to be linked to the ability of these organisms to reduce sulfite under anaerobic conditions.

  20. Evaluation of microbial diversity in sulfite-added and sulfite-free wine by culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohta, Tami; Masaki, Kazuo; Mizuno, Akihiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2014-05-01

    The difference in microbiota including non-lactic acid bacteria, non-acetic acid bacteria, and wild yeast during winemaking and in the end-products between sulfite-added and sulfite-free wine, was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and a culture-dependent method. There were differences between the microorganisms detected by PCR-DGGE and those detected by the culture-dependent method, probably because of the selectivity of culture medium and the characteristics of PCR-based method. In both the red wine and white wine, the microbial diversity of the sulfite-added wine was lower than that of the sulfite-free wine during fermentation. Tatumella terrea was detected from the fermenting must by PCR-DGGE and by the culture-dependent method, even though sulfite inhibited its growth to some extent. We confirmed that the addition of sulfite plays an important role in winemaking by inhibiting the growth of unexpected microorganisms, but on the other hand, it was revealed that some microorganisms can survive and grow in sulfite-added fermenting must. We also analyzed 15 samples of commercial wines by the PCR-DGGE method and detected various microorganisms. Among them, Sphingomonas sp., Pseudozyma sp., Ochromonas sp. and Methylophilus sp. were found for the first time in wine as far as we know. We did not identify a specific microorganism that was detected only from wines without sulfite addition. Thus, the microbiota of end-products seemed to be influenced by other factors, such as filtration before bottling, the production equipment and the storage environment. PMID:24239025

  1. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Venceslau, Sofia S.; Cort, John R.; Baker, Erin S.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Robinson, Errol W.; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Lígia M.; Pereira, Inês A.C.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •DsrC is known to interact with the dissimilatory sulfite reductase enzyme (DsrAB). •We show that, however, most cellular DsrC is not associated with DsrAB. •A gel-shift assay was developed that allows monitoring of the DsrC redox state. •The DsrC intramolecularly oxidized state could only be produced by arginine treatment. -- Abstract: Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC, which has two conserved redox-active cysteines. DsrC was initially believed to be a third subunit of DsrAB. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts to show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we developed a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor the DsrC redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. The oxidized state of DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond, which is proposed to be a key metabolic intermediate, could be successfully produced for the first time by treatment with arginine.

  2. Novel process of simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO2 by sodium humate solution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoxin; Sun, Zhiguo; Gao, Hanyang

    2010-09-01

    A novel simultaneous flue gas desulfurization and denitrification (FGDD) process using sodium humate (HA-Na) solution was proposed. This study relates to the SO2/NO2 absorption efficiency and products of simultaneous removing SO2 and NO2 in a bubbling reactor, especially the effect of recycled water on the SO2/NO2 absorption. Under alkaline conditions, the sulfate content in S-containing compound decreases with the increase of NO2 concentration, whereas there is a contrary result under acidic conditions. Whether the absorption liquid is alkaline or acidic, the presence of NO2 improves the SO2 absorption into HA-Na solution, because NO2 may promote the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. It seems that the presence of SO2 is unfavorable for the NO2 absorption, but the NO2 absorption efficiency can be improved with the cycle number rising due to the increasing amount of sulfite. Although all the ion concentrations of Na+,SO4(2-),SO3(2-), and NO3- have a gradual increase as the cycle number rises, the ion concentrations of SO4(2-) and Na+ are far more than that of the other ions, which results in a slight decrease of the SO2 absorption efficiency. However, the initial pH of HA-Na solution prepared by recycled water decreases from 10 to 8.1 with the cycle number increasing from 1 to 10, whereas the final pH (the pH after absorption reaction is finished) remains almost constant (3.3). The SO2 absorption efficiency is above 98% and the NO2 absorption efficiency may reach above 95% in the optimal condition in this process. The chief byproduct is a compound fertilizer consisting of humic acid (HA), sulfate, and nitrate. PMID:20704283

  3. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin sulfate into the ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom ...

  4. A protein trisulfide couples dissimilatory sulfate reduction to energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, André A.; Venceslau, Sofia S.; Grein, Fabian; Leavitt, William D.; Dahl, Christiane; Johnston, David T.; Pereira, Inês A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction has governed Earth’s biogeochemical sulfur cycle for at least 2.5 billion years. However, the enzymatic mechanisms behind this pathway are incompletely understood, particularly for the reduction of sulfite—a key intermediate in the pathway. This critical reaction is performed by DsrAB, a widespread enzyme also involved in other dissimilatory sulfur metabolisms. Using in vitro assays with an archaeal DsrAB, supported with genetic experiments in a bacterial system, we show that the product of sulfite reduction by DsrAB is a protein-based trisulfide, in which a sulfite-derived sulfur is bridging two conserved cysteines of DsrC. Physiological studies also reveal that sulfate reduction rates are determined by cellular levels of DsrC. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction couples the four-electron reduction of the DsrC trisulfide to energy conservation.

  5. Intramolecular electron transfer in sulfite oxidizing enzymes: elucidating the role of a conserved active site arginine†

    PubMed Central

    Emesh, Safia; Rapson, Trevor D.; Rajapakshe, S. Asha; Kappler, Ulrike; Bernhardt, Paul V.; Tollin, Gordon; Enemark, John H.

    2009-01-01

    All reported sulfite oxidizing enzymes have a conserved arginine in their active site which hydrogen bonds to the equatorial oxygen ligand on the Mo atom. Previous studies on the pathogenic R160Q mutant of human sulfite oxidase (HSO) have shown that Mo-heme intramolecular electron transfer (IET) is dramatically slowed when positive charge is lost at this position. In order to better understand the function that this conserved positively charged residue plays in IET, we have studied the equivalent uncharged substitutions, R55Q and R55M, as well as the positively charged substitution, R55K, in bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH). The heme and molybdenum cofactor (Moco) subunits are tightly associated in SDH, which makes it an ideal system for increasing the understanding of residue function in IET without the added complexity of the inter-domain movement that occurs in HSO. Unexpectedly, the uncharged SDH variants (R55Q and R55M) showed increased IET rate constants relative to the wildtype (3–4 fold) when studied by laser flash photolysis. The gain in function observed in SDHR55Q and SDHR55M suggests that the reduction of IET seen in HSOR160Q is not due to a required role of this residue in the IET pathway itself, but to the fact that it plays an important role in heme orientation during the inter-domain movement necessary for IET in HSO (as seen in viscosity experiments). The pH profiles of SDHwt, SDHR55M, and SDHR55Q show that the arginine substitution also alters the behavior of the Mo-heme IET equilibrium (Keq) and rate constants (ket) of both variants with respect to SDHWT enzyme. SDHWT has a ket that is independent of pH and a Keq that increases as pH decreases, whereas both SDHR55M and SDHR55Q have a ket that increases as pH decreases, and SDHR55M has a Keq that is pH independent. IET in the SDHR55Q variant is inhibited by sulfate in laser flash photolysis experiments, a behavior that differs from SDHWT, but which also occurs in HSO. IET in SDHR55K is slower than for SDHWT. A new analysis of the possible mechanistic pathways for sulfite oxidizing enzymes is presented and related to available kinetic and EPR results for these enzymes. PMID:19226119

  6. Effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Myoung-Gyu; Park, Mi-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Colitis is a serious health problem, and chronic obesity is associated with the progression of colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet (HFD, 45%) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 2% w/v)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Body weight, colon length, and colon weight-to-length ratio, were measured directly. Serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were determined using commercial kits. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were detected using a commercial ELISA kit. Histological study was performed using a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining assay. Colonic mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by RT-PCR assay. RESULTS Body weight and obesity-related biomarkers (TG, TC, LDL, HDL, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin) were regulated and obesity was prevented in NRM treated mice. NRM significantly suppressed colon shortening and reduced colon weight-to-length ratio in HFD+DSS induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice (P < 0.05). Histological observations suggested that NRM reduced edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by HFD and DSS. In addition, NRM decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and inhibited the mRNA expressions of these cytokines, and iNOS and COX-2 in colon mucosa (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The results suggest that NRM has an anti-inflammatory effect against HFD and DSS-induced colitis in mice, and that these effects are due to the amelioration of HFD and/or DSS-induced inflammatory reactions. PMID:26634051

  7. Photosensitized electron transfer processes in SiO2 colloids and sodium lauryl sulfate micellar systems: Correlation of quantum yields with interfacial surface potentials

    PubMed Central

    Laane, Colja; Willner, Itamar; Otvos, John W.; Calvin, Melvin

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of negatively charged colloidal SiO2 particles in controlling photosensitized electron transfer reactions has been studied and compared with that of the negatively charged sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLauSO4) micellar system. In particular, the photosensitized reduction of the zwitterionic electron acceptor propylviologen sulfonate (PVS0) with tris(2,2′-bipyridinium)ruthenium(II) [Ru(bipy)32+] as the sensitizer and triethanolamine as the electron donor is found to have a quantum yield of 0.033 for formation of the radical anion (PVS[unk]) in the SiO2 colloid compared with 0.005 in the homogeneous system and 0.0086 in a NaLauSO4 micellar solution. The higher quantum yields obtained with the SiO2 colloidal system are attributed to substantial stabilization against back reaction of the intermediate photoproducts—i.e., Ru(bipy)33+ and PVS[unk]—by electrostatic repulsion of the reduced electron acceptor from the negatively charged particle surface. The binding properties of the SiO2 particles and NaLauSO4 micelles were investigated by flow dialysis. The results show that the sensitizer binds to both interfaces and that the SiO2 interface is characterized by a much higher surface potential than the micellar interface (≈-170 mV vs. -85 mV). The effect of ionic strength on the surface potential was estimated from the Gouy-Chapman theory, and the measured quantum yields of photosensitized electron transfer were correlated with surface potential at different ionic strengths. This correlation shows that the quantum yield is not affected by surface potentials smaller than ≈-40 mV. At larger potentials, the quantum yield increases rapidly. The quantum yield obtained in the micellar system at different strengths fits nicely on the correlation curve for the colloid SiO2 system. These results indicate that the surface potential is the dominant factor in the quantum yield improvement for PVS0 reduction. PMID:16593095

  8. Baicalin down regulates the expression of TLR4 and NFkB-p65 in colon tissue in mice with colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jinshan; Guo, Cancan; Zhu, Yuzhen; Pang, Liping; Yang, Zheng; Zou, Ying; Zheng, Xuebao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Baicalin is one of flavonoid extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis, which has several functions including anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, antitumor and et al. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory of baicalin in ulcerative colitis is not clear. Methods: Mice colitis models were established by dextran sodium sulfate, Mice administrated with baicalin (100 mg/kg) and mesalazine (100 mg/kg) twice daily by intragastric injection for 7 days after colitis induced were defined as treated group. Then the mice were sacrificed and the colon samples were collected. Toll-like receptor-2, 4, 9 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Signaling proteins such as TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 were analyzed by western blotting. Cytokine’s mRNA include TNF-α, IL-6 IL-10 and IL-13 were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Modified disease activity index were used to analyse the severity of the disease by assessed of diarrhea, stool (occult) blood and body weight loss of the mice. Results: Compared with control and model groups, modified disease activity index in baicalin and mesalazine treated, mice decreased gradually. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the expression of TLR4, but not TLR2 and TLR9, in the mucosa of mice colon were decreased. Western blot analysis showed that in colitis model, the expression of NF-κB p65 and TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05), while the expression of MyD88 increased significantly compared to control group, and MyD88 expression can not be repressed by baicalin (P < 0.05). Baicalin and mesalazine treatment suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 mRNA (P < 0.05), yet up-regulated the expression of IL-10 mRNA (P < 0.05), compared to the DDS and control groups. Conclusions: Baicalin administration by intragastric injection ameliorates the severity of colon inflammation. The possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory response by baicalin may involve in the blocking of the TLR4/NF-κB-p65/IL-6 signaling pathway. PMID:25550915

  9. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Blend, Peroxyacetic Acid, and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Salmonella on Inoculated Chicken Wings.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Brad; Belk, Keith E

    2015-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (SSS) in reducing Salmonella on inoculated whole chilled chicken wings and to compare its efficacy to peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Wings were spot inoculated (5 to 6 log CFU/ml of sample rinsate) with a five-strain mixture of novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and then left untreated (control) or treated by immersing individual wings in 350 ml of antimicrobial solution. An initial study evaluated two treatment immersion times, 10 and 20 s, of SSS (pH 1.1) and compared cell recoveries following rinsing of treated samples with buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth. In a second study, inoculated wings were treated with SSS (pH 1.1; 20 s), PAA (700 ppm, 20 s), or CPC (4,000 ppm, 10 s) and analyzed for survivors immediately after treatment (0 h) and after 24 h of aerobic storage at 4°C. Color and pH analyses were also conducted in the latter study. Recovery of Salmonella survivors following treatment with SSS (10 or 20 s) was not (P ≥ 0.05) affected by the type of cell recovery rinse solution (buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth), but there was an effect (P < 0.05) of SSS treatment time. Immersion of samples for 10 or 20 s in SSS resulted in pathogen reductions of 0.8 to 0.9 and 1.1 to 1.2 log CFU/ml, respectively. Results of the second study showed that there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between antimicrobial type and storage time. Efficacy against Salmonella at 0 h increased in the order CPC , SSS , PAA; however, after 24 h of aerobic storage, pathogen counts of SSS- and PAA-treated wings did not differ (P ≥ 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that SSS applied at pH 1.1 for 20 s was an effective antimicrobial intervention to reduce Salmonella contamination on chicken wings. PMID:26555519

  10. Management of Bleeding Duodenal Varices with Combined TIPS Decompression and Trans-TIPS Transvenous Obliteration Utilizing 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E; Lippert, Allison; Schwaner, Sandra; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Sabri, Saher; Saad, Nael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Endoscopic experience in the management of duodenal varices (DVs) is limited and challenging given the anatomic constraints and limited experience. The endovascular management of DVs is not yet established and the controversy of whether to manage them by decompression with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or by transvenous obliteration is unresolved. In the literature, the 612 month rebleeding rate of DVs after TIPS is 21-37% and after transvenous obliteration is 13%. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of combined TIPS decompression and transvenous obliteration/sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study (case series) of two institutions, evaluating patients who underwent TIPS and/or transvenous obliteration/sclerosis for bleeding DVs (from January 2009 to June 2013). TIPS was performed according to a standard procedure using covered stents. Transvenous obliteration (variceal sclerosis) from the systemic and/or portal venous circulation was performed utilizing 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Transvenous obliteration was commonly augmented with coils and/or vascular plugs. Technical (technical success of establishing TIPS and completely obliterating the DVs) and clinical outcomes (rebleeding rate and survival) were evaluated. Results: Five patients with liver cirrhosis presenting with bleeding DVs were included in the study with all eventually (and coincidentally) receiving TIPS and transvenous obliteration. Two of the five patients underwent concomitant TIPS and transvenous obliteration in the same procedural setting. However, three patients underwent transvenous obliteration due to bleeding despite a patent TIPS that had been previously placed. The average time from TIPS placement to transvenous obliteration was 125 days (range: 3-324 days). After having both procedures, there was no rebleeding in the patients during a mean follow-up period of 22 months (650 months). Coils and/or metallic vascular plugs were used to augment the sclerosant obliteration in four of five patients. Conclusion: The combination of TIPS decompression and foam sclerosant transvenous obliteration appears to be effective in preventing rebleeding in this limited case series and compares favorably with the existing evidence for either approach [TIPS or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO)] alone. PMID:25558434

  11. Synergistic Effects of Lactic Acid and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate to Decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Cattle Hide Sections

    PubMed Central

    Elramady, Mohamed G.; Rossitto, Paul V.; Crook, Jennifer A.; Cullor, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of chitosan acetate (CA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), lactic acid (LA) and their synergism when combined against a nontoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Treatments that significantly reduced the concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in vitro by more than two logs were further investigated using a cattle hide decontamination model. In vitro treatments included CA (1% chitosan in 1% acetic acid vol/vol), SDS (1% vol/vol), SDS (2% vol/vol), LA (1% vol/vol), CA-SDS combination (1% chitosan in 1% acetic acid vol/vol mixed with 1% SDS vol/vol), and LA-SDS combination in two different concentrations (1% LA mixed with 1% SDS vol/vol, and 1% LA mixed with 2% SDS vol/vol). Butterfield's Phosphate Buffer water was used as a control. The antibacterial effect of 1% CA solution alone and in combination with 1% SDS in vitro resulted in a 1.8 and 1.7 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL reduction, respectively (p<0.05). Only 1% LA, 1% SDS, 2% SDS and their combinations resulted in a >2 log reduction in E. coli O157:H7. On hide sections, both 1% LA–1% SDS and 1% LA–2% SDS combinations significantly (p<0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7 concentration by 4.6 and 4.7 log CFU/ cm2 greater than the control, respectively. There was no significant difference in the antibacterial effect of 1% LA compared to the control, 2% SDS compared to the control, or 1% LA compared to 2% SDS. Hence, the antibacterial efficacy of 1% LA against E. coli O157:H7 on hide sections was significantly enhanced when combined with 1% SDS. Results of this study support the use of low concentration LA-SDS combination as a hide wash to reduce the risk of E. coli O157:H7 contamination. PMID:23594235

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors in dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of the two novel anti-inflammatory substances, 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G) and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), on DSS-induced colitis in rats. For this purpose, rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 animals in each group as follows: i) the control group, which received 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC; vehicle), ii) rats that received DTCM-G (20 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DTCM-G group), and iii) rats that received DHMEQ (15 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DHMEQ group). The animals were sacrificed after the 5-day treatment period, and tissue samples were taken from their colons and sectioned for histological evaluation. The tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunostained for leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The disease activity index (DAI), histological grading of colitis, and densities of several types of submucosal immune cells were compared between the controls, and the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups. The DAI values were significantly lower in both the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The total scores for the histological grading of colitis were also significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The submucosal densities of leucocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells were significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. Our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of DTCM-G and DHMEQ, and the absence of any associated toxicity render them excellent therapeutic candidates for clinical use in the treatment of colitis. PMID:27082818

  13. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Venceslau, Sofia S.; Cort, John R.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Chu, Rosalie K.; Robinson, Errol W.; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Pereira, Ines Ac

    2013-11-29

    Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC having two conserved cysteine residues. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts, a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor its redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. We show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we successfully produced DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond (oxidized state) by treatment with arginine.

  14. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction.

    PubMed

    Venceslau, Sofia S; Cort, John R; Baker, Erin S; Chu, Rosalie K; Robinson, Errol W; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Lígia M; Pereira, Inês A C

    2013-11-29

    Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC, which has two conserved redox-active cysteines. DsrC was initially believed to be a third subunit of DsrAB. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts to show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we developed a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor the DsrC redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. The oxidized state of DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond, which is proposed to be a key metabolic intermediate, could be successfully produced for the first time by treatment with arginine. PMID:24211572

  15. Monosaccharide production in an acid sulfite process: kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Rueda, C; Fernndez-Rodrguez, J; Ruiz, G; Llano, T; Coz, A

    2015-02-13

    Spent sulfite liquor is a lignocellulosic waste obtained after the sulfite pulping process. It is mainly formed by sugars and lignosulfonates which are isolated from the pulp during the cooking process. The current work investigates the kinetic modeling of the sulfite process from a biorefinery point of view since monosaccharides present in the spent liquor can be used as a raw material in further biorefinery processes to produce other value-added products. Kinetic parameters of carbohydrate degradation have been determined following sugar and inhibitors from wood to spent liquor, using laboratory scale reactors and different temperatures, 130, 140 and 150 C. Three types of reaction schemes were developed. Kinetic parameters were obtained for each one using first and n order reactions, using Aspen Custom Modeler. Results show that the best temperature to be used in the process is 130 C, giving the maximum sugar conversion, 33.91 mol% and obtaining 13.81 mol% of decomposition products. PMID:25458268

  16. Effectiveness of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate employed as a sanitizer during harvest or packing of cantaloupes contaminated with Salmonella Poona.

    PubMed

    Webb, Cathy C; Erickson, Marilyn C; Davey, Lindsey E; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-08-17

    Freshly harvested Eastern variety cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus cv. Athena) were subjected to three different harvest and wash treatments to examine conditions under which the efficacy of the sanitizer, levulinic acid (LV) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (S